Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

LIST OF CONTENTS Study 1 I, you, he, she, it, welcome 2 Pronunciation 3 Tonal marks; plural; good 4 Questioning “is it so?” 5 very, indeed; not 6 Verbs: be; know of 7 one; a; friend; measure word “…ge” 8 person; this, that one 9 these, those ones 10 of; 's; s' 11 Vocabulary review 1-10 12 Future actions; today; come, go, learn 13 Past actions; not done (mëi) 14 a book; “yðbën …”; house; give, take, learn 15 If, then 16 Connectives: and, but; there is, there is not 17 Interrogatives: what? who? 18 Relative pronouns: such thing = what; such person = who 19 Prepositions: to, through, from 20 Locations: up, in, by 21 with, before, since 22 Combined verbs: can do 23 Yes; No; Not 24 “Measure words” 25 Comparison; gender 26 Vocabulary review 1-25
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Appendix A Greetings B Meetings C Nouns D Verbs E Adjectives F Adverbs G Vocabulary English to Mandarin H Vocabulary Mandarin to English I Incremental Phrases

Exercises set for Studies

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 1 VOCABULARY 1.1
[Instructor: Clap. Memory prompt: think of lively “Juanita” dancing to the music of ‘men’ playing on stringed instruments.… Students clap and sing, “wó

… nï … tå” ] I you he, she, it

wó * nï tå PRACTICE 1.1

[Instructor: Clap, repeat prompt: “Juanita” >>>> Get all to stand, gesturing :wó point to self (= 1st. person) nï point to partner (= 2nd. person) tå point to another (= 3rd. person) Repeat singing and clapping. Repeat gesturing without singing. Repeat singing and clapping. Repeat singing and gesturing.]

VOCABULARY 1.2 huånyîng * qïng pøtñnghuè xiìxie Welcome! Please! Mandarin Thanks!

* See guidance on Mandarin pronuciation and Pinyin script. Check especially “h”, “q”, and “x” in Vocabulary 2.1. Check tones and tonal marks in Vocabulary 3.2.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

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Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 2 VOCABULARY 2.1 Pinyin script provides an approximate method for representing the pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese. Some letters are pronounced as in English, but others have very different sounds. Pronunciation also varies in different regions, but the following guidance is generally acceptable.
Letters a b c ch d e f g h i j k l m n INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS Pronounciation Letters a as in “atone” o b as in “bag” p ts as in “bats” q tsh as in “hatshop” r d as in “dog” s e as in “the book” sh f as in “fun” t g hard as “get” u guttural like ch in “loch” w i as in “bistro”; ea as in “tea” wu j as in “jam” x k as in “kitchen” y l as in “love” yi m as in “mug” z n as in “nibble” zh SPECIAL Sounds like blunder (no r) urn or un dough bung jung (German) yowl VOWEL Group ye/ ie you/ iu yan/ ian yang/ iang yong/ iong ua uai Pronunciation o as in “or” p as in “pun” as chh in “matchhead” r rolled as in “curl” s as in “sat like sh in “rashly” t as in “top” u as in “put” (See group below) w as in “water” like u, not wu like s in “see” like y as in “yam” yi is i, not yi like ds in “suds” like dge in “hedgeless”

SOME Group (z, c, s, zh, ch, sh, r)i en ou eng ong yao/ iao

GROUPS AND SYLLABLES Sounds like Group Sounds like the air; ee-ye uan won yoyo uang wangle yen, try any we/ ue ú-ye young ui win Jung (German) uo wall wax (j, q, x, y)u ú as German ú; wide (l, n)ú chew your food

Easier recognizable sound groups are: aisle; ban; bang; naos/(now); eight; tiara; ring.
© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

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Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 3 VOCABULARY 3.1 …men hço * VOCABULARY 3.2 Mandarin is pronounced with tones. These are indicated in Pinyin script by tone marks. Mandarin Tone First tone Second tone Third tone Fourth tone (Toneless) GRAMMAR 3.1 wómen hço. nïmen hço. tåmen hço. We [are] fine. YOU [are] fine. They [are] fine. Pinyin Tone mark à á â ã (No mark) Description of Tone highest and level pitch starts high and rises falls first and then rises starts high and then falls unstressed or neutral Example må (mother) mæfan (trouble) mç (horse) mè (scold) ma (eh, surely!) _s (plural ending) well, good fine

(* Remember “h” is pronounced raspingly, like “ch” in Scottish “loch”)

Note that the verb word indicating “being” can be omitted, where the clause just has a ‘subject’ (doer) and an adjective describing the doer.

PRACTICE 3.1
[Students split into groups of three and exchange statements using:wó, nî, tå, wómen, nïmen, tåmen, hço.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

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5 August 2005

] nï hço! wó hço! tå hço! nïmen hço! wómen hço! tåmen hço! How are we? We're O. and exchange questions and answers.2 wómen hço ma? nïmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? PRACTICE 4... Burford and E. eh? You're O. J.K.. mm? How are you? Is it O.4 [Students work in groups of three. Burford 2003 6 5 August 2005 . surely.K.K.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 4 VOCABULARY 4. is it so? © B. eh? How are they? They're O. mm? He's well? mm.K.? It's fine.K. surely? How are you? YOU're fine..1 wó hço ma? nï hço ma? tå hço ma? PRACTICE 4. mm? How am I? I'm O. J.1 ma? PRACTICE 4. eh.3 Questions (wìntî) and Answers (dæfù) Q wó hço ma? A nï hço ma? tå hço ma? wómen hço ma? nïmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? PRACTICE 4.

] nï hën hço! wó bù hço. Burford and E. No ã or before a toneless syllable) PRACTICE 5. wó bù hën hço. Questions (wìntî) and Answers (dæfù) wó hço ma? nï hço ma? tå hço ma? wómen hço ma? nïmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? PRACTICE 5. I [am] not very well.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 5 VOCABULARY 5. J. Burford 2003 7 5 August 2005 . Students converse. tå hën hço! nïmen bù hço! wómen hën hço! tåmen bù hço! tåmen bù hën hço! © B.1 hën very or.] I sure [am] fine! I['m] very well. I [am] not well.1 wó hën hço! wó bù hço.2 [Students in twos or threes converse and iterate through the following examples. exchanging questions and answers.3 [Instructor splits students into groups of three. not want to. PRACTICE 5. as a substitute for ‘is indeed’ bù (bö before a fourth tone syllable not. J.

Burford 2003 8 5 August 2005 . I know Jack. look and comprehend.1 wó wó tå wó tå shð rìnshi bö rìnshi bö shð rìnshi John. Use rìnshi. [to] look at. Jill. eh? [to] be (am.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 6 VOCABULARY 6. Fred ma? I am (=‘be’) John. Students converse.] © B. [read …aloud] [to] read. [nièn …] kèn PRACTICE 6. [to] watch PRACTICE 6.] PRACTICE 6. Jim. shð. questions. J. alive. He knows Fred. introducing themselves and others. is. exist know. present. He ‘not know’ (doesn't know) Jill. and bö.3 wó nï tå wómen nïmen tåmen qïng dö kèn tå [Instructor gets students to make statements. making statements. and instructions using theses elements.1 shð zèi rìnshi dö. Burford and E. be acquainted with read. and exchanging questions and answers.2 [Instructor splits students into groups of three. are) [to] be located. I ‘not be’ (am not) Jim. J. Jack.

