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ZXG10 B8018

In-Door Base Transceiver Station


Maintenance Manual
(Troubleshooting)

Version 1.00

ZTE CORPORATION
ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South,
Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Nanshan District, Shenzhen,
P. R. China
518057
Tel: (86) 755 26771900 800-9830-9830
Fax: (86) 755 26772236
URL: http://support.zte.com.cn
E-mail: doc@zte.com.cn
LEGAL INFORMATION

Copyright © 2006 ZTE CORPORATION.

The contents of this document are protected by copyright laws and international treaties. Any reproduction or
distribution of this document or any portion of this document, in any form by any means, without the prior written
consent of ZTE CORPORATION is prohibited. Additionally, the contents of this document are protected by
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CORPORATION or of their respective owners.

This document is provided “as is”, and all express, implied, or statutory warranties, representations or conditions
are disclaimed, including without limitation any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose,
title or non-infringement. ZTE CORPORATION and its licensors shall not be liable for damages resulting from the
use of or reliance on the information contained herein.

ZTE CORPORATION or its licensors may have current or pending intellectual property rights or applications
covering the subject matter of this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license between ZTE
CORPORATION and its licensee, the user of this document shall not acquire any license to the subject matter
herein.

The contents of this document and all policies of ZTE CORPORATION, including without limitation policies related to
support or training are subject to change without notice.

Revision History

Date Revision No. Serial No. Reason for Revision


12/21/2006 R1.0 sjzl20062591 First edition
ZTE CORPORATION
Values Your Comments & Suggestions!
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Please fax to: (86) 755-26772236; or mail to Documentation R&D Department,
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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00) In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)
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Contents

About this Manual ........................................................... xi


Purpose .............................................................................. xi
Intended Audience ............................................................... xi
Prerequisite Skill and Knowledge ............................................ xi
What is in This Manual .......................................................... xi
Related Documentation........................................................ xii
Conventions ....................................................................... xii
How to Get in Touch............................................................xiii

Chapter 1.......................................................................... 1

Maintenance Safety ......................................................... 1


Safety Instructions................................................................ 1
Safety Signs......................................................................... 1
Precautions .......................................................................... 2

Chapter 2.......................................................................... 5

Maintenance Overview .................................................... 5


Troubleshooting Procedure ...............................................5
Fault Information Collection.................................................... 5
Fault Analysis ....................................................................... 6
Fault Locating....................................................................... 6
Fault Removal ...................................................................... 6
Common Fault Analysis and Locating Methods .....................7
Alarms and Operation Log Check............................................. 7
LED Status Analysis............................................................... 7
Performance Analysis ............................................................ 7
Analysis with Instruments and Meters ...................................... 7
Plug/Unplug ......................................................................... 8
Comparison and replacement.................................................. 8
Isolation .............................................................................. 8
Self -Test............................................................................. 8
ZTE Customer Support ...........................................................8

Chapter 3.......................................................................... 9

Transmission Faults ......................................................... 9


OVERVIEW ...........................................................................9
Troubleshooting ....................................................................9
All LAPD links of BTS Are Broken ........................................... 10
LAPD Link Establishment Failure between Cascaded Sites.......... 11
Poor Conversation Quality with High Transmission BER ............. 11
OAM Link of CMB is Broken ................................................... 12
Individual DTRU LAPD Links Establishment Failure.................... 12
LAPD Links of Many BTS Sites are Broken ............................... 13
Transmission Link Break....................................................... 13
Abnormal Transmission Link ................................................. 14
OAM Link of the BTS Site is Broken ........................................ 14
LAPD Links of Some Carriers of a BTS Site are Broken .............. 15
LAPD Links of Carriers of Many BTS Sites are Transiently Broken 16

Chapter 4........................................................................19

Antenna Feeder Faults...................................................19


Overview ........................................................................... 19
Troubleshooting .................................................................. 20
VSWR Faults....................................................................... 21
Coverage Shrinkage ............................................................ 22
VSWR Alarm of the Combiner................................................ 22
Poor Uplink Quality .............................................................. 23
Poor Downlink Quality .......................................................... 23
VSWR Alarm of the Power Amplifier (PA) ................................ 24
Tower Mount Amplifier (TMA) Power Alarm.............................. 25
TMA Alarm ......................................................................... 25
LNA Alarm.......................................................................... 26

Chapter 5........................................................................29

Voice Faults ....................................................................29


Troubleshooting .................................................................. 29
Voice Abnormalities Caused by RF Faults ................................ 30
Voice Abnormalities Caused by Configuration Faults ................. 30
One-way conversation ......................................................... 30
Two-way Blocking ............................................................... 31
Poor Conversation Quality .................................................... 32
Crosstalk ........................................................................... 33
Poor Conversation Quality of a BTS........................................ 34
Noises in Outgoing Toll Call .................................................. 34
Unstable MS Signals in the Idle State..................................... 34
Unstable MS Signal in the Busy State..................................... 35
Echo in MS Conversation...................................................... 36
Typical Case ................................................................. 36
Fault Information Collection.................................................. 37
Fault Analysis ..................................................................... 37
Troubleshooting.................................................................. 40
Summary .......................................................................... 42

Chapter 6........................................................................ 45

Loading Faults................................................................ 45
Software Version Cannot be Imported.................................... 45
Loading Failure ................................................................... 45
CMB/DTPB Board Unable to Start .......................................... 46
The Board Software cannot be Imported ................................ 46
Repeated Loading of CMB..................................................... 46
Repeated Loading of DTRU ................................................... 47
LAPD Link Establishment Failure after Software Loading ........... 47
FU LAPD and HDLC Disconnection Alarms ............................... 48

Chapter 7........................................................................ 49

Clock Faults .................................................................... 49


Overview ..................................................................... 49
Symptom........................................................................... 49
Notification Messages and Alarms.......................................... 49
Fault Analysis ..................................................................... 50
Troubleshooting ............................................................ 50
Clock Module Reset/Restart .................................................. 50
Carrier Clock Faults ............................................................. 50
Classified Faults.................................................................. 51
Clock alarms ...................................................................... 51
L3 Software Not Responding................................................. 52
PLL Lock Loss Alarm Frequently Occurs/Recovers .................... 52
Metal Noise during Conversation ........................................... 52
Call Drop during Handover ................................................... 53
High Handover Failure Ratio.................................................. 53

Chapter 8........................................................................55

Service Faults.................................................................55
Overview ..................................................................... 55
Symptoms ......................................................................... 55
Troubleshooting ............................................................ 56
BTS Call Test ...................................................................... 56
Performance Analysis........................................................... 56
Signaling Procedure Analysis................................................. 57
Poor Signal Quality or Signal Fluctuation................................. 57
Frequent Call Drops due to Hard Handover.............................. 57
No Traffic in the Cell or Sudden Rise of Call Drop Ratio ............. 58
MS indicates Signal Fluctuation or No Signal............................ 58
System Prompts Failure to Connect........................................ 59
Strong Signals but Unable to Make a Call ................................ 59
Handover Failure................................................................. 60
Occupation of Carrier for Short Time ...................................... 60
The Carrier Cannot be Occupied ............................................ 60
Long SDCCH Occupation Time ............................................... 62
Sudden Rise of Call Drop Ratio .............................................. 62
BTS Overload Message ......................................................... 63
Low TCH Assignment Success Ratio ....................................... 63

Chapter 9........................................................................65

Board Faults ...................................................................65


Trunk Node Alarm ............................................................... 65
Backplane Fault .................................................................. 65
Abnormality of Standby CMB Board........................................ 66
HW Link Interruption for a Long Time..................................... 66
PA VSWR Alarm .................................................................. 66
Major Clock Alarm on Active and Standby CMBs....................... 67

Appendix A .....................................................................69

CBA Parameter...............................................................69
CBA Parameter Modification .................................................. 69

Appendix B .....................................................................71

DTMF Signal Tone ..........................................................71


DTMF Signal Tone Generation ............................................... 71

Appendix C ..................................................................... 73

Abbreviations ................................................................. 73

Appendix D ..................................................................... 75

Figures............................................................................ 75

Tables ............................................................................. 77

Index .............................................................................. 79
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About this Manual

Purpose
This Manual provides procedures and guidelines that support the
troubleshooting of ZXG10 B8018 Base Transceiver Station.

Intended Audience
This document is intended for engineers and technicians who
perform troubleshooting activities on the ZXG10 B8018 Base
Transceiver Station.

Prerequisite Skill and Knowledge


To use this document effectively, users should have a general
understanding of wireless telecommunications technology.
Familiarity with the following is helpful:
„ ZXG10 system and its various components
„ Local troubleshooting procedures

What is in This Manual


This Manual contains the following chapters:

TABLE 1 - CHAPTER SUMMARY

Chapter Summary
Chapter 1 Maintenance Introduces the safety measures that are
Safety taken during the troubleshooting process
Chapter 2 Maintenance Introduces the common troubleshooting
Overview methods
Chapter 3 Transmission Introduces the BTS faults caused due to
Faults transmission Failure
Chapter 4 Antenna Introduces the faults caused due to
Feeder Faults antenna feeder problems

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ZXG10 B8018(V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual(Troubleshooting)

Chapter Summary
Chapter 5 Voice Faults Introduces the analysis and
troubleshooting procedures of voice faults
Chapter 6 Loading Analyzes the faults that may occur during
Faults software loading process
Chapter 7 Clock Faults Analyses the clock synchronization
problems
Chapter 8 Service Analyzes faults such as weak signal, call
Faults drop, poor voice quality and handover
faults
Chapter 9 Board Faults Introduces the troubleshooting procedures
to solve board faults
Appendix A CBA Introduces the methods for modifying the
Parameter Modification CBA parameter
Appendix B DTMF Introduces principles of DTMF signal tone
Signal Tone Generation generation
Appendix c, Lists English abbreviations used in this
Abbreviations manual
Appendix D, Figures Lists all the figures used in this manual
Appendix E, Tables Lists all the tables used in this manual
Index Index for reference to different topics

Related Documentation
The following documentation is related to this manual:
„ ZXG10 B8018 Base Transceiver Station Documentation Guide
„ ZXG10 B8018 Base Transceiver Station Technical Manual
„ ZXG10 B8018 Base Transceiver Station Installation Manual
„ ZXG10 B8018 Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual
(Routine Maintenance)
„ ZXG10 B8018 Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual
(Troubleshooting)

Conventions
Typographical ZTE documents employ the following typographical conventions.
Conventions

TABLE 2 - TYPOGRAPHIC AL CONVENTIONS

Typeface Meaning
Italics References to other Manuals and documents.

xii Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


About this manual

Typeface Meaning
“Quotes” Links on screens.
Bold Menus, menu options, function names, input
fields, radio button names, check boxes, drop-
down lists, dialog box names, window names.
CAPS Keys on the keyboard and buttons on screens
and company name.
Constant width Text that you type, program code, files and
directory names, and function names.
[] Optional parameters.
{} Mandatory parameters.
| Select one of the parameters that are delimited
by it.
Note: Provides additional information about a
certain topic.
Checkpoint: Indicates that a particular step needs
to be checked before proceeding further.
Tip: Indicates a suggestion or hint to make things
easier or more productive for the reader.

