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ARCHITECTURAL SHADES AND SHADOWS .

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ARCHITECTURAL SHADES AND SHADOWS BY HENRY MCGOODWIN INSTRUCTOR IN ARCHITECTURE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA BOSTON BATES & GUILD COMPANY 1904 .

FIRST EDITION V* 8 '04 COPYRIGHT. BOSTON . 1904. BY BATES & GUILD COMPANY NA 57/5" M3 (( OCT-61965 1 1012504 PRINTED AT THE PLIMPTON PRESS.

Chandler. H. fitly establish their art is America. McG. and to excel this book respectfully inscribed. of the Massachusetts whose kindly influence has long been an aid and an inspiration to hundreds of those young archiInstitute of Technology.To Professor Francis W. tects in who are engaged in the effort to in it. .

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Department of Architecture of the Institute of Technology which furnished for reproduction the drawing by Mr. F. assisted in the preparation of these photographs. of the . W. who furnished the models of which photographs are published hereafter. in architectural terms. who furnished for reproduction the drawings of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Charles Emmel. of Washington University. The author desires to acknowledge here the assistance. to whose interest and painstaking care will be due much of whatever success the work mav have. of Prof. of Boston. Gardner.PREFACE THE purpose of this book is twofold: first. Temple. and of Prof. of the Massachusetts Institute of Techthe text nology. finally. T. Hunt. and as clearly and simply as may be. whose lens was used in making them. this subject hitherto published. to present to the architectural student a course in the cast- ing of architectural shadows. of Philadelphia. Olmsted. These do not appear to have been the purposes of books on fore the preparation of this one has seemed justifiable. of Mr. F. and there- In the discussions of problems no greater knowledge of geometry has been assumed on the part of the student than is in the possession of most architectural draftsmen of a little experience. in the preparation of the book. and second. to furnish examples of the shadows of such architectural forms as occur oftenest in practice. of Mr. Consequently accompanying some of the problems is longer and more elementary than would otherwise have been necessary. the exposition of which shall be made from the architect's standpoint. L. which the draftsman may use for reference in drawing shadows when it is impracticable to cast them. Mann. M. of Mr. Stevens. who . H. and. whose criticism and advice have been most helpful of Mr. of the publishers. B.

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........ Chimneys.......'.. ARTICLE XII...... ' 6 ^ 4."...'...... 56 [9] ... ARTICLE XX......."...... ............... The Shades and Shadows of Cylinders ... 23 and 24 ..'. ...'. . 24 27 26 2g 31 '..... 12 and 13 ........... Preliminary Considerations FIGURES n...... 29............. The Shadows of Dormers...... FIGURE 3 ......... . The Uses of Conventional Shadows ..........22 FIGURE....................!... ..V.......... ARTICLE XX.... ARTICLE XIV. General Methods of Casting Shadows ...."... !!/!!!". The Application of the Foregoing Methods in Practice ... ARTICLE VI........ "...... ARTICLE XIX..... ARTICLE III..........'........" ARTICLE XIII....... ARTICLE XVI. ......... The Shades and Shadows of Spheres FIGURES 33and 34 ........... ..............."""! FIGURES 25.......' 32 .... ...... . ...... 42) 44 47 I '. ARTICLE II..'.........."!!!! ARTICLE XXI.... ... The Method of Auxiliary Shadows FIGURE 9 ....... . .......... i 7 ' l6 21 .. ARTICLE XVII............. FIGURES 18 and 19 ......I""..... and 30 . The Slicing Method '" FIGURE 10 ......'.......... 36 and 37......... ....... The Shadows of an Arcade and its Roof on a Wall behind It FIGURES 40 and 41 . The Shades and Shadows of Cones .......50 52 "'............. The Shadows on Steps . ARTICLE IV.....................................'......CONTENTS ARTICLE I.......... 14.'.... ..... ................ ...."'.................""".... ARTICLE VII....... 'i 12 i . 21.... FIGURES 4 5 and 6 ...".................." ARTICLE VIII........ "........................ 16 and 17 .. The Method of Oblique Projection .... The Shadow of a Circular Niche with a Spherical Head FIGURES 31 and 32 .. 22............. .. The Shadows of Certain Straight Lines FIGURES 14........ ARTICLE XV. The Shadows on Steps FIGURE 39 .... . ....."!""! FIGURES 20... ARTICLE XVIII..".. on Roofs FIGURES 35.......... . 26... ... ..'..... The Practical Importance of the Study of Shadows .....'........."-"!!!!.........."....... '" ARTICLE V. ......... etc...."..........'.. The Point of View ............... ............ 28.......""""...........'............................ ...."........................ ARTICLE XI. 15... Preliminary Suggestions as to Solutions of Problems Hereafter Given FIGURE 2 ..... ... The Shadows of Circles .. .".. The Importance of the Study of Actual Shadows FIGURE ......'..................... 20...... ... 27........... (Continued).. I"!""".....""""........ ARTICLE X.................... ARTICLE IX..........'......... 48..."i!........... The Method of Circumscribing Surfaces FIGURE 8 ....... ....... FIGURE 38 .....

The Shades and Shadows on a Baluster FIGURE 50 ARTICLE XXVII. The Shades and Shadows of the Ionic Order FIGURE 73. The Shades and Shadows of the Corinthian Order FIGURES 69 and 70 ARTICLE XXXVI. . . 65 66 69 68. . The Shades and Shadows of the Ionic Order FIGURE 75. The Shades and Shadows of the Roman Doric Order FIGURES 60. etc 77 FIGURE 51 ARTICLE XXVIII. The Shades and Shadows of the Composite Capital FIGURE 71 SHADES AND SHADOWS PHOTOGRAPHED FROM MODELS FIGURE 72. The Shades and Shadows of a Tuscan Capital FIGURES 46. 104 106 108 no 112 114 1 16 118 [10] . The Shades and Shadows of the Ionic Order FIGURE 74. The Shades and Shadows on a Tuscan Base with the Shadows on a Wall FIGURES 43. 65 and 66 ARTICLE XXXIV. 47 and 48 ARTICLE XXV. The 76 Shades and Shadows on a Circular Building with a Domical Roof.(CONTENTS ARTICLE XXII. The Shades and Shadows of the Ionic and Corinthian Pilaster Capitals. 62 and 63 ARTICLE XXXIII. The Shades and Shadows of the Roman Ionic Order FIGURES 64. 6 1. 54 and 55 . 62 The Shades and Shadows on a Conical Roof a Roof and Wall of a Circular FIGURE 42 ARTICLE XXIII. The Shades and Shadows of the Roman Tuscan Order FIGURES 58 and 59 ARTICLE XXXII. 44 and 45 ARTICLE XXIV. Seen 79 78 81 in Section FIGURE 52 ARTICLE XXIX. 70 73 72 75 1 74 Modillions. The Shades and Shadows of the Corinthian Order FIGURE 78. The Shades and Shadows on a Pediment FIGURES 53.. with Consoles and . The Shades and Shadows of the Angular Ionic Order FIGURE 76. C'T'D) Tower with 61 60. The Shades and Shadows of a Greek Doric Capital FIGURES 56 and 57 ARTICLE XXXI. The Shades and Shadows of the Corinthian Order FIGURE 79. 80 83 82 85 84 87 86 89 88 91 90 93 92 95 94 96 98 100 102 . The Shades and Shadows of an Urn and Plinth FIGURE 49 ARTICLE XXVI. The Shades and Shadows of the Composite Order FIGURE 80. 64. The Shades and Shadows of the Angular Ionic Order according to Scamozzi FIGURES 67 and 68 ARTICLE XXXV. The Shades and Shadows of a Cornice over a Door Head. . The Shades and Shadows of the Angular Ionic Order FIGURE 77. FIGURE 81 The Shades and Shadows of a Modillion and of a Console ALPHABETICAL INDEX : : . .' ARTICLE XXX.

not involved in the knowledge of the principles of casting shadows. and with the methods most convenient for determining these and shadows in general. accurately. as far as possible.ARTICLE The Point THE of I View student should realize at the outset that in casting shadows on architectural drawings he is The shades and shadows of dealing with materials of art rather than with materials of mathematics. precise. with no mention of the shadows which invariably accompany those orders and modify their proportions wherever The student has been encouraged to spend weeks or perhaps months in they are lighted by the sun. disinterested and perfunctory. He It is parts of descriptive geometry. They are architectural entities. and his study of these subjects spiritless. He is usually keenly useless. precision is an affair of drawing and rendering. artistically expressive "touch" or technique. the purpose being to give that one which appears most likely to be convenient in practice and comprehensible to the student. of great importance to the draftsman or designer that he should be familiar with the forms of those shadows which are most common in architectural work. yet without consideration of those masses It has been common in the schools to teach the orders carefully as to and shapes dark which have largely influenced the development and must always influence the use of these elements. these "principles" have no final value in architectural work. learning to draw the architectural elements with great precision. to regard the mathematical part of the study of architectural shadows or its essence. the drawing and rendering of them. But. that is. Consequently these masses and shapes of dark must be as carefully considered in the study of design as are columns or entablatures. Now. having form. These things have not been ows. . object having no greater architectural importance than the scale or triangle or other tools used in making drawings. and with a sure. as before suggested. therefore. not as is urged. the right study of elements of architecture from the expression. it is important that he should the orders and other elements readily. and expressiveness ? This last. it may be objected. It is. but merely as its means. Therefore the use of mathematical The student its terminology has been. not mathematical things. if clearly and generally put to the student of architectural shades and shad- they have been put at all. All architectural drawings expression of will have for their purpose and result the they be really architectural It is as impossible to separate the expression of the architect's idea conception. avoided in the following discussions. form and proportion. alive to and interested in whatever vitally concerns his art. it is equally important that he should become quite as familiar with the shadows of those elements. It has also been thought best to avoid presenting more than one method of solving any given problem. architectural objects are architectural things. moreover. therefore. then. and if once convinced that the subject of shad- has been asked to study shades and shadows and perspective as little wonder that his results have often been mistaken and ows does so concern his art. or other masses. he will bring to the study of it an interest and enthusiasm that will produce results of artistic value. be able to draw If. mass and proportion just as have other architectural entities. if it is of importance that he should become thoroughly familiar with the orders of and other elements of architectural compositions. is it not quite as important that he should draw their shadows with an equal ease. from the technique of his drawings as to separate the technique of a musician from the expression of the if an artistic composer's idea. and are useful It is impossible. to separate only as means to expression.

one in which the shadows are hastily and badly drawn to save time. and. that is to say. tour. the fine balance and proportion of masses that had engaged the skill and enthusiasm of the designer. colonnades. the expression of the artist's idea. It is hard to imagine that the broad and simple designs of the Greeks could ever have been evolved in a northern climate where the low-lying sun would never have modelled them as does the brilliant southern sunlight for which they were intended. its light and the shadows it casts will introduce into the design elements which to a large degree must influence the character of its details - and the disposition of its masses. Nothing can add more to the beauty and expressiveness of a drawing than well-drawn and well. can naturally in vastness would have disappeared and grotesqueness places.rendered shadows. all details. and it is imperative. the development of different styles of architecture in different latitudes. no ing purely aesthetic consideration so greatly influences design as does that of shadows. carefully placed spots to give accent and interest. out of account considerations of construction and of the practical requirements of planning. all projections within the contour lines. and in the study of design. the perfecting of the artist's idea. and where they would have seemed cold and dull. its leavIndeed. would disappear. . [12] . that it be conceived that the cathedrals of the north of Europe could have develGreece or Italy or Spain ? There the vivid light would have cast shadows so intense oped as to have reduced them to an incoherent jumble of sharp lines and unyielding masses. style. If the shadows are drawn with and a good technique. readily and is truly on all his studies in design. As to the first point it may be said that in office practice it is always the most important drawings that are rendered. the drawing will look "rendered" to a surprising degree even before any precision washes have been laid and the very lightest washes. that the shadows on them be drawn and rendered as and care may make possible. shadows should have influenced. Imagine a building executed in pure white marble and exposed. then. its artistic expression. proportions. would vanish. its handling. It is inevitable. is the consideration of the lighting of a thing designed to have light upon it. Cornices. will make a very effective as well as a very quickly executed rendering. lavishly expended But before and far above this consideration of draftsmanship and rendering in the expression of the artist's idea lies the consideration of the importance of shadows in the study of design. and draw and render them on his finished drawings with the greatest possible effect. "colour. but to uniformly diffused The building would have no other apparent form than that of its conlight that would cast no shadows. Mystery and On the other hand. which is then on a laborious system of washes. that he may express them quickly. however gradually and unconsciously.ARTICLE The As suggested and shadows in the II Practical Importance of the Study of Shadows preceding article the practical importance of the study of architectural shades in the lies in two points: rendering of drawings. the value of shadows in adding to the expressiveness of a drawing depends far more on the drawing of those shadows than on the rendering of them. one that will give a well as knowledge. It would seem as flat as a great unbroken wall." relief. therefore. How important. with a few strong. and violence of effect would have taken their In view of these considerations the student his artistic faculties fully urged to study architectural shadows carefully and with awake to their essential value. in the attainment far better effect than of the idea It is and the perfecting of it. with shadows that the designer models his building. of its shadows! As long as the sun shines on a building. contrary to the general belief of inexperienced draftsmen. gives it texture. most intimately and constantly. not to sunlight. skill. The beauty of all the carefully wrought details. therefore.