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 7 VOCABULARY 7. Refer also to Vocabulary 14. [Instructor's hints: ‘penfriend’. ‘penguin’?] [Instructor comments to students about the use of various ‘measure words’. sheep-flock. even in effect. † A ‘measure word’ is used for focusing on a thing. xðnxí message yîge ‡ a (can be for a thing or a person) yi one -ge † a ‘measure word’ used generally * Note that the syllable “you” in pêngyou is a neutral tone. Burford and E.2 wó/nï/tå wómen/nïmen/tåmen + qïng dö kèn bù dö + yîge hço xiåoxi a friend You are a friend. Are there any in English? Perhaps think of manage-r. ‡ Pronounce ‘ge’ hard as in English ‘get’.] PRACTICE 7.1 about “bën” for ‘a volume of’. manage-ress. J. J. eh? Are you a friend? I am a friend! They aren't good friends. Burford 2003 9 5 August 2005 . wó/nï/tå + wómen/nïmen/tåmen PRACTICE 7.1 pêngyou * friend(s) xiåoxi. See Vocabulary 14. shð bö shð + yîge pêngyou pêngyou [Instructor randomly points at students and each responds with statements or questions using these elements.1 and Study 24 for others. (never soft as in ‘gel’).1 yîge pêngyou nï shð yîge pêngyou ma? wó shð yîge pêngyou! tåmen bö shð hço pêngyou. person or action.] © B. ‘ge’ is acceptable for general use.

people dñngxi thing(s) zhì * . zhìi this (some person or thing here) zhìge … this … nè … that (some person or thing there) nège that … * Note. do that” using “this”.5 [Instructor leads game of “Old Grady says do this.] PRACTICE 8.] PRACTICE 8. pronounce ‘zh’ like ‘dge’ in ‘hedgeless’. Curl back the tongue. J. PRACTICE 8. “that”.2 [Instructor dictates to students the sentences in Exercise 8.1.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 8 VOCABULARY 8. bö rìnshi nège rên PRACTICE 8.1 wó zhì nège rên nè zhìge pêngyou tå rìnshi shð shð bö shð rìnshi zhìge rên.] PRACTICE 8. they write the English translation. yîge pêngyou ma? That person is a friend. I know this person. and “nè”] © B. persons. “zhì”. nège rên This friend knows that person. they write the Mandarin translation. mm? yîge pêngyou That is not a friend. and they write the Pinyin. Burford and E. This is a friend. Burford 2003 10 5 August 2005 . She doesn't know that person.1 rên person. J.4 [Instructor reads the sentences in Exercise 8.3 [Instructor reads the sentences in Exercise 8.1. yîge pêngyou.2.

PRACTICE 9. Burford and E.xié * .se (plural determiner).] © B. Those friends know these people. J. those ones * Note...] PRACTICE 9. 2. one says the Mandarin in Practices 9. Burford 2003 11 5 August 2005 ..1. then the next turns the statement into a question by adding “ma?”. These are good friends. and 3. These know those people. doing Columns 1. then another student says the negative of this by putting “bö” in front of “shð” or “rìnshi”.1 and 9..] PRACTICE 9. J.2 zhìxié rìnshi nèxié rên.4 [Instructor reads sentences in Exercise 9. Taking turns. remember to pronounce ‘sh’ like the English ‘sh’ in ‘rashly’. YOU know these good friends.] PRACTICE 9. [Instructor uses students in threes. some yðxié some zhìxié these. nïmen rìnshi zhìxié hço pêngyou.1 . these ones nèxié those. respectively. respectively. These persons are good friends. doing Columns 1.2. and 3. 2.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 9 VOCABULARY 9. hço pêngyou. [Instructor uses students in threes.3 [Students work in twos or threes.1 zhìxié rên zhìxié nèxié pêngyou nèxié pêngyou shð shð shð rìnshi hço pêngyou. and students write the Pinyin. hço rên. Those friends are good persons. but pronounce ‘x’ rather like ‘hss’ or the ‘s’ in ‘see’. zhìxié rên.

yðxié pêngyou rìnshi nï Some friends know you. a game could be played. zhìxié rìnshi tåde pêngyou. its of us. eliminating anyone who does the wrong combination of gesture and words!] © B. Their friends are not good people. nège rên shð wóde pêngyou. or look at someone else and say “nïde …”.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 10 VOCABULARY 10. Burford 2003 12 5 August 2005 . it.] PRACTICE 10. Individual students upon demand simultaneously point at self and say “wóde …” (such as “wóde pencil”). your of him. our of YOU. [Instructor touches articles in the room (such as a pencil). …'s. With discretion. their [Instructor randomly points at students and quizes them on translation of a Mandarin or English word listed. his. her. my of you. These know her friends.1 de wóde nïde tåde wómende nïmende tåmende of. J. …s' of me. That person is my friend. YOUR of them. her. J. tåmende pêngyou bö shð hço rên. Burford and E. I am your friend. or just point away at someone else and say “tåde …”.1 wó shð nïde pêngyou.

these … they thing this (pronoun) this … those. …s' several. J. etc.2. is it so? ma? my wóde not bù (Note: bö shð) of … …de one yí our person. xðnxí mm. an yîge.] a. dö dö …. those … very we Welcome! well you YOU[R] your wómende rên qïng! wìntî kèn. …á. J.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 11 VOCABULARY 11. (Appendix shows more ‘measure words’. nèxié … hën wómen huånyîng! hço nï nïmen[de] nïde © B.1 (Review of Words Learned) This is a review of all the vocabularies covered in Studies 1-10. surely hën is it so? ma? it tå its tåde know (person) rìnshi Mandarin pøtñnghuè message xiåoxi. or …â. are) shð be present zèi exist zèi fine hço friend pêngyou good hço he tå her … tåde … his tåde I wó indeed. [See Vocabulary 2. Burford and E. Burford 2003 13 5 August 2005 .1 for guidance on Mandarin pronuciation and Pinyin script. people Please! question read read … aloud …s …'s. is. zhìi zhìge … nèxié. zhìxié … tåmen dñngxi zhì.) Use yð before …à. Check especially tones and tonal marks in Vocabulary 3. some Thanks! that (pronoun) that … their these. else yî answer dæfù be (am. nièn … …men …de yðxié xiìxie! nè nège … tåmende zhìxié.

) PRACTICE 12. J. dångshî læi qù xuêxî GRAMMAR 12.1 (Future Actions) huð jíntiån mîngtiån xiènzèi nèshî. learn [huð] (‘huð’ can be omitted. xuêxî. 5 August 2005 © B.] nï tå jíntiån huð læi? xuêxî? wó wó tå tå 14 bö jíntiån bù mîngtiån huð læi. will (future action) today tomorrow now then. Burford 2003 .2 [Students work in pairs exchanging questions and answers. Burford and E.1 wó wó nï tå wómen nïmen tåmen zhìge rên jíntiån [mîngtiån] [jíntiån] [xiènzèi] [nèshî] bö huð læi qù læi xuêxî tå dö tå I will study it. huð læi. J. at that point in time [to] come [to] go [to] study.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 12 VOCABULARY 12. if a [bö] word like ‘mîngtiån’ makes it obvious that the action will take place in the future.1 wó huð xuêxî tå PRACTICE 12. [huð] xuêxî.

[method. we didn't know them. YOU knew them. You went [to the] meeting. have not done … yesterday meeting. I did not study Mandarin. way.] did … . I did not come. He did not study. We knew them not. We knew them. have done … (past action) (See dictionary under “have”) did not … . manner.2 wó mêi xuêxî pøtñnghuè wómen mêi rìnshi tåmen PRACTICE 13. J. [fångshð] GRAMMAR 13. YOU did not know us.1 (Past Actions) … le mêi … zuòtiån jùhuð. style] I did study (I studied) Mandarin. Burford and E. [dèhuð] lù fångfç. Burford 2003 15 5 August 2005 . He studied. You did not go.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 13 VOCABULARY 13.1 wó læi le nï qù dèhuð le tå xuêxî le nïmen rìnshi tåmen le wó mêi læi nï mêi qù tå mêi xuêxî nïmen mêi rìnshi wómen [Students work in pairs and converse.1 wó xuêxî pøtñnghuè le wómen rìnshi tåmen le GRAMMAR 13. means way. J. I came. [assembly. © B. convention] road.

You did not give me your book. J. nèbën shõ PRACTICE 14. speak … [to] converse with. Burford and E.] a book Please read this book. grasp hold [to] say …. Please. a volume of …) book house [to] give [to] take. PRACTICE 14.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 14 VOCABULARY 14. J. nïde fængzi hën hço [Students work in threes and converse. [to] say to Generally use “yð…”. yðbën but yîge.2 wó gëi nï wóde fængzi le nï gëi wó tåmende shõ wómen huð gëi tåmen yðbën shõ PRACTICE 14. Burford 2003 16 5 August 2005 . I will not take that book today. You give me their book. © B. wó gëi nï wóde shõ le. nï næ wóde shõ. that book I gave you my house. an … .1 (Another ‘Measure Word’) yðbën … (= yí + bën) shõ fængzi gëi næ shuñ shuñhuè gèosu a … . I gave you my book.g.1 yðbën shõ qïng dö zhìbën shõ. take my book. (e. Hence.3 qïng. wó jíntiån bö huð næ nèbën shõ. speak words to [to] tell. Your house is very good. We will give them a book. but use “yî…” before 4th tone (…ã) or plain. nï mêi gëi wó nïde shõ.

