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nd
Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”
E084 (O) 2123 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand
1
1. INTRODUCTION
Scientists all over the world are in search of new and renewable energy sources. One of the options is to develop energy
storage devices, which are as important as developing new sources of energy. Thermal energy storage systems provide the
potential to attain energy savings, which in turn reduce the environment impact related to non renewable energy use. Infact,
these systems provide a valuable solution for correcting the mismatch that is often found between the supply and demand of
energy. Latent heat storage is a relatively new area of study although it previously received much attention during the energy
crisis of late 1970’s and early 1980’s where it was extensively researched for use in solar heating systems. When the energy
crisis subsided, much less emphasis was put on latent heat storage. Although research into latent heat storage for solar heating
systems continues, recently it is increasingly being considered for waste heat recovery, load leveling for power generation,
building energy conservation and air conditioning applications
As demand for air conditioning increased greatly during the last decade, large demands of electric power and limited
reserves of fossil fuels have led to a surge in interest with regard to energy efficiency. Electrical energy consumption varies
significantly during the day and night according to the demand by industrial, commercial and residential activities. In hot and
cold climate countries, the major part of the load variation is due to air conditioning and domestic space heating respectively.
This variation leads to a differential pricing system for peak and off peak periods of energy use. Better power generation/
distribution management and significant economic benefit can be achieved if some of the peak load could be shifted to the off
peak load period. This can be achieved by thermal energy storage for heating and cooling in residential and commercial
building establishments.
There are several promising developments going on in the field of application of PCMs for heating and cooling of building.
Stritih and Novak [1] designed and tested a latent heat storage system used to provide ventilation of a building. The results of their
work, according to the authors, were very promising. Phase change dry wall or wallboard is an exciting type of building integrated
heat storage material. Several authors investigated the various methods of impregnating gypsum and other PCMs [2 5] in
wallboards. Lee et al. [6] and Hawes et al. [7] presented the thermal performance of PCM’s in different types of concrete blocks.
They studied and presented covered the effects of concrete alkalinity, temperature, immersion time and PCM dilution on PCM
absorption during the impregnation process. Ismail et al. [8] proposed a different concept for thermally effective windows using a
PCM moving curtain. UniSA (University of South Australia) [9] developed a roofintegrated solar air heating/storage system, which
uses existing corrugated iron roof sheets as a solar collector for heating air. Kunping Lina et al [10] put forward a new kind of under
floor electric heating system with shapestabilized phase change material (PCM) plates. Hed [11] investigated PCM integrated
cooling systems for building types where there is an over production of heat during the daytime such as offices, schools and shopping
centers. Free cooling was investigated at the University of Zaragoza / Spain by B. Zalba [12]. The objective of the work was to
design and construct an experimental installation to study PCMs with a melting temperature between 2025°C.In order to achieve
thermal storage capacity approximately equal to the heat gains within the space during the daily cycle, a new concept for the ceiling
panel was developed by Markus Koschenz and Beat Lehmann [13] to incorporate this system in a light weight building that can be
retrofitted. Velraj et al. [14] presented a detailed study on PCM based Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) integrated with building
air conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai, India which is an active system where the storage tank is kept separately away from
the building. Stetiu and Feustel [15] used a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach to
numerically evaluate the latent heat storage performance of PCM wallboard in a building environment. Athienitis et al. [16]
conducted an extensive experimental and one dimensional nonlinear numerical simulation study in a full scale outdoor test room
with PCM gypsum board as inside wall lining.
In the present paper, a detailed study on the thermal performance of a phase change material based thermal storage for energy
conservation in building is analyzed and discussed. An experimental set up consisting of two identical test rooms has been
constructed to study the effect of having PCM panel on the roof for thermal management of a residential building. One room is
Corresponding author: velrajr@annauniv.edu
Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study on Building Ceiling Using Phase Change Material for
Energy Conservation
Avadaiappa P. Pasupathy
1
and Ramalingom Velraj
2,*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayamatha Engineering College, Aralvoimozhy, Kanyakumari – 629301, India
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai600025, India
Abstract: Thermal storage plays a major role in wide variety of industrial, commercial and residential application when there is a
mismatch between the supply and demand. Several promising developments are taking place in the field of thermal storage using
phase change materials (PCMs) in buildings. In the present paper, a detailed study on the thermal performance of a PCM based
thermal storage for energy conservation in building is analyzed and discussed. An experimental set up consisting of two identical test
rooms has been constructed to study the effect of having PCM panel on the roof of the building. One room is constructed without
PCM on the roof to compare the performance of the experimental room that with the PCM on the roof which has melting temperature
in the range of 26  28ºC. A mathematical model has been developed and the finite volume method is used for the computational of
thermal behavior of the ceiling incorporating PCM. Several simulation runs are made for a given ambient conditions by varying the
heat transfer co efficient on both sides of roof. A comparison with the experimental results is also made.
