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42357119 Transformers

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# Chapter 3.

Transformers and Per-Unit Systems
(Máy Biến Áp và Hệ Đơn Vị Tương Đối)

A primary function of the transformer is to convert electrical energy at one voltage level
to voltages at another level. The transformation may be to increase voltages or to
decrease voltages, depending on the application. Transformers are essential parts of most
power systems since they are utilised to interconnect different parts of transmission and
distribution power grids that operate at different voltage levels. Transformers also are
found in almost all power supplies for small power electronic equipment such as TV sets,
laptops, chargers … A key application of power transformers is to reduce the current
before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through conductors. Most
conductors have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the
square of the current through them. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage,
and therefore low-current form for transmission and back again afterwards, transformers
enable the economic transmission of power over long distances. Consequently,
transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be
located remotely from points of demand. All but a fraction of the world's electrical
power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. In
this chapter, we will deal with some simplified models of transformers without discussing
the electromagnetic elements in details.

3.1 The Ideal Transformer
For analysis of transformers, it is convenient to start by using the ideal transformer
relations. Suppose we consider two coupled coils on a steel core of high magnetic
permeability, a simplified model for this transformer can be shown in Figure 3.1.

i
2
i
1
N
1
: N
2
v
1
_
+
_
+
v
2

Figure 3.1 Ideal Transformer

If the flux varies sinusoidally, there will be a sinusoidal voltage generated in each turn of
each coil according to Faraday. This quantity is called volt-per-turn and occupies an
important role in transformer design. If windings 1 and 2 have N
1
and N
2
turns,
respectively, then:

2
2
1
1
N
v
N
v
= (3.1)

One of the ideal transformer relations is that there can be no energy absorbed, stored or
lost in the device. Whatever complex power enters one winding must leave the other.
Therefore, we have
*
2 2
*
1 1
i v i v = (3.2)
and
1
2
2
1
N
N
i
i
= (3.3)

The transformer also tends to transform impedances. In Figure 3.3, some impedance is
connected to one side of the ideal transformer. We can find an equivalent impedance
'
Z
viewed from the other side of the transformer.

Z

I
2
I
1
N
1
: N
2
V
1
_
+

Figure 3.2 Impedance Coupling

Noting that
2 2 1
2
1
2
ZI V and I
N
N
I = =
The ratio between input voltage and current is:
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
'
1
ZI
N
N
V
N
N
I Z V
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
We may derive the expression of the equivalent impedance viewed from the primary side
of the transformer:
Z
N
N
Z
2
2
1 '
|
|
.
|

\
|
= (3.4)

From the ideal transformer relations we see that the voltamperes into one winding of a
two-winding transformer must equal the voltamperes out of the second winding. The
voltampere rating of a two winding transformer is then given as the voltampere rating of
either winding since the two are equal. In large power transformers the nameplate gives a
voltamperes (or kVA or MVA) rating for the device as well as the voltage ratings of the
two windings. The current ratings then follow from these data since S = VI. Small
transformers, for example, those used in electronic power supplies, are often rated by
giving the voltage and current ratings of each winding, from which the voltampere rating

No mention was made of power in the above statements. In a practical transformer the
relative phase angle of voltage and current has almost no effect on the voltage and current
capabilities of the windings, and hence the magnitude of S is the important factor and
how S is divided into P and Q is immaterial to the rating.

3.2 Three-Phase Transformer
A three-phase transformer is conceptually the same as three single phase transformers.
There are a number of ways of winding them, and a number of ways of interconnecting
them. On either side of a transformer connection (i.e. the high voltage and low voltage
sides), it is possible to connect transformers windings either line to neutral (wye), or line
to line (delta). Thus we will allow four connecting combinations: wye-wye, delta-delta,
wye-delta, delta-wye.

Ignoring all the imperfections, connection of transformers in either wye-wye or delta-
delta is reasonably easy to understand. On the other hand, the interconnections of a wye-
delta or delta-wye transformer are a little more complex. Figure 3.3 shows a delta-wye
connection, in what might be called “wiring diagram” form. A more schematic (and
more common) form of the same picture is shown in Figure 3.4.

A
a
A
b Y
a
Y
b
Y
c
A
c

Figure 3.3 Delta-Wye Transformer Connection

Assume that N
A
and N
Y
are numbers of turns. If the three individual transformers are
considered to be ideal, the following voltage and current constraints exist:
( )
A A
A
÷ =
b a
Y
aY
v v
N
N
v
( )
A A
A
÷ =
c b
Y
bY
v v
N
N
v
( )
A A
A
÷ =
a c
Y
cY
v v
N
N
v (3.5)
( )
cY aY
Y
a
i i
N
N
i ÷ =
A
A

( )
aY bY
Y
b
i i
N
N
i ÷ =
A
A

( )
bY cY
Y
c
i i
N
N
i ÷ =
A
A

where each of the voltages are line-neutral and the currents are in the lines at the
transformer terminals.

