You are on page 1of 7

c

 c
 c÷  c

  c 
   

 

͚Food security is a growing problem globally. Identify the issues that contribute to this and
critically discuss the policies that may be available to alleviate some of the problems͛

 c  cc


c   c c    c c c  c

c
a  

͚Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic
access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and
food preferences for an active and healthy life͛ (World Food Summit ʹ 1996)

c c  c   cc c c c cc c   c


  c !! c c  c c c   c  c
    c c"c  c   c  c cc!cc
 c   c cc cc c c c# cc c c
 c c c cccc cc  c cc   c c
! c  c ! cc c "c

Food availability : The availability of sufficient quantities of food of


appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports
(Including food aid).

Food access: Access by individuals to adequate res ources (entitlements)


for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Entitlements are
defined as the set of all commodity bundles over which a person can
establish command given the legal, political, economic and social
arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional
rights such as access to common resources).

Utilization: Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water,


sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well -being
where all physiological need s are met. This brings out the importance of
non-food inputs in food security.

Stability: To be food secure, a population, household or individual must


have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing
access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks (e.g. an economic or
climatic crisis) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal food insecurity). The
concept of stability can therefore refer to both the availability and access
dimensions of food security.
c
(FAO, Food Security, Policy Brief, June 2006 ʹ Issue 2)
c
$cc  cc  cc c cc c  c c c
   cc c ccc cc! "c% c c  c c c
 c c c  c  cc ccc c c  cc
c c   c c cc cc  c c
 c cc c  cc c  c c c  c
  c& ccc c  c c  c  cc  c  cc c
c c & c c ccc  ccc !  "c
 c cc c cccc ! cc  cc  c  "c'cc
  c ! c c!ccc c  c cc c
 c  c  cc ccc    c c
cc cc  c  cc  "c(  c ccc
 c c cccc c c  cccc c c
  c cc c cc  c  c ! c  c c c
 c ccc ccc &c cc c  c c  c
  cc c c   c c  c  cc c c   c
c cc cc c c c!cc c c c cc
"ccc  c  c c c c  c c ) c  c
! c cc !  c c  c c   ccc cc  c
  "c
& c c cc c c !! c cc c cc  c c c
 c! c c  c c c c c cc c  ! cc c
 c  c c ccc c c cc c
c c c  cc c! c c c c c c
  c c  c  "c$  c c  c   c  c cc
 !c cc c c cccc c cc cc
cc cc c  c cc  c c"cc

   
 !

c
*c+,-,cc cc.  cc c)c/c c cccc
)  ccccc c    c c c c c
!  c  c(FAO. 2009).c c c c c c  cc
)  ccc c c c! c c c  c c0"0c
 c c+,, cc1"2c c c+,-,c (United Nations World Urbanization
Prospects: The 2007 Revision). c  c  ! cc c! cc
   c c  cc cc  c cc c  cc c c
 c c  c ccc ! c c& cc cc c c c
c c  c  c c c c cc  c c c cc
 c! c c c c cc c c!   c c c(Pingali. P.
2007).  c  cc c ccc c! c & c cc c
.  c cccc !  c  c c c " c
3c c c c   cc ! c c c  cc c
c c ccc cc  c"c3c cc  c c
c c c ! c c c c c c c   cc
 cc !  c"c c  c ccc c cc   c c c
c cc! c  c! c c c  cc   c c
!  c  "c c  cccc c cc c
 c c ! cc c   c   c c ! c !  c
 cc cc c cc c  c c  c c  c!  c
 c    c   "c c ccccc& c  c  c c
   c cc c  c cc   c c  c
  cc cc c  c!  c "c$ c c  c
  c cc    ccc 4' c5c !  c c
 ! c  c c c ! c c !  c cc
  c c &cc ! c c  cc c c & c c
!  cc c& 6  "c3 c cc  c c
c c c c c c c c c c c
 c ! cc  c c  c cc   c c ! c  c
! c  c c cc c c c  c " c
c
*" !   
cc
   cc cc c c  c c  cc
c  c cc c c cc c  cc c c c
 c  "c c!cc cc.  cc c  cc
)  cc c c+,,,cc+,-, c c0, 0c c  cc2- 0c
 c  c c+,-,cc  c  c c c cc cc
(Rosegrant, M. W., et al.2009)cc  c!cc cc c c
cc cc c  c c  c c c   c c c c c
 c  ccc!cc   cccc c c c
 c!c c ccc5c c   c7c ccc5ccc
 ccccc.  cccc cc   ccc
 ccc c c cc+,0,c (Global Economic Symposium. 2008 .)
3 ! c cc. ccc c c c c  c cc   c
 c c c cc c c   cc  c  c
 ccc ccc c!cc cc  c   c c c
  cc c  "c
  c  c c  c c c  c   c c  c c
 c "c3c c c  c c  c c !   c c c
c  c c !  c  c c  cc ccc
  c  cccc  & c c c  ccc
 cc"c8  c c !  cc cc   c !  c
c c cc ! c c  c cc c  c c
   c c c& c c c  c c !  cc  c
!  c  c c   c c c  cc " c
5c cc ! c   c ccc c cc
   c c  c c  cc c c cc c cc
  c c c cc c   c c c   c
c! c ccc   c   ccc c   cc c c
  c   cc c   cc   cc cc  c cc
   c !c c  cc  c c  c c   c
 c c ! c  c  c !  c ccc c c
 c !  c  c c c c   ccc  c c
!  cc c! cc !  c  c c c c c c
 !  cc !  c  ccc  c !   c
c
X
#   

% c cc c   c c  4 c ccc c  c
c c c c   "c c c c& c c+,, 4,c c c c
c cc& c c   c c* c  ccc c
 c )c  cc c cc c ccc c   c c
 c )  c c* c  cc  c c   c  c
 c  c c c c "c  cc !  cc c c  c
 c c& c c c  ccc )c  c  c  c
c c c(Headey, D., et al 2009)  cc c & c c
  c(Cooke, B., Robles, M. 2009 ).  c  cc  cc  c
 c    c & c c c c )c  cc! c  ) c
 cc c  c c   cc ! c c !  ccc c
 cc c c ccccc c cc c    cc c
) c c c  c ccc c c  c  cc
 c  cc c cc c c "cc c c
 c  c c!c c  c  c  cc c "c
c c c c ! c c c   cc c(c9c c c
cc c c c c !  c  c )c c c
(Bouet, A., Laborde, D., 2008). cccc
c
! !


 c  c  c c  cc c   c c  c ccc
c  c c c c c "c c  c c  cc  c
c  cc  c c c  c c  c  c
c c  c c c c   c c !  cc ) c  c
! c c c   c cc   cc  c! cc c
 "c$cc.  cccc cc  c  cc c c c
  cc c+:c c2:c c c+,-,c c c+,,,c (Nelson, G. C., et al
2009). Tccc.  cc! c c c cc c c c c
  c  c c   c ccc+,-,c (Nelson, G. C., et al 2009) "c
 c  cc  c  cc cc  c c !  c
  c c  cc  c c ccc cc c c
  "c
 cc cc c cc  c  c c c   c c
  ccc  c cc !  "c c cc  c  c
 c c c c  c!  c c ! c cc
   cc c   c  c  cc  c c cc
  c  c c  c  c c cc c c  c
c  c  "c5  c c c& c c cc  c c
&   c  c c c   c  c c!  c  c c
c c ! cc cc!  c   c ! c! c c
"c3 c   cc  c  c  c c  c
c  c c   c   cc   c c "c
; ! c  c c c c !  c  cc  c  c c
 c cc c  ! c c  cc c  c
 c !  c c   c cccc c c c c c
 c !  c  c  c c   c  ! c c  c  c
 c c  "cccc
c
c



! 

$cc! c c c c c   cc cc c  c
c cc c !! c cc c c c! c c c
c   "c$ cccc c  c  c c c  cc
   cc c c   c  c c  c c
  c"cccccc c c  c c cc c
c c  cccccc  c cc cc "c5 c
c !! c c  cc c c  c  "c$cc cc c
 c   ccc cc ccc c )  cccc c
 c ! c c c c ! cc c cc c c
 cc  c c ccc c c c c c  c
c ! c c c cc c cc c  )cc
 c  c c c"c  c cc! cc c  c
c c c c c! c c c c c ccc   "c$c
c cccc  cc c  ccc c c   cc
 ccc ! cc! c c c  cc ccc c c
c  cc c& c c "c; ! c  c   cc
c c c  c c  cc c  c ccc ! c
 c cc<c c " c
c
c

























ü$ %

 c8c'"c= c8c"c//2c c% c' >c3 c c  c

& c*"c8 c "c+,,/c8  c% c3 c ! >c5c c'  c


5 c

% c'"c+,,c5 ! c'  c c >c


c c c7  c
5 c

%5(c3c* c+,,1c% c'  c

%5(c3c< c c$   cc c*c  cc% c'  c

%5(c+,,/c;cc% c c c c+,-, c

% cc c7c+,,0c< c   cc c c

< c3c?"c cc+,,-c  c  c c c c

;  c9c'"c cc+,,/"c
! c c3  c' >c8   c c c% c
7 c c%  c c

 c*"c5 c c%!cc<  4   c c

c@"c  c  c c9 !  c  c c= c8   c


$ c

 c<c"c cc  c  >c$ c c5 c ccc


5  c

3 45  c3"c+,,c% c' >c9   c c   c

8  c c"c c'c5"c+,,0c<c% c' >c  c c


3 c

8  c c"c cc+,,/c5 c c% c' cA c<c


  >c3 cc+,+-6+,-, c

'   c9"c3 4@c8"c+,,/c  c% >c3! c  c c


c !  c

 c7  c+,,c;cc% c c c

 &c
c?"c( c9c<"c+,,c*  c c% c' c c
9 !  c  c

A  c
 c cA # c3 >c c+,,c8 ! c

c
c