Keywords: Building Energy Conservation, Encapsulation, Latent Heat, Thermal Energy Storage, Phase Change Material
The 2
nd
Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”
E084 (O) 2123 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand
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constructed without PCM on the roof to compare the thermal performance of an inorganic eutectic PCM (48% CaCl
2
+ 4.3 % NaCl
+ 0.4%KCl + 47.3% H
2
O), which has melting temperature in the range of 26  28ºC. A mathematical model has been developed and
the finite volume method is employed for the computation of thermal behavior of the roof incorporating PCMs. A comparison with
the experimental results is made and several simulation runs are conducted for the average ambient conditions for all the months in a
year and for the various other parameters of interest.
2. MODELING OF PCM INTEGRATED BUILDING ROOF SYSTEM
2.1 Statement of the problem
The physical system considered is a stainless steel panel filled with PCM placed in between the roof top slab and the bottom
concrete slab, which form the roof of the PCM room. In each cycle, during the charging process (sunshine hours), the PCM in the
roof change its phase from solid to liquid. As melting requires a large quantity of heat at its phase change temperature, the
temperature of the concrete slab normally will not exceed the PCM temperature. During the discharging process (night hours), the
PCM changes its phase from liquid to solid (solidification) by rejecting its heat to the ambient and to the air inside the room. This
cycle continues every day.
The composite wall described in Fig. 1 is initially maintained at a uniform temperature “T
i
”. The boundary condition on the
outer surface of roof is considered due to the combine effect of radiation and convection. In order to consider the radiation effect, the
average monthly solar radiation heat flux available in the Handbook by Tiwari [17] for every onehour in Chennai city, India is used.
For convection, the heat transfer coefficient (h) value on the outer surface is calculated based on the prevailing velocity of the wind
using the Nusselt correlation. The boundary condition on the inner surface of the concrete slab is considered to be natural convection.
As the temperature difference between the room and the wall is very less, most of the earlier researchers have approximated the
bottom wall as insulated. However, when the temperature difference becomes appreciable, the effect of heat flow is considerable and
hence this convection effect is also taken into account in the present research work.
Fig. 1 Sketch of the building roof
2.2 Mathematical formulation
For the mathematical formulation of the above mentioned problem shown in Fig. 2, the following assumptions are made:
(1) The heat conduction in the composite wall is onedimensional and the end effects are neglected.
(2) The thermal conductivity of the concrete slab and the roof top slab are considered constant and not varying with respect to
temperature
(3) The PCM is homogeneous and isotropic.
(4) The convection effect in the molten PCM is neglected.
(5) The interfacial resistances are negligible.
(6) The ‘c
p
’ value of the PCM in the panel is considered as follows.
T< T
m
φ c
p =
c
ps
T>T
m
+φ c
p =
c
pl
T
m
φ < T < T
m
+φ c
p =
λ/2∈
where ‘c
p
’ is the specific heat capacity, λ is the latent heat capacity, φ is half of the temperature range over which the phase change
occurs and T
m
is the temperature about which phase change occurs.
(7) The latent heat value of the PCM is modeled in the above equation as high sensible heat value during the phase change process.
Normally all the PCMs change its phase over a range of temperature. In the present model, uniform c
p
value is considered during
Roof top slab
(Brick mixture + mortar)
PCM panel
Concrete slab
L
1
= 10 cm
L
2
= 2.5 cm
L
3
= 12 cm
Edges
insulated
Q radiation
Q convection
Light breeze
The 2
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Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”
E084 (O) 2123 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand
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Interfacial resistance = 0
i= 11
i= 6
i= 11
phase change process, though in actual practice, there is variation in c
p
value within this small temperature range. In accordance
with the abovementioned assumption, the governing equation and the boundary condition are developed as below.
Governing Equation
3 , 2 , 1 ; ] 0 [
2
2
= < <
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
m L x
t
T
c
x
T
k
m
P m
m
m
m
ρ
(1)
where m = 1 for roof top slab: m = 2 for PCM panel: m = 3 for bottom concrete slab.
The same equation holds good for all the three material regions by incorporating suitable k, ρ, c
p
value. In the exterior boundary
(x=0) where the floor is exposed to solar radiation, the boundary condition is,
k
1
∂T
1
/∂x
x=0
=q
rad
+ h
o
(T
∞
T
x=0
) (2)
The radiation effect is considered during sunshine hours. In the bottom layer of the concrete slab x =L, the boundary condition is
) (
3
3 room L x i
L X
T T h
x
T
k − =
∂
∂
+
=
=
(3)
The instantaneous continuity of heat flux and temperature at the interfaces x = L
1
and L
2
are preserved
k
1
∂T
1
/∂x
x=0
=q
rad
+ h
o
(T
∞
T
x=0
)
x
+ k
3
∂T
3
/∂x
x = L
= h
i
(T
x=L
–T
room
)
Fig. 2 Finite volume grid for the analysis
2.2.1 Exterior Node
The equation for the top volume cell is written as below
2
1
1
1 o
1
1 1 1 1
T
x
fk
T f h
x
fk
t
x c
δ
−


.