Now, consider what happens if a A-Y transformer is connected to a balanced three-phase
voltage source, so that:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
|
.
|

\
|
÷
A
A
3
2
3
2
Re
Re
Re
t
e
t
e
e
t j
c
t j
b
t j
a
e V v
e V v
e V v

Where: Re denotes the real part; V is the line-neutral (phase) voltage amplitude, an
underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. Then the complex amplitudes on the
wye side are:

6 3
2
3 1
t t
j
Y
j
Y
aY
e V
N
N
e
N
N
V
A
÷
A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2 3
2
3
2
3
t t t
j
Y
j j
Y
bY
e V
N
N
e e
N
N
V
÷
A
÷
A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
6
5
3
2
3 1
t t
j
Y
j
Y
cY
e V
N
N
e
N
N
V
A A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =

Two observations should be made here:
- The ratio of voltages (that is, the ration of either line-line or line-neutral) is
different from the turns ratio by a factor of 3
- All wye side voltages are shifted in phase by 30
o
with respect to the delta side
voltage.

It can be proved that impedances transform across transformers by the square of the
voltage ratio, no matter what connection is used.

As an example of some of the things said above, suppose that we read from the
nameplate of a large three-phase transformer at a hydroelectric generating station the
following rating data: 40 MVA, 115/24 kV. These data now tell us other things by using
the ideal transformer relations, for example:
79 . 4 24 / 115 /
2 1
= = N N
since the voltage ratio and the turns ratio are the same under rating standards of large
transformers. Also the rated current of the high voltage winding, which we call I
1
is given
by
current rated amperes 82 . 200
10 115 3 / 10 40
3 6
1
=
× × × = I

and
3 6
2
10 24 3 / 10 40 × × × = I
= 962.25 amperes rated current for the low voltage winding
It will be noted that this latter figure for I could also have been obtained by using the
ideal transformer relation I
1
/I
2
= N
1
/N
2
if more convenient.

3.3 An Actual Transformer
The ideal transformer relations give very good answers to many transformer problems,
as in the examples preceding this section. For some problems, however, we must take
account of the departures from perfection to get an adequate answer to a transformer
problem. The first imperfection we will discuss is that of the core. The core is not
infinitely permeable, it does require ampere turns to establish the flux, and in addition,
there are internal energy losses in the core when the flux varies with time.

Figure 3.4 shows the hysteresis properties of a transformer core. Each time the magnetic
field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. For a
given core material, the hysteresis loss is proportional to the frequency, and is a function
of the peak flux density (B
m
) to which it is subjected.

Figure 3.4 (a) Hysteresis Loops of Steel; (b) The Normal Magnetization Curve

Transformer losses arising from the magnetic circuit, are sometimes called iron loss.
These losses are independent of the load current, and may furthermore be expressed as
"no-load" loss. Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the
core, and tend to be proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given
frequency.

The hysteresis loss occurs as an inherent property of the magnetic material. The internal
structure of a ferromagnetic material is organized into domains and these domains are
reoriented as the magnetic flux density, B vector, goes through a cyclic change in
magnitude or direction. An internal energy loss appears as a result. The energy loss may
be minimized by suitable alloying and heat treatment of the metal. The treatment
processes may also affect the mechanical properties, however, so compromises must be

If the frequency of the applied voltage were reduced but the range of B in the core
maintained (by applying lower voltage), a similar loop would be observed but with
smaller area than that originally observed. The reason for the larger area with higher
frequency is the effect of eddy currents in the steel. The steel is a conductor and, as the
flux in the steel varies, voltages are induced within the closed contours in the material.
Currents flow as a result of the voltage and an I
2
R loss occurs known as eddy current
loss. The loss is reduced by building the core from sheets of steel called laminations and
by increasing the resistivity of the material by alloying.

Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage, the iron loss can be represented
by a resistance R
c
(or a conductance G
c
=1/R
c
) in parallel with the ideal transformer. A
core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current I
M
to maintain the mutual
flux in the core. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux; saturation effects
cause the relationship between the two to be non-linear, but for simplicity this effect
tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. With a sinusoidal supply, the core flux
lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetising reactance
X
c
( or a susceptance B
c
=1/X
c
) in parallel with the core loss component. R
c
and X
c
are
sometimes together termed the magnetising branch of the model. If the secondary
winding is made open-circuit, the current I
0
taken by the magnetising branch represents
the transformer's no-load current. Figure 3.5 shows the use of a fictitious circuit added to
the ideal transformer to account for exciting current.

