Training And Development

Project Compiled by

Rahul Arondekar Sagar Dhadve Ritika Mahadik Priyadarshini Patil Shreyans Chhajed

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Nature of Training and Development Inputs in Training and Development Importance of training and development Training Process Methods of training Case Study I: Hotel Taj President Case Study II: Hotel Hilton Towers Analysis of the case study comparisons Conclusion

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knowledge to an employee. training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills. education and development. abilities. A formal definition of training and development is determined as follows: “It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning.Nature of Training and Development In simple words. Such distinctions enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning if the term training. computed as follows: Training and development needs = Standard performance – Actual performance We can make a distinction among training. Education.” The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency. Which refers to the process of imparting specific skills. on the other hand is confined theoretically learning in classroom To distinct more. Education however is common to all the employees. usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. the training is offered in case of operatives whereas development programs are conducted for employees at higher levels. 3 .

Persuading and showing an understanding of others feelings 4 . and use other equipments with least damage and scrap. A worker needs skills to operate machines. Employees particularly like supervisors and executives. This is basic skills without which the operator will not function. need interpersonal skills mostly know as people skills. The inputs of training and development are as follows: 1) Skills 2) Education 3) Development 4) Ethics 5) Attitudinal Changes 6) Decision making and problem solving skills 1) Skills Training is imparting skills to the employees. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening. learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future.These skills involve learning to move various parts of their body in response to certain external and internal stimuli.Inputs in Training and Development Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills. These skills helps a person understand oneself and others better and act accordingly. There is also a need of motor skills or psychomotor skills as they are refer to performance of specific physical activities .

It helps teach an individual to communicate without filters. In fact. build sense of commitment. a nagging dissatisfaction with the status quo. 4) Ethics There is a need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. Education is more important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. management principles and techniques. Shaw Wallace.e. which should again helps him being self generating. Also helps them understand the powers in their hands and thereby develop leadership styles which inspire and motivate others. Chief executive officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher course conducted in many Business schools. It should make their performance result oriented and help them in being more efficient and effective. Help him see himself as others see him and accept his self image as a prelude to change. Knowledge about business environment. a divine discontent. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Development programme should help an employee to be a self-starter. If the production. motivation. They are less seen and talked about in the personnel function this does not mean that the HR manager is absolved if the responsibility. And finally helps install a zest for excellence. attended such a two month programme at the Harvard business school. sometimes. CMD. The late Manu Chabria. organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. It should also help in making the employee sensitive towards the environment that is his work place and outside. finance or marketing personnel 5 . to see and feel points of view different from their own. his potentials and his limitations. 3) Development Another component of a training and development programme is development which is less skill – oriented but stress on knowledge. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by the HR specialist. human relations. This programme should keep the employee aware of him i.2) Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of a company.

5) Attitudinal Changes Attitudinal represents feelings and beliefs an individual towards others. collect and analysis information. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers. generate alternatives. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because of (1) (2) (3) Employees refuse to change They have prior commitments and Information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient. supervisors and professionals 6 .indulge in unethical practices the fault rest on the HR manager. Learning related to decision making and problem solving skills seeks to improve trainee’s abilities to define and structure problems. Attitude must be changed so that the employee feels committed to the organization and give better performance. Negative attitudes needs to be converted into positive attitudes. Attitudes affect motivation. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need for ethical behavior. satisfaction and job commitment. 6) Decision making and problem solving skills Decision making and problem solving skill focus on methods and techniques for making organizational decision and solve work related problems.

c) Provides information on equal opportunities and affirmative action. growth and co ordination.Importance of Training and development for the organization There are many benefits of Training and Development to the organization as well as employee. rules and regulations viable. b) Aid in orientation of new employee and those taking new job through transfer or promotion. g) Builds cohesiveness in group. i) Makes the organization a better place to work and live. f) Makes organizational policies. e) Improve interpersonal skills. intra group and internal group relation and policy implementation 1) Benefits for the organization a) Improves communication between group and individuals. 2) Benefits for the individual 7 . d) Provides information on other government laws and administration policies. We have categorized as under 1) Benefits for the organization 2) Benefits for the individual 3) Benefits for personnel and human relation. h) Provides a good climate for learning.

