Western Imperialism in Asia

There were several problems encountered by the Ch'ing dynasty in the 19th century that remained manageable and their traditional system continued to impress Europeans. Canton – was the only port where the Westerners were permitted to trade.
They were not allowed to stay beyond the trading season for about six month Fire arms or women are forbidden to enter to city proper. They are not allowed to trade elsewhere in the China coast


They were obliged to deal only with the “Hong merchants”.

Hong Merchants – were licensed and acted as intermediaries between merchants and the government.

The Chinese viewed the westerners as barbarians and potential troublemakers against Chinese morality. In 1973, Viscount Macartney was sent to China to request trading rights and to deal with China as an equal nation.

The Chinese expected him to perform K'e T'ou (Kowtow) but he refused to do do, and failed to accomplish his mission.

Kowtow is the performance of nine humiliating prostrations before the emperor.

In 1816, England sent similar mission to China with Lord Amherst as the head but refused to perform the kowtow and so the emperor ordered his immediate dismissal from Peking.


Opium was introduced in China from Formosa and the habit spread rapidly among the Chinese. The Chinese, alarmed by the evil effects of the opium, promulgated a law in 1729 prohibiting the smoking and importing of opium. Opium continued to find their way into China with the British India as the chief source of supply.


First Anglo-Chinese War
The underlying causes of the war lay in the refusal of the Chinese government to treat foreign nations on an equal footing with China.
China still believed that they are the greatest and their civilization was superior. Their subjects were looked down upon as barbarians o foreign devils who have no right to come to China except to pay tribute. To trade with them was regarded as a privilege.

In 1834, Lord Napier of England was appointed as Chief Superintended of Trade in China with instructions to deal directly with the Chinese officials and not with the Hong Merchants. Lord Napier Failed, he died in Macao. Commissioner Lin's Crusade against opium started when he confiscated all the opium found in the possession of the foreign merchant in Canton and dumped into the see. Opium War – the first Anglo Chinese war due to the conflict of opium question. The war lasted for two years and in 1842, the Chinese Government sued for peace.

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The Treaty on Nanking was signed on August 29, 1842.
Canton and four other ports of China: Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, and Shanghai were opened to trade. Foreigners were permitted to reside at the treaty ports. The trade of the monopoly of the Hong merchants was abolished. China was to cede the island of Hongkong to England. She was also to pay an indemnity of $21,000,000.00.

Another nation sought also the advantages acquired by the English. U.S. And France followed and included the clause of most-favored nation.
Equal participation in all privileges, immunities and advantages that China might grant to the government or subjects of another nation. The American treaty - principle of Extraterritoriality.
American citizens committing offenses on China were to be tried by the consular representative of the U.S.in accordance with American laws and American judicial procedure.

This principle deprived China of another important attribute of sovereignty, that was jurisdiction over alien residents.

Another war was necessary to force the Chinese government to observe her treaty obligations. In 1856, a war broke out between England and China because of the seizure of the crew of a small British vessel by Chinese authorities. French joined England against China . In 1858, China sued for peace. At Tientsin's, she concluded treaties, not only with England and France but also with U.S. and Russia.

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2nd Opium War

China agreed to open new ports. Permit the navigation of the Yangtze River. Diplomatic representatives were allowed to reside at Peking. Opium trade was also legalized Religious practice were tolerated including the protection to be given to the missionaries.

The Chinese fortified the Taku forts and placed obstructions on the approaches to Peking in violation of the treaty signed in 1858. The English and French forces burned down te beautiful summer palace, Yuan Ming Yan.

Later, a new treaty known as Peking Convention of 1860 was signed. China was to pay England and France an indemnity. Peninsula of Kowloon was ceded to England. Russia, taking advantage of China's embarrassing conditions, offered to help but at the end of the war demanded the cessation of the territory east of Ussuri as compensation for her services. China Yielded to the demand, thus giving Russia an excellent natural port at Vladivostok.

Port of Vladivostok


Thanks for Listening!

Group Four Presentation

Made and Reported by: ELIZABETH QUERUBIN

Submitted to: Mrs. Jovy Cuadra.

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