I
ex
G
c B
c

Figure 3.5 Transformer Equivalent Circuit Accounted For Exciting Current

The equivalent circuit of Figure 3.5 is an approximation, but it is valid for most purposes.
The advantages of using a linear model far outweigh the slight error introduced by a
linear model. In any case the exciting current of a modern transformer of any size at all
is only a very small percentage of the full load current, so if there is a slight error in the
linear representation, it amounts to very little in terms of the total current passed by the
transformer. The model to use for a certain study is of course a matter of experience and
engineering judgment. For heavy load or short circuit studies the exciting current branch
is normally omitted entirely. For light load or no load the exciting current branch may be
included. For studies involving the wave form distortion of the exciting current the linear

Evaluation of G
c
and B
c
of Figure 3.5 involves an approximation to best model the actual
transformer in some sense of a most useful model. The usual method of evaluating the
parameters is to choose G
c
and B
c
so that the exciting current has the same rms value as
the actual exciting current and the power loss in G
c
is the same as the actual core loss.
For example, suppose that a certain transformer is tested by applying rated voltage to a
10.5-kV winding with no load on the other winding, and it is observed that a current of
10 amperes flows and a power of 10000 watts is drawn. We solve for G
c
and B
c
as
follows: P G E
c
=
2
; ( )
2
10500 10000
c
G = ; siemen 10 7 . 90
6 ÷
× =
c
G ; I EY
ex c
= ;
c
Y 10500 10 = ; siemen 10 38 . 952
6 ÷
× =
c
Y ; Y G B
c c c
2 2 2
= + ;
siemen 10 05 . 948
6 2 2 ÷
× = ÷ =
c c c
G Y B .

In addition to the core loss and the requirement for exciting current, there are other ways
in which an actual transformer differs from the ideal transformer model. For one thing,
some of the applied voltage is absorbed in IR drop in the winding resistance. We can
modify the ideal transformer model to account for winding resistance by adding two
series resistors R
1
and R
2
in either side of the windings. Now, each winding has a
resistance which, while not zero, is kept low in order to minimize copper losses and
increase efficiency.

Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to
the mutual coupling, and thus can be modeled as self-inductances X
l1
and X
l2
in series
with the perfectly-coupled region. These series reactances (leakage reactance equivalent)
play a significant factor in transformer performance.

N
2
N
1
X
l1
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
1
X
l2
R
2

Figure 3.6 The Equivalent Circuit of An Actual Transformer

The secondary impedance R
2
and X
l2
are frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary
side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor
2
2
1
) (
N
N

2
2
2
1
R
N
N
|
|
.
|

\
|

2
2
2
1
l
X
N
N
|
|
.
|

\
|

N
2
N
1
X
l1
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
1

Figure 3.7 Alternative Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer

The net series resistance and reactance are known simply as the impedance of the
transformer. This is an item of data that is available from the manufacturer of the
transformer. We designate the net resistance and reactance by the symbols R
eq
and X
eq
in
the figure where:
( ) R R N N R
eq
= +
1 1 2
2
2
/
and
( ) X X N N X
eq l l
= +
1 1 2
2
2
/

Open and short-circuit tests:
The parameters of the equivalent circuits of Figure 3.8 may be determined by the
designer from the physical dimensions and material properties of the transformer. On the
other hand, an actual transformer may be tested electrically to determine these values.
For the test, we apply rated voltage to the left side of the transformer of Figure 3.8(a)
with the right side open-circuited. Since the output current is zero, the current through
R
eq
and X
eq
is zero from properties of an ideal transformer. We thus "see" only the shunt
branch and determine G
c
and B
c

To determine the series impedances R
eq
and X
eq
, we short-circuit one side, and it is
convenient to use the model of Figure 3.8(b) in this case. In order to limit the short-circuit
current, this test must be conducted at reduced voltage. With a short circuit on N
2
, the
voltage is zero on this winding and also is zero across N
1
according to the properties of an
ideal transformer. As a result we can ignore the shunt exciting current branch and we
"see" only R
eq
and X
eq
.

X
eq
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
eq

(a)

X
eq
I
ex
G
c B
c
R
eq

(b)

Figure 3.8 Simple Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer

3.4 Introduction to Per-Unit Systems
Per-unit systems are nothing more than normalizations of voltage, current, impedance
power, reactive power, and apparent power (volt-ampere). These normalizations of
system parameters provide simplifications in many network calculations. As we will
discover, the transmission system and several portions of the distribution system are
operated at voltages in the kV range. This results in large amounts of power being
transmitted in the range of kilowatts to megawatts, and kilovoltamperes to
megavoltamperes. As a result, in analysis, it is useful to scale, or normalize quantities
with large physical values. This is commonly done in power system analysis and is
referred to as the per-unit system. This helps in understanding how certain types of
system behave. The numerical per-unit value of any quantity is its ratio to the chosen
base quantity of the same dimensions. Thus a per-unit quantity is a normalized quantity
with respect to a chosen base value.