\

+
δ
+
∆
∆ ρ
− −
δ
−
− + =
∞ ∞
) T T ( h
x
) T T ( k
) f 1 ( fT h
1 o
1
1 2 1
o
 
4
s
4
sky s 1
0
1 1 1
T T q x
t
T c
∈ − α σ + α + ∆
∆
ρ
+
(4)
2.2.2 Inner Node
The equation for any volume cell that is located in between the top and bottom volume cells of a particular material is written as
below
i
m
m
i
m
m
m
m m m m
1 i
m
m
T
x
fk
T
x
fk
x
fk
t
x c
T
x
fk
∆
−
∆
+
∆
+
∆
∆ ρ
+
∆
−
+
t
x T c
x
) T T (
k
x
) T T ( k
) f 1 (
m
0
i m m
m
1 i i
m
m
1 i 1 i m
∆
∆ ρ
+
δ
−
−
δ
−
− =
− − − +
(5)
The abovementioned discretized equations are applicable for volume cells (2), (3), (4), (7), (8), (9) and for (12), (13), (14) for
roof top slab, PCM panel and concrete slab respectively.
m = 1, i = 2, 3, 4; m = 2, i = 7, 8, 9; m = 3, i = 12, 13, 1 4.
x= 0
i= 1
i= 6
i= 15
x=L
The 2
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Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”
E084 (O) 2123 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand
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2.2.3 Interface Node
The equation for the interface volume cell 5 is written as below
5
1
1
2 2 1 1
1 1 1
4
1
1
T
x
fk
k 2 / x k 2 / x
f
t
x c
T
x
fk
δ
+
δ + δ
+
∆
∆ ρ
+
δ
−
4
2 2 1 1
T
k 2 / x k 2 / x
f
∆ + ∆
−
1
0
5 1 1
1
4 5 1
2
5 6 1
x
t
T c
x
) T T ( k
x
) T T ( k
) f 1 ( ∆
∆
ρ
+
δ
−
−
δ
−
− =
(6)
where ∆x
1
and ∆x
2
are the cell thickness of the roof top slab and PCM panel respectively. Similarly the equation can be written for
volume cell (6). The same procedure is extended for control volumes (10) and (11) which involves cell thickness ∆x
2
and ∆x
3
that
corresponds to PCM panel and bottom concrete slab respectively.
2.2.4 Interior Node
The equation for the bottom volume cell 15 is written as below
+ − =
δ
+
∆
∆ ρ
+
δ
−
)] 2 ( h [ f T
x
fk
t
x c
T
x
fk
i 15
3
3 3 3 3
14
3
3
3
0
15 3 3
3
14 15
i
x
t
T c
x
) T T (
k h 2 ) f 1 ( ∆
∆
ρ
+
δ
−
− −
(7)
3. COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE
The governing equations along with the boundary conditions are discretized using semi implicit control volume formulation. The
region of analysis is divided into five control volumes for each material. A time step of 2 second is used within the simulation. The
system of equations is solved using tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA). The initial temperature values are obtained by executing
the program, continuously for few days till the routine daily variation attain the same value.
4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
An experimental set up consisting of two identical test rooms (1.22 m × 1.22 m × 2.44 m) has been constructed to study the effect
of having PCM panel on the roof of the building. One room is without PCM on the roof and the another one has PCM panel in
between the bottom concrete slab and the roof top slab. Thus it is possible to study the thermal performance of the PCM embedded
ceiling over the conventional one. The inner walls except ceiling of the rooms are insulated by plywood of thickness 6mm on all the
sides to study the sole effect of PCM panel on the roof. The PCM panel is made up of stainless steel of 2m by 2m and thickness of
2.54 cm which accommodates inorganic salt hydrate (48% CaCl
2
+ 4.3 % NaCl + 0.4%KCl + 47.3% H
2
O)
as PCM. The properties of
the salt hydrate used as PCM in the experiment are given in Table. 1. This PCM salthydrate mixture is stored in a closed stainless
steel metallic container of capacity 0.1 m
3
.
Table 1 Technical Specifications of used PCM
PCM material (48% CaCl
2
+ 4.3 % NaCl + 0.4%KCl + 47.3% H
2
O)
Appearance (color) Grey
Phase change temp. (ºC) 26  28
Density (kg/m
3
) 1640
Latent Heat (kJ/kg) 188
Thermal conductivity (W/mk)
Solid
Liquid
1.09 [0 to 27ºC]
0.54 [28 to 60ºC]
Specific heat J/ kg. K
1440 [0 to 26.5ºC]
125000 [26.5 to 28ºC]
1440 [28 to 60 ºC]
The PCM salt hydrate mixture is prepared by mixing all the inorganic salts in the appropriate proportion of 48% CaCl
2,
4.3 %
NaCl and 0.4%KCl with the correct quantity of 47.3% of distilled water. The mixture is then agitated properly until the complete
dispersion of all the salts in distilled water. The salts KCL and NaCl help in initiating nucleation prevent incongruent melting and
subcooling. The total mass of the PCM mixture used is 164 kg and the PCM panel after carefully installing the heat exchanger is
filled with the mixture in its liquid state and sealed properly. The RTD (PT 100) are placed in different depths in the PCM panel with
perfect sealing. The PCM temperature variation is recorded for every one hour using the digital indicator. Several experiments
are conducted in the PCM room during the months of January and February. Experiments are also conducted for the room without
PCM panel and results are validated with the theoretical analysis.
The 2
nd
Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”
E084 (O) 2123 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand
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5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5. 1. Experimental validation
The model presented in the theoretical study is validated using the experimental results obtained during the trials conducted in
the month of January and February. During the experimentation, the measured room temperatures vary approximately 27±3
o
C. In the
theoretical analysis, the room temperature is maintained constant with convective boundary condition on the inner surface of the
concrete slab during a particular trial. Hence, while comparing the theoretical model with the experiment the room temperature is
maintained at a constant temperature of 27ºC as input in the theoretical analysis. The other parameters involved in the analysis are
the ambient temperature variation during a day, inside and outside heat transfer coefficients, sky temperature variation, radiation
properties of the surface, geometrical parameters and physical properties of the roof material (Roof top slab, PCM and concrete slab).
The convective heat transfer coefficient in the outside and inside surface of the roof is calculated using appropriate Nusselt
correlation. The measured values/property values obtained from the handbook by Tiwari (17) are provided as input in the theoretical
analysis. The temperature variations across the roof material for fifteen control volumes are obtained from the theoretical analysis.
The temperature variations in the bottom surface of the concrete slab (ceiling) with PCM and without PCM rooms are shown in Fig.
3 to compare the theoretical model results with the experiment.
It is seen from the graph that the ceiling temperature of the PCM room in the numerical analysis is maintained at a constant
value of 27ºC throughout the day. This shows that the environment has little effect on the inner surface of the ceiling as all the heat
energy is absorbed by the PCM kept in the roof. On the other hand, a large fluctuation is observed in the ceiling of the nonPCM
room as the outside environment immediately influences the ceiling of the nonPCM room. From the experimental results, it is
observed that the temperature difference of the ceiling in the PCM and nonPCM rooms is not very appreciable as in the theoretical
results. This is due to the fact that the ceiling of the roof is highly influenced by the inside room condition which is governed by the
ventilation and wall conditions of the room. However, in the experimental trial, a small decrease in ceiling temperature during the
day time and small increase in ceiling temperature during the night time is observed in the PCM room which reduces the fluctuation
of temperature inside the PCM room. This is due to the large heat storage capacity of the PCM.
20
24
28
32
36
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time (Hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Ambient.Temp,Measu
red
Expt. PCM room
ceiling temp
Expt. non PCM room
ceiling temp
Simu.PCM room
ceiling Temp
Simu. Non PCM room
Ceiling Temp.
Fig. 3: Experimental and simulated temperature of the ceiling in the PCM and nonPCM room
The differences in temperature value between the theoretical and experimental results are due to the following reasons.
• The effective thermal conductivity of the PCM in the experiment is higher due to the presence of uniformly distributed
high conductivity heat exchanger material in the PCM panel.
• The actual phase change may not occur during the phase change temperature prescribed in the theoretical analysis
Considering the above facts, the trend in the theoretical results is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.
Hence this theoretical analysis is further extended to study the effects during all the seasons in a year and to analyze the effects of
other parameters.
6. CONCLUSION
Several promising developments are taking place in the field of thermal storage using PCM’s in buildings. In the present study the
thermal performance of an inorganic eutectic phase change material based thermal storage for thermal management in residential and
commercial establishment has been carried out. It is quite evident from the preceding modeling and experimentation that the thermal
improvements in a building due to the inclusion of PCMs depend on the melting temperature of the PCM, the type of PCM, the
percentage of PCM mixed with conventional material, the climate, design and orientation of the construction of the building. The
optimization of these parameters is fundamental to demonstrate the possibilities of success of the PCMs in building materials.
Therefore, the information like operational range and limitations evolved in a project with PCMs as heat transport medium and
T∝ = 27
o
C
h
i
= 1 W/m
2
K
h
0
= 5 W/m
2
K
L
1
= 10 cm
L
2
= 2.5 cm
L
3
= 12 cm
The 2
nd
Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)”
E084 (O) 2123 November 2006, Bangkok, Thailand
6
elaborate calculation for analysis supported by a simulation program would definitely be a remarkable and reckonable guidance for
deciding and designing PCMs in building application. Being site specific, a detailed study is required for the selection of material
7. NOMENCLATURE
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
 Specific heat of Roof top slab, PCM panel, concrete slab (kJ/kgK)
c
ps
 Specific heat of solid (kJ/kgK)
c
pl
 Specific heat of liquid (kJ/kgK)
f  Fraction
h
i
 Inside heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
K)
h
o
 Outside heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
k
1
, k
2
, k
3
 Thermal conductivity of roof top slab, PCM panel, concrete slab (W/m K)
q  Heat flux (W/ m
2
)
T  Temperature (
o
C)
T
room
 Room temperature (
o
C)
T
s
 Surface temperature (
o
C)
T
sky
 Sky temperature (
o
C)
T
in
 Initial temperature (
o
C)
T
i
o
 Previous time step temperature at i
th
volume cell (
o
C)
T
i
 Current time step temperature at i
th
volume cell (
o
C)
T
∞
 Ambient temperature (
0
C)
λ  Latent heat of PCM (kJ/kg)
∈  Emissivity
α  Absorptivity
σ  Stefan Boltzman Constant
∆
t
 Time step
∆x
1
, ∆x
2
, ∆x
3
 Control volume length of roof top slab, PCM panel, concrete slab (m)
δx
1
, δx
2
, δx
3
 Nodal distances (m)
ρ
1
, ρ
2
, ρ
3
 Density of floor tiles, PCM, concrete (kg/m3)
8. REFERENCES
[1] Stritih, U and Novak, P. (2002) Thermal storage of solar energy in the wall for building ventilation, Second workshop, IEA,
Annex 17, Advanced thermal storage techniques, Feasibility studies and demonstration projects, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 3  5.
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proceedings of the 3rd workshop of IEA ECES IA Annex 17, Tokyo .
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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
[16] Athienitis, A.K, Liu, C, Hawes, D, Banu, D. and Feldman. D. (1997) Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Passive
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[17] Tiwari, G. N. (2005). Solar energy of fundamentals, design, modeling and applications. Handbook of Narosapublishing house,
New Delhi.
(6) The ‘cp’ value of the PCM in the panel is considered as follows. the average monthly solar radiation heat flux available in the Handbook by Tiwari [17] for every onehour in Chennai city. (2) The thermal conductivity of the concrete slab and the roof top slab are considered constant and not varying with respect to temperature (3) The PCM is homogeneous and isotropic. uniform cp value is considered during 2 . λ is the latent heat capacity. This cycle continues every day. Q radiation Q convection Light breeze L1 = 10 cm L2 = 2. Normally all the PCMs change its phase over a range of temperature. the PCM in the roof change its phase from solid to liquid. India is used. (5) The interfacial resistances are negligible. As the temperature difference between the room and the wall is very less. (7) The latent heat value of the PCM is modeled in the above equation as high sensible heat value during the phase change process.4%KCl + 47. the PCM changes its phase from liquid to solid (solidification) by rejecting its heat to the ambient and to the air inside the room. (4) The convection effect in the molten PCM is neglected. during the charging process (sunshine hours). φ is half of the temperature range over which the phase change occurs and Tm is the temperature about which phase change occurs. the temperature of the concrete slab normally will not exceed the PCM temperature. 2.E084 (O) The 2nd Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)” 2123 November 2006.3 % NaCl + 0. which form the roof of the PCM room. During the discharging process (night hours).28ºC. In the present model. For convection. Thailand constructed without PCM on the roof to compare the thermal performance of an inorganic eutectic PCM (48% CaCl2 + 4. MODELING OF PCM INTEGRATED BUILDING ROOF SYSTEM 2. 1 is initially maintained at a uniform temperature “Ti”. As melting requires a large quantity of heat at its phase change temperature. which has melting temperature in the range of 26 . However. In each cycle. Bangkok.1 Statement of the problem The physical system considered is a stainless steel panel filled with PCM placed in between the roof top slab and the bottom concrete slab. The boundary condition on the inner surface of the concrete slab is considered to be natural convection.5 cm L3 = 12 cm Roof top slab (Brick mixture + mortar) PCM panel Concrete slab Edges insulated Fig. The composite wall described in Fig. the effect of heat flow is considerable and hence this convection effect is also taken into account in the present research work.2 Mathematical formulation For the mathematical formulation of the above. A comparison with the experimental results is made and several simulation runs are conducted for the average ambient conditions for all the months in a year and for the various other parameters of interest. In order to consider the radiation effect. the heat transfer coefficient (h) value on the outer surface is calculated based on the prevailing velocity of the wind using the Nusselt correlation. 1 Sketch of the building roof 2. The boundary condition on the outer surface of roof is considered due to the combine effect of radiation and convection. 2. the following assumptions are made: (1) The heat conduction in the composite wall is onedimensional and the end effects are neglected.mentioned problem shown in Fig. when the temperature difference becomes appreciable. A mathematical model has been developed and the finite volume method is employed for the computation of thermal behavior of the roof incorporating PCMs. T< Tmφ cp = cps cp = cpl T>Tm+φ Tmφ < T < Tm+φ cp = λ/2∈ where ‘cp’ is the specific heat capacity.3% H2O). most of the earlier researchers have approximated the bottom wall as insulated.
3. (14) for roof top slab. 2. Thailand phase change process. i = 2. 8. 3 . 13. (9) and for (12). (4). though in actual practice.1 Exterior Node The equation for the top volume cell is written as below i= 15 ρ1c1 ∆x 1 fk fk + 1 + h o f T1 − 1 T2 ∆t δx 1 δx 1 k (T − T1 ) − h o (T1 − T∞ ) = h o fT∞ + (1 − f ) 1 2 δx 1 + ρ1c1T1 ∆t 0 4 ∆x 1 + αq s + σ α Tsky − ∈ Ts4 [ ] (4) 2. 9. In the exterior boundary (x=0) where the floor is exposed to solar radiation. m = 3. the boundary condition is + k3 ∂ T3 ∂x = hi (T x = L − Troom ) X =L (3) The instantaneous continuity of heat flux and temperature at the interfaces x = L1 and L2 are preserved Interfacial resistance = 0 x= 0 x i= 11 k1 ∂T1/∂x x=0 =qrad + ho (T∞Tx=0) i= 1 i= 6 i= 11 x=L + k3∂T3/∂xx = L = hi (Tx=L –Troom) Fig. i = 7. m = 2.2. Governing Equation km where m = 1 for roof top slab: m = 2 for PCM panel: m = 3 for bottom concrete slab. the boundary condition is. m = 1. ρ. (13). (3). (8). PCM panel and concrete slab respectively. 1 4. 4. (7). Bangkok. 3 (1) k1 ∂T1/∂x x=0 =qrad + ho (T∞Tx=0) (2) The radiation effect is considered during sunshine hours. there is variation in cp value within this small temperature range. the governing equation and the boundary condition are developed as below. 2 Finite volume grid for the analysis 2.2 Inner Node The equation for any volume cell that is located in between the top and bottom volume cells of a particular material is written as below ρ c ∆x fk fk fk − fkm Ti+1 + m m m + m + m Ti − m Ti ∆t ∆xm ∆x m ∆x m ∆x m km(T+1 −Ti−1) (T −T−1) ρmcmT0 ∆xm i − i =(1−f) − km i i + δxm δxm ∆t (5) The abovementioned discretized equations are applicable for volume cells (2). i = 12.2. cp value.E084 (O) The 2nd Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)” 2123 November 2006. The same equation holds good for all the three material regions by incorporating suitable k. ∂ 2Tm ∂x 2 = ρ m c Pm ∂Tm ∂t [0 < x < L] . m = 1. In accordance with the abovementioned assumption. In the bottom layer of the concrete slab x =L.
E084 (O) The 2nd Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)” 2123 November 2006. The region of analysis is divided into five control volumes for each material. 4. continuously for few days till the routine daily variation attain the same value. Table 1 Technical Specifications of used PCM PCM material Appearance (color) Phase change temp. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION An experimental set up consisting of two identical test rooms (1.4%KCl + 47. The salts KCL and NaCl help in initiating nucleation prevent incongruent melting and subcooling.22 m × 1.44 m) has been constructed to study the effect of having PCM panel on the roof of the building. The system of equations is solved using tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA). The mixture is then agitated properly until the complete dispersion of all the salts in distilled water.3 % NaCl and 0.1 m3. The PCM panel is made up of stainless steel of 2m by 2m and thickness of 2.4%KCl + 47. The initial temperature values are obtained by executing the program.2. One room is without PCM on the roof and the another one has PCM panel in between the bottom concrete slab and the roof top slab. 2. Several experiments are conducted in the PCM room during the months of January and February. Bangkok.2.54 cm which accommodates inorganic salt hydrate (48% CaCl2 + 4.3% H2O) as PCM.3% of distilled water. The inner walls except ceiling of the rooms are insulated by plywood of thickness 6mm on all the sides to study the sole effect of PCM panel on the roof.3 % NaCl + 0. Similarly the equation can be written for volume cell (6).22 m × 2. (ºC) Density (kg/m ) Latent Heat (kJ/kg) Thermal conductivity (W/mk) Solid Liquid Specific heat J/ kg.3 % NaCl + 0. The same procedure is extended for control volumes (10) and (11) which involves cell thickness ∆x2 and ∆x3 that corresponds to PCM panel and bottom concrete slab respectively. A time step of 2 second is used within the simulation.54 [28 to 60ºC] 1440 [0 to 26. This PCM salthydrate mixture is stored in a closed stainless steel metallic container of capacity 0.3% H2O) Grey 26 .4%KCl with the correct quantity of 47.implicit control volume formulation. The total mass of the PCM mixture used is 164 kg and the PCM panel after carefully installing the heat exchanger is filled with the mixture in its liquid state and sealed properly. 1. The properties of the salt hydrate used as PCM in the experiment are given in Table. COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE The governing equations along with the boundary conditions are discretized using semi.09 [0 to 27ºC] 0. 4 . The RTD (PT 100) are placed in different depths in the PCM panel with perfect sealing. Thailand 2. K 3 (48% CaCl2 + 4.3 Interface Node The equation for the interface volume cell 5 is written as below ρ c ∆x fk − fk1 f T4 + 1 1 1 + + 1 T5 δx1 δx1 / 2k1 + δx2 / 2k2 δx1 ∆t f − T4 ∆x 1 / 2 k 1 + ∆ x 2 / 2 k 2 (6) k (T − T ) k (T − T ) ρ c T0 = (1 − f ) 1 6 5 − 1 5 4 + 1 1 5 ∆x1 δx1 ∆t δx 2 where ∆x1 and ∆x2 are the cell thickness of the roof top slab and PCM panel respectively. 4.4 Interior Node The equation for the bottom volume cell 15 is written as below (T − T ) ρ c T 0 ρ c ∆x fk − fk 3 T14 + 3 3 3 + 3 T15 = f [h i (−2)] + (1 − f ) 2h i − k 15 14 + 3 3 15 ∆x 3 δx 3 ∆t δx 3 δx 3 ∆t (7) 3.5ºC] 125000 [26. Experiments are also conducted for the room without PCM panel and results are validated with the theoretical analysis.5 to 28ºC] 1440 [28 to 60 ºC] The PCM salt hydrate mixture is prepared by mixing all the inorganic salts in the appropriate proportion of 48% CaCl2.28 1640 188 1. The PCM temperature variation is recorded for every one hour using the digital indicator. Thus it is possible to study the thermal performance of the PCM embedded ceiling over the conventional one.
36 32 Temperature( C) o 28 Ambient. • The effective thermal conductivity of the PCM in the experiment is higher due to the presence of uniformly distributed high conductivity heat exchanger material in the PCM panel. The convective heat transfer coefficient in the outside and inside surface of the roof is calculated using appropriate Nusselt correlation. T∝ hi h0 L1 L2 L3 = 27oC = 1 W/m2 K = 5 W/m2 K = 10 cm = 2. while comparing the theoretical model with the experiment the room temperature is maintained at a constant temperature of 27ºC as input in the theoretical analysis. In the present study the thermal performance of an inorganic eutectic phase change material based thermal storage for thermal management in residential and commercial establishment has been carried out. Hence. From the experimental results. CONCLUSION Several promising developments are taking place in the field of thermal storage using PCM’s in buildings. design and orientation of the construction of the building. 3: Experimental and simulated temperature of the ceiling in the PCM and nonPCM room The differences in temperature value between the theoretical and experimental results are due to the following reasons. Hence this theoretical analysis is further extended to study the effects during all the seasons in a year and to analyze the effects of other parameters. It is quite evident from the preceding modeling and experimentation that the thermal improvements in a building due to the inclusion of PCMs depend on the melting temperature of the PCM. However.E084 (O) The 2nd Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)” 2123 November 2006. the percentage of PCM mixed with conventional material. The temperature variations in the bottom surface of the concrete slab (ceiling) with PCM and without PCM rooms are shown in Fig. 1. During the experimentation. the room temperature is maintained constant with convective boundary condition on the inner surface of the concrete slab during a particular trial.Measu red Expt. the measured room temperatures vary approximately 27±3oC. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5. In the theoretical analysis. The temperature variations across the roof material for fifteen control volumes are obtained from the theoretical analysis. It is seen from the graph that the ceiling temperature of the PCM room in the numerical analysis is maintained at a constant value of 27ºC throughout the day. This is due to the fact that the ceiling of the roof is highly influenced by the inside room condition which is governed by the ventilation and wall conditions of the room. the information like operational range and limitations evolved in a project with PCMs as heat transport medium and 5 .5 cm = 12 cm 24 20 0 4 8 12 Time (Hours) 16 20 24 Fig. 6. Bangkok. 3 to compare the theoretical model results with the experiment.PCM room ceiling Temp Simu. This shows that the environment has little effect on the inner surface of the ceiling as all the heat energy is absorbed by the PCM kept in the roof. in the experimental trial. radiation properties of the surface. • The actual phase change may not occur during the phase change temperature prescribed in the theoretical analysis Considering the above facts. Non PCM room Ceiling Temp. a large fluctuation is observed in the ceiling of the nonPCM room as the outside environment immediately influences the ceiling of the nonPCM room. The measured values/property values obtained from the handbook by Tiwari (17) are provided as input in the theoretical analysis. Experimental validation The model presented in the theoretical study is validated using the experimental results obtained during the trials conducted in the month of January and February. On the other hand. The other parameters involved in the analysis are the ambient temperature variation during a day. a small decrease in ceiling temperature during the day time and small increase in ceiling temperature during the night time is observed in the PCM room which reduces the fluctuation of temperature inside the PCM room. geometrical parameters and physical properties of the roof material (Roof top slab. the trend in the theoretical results is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. it is observed that the temperature difference of the ceiling in the PCM and nonPCM rooms is not very appreciable as in the theoretical results. This is due to the large heat storage capacity of the PCM. The optimization of these parameters is fundamental to demonstrate the possibilities of success of the PCMs in building materials.Temp. sky temperature variation. non PCM room ceiling temp Simu. inside and outside heat transfer coefficients. Therefore. the type of PCM. Thailand 5. the climate. PCM room ceiling temp Expt. PCM and concrete slab).