The head gives an entire octave of tones in light and shade. . to the convex mouldings or to the plane surfaces of fillets. and as the major part of not the case with the to obtain a roll. . . The cavctto or scotia is usually a foil shadow. It is needless to say that the importance of such study in relation to masses is as much greater as masses are more important than are details. Vol. . .. the object of the moulding being solely to produce a line of shadow equivalent" (i. higher type than the fillet. .. . while serving the same purpose. they show the care with which the Greek studied the effect i. much attention should be paid to the best section profile of it... which is always . following quotations from an article by Mr. plane In the case of wood and stone fillets. .. 6. . (Architectural Review. In some of the bases the lower tori have a peculiar cast-up form. of mouldings. c. "The Theory witness to the of importance of the study of shadows in connection with detail. the chief characteristic of mouldings to be the beauty they require study in relation to the direction of light they receive. C. effective and graded shadow.. produces strong. of the principal surface of the moulding is entirely influenced by the tone value of light desired. No." See also Figure ['Si . Assuming .(ARTICLE The I! C'T'D) Howard Walker.). or profile by which to obtain of contrast of light and shade The . et seq. but as and shade can be obtained in various ways. proportional) "to the projection. the projection is usually less than the face of the mouldings. its section is seldom broken. and is a moulding of . . evidently It its surface is in broader shadow on the under side. bear Mouldings" "The this light mouldings is of minor importance compared to their relative light and shade.. VII. .

/ : FIGURE 1A FROM A LINK DRAWING FIGURE IB FROM A RENDERED DRAWING FIGURE 1C FROM A PHOTOGRAPH FIGURE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. HUNT AND RICHARD M. HUNT. ARCHITECTS . NEW YORK CITY 1 RICHARD H.

It is interesting to note how much more in the nearly the effect of the actual building line drawing above. furnish a very striking example of the effects of actual shadows. and how to avoid unpleasing shadow effects. and to enjoy these effects. Above all. The accompanying illustrations of the addition to the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts in New York. which it would be difficult to cast with certainty unless he had a generally correct intuition of the form such shadows should take. as well. It will increase his power of visual- how and why the shadows of an object take certain forms. The line drawing (Figure IA) gives little foreknowledge of the effect of the executed work. his work in design will take on a it new and For all hope of good artistic work must begin with the joy in and in the effort to produce it. and it will awaken in him. may be foreseen in the rendered drawing (Figure IB) than . the perception and enjoyment of the play of light and shadow over a facade or any well-modelled object.ARTICLE The III Importance of the Study of Actual Shadows work. and sharp notes of accent and contrast. with its subtle gradations of tone. and of the value of the study of shadows on drawings. When spirit the student has learned to see vitality. and less with those of forms common. it will train him to a just perception of the effects of actual shadows and of their relation to design will suggest to him how to obtain those shadows that will give the effects and the proportions he desires. as no studies on paper can do. published through the courtesy of the architect. IT will be of great interest and benefit to the student to observe carefully actual shadows on executed This observation will familiarize him with all the shadows of common architectural forms. isation. It will also help shadows on drawings the greatest possible interpretative force. of seeing mentally him give his rendering of .

FIGURE 2 Measured Drawing of a Window in Palazzo Communale. STEVENS . Bologna By G. F.-.

) The Method of Auxiliary Shadows. he will keep clearly in mind the nature of the problem he is to solve.'. Therefore the geometrical problems involved in the casting of shadows with the conventional direction of light will be as simple as possible.) The frlethod of Circumscribing Surfaces. [23] . It evident from Figure 4 that this angle to be determined as follows: AH. backward. trying to remember rules and methods by which to reach a solution.. C as an axis into a position where it is parallel to the front the true angle r. four. Generally speaking. graphical construction of r. edge 2 Then 'CH = . 1 They will be called: --The Method of Oblique Projection. (See Article VIII. the casting of shadows resolves itself into the problem of representing by plan and elevation the rays of light passing through the various points of the after the ray A R has been revolved about is A\ C 2 A A object of which the shadows are desired. and the ray moves equally downward.(ARTICLE V C'T'D) and elevations of the ray R arc forty live degree lines. R 2 draw a horizontal line C 2 y. if As intimated in the preceding article. . however. the true angle which R makes with the horizontal plane. (See Article IX.'.) 4 A brief preliminary consideration of each of these here follows. With C 2 as a center and C 2 A 2 Then A is the position of the point x. ARTICLE VI General Methods of Casting Shadows may be reduced to the problem of representing the rays which pass through points in the shade line of an object. While tin's direction of light has a different direction may of course be The is true angle which ray cube 2 R Income a universal convention with architects for all ordinary assumed whenever necessary in specific cases. and to the right. which arc those most generally applicable dealing with architectural forms. are outlined below. this problem Of these methods. As the objects themselves and the rays of light can be represented only by their plans and elevations. Hence. through any other point. as A 2 on the line R 2 draw a horizontal line A 2 as a radius describe the arc A 2 A'. the problem of casting shadows He is apt to entangle himself in According in to the character of the objects requires various methods of attack.) 3 The Slicing Method. When a given direction of light has been agreed upon. and finding the points at which those rays strike another object. and of finding where these rays are tangent to that object and where they strike the objects receiving the shadows. Erect the perpendicular A\ A. makes with the horizontal plane will be referred to as the angle is cases. plane. That shown in Figure 6 is the one used in practice. this is not a very difficult problem in descriptive geometry. those plans and elevations are necessary in the solutions of problems in the determining of shades and shadows. r. which cast or receive the shadows. <r = 35-. and it is one quite within the powers of an architectural draftsman of a little experience. is shown Figures 5 and 6 the two constructions being essentially the same. and 2 the student is urged to become thoroughly familiar with them. (See Article X. CD + -v/2 CG' i = 2 AB = 2 2 CH = = AC ==== if/ . Let of = i. comparison with Figure 5 will render the construction clear. Through any point C 2 of a forty-five-degree line. and The in . (See Article VII.

F I G VRE 7 .

" evident from an inspection of Figure 4. In problems where the number of capital letters alone is insufficient. be used only to denote the angle which the ray R makes with the horizontal and with its The plane of horizontal projections will be referred to as the "plan plane" or "ground plane". that the plan AF." (Figure 4. Avoid front confounding the ray itself The planes. the greatly projecting parts of a building will cast wider or deeper shadows than those parts which project less. will rendering of architectural drawings. It is further evident that it will be much easier to cast shadows with certain directions of light than with others. as the "front elevation plane." and will hereafter be referred to as plane. . letter r will plan and elevation which are forty-five-degree lines. but a direction which will be as nearly as possible an average of different directions of sunlight. as the "profile plane. the forms represented by those drawings and that it will therefore be most convenient to choose render the construction as simple as possible. the bottom of the cube being parallel to the ground and its front parallel to a front A ray having this direction is called the "conventional ray. that is to say. such a direction as the" ray R. The rays of light are therefore assumed infinite distance. are all the diagonals of squares. being neglected. Inasmuch as sun is by common the lighting of most architectural objects will be by the direct rays of the sun's light. at times. the projections of parts of a building beyond other parts will be measured by the widths and depths of will shadows. Points will generally be denoted by capital letters. IKJ the conventional direction. the plan It is AD AG [21] ." or "front plane". Furthermore. as these are somewhat more legible than the small letters.. Evidently.ARTICLE V The Uses of Conventional 4. It is also evident that the width and depth of shadows their depend upon the direction of light. if by common agreement a certain conventional direction of light be always assumed in the may be readily interpreted from the forms and extent of the shadows which the different parts cast. it will be best not only to use a direction of light generally agreed upon. the Since for practical purposes the sun may be considered to be at an of light are considered to be parallel. the front elevation and the side elevation of the diagonal AH. For all the above reasons it has been universally customary in architectural practice to consider the direction of light as being parallel to that diagonal of a cube drawn from the upper left front corner to the lower right back corner.) In the drawings illustrating the solutions of problems. Actual points will thus denoted in the text. . given a certain direction of light. That is. one of the purposes of the casting of shadows on architectural drawings is to render those drawings easy of direct interpretation. which is infinitesrays to be parallel. or of the ray R." etc. imal for any such distances as would appear in architectural work. the small letters will be used in the same way as the former. when only their plans or elevations appear on the drawing. An actual point in space will be denoted by a letter. the convention assumed as the source of light in architectural drawings. a uniform method of lettering has been adopted with the purpose of rendering the construction as easy to follow as possible. the convergence of its rays. The shadow of point A in plan will be lettered A 1S The front elevation of A will be lettered A2 The shadow of A in front elevation will be lettered A2sThe side elevation of A will be lettered A3 The shadow of A in side elevation will be lettered A^ The letter R will be used only to represent an actual ray having . Now. as the "point A. The plan of the point A will be lettered A. the plane perpendicular to both the horizontal and front planes. 5 Shadows 6 FIGURES AND As noted in Article II. the plane of vertical projections.

E S . TF I G VR E Fl G VK. O NT PLAN r.I-' P.

Let the line have a uniform width and weight throughout its length. (Figures If when cleanness is an object. the sandpaper sharpening-block always at the elbow. the student render his washes. For IV C'T'D) if F and shadows. system of rendering to be adopted must govern the width effect. about one grade softer than for Whatman's cold pressed paper. correct but as full of expression as posare well drawn. or even finished lines. and use it often enough to keep a good. be made quite prominent where a very light system of washes is to be used. It is of rendering is not often more appropriate than this very time-saving the solution of the problems to follow. that in shades and shadows with quite light flat In laying washes keep plenty of colour on the paper and float them on. when the paper is somewhat soft and spongy. of course. It is impossible to lay 7 a good wash with a dry brush. Force out most of the colour from the brush on the edge of the colour saucer before leading the wash to the line. broad or very deep. not frayed out at the finish. which are easiest and most quickly applied and which will not obliterate the construction lines. sensitive on as a young draftsman to draw with a stubby point. 8 9 as It is. [19] . In the following problems the student is advised not to make his shadow plates given rendering of shadows. springy point. Do not be afraid to let construction lines intersections. The damp days. He will do well to surround himself with as many photographs of well-rendered drawings as possible. to which he may refer for suggestion and guidance. While neata good thing it is not good drawing. nor so faint as to be lacking in decision.) is. Do not run over the lines to which the wash is to be brought.The use The of pure India ink is advised for the washes. The requirements of the process of reproduction and the necessity of making processes of construction as clear as possible have precluded the possibility of making them also examples of good technique. yet they should not be wiry. as may be seen from the accompanying illustrations. which comes readily to a fine. with a rather long. assumed that the brush is a sable brush.(ARTICLE an pencil for the finished lines of the object above grades arc suggested for dry days. A drawing may always be inked in and washed down or cleaned 5 ness is with bread before being rendered. of course. however. For smooth-surfaced papers use pencils The grades referred to are those of the Hardtmuth's "Kohinoor" series. If a very light system of washes be then put on. Keep the pencil well down lengthwise of the line to be drawn and twist it regularly and slightly as the line is drawn. . recommended. at times if run past each other at A better touch may usually be gotten the mind and hand are not cramped by the pur- pose of stopping lines at given points. Let the lines be ended with point on the leads. elastic point. the drawing will begin to look rendered before any washes are applied. the drawing will have a most pleasing lightness and ease of effect. make them not only accurately lines an elevation and the shadow on it 2 and It 3. not intended that a much more extended and complete system and knowing one. pianist A might as well try to play with gloves a firm touch. with good Figure 3. They may. not a "chisel-point. and ensures a uniformity of line. pencils softer than these by about one grade will answer better. bringing the brush to a sharp. This twisting keeps the point sharp for a considerable time. Keep the point of the pencil well in against the edge of the T-square or triangle when drawing. 6 In drawing shadow lines sible.The hereafter in illustration of the text are not to be considered as models in the lines either very may be seen in and depth of the shadow lines. 10 -. Do not be disturbed if the paper becomes soiled from the rubbing over the lines. these lines are not to be inked in." Keep Keep the pencils well sharpened. round point. It will be well to leave the construction lines on the drawings. A drawing has good qualities or not quite irrespective of the cleanness of the paper it is made on.

G V R E FI GVU K. 6 . ONT PLANE F I .P R.

Whether or not a drawing is to be inked in before being rendered. in Instruments and materials should be skill good condition and fit for their purposes." though it may sometimes appear so at first to the inexperienced eye. the skill of the draftsman. calendered paper may be used if desired. he will save much of the time necessary for him to reach a given point of final development. The beginner may be sure that his inkcd-in drawing It be so good as his pencil drawing. It should be needand long experience will often less to say that the draftsman who does good work with poor materials does so in spite of them. not the mere . is to be a prime object in men be the The pen it is 'not so tractable and improve drawings when they ink them in. that made by the Royal It should be stretched on the drawing-board. otherwise however simple it in character. if any. an H pencil for construction. that all drawings should be accurate and clear enough and should have expressiveness and "quality. The fact that a draftsman of great make a very admirable drawing with poor instruments or materials is no reason why the beginner can do so or should attempt to do so. The reverse is almost sure to an instrument as the pencil. of a draftsman a shadow without constructing it. draftsman to become convinced of young usually takes several If this fact. however. // is all but impossible to obtain quality in a years of hard-earned experience for a drawing done with a hard pencil." There is a great difference between the work knowledge of its form. the pencil drawing 4 should be as good as if it were to be left in pencil. on Whatman's or other rough paper. having in his mind a process of visualisation and a knowledge gotten from observation and experience. It is an almost universal delusion among young draftsthat they can correct result. Pencils. not on account of them. he will but it on faith to begin with. An experienced drafts- accept out a drawing with an HB pencil without having the lines rub badly. Few." that indescribable something without which any architectural work is cold and unhuman that they should have the precision of touch of the artist. be large enough to allow the triangles and T-square to be used readily without coming too near the edges 3 Paper. which should Society. A quality every drawing. Whatman's paper. but that it should be drawn with intuitive reasonableness and a which is not "guessing. The beginner will do well to use. the moisture of the atmosphere. of the architectural draftsman. or better still. the quality either of drawing or rendering which may be gotten on the other papers suggested and . and that of one who thinks that " the practical who draws is way to 2 do these things to guess at them" in the fullness of ignorance. draftsmen can ob- tain the quality with will not that they can with the pencil. at least. and the nature and purposes of the drawing. on it It is not easy. the student who purposes to solve asked to believe that no work required in it is not important done "in a good and workmanlike manner". of the artist. No good artistic work is " sloppy. 1 A shadow should never be "guessed at. For the solution of problems. be entirely wide of the architectural mark." By this not meant that it should never be drawn without being constructed geometrically. accuracy of the mechanician. some suggestions as to methods it is and materials are here given. to obtain cheaper. is recommended. should give evidence will As a help to the beginner in getting in his work the desired results. where a beginner using same pencil would have reduced the drawing to an indistinguishable blur by the time it was finished. and man the will lay . The hardness of the pencil to be used depends on the roughness of the paper.ARTICLE IV Preliminary Suggestions as to Solutions of Problems Hereafter Given FIGURES IN consideration of what has been said the problems given in the following treatise to be is 2 AND 3 in the foregoing articles. British Water Colour of the board. Every drawing done.