Normalization of Voltage and Current:

The basis for the per-unit system of notation is the expression of voltage and current as
fractions of base levels. Thus the first step in setting up a per-unit normalization is to
select base voltage and current.

Consider the simple situation in Figure 3.9. For this network the complex amplitudes of
voltage and current are: IZ V = (an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector).
We start by defining two base quantities, V
base
for voltage and I
base
for current. In many
cases, these will be chosen to be nominal or rated values. For generating plants, for
example, it is common to use the rated voltage and rated current of the generator as base
qualities. In other situations, such as system stability studies, it is common to use a
standard, system wide base system.

_
+
v
1
i
1
_

+

V
Z

Figure 3.9 Example

The per-unit voltage and current are then simply:
base base
I
I
i
V
V
v = = ,

With IZ V = , we have
iz
V
I Z
I
I
V
IZ
v
base
base
base base
= = =
Where the per-unit impedance is:
base base
base
Z
Z
V
I
Z z = =
This leads to a definition for a base impedance for the system:

base
base
base
I
V
Z =
And there is also a base power, which for a single phase system is:
base base base
I V P =

where V
base
and I
base
are expressed in RMS (Root Mean Square). It is interesting to note
that, as long as normalization is carried out in a consistent way, there is no ambiguity in
per-unit notation. That is, peak quantities normalized to peak base will be the same, in
per-unit, as RMS quantities normalized to RMS bases. This advantage is even more
striking in polyphase systems.

Three Phase Systems:

In power system calculations the nominal voltage of lines and equipment is almost
always known, so the voltage is a convenient base value to choose. The apparent power
(volt-ampere - S) is usually chosen as a second base. In equipment this quantity is
usually known and makes a convenient base. The choice of these two base quantities will
automatically fix the base of current, impedance, and admittance. In a system study, the
volt-ampere base can be selected to be any convenient value such as 100 MVA, 1000
MVA, etc.

The same volt-ampere base is used in all parts of the system. One base voltage in a
certain part of the system is selected arbitrarily. All other base voltages must be related
to the arbitrarily selected one by the turns ratio of the connecting transformers.

For single-phase systems or three-phase systems where the term current refers to line
current, where the term voltage refers to line to neutral voltage, and where the term volt-
amperes refers to volt-amperes per phase, the following formulae relate the various
quantities:
) (
) (
N L base
base
base
V
S
I
÷
=
o

( ) ( )
) (
2
) (
) (
2
) ( ) (
o base
N L base
N L base base
N L base
base
N L base
base
S
V
V I
V
I
V
Z
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= = =

In performing per-phase analysis, the bases for the quantities in the circuit representation
are volt-amperes per-phase or kilo-volt-amperes per phase, and volts or kilovolts from
line to neutral. System specification is usually given in terms of total three-phase volt-
amperes or kilo-volt-amperes or mega-volt-amperes and line-to-line volts or kilovolts.
This may result in some confusion regarding the relation between the per-unit value of
line-to-line voltage and the per-unit value of phase voltage (line to neutral voltage). In a
per-phase circuit, the voltage required for the solution is the line to neutral voltage even
though a line-to-line voltage may be specified as a base. The base value of the line to
neutral voltage is the base value of the line-to line voltage divided by 3 . Since this is
also the relation between line-to-line and line to neutral voltages of a balanced three-
phase system, the per-unit value of a line to neutral voltage on the line to neutral voltage
base is equal to the per-unit value of the line-to-line voltage at the same point on the line-
to -line voltage base if the system is balanced. Similarly, the three-phase volt-amperes is
three times the volt-amperes per-phase, and the base value of the three-phase volt-
amperes is three times the base value of the per-phase volt-amperes. Therefore, the per-
unit value of the three-phase volt-amperes on the three-phase volt-ampere base is
identical to the per-unit value of the volt-amperes per-phase on the volt-ampere per-
phase base.

In a three-phase system, normally, a given value of base voltage is a line-to-line voltage,
and a given value of base kilo-volt-amperes or base mega-volt-amperes is the total three-
phase base.

The values of base impedance and base current can be computed from base values of
voltage and volt-amperes as shown earlier in the section. If the base values of volt-
amperes and voltage are specified as the volt-amperes for the total three phases and
voltage from line-to-line in a balanced three-phase system respectively, we have

) (
) 3 (
3
L L base
base
base
V
S
I
÷
=
o

( ) ( )
) 3 (
2
) (
) (
2
) ( ) (
3
3
o base
L L base
N L base base
L L base
base
L L base
base
S
V
V I
V
I
V
Z
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= = =

Networks With Transformers:
One of the most important advantages of the use of per-unit systems arises in the analysis
of networks with transformers. Properly applied, a per-unit normalization will cause
nearly all ideal transformers to disappear from the per-unit network, thus greatly
simplifying analysis.

