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Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Manual - Brazil

Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Manual - Brazil

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Published by Glenn Schatz

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Published by: Glenn Schatz on Dec 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • 1.3Solid waste sector trends
  • 2Integrated solid waste management
  • 3.2Forms of administration
  • 3. 3Payment for services
  • 3.3.1Guidelines for the calculation of a waste collection rate
  • 4Legislation and environmental licenses
  • 4.3Environmental licenses
  • 4.4Regulations applicable to solid waste
  • 5.1Definition of rubbish and solid waste
  • 5.2Solid waste classification
  • 5.2.1Potential environmental contamination risks
  • 5.2.2Nature and origin
  • 5.3Characteristics of solid waste
  • 5.3.1Physical characteristics
  • 5.3.2Chemical characteristics
  • 5.3.3Biological characteristics
  • 5.5Factors that influence solid waste characteristics
  • 6Solid waste quantity projections
  • 7Solid waste preparation and storage
  • 7.2The importance of appropriate preparation and storage
  • 7.3Characteristics of pre-collection storage containers
  • 7.4Domestic waste pre-collection preparation and storage
  • 7.5Pre-collection storage of street waste
  • 7.8Special domestic waste pre-collection storage
  • 7.9Special origin waste pre-collection storage
  • Solid waste collection and transport
  • 8.1Domestic waste collection and transport
  • 8.1.1Concept
  • 8.1.2Collection regularity
  • 8.1.3Collection frequency
  • 8.1.4Collection times
  • 8.1.5Restructuring domestic collection routes
  • 8.1.6Collection vehicles
  • 8.1.7Tools and implements used by collectors
  • 8.2 Public solid waste collection and transport
  • 8.2.1 Concept
  • 8.2.2 Collection of waste gathered by sweeping
  • 8.2.3Collection of waste from weeding and vegetation cutting
  • 8.2.4Tree pruning waste collection
  • 8.2.5Collection of rubble and other construction waste
  • 8.2.6Special collections
  • 8.2.7Vehicles and equipment used for collection
  • 8.3Waste collection in tourist cities
  • 8.4 Solid waste collection in informal settlements
  • 8.5 Collection of medical waste
  • 8.5.1 Acknowledgement of the problem
  • 8.5.2Segregation
  • 8.5.4Vehicles for collection and transport
  • 8.5.5Aspects of collection planning
  • Solid waste transfer
  • 9.1 Concept
  • 9.2Types of transfer station
  • 9.2.1Direct transfer station
  • 9.2.2Station with storage facilities
  • 9.2.3Alternative transfer systems
  • 9.3Vehicles and machines for transfer stations
  • Street cleaning
  • 10.1The importance of street cleanliness
  • 10.2Waste found in the street
  • 10.3Street cleaning services
  • 10.3.1Sweeping services
  • 10.3.2Weeding and scraping services
  • 10.3.3Cutting services
  • 10.3.4 Drain cleaning services
  • 10.3.5 Market cleaning services
  • 10.3.6 Manual and mechanical waste removal services
  • 10.3.7 Beach cleaning services
  • 10.4How to reduce street waste
  • 10.5Street cleaning in tourist cities
  • Recovery of recyclable materials
  • 11.1 Concept
  • 11.2 Selective collection programs
  • !selective door to door collection;
  • 11.2.1 Selective door to door collection
  • 11.2.2 Voluntary Drop-off Centres (VDC)
  • 11.2.3 Segregator organizations
  • Solid waste treatment
  • 12.2Domestic solid waste treatment
  • 12.2.1Recycling
  • 12.2.3Choosing a treatment option
  • 12.3Treatment of special domestic waste
  • 12.3.1 Construction rubble
  • 12.3.3 Batteries and fluorescent tubes
  • 12.4Treatment of waste from special sources
  • 12.4.1 Industrial solid waste
  • 12.4.2 Radioactive waste
  • 12.4.3 Port and airport waste
  • 12.4.4 Medical waste
  • Solid waste final disposal
  • 13.1Introduction
  • 13.2Impacts of inappropriate solid waste disposal
  • 13.3Sanitary landfill
  • 13.3.1Sanitary landfill site selection
  • 13.3.2Environmental licenses
  • 13.3.4Landfill installation
  • 13.3.5Sanitary landfill operation
  • 13.3.6Equipment
  • 13.4Controlled landfills
  • 13.5Environmental recuperation of refuse dumps
  • 13.6The situation of segregators
  • 13.7Special domestic waste disposal
  • 13.7.1 Construction rubble disposal
  • 13.7.2Disposal of batteries
  • 13.7.3Disposal of fluorescent tubes
  • 13.7.4Disposal of tyres
  • 13.8Disposal of waste from special sources
  • 13.8.1Industrial waste disposal
  • 13.8.2Radioactive waste disposal
  • 13.8.3Port and airport waste disposal
  • 13.8.4 Medical waste disposal
  • 13.9.1 Greenhouse effect: causes and consequences
  • 13.9.2The “logic” of carbon credits
  • 13.9.5General considerations

In many cities with large wasteland areas refuse is often irregularly discarded there.

Open wastelands and uncared for public areas, in combination with inadequate urban

cleaning systems, generate what are called “waste accumulation sites”.

The accumulation often begins with construction rubble being dumped and, as “rubbish

attracts rubbish”, this is followed by the addition of pruned vegetation, old tyres, the

remains of packaging, and organic waste. Later weeds start to grow and the entire

scenario results in blocked drains and serious sanitary and environmental consequences.

To deal with this type of problem cleaning services should establish a specific

operational methodology as these situations involve not only clearing activities (weeding

and vegetation cutting) but also the removal of all types of waste that have accumulated

on such sites. This work requires machines and tools appropriate for each type of

waste, not only for clearing tasks but also for collection and transport to the final

destination, all of which places an additional burden on the system through higher

operational costs due to the extra personnel and machines required in these cases.

This type of activity is commonly called waste removal and can be manual or


The removal of unpackaged refuse such as common waste, soil and rubble can be

done manually with shovels, lifting it directly into the box of a dump truck or into

metal containers that will later be removed by appropriate trucks with cranes. To

remove cut vegetation a four pronged fork is used. A three or four pronged pitchfork

10. Street cleaning


Figure 73 - Mechanical loader at work

Figure 74 - Three pronged pitchfork

is used to separate the pile of accumulated waste in order to facilitate its handling

and transport.

In cases where there is a large amount of waste and especially where a lot of soil or

rubble has to be removed the use of a wheeled front loader (mechanical loader) is


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