^l JJW ^tj^ wt ^. 1- i .''' 33EIT ] .*..:'. -A' 'fc>' J '. ' .'' .. PASCAL .. -^' ?^T ' J 1 m^u.- -. ' \3feSPfet SS m ?: :-. . .-Vi-. - : i r .: S99 ^iS ...V-. if ' - *H '..'.^J'.-^^-3.j| ^i. _ ua . PupU of M.. .j^.i^i "^' ' - ^^Xiu-^kti-iL-- - !i^-ii"^i&?t~- .. THIERS. . ' : ' ) TfJi .^-^ K^ ^== M==/- - - -^ FIGURE 3 Part of the Elevation of a Court-house By M. V .. i^jj ' v':j.

that: To find on any front plane the sftadow 0} any point. the elevation. x. [25] . on the wall. point the shadow on a horizontal plane of any point. and have taken the shadow. the elevations of the plane moves equally For. The plans and elevations are usually on different sheets and often at different scales. since the ray R the elevation of the ray passing through A. of A2 A A A determined without using the elevations except to determine the distance of B from the ground. . by drawing the plan B. may be in this case on the ground Similarly. of the point the forty-five-degree line A 2 x. will lie on elevation. to the right as A is from the wall. t student should become thoroughly familiar with this simple and direct method which usually dispenses with the necessity of having both plan and elevation. and in office practice it is usually inconvenient to draw a plan of a building or object below the elevation on which shadows are to be cast. and in finding the points where these rays strike any other object involved in the problem.z of the ray through B. The shadow will evidently be an oblique projection of the object casting it.ARTICLE The Method of VII Oblique Projection 7 FIGURE THIS method consists simply in drawing the forty-five-degree lines representing the rays tangent to an object or passing through its shade edges. of the point. then. equal to the distance of B above the ground. backward and to the right (Article V). Evidently. the plan might have been dispensed with in determinFor we might have drawn ing the shadow. y. to find the points of the shade line. one needs to know only and and the distance of the point in front of the plane. and taking the shadow B 1S on E z at a distance back and to the right of B. B. further than as it furnishes the distance of A from the wall. the shadow A 2S in downward. Many of the common architectural The shadows may be cast by it. of at a point as far to the right or below A 2 as the is from the wall the distance A. on this line 28 . and as far downward and A the ray through A. It is evident from an inspection of Figure 7.

' 'IS .SHADE X _".F I G V K. E 8 . LINE OF CONE INVI5IE.LK .

and B 2 are therefore points of the shade line of the sphere. as it is impracticable to find accurately the lines of tangency is This method occasionally quite convenient. They are here supposed to be determined by the method stated above. It is of course applicable of the auxiliary surfaces with the given surfaces unless the contours of the latter are arcs of circles. then. whatever is true of the circumscribing surface on the line of tangency it will be true of the given surface on that line. only to double-curved surfaces of revolution. therefore will also be a point of the shade line of the latter. THE we have a surface whose shade line is to be determined. even when that part with a certain part not mathematically the arc of a circle. however. It is easy to determine the line of tangency of the sphere and cone. it is In often accurate enough to assume an arc of a is of the contour of a given surface. whatever is true of one surface is also true of the other. For. It can be used with convenience and exactness only for finding the shades of those surfaces whose contours are arcs of circles. points A 2 and B 2 are evidently points on the shade line of the sphere. it is evident that the point at which the shade line of the circumscribing surface crosses the line of tangency of the two surfaces will be a point of the shade line of the given surface. in this case the horizontal line A 2 B 2 and the shade lines of the auxiliary cone . If.in this case lines C A and C B The intersections of the shade lines of the cone with . or given surface. for such a point is common to both. and the point where the shade line of the former surface crosses the line of tangency of the two will be a point of the shade line of the former. practice. 2 2 the line of tangency at A2 2 2 (Article XV). Thus in Figure 8. and we circumscribe about this surface a tangent surface whose line of tangency and shade line are readily determined. circle as coincident [27] .ARTICLE The Method VIII of Circumscribing Surfaces FIGURE 8 application of this method depends on the principle that at a point of tangency of two surfaces.

E 9 .F I G V R.

at points which are the (b) the if point of intersection of two shadow lines is the shadow they are intersecting lines. to choose such a plane Figure to receive auxiliary shadows as will simplify the construction.ARTICLE IX The Method of Auxiliary Shadows FIGURE 9 application of this method depends upon the principles that (a) if upon any surface of revolution a series of auxiliary curves be drawn. the shadow of the surface will include the shadows of all the auxiliaries. we may pass back along the ray through the intersection or tangent point of the until we arrive at the intersection or of the lines casting those shadows. if they are not intersecting lines. (Article XIV 4. It is shadows of the points of crossing. [29] . or their point of tangency.) The points above explained will be made clear by the accompanying illustration. It is often possible. 9. THE and will be tangent to those that cross the shade line of the surface. and that evident from the above that if we have the intersection of the shadows of two lines. or the shadow of the point where the shadow of one line crosses the other line. tangency shadows The application of this method is much facilitated by the choice of auxiliary lines whose shadows may be cast as readily and as accurately as possible. of the point of intersection of those lines. also.

F I G V R E 1 O .

in this case at i. 4. since the construction of the When points of tangency of rays to slices are involved. the plans of the slices coincide at will. 5. to those in the slices cut on the receiving object. Generally it is rather difficult of application. with the aid of horizontal auxiliary circles on the surface of the scotia. and also is This method a ray through a point of the line which casts the shadow. Suppose that at point i. 4. and XXIV are examples of shadows where the use of more than one method is not only convenient but necessary.this method. at the upper end of the elevation of slice i. where it can- not be applied to advantage. The student is urged to exercise his ingenuity and judgment in making the most convenient special application of general principles to whatever case he may have in hand. the elevation of a ray of light be drawn. and (b) in determining points of shade and shadow by drawing rays from points in the slices cut by the auxiliary planes on the first object. with the plans of these planes. 5. Of course great care in making constructions is necessary with . 3. very simple. 2. Since the planes are vertical. The generally not trustworthy. and 6. 6 represent the plans The of the forty-fivc-degree slices. 2. possibility of considerable error as a result of very slight inaccuracy of construction is generally great. the forty-five-degree lines i. A good deal of ingenuity may be exercised in the choice of such slicing planes as will give the most valuable results and in the con- struction of slices in the easiest and most accurate ways. and he is advised not to become entangled in the processes Some visualising faculty and a little common sense should necessary in making his constructions. The problems hereafter given under Articles XXII. For that point in is on the surface of the scotia. . and the student is often tempted to use it. plain that most architectural designs to be rendered will contain objects Even the shadows of a single object vantageously cast by the use of several methods applied to different parts. the slice line. That is. The elevations of these slices may now be constructed from their plans. the method is slices is slow and troublesome. on this account. ARTICLE XI The IT is Application of the Foregoing Methods in Practice whose shadows cannot may often be most ad- be cast by any one of these methods alone. The plans of the slicing planes are chosen process will be sufficiently explained by Figure 10. enable him to handle his problems well. XXIII. being in a line on that surface. since there is no way of determining accurately the points of tangency. Then the point at which the elevation of the ray crosses the elevation of the slice is a point of the shadow in elevation. 3.ARTICLE The Slicing X Method 10 FIGURE THIS mcthcxl consists in (</) cutting through the object casting the shadow and that receiving it with vertical planes parallel to the rays of light.

A/^f^H. I.^ ABCP IS 15 THE .5 If THE WALL JTJ SHADOW ENT CONTO\1i OF 5PHF. 12 T FIGVRE13 . If.U PRR^PRCTIVK.5 HADE LINE OF THE SPHERE ARCI< IT. F I G V R.At TUP. E 11 F I GV H.RE TL'K API.

and that no object not in light can cast a shadow. The an oblique projection. They may always cast imaginary shadlikewise evident that every real shade line must cast a real shadow. and 12. Most of the time-honoured blunders in the casting of shadows may be avoided by keeping these two facts clearly in mind: tliat every object that is in light must 5 The line shadow. (Fig- ure n. [33] . reference to the light. In the latter being usually a plane situated in front of the first object with reference to the point of sight.) 6 The sltadow on a plane may be determined by the shadows of any two of its points on the plane. the shadow is of of it it will be considered as that part In the discussions of the problems to from which light is excluded by the form of the object itself. the picture is projected by lines of projection radiating from the point of sight. what parts of the object shadow of an object is to be determined. principle behind the first object with on a wall. A PRELIMINARY consideration -. the perspective drawing becomes an elevation or plan. the case assumed in shadows with sunlight.ARTICLE XII Preliminary Considerations FIGURES II. A "plane of rays" is the plane which may be considered as made up of the rays passing through adjacent points of a straight line. by rays of sight. Those parts of such and planes which lie beyond parts having actual existence in the cases considered may always be assumed." Therefore when the // is evident that a point which is not in light cannot cast a real shadow. the case of shadows. are in shade or shadow // is ows. If the source of light be re- n moved casting 2 to an infinite distance. shade on an object line dividing light will from shade will be called the "shade It is 1 '' line. of any line which is parallel to that plane is a line equal and parallel to The shadows 7 of parallel lines on any plane are parallel. for then it would be imaginary. 4 of all.The Similarity A by rays A perspective drawing is a projection. on a line oblique to the elevation and plan planes. since the tangent . and shadow 3 lines by incident rays. bounding the shadow of an object is really the shadow of the shade line cast a of a straight line oj the object.' The line dividing the light from shadow be called the "shadow line. and must strike somewhere." Those shade lines and shadow lines which have actual existence in cases considered will be called "real. The shadow of the line. 12 AND 13 of the following points will be of value: Both in their nature and in 1 oj Problems of Shadows and those oj Perspective. for example. jection. It is also true that this real shadinc rays determining the shade line pass on. (Figures If the point of sight in perspective be removed to an infinite distance on a line perpendicular to a front plane or plan plane. however. All straight lines and planes may be considered as being of indefinite extent." lines evident that shade lines will be determined by tangent rays. follow. the shadow-picture is projected by lines of projection radiating from a source of light. These assumed parts will be termed "imaginary." Those which have no actual existence on a given object will be called "imaginary. Shadow on an object will be that part from which light is excluded by some exterior object or overhanging part of the same object. There In the case of perspective. shadow is a proof solution the problems of perspective and those of shadows arc identical. first . of one object on another. cannot lie within another real shadow. for those parts can cast no real shadows. of one object on another. of light. of any line mi any surface may be determined by finding the shadows of adjacent points The shadow on a given plane the given line. let it be carefully determined.) is no essential difference between the two.

F I G V R K F F CV VRR 1 .

(Figure 16.) The Shadow oj a Vertical Line on a Scries oj Horizontal Mouldings Parallel to a Front Plane. in plan and A 2 B 2 in elevation. tical The Shadows oj Horizontal Lines Parallel and Perpendicular to the. since it in front elevation a forty-five-degree line. hence always a forty-five-degree line. s line. (Article XXIV. for example. Thus in the accompanying Figure 13.v lie nn (he plan oj the my through the point. .The Shadow 1 (Figure 14.) 0} a Line Perpendicular to an Elevation Plane. and its shadow in citation must always lie on the elevapoints at . on a Ver4 Plane sloping Backward and to the Lejt at an Angle oj Forty-five Degrees. in the case of the These shadows and the plane receiving them arc often useful as auxiliaries. then. ARTICLE The Shadows Xlll of Certain Straight Lines 14. Otherwise it is impossible to find directly which rays strike the given surface. The explanation given above to the will indicate the 3 reasoning by which this shadow is shown to be a forty-fivc-degree line. That is. Now lf and the plan of the line which it cuts plan of this plane is AX in plan a is equal to b. that the shadow any vertical line mouldings.) This shadow is an inclined line whose is equal to that of the given The construction shown in Figure 15 will make this clear. the front elevation of the shadow Y to the profile of the right section of the in front elevation of It is true. AB. (Figure 15. these by the construction in Figure and right respectively. to find the shadow of B on the ovolo. and the shadow lies in it will coincide in elevation dicular to the elevation plane. and [35] . as will appear hereafter. that the shadow line moves to the right as the contour recedes. It is evident that the shadow of AB on the horizontal mouldings behind it is the line cut on the face of those mouldings by a plane of rays passing through . line in front elevation is drawof this The shadow For the shadow this plane. But this plane of rays is perpencontains a line perpendicular to that plane that is to say. student will do well to become thoroughly familiar with the following shadows of straight lines as That given in Section 4 will hereafter prove useful as an auxiliary in architectural shadows of the Tuscan capital.) As shown 16. such as a Kooj Plane in Front Elevation. (Article XXIV. whatever the jorms oj the objects receiving its shadow. 10 -line of tin- The point where the shade line of any double-curved surface of revolution touches the contour surface in plan or elevation is to be found at the point of the contour at which the plan or eleis vation of a ray tangent to it. A^ s of A on the cylinder. it will be . of this line is cast by the plane of rays passing through the line. shadows are forty-five-degree lines sloping downward to the left as. A 2S C 2S D2S B 2S is equal . Tuscan capital. the shadow in plan must 9 iiki'ti v. 15. Since the shadow of any point must lie on the ray through that point. The Shadow in Plan oj a Line Perpendicular to the Plan Plane. 5 (Figure 17. by the use of the plan. it is evidently easy But this method cannot be used to find the shadow. slope plane.XX (ARTICLE 8 X\l C'T'D) The plan or side elevation of a surface can be used in finding shadows by direct projection only when that f>lnn or side elevation may be represented by a line. The Shadow o] a Vertical Line on a Plane whose Horizontal Lines are Parallel Elevation Plane. ings .) The others recur very often and are the subjects of very frequent mistakes by careless draftsmen. tion oj Ihe ray through the point. FIGURES 16 AND 17 THE in the on certain kinds of surfaces. Elevation Plane. on any scries of horizontal mould- ings or surfaces parallel to a front plane is the same as the contour of those surfaces or mouldings.) The vertical line is in this case Aj B. The on the mouldings is A 1S D. 2 with the plane of rays.