Mouse TABLE 3 - MOUSE OPERATION CONVENTIONS


Operation
Conventions Typeface Meaning
Click Refers to clicking the primary mouse button (usually
the left mouse button) once.
Double-click Refers to quickly clicking the primary mouse button
(usually the left mouse button) twice.
Right-click Refers to clicking the secondary mouse button
(usually the right mouse button) once.
Drag Refers to pressing and holding a mouse button and
moving the mouse.

How to Get in Touch


The following sections provide information on how to obtain
support for the documentation and the software.
Customer If you have problems, questions, comments, or suggestions
Support regarding your product, contact us by e-mail at
support@zte.com.cn. You can also call our customer support
center at (86) 755 26771900 and (86) 800-9830-9830.
Documentation ZTE welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality
Support and usefulness of this document. For further questions,

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ZXG10 B8018(V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual(Troubleshooting)

comments, or suggestions on the documentation, you can


contact us by e-mail at doc@zte.com.cn; or you can fax your
comments and suggestions to (86) 755 26772236. You can also
browse our website at http://support.zte.com.cn, which contains
various interesting subjects like documentation, knowledge base,
forum and service request.

xiv Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1

Maintenance Safety

This chapter includes the following topics:


„ Safety Instructions
„ Safety Signs
„ Precautions

Safety Instructions
„ Only trained professionals must operate and maintain the
BTS equipment.
„ Follow the local safety codes when operating and maintaining
the BTS equipment.
„ Safety precautions used in this manual are only
supplementary to the local safety codes.
„ ZTE shall not bear any liabilities incurred by violation of the
universal safety regulations or violation of safety standards
for designing, manufacturing and usage of the equipment.

Safety Signs
The general safety signs used in this manual are listed in Table 4.

TABLE 4 - SAFETY SIGNS

Safety Signs Meaning


Danger: Indicates an
imminently hazardous situation,
which if not avoided, will result
in death or serious injury. This
signal word should be limited to
only extreme situations

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Warning: Indicates a potentially


hazardous situation, which if
not avoided, could result in
death or serious injury.
Caution: Indicates a potentially
hazardous situation, which if
not avoided, could result in
minor or moderate injury. It
may also be used to alert
against unsafe practices.
Erosion: Beware of erosion.

Electric Shock: There is a risk


of electric shock

Electrostatic: The device may


be sensitive to static electricity.

Microwave: Beware of strong


electromagnetic field.

Laser: Beware of strong laser


beam.

No flammables: No flammables
can be stored.

No touching: Do not touch.

No smoking: Smoking is
forbidden.

Precautions
Equipment „ Strictly follow the Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) of
Operations the equipment.
„ Wear antistatic wrist strap when touching any hardware of
the equipment.
„ Never perform operations such as plugging/unplugging,
resetting, starting or switching, loading/modifying equipment
data without prior permission.

2 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 - Maintenance Safety

Board „ Wear an antistatic wrist strap when touching a board.


Operations
„ Prepare working staff and boards in advance before
plugging/unplugging or replacing any important board.
„ Check the spare parts regularly to ensure that the common
spare parts are properly stocked, intact and free from
moisture and mold.
„ Keep the spare parts separately from the faulty parts
replaced during maintenance, mark them separately and
store them in antistatic bags.

Data „ Perform operations such as data synchronization and data


Maintenance modification during low-traffic hours (such as midnight).
„ Perform operations that take more CPU time during low-
traffic hours (such as midnight).
„ Backup important data and record the backup before data
modification.
„ Periodically backup all data for future use.
„ Periodically observe all databases, especially the
performance measurement and alarm databases (once every
two weeks). Delete the old data to avoid disk overflow.

Operations „ Generally operation rights fall in to three levels:


Rights
f Super administrator: Has the highest level of rights in the
Management
system and can execute all operations.
f Advanced operator: Has operation rights such as
configuring/modifying data, diagnosis test, performance
statistics, alarm query and status query.
f Operator: Has operation rights such as alarm query and
status query.
„ Assign only one super administrator for system management.
„ Super administrator must handle network management and
password management tasks.
„ Periodically change the password used to log on to the server
and the client.

Virus „ Do not change the network settings and the settings of OAM
Protection for server or client without prior permission.
the System
„ Use CDs and disks provided by ZTE for installing software for
Operation and Maintenance (OAM) server or client.
„ Do not install and run any program irrelevant with operation
and maintenance on the OAM server or client.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

„ Install copyrighted antivirus software on every client and the


servers and enable the real-time virus detection function.
Timely update the virus definitions (once every week).

Fault Report „ Detect the problems and faults and report major problems to
the relevant officials and the local ZTE office.
„ Record the detailed troubleshooting procedures.

4 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2

Maintenance Overview

This chapter introduces the common troubleshooting methods.

Troubleshooting Procedure
The troubleshooting procedure consists of four phases:

„ Fault information collection


„ Fault analysis
„ Fault Locating
„ Fault removal

Fault Information Collection


Collect fault information from the following:

„ Customers fault complaints


„ Exceptions found during routine maintenance or inspection
„ Alarm messages and notification messages in the OMC client
„ LED status of boards

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Fault Analysis
After collecting information about the faults, analyze the possible
fault causes.
Fault can be categorized as follows:
„ Transmission faults
„ Antenna feeder faults
„ Voice faults
„ Loading faults
„ Clock faults
„ Service faults
„ Board faults
This manual analyzes the faults based on the above fault types
and introduces the troubleshooting methods.

Fault Locating
After analyzing the fault causes, use various troubleshooting
methods to rule out the impossible fault causes and locate the
exact fault cause.
For detailed information regarding fault analysis methods, refer
to Common Fault Analysis and Locating Methods

Fault Removal
After locating the fault, take appropriate steps to remove the
fault and recover normal operation of the system.

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Chapter 2 - Maintenance Overview

Common Fault Analysis and


Locating Methods
Alarms and Operation Log Check
The first method of fault locating is checking the alarms and the
operation log in iOMCR.
Alarm management interfaces in iOMCR helps to observe and
analyze alarm messages reported by network elements, such as
current alarms, history alarms and common notification
messages. Operation log browsing interface in iOMCR helps in
tracing modifications on system parameters, locating the
relevant terminal and detecting the personal faults.

LED Status Analysis


LED Status Analysis is a method often used to locate a fault.
Be familiar with the status and meanings of all LEDs in order to
locate the fault exactly.

Performance Analysis
Performance analysis is done through performance management
interface in the iOMCR.
Analyze performance measurement tasks, performance reports
and BSS performance indices, detect load distribution in the
network and adjust network parameters to improve the network
performance.
Signaling trace is done through signaling trace interface of
iOMCR to locate signaling faults.

Analysis with Instruments and


Meters
Use auxiliary instruments such as test MS, signaling analyzer
and BER analyzer to analyze, locate and remove faults.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Plug/Unplug
Upon detecting fault in a board, plug or unplug the board and
external connectors, in order to remove the faults caused by
poor contact.
In addition, remove the faults caused by poor contacts by
pressing the cable connectors.

Comparison and replacement


Compare a possible faulty board with a normal board at the
similar position in the system and find the faulty board.
Also, replace a faulty board with a spare board or another
normally working board of the same type and check whether the
fault disappears after replacement.

Caution: During fault analysis, strictly follow the relevant


requirements for board plugging/unplugging.

Isolation
Isolate the faulty part from the other relevant board or rack, and
decide whether the fault cause is due to mutual influence
between them.

Self -Test
Judge a fault by observing the flashing of LEDs on the board
panel after the system or board is re-powered on.

ZTE Customer Support


Incase of further queries, contact ZTE Customer Support via
telephone, fax or e-mail.
Hotline: 86-755-26770800, 86-800-8301118, 86-400-8301118
Fax: 86-755-26770801
Website: http://support.zte.com.cn
Customer service e-mail: 800@zte.com.cn

8 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3

Transmission Faults

This chapter analyzes the BTS faults caused due to transmission


failure.

OVERVIEW
Transmission faults may create the following alarms:
„ Broken LAPD link of a BTS site
„ Broken OAM link of a BTS site
„ E1 interface frame out of sync
„ E1 interface code slip notification

Troubleshooting
Transmission faults are mainly caused by the following:
„ Transmission bit errors
„ Time slot allocation problems
The basic troubleshooting steps for transmission faults are:
„ Performing bit error test
„ Checking E1 time slot (TS) allocation

Transmission Bit errors cause system instability and transmission interruption


Bit Errors (when BER is over 10-5 ).
The causes for bit errors are as follows:
„ Bit errors caused by internal mechanisms
Such bit errors are caused by various noise sources, phase
jitters, multiplexers, inter connected equipments or switches,
or inter-symbol interference.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

These bit errors affect the long-term bit error performance of


the system.
„ Bit errors caused by interferences
These bit errors are caused due to electromagnetic
interference, transient power interference and equipment
failure. These bit errors are in bursts and bulky and they
occur suddenly.
These bit errors affect the short-term bit error performance
of the system.

TS Allocation TS allocation problem can cause BTS LAPD link interruption


Problem under normal transmission conditions (there is no transmission
alarm).
The possible causes for TS allocation problem are as follows:
„ Inconsistent configured data between the BSC and the BTS.
The inconsistency between the background configuration
data and the settings of DIP switches in the BTS causes LAPD
link failure.
„ Cross connection of transmit and receive ends of a
transmission line.
The uplink and downlink communications fails and BTS
cannot start normally when there is cross connection
between transmit and receive ends of a transmission line.
„ Failure of E1 Timeslot add/drop multiplexer
Working failure of E1 timeslot add/drop multiplexer present
in the middle of the transmission path, causes inconsistent
TS allocation between the BTS and BSC.
BTS LAPD link fails when the timeslot add/drop multiplexer
fails or when its data configuration is incorrect.

All LAPD links of BTS Are Broken


Symptoms „ LAPD links of all boards in a BTS are broken
„ iOMCR displays the site as gray
„ Site cannot function properly

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty CMB board
„ Faulty transmission equipment
„ Defective backplane connection
„ Faulty BSC hardware

10 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 - Transmission Faults

Troubleshooting „ Reset the CMB board and check whether the fault is removed.
„ Conduct self-loop test and check if the physical link between
the BTS and BSC is broken.
„ Check the BSC, transmission equipment and BTS for any
fault.
„ Confirm if the DIP switch setting is correct and matches the
configuration data.