8 . motivational variables of recognition achievement.a) Helps and individual in making better decision and effective problem solving. growth. frustration and conflict. i) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth in his or her future. j) Develops a sense of learning. c) Provides information on equal opportunities and affirmative action. knowledge. intra group and internal group relation and policy implementation a) Improves communication between group and individuals. communication skills and attitudes. l) Helps a person improve his listening skill. tension. f)Increases job satisfaction and recognition. e) Improve interpersonal skills. b) Through training and development. 3) Benefits for personnel and human relation. k) Helps eliminate fear in attempting new task. g) Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills. d) Provides information on other government laws and administration policies. speaking skills also with his writing skills. h) Satisfies personal needs of a trainee. b) Aid in orientation of new employee and those taking new job through transfer or promotion. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised. d) Helps a person handle stress. c) Aid in encouraging and achieving self–development and self confidence. e) Provides information for improving leadership.

h) Provides a good climate for learning.f) Makes organizational policies. rules and regulations viable. g) Builds cohesiveness in group. growth and co ordination. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to 9 . i) Makes the organization a better place to work and live. Training Process The steps of Training Process are as under: Organizational Objectives and Strategies Assessment of Training Needs Establishment of Training Goals Devising Training Programme Implementation of Training programme Evaluation of Results a) Organizational objectives and strategies The first step in the training process is an organization in the assessment of its objectives and strategies.

This is easy where skilled training is involved d) Designing training and development program Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods And techniques? where to the What is the conduct level of training program what are the principles of learning 10 .e. The following diagram explains performance deficiency Performance Deficiency Lack of skills Or knowledge other causes Training c) Training and development objectives Non training measures Once training needs are assessed.provide this product or service? Where do we what to be in the future? Its only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strength and weakness of its human resources. there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. training and development goals must be established. Needs assessment occurs at two levels i. an individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short or standards that is when there is performance deficiency. Goals must be tangible. it is not possible to design a training and development programme and after it has been implemented. b) Needs assessment Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenge to be met through training and development. verifying and measurable. Without clearly-set goals. group level and individual level. Inadequate in performance may be due to lack of skills or knowledge or any other problem.

f) Implementation of the training programme Program implementation involves actions on the following lines: • • • • Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 11 . etc. college classroom hotel.e) Conducting training activities Where is the training going to be conducted and how? • • • At the job itself. g) Evaluation of the results The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of the results. Monitoring the progress of the trainees. On site but not the job for example in a training room in the company. In the practice. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. however organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. Conducting the programme. Off site such as a university. how far the programme has been useful must be judge/determined. Scheduling the training programme.

the trainee first receives an overview of the job. Often. the focus of trainer’s focus is on making a good product and not on good training technique. Long lectures can also cause Boredom. Training techniques are means employed in the training methods. its purpose and the desired outcomes. 1) Lectures It is the verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. It also improves the quality of presentation to a great extent. this method violates the principle of learning by practice.the – Job. A virtue in this method is that it can be used for large groups and hence the cost of training per employee is very low. This method includes slides. And since a model is given to the trainee. The lecturer is presumed to possess knowledge about the subject. Majority of the industrial training is on the job training. 2) Audio Visuals This is an extension of the lecture method. OHPs. It has several steps. 3) On. video tapes and films.Methods of training A multitude of techniques are used to train employees. However. They are basically of two types. It is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job.Training It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their present jobs. The trainer then demonstrates how the job is to be performed and to give trainee a model to copy. the 12 . Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. In this method. Also this type of communication is a one-way communication and there is no feedback from the audience because in case of very large groups it is difficult to have interactive sessions. They can be used to provide a range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. as when experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform tasks. it is informal.