+
_
V
2
I
2
I
1
1

: N

V
1
_
+

Figure 3.10 An Ideal Transformer

To show how this comes about, consider the ideal transformer as shown in Figure 3.10.
The ideal transformer imposes the constraints that:
1 2 1 2
1
, I
N
I V N V = =
Note that an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. Normalized to base
quantities on the two sides of the transformer, the per-unit voltage and current are:
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
,
base base
base base
I
I
i
V
V
v
I
I
i
V
V
v
= =
= =

Note that if the base quantities are related to each other as if they had been processed by
the transformer:
1 2 1 2
1
, I
N
I NV V
base base base
= =
then
2 1
v v = and
2 1
i i = , as if the ideal transformer were not there.

Transforming From One Base To Another:
In most instances, the per-unit impedance of a component is specified on the rated
component base which is different from the base selected for the part of the system in
which the component is located. When performing calculations, all impedances in any
one part of the system must be expressed on the same impedance base. As a result, it is
necessary to have a means of converting per-unit impedances from one base to another.
The process of changing this per-unit value of impedance to per-unit on a new base can
be done as follows:

Note that impedance in Ohms (ordinary units) is given by:
.
_ _ new base new old base old
Z z Z z Z   Here, replace
 
base
base
base
S
V
Z
2
 , we can write:
   
new base
new base
new
old base
old base
old
S
V
z
S
V
z
_
2
_
_
2
_

This yields a convenient rule for converting from the old base to the new one:

 
 
old
new base
old base
old base
new base
new
z
V
V
S
S
z
2
_
2
_
_
_
 

In other word: ) ( ) (
2
old
new
new
old
old new
baseVA
baseVA
baseV
baseV
Z Unit Per Z Unit Per   

some impedance is connected to one side of the ideal transformer. Therefore. for example. We can find an equivalent impedance Z ' viewed from the other side of the transformer. are often rated by . stored or lost in the device.3. The current ratings then follow from these data since S = VI.2) and i1 N 2 (3. those used in electronic power supplies. In large power transformers the nameplate gives a voltamperes (or kVA or MVA) rating for the device as well as the voltage ratings of the two windings.1) One of the ideal transformer relations is that there can be no energy absorbed.v1 v  2 N1 N 2 (3. Small transformers. In Figure 3. The voltampere rating of a two winding transformer is then given as the voltampere rating of either winding since the two are equal. we have * v1i1*  v 2 i2 (3.2 Impedance Coupling Noting that N1 I 1 and V2  ZI 2 N2 The ratio between input voltage and current is: I2  N  N V1  Z I 1  1 V2   1  ZI 1 N  N2  2 We may derive the expression of the equivalent impedance viewed from the primary side of the transformer: ' 2 N Z  1 N  2 '   Z   2 (3.3)  i2 N 1 The transformer also tends to transform impedances.4) From the ideal transformer relations we see that the voltamperes into one winding of a two-winding transformer must equal the voltamperes out of the second winding. Whatever complex power enters one winding must leave the other. I1 N1 : N2 + I2 V1 _ Z Figure 3.

and a number of ways of interconnecting them. If the three individual transformers are considered to be ideal. connection of transformers in either wye-wye or deltadelta is reasonably easy to understand. No mention was made of power in the above statements. delta-wye. Ignoring all the imperfections.3 shows a delta-wye connection. In a practical transformer the relative phase angle of voltage and current has almost no effect on the voltage and current capabilities of the windings. in what might be called “wiring diagram” form. Figure 3. Thus we will allow four connecting combinations: wye-wye.2 Three-Phase Transformer A three-phase transformer is conceptually the same as three single phase transformers.giving the voltage and current ratings of each winding.4. There are a number of ways of winding them.3 Delta-Wye Transformer Connection Assume that N and NY are numbers of turns. and hence the magnitude of S is the important factor and how S is divided into P and Q is immaterial to the rating. the high voltage and low voltage sides).e.5) N . c Yc b Yb a Ya Figure 3. A more schematic (and more common) form of the same picture is shown in Figure 3. from which the voltampere rating would follow if desired. the following voltage and current constraints exist: N vaY  Y va  vb  N N vbY  Y vb  vc  N N vcY  Y vc  va  (3. 3. On the other hand. delta-delta. or line to line (delta). the interconnections of a wyedelta or delta-wye transformer are a little more complex. wye-delta. it is possible to connect transformers windings either line to neutral (wye). On either side of a transformer connection (i.