LAPD Link Establishment Failure


between Cascaded Sites
Symptoms „ Lower level site cannot establish a link with the main site.
„ iOMCR indicates fault in the lower level site.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Mismatch of DIP switch setting with the configured LAPD
timeslot.
„ Incorrect OAM timeslot configuration.

Troubleshooting „ Interchange the upper and lower level relations of the two
sites and check whether the problem is solved.
„ Check the equipment for faults.
„ Check the DIP switch setting.

Poor Conversation Quality with High


Transmission BER

Symptoms „ Bit errors


„ Frame out of sync
„ Code slip notification
„ Poor conversation quality in all cells of the site

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty CMB board
„ Incorrect clock reference

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Troubleshooting „ Check for impedance mismatch between the connections


from E1 to EIB.
„ Measure the clock reference.
„ Replace the corresponding equipment.

OAM Link of CMB is Broken


Symptom Only OAM link of the site is broken while the FU LAPD link is
normal.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Interferences
„ Multiplexing Problems
„ Software processing problems

Troubleshooting „ Reset the CMB.


„ Upgrade the software to the latest version.

Individual DTRU LAPD Links


Establishment Failure
Symptom The LAPD links of all other boards except a DTRU is normal.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty DTRU equipment
„ Software processing problem

Troubleshooting „ Observe and check for any alarm in DTRU and confirm its
normal operation.
„ Reset the DTRU and observe whether it can recover.
„ Upgrade the software to the latest version.

12 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 - Transmission Faults

LAPD Links of Many BTS Sites are


Broken
Symptom LAPD links of many BTS sites on the same transmission line or
the sites connected to the same BSC board are broken.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty transmission equipment
„ Faulty BSC equipment

Troubleshooting Confirm the connections of the faulty BTS and check if the
equipment related to the BSC has the same problem.

Transmission Link Break


Symptoms BSC
„ The TIC or SMB board related to the particular BTS reports
‘all 1s or all 0s’ alarm.
„ LED of the corresponding port on the TIC or SMB board is ON.
BTS
„ SYN LED on the CMB board is red or flashes in red.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty BSC equipment
„ Faulty BTS equipment
„ Faulty Transmission equipment

Troubleshooting „ Perform two-way self-loop test to check the normality of SYN


LED status and TIC (or SMB) board LED status.
„ Incase of ambiguity in finding the problematic spot in a line;
divide the line between BSC and BTS in to segments.
Perform self-loop test to the segments. If ‘all 1s or all 0s’
alarm of the TIC (or SMB) board appears again after a
segment is self-looped, that segment must be problematic.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Abnormal Transmission Link


Symptom Discontinuous transmission link

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Fault in uplink from BTS site to the BSC.
„ Fault in down link.
„ Even though the LAPD link is normal, there are transmission
fault alarms like E1 out of frame, E1 code slip notification
and CMB out of lock for a long time.
„ Both sides of the transmission line may be normal but there
are BTS LAPD alarms.

Troubleshooting „ Check for proper grounding of equipments like BTS, DDF,


BSC and transmission equipment.
„ Check if the timeslot add/drop multiplexer (if any) works
normally.
„ Check if the DIP switches of the TIC (or SMB) work normally.
„ Self-loop the E1 line segment by segment starting from the
segment near the BSC. If a problem is detected in a segment,
replace the connection line or the equipment on this segment.
„ Check the transmission indices using an E1 transmission
tester.
„ Check if the BIECOM file configuration of the BSC is correct.
„ Check if the OAM TS configuration is consistent with the DIP
switch setting on the CMB board.
„ Check if the cabling of transmission line conforms to the
relevant requirements.

OAM Link of the BTS Site is Broken


Symptoms „ OAM link of the BTS site is disconnected
„ BTS Could not start normally

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty transmission equipment
„ Incorrect OAM timeslot configuration data
„ Faulty BTS E1 interface

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Chapter 3 - Transmission Faults

Troubleshooting Troubleshoot the fault according to its cause.


„ Broken transmission line
f Perform self-loop test and check whether the
transmission line is normal.
„ Broken timeslot
f Find and remove the faults of the timeslot multiplexer.
„ Inconsistent versions of configuration data
f Install the correct versions of configuration data.

Tip: Good transmission quality is required to download the


version and data. So re-download all the data when downloading
fails due to transmission errors.
„ OAM timeslot configuration data inconsistency
f Inconsistency of OAM timeslot configuration data with the
DIP switch setting can cause the OAM timeslot of BTS to
break.
„ Cascaded site Bypass
f When two cascaded BTSs share the same OAM timeslot
configuration and when the upper-level BTS is bypassed
due to power failure, the link between the two BTS sites
fails.
f To solve this problem, reset the lower-level BTS site.
„ BTS equipment failure
f When E1 interface is faulty or the E1 interface cable has
a dry solder, the OAM LAPD link of the BTS fails.
f Perform self-loop test to solve this problem. If the E1 LED
of the BTS is ON after the test, the fault may be in the
BTS.
f Replace the related board(s).

LAPD Links of Some Carriers of a


BTS Site are Broken
Symptoms „ LAPD links of some carriers of a BTS are broken
„ LAPD board of BSC shows related alarms

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Backplane connection error
„ DTRU failure
„ BSC hardware failure

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

„ Transmission failure

Troubleshooting „ Remotely reset the CMB to reset the BTS. If the system
indicates connection timeout, the communication link
between the iOMCR and the CMB of the BTS must be broken.
„ Check if there are alarms from all DTRUs in the BTS. If yes,
follow the steps below to troubleshoot the fault:
f Check if the E1 line is correctly connected.
f Check if the TIC and LAPD boards on the BSC report
alarms. If so, remove the corresponding fault.
f Measure the transmission Bit Error Ratio (BER) using a
BER tester. If BER is abnormal, remove the transmission
faults including transmission equipment faults and
grounding faults.
f Check whether the DIP switch on the TIC board is set to
an appropriate position.

Note: DIP switch setting must be in 75 Ω position when a


coaxial cable is used and in 120 Ω position when a twisted pair is
used.
f Check the connections of backplane if the LAPD links of
DTRUs in a single layer are broken.
f If the LAPD link of one DTRU is broken, reset the DTRU.
If the problem persists, replace the DTRU.

Note: Transmission alarms of BSC appear only when the


physical connection is broken. Transmission bit error or poor
grounding does not result in such alarms.

LAPD Links of Carriers of Many BTS


Sites are Transiently Broken
Symptom LAPD links of some BTSs break and automatically recover in 10
~ 20 seconds without manual intervention.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Transmission interruption or instability, which can be
detected from transmission alarm or alarm record.
„ Transmission problem between the Main Processor (MP) and
LAPD boards of the same BSC.
The symptom is that the break or recovery time of the LAPD
links of carriers of same LAPD board is similar (in terms of

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Chapter 3 - Transmission Faults

seconds) while that of different LAPD boards differ slightly


from one another.
„ CMB Reset
The symptom is that the LAPD links of carriers of the BTS are
broken or recovered at a time slightly different from one
another (the time difference is only several seconds).

Troubleshooting „ Check if transmission alarms occur during LAPD interruption.


If yes, do the following :
f Check if the contacts of E1 interface is proper
f Check if the transmission equipment is properly grounded
f Check if alarms occur due to transmission faults
f Remove the faults
„ Analyze the LAPD interruption and recovery time to find the
faulty LAPD board and then reset it. If the problem persists,
replace the faulty LAPD board.
If LAPD interruption is caused by CMB reset, the system will
automatically become normal without manual intervention.

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Chapter 4

Antenna Feeder Faults

This chapter deals with the analysis of faults such as signal


fluctuation, coverage shrinkage and poor conversation quality,
caused due to antenna feeder equipment problems.

Overview
Symptoms „ Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) alarm
„ Poor uplink or downlink quality

Related Alarms iOMCR may indicate the following three types of alarms:
„ Major VSWR alarm of a Combiner
This alarm occurs when the VSWR value of the antenna
feeder system connected with the combiner is greater than
3.0.
„ Minor VSWR alarm of a Combiner
This alarm occurs when the VSWR value of the antenna
feeder system connected with the combiner is between 1.5
and 3.0.
„ LNA alarm of a divider
This alarm indicates that the divider is faulty.

Tip: The alarms of combiners and dividers are related to


configuration data and physical connections. Therefore, make
sure that the configuration data are consistent with the actual
physical connections so that the system correctly processes the
alarms.
Two transceivers are located in each DTRU – DTRU1 and DTRU2.
Following example describes the problem occurring when the
physical connections are inconsistent with data configuration:

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Physical connections:
DTRUA1 - Combiner A - Antenna feeder A
DTRUA2 - Combiner B - Antenna Feeder B
Data configuration:
DTRUA2 - Combiner A - Antenna feeder A
DTRUA1 - Combiner B - Antenna Feeder B
Background combiner A1 reports a major VSWR alarm when
VSWR serious alarm occurs at antenna feeder A1. However, the
system blocks DTRU A2 due to data configuration error. DTRU
A1 still transmits power. In this case, Cell A does not support
normal calls due to big VSWR and neither Cell B because it is
blocked due to error.

Troubleshooting

Replacement 1. Replace the CDU that may be faulty with a normal CDU.
2. Check whether the antenna feeder system is normal.
3. Connect the antenna feeder system that may be faulty and
the normal CDU using a jumper.
4. If an alarm occurs, the fault lies in the antenna feeder
system. If not, the fault lies in the CDU.

Systematic Any one of the following problems may cause the antenna feeder
Check system faulty:
„ Improper installation of connectors
„ Improper sealing of connectors with water-proof
„ Damages in feeder or jumpers
„ High VSWR value of lightning arrestor
„ High VSWR value of antenna
„ Water enters the antenna
Check the antenna feeder system and replace the faulty parts if
necessary.
If a part does not satisfy the VSWR requirement, it must be
faulty. First, check the easily accessible parts before checking
the parts hard to reach.
If VSWR alarm occurs occasionally, then the problem may be
due to poor contact of cables.
Shake the parts to check the reliability of cable connection.

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Chapter 4 - Antenna Feeder Faults

Caution: Disconnect the feed from the tower top amplifier


(if any) before measuring VSWR at the TX/RX port on the CDU,
to prevent damages due to short circuits.

VSWR Faults
Symptom VSWR alarm (Minor or Major)
A minor VSWR alarm occurs when the VSWR value is
between 1.5 and 3.0 while a major VSWR alarm occurs when
the VSWR value is greater than 3.0.
Source „ Board LEDs
„ Background Operation and Maintenance System

Related Parts „ CDU


„ Antenna Feeder System
„ DTRU

Fault Analysis A CDU reports a major VSWR alarm when it has VSWR2 alarm
that lasts for one minute. Upon receipt of this major alarm, the
OAM automatically turns off the DTRU.

Troubleshooting 1. Check whether the CDU is faulty.