and problems to the learner. manuals and machinery is very high. This is possible thanks to the speed. the trainee goes through a test/ answers a question. Then the employee is allowed to mimic the trainer’s example. training is offered without the intervention of the trainer. Also the cost of preparing books. repeats the same. However it is an impersonal method and the scope of learning is less as compared to other methods of training. 4) Programmed Instruction (PI) In this method. facts. Thus PI involves: • • • • Presenting questions. Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of the answers If the answers are correct. 7) Vestibule Training 13 . 5) Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. In this method. he proceeds to the next block or else. Information is provided to the employee in blocks. the learner’s response determines the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. This method is most widely used in Aeronautical Industry. in form of books or through teaching machine. 6) Simulation It is any equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as the possible the actual conditions encountered at the job. memory and the data manipulation capabilities of the computer. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. It is an attempt to create a realistic for decision-making.transferability to the job is very high. After going through each block of material. The trainee repeats these jobs until the job is mastered.

They allow participation through discussion. analyze it and develop alternative solutions. Also additional investment is required for the equipment. It is an ideal method to promote decision making skills. The method /approach to analysis may not be given importance. The essences are on creating a real life situation and have trainees assumed parts of specific personalities (mostly interchanged roles of boss and subordinate to create empathy for one another). It is however difficult to duplicate pressures and realities of actual situations. The consequence is better understanding of issues from the other’s point of view. Also the employees behave differently in real situations than in simulations. Even though the kind of tension or pressure may be the same but the employee knows it is just a technique and not a real situation. 9) Role Playing and Behavior Modeling This method mainly focuses on emotional (human relation) issues than other ones. This is the most effective method of developing problem solving skills. The trainees read the case. They also provide transference to an extent. select the best one and implement it. 14 . The emphasis is placed on learning skills than on production. This is a major disadvantage since case studies must primarily be used to influence or mend the attitude or thinking of an individual. It is performed in a special area set aside for the purpose and not at the workplace. which provokes the reader to think and make decisions/ suggestions.This method utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used in the job. Concept of Behavior Modeling: • Fundamental psychological process by which new patterns of behavior can be acquired and existing ones can be altered. Many a times only the result at the end of the case may be considered and not the line of thinking to approach it. 8) Case study It is a written description of an actual situation in the business.

But in that case. the focus is on learning. It is applied in cases of most craft workers. The person being trained is called understudy. • • This change may be videotaped and showed to the trainee and he can review and critique it. 11) Apprenticeships and Coaching It is involved learning from more experienced employee/s. 15 . Laboratory training is a form of group training primarily used to enhance interpersonal skills. whereas here. It can be used to develop desired behaviors for future job responsibilities. 10) Sensitivity Training It uses small number of trainees usually less than 12 in a group. the perception of others about them and increased understanding of group process. It also helps him see the negative consequences that result from not using the behavior as recommended. encounter groups. However once the training is over employees get back to being the way they are. The objective is to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior. A trained professional serves as a facilitator. It is referred to as “copying”.• • “Vicarious process” learning takes place not by own experience but by observation or imagination of others’ action. They meet with a passive trainer and get an insight into their own behavior and that of others. This approach uses high levels of participation and facilitates transferability. Coaching is similar to apprenticeships. carpenters. This method may be supplemented with other off-the-job methods for effectiveness. plumbers and mechanics. more stress is laid on productivity. Examples: Laboratory training. These meetings have no agenda and take place away from the workplace. The discussions focus on why participants behave the way they do and how others perceive them. It is very similar to on the job training method. “observational learning” or “imitation” implying that it a behavior is learned or modified through observation of other’s experiences. But it is always handled by a supervisor and not by the HR department.

16 .In this method skilled workforce is maintained – since the participation. Immediate returns can be expected from training – almost as soon as the training is over the desired outcomes can be seen in the trainee. feedback and job transference is very high.

the employees were given a lecture and practical study of this software. Usually the employees other than management heads get selected from the ‘Taj Hotel Management Institute’ in Aurangabad. Following are the departments were training is implemented after an employee walks in with the appointment letter (the order is in chronological format): • • • • • • • • Food and Beverages Kitchen House keeping Front Office Finance Accounts H.Case I: Hotel Taj president 1) Who are the trainees? Every employee walking in with the appointment letter is first a trainee as per the bond he signs and then when the time period of he being a trainee over. In case of introduction of new technology . The introduction to the work is explained by the training department of human recourse management. he gets permanently placed in the organization. 17 . Since the software (Orien) was new. They were also showed audio visual to understand how to use the few days back new software was introduced to the stores department.R. The trainees are trained on the job.D Sales 2) Methods or programs conducted for training Taj president trains most of the employees on the job.