F I G VR E 18 .ELEVATION- - PLAN F I G VR E 19 .

) only necessary to find the shadow of the center. and at a distance to In this case it is the right and downward equal to the distance of the center from the wall. it is 18 gives the construction for three common cases. the most convenient and accurate method of finding the shadow is to find the shadow of the square or of the octagon circumscribed about the given circle. the radius of the circle.. (Figure 18. circle on a plane parallel to its own plane. a distance along the forty-five-degree line C 2 C 2 s equal to the diagonal of a square of which the distance of C from the wall 2 is the side. be a circle which is an ellipse of special form. without reference to the plan. whose side is the distance of F easy to determine F 2S and L2S Since this diagonal is G. and in the construction than the square alone. that is to say. and that of one perpendicular to a wall and to the plan plane. If the shadow is to be cast on an elevation or plan plane. As the section of any cylinder cut by any plane oblique to its axis is an ellipse. This shadow is A 2 A 2S B 2S B 2 The diagonals and median lines of the shadow of the square are then drawn. G. shadow of the circumscribing square AA BB. as it is much more accurate to use it quite easy to cast the shadow of the circumscribing octagon. It is evident of CF. we may then describe the circle of shadow. etc. since they will be parallel to the shadows of diagonals. It is further evident that. the plans would never be used.) . it follows that the shadow If the plane be parallel to the circle. that of a circle parallel to a wall. (Figure 18. and hence to in front of C. we can to its GH the from an inspection of the plan that if we can determine the shadow of F on the shadow readily find the shadows of H and G by drawing through the shadow of F the shadow of intersection with the shadows of the diagonals. . it will someiaries the ellipse of shadow of the circle. The accompanying Figure The use of the plans in these cases was not at all necessary.ARTICLE XIV The Shadows FIGURES RAYS through adjacent 18 of Circles AND 19 points of a circle form a cylinder of rays which casts the shadow of the circle. Now the shadow of F lies at F 2S on C 2S K 2S at a distance from C 2S equal to the diagonal of a square . and in such cases it will usually be accurate enough to cast the shadow of the circumscribing square only. it is as indicated on the drawing. it is always best to do so. that of one perpendicular to a wall and parallel to the plan plane. the shadow will of course of any circle on any such plane is an ellipse. . In practice. The plans are shown here merely to render the reasoning of the solution more intelligible.. that shadow is an equal whose center is in the ray through the center of the given circle. and then to inscribe within these auxilIf the shadow is to be cast on an oblique plane. however. having determined shadows of H. The medians give the points First cast the of tangency C 2 K 2S D 2S E 2S . we may readily draw the tangents to the curve at those points. at C 2 s. The shadow of the center of the given circle is of course found on the elevation of the ray through the center. .. d determine the shadows of the circumscribing octagon. .The Shadow 1 0} a Circle Parallel to a Wall -which is Parallel to the Elevation Plane. 6) In other cases. With this point as a center and a radius equal to that of the given circle. In the case of the shadow of the circle (Article XII times be inconvenient to find the shadow of the circumscribing octagon. [37] . of The Shadow a Circle whose Plane is Parallel to the Plan Plane and Perpendicular to the Ele- vation Plane. These tangents will aid greatly in drawing the shadow accurately.

F

I

G

VR

E

18

F

I

GVR

E

19

(ARTICLE XIV C'T'D)
Shndini' on a Wall Parallel to the FJei'alion Plane o] a Circle Perpendicular to the Wall and to the Plan Plane. (Figure 18.) The metluxl of construction in this Case is exactly the same as for the

3

-

The

preceding, and need not be here given in detail. F-very draftsman should be so familiar with the forms of the shadows of the three circles given in Figure 18 that he can draw them from memory with reasonable accuracy. All three forms occur frequently
in practice.

The shadows

of an arcade on a wall behind

it

involve the

first

and

third cases.

Sec, for

example, the arcade shown in Figure 40. The third case, that of a circle parallel to the plan plane and perpendicular to the elevation plane, is exemplified in Figures 42, 43, 46, 49, etc. The Shadow oj a Circle Parallel to the Plan Plane, on a Vertical Plane Passing through the Center 4
0} the Circle

Backward
is

to the

The
It is

plan of the circle
evident that the
its

(Figure 19.) Left at an Angle o] Forty-Five Degrees unth the Front Plane. The plan of the plane is l Y,. The elevation of the circle is A 2 B 2 A! E!

G^

X

.

shadow in elevation of the circle on XY is the circle D 2 D 2S G 2 G 2S having the center and a radius equal to the elevation of the forty-five-degree radius, CE, of the given circle. center, For this shadow is an ellipse, one of whose axes is F2 E2 and whose other axis is the shadow of DG. (Sec But this shadow in elevation, C 2 D 2S is equal to C 2 F2 That is, the semi-major and semi-minor plan.)
,

C

as

,

,

.

axes of the ellipse of shadow being equal, the ellipse is a circle whose radius is C 2 E 2 or C 2 F2 This shadow is often very useful as an auxiliary, and the student should become familiar with the use
.

of

it

in the solution of

problems given hereafter, as

in the case of the

shadows of the Tuscan

capital.

(Ar-

ticle

XXIV.)

L39l

F

i

C V R

1-

2

1

F

I

G V R E

22

) be that of the base of the cone. and drawing shadow lines from the shadow of the apex tangent to the shadow of the base. it is evident (a) that a cone with a vertical visible shade in elevation when its contour elements make an angle of forty-five degrees or less with the horizontal line of the base. the shade in plan is a quarter circle. B and C (Figure 20). can be conveniently determined with precision only when the base of the cone lying in the plane is a circle. and (b) that when these elements the angle r or a less angle with the horizontal. Figure 21 shows the construction for determining the shade lines of a cone whose base is circular and whose axis perpendicular to the plane of the base. and that when these elements make make the angle forty-five degrees. for the upright cone. If the plane It is evident that the exact points of tangency. These two latter lines will be the shadows of the shade lines of the cone. This is the method most convenient in practice. (Article IX b. 22. as indicated in Figure 20. the shadow of the base on that plane will coincide with the base. the rays passing downward will not cast the shadow of the apex on the plane of the base. is is In It the will be tangent to the cone at evident. and it will be only necessary to cast the shadow of the apex on that plane to determine the shade and shadow of the cone. Figure 22 shows the construction for determining the shadow lines of the same cone inverted. this case. that rays passing in a direction opposite to that of same points as would rays having the direction R. 23 Cones 24 AND any cone on any plane may be determined by casting the shadow of the base of the cone and the shadow of its apex on the plane. and drawing the shade lines from the points thus determined to the apex. 21. [41] . then cast the shadow of the apex on the may R We plane of the base with a ray having the direction opposite to R. however. the cone has no shade and no shadow on the plane of the base. The construction is similar to that shown From axis the constructions shown in and a circular right section will have no Figure 23 and Figure 24.) of THE shadow be determined by passing back along the rays through these two tangent points to the points on the base which are the feet of the shade lines.ARTICLE XV of The Shades and Shadows FIGURES 20. (Figure 20. The points at which these two shadow lines are tangent to the shadow of the base are the shadows of the Hence the shade lines may points at which the shade lines of the cone meet its base.

P. K 2.F I G VRE 25 F 1 GVR F. 3 O F I G V R R 29 . 26 | MtAHOYV ON THE >LAWE OF rns F I G V R E 27 F I GV R. 8 LENGTH IN OF- FR-ONT 5UE<5U3aSH: K \ F I GV R.

In this in front of the axis. Hence the shade in elevation. B. tural (Figure 27.The Shadow oj . To cast the shadow of the cylinder on the plane. that a plane of rays can be tangent to the cylinder only along an element of the cylinder. lines of a cylinder will always be parallel to its profile lines both in plan and 2 The Shadow of a Cylinder on the Plane oj one 0} its Bases. The shadow of this center on the plane of the lower base is at Ci S Then the shadow of the upper base on this plane is the circle A 1S B 1S The shadow of the lower base on its own plane coincides with this base. Elevation Plane on a Cylinder of Circular Seca semicircle. these The points of tangency E! and D give the plans we determine the elevations at E 2 and D 2 t . as in Figure 26.) Let ABCD be any cylinder. Hence we may pass back along the rays through It is evident the points of tangency. not by drawing the tangents. its shadow on that plane will coincide with itself.ARTICLE XVI The Shades and Shadows FIGURES 25. 26. (Figure 26. shadows. but by drawing the diameter normal to them C t A. t t . It should be noted that the shadow of such a cylinder a column. A. Then the side elevation of case. for the exact point of tangency of a line to a circle is determined by drawing the radius normal to the given line. The points of tangency of these planes in plan determine the plans of the shade lines. From From E 2 and D 2 we draw the shade lines in ele- vation parallel to the profile elements of the cylinder. A3 A X . The It will be convenient to remember that the visible shade line A2 A 2 is nearly one-sixth of the diameter from the right profile line. cast the shadows of the bases of the cylinder on the plane at A s B s and C s D s Draw lines A 8 C s and B s D s to complete the shadow.) If one base of the cylinder lies in the plane. and to find the shadow of the cylinder it will be necessary to cast only the shadow of the other base on the plane and -. THE t any Cylinder on any Plane. and EF any plane. 4 tion The width to the shadow is equal to the diagonal of The Shadow of a Horizontal Line Parallel and Vertical Axis. . and is in plan the circle E D We may now complete the shadow by drawing A 1S D t and B 1S Ej tangent to the two base draw shadow lines tangent to the base lying in the plane - . 27. from which the elevations of exact points of tangency should. Since in this case the that of the cylinder drawing elements of the cylinder are all vertical the shade lines will be vertical. (Figure 25. (Figure 28. whose center is in the axis of the cyl- Y the line of is AB is It is evident that the shadow the side elevation of the cylinder being the same as the front. . ' and to the shadow of the other base. Here the upper base of the cylinder is the circle whose center is C. A s C s and M s >s are the shadows of the shade lines of the cylinder. 1 . a square whose side is the diameter of the column. of course. of Cylinders 29 AND 30 general principles involved in the determination of the shades and shadows of cylinders are the same as those involved in finding the shades and shadows of cones.) This shadow is inder at a distance below the given line equal to the distance of the given line in front of the axis. be vertical planes whose plans will be forty-five-degree lines tangent to the circle of the base. and the tangent planes of rays will 3 The Shadow is oj an Upright Cylinder. for example of the on a front plane has a greater width than the diameter of the column. the line is in front elevation A 2 B 2 at a distance . be determined. C and D. 28. From the points of tangency of these shadow lines with the base draw the shade lines parallel to the profile elements of the cylinder. these lines are drawn. [43] . plans of the lower ends of the shade lines.) The case which occurs oftenest in architecwith a vertical axis and circular right section. A s B s C s and D s to the ends of the shade lines. cast by a plane of rays whose profile in side elevation is the forty-five-degree line 3 3 that this . .

R 29 .F 1 G V R E 25 F 1 G V R E Z 6 F I G VR E 27 F I G V R. 3 O F I G V R. E.E 28 IN FRONT OF- A?U5 F I GV R.

with the cinctures at the base. It is also evident that C3 the center of this circle.(ARTICLE XVI C'T'D) plane cuts the line of shadow on the cylinder. and part curve of shadow C 2 A 2S B 2S will be tangent at B 2S to the eleva- CD tion. C 2 on the axis of the niche at a distance below the line equal to the distance y of that line in front of the axis. that in front elevation this the diameter of the cylinder. BC will begin at C2 . be the horizontal line B 2S Y2S Cylindrical forms appear in architectural work more frequently. and others concave. [45] . (Figure 30. Figures 31 and 32. seen in section. Some of these are plan. . of course. Line Parallel to the Elrcalion Plane mi the Cylindrical Part o] a Similar reasoning will show that this is also a semicircle struck from a (Figure 29. in barrel. of the ray through B. in the circular metrical curved surfaces. with all of which the draftsman should become . in front elevation. <>j The Shadtrw a Horizontal XY 6 The Shadow of a Cylindrical Barrel-Vault in Section. in the building with circular tower. that this line is an ellipse whose major axis major axis of is ]). intermediate points of the shadow line. The of the face line will evidently cast no shadow. B2 B L S . is the shadow as is is a circle in this elevation. Figure 42. 5 as far below AB AB Semicircular Xiclte. than do any other geoSuch forms are exemplified in the niche. the diameter of the cylinder. is at The shadow of B. Figure 52.. but there is no difference in the principles to be applied in detercovered cylinders. thoroughly familiar. which in side elevation is D E 3 :t . is D 3 E3 which and whose minor axis is F^.) center. in the column.) est point of the face line of the vault which casts the shadow C 2 A 2S B 2S . The shadow of BX will. . mining the shades and shadows in these different cases. Hence the major and minor axes of the ellipse is shadow being equal . and the like.vaults in the soffits of arches. Figure 43. the highB 2S on the horizontal line at the level of the springing of the vault. in front of the axis. perhaps. as A28 may . be found from side elevation. If necessary. The the shadow of .