suppose that we read from the nameplate of a large three-phase transformer at a hydroelectric generating station the following rating data: 40 MVA. 115/24 kV. the ration of either line-line or line-neutral) is different from the turns ratio by a factor of 3  All wye side voltages are shifted in phase by 30o with respect to the delta side voltage. These data now tell us other things by using the ideal transformer relations. It can be proved that impedances transform across transformers by the square of the voltage ratio. V is the line-neutral (phase) voltage amplitude. Then the complex amplitudes on the wye side are:  j  N   3 Y Ve 6 V aY  N  2 2  j  NY   j 3 NY  j 2 3  e V bY  Ve e   3 N  N   2 5 j  NY  j 3 N  e  1  3 Y V e 6 V cY   N  N   2 j NY  1  e 3  N   Two observations should be made here:  The ratio of voltages (that is. ia  Now. for example: .NY iaY  icY  N N ib  Y ibY  iaY  N N ic  Y icY  ibY  N where each of the voltages are line-neutral and the currents are in the lines at the transformer terminals. As an example of some of the things said above. an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector. so that: va  ReV e jt   j   t  2     vb  ReV e  3         j  t  23      V e  vc  Re     Where: Re denotes the real part. no matter what connection is used. consider what happens if a -Y transformer is connected to a balanced three-phase voltage source.

The core is not infinitely permeable.4 (a) Hysteresis Loops of Steel. the hysteresis loss is proportional to the frequency. Each time the magnetic field is reversed. we must take account of the departures from perfection to get an adequate answer to a transformer problem. and may furthermore be expressed as . The first imperfection we will discuss is that of the core. and in addition. Figure 3. which we call I1 is given by I 1  40  10 6 / 3  115  10 3  200. 3. and is a function of the peak flux density (Bm) to which it is subjected. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. are sometimes called iron loss. there are internal energy losses in the core when the flux varies with time. as in the examples preceding this section. Also the rated current of the high voltage winding. it does require ampere turns to establish the flux. For some problems. These losses are independent of the load current.82 amperes rated current and I 2  40  10 6 / 3  24  10 3 = 962.79 since the voltage ratio and the turns ratio are the same under rating standards of large transformers. however.25 amperes rated current for the low voltage winding It will be noted that this latter figure for I could also have been obtained by using the ideal transformer relation I1/I2 = N1/N2 if more convenient.4 shows the hysteresis properties of a transformer core.3 An Actual Transformer The ideal transformer relations give very good answers to many transformer problems. (b) The Normal Magnetization Curve Transformer losses arising from the magnetic circuit. Figure 3.N 1 / N 2  115 / 24  4. For a given core material.

With a sinusoidal supply. however. but for simplicity this effect tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. A core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current IM to maintain the mutual flux in the core."no-load" loss. Figure 3. Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core. the current I0 taken by the magnetising branch represents the transformer's no-load current. B vector. as the flux in the steel varies. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux. Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage. Rc and Xc are sometimes together termed the magnetising branch of the model. If the secondary winding is made open-circuit. and tend to be proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency. The hysteresis loss occurs as an inherent property of the magnetic material. the iron loss can be represented by a resistance Rc (or a conductance Gc=1/Rc) in parallel with the ideal transformer. An internal energy loss appears as a result.5 Transformer Equivalent Circuit Accounted For Exciting Current . goes through a cyclic change in magnitude or direction.5 shows the use of a fictitious circuit added to the ideal transformer to account for exciting current. The reason for the larger area with higher frequency is the effect of eddy currents in the steel. the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetising reactance Xc ( or a susceptance Bc=1/Xc) in parallel with the core loss component. The energy loss may be minimized by suitable alloying and heat treatment of the metal. Iex Gc Bc Figure 3. If the frequency of the applied voltage were reduced but the range of B in the core maintained (by applying lower voltage). The treatment processes may also affect the mechanical properties. The loss is reduced by building the core from sheets of steel called laminations and by increasing the resistivity of the material by alloying. The internal structure of a ferromagnetic material is organized into domains and these domains are reoriented as the magnetic flux density. Currents flow as a result of the voltage and an I2R loss occurs known as eddy current loss. so compromises must be made. voltages are induced within the closed contours in the material. saturation effects cause the relationship between the two to be non-linear. The steel is a conductor and. a similar loop would be observed but with smaller area than that originally observed.