Helps the employee to learn new things and increase his knowledge. 18 . In case of Kitchen.3) Who trains the new employees? In Case of the departments others than Kitchen. To make the employee get use to his job and surroundings and to make him comfortable in performing his job. The Trainees are trained by the Training & Development department which comes under Human Recourses Department. values. They are introduced with the vision & values of the hotel so that they perform their task accordingly. morals and ethics. thus satisfying his employer. • • • • To help the employee build his confidence in performing his work and help him use his theoretical knowledge provided by his hotel management course. the kitchen employees and chefs are trained personally by the Chief Chef Mr. Helps the employee to upgrade his personal skills. Aananda Solemon. 4) Why train the employees? What are the benefits? • To understand the Taj policies.

Case II: Hotel Hilton Towers Hotel Hilton works in a totally different manner from Taj when it comes to training its employees. The basic principle that is to maintain the old customers and get new customers. • Grooming sessions are conducted to educate the trainees how to dress and behave to match the standards that Hilton maintains. • They are taught values of the hotel that are policies like keeping the customer always satisfied. Each hotel management student is allotted a time period to work as a trainee in any hotel. Hilton makes use of this time period and molds the students. the trainees are undergraduate students from various hotel management institutes. 2) Who are the trainers? There is a Training department under the HR who takes care of the new trainees and the training programs conducted for them. In case of new employment. 1) Who are the trainees? In case of departments other than management. In case of management the hotel only employees experienced staff with high qualification. They are given personal skills and are made presentable. 3) What are the training programs? • Introduction or orientation wherein. Hilton selects students from various hotel management institutes and molds them during their graduation period itself. the student is introduced to the hotel and is told about the training program for the immediate three months of his training and the long term training policies. 19 .

The theoretical knowledge gained by them hotel management course is then converted to practical knowledge. The training sessions provides them with practical knowledge which helps them in their hotel management course and makes it easy to understand the job perspectives during the graduation course itself. 20 .4) What are the benefits for the employee? The employees are students of hotel management. They also apply the knowledge which they get in these training sessions to their academic knowledge which makes them a better student in all.

He may also start his own business or join some other hotel. wherein the employees are trained in the hotels as interns and are then made to sign a bond wherein they to agree to work for few years in the same organization would be effective.Analysis of the case study comparison Both the methods of training are effective and have their merits and demerits which can be summarized as follows: In case of hotel Taj President The methods of training are good and effective but it’s not always that the employee changes himself and molds himself as per the organization principles and objectives even though he might be an intelligent and talented employee. In case of Hotel Hilton tower The hotel conducts a very well planned and managed programme for training but in all there is no such guarantee that the employee or the trainee would like to join the same organization after his graduation. 21 . Therefore a mix strategy. This would result in losses for the hotel.

The future would demand more from the employees as well as the companies in terms of productivity. The trainees (staff) on the other hand. On this we conclude our report with the following words “Education ends with school but learning ends with life.Conclusion Gone are the days when training was a 2 hour process on the first day of the job. Training and development is a necessity for both the trainer and the trainee. Training and development is another round of education for them. will be more emphasized upon. And that is the way it should be. The trainer (the company) would want to make its staff more efficient in this highly competitive world. etc. It would want its employees to know the latest trends and technologies and use them according to the company’s principles and objectives. So. complex and rigorous.” 22 . the knowledge from which is to be applied later. group culture. view training and development as a stepping stone for enriching their career and fulfilling their personal needs. This means training and development is going to be even more important. New technology. multi-tasking. it’s more of a mutual necessity and agreement between the companies and their respective employees when it comes to training and development. Training & Development has transformed from an add-on function to a core function of companies. Companies already foresee this and are already in preparations to make their staff better equipped. It has become more of a science with systematic rules and formats guiding the companies on how to go about training and development.

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