Replace the DTRU connected to the CDU by a normal DTRU and
test with a test MS if the BTS can normally receive or send
signals.
If the BTS can receive or send signals normally, reset the
CDU and see if the CDU misreports any alarm.
If the fault does not re-occur after CDU resetting, it indicates
that the CDU misreported the alarm. Replace the CDU.
If the fault re-occurs, it indicates that the CDU did not
misreport the alarm, and then determine if the CDU is faulty
by replacing it with a normal CDU.
If the CDU is not faulty, it indicates that the antenna feeder
system may be faulty.
2. Check whether the antenna feeder system is faulty.
Check the VSWR of the antenna feeder system at the
connector of 1/2̎ jumper that is connected with the TX/RX
ANT port of the CDU.
Shake this 1/2̎ jumper and the 1/2̎ jumper on the cabinet top
and check whether there is a big change in VSWR value. If
so, the cable may have loose contacts.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

If the VSWR value is more than 1.5, the antenna feeder


system may be faulty. Solve the fault by checking the
antenna feeder system systematically.
3. If the cause of the VSWR1 alarm cannot be determined after
performing the above steps, then the fault may be due to the
following:
f Unstable VSWR processing function of the CDU.
f Mismatch of TX/RX ANT port and the 1/2̎ jumper.
Replace the CDU in the first case and replace both the CDU
and the 1/2̎ jumper in the second case.
4. Check whether the TX port on the DTRU is properly
connected to the CDU and the connectors are tightened
properly when the DTRU reports a VSWR alarm.
5. Replace the DTRU and check if the DTRU misreports alarm.

Coverage Shrinkage
Symptoms „ Output power of the BTS equipment decreases
„ Coverage shrinks after a period of time

Fault Analysis The aging and overload of devices may cause performance
deterioration.

Troubleshooting „ Measure the output power of the BTS and replace the AEM if
output power is abnormal.
„ Ensure that the operating temperature is within the specified
range.
„ Ensure that the latest version of software is in use.

VSWR Alarm of the Combiner


Symptoms „ iOMCR indicates a VSWR alarm
„ Blockage of carriers

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ External environmental interferences
„ Problem with internal alarm detection mechanism

Troubleshooting „ Confirm the time of alarm occurrence and the radio

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Chapter 4 - Antenna Feeder Faults

interference at that time.


„ Replace the AEM.
„ Ensure that the latest version of software is in use.

Poor Uplink Quality


Symptoms „ Poor conversation quality
„ Poor uplink quality when viewed from signaling analysis

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty antenna or CDU
„ Faulty CPU
„ Connection problem between the antenna input port of the
CDU and the cabinet top
„ Faulty antenna feeder system

Troubleshooting „ Check if the CDU reports any Tower Mount Amplifier (TMA)
alarm. If so, handle the fault in the way as handling a TMA
alarm. For details, refer to TMA alarm
„ .
„ Check if the CDU reports any Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
alarm. If so, handle the fault in the way as handling an LNA
alarm. For details, refer to LNA Alarm
„ .
„ Check if the connection from the antenna input port on the
CDU to the cabinet top is normal. If the connection is
abnormal, replace the connection cable.
„ Check the VSWR of the antenna feeder systematically,
starting from the cabinet top.

Poor Downlink Quality


Symptoms „ Could not make or receive calls from a place where calls
were made or received previously.
„ Poor signal quality or no signal at places where signal quality
was good previously.
„ More dropped calls than before.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Fault Analysis The following factors may influence the coverage of the BTS:
„ Poor BTS environment
„ Poor construction quality or maintenance of the BTS
„ Low PA output power
„ Decreased receiver sensitivity
„ Inclined azimuth
„ Altered antenna pitch angle
„ Altered gain and height
„ Feeder cable or combiner loss
„ Altered working frequency and transmission environment

Troubleshooting „ Check if the threshold of RACH receiving level is altered. If


the threshold is much greater than before, it may
decrease the BTS coverage.
„ Check if strong interference exists around the BTS.
„ Check the RF cable connection between the DTRU and AEM
for any signal leakage or losses.
„ Check if the SWR1 LED on the AEM panel is ON. If so, check
the VSWR values of the jumper, main feeder and antenna
segment by segment, until the VSWR fault cause is
determined.
„ Check and adjust the power if the PA output power is
abnormal and the operating temperature inside the BTS is
too high. If the output power is still low after the adjustment,
replace the DTRU.
„ Check if other antennas or obstacles exist around the BTS
antenna. If so, adjust the azimuth and height of the antenna
to reduce the influence.
„ Check if there is a change in the azimuth and pitch angle of
the antenna. If so, adjust the azimuth and height of the
antenna to exact positions.
„ Trees with abundant leaves may also affect the BTS
coverage.

VSWR Alarm of the Power Amplifier


(PA)
Symptom PA VSWR alarm

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Problems in alarm judgment

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Chapter 4 - Antenna Feeder Faults

„ Problems in GUI processing mechanism

Troubleshooting Replace the DTRU that may be faulty with a DTRU of a normal
cell. Check if the cell reports the same alarm.
There are the following possibilities:
„ If the cell reports alarm even after replacing DTRU, then the
problem may not be in DTRU. The problem may lie in PA,
antenna feeder or backplane.
Replace the boards to eliminate board faults.
„ If the cell does not report any alarm when DTRU is replaced,
then the fault lies in DTRU. Replace the faulty DTRU.
„ If the alarm of the problematic DTRU disappears and the
normal DTRU does not generate any alarm, then the fault
may be due to the poor contact of DTRU. If the fault remains,
then the fault may be in the threshold settings or other
hidden problems. In this case do further analysis to
troubleshoot the problem.

Tower Mount Amplifier (TMA) Power


Alarm
Symptom Tower mount amplifier power alarm

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Power fault
„ Connection problem

Troubleshooting „ Check whether the connections are proper.


„ Remove the power fault.

TMA Alarm
Symptom TMA alarm

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty CDU
„ Faulty TMA
„ Faulty DTRU

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

„ Faulty antenna feeder system

Troubleshooting 1. Reset the CDU and check whether the TMA alarm
disappears. If the alarm does not disappear, it indicates that
the CDU misreports alarm. So replace the CDU.

Tip: Upon TMA alarm, CDU automatically disconnects TMA


from the feed. Therefore, normally TMA alarm disappears after
CDU reset.

2. If the TMA alarm disappears after the CDU is reset,


disconnect the jumper from the antenna port on the CDU.
Check if the antenna feeder system has any short circuit.
Check the feeder, jumpers, and TMA and locate the short
circuit.
3. If the antenna feeder has no short circuit, enable the TMA
(turn on the TMA feeder through the CDU on the Man
Machine Interface (MMI)). Check whether the CDU reports
any TMA alarm. If an alarm appears, it indicates that the
feed output is normal.
4. Connect an ammeter and 120-ohm resistor in series between
the antenna port on the CDU and the 1/2̎ jumper. Make sure
that the external conductor of the port and that of the
jumper are in good electrical connection. Enable the TMA
feed; check whether the feed voltage and feed current are in
the normal working range. TMA is bypassed when the
voltage is normal and the current is zero. Replace the TMA.

Tip: Check whether the TMA is faulty by interchanging the


faulty TMA with a normal TMA, if the requirements for these
steps are not ready.

5. Replace the TMA if the TMA is found faulty.


6. If the antenna feeder system is normal, then the problem
may be in the receiving channel of DTRU. Replace the DTRU.

LNA Alarm
Symptom LNA alarm

Fault Analysis „ An LNA reports an alarm when the LNA current exceeds 30%
more than the normal operating current.

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Chapter 4 - Antenna Feeder Faults

„ The fault can be located by observing the DTRU. The DTRU


connected with the LNA cannot work if the main and diversity
LNAs are faulty, or cannot work properly if one LNA is faulty.

Troubleshooting Replace the AEM.

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28 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 5

Voice Faults

This chapter deals with the analysis and troubleshooting


procedures of voice faults.
Common voice faults are as follows:
„ One-way conversation
„ Cross talk
„ Two-way blocking
„ Noise
„ Poor conversation quality

Troubleshooting
„ Users often report two-way blocking as one-way
conversation problems. So locate and determine the exact
problem.
„ Check whether the fault occurs to a single BTS or BSC or a
larger range.
„ If the fault occurs only to outgoing calls, check the
corresponding outgoing trunk and data. Check all the parts if
the fault lies within the local office.
„ Locate the fault by checking the hardware and data
configuration, assisted by dialing test.
„ If the fault is in BTS, perform drive test and record the
frequency and the timeslot occupied by a call, using test MS.
„ If the fault is in a module, perform A-interface circuit dialing
test, determine the trunk occupied by a call and locate the
relevant boards through interface message analysis.
„ For troubleshooting one-way conversation, make a call from
an MS to a fixed phone and determine whether the fault lies
in the uplink or downlink.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Voice Abnormalities Caused by RF


Faults
Symptoms „ Call drop
„ Noise
„ No voice

Fault Analysis RF faults may cause signal loss and poor call quality.

Troubleshooting Replace the AEM board connected to the faulty carrier.

Voice Abnormalities Caused by


Configuration Faults
Symptom Some timeslots are abnormal and are not assigned properly to
some carriers during conversation.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the wrong configuration of connection
relations, mostly incase of multiplexing.

Troubleshooting Reconfigure the site

One-way conversation
Symptom The calls can be dialed normally but only one party can hear the
voice of the other party.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Error in timeslot configuration between the BSC and MSC.
„ Faulty connection between the transmitting and receiving
ends of the PCM line.
„ Error in Dual Rate Transcoder (DRT) timeslot connection.
„ Error in Digital Switch Network Interface (DSNI) or Bit-
Oriented Switching Network (BOSN) timeslot connection.
„ Uplink or downlink power imbalance on the edges of BTS
coverage area.

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

„ Error in Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) timeslot connection


between the MSC and the fixed switch.

Troubleshooting „ Check whether the fault occurs inside the local office or at
the interconnected systems. Perform dialing tests on the
trunk circuits to troubleshoot the problem.
„ If the fault occurs to the whole MSC, check whether the
equipment buyer or other relevant staff has reconfigured the
MSC data or performed relevant operations during cutover.
Check whether the transmitting and receiving ends of the
trunk line on the A-interface is connected properly.
„ If the fault occurs to the entire BSC or many BTSs of the BSC,
Check whether the DRT version is correct. If so, switch over
the active DSNI/BOSN with the standby DSNI/BOSN and
check whether the problem persists after the switchover.
„ If the fault occurs to only one BTS, verify the radio
parameters and check whether the maximum MS transmit
power is correct.
„ If the problem persists, do dialing test with a test MS to
confirm whether the one-way conversation problem is related
to a carrier timeslot or not.
„ If the problem always occurs to a certain carrier, replace the
corresponding AEM equipment. Ensure that the latest version
of software is in use.

Two-way Blocking
Symptom Neither party of the conversation can hear the peer party.