Yc2  Gc2  Bc2 . Yc  952. R1 Xl1 Iex Gc Bc N1 N2 Xl2 R2 . In addition to the core loss and the requirement for exciting current. The advantages of using a linear model far outweigh the slight error introduced by a linear model. These series reactances (leakage reactance equivalent) play a significant factor in transformer performance. and it is observed that a current of 10 amperes flows and a power of 10000 watts is drawn.7  10 6 siemen . while not zero. P  Gc E 2 .5-kV winding with no load on the other winding. For light load or no load the exciting current branch may be included. there are other ways in which an actual transformer differs from the ideal transformer model. We solve for Gc and Bc as 2 follows: Iex  EYc . 10  10500Yc . We can modify the ideal transformer model to account for winding resistance by adding two series resistors R1 and R2 in either side of the windings. Evaluation of Gc and Bc of Figure 3. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling.05  10 6 siemen . is kept low in order to minimize copper losses and increase efficiency. The usual method of evaluating the parameters is to choose Gc and Bc so that the exciting current has the same rms value as the actual exciting current and the power loss in Gc is the same as the actual core loss. each winding has a resistance which. For one thing.The equivalent circuit of Figure 3. Bc  Yc2  Gc2  948.5 is an approximation. Gc  90. and thus can be modeled as self-inductances Xl1 and Xl2 in series with the perfectly-coupled region. but it is valid for most purposes. 10000  Gc 10500  . The model to use for a certain study is of course a matter of experience and engineering judgment.5 involves an approximation to best model the actual transformer in some sense of a most useful model. it amounts to very little in terms of the total current passed by the transformer. For heavy load or short circuit studies the exciting current branch is normally omitted entirely. some of the applied voltage is absorbed in IR drop in the winding resistance. In any case the exciting current of a modern transformer of any size at all is only a very small percentage of the full load current. For example.38  10 6 siemen . Now. For studies involving the wave form distortion of the exciting current the linear model is completely inadequate. so if there is a slight error in the linear representation. suppose that a certain transformer is tested by applying rated voltage to a 10.

. we apply rated voltage to the left side of the transformer of Figure 3.8 may be determined by the designer from the physical dimensions and material properties of the transformer. We designate the net resistance and reactance by the symbols Req and Xeq in the figure where: 2 Req  R1   N1 / N2  R2 and Xeq  Xl1   N1 / N2  Xl 2 2 Open and short-circuit tests: The parameters of the equivalent circuits of Figure 3. We thus "see" only the shunt branch and determine Gc and Bc from the instrument readings. this test must be conducted at reduced voltage. To determine the series impedances Req and Xeq.Figure 3. As a result we can ignore the shunt exciting current branch and we "see" only Req and Xeq. With a short circuit on N2.8(a) with the right side open-circuited.8(b) in this case. we short-circuit one side.7 Alternative Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer The net series resistance and reactance are known simply as the impedance of the transformer. This is an item of data that is available from the manufacturer of the transformer. For the test. On the other hand. an actual transformer may be tested electrically to determine these values. Since the output current is zero. In order to limit the short-circuit current. the current through Req and Xeq is zero from properties of an ideal transformer. and it is convenient to use the model of Figure 3. the voltage is zero on this winding and also is zero across N1 according to the properties of an ideal transformer.6 The Equivalent Circuit of An Actual Transformer The secondary impedance R2 and Xl2 are frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary N side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor ( 1 ) 2 N2  N1     N  Xl2  2 2 R1 Xl1  N1  N  2   R2   2 N1 N2 Iex Gc Bc Figure 3.

These normalizations of system parameters provide simplifications in many network calculations.8 Simple Equivalent Circuit for the Transformer 3. and kilovoltamperes to megavoltamperes. reactive power.4 Introduction to Per-Unit Systems Per-unit systems are nothing more than normalizations of voltage. This helps in understanding how certain types of system behave. current. The numerical per-unit value of any quantity is its ratio to the chosen base quantity of the same dimensions. impedance power. in analysis. Normalization of Voltage and Current: The basis for the per-unit system of notation is the expression of voltage and current as fractions of base levels. . it is useful to scale. This results in large amounts of power being transmitted in the range of kilowatts to megawatts. and apparent power (volt-ampere). Thus a per-unit quantity is a normalized quantity with respect to a chosen base value.Xeq Iex Gc Bc Req (a) Req Xeq Iex Gc Bc (b) Figure 3. This is commonly done in power system analysis and is referred to as the per-unit system. Thus the first step in setting up a per-unit normalization is to select base voltage and current. the transmission system and several portions of the distribution system are operated at voltages in the kV range. As we will discover. As a result. or normalize quantities with large physical values.

it is common to use the rated voltage and rated current of the generator as base qualities. That is. i1 + V _ Z + v1 _ Figure 3. such as system stability studies. these will be chosen to be nominal or rated values. as RMS quantities normalized to RMS bases. For generating plants. This advantage is even more striking in polyphase systems. which for a single phase system is: Pbase  Vbase I base Z base  where Vbase and Ibase are expressed in RMS (Root Mean Square). We start by defining two base quantities. For this network the complex amplitudes of voltage and current are: V  IZ (an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector). there is no ambiguity in per-unit notation.9 Example The per-unit voltage and current are then simply: V I v . we have v IZ I Z I base   iz Vbase I base Vbase zZ Where the per-unit impedance is: I base Z  Vbase Z base This leads to a definition for a base impedance for the system: Vbase I base And there is also a base power. i Vbase I base With V  IZ . system wide base system. Vbase for voltage and Ibase for current. It is interesting to note that. peak quantities normalized to peak base will be the same.Consider the simple situation in Figure 3. it is common to use a standard. In other situations. in per-unit. Three Phase Systems: . as long as normalization is carried out in a consistent way. for example. In many cases.9.