[zèi] nèlï GRAMMAR 15. have knowledge of a fact [located. GRAMMAR 15. nï [huð] zhídao tå ma? jiçrö tå zèi nèr. be located] here [located. wó (jiù)† bö huð qù nèr.3 röguó nï xöexî. † Note word order with jiù after the noun wó. Burford and E.1 (Conditional Sentences) yèoshi … . I will come there. will you know it? If he is there. Hence “hën hço” is pronounced ‘hên hço’. If tomorrow those books [‘will’] come. (jiù) … If (in the case that) …. pronounce it as a second tone (…á). (nèmuó) … If (on the condition) that …. © B. … If (supposing that) ….2 jiçrö nïde shõ bö zèi nèr. tå huð læi ma? GRAMMAR 15. Burford 2003 If (supposing) your book is not there. J. röguó tåmen læi zhìlï.2 zhídao [zèi] zhìr. (then) I will not go there. [to] know. we study this book. yèoshð mîngtiån nèxié shõ [huð] læi. wómen huð xuêxî tåmen. … röguó …. 17 5 August 2005 .Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 15 VOCABULARY 15. will he come? If you study. (then) … VOCABULARY 15. If you are not very well. wómen xuêxî zhìbën shõ. we will study them.1 yèoshð nï bù hën hço* . J. If they come here. be located] there * When a third tone (…â) precedes another third tone. (then) … [see ‘whether’] jiçrö [or yèoshð] …. [zèi] zhìlï [zèi] nèr. wó huð læi nèr.

Either I or you will go there. Wiil he come today or tomorrow? We go there or else he does not study! and (links nouns or pronouns) and (joins phrases. Burford and E. tå jîntian hæishð mîngtiån huð læi? wómen qù nèr bùræn tå bù xuêxî! PRACTICE 16. and not …. He came. I'll come either today or tomorrow.1 (Connectives) … hê … … êrqië … … dènshð …. I'm fine. He will come [and] then we'll study. J. J. Today will you study your book or my book? Yesterday I studied that book.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 16 VOCABULARY 16. … dångshî … … huô[zhë] … huô[zhë] … … hæishð … … bùræn … GRAMMAR 16. adv's) but not … but …. but not … [and] then (either) … or … … or (alternatively) … … or (otherwise.1 wó hê nï shð hço pêngyou wó hço dènshð nège rên bù hço tå huð læi nèshî wómen huð xuêxî wó huô jíntiån huô mîngtiån læi. but I did not know. She will come here. or I (will) go there. I and you are good friends. adjectives. tå læi le dènshð wó mêi zhídao tå huð læi zhìr nèshî nïmen huð qù huôzhë wó huôzhë nï huð qù nèr nï jín tian huð xuêxî nïde shõ hæishð wóde shõ ma? wó zuòtiån xuêxî nèbën shõ le. Burford 2003 18 5 August 2005 . … këshð … bù … êr … … nèshî ….1 tå læi êrqië tå xuêxî wómende shõ. or I would not know the answers. He'll come now. bùræn wó bö huð zhídao dæfù tå huð læi xiènzèi bùræn wó qù nèr He comes and he studies our book. then YOU'll go. but that man is not well. if not) … © B.

yínwìi tå xuêxî tåde shõ le suóyï tå rìnshi zhìge rên.2 wó bù hço yíncï wo bö huð læi.2 (More Connectives) yíncï …. therefore …. J. suóyï … yuænyín yínwìi … [omit ] shðfóu [mêi] yóu … GRAMMAR 16. … [this is the] reason as ….2 wó xuêxî shõ le. J. As he studied his book. suóyï wómen jíntiån huð xuêxî nïde shõ wó zhídao nï bù hën hço nï zhídao ma fængzi shðfóu zèi zhìr? Yóu yîge fængzi. because [of] … … that … whether have [not] …. Today there is a meeting … … but there are no books. since …. there are [not] … © B. I don't know whether he will come. there is [not] …. … … therefore I know the answer. wó bù zhídao shðfóu tå huð læi tå bù zhídao nï huð læi zhìlï hæishð wómen huð qù nèr yuænyín wó bö huð qù nèr jíntiån yóu dèhuð … … dènshð mêi yóu shõ PRACTICE 16. dènshð mêi yóu lù! I studied the book. For this reason I won't give you that today.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 16. He didn't give me his book. He doesn't know [whether] you will come here or [whether] we'll go there. we'll study your book today. For this reason I will not go there. Do you know if the house is there? There is a house. Burford 2003 19 5 August 2005 . [so] he knew (knows) this person. but there is no road! I'm not well therefore I'll not come. I know [that] you are not very well. so. Burford and E. Since you have come. … … yíncï wó zhídao dæfù tå mêi gëi wó tåde shõ yuænyín wó jíntiån bö huð gëi nï nè yínwìi nï læi le.

Questions) shênme …? shêi …? wìishênme …? shênme shîhou … ? nçlï …? nçr …? GRAMMAR 17.1 (Interrogatives. J.1 zhìge jùhuð shð shênme? nè(ge dñngxi) shð shênme? nè(ge rên) shð shêi? shêi qù nèr? tåmen wìishênme bù læi? nï shênme shîhou xuêxî? nïde fængzi zèi nçlï? PRACTICE 17. Burford and E.1 tåmen zhìr xuêxî shênme? nï zhídao shênme? nïmen shð shêi? shêi zuòtiån læi le? nï wìishênme bù zhídao nè? tå wìishênme næ wóde shõ le? tåmen shênme shîhou huð qù jùhuð? wómende shõ zèi nçlï? dèhuð de fængzi zèi nçr? nï wìishênme bö huð læi zhìr? What do you study there? What do you know? Who are you? Who came yesterday? Why don't you understand that? Why did he take my book? When will they go to the meeting? Where is our book? Where is the house of meeting? Why will you not come here? What is this meeting? What's that (thing)? Who's that (person)? Who goes there? Why aren't they coming? When do you study? Where is your house? what …? who …? why …? (what … for?) when …? (what time …?) where …? © B. J.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 17 VOCABULARY 17. Burford 2003 20 5 August 2005 .

J. Burford 2003 21 5 August 2005 .2 nï zënme huð læi zhìr? tåmen xuêxî duñ shén le? duñshço fængzi shð nïmende? nï yóu duñshço pêngyou? shêi de shõ zèi zhìr? nège rên shð shêi de pêngyou? tå qù le shêi de fængzi? wómen huð xuêxî nçbën shõ? tåmen zënme qù nèr le? nçge rên gëi nï zhìbën shõ le? [zèi] zhìlï duñshço shõ? tå shð shêi de mèma? shêi de bèba gëi nï nè le? How will you come here? How [far] did you study? How many houses are YOURS? You have how many friends? Whose book is here? That person is whose friend? He went to whose house? We will study which book? How did they go there? Which person gave you this book? Here are how many books? She is whose mother? Whose father gave you that? How well is your friend today? How many of you are there? This house is whose? Which book do YOU study? Which books do YOU study? how …? (in what manner …? how [far.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 17. Questions) zënme …? zënyèng duñ [shén] …? duñshço …? shêi de? shuî de? nç [yî]ge? (singular).2 nïde pêngyou jíntiån duñ hço? nïmen yóu duñshço rên? zhìge fængzi shð shêi de? nïmen xuêxî nçbën shõ? nïmen xuêxî nçxié shõ? PRACTICE 17. fù qín GRAMMAR 17. nçxié? (plural) mèma. much] …? (what extent) how much … ? how many …? whose? which? [Change ‘ge’. J. mø qín bèba. Burford and E. if necessary] mother father © B.2 (More Interrogatives.

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 18 VOCABULARY 18. Burford 2003 22 5 August 2005 .2 (Use of “de” : ‘Of’) fængzi de lù dèhuð de fængzi way of the house house of the meeting. Relatives and Correlatives) … de 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ‘of …’ of possessor ‘…’ of quality described as ‘…’ the thing of the quality described as ‘…’ of manner described as ‘…’ of action described as ‘…’ Possibility of an action of relative/correlative description ‘…’ GRAMMAR 18. [to] be able to accomplish … [to] do. [to] make place GRAMMAR 18.1 (Uses of “de”) shðdang dèo … zuô dðfang proper. J. J. Burford and E. suitable can. the book of your father * NOTE: Omit “de” for closely related persons © B. meeting house GRAMMAR 18. wó * mèma my mother nï * bèba de shõ your father's book. nè shð wóde That is mine.1 (Uses of “de”.3 (Use of “de” : Possession) wóde shõ my book wóde mine wóde shõ shð zhìr My book is here.