Fault Analysis Subscriber may report two-way blocking as one-way


conversation. Therefore ensure to locate the exact fault.
The fault may be due to the following:
„ Transmission line self loop
„ Carrier Identification Code (CIC) mismatch between the two
ends of the transmission line
„ Faulty timeslot in the transmission circuit
„ Improper configuration of the timeslot multiplexer with the
time slots when the E1 is shared
„ Faulty DRT/EDRT or TIC board
„ An individual timeslot is not configured with the related
Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
„ Faulty AEM.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Troubleshooting „ First, second and fourth cause may lead to two-way blocking
of many BTSs. Troubleshoot according to the cause.
„ Third cause may lead to two-way blocking of single BTS.
Troubleshoot according to the cause.
„ If the problem always occur to a certain carrier and there is
no multiplexing, replace the corresponding AEM equipment
or connector.
„ Ensure that the software is upgraded to the latest version.

Poor Conversation Quality

Symptoms „ Poor voice quality with distinct noises.


„ Call disconnection during conversation.

Fault Analysis The fault may be mainly due to faulty antenna feeder equipment
or software problem.
„ Poor voice quality is due to high voice BER at the radio
interface, which is caused by low receiving level, clock faults
or co-channel interference.
„ Low frequency level may be caused by the following factors:
f Inappropriate parameter configuration.
For example, the MS maximum transmission power
MSTXMAXCCH (power used during access) and MS
maximum transmission power MSTXPWRMAX (power for
power control) are inconsistent.
f Antenna feeder system faults, such as abnormal VSWR,
improper setting of azimuth angle, and pitch angle.
f Low BTS transmission power.

Troubleshooting Observe the MS signal intensity. If the intensity is low, the


receiving level will be low. Comply with the following steps to
troubleshoot the fault:
„ Check if the RF cable between the DTRU and the combiner is
normal. If abnormal, connect the cable again.
„ Check if the SWR1 LED on the AEM panel is on. If so, check
the VSWR values of the jumpers, main feeder and antenna
segment by segment from the combiner output port, until
the cause of VSWR deterioration is found. Replace the faulty
parts.
„ If the alarm LED on the AEM is off, check if the azimuth and
pitch angle of the antenna are normal. If not, adjust the
antenna.

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

„ If the antenna angles are normal, check the measurement


report of BTS. Check whether the radio parameters are
configured properly. These radio parameters include
MSTXMAXCCH and MSTXPWRMAX. Set the two parameter
values to 33 dBm in GSM900 network and 30 dBm in
GSM1800 network.
„ If the parameter configuration settings are normal, check the
RF cable connection between the divider and DTRU. If the
connection is not proper, reconnect the RF cable.
„ Check whether clock alarms occur at the CMB through the
background, or check the CLK LED on the CMB. If the green
LED is ON, it indicates that the module is normal (the
network synchronization is in locked status). If red LED is ON,
replace the CMB. If the CMB LED status is normal, use the
Local Monitoring Terminal (LMT) to check whether the
frequency offset of the 13 MHz clock output is within the
specified range.
„ If the clock is normal, check if the DTRU reports a phase-
locked loop alarm. If there is such an alarm, replace the
DTRU.
„ Accurately set the E1 DIP switch settings on the EIB.
„ Check whether co-channel interference occurs, if yes, adjust
the frequency data.
„ Replace the antenna feeder equipment and upgrade the
software to the latest version.

Crosstalk
Symptom The conversation party hears an unexpected third party voice.

Fault Analysis The fault may be caused when the transmitting and receiving
ends of transmission line are incorrectly connected.

Troubleshooting „ Check whether the fault occurs to intra-office or inter-office


calls.
f If the fault is in intra-office calls, check whether the
transmitting and receiving ends of transmission lines are
connected correctly.
f If the fault occurs in inter-office calls, check the outgoing
circuit connections.
f If the fault lies only with a BTS, focus on the transmission
of the BTS.
„ If some E1s use timeslot multiplexers, block the E1 device
that uses the timeslot multiplexer before the check.

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ZXG10 B8018 (V1.00)In-Door Base Transceiver Station Maintenance Manual (Troubleshooting)

Poor Conversation Quality of a BTS

Symptom Poor conversation quality on busy hour and normal conversation


quality when there is little traffic.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty BTS equipment
„ Faulty antenna feeder system
„ External interference

Troubleshooting „ Observe the interference band through the background.


Interference band is 5 when the conversation quality is poor
and 1 when the conversation quality is normal.
„ Adjust the antenna directions and check if the interference is
strong in a particular direction. If yes, it indicates that the
there is no fault in the antenna feeder and the equipment.
„ According to the symptoms, the interference is related to the
traffic. So the fault may be in indoor repeater system.
„ Observe the interference and determine the interference
direction through a frequency sweeper.

Noises in Outgoing Toll Call


Symptom Good conversation quality in the calls made within the office, but
noises in outgoing calls.

Fault Analysis The fault may be related to E1 and timeslot multiplexer.

Troubleshooting „ Perform call tests on the toll circuits one by one.


„ If the E1 lines are found to have a poor conversation quality,
then the timeslot multiplexer of the E1 lines may be faulty.
Replace the circuits.

Unstable MS Signals in the Idle


State
Symptoms „ In idle state, there is fluctuation in the receiving MS signals.
„ Sometimes signals disappear and appear again.

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

Fault Analysis Apart from the phone quality and unstable performance caused
by the long use of the MS, the factors that influence the wireless
signal intensity of a place are as follows:
„ Environment
„ Unstable transmission power of DTRU
„ Cell reselection

Troubleshooting „ Analyze whether the place is covered by multiple overlapped


cells. If so, check the reselection relations and reselection
parameter settings between cells. Reset the cell reselection
settings.
„ Check whether the RF cable between the DTRU and the AEM
is connected normally. If abnormal, connect the RF cables
correctly.
„ Test the PA output power and observe whether the test
signal level fluctuates, so as to check the stability of the
transmission power of DTRU. Replace the DTRU if it is faulty.
„ Check the surrounding area of 500 meters around the MS. If
multiple obstacles exist, various reflection waves overlap
with the MS receiving signal. This causes Raleigh fading and
a change of 10 dBm ~ 20 dBm to the receiving MS signal. If
obstacles exists near the MS, adjust the azimuth and height
of the antenna.

Unstable MS Signal in the Busy


State
Symptom Unstable MS signal during conversation

Fault Analysis „ If the TCH and BCCH occupied by the MS does not belong to
the same carrier and the DTRU is unstable, it will cause the
MS to present strong signal in idle state and weak signal
during conversation.
„ Frequent MS handover (ping-pong handover) may cause
unstable MS signal during busy state.

Troubleshooting „ Perform on-site dialing test using a test MS and check


whether the unstable signal occurs to some time slots of a
carrier or multiple carriers.
„ If the fault occurs to some time slots of a carrier, perform
the following troubleshooting steps:
f Reset the carrier.

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f Check the RF cable connection between the DTRU and the


combiner, and that between the divider and the DTRU. If
the connection is incorrect, connect them correctly.
f Replace the DTRU.
„ If the fault occurs to multiple carriers of a cell, perform the
following troubleshooting steps:
f Check whether the main and diversity antennas of the
abnormal cell are consistent in azimuth and pitch angle.
If not, adjust the antenna angles.
f Measure the VSWR of the antenna feeder system and
check whether the antenna feeder connector is connected
properly and is water proof.

Echo in MS Conversation
Symptom Echo occurs when the MS is in a conversation.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Fault occurs at the Echo Canceller (EC) set between PLMN
and PSTN.
„ Faulty Transcoder (TC) unit at the BSC.
„ Faulty transmission circuit of MS.
„ Loop formed during careless routine maintenance of A
interface circuit or Abis interface circuit.
„ Fault of the device which is responsible for voice decoding in
DTRU.

Troubleshooting „ Check the MS for faults that may create echo.


„ Confirm whether the echo occurs only to the PLMN and PSTN
subscribers in conversation. If yes, the EC may be faulty.
„ Check whether loops occur at A interface and Abis interface.
If yes, cancel the loop.
„ Replace the DTRU.
„ Check if alarms are generated by the DRT (EDRT) board at
the BSC, if yes, reset the board. If the fault remains, replace
the DRT (EDRT) board.

Typical Case
This section introduces the methods to locate the one-way
conversation problem in the GSM BSS network.

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

Tip: Problems such as one-way conversation, two-way


blocking or crosstalk are rather similar and have different
symptoms of the same fault in most cases. Therefore such
problems are simply referred as one-way conversation problems.

Fault Information Collection


„ One-way conversation problem is mostly discovered by
subscribers. Subscribers report the fault to the customer
services center of the operator.
„ The customer services center transfers the problem report to
the maintenance engineer.
„ Maintenance engineer transfers the problem to the ZTE
onsite engineer.
„ Onsite engineer visits the complaining subscriber and
understands the fault symptom. The details that must be
collected are as follows:
f The MS number of the complaining subscriber and the
model of MS used by the customer.
f The location area where the subscriber discovered the
problem.
f The called number dialed by the subscriber.
f Fault symptom details: Confirm whether the fault is one-
way conversation, two-way blocking, crosstalk or poor
conversation quality.
f The BTS and the cell in which the subscriber was most
probably in, when the problem occurred.
f Check whether the one-way conversation problem occurs
to one BTS or many BTSs.
f Confirm the date when the problem started.
f Confirm whether any big network adjustment or data
modification operation was done before and after the
problem occurred.

Tip: The subscribers’ description of the problem may


slightly differ from the fact and the collected information may
not completely reflect the existing problem. So collect all the
relevant original information and learn the relevant information
as concise as possible from the customer.