and the base value of the three-phase voltamperes is three times the base value of the per-phase volt-amperes. the bases for the quantities in the circuit representation are volt-amperes per-phase or kilo-volt-amperes per phase. the per-unit value of a line to neutral voltage on the line to neutral voltage base is equal to the per-unit value of the line-to-line voltage at the same point on the lineto -line voltage base if the system is balanced. The same volt-ampere base is used in all parts of the system. and a given value of base kilo-volt-amperes or base mega-volt-amperes is the total threephase base. For single-phase systems or three-phase systems where the term current refers to line current. In a three-phase system. The choice of these two base quantities will automatically fix the base of current. the following formulae relate the various quantities: S base ( ) I base  Vbase ( L  N ) Z base  Vbase ( L  N ) I base  V base ( L  N )  2 I baseVbase ( L  N )  V base ( L  N )  2 S base ( ) In performing per-phase analysis. the volt-ampere base can be selected to be any convenient value such as 100 MVA. the voltage required for the solution is the line to neutral voltage even though a line-to-line voltage may be specified as a base. impedance. Since this is also the relation between line-to-line and line to neutral voltages of a balanced threephase system. and volts or kilovolts from line to neutral. In equipment this quantity is usually known and makes a convenient base. . In a system study. Similarly. One base voltage in a certain part of the system is selected arbitrarily. normally. The apparent power (volt-ampere . and where the term voltamperes refers to volt-amperes per phase. The base value of the line to neutral voltage is the base value of the line-to line voltage divided by 3 . a given value of base voltage is a line-to-line voltage. Therefore. so the voltage is a convenient base value to choose. etc. and admittance. System specification is usually given in terms of total three-phase voltamperes or kilo-volt-amperes or mega-volt-amperes and line-to-line volts or kilovolts.S) is usually chosen as a second base. In a per-phase circuit. the perunit value of the three-phase volt-amperes on the three-phase volt-ampere base is identical to the per-unit value of the volt-amperes per-phase on the volt-ampere perphase base. the three-phase volt-amperes is three times the volt-amperes per-phase. All other base voltages must be related to the arbitrarily selected one by the turns ratio of the connecting transformers. This may result in some confusion regarding the relation between the per-unit value of line-to-line voltage and the per-unit value of phase voltage (line to neutral voltage).In power system calculations the nominal voltage of lines and equipment is almost always known. 1000 MVA. where the term voltage refers to line to neutral voltage.

consider the ideal transformer as shown in Figure 3. Properly applied. . a per-unit normalization will cause nearly all ideal transformers to disappear from the per-unit network. i2  2 Vbase 2 I base 2 Note that if the base quantities are related to each other as if they had been processed by the transformer: 1 Vbase 2  NVbase1 . the per-unit voltage and current are: V I v1  1 . I 2  I 1 N Note that an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector.10. I base 2  I 1 N then v 1  v 2 and i 1  i 2 .10 An Ideal Transformer To show how this comes about.The values of base impedance and base current can be computed from base values of voltage and volt-amperes as shown earlier in the section. If the base values of voltamperes and voltage are specified as the volt-amperes for the total three phases and voltage from line-to-line in a balanced three-phase system respectively. as if the ideal transformer were not there. I1 1 :N + I2 + V1 _ V2 _ Figure 3. Normalized to base quantities on the two sides of the transformer. thus greatly simplifying analysis. we have I base  Z base  Vbase ( L  L )  S base ( 3 ) V 3Vbase ( L  L ) base ( L  L )  2 3I base 3I baseVbase ( L  N )  V base ( L  L )  2 S base (3 ) Networks With Transformers: One of the most important advantages of the use of per-unit systems arises in the analysis of networks with transformers. The ideal transformer imposes the constraints that: 1 V 2  NV 1 . i 1  1 Vbase1 I base1 v2  V2 I .

it is necessary to have a means of converting per-unit impedances from one base to another. replace Z base  base . Here. As a result. we can write: S base z old in Ohms by: Z  z old Z base _ old V base _ old  2 S base _ old  z new V base _ new  2 S base _ new This yields a convenient rule for converting from the old base to the new one: z new  S base _ new S base _ old V  V base _ old base _ new   2 2 z old In other word: Per  Unit Z new  Per  Unit Z old ( baseVold 2 baseVAnew ) ( ) baseV new baseVAold . When performing calculations.Transforming From One Base To Another: In most instances. all impedances in any one part of the system must be expressed on the same impedance base. the per-unit impedance of a component is specified on the rated component base which is different from the base selected for the part of the system in which the component is located. The process of changing this per-unit value of impedance to per-unit on a new base can be done as follows: Note that impedance (ordinary units) is given 2 V   z new Z base _ new .

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