Energy and Buildings. Second workshop. k3 q T Troom Ts Tsky Tin T io Ti T∞ Specific heat of Roof top slab. Freecooling. pp. (2002) Thermal storage of solar energy in the wall for building ventilation. concrete slab (kJ/kgK) Specific heat of solid (kJ/kgK) Specific heat of liquid (kJ/kgK) Fraction Inside heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) Outside heat transfer coefficient W/m2K Thermal conductivity of roof top slab. Australia. (2005). Subcontract report to Florida solar energy center.E084 (O) The 2nd Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (SEE 2006)” 2123 November 2006. Advanced thermal storage techniques. Feasibility studies and demonstration projects. δx3 ρ1. (1997) Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application.W. pp. Phase Change Wallboard and Mechanical Night Ventilation in Commercial Buildings.37. WREC Cologne 2002. pp. ∆x2. modeling and applications.K. Thailand elaborate calculation for analysis supported by a simulation program would definitely be a remarkable and reckonable guidance for deciding and designing PCMs in building application. B. Thermally effective windows with moving phase change material curtains. USA. Proceedings of 1998 International Solar Energy Conference. Xu Xu. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. W. [10] Kunping Lin. Development of a Thermally Activated Ceiling Panel with PCM for Application in Lightweight and Retrofitted Buildings. Feldman. Chennai. D. [7] Hawes. Solar Energy Material Solar Cells 62. Banu. pp. PCM based thermal storage system for building air conditioning. T. and Beat Lehmann. pp. (1991) A multicomponent PCM wall optimized for passive solar heating. 61– 80. Annex 17. Yinping Zhang.19091923. k2. D.Y. [16] Athienitis. 37. Being site specific. pp.K. Paper 66. Report LBL – 38320.270. Building Environment. and Cabeza. [2] Peippo. [15] Stetiu.(2004). Solar energy of fundamentals. G. Energy and Buildings. concrete slab (m) Nodal distances (m) Density of floor tiles. Applied Thermal Engineering. 32. (1997) Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Passive Solar TestRoom with Wall Latent Heat Storage. Ljubljana. J. [11] Hed. D.(2004). D. Banu. 567 – 578 [14] Velraj R. [12] Zalba. ρ2. [6] Lee. (Ed).10. 405 . A. and Stetiu. [17] Tiwari. P.52. 17. and Feustel. Annex 17. New York. [5] Kissock. Kauranen. REFERENCES [1] Stritih.E. Proceedings of the 1997 Australian and New Zealand Solar Energy Society. Tidel Park. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage through Phase Change Materials and Chemical Reactions – Feasibility Studies and Demonstration Projects in Arvika. pp 215220. (1998). Whitney. PCM. [13] Markus Koschenz. New Delhi. J. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Nallusamy N. [3] Feustel. PCM panel. NOMENCLATURE c1. D.F. and Henriquez. [8] Ismail K.A. Anbudurai K. Roof integrated unglazed transpired solar air heater. Use of phase change material for change of thermal inertia. and Feldman. PCM panel. Feldman.M. C. Canberra. c3 cps cpl f hi ho k1. K. and Belusko M. δx2. Lee T. C. Sweden. a detailed study is required for the selection of material 7. D. concrete (kg/m3) λ ∈ α σ ∆t ∆x1. Energy and Buildings. Mixture of methyl stearate and methyl palmitate. M. (2002). L. Hawes. (1998) Testing and Simulation of Phase Change Wallboard for Thermal Storage in Buildings. proceedings of the 3rd workshop of IEA ECES IA Annex 17. Rui Yang. T. Proceedings. G. N. H. ρ3  8. ∆x3 δx1. Bangkok. Experimental study of underfloor electric heating system with shapestabilized PCM plates.(2005). H. W. U and Novak. and Penghua Qin. and Cheralathan M. 45 . and Lund P. Liu.(1997). An application of PCMs in TES. Hongfa Di. D. M. Slovenia.L. 36. Hannig.E. (1990).5. (2001). 21. c2. PCM panel. Solar Energy Material. Latent heat storage in concrete. 6 . [4] Shapiro. (1989) Development of the enthalpy storage materials. Banu. design. (2002). IEA. 3 . C.D. P. 259 . SánchezValverde. [9] Saman.I. J. M. 217. R. concrete slab (W/m K) Heat flux (W/ m2) Temperature (oC) Room temperature ( oC) Surface temperature (oC) Sky temperature (oC) Initial temperature ( oC) Previous time step temperature at ithvolume cell (oC) Current time step temperature at ithvolume cell (oC) Ambient temperature (0C) Latent heat of PCM (kJ/kg) Emissivity Absorptivity Stefan Boltzman Constant Time step Control volume length of roof top slab. Hawes. (2000) Control aspects of latent heat storage and recovery in concrete. B. Handbook of Narosapublishing house. J.R. Marín. D. D. Tokyo . and Drake. 21.
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