Fault Analysis
1. Determine the range of fault occurrence

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After collecting fault information, analyze the possible fault


causes and locate the fault as per the following:
i. Check whether the MS has the problem
If the subscriber’s MS is of poor quality or if the
subscriber uses the MS improperly, one-way conversation
problem may occur. Perform dialing test with another MS
of same model and check whether the problem
disappears. If the problem disappears, it indicates that
the MS used by the subscriber is problematic.
ii. Check whether the problem is caused by radio defects
Confirm whether the fault is one-way conversation or
two-way blocking or cross talk. When radio interference
occur in the uplink/downlink, the subscriber may not be
able to hear any voice and misreports the problem as
one-way conversation problem.
Perform dialing test at the site and confirm whether the
problem is caused by interference. Also check the
performance analysis report to find the interference in
uplink/downlink.
iii. Check whether the problem is caused by the BTS
If the problem occurs only to one or two BTSs, then the
BTS (s) may be faulty.
iv. Check whether the problem is caused by the BSC
If the problem occurs to many BTSs of the BSC, then the
BSC may be faulty.
v. Check whether the problem is caused by the MSC or
GMSC
If the problem occurs to many BSCs connected to an MSC,
then the MSC may be faulty.
2. Onsite dialing test
Perform onsite dialing test with a special test MS (generally
SAGEM).This special test MS can display cell information,
lock the frequency, and implement forced handover. Modify
the parameters of the cell to be tested so as to allow only the
test MS to access the cell; otherwise the test may be
interfered by ordinary subscribers. For detail information,
refer to CBA Parameter

The actual networking is as follows:

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

FIGURE 1 - SYSTEM NETWORKING

Consider BSC1-BTS2 as the hot spot complained by the


subscriber. BSC1 is a BSC provided by ZTE. BTS1 is a BTS of an
adjacent cell, and the connection between BSC2 and the BTSs
are normal.
i. Test
f Lock the MS A to the frequency of BTS2.
f Make calls from MS A to MS B until the one-way
conversation problem occurs to a call. Remain connected.
ii. Record
Record the cell information in which MS A resides, the
used BCCH/TCH frequency, the timeslot number, and BER
in the downlink.
iii. Confirmation
If ambiguity arises in determining whether MS A or MS B
has one-way conversation problem, use another MS C to
call MS A. If one-way conversation problem occurs during
the conversation between MS A and MS C, it indicates
that MS A has problem. Otherwise, MS B has problem.
Similarly, use another MS C to call MS B and determine
whether MS B has problem.
Also use Dual-tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) signal to
judge the side which has a problem. For detailed
information about DTMF, refer to DTMF Signal Tone
iv. Handover

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If BTS2 is a directional antenna covering more than one


cell and if the MS A is in cell 1, forcibly handover MS A to
cell 2 and check whether the one-way conversation
problem exists. If the problem disappears, it indicates
that the DTRU of cell 1 is faulty.
If BTS2 is an Omni directional BTS and covers only one
cell, forcibly handover MS A to its adjacent cell and check
whether the one-way conversation problem still exists. If
the problem disappears, it indicates that the BTS2 is
faulty.
Handover MS A from BTS2 to BTS3 and check whether
the problem disappears. If so, it indicates that BSC1 is
faulty.
3. Voice route analysis
Analyze the path of voice flow between MS A and the
MSC. The voice flow is as follows:
MS - Antenna - AEM - DTRU - CMB - Abis
interface/Transmission equipment - TIC - BIPP - BOSN -
TCPP - EDRT - AIPP - TIC - A interface/transmission
equipment - MSC.
BOSN board of the BSC provides the switching function
while the physical timeslots on the other boards
correspond one to one.
If the problem lies in the BTS, then the fault must be in
the following paths: Antenna – AME – DTRU – CMB – Abis
interface/transmission equipment – TIC – BIPP – BOSN.

Troubleshooting
1. Troubleshooting BTS fault
The troubleshooting steps for a BTS fault are as follows:
i. Check whether there is software mismatch in BTS boards.
ii. Check whether there is any abnormal BTS alarm.
iii. Delete the BTS hardware data and reconfigure the data
so as to eliminate data errors.
iv. Replace the problematic DTRU board and check whether
the fault is caused by DTRU.
v. Replace the CMB board and check whether the fault
disappears.
vi. Modify the data and connect the BTS to another BTS port
if another Abis interface exists, and check if the fault
disappears. If the fault disappears, replace the TIC board
and BIPP board in turn and find out the faulty board.
2. Troubleshooting BSC fault

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

i. Test
If the fault is detected in many BTSs, then the BSC must
be faulty. If there is coverage of the BSC in the
equipment room, perform frequency locking test using a
test MS. Otherwise install a test BTS for the test. Conduct
the test after 0000 Hrs so as to facilitate fault locating
and to avoid influence on subscribers.
Most of the one-way conversation problem is related to A
interface circuit. Conduct dialing test on the A interface.
ii. Record
Record the A interface CIC occupied by each call during
the test. Check whether the fault occurs and the fault
symptom is similar.
iii. Fault locating
BSC generally contains a central module and several
peripheral modules. Check and judge whether the fault is
related to all peripheral modules or a single peripheral
module. If the fault is related to one module, focus and
check the module and the cable connections between the
peripheral module and the central module. If the fault is
related to all peripheral modules, focus the check on the
central module and the A interface circuit.
iv. Board switchover
If the fault is suspected to be in the boards such as BOSN
and PP that has active/standby modes, perform board
switchover and check whether the fault lies in these
boards.
v. Board resetting
Many fault symptoms may disappear after board
resetting but avoid resetting the board before the fault is
completely located, because the fault may reoccur.
vi. A interface check
Two conclusions can be finally drawn from the dialing test:
f One-way conversation problem is related to the specific
circuit in the A interface.
f There is no fixed relationship between the one-way
conversation problem and the A interface circuit.
In the first case, if the one-way conversation problem
occurs to all the timeslots of a 2 Mbps circuit, then the A
interface circuit line may be cross connected with another
circuit line, as shown in Figure 2.

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FIGURE 2 - CROSS-CONNECTED CIRCUITS

If the one-way conversation problem occurs to a single


timeslot, the problem may not lie in the cable but may be
in boards such as EDRT and BOSN. Do Switchover, reset,
or replace boards to determine the faulty board.
If a timeslot is normal sometimes and abnormal other
times, the problem may be in the boards such as BOSN
and EDRT.

Summary
The causes for one-way conversation problem are summarized
as below:
„ Problems of the MS
The design, aging or faults of MSs may cause one-way
conversation problem.
„ BTS equipment problems, for example faulty timeslot of
DTRU or CMB board.
„ Problems of the Abis interface circuit, for example, an
individual timeslot embezzled by subscribers, faulty TIC or PP
board.
„ Problems of the connection cable between the peripheral
module and the central module, such as poor contact.
„ BOSN board problems.
„ Problems of the EDRT, TCPP, AIPP or TIC board, mostly EDRT
board problems.
„ Problems of the A interface. For example, incorrect cable
connection and cross-connection of wires.

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Chapter 5 - Voice Faults

„ Data problems, such as incorrect CIC correspondence


between the BSC and the MSC.
In practice, problems often occur to the BTS, the DRT board and
the A interface.

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Chapter 6

Loading Faults

This chapter analyses the faults that may occur during the
software loading process.

Software Version Cannot be


Imported

Symptom iOMCR prompts errors when importing software version.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the mismatch of version file name and
the internal ID.

Troubleshooting „ This fault is mostly caused by incorrect creation of the new


version or manual change of the file name.
„ Avoid changing the file name manually.

Loading Failure
Symptoms „ Loading process keeps repeating.
„ BTS site keeps restarting and could not start normal
operation.

Fault Analysis Signaling analysis helps to locate the fault causes. The causes
are as follows:
„ Transmission errors, which causes reloading
„ Mismatch of software version with the hardware

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Troubleshooting „ Check for transmission errors and remove the errors.


„ Update the software version so that the version matches the
hardware.

Precautions Load the software strictly in accordance with the up gradation


procedure.

CMB/DTPB Board Unable to Start


Symptom After loading the software and when the board is restarted, the
CMB/FUC board could not start normal operation and the boards
LEDs stop flashing.

Fault Analysis The downloaded software version CMB_FPGA/DTPB_FPGA may


be incompatible with the hardware

Troubleshooting Follow the up gradation procedure strictly and download the


software version of the problematic board by using the local
downloading tool.

The Board Software cannot be


Imported
Symptom iOMCR prompts version mismatch.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the Mismatch of version ID and the
version name.

Troubleshooting „ Generally this problem is caused by operation errors in the


process of making the version file.
„ Strictly use the software version released in the formal
version library.

Repeated Loading of CMB


Symptoms „ CMB of the BTS site keeps restarting and loading
„ FU LAPD link is broken
„ System indicates a cell interruption alarm

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Chapter 6 - Loading Faults

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ CMB version mismatch
„ Packet loss during transmission

Troubleshooting „ Perform Abis signaling trace and check whether the loading
process is completed.
„ Check the data transmission if:
f The BTS does not respond in the loading process.
f Re-transmission of loaded data exceeds certain number
of times which leads to re-initiation of the loading.
„ If software loading is successful, but software fails to activate,
then check whether a correct version is loaded.

Repeated Loading of DTRU


Symptom CMB loading is completed, the configuration data are normally
received, HDLC link of the DTRU has been established, but the
DTRU keeps loading and resetting.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to DTRU software version mismatch.

Troubleshooting Check the compatibility between the DTRU software version and
the hardware.

LAPD Link Establishment Failure


after Software Loading
Symptom CMB cannot establish a link after software loading.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the mismatch of Software version
(CMB_FPGA).

Troubleshooting Directly download the available version of the CMB software


using the local downloading tool.

Precautions Upgrade the software strictly in accordance with the version up


gradation procedure.

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FU LAPD and HDLC Disconnection


Alarms
Symptoms „ DTRU keeps loading or resetting
„ LAPD and HDLC links are broken as viewed from iOMCR

Fault Analysis The fault is mainly due to the mismatch of software version and
the hardware.

Troubleshooting „ Download the version again.


„ If the DTRU could not start, download the version using the
local downloading tool.

48 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 7

Clock Faults

This chapter analyzes the problems that may occur during clock
synchronization.

Overview
Symptom
The symptoms for clock faults are as follows:
„ CMB alarm
„ DTRU alarm
„ Slow internet access of the MS
„ MS handover failure
„ Poor conversation quality of the MS

Notification Messages and Alarms


The system generates alarms for the first two symptoms. So
handle the faults according to the alarms.
Last three symptoms are related to the BTS clock and the
system may not generate any alarms. So check whether any
exceptions occur to the clock during the troubleshooting process.
The following alarms are related to the clock:
„ Abnormal Clock (13 MHz, FCLK, SYNCLK)
„ Accumulative frame number of the software is inconsistent
with the accumulative frame number of the hardware
„ L3 software of the FUC is not responding temporarily

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„ Clock alarm between the TPU and the CMB


„ TPU frame number alarm
„ Local oscillator PLL1 or PLL2 of the receive RF is out of lock
„ Local oscillator PLL1 or PLL2 of the transmit RF is out of lock
„ PLL of the 52 MHz reference clock is out of lock
„ Local oscillator PLL of the transmit IF is out of lock
„ DLRC_AL downward check error

Fault Analysis
The main cause of a clock fault is that the BTS clock severely
deviates from the clock required for the normal running of the
BTS. The symptom is that the RF unit does not get a precise
clock.
The clock fault is caused by the following:
„ Inaccurate 13 MHz clock signal generated by CMB
„ Unstable 13 MHz clock signal generated by CMB
„ CMB is in synchronization with the external clock but the
clock reference received from the BSC is unstable
„ Faulty PLL of the DTRU
„ Poor contact of the clock cable with the CMB and the DTRU
„ PLL is deadlocked

Troubleshooting
Clock Module Reset/Restart
„ Reset the modules (CMB and DTRU) which had alarms.
„ Power off the modules (CMB and DTRU) which had alarms.
„ If it can be recovered through the above ways, it indicates
that the PLL is deadlock and hardware is normal.

