Unit-2

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Rumbaugh Methodology Booch Methodology Jacobson Methodology Patterns Frameworks Unified Approach Unified Modeling Language Use case class diagram Interactive Diagram Collaboration Diagram State Diagram Activity Diagram.

Chapter Objectives
You should be able to define and understand Object Oriented methodologies. - The Rumbaugh OMT - The Booch methodology - Jacobson’s methodologies Patterns Frameworks

Rumbaugh’s Object Modeling Technique (OMT) -A method for analysis,design and implementation by an object oriented technique. -fast and intuitive approach for identifying and modeling all objects making up a system. -Class attributes, methods, inheritance and association can be expressed easily. -Dynamic behavior of objects can be described using the OMT dynamic model. -Detailed specification of state transitions and their -descriptions within a system

Object Design: static. dynamic and functional models of objects.dynamic and functional models System Design: Basic architecture of the system. Implementation: reusable. . extendible and robust code.Four phases of OMT (can be performed iteratively)     Analysis: objects.

object model & data dictionary  A dynamic model .Three different parts of OMT modeling  An object model .state diagrams & event flow diagrams  A functional model .data flow & constraints .

Object Model    structure of objects in a system. attributes and operations. Identity. Object diagram . relationships to other objects.

e. objects of one class to objects of another class) .relationship among classes (i.Object Diagram    Classes interconnected by association lines Classes.a set of individual objects Association lines..

transitions.OMT Dynamic Model   States. events and actions OMT state transition diagramnetwork of states and events .

 . Simple and intuitive method for describing business processes without focusing on the details of computer systems.(Data Flow Diagram) Shows flow of data between different processes in a business.OMT Functional Model   DFD.

Direction of data element movement Data Store – Location where data is stored External Entity-Source or Destination of a data element .Data Flow Diagram  Four primary symbols Process.any function being performed Data Flow.

The Booch Methodology     Widely used OO method Uses the object paradigm Covers the design and analysis phase of an OO system Criticized for his large set of symbols .

method    Class diagramsdescribe roles and responsibilities of objects Object diagrams describe the desired behavior of the system in terms of scenarios State transition diagrams state of a class based on a stimulus    Module diagrams to map out where each class & object should be declared Process diagrams to determine to which processor to allocate a process Interaction diagrams describes behavior of the system in terms of .

Booch method prescribes:  Macro Development Process Micro Development Process  .

Primary concern-technical management of the system.Macro Development Process   Controlling framework for the micro process. .

4.Steps for macro development process 1. 5. 3. 2. Conceptualization Analysis & Development of the model Design or create the system architecture Evolution or implementation Maintenance .

Identify class & objects interface and implementation .Micro Development Process Each macro process has its own micro development process Steps: .Identify classes & objects .Identify class & object relationship .Identify class & objects semantics .

Object Oriented Software Engineering.JACOBSON METHODOLOGIES    Use Cases. Object Oriented Business Engineering. .

including when the interaction occurs and what is exchanged. Exception to the flow of events How and when concepts of the problem domain are handled. How and when the use case will need data stored in the system.   Use Cases Understanding system requirements Interaction between Users and Systems The use case description must contain      How and when the use case begins and ends. . The Interaction between the use case and its actors.

Objectory is built models      Use case model Domain object model Analysis object model Implementation model Test model .OOSE   Object Oriented Software Engineering.

g. . integration and system testing.    Analysis phase Design and Implementation phase Testing phase  E. Unit testing.OOBE   Object Oriented Business Engineering OOBE is object modeling at the enterprise level.

.PATTERNS  It is an instructive information that captures the essential structure and insight of a successful family of proven solutions to a recurring problem that arises within a certain context and system of forces.

It describes a relationship. . The Solution is not obvious.Good Pattern will do the following      It solves a problem. The pattern has a significant human component. It is a proven concept.

Patterns Patterns Generative Patterns (describe recurring phenomena with saying how to reproduce them) Non Generative Patterns (describe recurring phenomena without saying how to reproduce them) .

Patterns Template  Essential Components should be clearly recognizable on reading a pattern:           Name Problem Context Forces Solution Examples Resulting context Rationale Related Patterns Known uses .

Frameworks  Way of delivering application development patterns to support best practice sharing during application development.  . Can be viewed as the implementation of a system of design patterns.