31 F I G VRE 3 2 .F I GVR E.

(Article XII 9. to find the shadows of these on the spherical part of the niche by the method of auxiliary shadows. such as K. since the cylinder may be represented in plan by a line. (Article IX. may H . L 1S MI. Figure 32 shows the shadows in the heads of the first two the right of the axis of a Corinthian column. Evidently have their shadows cast directly. that circles i and 2. and Y t Zi be the plans of two vertical planes parallel to the face of the niche. therefore. 2 --The -- planes WX and YZ also cut from the niche the lines E F2 G 2 and on AI l F2 G2 and A. of shadows of that line on these planes are readily C on these planes. must be points of 1 those points whose shadows fall on the cylindrical part of the niche. other meth<xls which are suited position 2 I M L K2 at H shadow line may be found quite accurately enough for drawings at small scale L2S and K 2S and drawing the shadow through these three points.) may flutes [47] . In practice the by finding the points 2 H .) points 1 -. the surface of the niche. It is evident that the a shadow on the surface of the niche. (Article X. the H K found. 2. is its plan. found by the slicing method. Since these planes are parallel to the face line of the niche.) We proceed.Let Wj X. is. L. 6 -7 The shadow line is tangent to the elevation of the axis Ci C2 at L 2S . . L 1S M. with circle i. This is also often forgotten. tangent to . M . in the B2 D2 is in on circles circle 2.ARTICLE XVII The Shadow of a Circular Niche with a Spherical Head 31 FIGURES LI 2 AND 32 L2 K 2 2 M 2 MI is the front elevation of a niche part H M M! of the face line will not cast 2 and L. . It is not necessary to draw the whole of each of these auxil- iary shadows. A B 2 D2 and every point Hence the intersection of E! F 2 G 2 with the shadow line of the niche. 5 --The shadow line is tangent to the face line of the niche at 2 4 and 2 is and that of shadow of the face line of the niche. It is only necessary to cast the shadows. 3 Now i every point on E. C 2S . and to the axis at L 2S K 2S may be taken on the elevation of the ray CK at a distance from C 2 a trifle more than one-third of the length of the radius C 2 2 If the niche has a different form or from those here given. to the particular case to be adopted. The shadows of points of the part 2 of the spherical cannot be found by direct projection because it is impossible to represent the surface head by a line. This fact is often forgotten. and with those points as centers to strike the shadows. B2 D2 .

F I GVRE 33 THE5E JHOV CO* IN PR> F I G V R E 34 .

be an ellipse in both plan and elevation. of tangency of two vertical planes of rays. and P. and whose vertices are at the extremities of the . The geometrical proof of this 5 is given below in Section 6. . the ellipse of shade circumscribes two equilateral triangles ellipse of shade. and points in plan arc Aj and B lt which are exactly and easily determined by Y t Z. may readily be determined by the symmetrical construction shown. is plan will be an ellipse whose axes are A! Bj and D! E^ The length of the major axis evidently that of the diameter of the sphere. .ARTICLE XVIII of Spheres 34 The Shades and Shadows FIGURES FIGURE 33 shows 1 33 AND the plan and elevation of any sphere. and A2 K2 B 2 . whose The axes of the ellipse of shadow intersect at the shadow of the center of the sphere. to cast the described.The plans of the shade points lying on the equator of the sphere are determined by the points drawing the diameter A B normal to the planes W! X! and Yj Z^ The elevations of these points are then found on the elevation of the equator at A 2 and B 2 A2 and B 2 might have been found directly on the elevation by drawing the forty-fivc-degrec diameter F 2 G 2 and projecting points A 2 and B 2 to the equator from F 2 and G 2 t t . - A 2 g B 2 A2 B 2 A 2 r> 2 A 2 1J 2 But A 2H B 2H = A IS B 1S = major axis of the shadow-ellipse and A 2 B 2 = diameter of sphere = major axis of shade-ellipse and = A2 D2 = A 1S B 18 diameter minor axis of shadow-ellipse A! Bj = minor axis of shade-ellipse.. shadow of a sphere on a plan plane or front plane. points M. 2 -. For. bases are the minor axis of the ellipse and whose vertices are at the extremities of the major axis. The shade The line will be a great circle of the sphere. A! B. cast the shadow of the center [49] . Points at the extremities of the minor axes of the ellipses may be determined by the intersection 4 of these axes by thirty-degree lines drawn from the extremities of the major axes. The shadow of the sphere on a front plane is evidently to be found in the same way as above Therefore.) The . in plan. . as noted above. N l7 Oi. be symmetrical on axes A! Bj and and J 2 in elevation. D A major axis of the ellipse.. (Article XII 10. From the similarity of the triangles A 2 B 2 2S it will be seen that the ellipse of a shadow in plan will circum2 and A 2 B 2 scribe two equilateral triangles whose bases are in the minor axis of the ellipse. 3 Now since the ellipses of shade in plan and in elevation will H 2 I 2 respectively.. which is equal to the diameter of the sphere and is perpendicular to the rays in plan. Figure 34 shows the plan and elevation of the shade and the shadow on a horizontal plane after the sphere and rays have been revolved until the rays are parallel to a front plane. _ That the axes of the ellipse of major axis of shade-ellipse minor axis of shade-ellipse shadow bear the same relation to each other as do the axes of the And. diameter A! Hence E l or. whose plans are \V\ X. which will - - To find the shade line in plan. major axis of shadow-ellipse minor axis of shadow-ellipse is.

F I GV R. : I 33 .

and triangle A. A. Q. coinciding in plan with is A t E'| B t . and O'. == d The minor axes coincide in direction with the rays in plan and elevation respectively. (Figure 33. which are to the diameter of the sphere. structing the shades and shadows of the sphere. Then the shade lines of a sphere in plan and elevation are ellipses. 30. through this point draw the axes of the ellipse of shadow. E'.. and about these circumscribe the shadow line. and whose vertices are at the extremities of the major axes. A t E] B. angle A.. E\ C t is one-half of one-half of a square. S. equal in triangles S. - To angle E. thirty degrees. determine the extremities of the minor axis of the shade line by determining the angle which the lines drawn to them from the extremities of the major axis make with the major axis. If Through O' draw O'i is Sj. . and O'. Revolve the shade line about AB is as an axis until . Hence the angle E. on the minor axis as a base construct two equilateral triangles. == = = Now O. Q. E B! of the shade line. A. of A! E. B! Then a square. = the revolved position of B! OV A. Q. A! E! will be parallel to B! Oj. is Oj S. C. Q. It is not important that the student should remember the reasoning giving the proofs in the foregoing or that in the following section 6. O'i Ci equilateral.(ARTICLE XVIII C'T'D) of the sphere on that plane. it is horizontal. of Ej is E'. its now the shade line be revolved back to original position. parallel to At EV Then Qi O\ is A. the minor axis being perpendicular to the direction of the rays and equal to the diameter of the sphere. A. A. It will suffice for him to remember simply the method of consections....) In the plan A. = Hence angle O. Then the revolved position of t O t O'. and the major axes are respectively perpendicular to the direction of the rays. Q. draw lines A t E! and B E t It is desired to determine the 6 t t . . Q. Q. O'. each circumscribing two equilateral triangles whose bases are the minor axes of the ellipses. Q.

V R K o 7 .P I G VRE 35 PLANE '>* I ^__ ^r 11 . : ?- -.c. at W C.

will be a horizontal line parallel to FG. and In dealing with objects which have the same contour in side as in front elevation. [53] . a line to the elevation It is clear .ARTICLE XIX The Shadows of Dormers. Chimneys. CD plane. in through A. Figure 36 shows the shadow of a dormer with a same as that given above. Through A 2 draw 3 3 making angle 3 A 2 B 2 equal to the slope of the roof on which the shadow vation of the roof and resenting its is to be cast. Since the roof is an inclined plane whose plan cannot be represented by a line. (rf) that the shadow F 2S 2S in front elevation. give the levels of the shadows of those points in front elevation (b) that the shadow of the eaves line AE. and that the shadow C 2S B 2S is cast by BC. By simply drawing on the front elevation a line representing the side elevation of the roof. Shadows of Chimneys on Roofs. or whatever contour plane is involved. in such position with reference to the profile of the object as it would have in side elevation. as A. it is generally unnecessary to draw a side elevation of the object when the front elevation may be used for the side. Etc. A2 D 2 C 2 rep- front face. The method of obtaining the shadow is in the preceding cases of shadows of dormers. (c) that the shadow F 2S parallel to the roof. For example. A 2S to the front elevation A 28 of the shadow.) To find the shadow of any point. we use in this case the side elevation. that does not cast shadow. . the hip-roof. to cast same way. when the shadows have been cast on the dormer. from the construction that G H . on the front elevation itself A2 A 28 of the ray. in front elevation. let us suppose that the depth of the chimney shown in Figure 37 is two-thirds of its width.is A is which the plane of the roof is represented by the line 3 Y3 The side elevation of the ray A 3 A^. of course. the front may be made to do duty as a side elevation. (Figure 37. which is a perpendicular line. For example. which is a horizontal line i). which is. AND 37 The Shadou's of Dormers on Roofs. is (a) the points at which the rays through various given points strike the roof in side elevation. Y 3 represent the side ele- A 2 D 2 C 2 E3 F 3 G 2 will represent the side elevation of the chimney. The shadow shadow of any other point may be cast in the It is advisable.. it is only necessary to find the point where the ray through A strikes the roof. on the roof (Figure 35). it will be evident in this case. has the same slope as the roof (Article XIII 3). of FH. perpendicular a forty-five-degree line (Article XIII 2S of FG. the shadows on the object before proceeding to cast the of the object on the roof.) The method here used is the same as that used needs no further comment. (Figures 35 and 36. and the side elevation of the shadow is A 3S From A3S we pass along the level line . Then X Y X Y3 will . wall. X . The draftsman should become apt at using such time-saving devices whenever possible. on Roofs 36 FIGURES 35.

F I C. VR K 3 8 .

The side elevation of the right side of the raking top of the buttress. the shadow of that steps edge on one step.) Here it is convenient to use the side elevations of the buttress and of these objects might be represented in plan by lines. as E2S F 2S may be repeated on the others without being cast. now drawn at A3 D 3 F3 . (Figure 38. which here casts shadow. Assume the side elevation of the front face of the buttress to be the planes of the steps. and has the same direction with reference to them all. which is the shadow to cast the . In this case. We may now E2S F 2rt in front elevation. [55] . the part whose side elevation is E 3 F 3 casts the shadow E 3S F 3H in side elevation.ARTICLE XX Steps 38 The Shadows on FIGURES The Shadow of a Raking Buttress on a Flight o] Steps. 3S I 3S steps 3S 3S . we may determine just what part of the edge of the buttress casts shadow on any step. lines. evident that since the raking edge of the buttress is similarly situated with reference to all the which receive its shadow. etc. shadows by direct projection. proceed the rays from the upper and lower corners of any riser. It is . exactly as in the preceding article. the profile of the is the line etc. G K H G is . as E 3S F 3S back to the buttress By drawing In this case. though A 3 3 I 3 Then assume the position of the profile of the steps with reference to the front face of the buttress.

F I G V R R .39 .

ARTICLE XX CONTINUED Steps The Shadows on FIGURE The Shadows o] a 39 oj Steps. though a preliminary inspection of the figure would have shown that only a part of that shadow thus leaves on steps is real. The same is true of the shadows L3S M of the rings of acan- 3S and O 3S P3S .) The casting of the shadows in this case does not involve any principles or methods other than those previously cited.. Square Buttress and Lamp on a Flight (Figure 39. [57] . For example. in the present case it is necessary to find the part shadow on the top riser of the whole of the lamp globe. in order that the which is real may be accurately found. will It will now deter- sometimes be necessary to find the whole of a shadow on the plane of a step. which . then represent the side elevation of the front of the lamp and buttress. in right relation to the left side of the lamp and buttress. Rays drawn from the upper and lower edges of each riser. as seen in side elevation. will mine just what parts of the lamp and buttress cast shadows on those risers. Since the lamp would surely be placed on the buttress at the same distance from the front as from the sides. no plan is needed. The side elevation is represented by the front elevation on which is placed the profile line of steps A 3S B 3S C 38 etc.

TFCO I G VRE 40 .OF POR. ..SKETCH PLAN.

The depth shadow de- termined by the forty-five-degree line A 2 B 2S shadows of the ends of the lookouts C 2 D 2 E 2 Since construction is impracticable at the given scale.) offers no difficulty. we repeat it at the scale of the elevation. such as the shadow of the arch end of the portico. of the right has been necessary here to cast a good many imaginary shadows. X3 Y 3 represents the face of the wall. To cast the shadows on the wall. if Next cast the . The rest of the construction is so apparent as to need no detailed X Y explanation. because it is impossible to tell from an inspection of such an elevation just what parts will cast real shadows. The shadow of the of this line is as far below the line as the line in front of the wall.) [59] . also. and to illustrate the fact that shadows are/nerely oblique projections of the objects casting them. We therefore cast the shadows of all parts except those which evidently It cannot be in light. . First find the shadow of the eaves line is C3 B 2 . (Article XII i. on the wall over the arcade.ARTICLE XXI The Shadows of an Arcade and FIGURES 40 Its Roof on a Wall Behind 41 It AND THE is determination of the shadows in this case is done by direct projection. as necessary. Those shadows which then prove to be covered by other shadows are of course imaginary. In this figure. then the part of the elevation to the right of 3 3 will truly represent the side elevation of the portico. we draw a line X 3 Y 3 in such a position on the elevation that. . and (Article VII. a good many imaginary shadows have been drawn. merely to render the relation of shadows to the casting objects more apparent. and having thus determined the form of the shadow. as shown in Figure 41. we construct the shadow at a larger scale.