Carrier Clock Faults


„ Check the clock cable between the CMB and DTRU if the
DTRU reports a PLL out-of-lock alarm.
„ If the clock cable is found normal, replace the CMB.

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Chapter 7 - Clock Faults

„ If the problem persists, replace the DTRU.

Classified Faults
Symptoms „ Clock and frame number alarms
„ PLL clock loss
„ DSP WATCHDOG overflow
„ Slow internet access of the MS
„ Problem in handover
„ Poor voice quality

Fault Analysis The clock deviation causes


„ Unstable system running
„ Increased bit errors
„ Hardware response problem

Troubleshooting „ Check the synchronization between the BTS and the BSC.
„ Check the clock locking function of the CMB board.

Precautions The problem may occur to extended racks.

Clock alarms
Symptom Clock alarms and frame number alarms occur to the CMB and
DTRU

Fault Analysis „ Synchronization abnormalities occur


„ CMB could hardly lock its clock phase during external
synchronization
„ CMB reference clock deviates during internal synchronization

Troubleshooting Measure the CMB clock reference, check the transmission for
external synchronization and calibrate the CMB reference clock
for internal synchronization.

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L3 Software Not Responding


Symptoms „ L3 software of FUC no response alarm occurs
„ Calls often drop

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty clock transmission between the CMB and the DTRU
„ Unstable HDLC link
„ Abnormal working of DTRU

Troubleshooting Check the backplane and replace the DTRU.

PLL Lock Loss Alarm Frequently


Occurs/Recovers
Symptom PLL alarm occurs and recovers soon. This keeps repeating.

Fault Analysis PLL lock loss caused by unstable clock differs from the PLL
permanent PLL lock loss caused by hardware fault.

Troubleshooting „ Check the clock and backplane


„ Plug/unplug or replace the DTRU

Metal Noise during Conversation


Symptom A sharp noise like the metal collision sound is heard during
conversation.

Fault Analysis The clock deviation causes bit errors and error frames during the
decoding process.

Troubleshooting „ Check the clock and the backplane.


„ Plug/Unplug or replace the DTRU.

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Chapter 7 - Clock Faults

Call Drop during Handover


Symptom Call drop occurs during handover but the signal level is good and
there is no interference.

Fault analysis „ Onsite test results show that the frequency offset of 13 MHz
clocks of some BTSs is as high as 2.5 Hz (far more than the
standard value 0.65 Hz).
„ Many BTSs reports 8 kHz clock alarm.
„ MSC often reports the normal/abnormal phase locking of the
clock software alarm, indicating that the MSC clock is also
inaccurate. Therefore, it can be determined that the call drop
problem during handover may be due to the MSC clock
instability.

Troubleshooting Adjust the MSC clock reference source.

High Handover Failure Ratio


Symptom High inter-BSC handover failure ratio for a newly deployed BTS

Fault Analysis An inter-BSC handover failure can be caused by either of the two
BSCs.
The fault may be due to the following:
„ Free running of adjacent BTSs of other vendors.
„ Big clock deviation of adjacent BTSs of other vendors.

Troubleshooting Adjust the clock working mode of the BTSs of other vendors.

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Chapter 8

Service Faults

This chapter analyzes the faults such as weak signal, call drop,
poor voice quality, and handover faults.

Overview
Symptoms
Service-related faults are the faults that occur to the call service
when the BTS does not give any alarm.
These faults include
„ Weak signal
„ Call drop
„ Poor voice quality
„ Handover failure
„ No traffic in a cell

Fault Analysis The fault may be caused due to the following:


„ Data configuration errors or physical connection errors that
occur during commissioning.
„ Board hardware problems.
„ Environmental problems, such as the coverage change
caused by flourishing trees in summer.
„ Antenna feeder system problems.
„ Problems of network optimization (such as co-channel
interference and improper parameter setting).

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Troubleshooting
BTS Call Test
Tools SAGEM MS or NOKIA test MS

Test Procedure „ In urban areas, dial calls at about 200-300 m away from the
antenna of each cell in the positive direction.
„ In suburban areas, dial calls at about 500-1000 m away from
the antenna of each cell in the positive direction.
„ Ensure that the call test cover each carrier.
„ Record the level and quality of the call on each timeslot of
each carrier.
„ Use Table 5 for the call test records.

TABLE 5 - CALL TEST RECORD

TRX1
CELLID
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
CH
RXLEV
RQ
CH
RXLEV
RQ

Check After If any problem occurs to the receiving level or the voice quality
Test during carrier testing, handle the problem in time and ensure
that the equipment commissioning quality is good.

Performance Analysis
Generate a report that covers all performance indices. For voice
calls related problems, perform the following steps:
„ Check the interference band.
„ Check the uplink/downlink level.
„ Check the uplink/downlink quality.
„ Check SDCCH and TCH assignment time.
„ Check the assignment success ratio.

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Chapter 8 - Service Faults

For handover related problems, perform the following steps:


„ Check the handover attempts.
„ Check the handover success ratio.
„ Create a handover observation task and observe the specific
handover data of the problematic cell.

Signaling Procedure Analysis


Use the data obtained through drive test and Abis/A interface
signaling analysis, and analyze the problems in the call
procedure and call processing.

Poor Signal Quality or Signal


Fluctuation
Symptoms „ MS indicates unstable signal
„ Signal sharply fluctuates when the MS is in idle state

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Problem in software processing
„ Problem in GPRS related services

Troubleshooting „ Check if the GPRS services are activated in the particular cell.
„ Check whether the cell system messages indicate any GPRS-
related information.
„ Check whether the connection between the CDU and the RF
equipment is normal.
„ Check whether the output power is normal.

Precautions The problems that occur periodically are mostly related to


software problems. So perform signaling analysis to solve such
problems.

Frequent Call Drops due to Hard


Handover
Symptoms „ Handover does not take place
„ Week signal

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„ Call drop

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Incorrect handover setting
„ Inconsistency between parameter settings and the actual
situation
„ Poor network coverage
„ Clock deviation

Troubleshooting „ Perform signaling analysis and find the fault cause.


„ Observe the signal receiving status of the moving MS.
„ Observe the signal quality of adjacent cells and check
whether any handover request has been initiated.

No Traffic in the Cell or Sudden Rise


of Call Drop Ratio
Symptoms „ No call in the cell during busy hours
„ MSs in the coverage area cannot make calls or even access
the network
„ Cell performance suddenly deteriorates
„ A call on a certain carrier is soon dropped
„ The signal is strong and there is no alarm

Fault Analysis The fault may be mostly due to the failure of components inside
the TRX.

Troubleshooting „ Reset the TRX or CMB to solve the problem temporarily.


„ Upgrade the software to the latest version to solve the
problem permanently.

MS indicates Signal Fluctuation or


No Signal
Symptom Signal level suddenly drops when the MS is idle or in
conversation without fast moving, but the conversation is normal.

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Fault Analysis Some MSs indicate CS signal fluctuation when the PS ATTACH
operation fails. This fault is mainly due to the GPRS
configuration errors.

Troubleshooting Check the GPRS configuration or disable the GPRS option of the
cell.

System Prompts Failure to Connect


Symptom The called MS is idle, the cell also has idle channels but the
caller receives a message that the called MS is not in the service
area.

Fault Analysis The called MS may be attempting PS ATTACH. Most MSs may
not respond to the CS paging message when processing the PS
service, and as a result the network reports that the MS is not in
the service area.

Troubleshooting „ Confirm whether the PS service rights of the MS are correct.


„ Confirm whether the PS configuration of the cell is correct.

Precautions Continuous ATTACH operations may affect the network


performance.

Strong Signals but Unable to Make a


Call
Symptoms „ MS indicates good signal strength but the user cannot dial
any call.
„ According to the performance statistics, all the indices of this
cell are 0.

Fault Analysis The BCCH of the cell fails and cannot receive any signal from the
MS.
Troubleshooting „ Reset the BCCH to solve the problem temporarily.
„ Upgrade the BTS software to the latest version.

Precautions When this problem occurs to a carrier other than the BCCH, that
carrier may have a high call drop ratio.

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Handover Failure
Symptoms „ Week MS signal during conversation
„ MS does not perform handover operation until a call drop
occurs

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Poor network coverage
„ Improper adjacent cell configuration
„ Improper handover configuration
„ Inaccurate BTS clock

Troubleshooting „ Check and confirm whether the network and handover


parameters are configured properly.
„ Calibrate the BTS clock.

Occupation of Carrier for Short Time


Symptom TCH is assigned normally but it cannot be occupied for long time.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the faulty hardware or its incorrect
connections.

Troubleshooting „ Check whether the connection between the DTRU and PA is


normal.
„ Check whether the connectors are in good contact.
„ Replace the cables if necessary.
„ Check whether the RF cables between the two signal input
ends and divider output ends of the carrier are connected
normally. Replace the RF cable if necessary.
„ Dial calls with the test MS on site and observe the timeslot
occupation of the carrier using the dynamic tracing function
in the background. If this symptom happens at once when a
timeslot is occupied, reset the carrier and check if the fault
disappears. If the fault persists, replace the carrier.

The Carrier Cannot be Occupied


Symptom

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Chapter 8 - Service Faults

The carrier is normal, but the frequency of the carrier cannot be


occupied always.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ According to the TCH assignment algorithm of ZTE BSC, if
the time slot is assigned unsuccessfully, the priority of this
time slot will be decreased and the time slots of other
carriers will be assigned first in the next assignment. This
time slot may not be assigned until the traffic becomes
heavy. So after blocking the other TCH carriers, the time slot
of this carrier can be normally occupied.
„ Poor contact of DTRU pins with the backplane.
„ Low output power of the carrier.

Troubleshooting „ Observe the timeslot occupancy of this carrier through


dynamic data management (with the tracing function) and
confirm that this carrier is not been occupied for a long time.
„ Block the TCH timeslots of other carriers by blocking the
logical channel during low traffic hour.
„ If the TCH is occupied stably for a long time, the fault may
be due to the assignment errors in the assignment algorithm.
Keep the carrier unchanged, continue to observe whether the
fault still occurs and the current cell performance indices
decrease.
„ If the timeslot is temporarily occupied (less than 10 seconds),
check if there is any faulty timeslot in this carrier. Reset the
carrier and continue the observation. If the problem persists,
check if the output power of the carrier or PA is too low.
„ Go to the BTS site and test the power or the receiving level
of the test MS and check if the RF cables from the two RX
ports of the DTRU are connected properly with the divider
and not damaged.
„ If the carrier is still not occupied after blocking the other
carriers, go to the BTS site and check whether the DTRU-PA-
divider RF cables are connected properly. Also, check if the
DTRU is inserted properly in the backplane. If necessary,
interchange the DTRU with another.

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Long SDCCH Occupation Time


Symptom SDCCH is occupied for a long time.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty SDCCH carrier.
„ Transmission bit errors.
„ Incase of a new site, the MSC may not have included the site
in Cell Identity (CI), causing MS location update failure.

Troubleshooting „ Check if the SMB/TIC board of the BSC is replaced recently


and if the DIP switch of the SMB/TIC is configured correctly.
„ Impedance mismatch of the SMB/TIC DIP switch may cause
bit errors in the transmission. Use BER tester to measure bit
errors.
„ Configure the channel for this carrier or change the carrier.

Sudden Rise of Call Drop Ratio


Symptom The call drop ratio in a cell rises

Fault Analysis The fault may be mainly due to the equipment instability.

Troubleshooting „ Check the operation log and confirm that no parameter


change that may affect the network operation has been
conducted.
„ Check if the antenna feeder system is altered before fault
detection. If yes, go to the BTS site and check the antenna
feeder connections, the standing wave ratio, and the RF
cable connections.
„ Observe alarm records of the CMB board. Check if there is
any abnormal transmission alarm.
„ Check the alarms of every carrier to see whether there are
alarms of RPP-to-CHP main set, or diversity uplink data
check error (DSPO). If so, replace the carrier.
„ Block the TCHs of all carriers except one carrier through the
iOMCR dynamic data management window (Ensure not to
block the SDCCH). Observe (using the tracing function) the
timeslot occupancy of this carrier.

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Chapter 8 - Service Faults

„ Check whether the TCH occupancy of a timeslot is below 10 s.


If the timeslot is faulty, reset the DTRU remotely and
observe whether the call drop ratio is improved.

BTS Overload Message


Symptoms „ No calls can be made under the BTS.
„ BTS overload messages are indicated in the Signaling trace.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ External interference
„ CMB fault
„ Incorrect cable connections in the backplane

Troubleshooting „ Check the interference band and use alternative frequency.


„ Replace the CMB.
„ Check the backplane cable connections.

Low TCH Assignment Success Ratio


Symptom TCH assignment ratio is low (about 30% - 40%), but recovers
soon.

Fault Analysis The fault may lie in the hardware and its connection.

Troubleshooting „ Select an appropriate time when the traffic is low; Block all
TCHs of the other carriers except one TCH through dynamic
data management. Observe whether calls can be made
normally and then check the system until the faulty DTRU
and TCH are located.
„ If alarm occurs, handle the fault according to the alarm
information.
„ If no alarm, handle the fault as the following steps:
i. Check the RF cable connection between the DTRU and the
combiner of AEM, and the RF cable connections between
two receiving ends of the DTRU and the AEM divider
output port. If the RF cables are incorrectly connected,
connect the cables correctly.
ii. Reset the DTRU. If the problem persists, replace the
DTRU.

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iii. If DTRU is normal, replace the AEM.

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Chapter 9

Board Faults

This chapter introduces the troubleshooting procedures to solve


board faults.

Trunk Node Alarm


Symptom Trunk node alarm is not correctly reported.

Fault Analysis The valid bits of Trunk node alarm are not in the default values
(zeros and ones). The recovery strategy may not work for trunk
node during BTS processing.

Troubleshooting „ Check whether the CMB board location is the same as in the
configuration.
„ Reset the CMB.
„ Clear the BSC alarm and get the alarm again.

Backplane Fault
Symptom The backplane has no corresponding alarm slots, but clock,
HDLC, LAPD or other faults may occur.

Fault Analysis Backplane is responsible for the clock and communication


between CMB/DTRU/AEM/EAM, and a backplane fault may lead
to communication fault.

Troubleshooting Check whether the board is faulty. If the board is normal, the
fault lies in the backplane. Contact local ZTE office or ZTE
customer support center.

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Abnormality of Standby CMB Board


Symptoms „ An alarm indicates that the standby CMB board is abnormal
or not in position.
„ System indicates the active CMB board as standby.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ The actual slot where the CMB board is located is not the
same as the configured one.
„ The local board alarms reported by the CMB are rejected by
the BSC while the standby board information reported by the
CMB is considered as the active board information.

Troubleshooting „ Adjust the CMB location


„ Change the configuration

HW Link Interruption for a Long Time


Symptom All HDLC links of DTRUs in the BTS site are disconnected.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty communication port of CMB
„ Faulty CMB backplane

Troubleshooting Replace the board.

PA VSWR Alarm
Symptom A VSWR alarm occurs to the PA

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty DTRU internal circuits
„ Faulty TX interface connection line.

Troubleshooting „ Reset the DTRU.


„ Replace the RF cable.

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Chapter 9 - Board Faults

Major Clock Alarm on Active and


Standby CMBs
Symptom A major clock alarm occurs to both active and standby CMBs.

Fault Analysis The fault may be due to the following:


„ Faulty clock related boards.
„ Faulty active CMB board (possibly internal chip failure).

Troubleshooting Switchover the CMB, and replace the faulty CMB.

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Appendix A

CBA Parameter

This section deals with the modification of Cell Bar Access (CBA)
parameter.

CBA Parameter Modification


During the test, it is sometimes necessary to put the cell in to
the test status, so that common MSs cannot access the cell and
comprehensive tests can be conducted with a test MS without
any interference from common MSs. The simplest solution is, to
modify the Cell Bar Access (CBA) parameter of the cell, as
shown in Figure 3.

FIGURE 3 - CBA MODIFICATION

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Cell Bar Access option is not selected for normal cells. When it is
selected, common MSs will not be able to access the cell.
After modifying this parameter, find the corresponding CBA
option on the test MS and change the status into Reverted or
Disabled.

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Appendix B

DTMF Signal Tone

This section explains the generation of DTMF signal tone.

DTMF Signal Tone Generation


In GSM system, on pressing a numeric key on MS (after the
establishment of call connection), the peer party hears a DTMF
signal tone generated by MSC. Actually the MS sends the START
DTMF signaling to MSC via BSC. The specific function board of
the MSC generates the DTMF signal tone to send it to the peer
end. When the numeric key is released, the MS sends the STOP
DTMF signaling. After receiving the signaling, MSC stops sending
the DTMF signal tone. The signaling procedure is shown in Figure
4.

FIGURE 4 - DTMF SIGNAL TONE GENERATION

MMI MS BSS MSC


key X depressed START DTMF(X)
START DTMF(X)

START DTMF(X) START DTMF(X) Tone X ON


ACKNOWLEDGE
ACKNOWLEDGE ACKNOWLEDGE

key X released STOP DTMF STOP DTMF Tone OFF

STOP DTMF STOP DTMF


ACKNOWLEDGE ACKNOWLEDGE
ACKNOWLEDGE

As long as the MS-BSC-MSC signaling is normal (the MS can


make calls and get through), the MSC generates the DTMF signal
tone when the subscriber presses any numeric key on MS. If the
called party could hear the DTMF signal tone but not the voice,
then the voice channel from MS A to MSC may be faulty and
there is no problem with the voice channel from the MSC to the
called party.

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Appendix C

Abbreviations

Abbreviation Full Name


A
AEM Antenna Equipment Module
AIPP A Interface Peripheral Processor
B
BIPP Abis Interface Peripheral Processor
BOSN Bit Oriented Switching Network
BSC Base Station Controller
BTS Base Transceiver Station
C
CHP Channel Processor
CI Cell Identity
CLK Clock
CMB Controller & Maintenance Board
D
DRT Dual Rate Transcoder
DSNI Digital Switch Network Interface
DTRU Dual-carrier Transceiver Unit
E
EAM External Alarm Module
EDRT Enhanced DRT
EMI Electro-Magnetic Interference
F
FDM Fan Distribution Module
H
HDLC High Level Data Link Controller
I

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Abbreviation Full Name


IF Intermediate Frequency
L
LAPD Link Access Procedure ‘D’ Channel
LMT Local Management Terminal
M
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
P
PA Power Amplifier
PLL Phase Lock Loop
PP Peripheral Processor
S
SWR Standing Wave Ratio
T
TCPP Transcoder Unit Peripheral Processor
TIC Trunk Interface Circuit
TPU Transceiver Process Unit
TRM Transceiver Module

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Appendix D

Figures

Figure 1 - System Networking ............................................ 39


Figure 2 - Cross-connected circuits ..................................... 42
Figure 3 - CBA Modification ................................................ 69
Figure 4 - DTMF Signal Tone Generation .............................. 71

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Tables

Table 1 - Chapter Summary ................................................ xi


Table 2 - Typographical Conventions ................................... xii
Table 3 - Mouse Operation Conventions ...............................xiii
Table 4 - Safety Signs .........................................................1
Table 5 - Call Test Record .................................................. 56

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Index

add/drop multiplexer ........... 10 forced handover ................. 39


AEM. ................................. 27 FUC board ......................... 46
antenna feeder system ........ 34 GPRS ................................ 57
azimuth ............................. 24 Handover .......................... 57
Backplane Fault .................. 66 LNA alarm ......................... 27
BER .................................. 16 Local Monitoring Terminal .... 33
BIECOM ............................. 14 network optimization........... 55
BOSN ................................ 31 OMCR ................................. 7
BTS clock........................... 60 One-way conversation ......... 30
call processing .................... 57 PA VSWR Alarm .................. 67
call test record.................... 56 PCM line ............................ 30
Carrier Identification Code.... 31 ping-pong handover ............ 36
CBA ....................ii, 39, 71, 72 pitch angle......................... 24
CDU .................................. 21 PLL ................................... 50
cell interruption .................. 47 Poor Conversation Quality .... 32
Cell reselection ................... 35 Poor Downlink Quality ......... 23
co-channel interference........ 32 Poor Uplink Quality ............. 23
Combiner........................... 19 power ............................... 20
connection timeout.............. 16 PS ATTACH ........................ 59
Coverage Shrinkage ............ 22 Pulse Code Modulation......... 31
Crosstalk ........................... 33 SDCCH .............................. 62
dialing test ......................... 29 Signaling trace ..................... 7
DIP switch ................... 16, 33 Super administrator .............. 3
divider............................... 19 SYN LED............................ 13
DLRC_AL ........................... 50 SYNCLK............................. 49
drive test ........................... 57 test MS ............................. 29
DRT/EDRT.......................... 32 TMA Alarm......................... 26
DSP WATCHDOG ................. 51 Toll Call ............................. 34
DTMF ................................ 73 Tower mount amplifier......... 25
Dual Rate Transcoder .......... 30 Trunk Node Alarm............... 66
Dual-tone Multi Frequency.... 40 TS allocation ...................... 10
E1 transmission tester. ........ 14 Two-way Blocking ............... 31
Echo ................................. 36 virus ................................... 4
Echo Canceller .................... 36 VSWR ..........................19, 20
FCLK ................................. 49

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