Benefits of Frameworks     Reusability Modularity Extensibility Inversion of Control .

Difference between Patterns and Frameworks    Design patterns are more abstract than frameworks. . Design patterns are smaller architectural elements than frameworks. Design patterns are less specialized than frameworks.

5. 4.Model   An abstract representation of a system. Types of model 1. Use case model Domain model Analysis object model Implementation model Test model . 2. 3.

Domain model  maps real world object into the domain object model. • • • • . specifications & reports.Model  • Types of model Use case model  defines the outside (actors) & inside (use case) of the system’s behavior. Test model  test plans. Implementation model represents the implementation of the system. Analysis object model  how source code should be carried out & written.

Model Static Dynamic Represents a system’s behaviors that. taken together. It can represent static or dynamic situations.) class diagram .g. (e.) interaction & activity diagrams Provides a system’s parameters at rest or at a specific point in time. (e. reflect its behavior over time.g.Model    Model is an iterative process.

Why modeling      Blue print Clarity Familiarity Maintenance Simplification .

Advantages of modeling      Easy to express complex ideas Reduce complexity Enhance & reinforce learning and training Low cost Easy to change the model .

What is Unified Modeling Language (UML)?  The UML is a graphical / standard language for visualizing. . specifying. constructing & documenting the artifacts of a software system.

History of UML  1980 – 1990  Many different methodologies • • • Booch method by Grady Booch Object Modeling Technique (OMT) by Jim Rumbaugh Object Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) by Ivar Jacobson  Each method had its strengths & weaknesses. • • Booch was great in design OMT & OOSE were great in analysis .

0 (Planned Major revision 2004) .1 (November 1997) UML 1.History of 1.4 (Planned Minor revision 2000) UML 2.3 (Current Minor revision 1999) UML 1.0 (January 1997) UML UML UML 1.

3. 1.UML Concepts  UML can be used to support your entire life cycle. 2. The components in your system (component diagram) . 4. The interaction of your application with the outside world (use case diagram) Visualize object interaction (sequence & collaboration diagrams) The structure of your system (class diagram) View the system architecture by looking at the defined package. 5.

A diagram is a graphical means to view a system’s parts  .What are Diagrams ?  Graphical presentation of model elements.

State chart diagram Component diagram Deployment diagram . 5. Use case diagram Activity diagram Interaction Sequence diagram diagram Collaboration diagram Class diagram  The other UML diagrams that can be modeled in Rose are: 1.UML Diagrams   8 diagrams You will model the following 5 diagrams only: 1. 3. 3. 2. 4. 2.

Behavior Diagram     Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram State chart diagram Activity diagram Interaction diagram behavior diagram .

8.UML Diagrams 1. 2. 6. 5. 4. 7. Class diagram Use case diagram Activity diagram Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram State chart diagram Component diagram Deployment diagram . 3.

1. Top Middle Bottom . It shows the structure of your software. 3. Class diagram     Class  a set of objects that share the same attributes. 3 compartments 1. It represented by a compartmentalized rectangle. 2. operations & relationships.

2. 3. Top  shows class name Middle  shows class attributes Bottom  shows class operation LoginForm UserName PIN Enter Login Details() Submit() LoginController Validate() CustomerInfo User Name PIN Addre ss getLoginDetails() .1. Class diagram 1.

Class diagram 1.1.  displayed in the middle of the compartmentalized rectangle. Attributes LoginForm UserName PIN Enter Login Details() Submit() LoginController Validate() CustomerInfo User Name PIN Addre ss getLoginDetails() . Attributes  defines the characteristics or structure of a class.

 displayed in the bottom of the compartmentalized rectangle.1. Class diagram 2. Operation  the service provided by the class. LoginForm UserName PIN LoginController Validate() CustomerInfo User Name PIN Addre ss getLoginDetails() Operations Enter Login Details() Submit() .

Actor  user (or) someone / something outside the system that interacts with the system (it must be a noun) & it is represented by a stickman.   It shows a set of use cases and actors and their relationships. Address the static view of a system.Use case diagram . ……contd 2.

Use case  a sequences of actions (it must be a verb) & it is represented by an oval. Relationship illustrates a connection among model elements.
Unidirectional
directional Bi-

2.Use case diagram

It is created to visualize the interaction of your system with the outside world. (e.g.) ATM ……contd

2. Use case diagram (ATM)
WITHDRAW CUSTOMER CASH DISPENSER

CHECK BALANCE

CHANGE PIN LOGIN

PRINTER

2. Use case diagram (Pay roll)

Actors  employee & account Use case  count leave, disburse salary, check loans, calculate PF, prepare IT returns, calculate HRA & check salary

Count leave Customer Disburse salary Check loans Calculate HRA Calculate PF Check salary Prepare IT returns .

g. Login (use case) – (e.) ATM It is showing flow of control from activity to activity.Activity Diagram     It shows the flow of events with our system & what is going on inside a use case.3. . We draw the activity diagram for each & every use case.

Activity Diagram     Activity  it represents the performance of a task within the workflow. Activity is represented by a lozenge (horizontal top and bottom with convex sides) Start state shows the beginning of a workflow on an activity diagram. There is only one start state. .3.

3. An end state represents a final or terminal state on an activity diagram.Activity Diagram  A start state is represented by a solid circle. A end state is represented by a bull’s eye.   .

Activity Diagram   A state transition shows what activity follows after another.3. . It is represented by a solid line with an arrow.

Guard conditions control the transition of a set of alternate transitions that follows after the activity has been completed. .Activity Diagram    A decision is a point in an activity diagram where guard conditions are used to indicate different possible transitions.3. It is represented by a diamond.

3.Activity Diagram Synchronization bar AND Joint .

.3. It represented by a thick horizontal or vertical line.Activity Diagram   A synchronization bar allows you to show concurrent threads in a work flow of a use case.

3. .Activity Diagram  A swimlane is used to partition an activity diagram to help us better understand who or what is initiating an activity.

Activity Diagram – Login Use case Cus tom er Enters the login details Sys tem retrives the details Sys tem validates the cus tom er [ Fals e ] Sys tem prom pts to reenter [ True ] Sys tem welcom es the cus tom er .3.

4. Vertical dimensions  represents time Horizontal dimensions  represents different objects.  Vertical line is called the object’s life line.Sequence Diagram   • • It shows step by step what must happen to accomplish a piece of functionality provided by the system. It has 2Ds. .

4. the life line.   . Objects are shown at the top.Sequence Diagram  Life line  the existence object at a particular time. The object role is shown as a vertical dashed line.

It is represented by a labeled arrow. Each message is represented by an arrow between the life lines of 2 objects.Sequence Diagram  A message is the communication between 2 objects that triggers an event.4.   .

4.  . thin rectangle. It represented by a tall. either directly or through a subordinate procedure.Sequence Diagram  A focus of control shows the period of time during which an object is performing an action.

4. Submi t( ) Vali date( ) getLoginDetails( ) ...Sequence Diagram – login success : Customer : LoginForm : LoginController : CustomerInfo Enter Login Detail.

5.Collaboration Diagram  It displays objects and their links to one other. It is also known as an interaction diagram.  .

4. Actors Objects Links Messages .Collaboration Diagram  It is made up of the following basic elements : 1. 2. 3.5.

 represented by a labeled arrow above the link.5. Links  a pathway for communication between objects. Messages  the communication between objects that triggers an event. 3.Collaboration Diagram  user •  data + logic / the representation of some real world entity. • Actors Objects .  represented by a solid line between 2 objects 4.

5.Collaboration Diagram – Login use case 1: Enter Login Details ( ) 2: Subm it( ) : Cus tom er : LoginForm 3: Validate( ) 4: getLog inDetails ( ) : LoginControl ler : Cus t om erInfo .

6. Internal transition compartment  list of actions / activities Start & end states . A state is represented as a rounded box. State Chart Diagram      It shows the sequence of states. Name compartment  holds the name of the state. which may contain one or more compartments.

a run time component [for (e.) a.g. A component may be a software component [for (e.) a.java file in Java].DLL file]  .g.h file in C++ (or) a .Component Diagram  It shows relationship between the components in the system.7.

8. It shows the nodes in the system & the connections between them. Deployment Diagram   It shows the configuration of run time processing elements & the software components. processes & objects that live in them. .

What is UML? Name three UML diagrams. What are the elements of a use-case diagram? Define a use case.Review        Name the 2 benefits of visual modeling. Define an actor. What is meant by a relationship? .

Visual modeling 2. 3. The interaction of your application with the outside world (use case diagram) Visualize object interaction (sequence & collaboration diagrams) The structure of your system (class diagram) View the system architecture by looking at the defined package. 5. 4. The components in your system (component diagram) .Module Summary  1.

specifying. constructing & documenting the artifacts of a software system.Module Summary  UML The UML is a graphical / standard language for visualizing. .

2.Module Summary  You can model the following 8 UML diagrams in Rational Rose. 4. 6. 7. 1. 5. 3. 8. Use case diagram Activity diagram Sequence diagram Collaboration diagram Class diagram State chart diagram Component diagram Deployment diagram .

 What is view? A view is a perspective of the model (ie) meaningful to specific stakeholders.Views and Diagrams in Rational Rose  What is model? A model is a simplification of reality or the blueprint of the system. .

scalability Delivery.Views Logical View (Analyst / Designer) Structure Implementation View (Programmers) Software Management Use case view (end user functionality Process View (System integrators) Performance. installation & . & throughput Communication Deployment View (System Engineering) System topology.

you can create the following views 1. Use-case view Logical view Process view Component view (Implementation view) Deployment view These views together create what we call the 4+1 Architectural View .Views  In Rose. 5. 4. 2. 3.

Use Case View  It specifies WHAT the system should do? Servers as a contract between customer and developer.   . Essential to analysis. design and test activities.

It includes use-case realizations. class and interaction diagrams.Logical View  It supports the functional requirements of the system.   . It can also include state chart and activity diagrams.

Process View  Addresses the performance. Is not necessary for a single Processing environment. scalability and throughput of the system.  .

reuse & etc.Component / Implementation View  Addresses issues of ease of development. . management of software assets.

Used for distributed system only.  .Deployment View  Addresses issues like deployment. installation and performance. .

Rational Rose Interface  It includes the following :       Browser Diagram window Diagram toolbar Documentation window Log window Options window The options window is not technically part of the rose interface. However. it is important in your initial setup. .

Display the elements that you have modeled.The Browser   The browser allow you to textually view and navigate the views and diagrams in rational rose. if an element doesn’t appear in the browser. . it not a part of your modeled system.

.Diagram window  The diagram window allows you to create and update graphical views of the current model.

Diagram Toolbar    The diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. . Each diagrams toolbar unique to that diagram. It is active only when the diagram is displayed.

Documentation window  Used to create. . view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.

click LOG to show or hide the window. click CLEAR LOG. go to View menu. result and errors. To clear the contents of log window.Log window     Reports progress. . For (e. To display log window.g.) code generation commands post progress and error messages to this window.

Note that if you change default.  .Options window  Used to set all of your default for modeling. existing model elements are not changed.

2. Deleting diagram elements Adding diagram elements . They are 1.Basic tool techniques  There are two basic tool techniques we will discuss before you begin the labs.

Deleting diagram elements . Removes the selected elements from the model Removes all icons representing the elements from all diagrams on which they appear.    What happens when you delete an element from the browser? Rose does the following. Delete the specification for the element .

click delete from model. From the edit menu. Click the element in the diagram and then press ctrl-D Right click the element in browser.Deleting Diagram Elements  • • • There are three ways to delete an element. and then click delete Click the element in the browser or diagram. .

.Adding diagram elements  How do you add diagram elements?  You add elements to a diagram from either the diagram tool bar or browser.

Review
 

What are views? Name a view in rose and discuss its purpose. Name two feature of the rose interface Discuss deleting from the browser versus the diagram.

Module Summary

Rational Rose uses views & diagrams to depict varying perspectives and a system’s parts. There are 5 views in Rational Rose :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Use case view Logical view Process view Component / implementation view Deployment view

Module Summary
 

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Diagrams are a graphical means to view a system’s parts. The browser shows all of your model elements Diagram window is to create a view Diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. Documentation window is used to create, view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.

Adding diagram elements  click the element & then click in the diagram window. click DELETE FROM MODEL.Module Summary     Log window reports progress. results & errors. DEL key (or) go to edit menu. Option window allows you to set your defaults. . Deleting diagram elements  ctrl D.

Thank You! .

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