I .

the shade lines of the cone. In elevation these lines are found at J 2S N 2 and U 2 The shadou's on the tower of the circular lines whose emotions are E 2 F 2 G 2 H2 and I 2 K 2 are 4 found by direct projection. where these shadow lines cross the shade lines of the tower. of the circle EF which does cast its shadow on the is on the ray profile of the tower at L 2S in elevation drawn from L 1S in plan. and finding where these rays strike the tower. XV. 2S T! Ui normal to the direction of the tangent rays on plan. cylinders and cones. Thus by drawing the ray J 1S Jj in plan tangent to the plan of the top part of the tower. The point L 2S will be at the same level as the point at which the shadow line L 2S J 2S crosses the axis of the tower. In any surface generated by the revolution of a line about a vertical axis. on the front elevation in such position that the left profile line of the tower will serve as the profile elevation. M 2S . points on the [61] . Avoid the very common error of determining the profile point of the shadow in . It is evident that from the point where the shade line passes on to the curved part of the 2 the shade line will run off rapidly toward the right. is found in a similar way. are found by drawing those rays in plan which are tangent to the tower in plan. by drawing the profile lines of wall and roof. drawing rays through these points. . found by casting the shadow of the apex A on the plane of the base in plan at A 1S and drawing tangents A. 1 Represent a right side elevation of the tower. with E in elevation. . and XVI. The elevation of this point is J 2 the point where the shadow of the circle crosses the shade line of the tower in elevation is found at J 2 s by drawing the ray J 2 J 2S from J 2 to its intersection with the shade line. Q O 2S 2 . the point which in plan is L. It should be noted that points J 2S . The shades on the cylindrical parts oj the tower. 2 The shades on is the conical rooj and on the conical part of the tower near its base. The elevations of these points are B 2 and C 2 Then the shade lines of the the roof cone t d d . (visible) A2 B 2 W .. L very nearly coincides that is. (Articles XIV. This part may be drawn from imagination. and A. The shadow on . The shade 3 line. X3 Y3 in . using plans and elevations of different points on these lines. which casts its shadow on the shade line of the tower. Three or four such shadow points . M should be sufficient to determine the shadows of each circle on the tower. of the point It should also be noted that the profile point L 2S of the shadow of EF is not the shadow and is not found by drawing a forty-five-degree line from E 2 It will be seen from the plan that the point E. etc. the point J .) THE termine these singly. such a case by drawing a forty-five-degree line from the profile point of the line casting the shadow.ARTICLE XXII The Shades and Shadows on Circular a Roof and Wall of a a Conical Roof 42 Tower with FIGURE determination of these shades and shadows involves only the methods already stated for finding Proceed to dethe shades and shadows of circles. side Assume in this case that the tower is engaged one-third of its diameter in the wall of the main building. These are found by drawing on plan the radius . s B t and A 1S Ci. The points of tangency B. B. . is de- Then termined. roof. and passing back along such rays to the plans of the points of the circles which cast shadows to the shade lines of the tower. In this case. and C are determined with precision are the plans of the feet of normal to those tangents. and by drawing the radii A t B. . of the conical part of the tower. at L. cone arc and A 2 C 2 (invisible).

' OF T'LANt WAL1 ~lv fcr~ j-sHAixT.v \-*V* ]' 1 G V RE - .IP .. 7 -|WlJ.

B and C and the shadow of the circle EF on the main roof. it is often desirable to draw the detail at large scale. by casting is the (Article 8 XIV.(ARTICLE XXII C'T'D) profile arc situated 1 Irnce in is symmetrically with those in front of the axis. that of the other be as- plan. however.) The shadow 0} the circle EF on the wall o] the main building is found similarly. yi in plan. there are two circles casting. At the scale given. the shadow of the roof of the tower may be cast by casting the shadows The shadow of the circle EF is found of A. and sumed without appreciable error to be coincident with it. on the conical part oj tlte tower. The shadows of the cylindrical parts oj the tower. the case of a symmetrical shadow on such a surface. respectively. This is the forty-five-degree line NI its By passing from points in the plan of this shadow line to points in determined. the lower parts of the corbels are double-curved surfaces. to copy it on the smaller drawing. the shadow of the circumscribing square in which the shadow of the circle may then be inscribed. Where the same detail is repeated many times and it is impracticable to construct the shadow accu- drawing in hand. projected directly on 9 struction. The student's must be made at a much larger the method of auxiliary shadows scale power of visualisation must help him in such instances. parts of the required shadow. the two shadows upper would so nearly coincide that the shadow of one of the circles may be cast.' of the line 2 5 - O N. in this case. what is true of points on the axis in eleva- tion true of points on the profile. with reference to the direction of light. having The shadow 0} the roo] oj the tower on the rooj oj the main building. and after determined accurately the form of the shadow at the large scale. and lower edges of the fillet over the gutter moulding. the line 2 shadow in this and in similar cases. Since the shadow of a cone 7 rately at the scale of the shadow of its shade lines. Two or three points should be enough to determine the elevation. Shadows oj circles GH and IK on the main wall are to be found as above. (Article XIV 2. it is impracticable to find the shadow on them 6 oj the circle it.) N O 2S is Since the upper parts of the corbels arc Since parts of a cylinder. (Article XIII 3. The xlindmi. or the drawing and the shadow determined by the slicing method (Article X) or (Article IX). complete the con- [63] . The shadows GH on the corbels below at a small scale. the general form of the curve being known beforehand. the shadow may be begun by drawing the shadow of the circle on the cylinder.) the Evidently.

.

. Wall FIGURES problem the Tuscan base engaged one-third of its diameter in a 44 AND 45 IN this center of the column is Ci. . It is This so nearly coincides with the profile of the torus that The shade on the torus is to be found as follows: is impracticable to show at evident from an inspection of the plan. and shadows on the column and the base. finding points 2 The points of shade on the equator are found at S 2 and 2 as indicated above (c). sufficient to determine the shade line with accuracy. Article XII 10. Suppose Let us now revolve rays tangent to that profile of the torus which is Ui Vi in plan to have been drawn. (a) That Ui Vi and Si TI will be axes of symmetry of the shade line in plan. The of plan and First proceed to find the shades elevation. E 28 The The shade line on the cincture at F 2 is found as is that of any upright cylinder. which contains the point of shade desired. the point at which the and at A 2 B 2 in elevation. (d) (Article XII is 10. These points are found. (e) That the points where the shade line crosses the profile of the torus. as seen in front elevation.ARTICLE The Shades and Shadows on XXIII Shadows on a a Tuscan Base with the 43. To zontal plane. small scale. The point U' 2 will evidently of shade is move along the level line U' 2 is at U2 . as always. and they may always be it easily The student is advised to become so familiar with the form of this shade that he can draw accu- [65] .) the profile. (To be determined. volved position of the lowest point of shade. and the ray becomes a forty-five-degree line. U 2 G 2 is thus the true front elevation of this ray.) and lowest points of the shade line proceed as determined alovc (b). draw forty-fivc-degrcc tangents to and 2 as determined above (e). The on a sub-plinth. P 2 of the shade line on the elevation of the axis at the same level. being in the axis of revolution. the tangent rays will be seen in their true direction with reference to the horiConstruct the angle r (Figure 44) and draw the tangent U' 2 The point U' 2 is the re2 Thus G . the plan of the plan student will readily sec the connection between other points and lines is assumed to stand wall. o] the i-. V b and that these (b) That the lowest point of shadow will lie on Ci Ui and the highest point on will be those at which the true ray R will appear tangent to the profile of the torus when seen points d in a direction perpendicular to Ui V\. A! in plan. 4 The shades and shadows on the torus. there will will an axis of symmetry of the shade line. . tangent to the plan of the cylinder (Article XVI shade and shadow on the conge are found from plan to be at B 2 D^. To find the points where the shade M N T . the profile around the axis Ci until it coincides in plan with Ci Zi and in elevation with the front elevafind the highest tion of the torus. by drawing the radii of the circles perpendicular to the tangents.The plan of a ray 2 shade line 0} the is drum column above the base is at 3 3). . and to set under a column of the face of this wall is Xj YI. if the profile point of the shade line also be a point. be determined by the forty-five-degree tangents to the profile. in plan. There is a shadow on the torus cast by shade lines it F 2 E 2s it and B 2 A2 . The highest point found in the U 2 Hence the same way. (c) That two vertical planes of rays tangent to the torus will touch it on its equator at points Si and T.) That since Ui Vi be found. When the ray U' 2 G 2 is revolved back to its true position the point G remains stationary. front elevation of the lowest point line is tangent to the profile. (Article XII 10.

.

are now to be found. S. He should be able to do this with sufficient accuracy for most rendered drawings at small scale. Let it be remembered that the shade line is tangent to. by use of plan. U.(ARTICLE rately XXIII C'T'D) and quickly from memory without making the construction. 6 Cast the shadow 0} the top of the drum oj the column on the wall. the apparent profile of the torus. It is a very common fault to draw the inside part of the shade so that if completed it would run off into space and not lie wholly within the profile of the object as shown in Figure 45. P. 7 oj the torus The shadow on the wall is [67] . M. or by merely drawing the ray A 2 2S from A 2 and the the shadow line of the circle. V. and lies wholly within. A shadow of AB parallel to AB from the point A 2S where the ray crosses most readily found by determining the plans of points L. plinth. and hence the shadows of these points on the wall by direct projection. etc. completes the shadow.. Cast the sluulmc <>} the shade line oj the drum on the wall. which needs no explanation. T.The determination of the shadow of the plinth. N. 8 -. . The shadows 5 of the base. as explained in Article XIV 2.

F I G V R R 4-6 .

and whose center Q2 the axis at the distance (Article 7 P2 Q 2 below the oj the line K2 J 2 .ARTICLE XXIV The Shades and Shadows FIGURES 46.The shadow oj and shadows on the capital and on the upper part of the column. (Article IX. The shade line oj the column is found by drawing the radius in plan normal to the direction . (Article IX. This has a depth equal to the projection of the the fillet on the abacus.) Then a2 and z 2 are the shadows of the two points 4.. on the cincture below it may be found by use of the plan.. 2 is found as 3 4 the rays.) 12 two points 2S the finding of other points.The shadow k 1 1 i and g28 on the auxiliary oblique plane O[ b. Q K 2S 2 . . its . by intersection.. n. to the axis. 2 J 2 on the neck oj the column. 5 The shade an the ovolo.) The shadow U 2S V2S same line on the cincture W 2 X t . on the capital and column. . the g2S 2S oj the ovolo on the neck of the column may be drawn from imagination with The intersection of the oval curve y2 z? a^ with the shade sufficient accuracy after k 2S has been found. E2 of The shadow oj the lejt lower edge of the abacus. XVI 4. this shadow may readily be drawn without having 2 W X W The shadow of the oval curve of the ovolo The shadow 13 the slicing method. A 2S B 2S - fillet. F2 G 2S H2 on the astragal below the neck. The point g2S where it leaves the cincture is readily by the use found by passing back along the ray from the point of intersection h 2 of the auxiliary shadows of the ovolo 2 (Section 19. The point f2S is on the same level as C 2S and symmetrically situated with reference be at e2S evidently 8 o/ the same line on theovolo. below) and of the circle The shadow i 2S g2S of the circle 10 D X W or.) We then pass back along The highest point of the shadow will rays through these points to find points C 2S and D 2S on the torus. of the 2 is found by passing back -along the ray from the intersection of the astragal at 2 (Article IX. its shadow is the forty-five-degree line K 2 6 The shadow oj the front lower edge of the abacus.) 2 X 2 on the neck oj the column is found by the use of the plan. This is is .) 2 F^. where the shadow of KJ crosses the shade line of the torus. H shadows of HF and of the lower circle of the cincture on the oblique plane whose [6 9 ] . First find the shades 1 -. equal to the distance of that line in front of the axis. Being a line 2S perpendicular to the front plane. of a Tuscan Capital 48 is 47 AND THE Tuscan third of its capital here in shown is that of Vignola. Find the oval curve y2 T^ a? of theovolo. is found in the same way. Theshadowof thepart C 2 D 2 shadow on the oblique vertical plane whose plan is O.) (Article XIII J 2 Q 2 of JK on the same plane. The shadow oj the part oj the shade line whose elevation is 2S g2 on the cincture 2 2 is found 9 of the plan of the shade line of the torus. K K . point P 2S may be exactly determined by passing back along the ray from the G 2S of the point G and that m . line I 2S k 2S evidently determines k 2S exactly. The ovolo is the lower portion of a torus. b Find the shadow (Article XIV 4. that is. The column assumed to be engaged one- lower diameter a wall behind. The shade line. (Article IX 5. a in circle whose radius is equal to the radius of the neck of the column. or of the astragal or.. and the shade line C 2 s D 2S in Article XXIII. 2 is found in the same way. been already determined. K2 .

F I G V R R 46 //x " a .i ^. -1./ rip vjs ITv^ .^ F I G V R E.7" .