6 (Use of “de” : Manner — Adjectives to Form Adverbs) shðdang shðdang de tå shðdang de shuñ proper. suitably He speaks properly GRAMMAR 18. ‘bù’ replaces ‘de’. © B. He speaks badly. bad person(s) Omit “de” if the quality is described using only one written character hço pêngyou good friend(s) GRAMMAR 18.7 (Use of “de” : Action — Forming an Adverbial Phrase) nï shuñ de hën hço tå shuñ de bù hço. is capable of doing We [would] learn to speak We would not learn to speak * For a negative possibility.8 (Use of “de” : Possible Result of an Action) zuô de dèo wómen shuñ de xuêxî wómen shuñ bù xuêxî * can manage to. J. suitable properly.5 (Use of “de” : Person or Thing of the Quality Described) hço de shð wóde The good one is mine GRAMMAR 18.4 (Use of “de” : Quality — Adjectives Describing Nouns) Use “de” if the quality described is written in more than one character hën hço de pêngyou very good friend(s) bù hço de rên not a good person. How he speaks is not good. wó shð zuòtiån læi de How you speak is very good.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course GRAMMAR 18. Burford 2003 23 5 August 2005 . I came yesterday ! (Emphasis) GRAMMAR 18. You speak very well. J. Burford and E.

how. “de” is used to express the relative forms of what. This is a friend ([of this description:] “he speaks well”). J. nèxié (bù xuêxî de) rên Those are persons (who don't study). The above example has expressed the relative pronoun “who”. nège rên shð (hço de) That person is a friend pêngyou (who is good).) Those are persons ([of this description:] “they don't study”). Burford and E.9 (Use of “de”: Relative and Correlative Pronouns) ‘person or thing of this description’ The use of “de” transforms the words “… …” into a noun or a ‘noun phrase’.10 zhì shð (tå * gëi wó de) This is (what he gave me). zhì shð (shuñhuè hço de ) pêngyou This is a friend (who speaks well). who. when. where. This is (the thing that he gave me). why. whose. J. (hço fængzi de ) rên person (of / with a nice house) …… de GRAMMAR 18.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course GRAMMAR 18. Also. whatever I said * “suó” can be inserted for ‘whatever’— wó suó shuñ de © B. Burford 2003 24 5 August 2005 . This is ([the thing of this description:] “he gave it”). That person is a friend ([of this description:] “good”. and which.

zhì shð (wómen qù This is how we go to This is the way ([of this wómende dèhuð de) lù our meeting.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course GRAMMAR 18. mîntiån shð (wómen qù Tomorrow is (when we Tomorrow is ([the time dèhuð nèshî de) * go to the meeting). description:] “we go to our meeting”). this description:] “we study”). of this description:] “we go to the meeting then). zhì shð (tåmen xuêxî This the house (where This is the house ([of de) fængzi we study). J. wó qù (zað nïde fængzi lï I'm going to the I'm going to the de) dèhuð meeting which is in meeting ([of this your house. Burford 2003 25 5 August 2005 . Burford and E. zhì shð (nï gëi de) shõ This is the book which This is the book ([of you gave. this description:] “I study his book”). nè shð (wó xuêxî tåde That is the person That is the person ([of shõ de) rên whose book I study. this description:] “I don't study that book”).10 (Continued) zhì shð (wó bù xuêxî nèbën shõ de) yuænyín This is the reason (why This is the reason ([of I don't study that book). J. this description:] “you gave”). * “nèshî” can be omitted © B. description:] “in your house”).

J. tå huð gëi nïmen nèbën shõ. They went to London. wó tñngguô zhìbën xuêxî le.g. out of … pass by way of I speak in the name of my father. It came through that house. as far as … through: from one side to the other through: by way of. out from …. via … through ….1 nï gén wó shuñhuè le.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 19 VOCABULARY 19. e. We came from Beijing. tå huð gëi nï wóde shõ.1 (Direction) hê …. in the name of … from … (from such place. tòng …. He will give YOU that book I learned by way of this book. © B. to … (speaking ‘with’ a hearer) to … (a place). Burford and E. wó shuñ fìng wó bèba de mîng wó shuñ gén nï mèma le tåmen qù dèo Löndõn wómen læi còng Bëijíng le You spoke to (with) me. gén … dèo … chuångguô … tñngguô … fìng … de mîng còng … còng … chõ lùguô GRAMMAR 19. up to …. shõ tå lùguô nège fængzi le. nï còng Zhñnglæi ma? guò tå còng wóde læi le. fængzi chõ wó còng zhìgì xuêxî tå le. You came (come) from China. I spoke with your mother. mm? He came [out] from my house. She will give you my book. J. China) from …. Burford 2003 26 5 August 2005 . I learned it from this.

2 nèbën shõ shð gëi zhìge rên zhì wìi[le] nïde hço jùhuð shð That book is for this person. J. This is for the purpose of your nice meeting.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 19. because of (linking the cause of an action with the action itself) on behalf of … © B. for … [a beneficiary] for the purpose of … due to … on the grounds of.2 (Purpose) gëi …. J. wìi … wìi[le] … yòuyö … êr … tð …. Burford and E. wó læile tð wó bèba I came on behalf of my father tå yínwìi mèma bù hço êr mêi læi He did not come because his mother is not well. dèi … GRAMMAR 19. Burford 2003 27 5 August 2005 . wómen læile yòuyö nïmende dèhuð We came due to YOUR convention.

I [am] (positioned) at his house. Burford 2003 28 5 August 2005 . J.1 tå * tå wó zèi shõ lï [zèi] fængzi lïmian … zèi shõ shang [mian] zèi tåde fængzi [mian] It [is] (positioned) in the book.1 [Use words from Study 26 or other vocabulary lists and make more sentences. Burford and E. (is) in … (is) inside … (is) on … . PRACTICE 20.] © B. J. if it would start a sentence.1 (Location) (zèi) … lï (zèi) … lïmian (zèi) … shang [mian] (zèi) … [mian] … mian GRAMMAR 20. Inside the house … It [is] (located) on the book.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 20 VOCABULARY 20. upon … (is) at … in the location (described by ‘zæi …’) * Note that ‘zèi’ is normally omitted.

beside … (is) near[by] zèi nïde shõ lïmian zèi fængzi wèibian huð læi zèi zèi zèi nège lï le fængzi nïde hoùmian fængzi nïmen pængbiån qù le nèr lï * [continuing in the position beside. Burford 2003 29 5 August 2005 . Burford and E.1 [Students converse in groups of two. He [was] in that house. (is) up.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 20.2 nïde shõ zèi fængzi zèi tåde fængzi zèi tå wómen tå wó tå tåmen nè nè zhì shang [mian] shèngmian xiè [mian] Your book [is] up there The house [is] up there. We will come [and be] outside your house. zèi shèngmian (zèi) … xiè [mian] (zèi) … lï[mian] (zèi) … wèi[bian]. J. I [am] behind your house. in front of … (is) [located] behind … (is) by [the side of] …. (zèi) … hôu[bian] (zèi) … pæng[biån] (zèi) … [fù]yðn GRAMMAR 20. (zèi) wèimian (zèi) … qiæn[mian] (zèi) … hôu[mian]. located upon. exchanging informative statements. They [are] in there. under …. Her house [is] down there. on top of (is) down. It [is] in your book.] © B. over . alongside] PRACTICE 20. below … (is) in[side] … (is) out[side] … (is) [located] ahead.2 (zèi) … shang. He went * beside YOU. J.

didn't] before … during … after … since …. gén … yðqï. We go to the house after the meeting. on the subject of … © B. He came without his book. Burford 2003 30 5 August 2005 . He studies inside the house. I came before the meeting.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 21 VOCABULARY 21. We cannot study because we are without (don't have) that book. J. tòng … mêiyóu …. (He and I …) They didn't come during the meeting I [have] know[n] it since I read this message Did he speak about the convention? I'll go there along with you. from … on until …. He came here with me. We studied here until you came. [mêiyóu] (zèi) … yïqiæn (zèi) … qíjiån (zèi) … yïhôu còng … yïlæi. to … about …. còng … qï. by the use of) … with (in the company of) … without …. J. Burford and E.1 wó xuêxî nè zèi yông zhìbën shõ.1 (Circumstance) (zèi) yông … hê … (yðqï). with (by means of. wó zèi jùhuð yïqian læi le wómen xuêxî zhìlï dèo nï læi le tå xuêxî zèi fængzi lïmian le tå læi le mêiyóu tåde shõ wómen bù nêng xuêxî yínwìi wómen mêiyóu nèbën shõ wómen zèi jùhuð yïhôu qù fængzi wó còng nège jùhuð yïlæi zhídao tå hê wó læi zhìlï le tåmen zèi jùhuð qíjiån mêi læi wó zhídao tå còng wó dö zhìge xiåoxi yïlæi tå shuñhuæ guånyö dèhuð ma? wó huð qù nèr gén nï yðqï I study it by means of this book. … yïhôu dèo … guånyö … PRACTICE 21. I [have] know[n] since that meeting. [do not have.

have an interest in ….1 (Auxilliary Verbs — Desire) xïhuan ….Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 22 VOCABULARY 22. He wants to study this book.1 wó xïhuan xuêxî pøtñnghuè wó xíwèng qù dèhuð tå xiçng xuêxî zhìbën shõ tå këwèng shð nïde pêngyou tåmen xiçng mîngtiån læi nï xïhuan yóu zhìbën shõ ma? wó këwèng qù wóde fængzi nège rên xíwèng shð nèr wómen xiçng qù nèr tåmen këwèng læi zhìr nï xíwèng dö zhìge xiåoxi ma? wó këwèng shuñ pøtñnghuè I like (am interested) to study Mandarin I'd like (hope) to go to the meeting. Burford 2003 31 5 August 2005 . [to] like to …. Are you interested to have this book? I wish to go to my house. That person hopes to be there. They want to come tomorrow. J. J. He wishes to be your friend. We want to go there. Would you like to read this message? I wish to speak Mandarin. have a desire to … [to] hope to …. [to] enjoy … [to] like to …. would like to … [to] want to … [to] wish to … © B. They wish to come here. Burford and E. xï'èi … xíwèng … xiçng … këwèng … PRACTICE 22.

J. You have to come today. You ought to give him his book. indeed. ought to … © B.2 (Auxilliary Verbs — Compulsion) xõyèo … yîdðng bðxõ …. YOU need to come tomorrow. must [to] to have a necessity to …. I would like to order that thing. He's obligated to say this. He ought to be your friend. We must go to the meeting. He must study this book. it is necessary that … definitely. J. bùdêbù yîdðng yèo … xiçng yèo … yínggåi … PRACTICE 22. [to] need to …. He has no option but to go there. Burford and E. It is necessary that your house [will] be there. must [to] want to order … (meals. have to …. products) should …. surely.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 22. really [to] have an obligation to ….2 wó xõyèo xuêxî pøtñnghuè wó bðxõ qù dèhuð tå yîdðng yèo xuêxî zhìbën shõ tå yínggåi shð nïde pêngyou nïmen xõyèo mîngtiån læi tå yîdðng dëi shuñhuè zhì nï yínggåi gëi tå tåde shõ nï bðxõ læi jíntiån tå bùdêbù qù nèr xõyèo nïde fængzi huð zèi nèr wómen yîdðng yèo qù jùhuð wó xiçng yèo nège dñngxi I need to study Mandarin I must go to the convention. Burford 2003 32 5 August 2005 . yîdðng dëi ….

Burford and E. Their friend could come. J. [to] allow … [to] let … be done © B. We let him to go there. [to] know how to … [to] try (endeavour) to … [to] try (attempt) to … [to] try out in use… [to] let. [to] have permission to … can … [to] have a possibility or ability to … can …. They could to come tomorrow. dèo … huð …. You let him take my book? We tried to go to the meeting. Let me see that! may …. He is trying to study using our book. yëxø … këyï … nêng … nêng …. He tries to be their friend.3 (Auxilliary Verbs — Ability) kënêng …. I have a chance to go to the meeting. is it so? Can you speak Mandarin? I try to speak Mandarin properly. nêng … jðnlð …. J. lðtö … shð … shðyông … rèng … gëi … PRACTICE 22.3 wó këyï xuêxî pøtñnghuè wó kënêng qù dèhuð tå nêng xuêxî zhìbën shõ tå jðnlð shð tåmende pêngyou tåmen dèo mîngtiån læi nï rèng tå næ wóde shõ ma? wómen shð qù dèhuð le tå shðyông xuêxî còng wóde shõ wómen rèng tå qù nèr tåmende pêngyou dèo læi ma? nï huð shuñ pøtñnghuè ma? wó lðtö shuñ shðdang de pøtñnghuæ gëi wó kèn nè! I'm permitted to study Mandarin.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 22. He can to study this book. Burford 2003 33 5 August 2005 . [to] have a chance or opportunity to … may ….

[a truth] [to] help. He returned to the house. I wish to go and visit him. tåmen xõyèo mîngtiån læi. zhénshî]. We must go and help him. dåi jiènmièn zuô PRACTICE 22. = If they could come today it would be good. Can you do this? true. Burford 2003 34 5 August 2005 .4 (Combining of Verbs) zhén. [zhénlï] bång. [zhénxiång.4 zhìbën shõ shuñ zhén de dñngxi nï huð bång wó ma? tåmen zhù zhìr tå huî fængzi le wómen qù nège rên fçngwìn le tåmen dåi nèr wómen jiènmièn zhìr nï huð zuô zhì ma? This book says true things. bångzhù zhù huî fçngwìn liù xiæ. Can you meet with me? © B. They stay there. J. I wish they could come today. wómen xõyèo qù bång tå. We meet here. I'd like to live here. call on [to] stay. They'll have to come tomorrow. make (something) PRACTICE 22. reside [to] return. J. He wants to return to his house. We went to visit that person. Burford and E. nï nêng tòng wó jiænmiæn ma? I like to do that. remain [to] meet [to] do.5 (Combining of Verbs) wó xïhuan zuô nè wó xíwèng zhù zèi zhìr tå xiçng huî fængzi wó këwèng qù fçngwìn tå yèoshi tåmen jíntiån nêng læi hço le. go back [to] visit. assist [to] live. [the truth].Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 22. liùxia. Can you help me? They live here.

What can you see? I try to speak what is [a] true message. J. (kènjian) kèn dö …. He loves to read his book aloud. Please write me [a letter] Do you love her? Do they have [any] questions? PRACTICE 22.5 (Combining of Verbs) mîngbai. Burford and E. dóng jièn.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 22. nièn … xië xðn èi èihèo yóu [to] understand [to] see. © B.6 (Combining of Verbs) nï mîngbai pøtñnghuè ma? nï kènjian wóde fængzi ma? mîngtiån jièn! wó dö nèbën shõ qïng huð nièn zhì qïng gëi wó xië xðn nï èi tå ma? tåmen yóu wìntî ma? Can you understand Mandarin? Can you see my house? See you tomorrow! I [do] read that book. We must go and look at that house. look at and comprehend. J. lïjië.7 (Combining of Verbs) wó xïhuan dö shõ tå xiçng mîngbai zhìgì tåmen xõyèo mîngtiån nièn wómende xiåoxi wómen xõyèo qù kèn nège fængzi nï nêng kènjian shênme? wó lðtö shuñ zhén de xiåoxi wómen mèma rèng wó læi tå èihèo nièn tåde shõ I like to read books. possess PRACTICE 22. They'll have to read aloud our message tomorrow. Please read this aloud. [to] look at [to] read … aloud [to] write [a letter] [to] love (someone) [to] love (something) [to] have. She wants to understand this [thing]. Burford 2003 35 5 August 2005 . Our mother let[s] me come. ([to] see a sight) [to] read.

1 wó bù læi wó bø nêng læi wó yóu shõ. I don't like it! You don't like it. I have [some] books. [not all] never (in the future) never (present or habitual) never (past) No …. wó xïhuan tå! Do you like it? … … No. Burford and E. J. wó gëi le nï tåmen. no longer. wó bù xïhuan! … shðde. I do not have [any] books. do you? … … [Correct] No. I don't like it! … [Correct] No. I'll never go there do not have did not …. jðnzhï …! bù! shðde! duð! shðde! bù! PRACTICE 23. I don't like it any more! … [Incorrect] Not so.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 23 VOCABULARY 23. … is not permitted! No! (responding to positive words) [Correct] No! (responding to negative words) Yes! [Correct!] No! = but yes! (faulting negative words) © B. mêi …. PRACTICE 23. Burford 2003 36 5 August 2005 . [don't …] no more. J. I gave you them. wó bù xïhuan! nï bù xïhuan. not any more. I can't come.1 (No. [biê …] bù zèi. duð ma? … … duð. Not) mêi yóu mêiyóu …. I never went there. I do like it! I don't come. I don't want to come. [bù … dñu] yóngyuçn bù cònglæi bù cònglæi mêi [yóu] bùxø …!.2 nï xïhuan ma? … … bù [xïhuan]. wó mêi yóu shõ wó cònglæi mêi qù nèr wó yóngyuçn bö qù nèr. wó bö zèi xïhuan! … bù.

document idea. Burford and E. (one) yðbën shõ = a book …á …â) yî (before …ã …) yîge pêngyou = a friend liçng… a pair of. J. times) (kinds of) (full cycles) yîge pêngyou = a friend yðbën shõ = a book liçngfìn zæzhð = a pair of leaflets. thin magazine. Burford 2003 5 August 2005 .1 zæzhð yðjièn huè wênzhång zhuñzi leaflet. opinion painting or drawing article written. editorial. an.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 24 VOCABULARY 24. squarish) yîzhång zhuñzi = a table (buildings) yîzuô fængzi = a house 37 © B. J. (ideas) liçngdiçn yðjièn = two opinions (sections. thin magazines. newspapers) (-ce. parts) zhìduèn lù = this section of road (pictures) yðfö huè = a painting or a drawing (types of) zhìlìi dñngxi = this type of thing (write-up) nèpiån wênzhång = that article (item of news) zhìtiæo xiåoxi (/ xðnxí) = this message (flat.2 (Measure Words) yð… (before …à a. essay table VOCABULARY 24. or documents yîcð = once. liçngcð = twice liçng zhóng rên = two kinds of people nèbën shõ wó kènle liçngbièn = I read that book twice [completely].(two) liçngbën shõ = a couple of books …ge …bën …fìn …cð …zhóng …bièn …diçn …duèn …fö …lìi …piån …tiæo …zhång …zuô (used generally) (thick books) (leaflets.

I know one kind of friend. nèlìi fèngzi huð shð hën hço wêi That house will be very good for our wóde jùhuð meeting. Give my mother that (thick) magazine We gave a pair of (thin) magazines. Burford and E. She came here twice. J. Burford 2003 38 5 August 2005 . Do you know a reason? I did not read that [volume of the] book.1 tå læile zhìr liçngcð næ zhìfên zæzhð nièn nè hço de yîzhóng rên shð hço bù hço PRACTICE 24.1 zhì shð yîge hço rên nï zhídao yîge yuænyín ma? wó mêi kèn nèbën shõ gëi wó mèma zhìbën zæzhð wómen gëile liçng fìn zæzhð tå qù nèr liçngcð wó rìnshi yîzhóng pêngyou PRACTICE 24. Read that [aloud] well. Take this magazine. qïng kèn jíntiån nèfìn zæzhð de Please read today this article in that zhìpiån wên zhång magazine. wó kènjian tå le zèi nèzhång I saw it on that table zhuñzi shang wó xíwèng zuñ yízuô hço fængzi I would like to make a nice house. Two kinds of person are good and bad.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course PRACTICE 24.2 tå dåi zèi dèhuð qíjiån liçngbièn le She stayed during [all] the assembly twice. © B. zhénxiång zèi nèduèn jùhuð wómen huð xuêxî In that section of the meeting we will zhìfìn zæzhð study this magazine. J. wómen yóu yîdiçn yðjièn guånyö We have one idea about the truth. This is a nice person. He went there on a couple of occasions.

Burford 2003 39 5 August 2005 . This book is the best. J. That man is better than those people. This book is very good.3 zhìge nænrên shð tåde nænpêngyou wó shð nège nýhæirde bèba zhìge nýrên rênshi nège nænhæir nège nænrên bï nèxié rên hço This man is her boyfriend. That is a good book.1 bï zuð nænný. This book is better than that book. J. than (in comparison with) most. This is the best book.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 25 VOCABULARY 25. nýxðng de nænhæir nýhæir GRAMMAR 25. Ours is better than theirs. This book is best. Burford and E. (= this book compared to that book is good) This is better than that..1 nè shð hço de shõ zhìbën shõ shð hço (de) zhìbën shõ shð hën hço de nèbën shõ shð bù hço de zhìbën shõ bï nèbën shõ hço zhì bï nè hço wómende bï tåmende hço GRAMMAR 25. the most (indicating the superlative) male (relating to humans) female (relating to humans) boy girl © B. This book is good.2 zhìbën shõ shð zuð hço de zhìbën shõ shð zuð hço de zhì shð zuð hço de shõ GRAMMAR 25. I am that girl's father This woman knows that boy. That book is not good.

J. …á. (Study 24 shows more ‘measure words’. since yínwìi … but dènshð. dèo about.1 (Vocabulary Review English to Chinese Mandarin) > a. essay (yðpiån) wênzhång … built things …-zuô (MW) as.) Use yð before …à. is. or …â. let rèng …. an yîge. be located) zèi because of yínwìi … because of (linking the êr [zèi] … yïqiæn tð …. visit fçngwìn attempt to shð can nêng go back. J. on the subject of … guånyö … after … [zèi] … yïhôu ahead [zèi] … qiæn[mian] ahead of [zèi] … qièn allow rèng allow to …. the best zuð hço de and not êr better than … bï … hço answer dæfù (a) book (yðbën) shõ (an) article writboy nænhæir ten. etc. help bång. Burford and E. can nêng. help bångmång. bångzhù by (the side of) [zèi] … pæng[biån] assistance. gëi … and hê and (joining > be (be present. [zèi] … hoù[bian] [located] below [zèi] … xiè[mian] two verbs or beside … [zèi] … pæng[biån] adjectives) … êr[qië] … best. këshð assembly dèhuð but not êr assist. are) shð before … on behalf of behind cause of an action with the action itself) © B. dèi … [zèi] … hôu[mian]. Burford 2003 40 5 August 2005 . bångzhù by (near to) [zèi] … yðn [located] at [zèi] … mian call on.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course STUDY 26 VOCABULARY 26. else yî have the ability to. return huî be (am.

possess yóu have not mêi yóu he tå help. since … còng … yïlæi. Burford and E.g. Burford 2003 41 5 August 2005 . gëi … for [the purpose of] wìi[le] friend pêngyou from [China] còng [Zhñngguò] from … on. be able to accomplish. may … kënêng …. article written (yðpiån) wênzhång exist zèi father bèba. bångzhù her … tåde … [located] here [zèi] zhìr. yëxø … China Zhñngguò come læi convention dèhuð converse shuñhuè a couple of liçng. nêng have a chance to …. know how to huð. lðtö (an) essay. assistance bångmång. bångzhù help. J. huô … huô … else. try jðnlð. fù qín female … nýfine hço for [one who benefits] wìi …. ‘liçngge’) … (complete) cycles of …-bièn (MW) desire to … xíwèng … did … (past) … le did not … mêi … do. otherwise … bùræn … > endeavour. J. dèo can. còng … qø in front of [zèi] … qiæn[mian] girl nýhæir give gëi go qù good hço grasp hold næ have. manage dèocan. essay (yðpiån) wênzhång (either)… or … huôzhë…huôzhë ….Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course > can.(method as for ‘yð-’: e. have an ability or possibility to nêng. assist bång. make zuô (a) document (yîfìn) zæzhð down [zèi] xiè (a) drawing (yðfö) huè due to … yòuyö … during … [zæi] … qíjiån (an) editorial. [zèi] zhìlï his tåde © B.

like to xïhuan …. do zuô male … næn-… man nænrên Mandarin pøtñnghuè manner. much] (what extent) duñ [e. gëi … letter (document) xðn like to. xï'èi … is it so? ma? it tå … (news) items of …-tiæo (MW) its tåde … kind(s) of …-zhóng (MW) > know (be acquainted with) rìnshi know (facts) zhídao [a] leaflet [yîfìn] zæzhð learn xuêxî let. hope to … xíwèng … live. … copies of (of pictures) …-fö (MW) [located] in [zèi] … lï in (joining in) chånjiå indeed. then röguó …. have a chance to … kënêng ….Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course > hope to. surely hën [located] inside [zèi] … lïmian have an interest in …. xï'èi …would like to. reside zhù located zèi be located zèi in the location (described by ‘zèi’) … mian love [someone] èi love [something] èihèo [a] thin magazine [yîfìn] zæzhð make (something). yëxø … © B. nèmuó … if (supposing) jiçrö (or yèoshi) [an] illustration [yðfö] huè … images of. Burford and E. Burford 2003 42 5 August 2005 . shén] how much? duñshço? I wó [an] idea (yðdiçn) yðjièn if (in the case that) … then yèoshi … (jiù) if (on the condition that) …. way fångfç may. J. J. allow to … rèng ….g. would like to … xíwèng … how (in what manner)? zënme? zënyèng? how [far. enjoy xïhuan ….

J. bùdêbù … of … …de [located] on [zèi] … shang one yí once. yîdðng dêi …. Burford 2003 43 5 August 2005 . mø qín mm. have permission to … këyï … meet jiènmièn meeting jùhuð [a] message [yðtiæo] xiåoxi. huô…huô… © B. have to it is necessary that … xõyèo … never (future) yóngyuçn bù never (present or habitual) cònglæi bù never (past) cònglæi mêi [yóu] No bù No! That's not so! (respond- > No. Burford and E. as you say! (confirming negative words) shðde! duð! But it is! = No!. is it so? ma? my wóde nearby [zèi] …fùyðn it is necessary that … xõyèo … have a necessity to … yîdðng yèo … need to. yëxø … or (alternatively) … hæishð … or (either…or) huôzhë…huôzhë…. J. (bù!) bùxø …!. way fångshð more … than [that] bï [tå] … [the] most … zuð … mother mèma. xðnxí method. one time yîcð (an) opinion (yðdiçn) yðjièn have an opportunity to … kënêng …. that's not the case! (faulting a negative suggestion) No …! (not permitted) shðde!.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course > may. must bðxõ …. jðnzhï …! bö zèi bö zèi bù (Note: bö shð) bù xiènzèi ing to positive words) bù! no longer no more not not want to now have an obligation to.

may këyï … person. dåi and understand) … > reside.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course > or (otherwise) … bùræn … otherwise … bùræn … ought to … yínggåi … our wómende out [zèi] … wèi[bian]. understand mîngbai.g. dóng should. ‘liçngge’) … parts of …-duèn (MW) pass close to lùguô have permission to. lïjië. ought yínggåi … since. watch jièn see a sight kènjièn not see a sight kèn bù jièn See you tomorrow mîngtiån jièn! see. Burford 2003 44 5 August 2005 . tell gèosu … sections of …-duèn (MW) see. còng … qø so. stay liù xiæ. J. liùxia. guånyö … suitable shðdang suitably shðdang de [a] table [yðzhång] zhuñzi take. liùxia. remain liù xiæ. zèi … wèimian [a] painting [yðfö] huè a pair of liçng. dåi study xuêxî on the subject of …. dö … [the] reason [is] yuænyín remain. therefore yíncï …. [zèi] … wèi[mian] outside zèi … wèibian. squarish) …-zhång (MW) Please! qïng! proper shðdang properly shðdang de question wìntî read dö read (look at kèn … read aloud [something] niæn …. way lù …s …men …'s. suóyï … speak … shuñ speak words to converse shuñhuè stay. go back huî road. J. as yínwìi … since. grasp næ tell gèosu © B.(method as for ‘yð-’: e. people rên place dðfang … planar things (flat. live zhù return. Burford and E. …s' …de say … shuñ say to. from còng … yïlæi.

lðtö try out in use shðyông twice liçngcð two …. via) through (from bï [tå] … xiìxie! nè nège … [omit] nèshî. J. pair of liçng. ‘liçngge’) … types of …-lìi (MW) under [zèi] … xièmian understand mîngbai.(method as for ‘yð-’: e. J. those … … thoughts of through (by way of. [zèi] nèlï [mêi] yóu [mêi] yóu yíncï …. attempt to shð try. at that moment their [located] there there are [not] there is [not] therefore … these. see (e. zhénshî try. these … they thing this (pronoun) this (pronoun. nèxié … …-diçn (MW) tñngguô … one side to the other) chuångguô … through (in the name of) fìng … de mîng pass through.) then. tòng …. endeavour jðnlð. emphasized) this … those. pass by lùguô > … time(s) …-cð (MW) once. lïjië. Burford 2003 45 5 August 2005 . zhìxié … tåmen dñngxi zhì zhìgì zhìge … nèxié. suóyï … zhìxié.g.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course > more … than [that] Thanks! that (pronoun) that … that (conj. to … dèo … [located] upon [zèi] … shèngmian use. genuine zhén a truth zhénlï the truth zhénxiång. dóng until …. a doctor) kèn … volume of …-bën (MW) © B. call on fçngwìn visit. (a benefit) yông make use of yông. shïyông try out in use shðyông very hën visit. one time yîcð to (a place) dèo … to (speaking with) hê…. dångshî tåmende [zèi] nèr.g. gén … today jíntiån tomorrow mîngtiån on top of [zèi] … shèngmian true. Burford and E.

J. method way. (bù!) zuòtiån nï nïmen nïde nïmende © B. as necessary) yesterday you YOU your YOUR shðde!. as you say! (confirming negative words) shðde! duð! But yes it is! = that's not the case! (faulting a negative suggestion) which? (plural) nçxié? who …? shêi …? whose? shêi de? shuî de? why? for what? wêishênme? will … (future) huð … wish to … këwèng … with (by using) [zèi] yông … with (company) tòng …. road way. Burford and E.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course want to … watch way. Burford 2003 46 5 August 2005 . manner way.) > xiçng … kèn fångfç fångshð lù fångshð wómen huånyîng! hço shênme …? suó shênme shîhou? nçlï? nçr? shðfóu nç [yî]ge? (change > write xië write a letter xië xðn … write-ups of …-piån (MW) Yes! shð[de] That idea is correct. etc. hê … [yðqï] gén … yðqï without (not having …) mêiyóu … woman nýrên ‘ge’ to ‘bën’. J. style we Welcome! well what …? whatever when? what time? where? whether which? (sing.

help bång. must bðxõ …. liù xiæ. (bù!) assembly. bångzhù assistance. bångzhù … volume of …-bën (MW) better than … bï … hço more … than (that) bï (tå) … have an obligation to. must bðxõ …. bùdêbù … but No …! (not to (a place) permitted) bùxø …!. have an obligconvention ation to. liùxia nèshî. otherwise in (joining in) through (from < bö zèi bù (Note: bö shð) bù xïhuan. yîdðng dêi on behalf of …. Burford 2003 47 5 August 2005 . since … never (present or habitual) never (past) But it is! = No!. jðnzhï …! until …. còng … qø cònglæi bù cònglæi mêi [yóu] dåi.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course VOCABULARY 26. stay that's not the then. bùdêbù … … (complete) cycles of …-bièn (MW) No bù No! That's not so! (respondno more not not want to not all … No …! (not permitted) else. to … no longer bö zèi ing to positive words) bù! © B. bù xiçng bù … dñu bùxø …!. jðnzhï …! … bùræn … chånjiå chuångguô … …-cð (MW) yîcð còng [Zhñngguò] còng … yïlæi. J. one time from [China] from … on. dångshî dæfù dèhuð dèi … dènshð. at that case! (faulting moment a negative answer suggestion) shðde!. help bångmång. yîdðng dêi …. këshð dèo … dèo … one side to the other) … time(s) once.2 (Vocabulary Review Chinese Mandarin to English) < love [someone] èi love [something] èihèo father bèba. J. fù qín assist. Burford and E. remain.

…'s. must yîdðng dêi … of …. Burford and E. J. understand mîngbai. be able to accomplish. dóng read. read aloud dö … parts or sections of …-duèn (MW) No. well hço or (alternatively) … hæishð … and hê © B. … copies of (of pictures) …-fö (MW) father bèba. shén] how much? duñshço? and (joining two verbs or adjectives) … êr … êr and not the name of) fìng … de mîng [an] illustration [yðfö] huè … images of. lïjië. can nêng. Burford 2003 48 5 August 2005 . J. gén … yðqï give gëi allow to …. fù qín nearby [zèi] …fùyðn say to. way call on. gëi … for [one who benefits] wìi …. much] (what extent) duñ [e. on the subject of … guånyö … fine. as you say! (confirming but not manner. let rèng ….g. gëi … about. way method. dèo can. …s' …de (See Study 18 because of (linking the < cause of an action with the action itself) on uses of ‘de’ place dðfang … thoughts of …-diçn (MW) thing dñngxi see. tell gèosu to (speaking with) tòng …. visit through (in êr êr fångfç fångshð fçngwìn negative words) [See ‘shðde’] shðde! duð! how [far. manage dèo have an obligation to. gén … with (company) tòng ….Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course < have the ability to. good.

watch jièn See you tomorrow! mîngtiån jièn! meet jiènmièn if (in the case that) … then yèoshi … [jiù] meeting jùhuð read (look at and understand) … kèn … visit. yëxø … but dènshð. liùxia road. nêng [either]… or … huô … huô … [either]… or … huôzhë…huôzhë … today jíntiån endeavour. J. lðtö remain. hê … [yðqï] very. surely hën behind [zèi] … hôu[mian]. try jðnlð. painting (yðfö) huè go back. way lù pass close to lùguô mother mèma is it so? ma? did not … mêi … have not. [zèi] … hoù[bian] Welcome! huånyîng! (a) drawing. lðtö No …! (not permitted) bùxø …!. with (company) tòng …. know how to huð. stay liù xiæ. return huî will … (future) huð … can. Burford and E. tòng …. ‘liçngge’) endeavour. Burford 2003 49 5 August 2005 . indeed. J.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course < to (speak with) hê….g. may … kënêng …. see (e. jðnzhï …! if (supposing) jiçrö (or yèoshi) see.(method as for ‘yð-’: e. there isn't/aren't mêi yóu without (not having …) mêiyóu … …s …men [located] at [zèi] … mian © B. try jðnlð. understand lïjië. have permission to … këyï … come læi … types of …-lìi (MW) did … (past) … le [located] in [zèi] … lï see.g. këshð wish to … këwèng … may. dóng tomorrow mîngtiån [located] inside [zèi] … lïmian a couple of liçng. a doctor) kèn < see a sight kènjièn not see a sight kèn bù jièn have a chance to …. mîngbai.

Burford and E. know how to huð. nèmuó … can nêng [located] on [zèi] … shang [located] upon [zèi] … shèngmian © B. let rèng …. nèmuó … allow to …. understand mîngbai. lïjië. allow rèng then röguó ….) [omit] ahead. dångshî ainted with) rìnshi those. etc. J.) nç [yî]ge? (change < can. people rên then. at that know (be acqumoment nèshî. dóng mother mø qín grasp hold næ male … næn-… boy nænhæir man nænrên which? (sing. gëi … [located] there [zèi] nèr person. nèxié … if (on the condhave the ability ition that) …. Burford 2003 50 5 August 2005 . those … nèxié. in front [located] there [zèi] nèlï of [zèi] … qiæn[mian] if (on the condgo qù ition that) …. J. can nêng.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course < in the location (described by ‘zèi’) … mian through (in the name of) fìng … de mîng see. to. nêng you nï YOU nïmen your nïde YOUR nïmende read aloud (something) niæn … female … nýgirl nýhæir woman nýrên beside … [zèi] … pæng[biån] ‘ge’ to ‘bën’. by [the side of] [zèi] … pæng[biån] as necessary) friend pêngyou which? (plural) nçxié? … write-ups of …-piån (MW) where? nçlï? Mandarin pøtñnghuè where? nçr? during … [zæi] … qíjiån that (pronoun) nè Please! qïng! that … nège … ahead of [zèi] … qièn that (conj. dèo then röguó ….

therefore he. editorial. Burford 2003 51 5 August 2005 . suitable properly suitably whether try out in use [a] book whose? say …. suóyï … © B. is. she. as you say!] (confirming shðde! duð! But yes it is! = No!. her.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course who …? whose? what …? when? what time? shênme shîhou? why? for what? wêishênme? make use of yông. hê … [yðqï] to (speaking with) tòng …. try shð be (am. me wó my wóde we. J. also him. shïyông attempt to. essay [yðpiån] wênzhång for [one who benefits] wìi …. its tåde … they tåmen their tåmende on behalf of tð …. J. gén … out[side] [zèi] … wèi[bian]. Burford and E. (bù!) shðdang shðdang de shðfóu shðyông [yðbën] shõ shêi de? shuî de? shuñ proper. out[side] [zèi] … wèi[mian] why? for what? wêishênme? [an] article written. are) shð Yes! shð[de] No. via) tñngguô … with (company) tòng …. to it tå her. gëi … for [the purpose of] wìi[le] question wìntî I. as you say: [Yes. that's not the case! (faulting < shêi …? shêi de? shuî de? shênme …? negative words) a negative suggestion) shðde!. speak converse whatever so. that idea is correct. it. us wómen our wómende < shuñhuè suó yíncï …. his. dèi … … (news) items of …-tiæo (MW) through (by way of.

write a letter xië xðn essay [yðpiån] wênzhång need to. possess. J. else yî letter (docu(an) article writment) xðn after … [zèi] … yïhôu [a] message [yðtiæo] xðnxí before … [zèi] … yïqiæn [a] message [yðtiæo] xiåoxi [an] idea [yðdiçn] yðjièn want to … xiçng … [an] idea [yðdiçn] yðjièn [located] below [zèi] … xiè[mian] by (near to) [zèi] … yðn Thanks! xiìxie! [an] article writwrite xië ten. like to xïhuan … a. like to xï'èi … Use yð before …à. suóyï … there is/are yóu ought to … yínggåi … have not. or …â. study xuêxî use. so. editorial. have to with (company) hê … [yðqï] it is necessary gén … yðqï that … xõyèo … [a] table [yðzhång] zhuñzi learn. Burford and E. therefore yíncï …. there as. an yîge. …á. yëxø … never (future) yóngyuçn bù one yí have. J. etc.Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course < down because of yínwìi … now once. shïyông that) … [then] yèoshi … [jiù] try out in use shðyông if (supposing) jiçrö [or yèoshi] with (by using) [zèi] yông … have a chance due to … yòuyö … to …. Burford 2003 52 5 August 2005 . one time yîcð desire/hope/ have an obligwould like ation to. (Study 24 have an interest shows more ‘measure words’.) in …. since yínwìi … isn't/aren't mêi yóu < [zèi] xiè xiènzèi © B. may … kënêng …. (a benefit) yông if (in the case make use of yông. must yîdðng dêi … to … xíwèng … have a neceshave an interest sity to … yîdðng yèo … in ….

out(side) [zèi] … wèi[mian] down [zèi] xiè after … [zèi] … yïhôu before … [zèi] … yïqiæn by (near to) [zèi] … yðn [located] below [zèi] … xiè[mian] [located] here [zèi] zhìlï [located] here [zèi] zhìr [a] document. leaflet. reside zhù [a] table [yðzhång] zhuñzi [the] most … zuð … best. genuine zhén a truth zhénlï the truth zhénxiång. Burford 2003 53 5 August 2005 .Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course < [the] reason [is] yuænyín be (be present. in front of [zèi] … qiæn[mian] [located] on [zèi] … shang [located] upon [zèi] … shèngmian out(side) [zèi] … wèi[bian]. emphasized) zhìgì this … zhìge … these. make zuô … built things …-zuô (MW) < © B. be located. the best zuð hço de yesterday zuòtiån do. be alive. [zèi] nèlï beside …. by (the side of) [zèi] … pæng[biån] during … [zæi] … qíjiån ahead of [zèi] … qièn ahead. thin magazine [yîfìn] zæzhð how (in what manner)? zënme? how (in what manner)? zënyèng? … planar things (flat. exist) zèi behind [zèi] … hôu[mian]. these … zhìxié. J. zhénshî this (pronoun) zhì this (pronoun. behind [zèi] … hoù[bian] [located] in [zèi] … lï [located] inside [zèi] … lïmian [located] at [zèi] … mian [located] there [zèi] nèr. zhìxié … [located] here [zèi] zhìlï [located] here [zèi] zhìr know (facts) zhídao China Zhñngguò … kind(s) of …-zhóng (MW) live. squarish) …-zhång (MW) true. Burford and E. J.

Burford 2003 54 5 August 2005 .Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course © B. J. Burford and E. J.