) I 2S Now p2S is the shadow of the lower edge of the cincture below H 2 F2 . and not nearly so accurate. tliis cincture on the column is found by the use of the plan. the two curves will coincide only at 3 S and 4S the shadows of the points where the shade line of the torus . The student should be familiar in with it it. The shdi/mi' oj points they intersect the 17 shadows of C2 C 2S and G2 may J2 and H2 F2 . These shadows might have been determined also by the slicing method. present any difficulty It when considered singly. however. (Article IX and Article XIV as it 4. since less laborious. Similar preliminary constructions have been explained in Article XIII 4. [71] . (Article IX). I proceed to cast the shadow of the capital and column on the wall '/'lie shadtr^ (J. and that of the equatorial circle of the torus. s the shadow of the equator circle of the astragal. it would have been simpler would have involved but one process. should be noted that the use of the method of auxiliary shadows (Article IX) has been very con- venient in this case. which nearly enough coincides with its actual shadow. and Article XIV 4. 14 The - s/nnloic oj and the shadow may then be drawn from imagination. crosses the equatorial circle. s 2S is cast by the astragal. often very useful in finding exactly particular points of shadow problems to follow. the envelope of the shadows on the oblique plane will of the circles of the torus. of course. the latter being the dotted inner line. the auxiliary shadows being cast on the vertical auxiliary plane passing through the axis of the column. Evidently. making the angle forty-five degrees with the front plane.. 18 Figure 47 shows the construction of the actual shadow on a front plane of the torus there shown._. backward to the left at the angle of forty-five degrees. though it This would have been no in analysis.(ARTICLE XXIV C'T'D) plan is QI b. and is determined by merely casting on the wall 15 j. These shadows have been explained fully in detail since they furnish a good example of an analysis which is somewhat complicated because it involves a number of processes. 19 the left Figure 48 shows the construction of the shadow of a torus on a vertical plane passing back to through its axis.) is This shadow be called the oval curve of the torus. as was in the preceding problem. This shadow is. be found by drawing the rays through C 2 and G 2 until -. none of which. in shadows on front planes of such flat tori as usually occur architectural work may be found accurately enough for drawings at a small scale by casting the shadow this construction it is From plain that the of the equatorial circles of the tori. however.The casting of the other shadows on the wall needs no explanation. (Figure 47. This shadow may be omitted 16 in drawings at small scale.

F I G VR R .

From these are determined the shadow points found as shown . or by passing back to the lower edge of the cincture along the ray from the intersection of the shadows on the wall of that edge of the cincture and of the torus. tori it shadow of the lower torus de on the cincture below may be found exactly at larger scale. 1 2 . .. . . Shadow p2S q 2S is that of circle Shadow will u 2S t 2S is that of the cincture Shadows on the wall of other horizontal circles p2 of the urn L2 be found to lie within the above lines. etc. [73] . five-degrec tangent to the plan of the horizontal circle through 8 2S The part of the urn Z 2 Z 2 I 2 J 2 is part of a torus. follows: 2 slicing method. In the latter case the shadows on the wall would serve as auxiliary shadows. 4S . etc. 2 that of circle 1m. Cast the shadow of this circle on the forty-five-degree auxiliary plane. and to then draw the shadow from imagination. 4. 2 S . .The is AB is part of a cylinder whose shade line D-. in 1 THF Urn and Plinth shown 2 -. and its shade line 5 . DE. 9 10 8 2S is The shadows of the cinctures on the scotias below them are found by the as. m 2S H 2S n 2S s. quarter-round moulding in Article E2 below it may is found from plan at C 2 in elevation. IB. 2S 8 2S the forty8 2S is determined by parallel to the right profile of the urn from point 8 2S 8 2S H 2S maybe assumed H .) Cast the shadow of the equator circle of the torus b2 c 2 on the same plane. where it leaves the cincture may be found as in section 5. draw the elevation of a ray. (Article XIV 4. Shadow E 2S G28 .The cincture -. the shadow of this circle will very nearly coincide with the shadow of that part of L 2 K 2 which would fall on the torus below. and the elevations of the slices cut by those planes on the surface of the urn are at : 2 2 2 3 2 etc. The 3 plans of the slicing planes are shown at ii. a little below L 2 an auxiliary circle.. The shades and shadows on the urn should be found first. The shadow of the edge DE on the body of the urn may be found by the slicing methcxl. the axis of the urn being at a distance x from the wall. The shade line on the cincture below the upper scotia and those on the two cinctures below the 7 lower scotia are found as above in section 8 i. Evidently. At the scale here given it would be practical to find the point g2S where the shadow of the torus leaves the cincture. The latter may be conveniently used here. section of these two auxiliary shadows. 3.. as is the shadow of the upper torus The of course be drawn at larger scale and these lines determined exactly. 2. be regarded as part of a torus whose shade line F2 G 2 XXIII. of the shade line is 2 Shadow h 2S F2S G 2S is the shadow Shadow G F h 2 of the torus DE. as it will also be used in finding shadow 2S N 2S and O 2S P 2S Q 2S The shadow on the torus b2 c2 Assume on the urn. The two may d 2 e 2 are drawn from imagination. and hence are imaginary. K L 2 2 may be found as in XXIII. The point at the right 6 . The shade being drawn nearly 4 line with reasonable accuracy to be that on a cylinder. above. producing it until it intersects the This point will evidently be the point where the shadow of the line shade line of the torus b2 c 2 at N 2S L2 K 2 crosses the shade line of torus b2 c 2 Shadow line of torus b2 c 2 on the cincture below it is found from the slices. From the interArticle M . or by the slicing method..ARTICLE The Shades and Shadows FIGURE XXV of an Urn and Plinth 49 Figure 49 are supposed to be placed in front of a wall parallel to a front plane. The shadows that of circle Sag of the urn on the wall may now be determined. . by the method of auxiliary shadows as in section 5. . The shades on the two on the lower.

F I G V R K. 5 O .

5 The shade on the middle part of the baluster is that on a cone whose apex . and points of the required shadow of the circle of the cincture on circles the case of the 2 .ARTICLE XXVI The Shades and Shadows on FIGURE 1 a Baluster 50 it -. may be obtained by passing back along rays through points of intersection of the auxiliary shadows.. is at A and whose profile lines on front elevation are 6 7 below 8 9 it and A 2 G 2 Shade line H 2 1 2 is that on the lower part of the torus F2 G 2 K 2 L2 Shadow lines of this torus on the cincture below it and of the edge of the cincture on the are found by the method of auxiliary shadows as in section 3 above. The shade on the cincture below the scotia is that on a cylinder. and then finding points of the required shadow by direct projection. as also for that of the scotia below. A 2 F2 . .) The shadow o] the echinus on the cincture below it is found by determining points of the plan 3 Axial of the shade line of the echinus. The shade on the moulding below the cincture is found as in the case of the circular torus. (Article XXIV. are cast on the oblique plane (Article XIV 4). point B 2S and profile point C 2 s are on the same level. g2 h 2 etc.) The shade on the echinus is determined in the same way as is that on the ovolo. (Article XXIV.The shadow of the edges of the abacus on the echinus and the cincture below are found as in Tuscan capital. . The shadow of the lower edge of the cincture on the baluster is found by the method of auxiliary 4 shadows.. scotia [75] . . Shadows of the circle of the lower edge of the cincture and of circles g2 h 2 etc. The slicing method might have been used for this shadow.

F 1 G V 5 \ .

Etc. cast the shadow of the forward tip of the rib of the leaf under the scrolls. FIGURE 1 51 2 -.The shades and shadows on the mouldings 0} (he cornice are readily found by direct projection. as E F. Next. and the rib of the leaf may then be drawn within the shadows of these circumscribing be sketched in place and the leaf drawn around it from imagina- may This gives a shadow of the form E 2S F 2S The shadows of the scrolls of the right face of the console are found in the same way. using the section and side elevation X 3 Y3 The shadows of the modillions and oj the console an (he wall arc found by direct projection. Points of the shadow of the part of the right edge of the console are found by direct projection. tion. from imagination.The shades and shadows mi the modillions and on the console are found by direct projection and . GH [77] . The shadows of modillions on drawings at such scales as those of drawings ordinarily rendered in practice may be simplified to the form shown at I 2S J 2 s with good effect.ARTICLE XXVII The Shades and Shadows of a Cornice over a Door Head. The shadows of the scrolls of the right and left faces of the modillions rectangles. cast first the shadows of the two rectangles containing the scrolls of the right and ows left faces of a modillion. Then cast the shad- of the rectangles containing the forward scrolls on the right and left faces of the modillion. by using the The left face of the lower scroll also auxiliary shadows of the rectangles circumscribing those scrolls. cast the shadow of the modillion band. -. Next. . with Consoles and Modillions. In 3 the case of the modillions. casts a shadow which is similarly found.

E. 5 2 .Q F 1 G V R.

ARTICLE XXVIII The Shades and Shadows on a Circular Building. plans being used. The shadows oj the interior cornices on the cylindrical part of the wall are found by direct pro3 jection. as here shown for convenience. (Article XVII.) [79] . K side elevations (the line Q 3 P3 Q3S being here used as such side elevations). since the latter are practically parallel to the part of the cylindrical wall on which they fall. and L may be assumed to be equal and parallel 5 to these profiles. (Article XVI 6. Seen Section FIGURE 1 52 0} the wall The shadow. in with a Domical Roof. and dome is the shadow on a and F 2S may be found by deterfound in the G28 H 2S is same way. 2 The sltadow of G2S H2 on the face of the cornice. plans being used. 6 The shadows in the barrel-vaulted heads oj the windows are to be found with the help of their 4 The shadow. of BAG on the inner surface in this circular niche. but 2 12 actually the dotted line in elevation. is H . H 2S I 2S of HI is found by direct The shadows of the profiles of the mouldings at . . projection. The breaks shadow at D 2S E 2S .) mining parts of the shadow of BAG on these fascias. B 2 A 2S C 2S . by the use of the plans of the cornice and of the line C 2 1 2 It is to be noted that the true intersection of the window jamb and the dome is not the part of the circle of the dome.

aE SECTION.F 3 1 G V R E 53 i 1. E. . 54 4^-J>KGR. F I G V R.

The application of this method is more clearly shown in Figure 55. equal to distances the left of these lines lay off with a measuring strip 2. etc. show that the auxiliary plane cuts on the forty-fivc-degrcc section plane the vertical and that the shadow of the line A 2 B 2 on the auxiliary plane is the dotted line F 2S D 2S Now . of C 2 B 2 on the crown-moulding may be found by the method of auxiliary shadows as follows: Suppose an auxiliary front plane to cut through the crown-moulding. . proceed as follows: Suppose that the profile A 2 B 2 is also that of the right section of the raking parts of the pediment. such as b. of the shadow of AC evidently ends at the miter line. forty-fivc-degrce slices are drawn. of this forty-five-degree slice from the vertical line on the frieze will be the same as a! c 1. is a variation of the slicing method. Draw on the right and left slopes of the pediment vertical lines at any convenient place to represent the lines of the slices on the face of the i. Then D 2S where moulding. 4. and it will be necessary to construct only one slice for each slope of the pediment. will cut a vertical line on the plane of the frieze. B2 intersects the shadow line of BG. y. To i. being the plan of the fillet over the crown-moulding. The shadow of point B will be at B 2S the point where the elevation of the ray through . C H of any point or line of the pediment from the wall can be readily obtained from a right section of the raking mouldings. 3. cut on it lines parallel to the raking lines of the moulding. 3. as b. part passes through The shadow D section on the left will line X2 Y2 . the face of the frieze. this line intersects the auxiliary shadow line F 2S D 2S is a point of the shadow of C2 the point B 2 on the [81] . d. 54 a Pediment 55 AND THE method here shown for finding the shadows on the raking mouldings of the pediment. frieze or tympanum. B2 Z2 . of the crown- moulding.ARTICLE XXIX The Shades and Shadows on FIGURES 53. these distances being gotten from the profile at 2 From the points thus determined. as b. that the forty-five-degree slicing plane whose plan is x. Hence. the raking line through D 2S is in the auxiliary plane and also in the crown-moulding. 4. A will Since most of the shade and shadow lines are parallel to the raking lines of the pediment. g.. which is a detail at larger scale of the middle part of the two uppermost mouldings of the pediment shown in Figure 54. to construct the forty-five-dcgrce vertical slices on the right and left slopes of the pediment shown in Figure 54. this being nearly enough true in drawings at small scale. It is evident that the distance. of corresponding points from the face of the tympanum.) Figure 53 shows a sketch plan of the pediment. It will (Article IX). c lt of any point. etc. the raking line whose right-hand Suppose Then an examination of the forty-five-dcgree 2S to have been cut by such a plane. that the distance in elevation. the The shade and shadow points in these slices are then readily found. (Article X. The straight part. a single point determine them. the distance of that point from the face of frieze. etc. A 2S C 2s. and the shadows of those mouldings on the tympanum. the distances 2..

P 1 G V .R & 5 (3 .

. The shadow A2S C 2S D 2S of ..The shadow 1 of the left edge of the abacus is the forty-five-degree line A 2 A 2S (Article XIII i. and constructing its K 2S L 2S M 2S . it. -. 3 Jis K 1S L 1S M the front edge of the abacus on the echinus its found by constructing the plan.) . of the front edge of the abacus on the neck of the column is is found by direct projection. of this shadow from side elevation. The dotted lines show the shadows [83] . from plan. front elevation. and the results were copied in Figure 56 in parts where the scale of that figure did not permit accurate construction. Figure 57 shows the shadow of this capital on a wall behind of the edges of imaginary lintels. The shade line of this cone is O2 I2 in elevation. The shadow F 2S G 2S is cast by the shade line 5 of the echinus. ARTICLE XXX Greek Doric Capital 57 The Shades and Shadows FIGURES of a 56 AND example shown in Figure 56 is taken from the Parthenon. The nature of the shadows here shown was determined from a drawing at larger scale than that of the figure. etc. Other details of the shadow present no difficulty. J 2S 1S . THE 2 The shadow. The shade on the echinus is determined by assuming the echinus as coincident with the cone 4 whose apex is O.

V'5 15HADOWJ! LINTEL LINKJ OK F I G V R E 58 .

draw line X 3 the left of the axis of the column. rather than the plan. connection with the front elevation. and should be able to draw from memory those which it is impracticable to cast at small scales. to fall on a wall unbroken by mouldthe lines of imaginary lintels that might be placed on the Figure 59 shows the shadow of a detached column on a wall behind column being shown by dotted lines.ARTICLE XXXI The Shades and Shadows FIGURES of the Roman Tuscan Order 59 it. [8 5 ] . The draftsman should become quite as familiar with these shadows casting the shadows of those parts. If then the line in Y3 X3 Y3 on the front elevation. Then proceed to cast the shades and shadows in accordance with principles which have been exDetermine the shades and shadows on the various parts of the order before plained in detail heretofore. 58 AND IN Figure 58 the column is assumed to be engaged one-third of its lower diameter in a wall behind Since it will be convenient in this case to use the side elevation of the order. it. and with those of the orders to follow as with the orders themselves. as those on the capital and base. the part of the figure to the right of that line will represent the side elevation of the order. one-sixth of the diameter to be taken to represent the face of the wall in side elevation. such The shadows on the wall in the case of Figure 58 are supposed ings. etc.

VR R 6 3 1 I- I Ci V GO .' i il V 1 C.

and forty-five-degree lines. in an unbroken wall one-sixth of a diameter back of the axis being engaged. the column as in the preceding example. [87] . the shadows of imaginary lintel lines being dotted in. without the breaks shown in Figure 60. do not cast real shadows. The curves of the crown-moulding and of the other curved mouldings. of cones. Note that the shadow on the wall of the order with the profiles as here shown. 61. is made up almost wholly of horizontal. of the column. at small scale. when drawn at the scale of Figure 60.ARTICLE XXXII The Shades and Shadows FIGURES FIGURE 60 shows of the Roman 63 Doric Order 60. and the student will have no difficulty in analyzing the construction shown. No new principles or details are involved. Figures 61 and 63 show shadows of various details drawn at enlarged scales. be considered as cylindrical. perpendicular. the shadow of the left lower edge of the mutules may be drawn as a single fortyThe guttae under the taenia are actually parts five-degree line. but may. At small scale. being practically all in shade or shadow. or smaller. 62 AND the shades and shadows of the Roman mutular Doric order of Vignola. and Figure 62 shows those of an unengaged column.

FIGVRE 66 F I G V E. K 65 F I G VRE 64 .

65 AND Roman its column is engaged one-third of front. the upper edge of the ta?nia CE. entablature. CE The is the point C3 . as in the preceding examples. The other processes of finding the shades and shadows are sufficiently shown by the construction. . The In this case are also shown the shadows on the entablature . . The side elevation of the ray which casts shadow at this level of The is side elevation of . . Suppose it be required to cast the shadow of any point of it. Ionic order according to Vignola. The construction of the shadow of the section line then becomes easy. fillet whose profile is A 2 B 2 F2 C 2 If 2 the length of the return at the vertical line A Z2 is assumed to be x (shown Figure 65. . as in preceding examples. Suppose it be desired to find what point of the section line casts its shadow on a certain line of the elevation of the entablature over the . [89] . A Y Z 2 may A 2 B 2 F2 C 2 be truly considered the side elevation of the section which is will then truly represent. Figure 66 shows the shadows of the capital of a detached column with lintel lines. The front elevation of the edge of the easy to determine just what points of the section line of the entablature facing the front. with its shades and shadows. then. line 3. as the length x). CE of the ta?nia. it is Thus ABCD cast shadow on given parts is representing the side elevation of the face of the wall in which the column is engaged. as. with reference to Y 2 Z 2 the side . now we draw Y 2 at the distance x from the A a B 2 F2 C 2 of the crown-moulding 2 in front elevation. placed. for example.ARTICLE XXXIII The Shades and Shadows FIGURES K 64 shows the of the Roman 66 Ionic Order 64. one-sixth of the diameter from the axis of the column. of a section of the entablature returning toward the in plan. lower diameter in the wall behind. at B 3S elevation the shadow will be on the horizontal line through B 3S and also on the front elevation of the ray through B 2 hence B 2S is at the intersection of these two lines. as B. C 2 F3 Then F 3 is the side elevation of front elevation the point of the section line which casts its shadow on the edge F is F2 and the front elevation of the ray through F is F 2 F 2S taenia is C 2 E>. and . . The side elevation of B is B 3 Then in front Its shadow on the entablature in side elevation is. The S3 T and require no further comment. Hence F2S is the shadow of F. column facing the front.

E 67 .EIjQVJlE UNTEL 68 LINE.S F I G V K.

Figure 68 shows the shadows of a detached column. order shown in Figure 67 is engaged one-third of the lower diameter of the column is a wall The shadow of the abacus cast by direct projection. with lintel lines. The other parts of the shades and shadows require no comment. The A 2S B 2S of the shadow on the wall .. etc. the plan being used. in these auxiliary and then inscribing shadows the oblique projections of the faces of the is the shadow of the ovolo of the part capital.ARTICLE XXXIV The Shades and Shadows of the Angular Ionic Order according to Scamozzi FIGURES 67 AND 68 in THE behind it. The shadows volutes. of the volutes are found by casting the shadows of the rectangles circumscribing the faces of the volutes.

. . K G I VR E. E 68 . TO P I GV R.

ARTICLE
The Shades and Shadows
FIGURES 69
FIGURE 69 shows
the shades

XXXV
of the Corinthian

Order

AND

70

and shadows of the Corinthian order according to Vignola. The order is engaged one-third of the lower diameter of the column in a wall behind it. The shadows on the entablature present no difficulty. There is no practicable method for determining the whole of the shades and shadows on the capital. The shades on the tips of the leaves may be found by regarding those leaves as parts of tori, and other partial shadows, such as those on the abacus, may be determined geometrically according to methods previously given; but many of these shades and shadows must be drawn from imagination, or with the
It may be determined with subject to the same difficulties. reasonable certainty, however, by casting shadows of the abacus, those of rectangles containing approximately the volutes, those of circles containing tips of the leaves, and those of the ribs of those leaves which
i

help of an actual model. The shadow of the capital on the wall

will

Around the shadows of the ribs of the leaves, the oblique projections of evidently cast shadow. the leaves may be drawn from imagination, the process being similar to that of casting the shadows of the modillions as explained in Article XXVII. The shadow of the capital in Figure 69 was cast in this
In Figure 69
it is

way.

assumed that the entablature returns along the wall at the right of the column. In that case the shadows of modillions A and B fall on top of the tajpiarat A 2S and B._>s and are not visible in elevation. If the wall were unbroken the shadow would take the form shown by the dotted line. Figure 70 shows the shadow, with dotted lintel lines, of an unengaged column.

[93]

.\l_:

F

I

G V

R.

R

ARTICLE XXXVI
The Shades and Shadows
of the
71

Composite Capital

FIGURE
FIGURE
71

on a wall behind the column.

shows the shades and shadows of the composite capital of Vignola, the shadow being cast The method here shown for casting the shadows of the leaves is of necessity only approximate, and is the same as that detailed on page 93, for casting the shadow of the Corinthian capital. Compare the shade of the capitals shown in this and in the preceding figures with the

shadows of the models
used
for

of these orders

shown

in

in these cases are not quite like the capitals

some

differences between the

shadows

in

Figures 77, 78 and 79. It should be noted that the models This fact partially accounts shown in Figures 69, 70 and 7 1 the two cases.
.

[95]

the ray casting tip square square with the diagonal of the cube. the The board with its photographs were taken. In these experiments the vertical plane was The angle forty-five degrees an upright screen before which the models were placed. the square that shadow coincided of the rod fell on the corner of the diagonally opposite. however.SHADES AND SHADOWS PHOTOGRAPHED FROM MODELS FIGURES 72 TO 81 THE following ten plates are made from photographs furnished for of the conventional direction. is. having this purpose by Mr. a circle was drawn. Boston. Charles Emmel. at hours varying according to the time of the year in the morning. When the shadow of the edge of a cube. it was easy to tell when the rays were approaching the conventional direction with reference to the horizontal by watching the shadow of the tip of the rod approach the circle. The method of obtaining the required direction of light was very simple. eight inches was made the side of the square. and the changing of models and of plates in the camera covered several minutes. rays having exactly the angle r only for an infinitesimally short time. a sharp pointed rod. On this center was placed. tip tional altitude. in Philadelphia. perpendicular to the board. no method of taking such photographs could give absolutely exact results.five degrees with the foot of the screen. the rod representing one vertical Now. The rays were kept angle with the screen while photographs were being the shadow of the rod on the forty-five-degree line. and hence the ray had the conventional direction. in the afternoon. made by continually twisting the screen so as to keep upright rod above described being properly levelled. The variation in the altitude of the sun during the time consumed in making any one lot of photographs was. In these experiments. a sheet of paper was mounted. of which was eight inches. once in the morning and again in the The sun of course and the latitude of the place. when the rays made the angle r with the screen. The models were models exposed to direct sunlight. The accomafternoon. With the corner of the square as a center A the length was described. and a radius equal to the diagonal. above described would It is evident that a line drawn from the tip of the rod to any point on the circle make the same angle with the horizontal as did the ray from the tip to the opposite corner of the square. The screen was then twisted toward the light until the shadow of this vertical rod on the horizontal base coincided with the forty-five at this degree line through its foot. and was as follows: Upon a square of convenient size a horizontal drawing-board. On the paper diagonal of the was laid out. on the paper represented the bottom of that cube. Several photographs were made at the time of each The experiment. This screen had a wide horizontal base to insure its steadiness. [96] . the length of the side of the square. in the panying photographs were made about half-past eight o'clock At that time and place the sun had the same altitude near half-past three o'clock latter part of August. of the rod fell on the circle at any point the sun had the convenwhenever the shadow of the Hence. the rays of light has the required altitude twice each day. direction r with reference to the vertical plane could evidently be obtained at any time by twistof a vertical line on a horizontal plane would make the ing that plane on a vertical axis until the shadow with the foot of the vertical plane. that made the angle r with the horizontal plane. When the shadow of the tip was on or very near the circle. not more than one degree and as the angle r with the screen was kept correct by twisting the screen . Upon this base was drawn a line making forty. At a convenient point on this line a vertical rod eight inches high was placed.

since they are in one plane but it would affect the pictures of the models and of the shadows on screen. The photographs being made from a . At the time and place of making the photographs. To [97] . not in true elevation. those objects show in This would affect but slightly the pictures of the shadows on the perspective. Thus the effects of perspective were so far reduced as to be fairly negligible for models of the size and character used.(SHADES AND SHADOWS PHOTOGRAPHED FROM MODELS C'T'D) and base on which the iruxlels stood. its point at a finite distance from the objects. them very considerably. obviate this difficulty a telephoto lens was used and the camera placed as far as possible from the screen. the angle of the rays with the horizontal varied very nearly one degree in five minutes. the variations of the shadows as photographed from those cast by rays having the angle absolutely correct would be almost imperceptible.

.

placed against the screen. The back of the pedestal was Both pedestal and model were square with the screen. and the pedestal is eleven inches square. [99] .THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE IONIC ORDER FIGURE 72 FIGURE 72 shows the shades and shadows of the Ionic order of the Erechtheum at Athens. The column is not engaged. but is placed on axis. with an unmoulded pedestal under it. The diameter of the column shown is seven inches.

.

THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE IONIC ORDER
FIGURE
FIGURE
ital

73

73 shows the shades

and shadows

of the

being placed far enough in front of the screen to

same order as the preceding figure, the pedestal show the whole of the shadows on the screen of the cap-

and

base.

THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE IONIC ORDER
FIGURE
FIGURE 74 shows
74
the shades and shadows of the same order as the preceding, the side of the capital being turned toward the front, as happens on the side of a portico which is more than one bay deep.

[103]

.

The back of the pedestal was [105].THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE ANGULAR IONIC ORDER FIGURE FIGURE 75 shows the shades 75 placed against the screen. . and shadows of the angular Ionic and the column on axis with the pedestal. order.

.

The front of the screen to show the whole of the shadows of the capital and base on the screen. [ 107 ] .THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE ANGULAR IONIC ORDER FIGURE FIGURE 76 shows pedestal is 76 the shades placed far enough in and shadows of the angular Ionic order according to Scamozzi.

.

and the back of the pedestal is set against the screen. according to Vignola column is placed on axis with the pedestal. The [109] .THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE CORINTHIAN ORDER FIGURE 77 FIGURE 77 shows the shades and shadows of the Corinthian order.

.

according column is placed on axis with the pedestal. and the pedestal is set far enough in front of the whole of the shadows of the capital and base on the screen. FIGURE 78 shows the shades and shadows of the Corinthian order. The show the screen to [in] .THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE CORINTHIAN ORDER FIGURE 78 to Vignola.

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THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE COMPOSITE ORDER FIGURE FIGURE 79 shows the shades 79 umn is and shadows of the Composite order according to Vignola. placed on axis with the pedestal and the back of the pedestal is set against the screen. The col- ["3] .

.

the shades .THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF THE IONIC AND CORINTHIAN PILASTER CAPITALS FIGURE 80 FIGURE 80 shows thian. The capitals and shadows of two pilaster capitals the angular Ionic and the Corinhave a return on the side corresponding to a pilaster whose side is one-half its face.

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THE SHADES AND SHADOWS OF A MODILL1ON AND OF A CONSOLE FIGURE FIGURE 81 shows the shades 81 and shadows of a Corinthian modillion and of an Ionic enough console. as is the case with the modillions shown in Figures 51 and 69. to receive light Note and ["7] . that the tip of the acanthus leaf of the modillion does not project forward far cast shadow.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX .