Ka'ligrali Islam . 2010 .

, 31 Maret 2011

Bersama: Jupri Abdullah (pel uk is kaliQrali terkeciI) Didio Sirojuddin, Syailul Adnan~ dan para pelukis dari lembaga laligrali AI-Qur'an (LEMIA)

-pesona indonesia.

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Dari TuUs lie luliis

Katalog ini diterbitkan dalam rangka Pameran Kaligraf Islam

"Dari Tulis ke Lukis" yang diselenggarakan di Bayt AI-Qur'an & Museum lstiqlal, 7 Desember 2010 - 31 Maret 2011.

Pengarah Penanggung Jawab Koordinator

Editor

: Drs. H. Muhammad Shohib. MA : Drs. H. Yasin Rahmat Ansori

: Mahyuddin Hayun

: Ali Akbar

Kontributor : Drs. H.D. Sirojuddin AR. MA.

Jonathan Zilberg, Ph.D.

Riset dan Kuratoria/ : Abdul Hakim,

Adimas Bayurnurti, Ida Fitriani : Ahmad Yunani

Tim Pameran

: Bubun Budiman, Nurudin, Aris Munandar, Purwanti, Heri Haryadi, Fatmiarti Kusumaningrum. Agus Nurul Saripudin, Arif Slbromallsi, Suparno, Rojali, Bambang Sigit.

Desain

Kata Pengantar

Kepala Lajnah Pentashihan Mushaf Al-Qur'an

Lajnah Pentashihan Mushaf AI-Qur'an, melalui Peraturan Menteri Agama Rl Nornor 3 Tahun 2007, ditetapkan sebagai suatu Unit Pelaksana Teknis (UPT) eli lingkungan Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama Rl. Meskipun secara organisasi dan struktur relatif masih barn, namun dati sisi tugas dan fungsi Lajnah sudah ada sejak tahun 1957 berdasarkan Peraruran Menteri Agama RI Nomor 1 Tahun 1957 tentang Pengawasan terhadap Penerbitan dan Pemasukan Al-Qur'an.

Tugas utama lembaga ini adalah melakukan pentashihan dan pengawasan terhadap produk-produk penerbiran mushaf Al-Qut'an, balk cetak, elektronik maupun digital, yang akan ataupun sudah terbit dan beredar di masyarakat. Selain itu, lembaga ini juga mempunyai tugas melakukan penerjemahan dan penafsiran AI-Qur'an, serta pemeliharaan mushaf Al-Qur'an.

Salah satu tugas lain, khususnya pada Bidang Bayt Al-Qut'an dan Dokumentasi, adalah melaksanakan pengelolaan Bayt AI-Qur'an & Museum Istiqlal yang salah satu bentuknya yaitu menyelenggarakan pameran berkala. Untuk saat ini pameran tersebut berupa pameran kaligrafi Islam berjudul "Dari Tulis ke Lukis" yang katalognya berada di tangan pembaca.

Saya menyampaikan terima kasih yang setulusnya kepada Kepala Badan Litbang dan Diklat, Prof Dr. H.M. Abdul Djamil, I'viA serta kepada segenap anggota tim penyusun yang telah mernpersiapkan, mengedit, serta mendesain sampai akhirnya menjaeli katalog pameran ini,

Dar; Tulis ke Lukis

Aku Cinta Allah

Painted Calligraphies in the Museum Istiqlal

Jonathan Zilberg, Ph.D.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Bismillab ar- Rahman ar- Rahim

Aku cinta Allah appears to me to be the spirit at the heart of the expressive force of the contemporary paintings in the permanent collection of the Museum Istiqlal, thus the title of this introductory essay. Indeed, these paintings are interesting because of their sincerity" They all show how some Indonesians Muslim painters have incorporated calligraphy into their work so as to express their Islamic identity in their paintings. From the simplest and most untutored of these to the most sophisticated, they are wonderful examples of the pleasure that can be gained from creative expression, itself an element of the divine. Perhaps the guided contemplation of these works might inspire the thousands of Indonesian children who enter the Bayt aI-Qur'an & Museum Istiqlal every month to better explore and develop their creative natures. Observing these paintings closely will allow them and older viewers to better recognize the intense creative discipline and skill involved in the more traditional expression of Islamic calligraphy as an expression of faith. Similarly, there are fine examples of calligraphic art in many other media from earlier historical periods to be found throughout the museum.'

Let us revisit a few of the paintings that can be seen in this exhibition that illustrate the issues of sincerity and the artists' faith. To begin with there is the painting "Allah" by Momon (2009), a wonderfully colorful and lively painting of hearts. The careful viewer will notice the simplified calligraphy of the word Allah within and behind the hearts, omnipresent, therein the subtle but obvious message. It is perfectly symbolic of the larger collection because it is contemporary and sincere. It is even reminiscent of Keith Haring and Paul Klee perhaps but that

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does not take away from its message. Its great strength lies in its originality and simplicity, its dynamism and vibrant use of color. It is fun and sure to engage young children, perhaps the most important audience for this museum.

In that same vein of sincerity and simplicity, there are above all three paintings by Sulaiman Rachim each of which is cleverly composed with the word "Bismillah". The first of these shown below is "Kendaraan Impianku" (My Dreaming Vehicle) (2009)- a quaint little painting of a Volkswagon beetle sure to appeal to the child in each of us.

I love Sulaiman's painting because the message and the form are so consonant. It is a clever painting too in a simple way. Islam, the Qur'an is a vehicle for transcendence, for taking the mindful on the ultimate journey. Just as a q.r helps one to get from one place to another in daily life so does prayer, the Qur'an. So is this not a brilliant little painting then? Whether or not it deserves to be recognized as a great national work of art representing Indonesian Islam is another question. In any event, here it is in the permanent collection.

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This artist, Sulaiman Rachirn, is something of a spiritual wit it seems. In an admirably simple and amusing way, in "Bas Electrik (Electric Bass) (2008), he refers perhaps to the creative experience of the sacred whether it be in the spiritual art of the sound of prayer or in musical creativity more generally. He does so with the following equally obvious and amusing painting - though I suspect from the flames and heat depicted that the message despite the clever use of the word "Bismillah" may also contain a warning. There is something coffinlike in the way it is framed and hellish in the way it appears to be falling and burning so there is a strong sense of potential ambiguity here especially when one keeps in mind many pious people's perception of hard rock music as the work of the devil.

In the same vein of simplicity, but without any ambiguity, there is a childish painting of a flowering tree and the sun though the label is missing so we do not know who it is by or when it was painted. It is not much of a painting, not at all what one would expect to

........ Dari Tulis ke Lukis

~

find in a museum, but it is perhaps for some beautiful in its very simple and unaccomplished way. Every time I see it I am reminded of the child within each of us as well as being amused to see such an art work in a museum. Nevertheless, it reminds me of the sacred in nature and in the religious awe we can feel in the rising and setting of the sun each day and the coming and going of each moon.

The calligraphy within it is an equally simple expression of faith and reads: "This is}y the grace of my Lord' (Q. 27: 40).

There are several other paintings of this order in the collection, more advanced no doubt, but not of any great artistic merit. For instance there are two seascapes, one at sunset no longer on display and the other mid-day blue - "Allah Cahaya Langit dan Bumi" (Allab is tb« Light of the Heaven.! and Earth) by Hery Sumarna (2009). \1;7ith its Islamic verse upon the breaking waves and the sea gulls in flight the artists conveys a clear message of the uplift and transcendence the faithful experience. These are all simple and unaffected paintings. They are infinitely incomparable to the heights reached in Islamic calligraphic art. In terms of the \Xfestern canons of landscape they are so corny and weak as to provoke the laugher and contempt of the crueler viewer but they still are expressions of each of these artist's souls, each of us in accord within the degrees of our God given talents. The point is that they are sincere forms of religious expressions. In these sea and landscapes, the feeling of freedom and the sea, of the light in the world, the image of the tree, the sacredness of life and reality of the afterlife are conveyed to the viewer - even if it be in a rather pedestrian aesthetic fashion.'

Keeping in mind that the vast majority of visitors to this museum are children and in the adults cases rarely well versed in art, consider Sulaiman Rachim's other paintings "Angsa Putih" (Wbite Duck) and "Kupu Kupu" (Butte1/Y), a simple duck and a butterfly. They highlight the fact, I believe, that the great value of such paintings is that they will speak most directly to the children who walk by them. They, and the seascape by Sumarna, are a kind of popular Islamic calligraphic painting you could I suppose find in any ordinary Indonesian home in the city or village though they have been included in previous exhibitions of Islamic calligraphy (pameran Nuansa Kaligrafi Islam/The Nuance of Islamic Calligraphy) and now have the honor in being in this national collection."

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Other calligraphic paintings in the collection are in a wholly different dimension of professionalism. None perhaps is more pertinent to us today after the recent deaths caused by Mount Merapi than the painting "Al-Ikhlas dalam Renungan" (Sincerity in Meditation) by Edi Amin (2008). It is a painting of a volcano erupting with words from the Qur'an.

The words read:

''5 cry: He is Allah, the Gne; Allah, the Eternal; .Absoiute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like HfltoHim."(Q. 112: 1-4).

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Here, a silent painting, by and large unknown on a wall in a museum few art lovers visit, it has waited for its moment to speak to us, as the end itself. Here is a painting of the level one would expect in a national museum, a painting that speaks to the level of technical mastery expected in a museum specimen. Here, a silent painting, by and large unknown on a wall in a museum few art lovers visit, it has waited for its moment to speak to us, as the end itself. Here is a painting of the level one would expect in a national museum, a painting that speaks to the level of technical mastery expected in a museum specimen.

And then there are the other equally aesthetically powerful works by other artists which can be found in the collection. One stands before them in contemplation aware of the human capacity to synthesize experience, to convey a message in a sophisticated way and to bring this all together with acquired technical finesse. Perhaps then, the value of having such a great range of painterly qualities and calligraphic expertise on display is to ultimately make this point nowhere so obvious as in the two paintings hung nearby by Syaiful Adnan, "Karunia-Nya" (His Gift) (2007) being illustrated below" In this case, the calligraphy reads: "This is i:?} tiJc/!,rctce of mJl Lord ... " (Q.27: 40).

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And take the perhaps somewhat lesser accomplished example in the following painting "Puji Syukur" (Praire tbe Lord) by Dt. A. M. Garang (2009) of the world amidst the planets as seen from above the surface moon with the sun behind it. I find this painting of our world as seen from outer space strangely appealing because of its numinous blue and

white light. It is by no means of the same sophistication as Adnan's work but in its own simple and almost cliche-like manner, it reminds us of how insignificant we are in the context of the universe and how precious this life and earth is. It consistently makes me think of how unique place in the known cosmos, how its proximity to the sun's warmth and the presence of water and spirit allows for this life we cherish. Yet look more closely at it and you will see there are no continents, no sea, it is a world of cracked blue ice and the text reads ~ "Haza minfadli rabbi ... " (Thi.r is by the grace of lJ7)' Lord) (Q. 27: 40).

The overwhelming point of this discussion however is to illustrate that the message of Islamic art of this sort is so obvious as to be rather off putting to sophisticates but it is very effective for those with little exposure to fine art and art museums and knowledge of art history. And yet, I have to admit it, the more I look at this painting, the more I appreciate it and the artist's skill. In this way, careful observation of these paintings, as with the other specimens in the museum, can be a spiritual experience which should be nurtured.

Towards ending this short invitation to the reader to explore these paintings with enquiring minds and the wide open eyes of a child, leaving aesthetic and scholarly prejudice and judgment aside, consider the examples of Islamic surrealism to be found in the collection. Surely for some these will be the most interesting of all." Why?

They are interesting because of the possibilities they lend painters. Moreover, they are particularly interesting because these artists show us how to go about exploring symbolic potentials based in the world of experience and the Qur'an as well as in dreams and the conscious and unconscious mind. However in terms of Western art history, they are completely divorced from the aim of most surrealists who were intensely opposed to organized religion in any form.' The first of these illustrated below is "Kalimatullah Yang Mahaluhur" (The Best Magnificent Words of God) by D. Sirojuddin (2004). It is classically surreal but in a completely transformed sense. The spiritual intent is positive, pure and clear. It entirely lacks the darkness and the disturbing creative perversity elemental to much of the surrealist canon and the satirical humor of the Dadaist movement.

3

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Next, Abdul Khalik's painting "Nun Wal-Qalam" (Nun. ~)' the Pen) (Q. 18: 1) (2008), which has surrealistic qualities to it in some degree, is even more exemplary of the heightened symbolic potential at hand. It is sure to inspire student creativity and technical dexterity.

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Other paintings in the collection, while far less technically proficient struggle hard to convey messages of national and global relevance as regards violence and war.

There are three paintings that speak to this. The first is surreal and provocative, the hanging chair at the cross-roads in a lurid blood red space, perhaps symbolic of choice to choose between good and evil or the decisions one makes in life. The second is a painting of the bombed Marriot Hotel titled "Peristiwa Makar di Kuningan" (Wicked Incident in Kuningan) by Kurnia Agung Robiansyah (2004).

The text reads: "Mighry indeed JPfTe the plots lVhich th~)' made, but their p10tJ tuere (ule/I) lVithin the sight of Allah" (Q. 14: 46) and the lower part of the painting incorporates pages from the newspapers the next day. The spirits of the recently deceased hover in the smoke HUed air nearby and a sign on top of the Marriot proclaims "Victory".

The third of these by Umar Halim (untitled and undated) depicts religious war and destruction. It is particularly interesting because the inner space of the illuminated bordered page of the Qur'an, in the clutches of the dead fighter'S hand, is empty. In all of these, the message is then ultimately ambiguous - or maybe not. Note for instance the shining and untouched mosque behind the destroyed fortress. This forces the viewer to engage the paintings and find their own meaning. They are thus more artistically compelling than the obviousness of the more child-like paintings. However, in each of these cases, the artists do not have the level of technical dexterity of the more gifted artists referred to above.

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These paintings of violence and war are nonetheless indeed very interesting.

Hopefully their mention here in the text will encourage the inquisitive visitor to seek them out as well as the more complex apocalyptic paintings full of monsters and intense drama in tbe combined spirit perhaps of the well known Indonesian expressionists and Hieronymous Bosch, Paul IDee and even Marc Chagall.

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In the meantime, consider "Diturrunkannya AlQut'an" (The Revelation oj the Qur'an) by Munadiannur (2009). In contrast, this is a far more technically accomplished work. Its creative message is also enhanced because it is so symbolically ambiguous. While it suggests a calligraphic text, it is indecipherable but it does seem to have something to do with tears or rain and veins, arteries and entrails perhaps.

Towards ending, I find myself drawn back to the more classical art of calligraphy. And there it is important 1 think to emphasize the value of the highest expression of Indonesian painted calligraphic arts as perhaps best represented in the work of A.D. Pirous, Sadly there are no examples of his work in this collection despite the museum itself being in some great part his own vision. Perhaps one day the Museum Istiqlal will be lucky enough to have this honor. In the meantime, we have Ujang Badrussalam's powerful work in the Bandung tradition - "Bersimpuh ru Malam Hari" (2006). It is a powerful and immanent work. Why?

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First, it is technically highly accomplished. Second, it is symbolically effective as an explicitly religious work while not being too overly obvious. W'e are it seems reminded in the stark comparison of the empty black space of the city and its outline with the immense glory above it, that is, of the emptiness of life without spiritual meaning.

Take for contrast, Abdul Ghani's equally fine work shown below "Ketakwaan" (2008). Ghani's painting shows technical similarities stylistically speaking and this speaks to the power and legacy of the Bandung school. However, as far as calligraphy and art goes, it is more concerned with an overtly textual rather than visually symbolic message though the more closely one examines the masses one begins to wonder what they night represent unless they are mere background abstract expressionism.

Conclusion

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For myself, it is equally interesting to ponder the very significant differences between these contemporary calligraphic paintings and the older Qur'anic caJ.ligraphies nearby in the museum which date to earlier historical periods as in the glass paintings and ceramics from Cirebon. Those represent earlier examples of contemporary Indonesian art and calligraphic expression. They show a fascinating synthesis of pre- Islamic and Islamic features - as can similarly be found in the enormous clay vessels arranged along the central axis of the museum. They all speak volumes. But they are mute unless you have some knowledge about their history and an appreciation for plural history of the cultural diversity of the nation as briefly noted below towards concluding,

Thus the visitor to this exhibit is invited to consider all the other examples of calligraphic expression to be found throughout the museum. From the displays of photographs of pages from the illuminated manuscripts from the National Library to the museum's own classical calligraphic specimens perhaps best illustrated below in Hasanuclclin's Qura'nic black and gold instructive from Surah 65, versus 2-3 - "U:7a !1J(Flyattaqillaha".

Though this is not a painting, perhaps because of the frame it has been included in the exhibit In any event it is an elaborate almost rococo expression of Indonesian Islamic identity and in a highly classical, almost Persian Javanese fashion. It is of particular value for the instructive length and expressive aesthetic of the quote from the Qur'an made accessible to those Indonesians who cannot understand Arabic. In the lower portion, the Indonesian text reads:

Barang siapa bertakwa kepada Allah Ia mernbukakan jalan keluar baginya. Dan Ia membukakan rezeki baginya dari (sumbcr) yang tak diduga-duga. Dan barang siapa yang bertawakal kepada Allah maka cukuplah Dia baginya. Pasti Allah rnenyelesaikan tujuannya; sungguh Allah relah mengatur segala sesuatu menurut ukuran. (Q. 65: 2-

3).

To him who belielJCS in Allah and the Last DtDI and for those who jear Allah, He (eier} prepares a It',,:y out; and He providesfor him fi'O!1J {sources) he neuer muld expect. And if a'!y one put, bis trust in Allah, JujJicient is (Aliah)for bim. For Allah will surety a(compErh Hispurpose, tom!y, for alf things has Allah appointed a due proportion. (Q. 6S: 2-3).

Now consider another painting, "Cinta" (Love) by Momon Anclurahman (2009).

It is very different in every way and speaks to a wholly different history of Indonesian heritage and localized aesthetics.

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This painting by Momon presents a peaceful and obvious but simple plural message not only in its single word/image and use of Chinese and Arabic calligraphy but especially because of the entirely traditional Chinese nature of the painting. It is no coincidence that the long red textile across the hall by the entrance is similarly in crimson and gold bearing witness to Indonesia's plural history connecting it so deeply with China and India (see Zilberg 2010, forthcoming).

I Except for Syaiful Adrian, none of the other leading Islamic artists have work in the museum's permanent collection as far as I am aware. It appears that few of the paintings in the collection arc of any great quality or originality, that is, of the level of artistic excellence of the leading Indonesian Islamic artists. My hope with this essay is thus to return peoples' attention to the three earlier relevant exhibition catalogs listed in the bibliography, that is for the two Festival Istiqlals in 1991 and 1995 and the show of Islamic painted calligraphy in 1994, also see George 2006. Naturally, there are specific historical reasons for the range and relative lack of quality in the collection. The original paintings which were supposed to have formed the core of the collection of the Museum Istiqlal were by leading Islamic artists in Indonesia such as A. D. Pirous, When the management of the museum was turned over to the Department of Religion instead of the Department of Education and Culture, the curators and artists whose paintings were to have been included in the collection resigned and withdrew their works (see George 2004, 2006, Zilberg 2010, forthcoming 2011). The result is what we see today, a collection which in few instances speaks to the eminence and power of the finer expressions of calligraphic painting in Indonesia over the last several decades. For a very fine presentation and discussion of the use of Islamic calligraphy in the work of AD. Pirous, see Abay D. Subama, "Cakrawala Lukisan Kaligrafi Islam eli Indonesia; Arninuddin TH. Siregar, "Pirous: Memikirkan Sejarah Seni Kita"; and

Yusuf Susilo Hartono, "Amang Pasca Gua Lorida" all in the. special issue of Visual Arts #21,2007.

2 There are exceptional specimens of Qur'anic calligraphy on permanent display in the museum.

These art works in the collection are those which were awarded prizes of special merit during the calligraphy competition at the Festival Istiqlal in 1995. It would be interesting to know today how many of these men and

Hopefully the many children who visit the museum each day and the visitors to this exhibition hopefully will thus be drawn into the rest of the exhibits so as to appreciate something of these streams of local Islamic traditions. The museum. exists to cherish this heritage and awareness. May this exhibit thus, as sincere and simple and sometimes accomplished or unaccomplished as it is, spiritually, emotionally and intellectually draw visitors into the depths and range of Islam embodied in diverse media. There they will find an enormous range of calligraphic expressions from different times and places which might serve to inspire more technically proficient and symbolically complex and thus ultimately divinely expressive art.

Notes

women are still practicing calligraphy and how many students they may have trained. Similarly it would be interesting to know how many of these people and their students are aware of these specimens on display, if they have ever visited the museum and any of them have ventured into the visual arts. In any event, one would hope that from such events such as this exhibition, these highly talented calligraphers might visit the museum and reflect on their creative and spiritual growth over the last 15 years in the context of the whole history of Indonesian Islam represented in this museum

, For observers with any knowledge of art, it is almost impossible to take such paintings seriously particularly because of the hyper-obvious meaning emphasized with glitter. Yet again, for children and those adults who have such paintings at home, they will appreciate them greatly.

, The list of artists participating in the Pamcran Nuansa Kaligrapfi Islam from December 6, 2009 through March 31, 2010 held in the Bayt AI-Qur'an and Museum Istiqlal Taman Mini Indonesia Indah and sponsored by Lajnah Pentashihan MushafAI-Qur;an and Badan Litbang dan Diklat Departernen Agama R1 were as follows: D. Sirojuddin AR, Isep Mishbah, Edi Amin, Ujnng Badrussalam, Ahmad Munir, Momon Abdurahman S, Effendi Lc'ong, Hery Sumarna, Saiful Hada, Suharno ElFaiz, Badruddin, Husaini, Kusnadi, T)'Us Spriyatna, Sukarna Praja, Ahmad Sukran, Mukhamood Khotibul Umarn, Sulaiman Rachmi, Kurnia Agung Dobiansyah, Martnus, Syaiful Adnan, Abdul Gani, Munadiannur, M. Arifin. Yusuf Muslih, Abdul Khalik, M. Ramli, AM Dt. Garang, Taufiq Putra, Topan Dawmawa~ and Kodin,

5 For Syaiful Adnan's artistic biography, see Pameran .Lukisau Kaligrafi I.rlami, 1994. On Indonesian art and Islamic calligraphy, see VisuaIArtJ#21, 2007.

(, On surrealism, see Yusuf Susilo Hartono, "Amang Pasca Gua Londa". Visuol Arts #21,2007, pp. 84-87. Also see Enrico Crispolti Ernst, i''ilil'O, and tbe Jtlrrealists (1970) and Jean- Lois Gaillernin, Dali: The Impre.ratio of Surrealism (2004) amongst an Alladin's treasure cave of deeply stimulating literature. Bdefly put, surrealism was above all interested in the dream world, the unconscious, the strange and arbitrary. It was often decidedly sexually explicit and deliberately bizarre and thus a most unexpected source of inspiration for Islamic art which has a fundamentally different raison d'etre to modern art being fairh based (see Audah 1991, Lings 1976 and Lings and Safadi 1976). For one of the technically most sophisticated Indonesian Muslim surrealists, see rhc work of Yayan Suherlan in Herry Dim, Pameran Seui IvljJa Kontemporer Istiqlql/ Exhibitioll of Tstiqlal Contemporary Art, 1995, p. 185.

7 Indeed, Magritte broke with the surrealists because of their negative attitude towards religious faith and those who professed attachment to religion, see William Paton, "Painting as Enigma", 2007, pp. 52 - 54.

Bibliography

Akbar, Mastofa,Joko Sulistyo Kahhar. Pamemn LukiJafl Kafigmji [slam] Exhibition oj' Islamic Ca!!igmphic Paintings. Jakarta: Yayasan Wakaf Wakalumi dan Yayasan Wakaf Wakayapa, 1994. Exhibition catalog. Jakarta Hilton Executive Club, february 16-24, 1994.

Audah, Ali. "Kreativitas Kesenian dalam Tradisi Islam" 111 Islam dan Kebuda_yaan indonesia, Dutu, Kini dan Esok; ed. Taufik Abdullah. Jakarta: Yayasan Festival IstiqlaJ, 1991, pp. 13-22.

Crispolti, Enrico. Ernst, Miro and the Surrealists. Milan.Fratelli Fabbri Editori , 1970.

Di rn, Herrv, ed. Pameran j'mi Rtfpa Kontemporer htiq/.all Axhibiti()l1 of Istiqfo! Conte:tJlp0rtlo' "1rt. Festival Jsriq!al II, 1995. Jakarta: Yavasan Festival Istiglal, 1996. Exhibition catalog. lVlesfJid Istiqlal and National Gallery, Jakarta, 23 September - 18 November, 1995.

Gaillemin, Jean-Louis. Doli: Tile Impresario of Surrea/is1Jl. London: Thames and Hudson, 2004.

I

George, Kenneth M, "Designs on T ndonesians' Muslim Communities". [ourna! of Asian 5' tudies vol, 57,nQ3,p~ 693-713,1998.

---. "Picturing Aceh: Violence, Religion and a Painter's Tale". In Spinted Politics: Religion and Public Life in Contcmpomry Southeast Asia, eds, Andrew C. Wilford and Kenneth M. George. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asian Publications Series, Cornell, 2005, pp, 185-208,

---. "Ethics, Iconoclasm and Qur'anic Art", Clt/tura! Atlthropolof'J1 vol, 24, no. 4, 2009, pp, 589- 62,

---. Picttlling Islam: Art and Ethics in a NitlJ!i11l LijeJllorld. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2010.

Hartono, Yusuf Susilo. "Amang Pasca Gua Landa". VisualArtJ #21,2007, pp, 84-8~ Lings, Martin and Yasin Hamid Safadi. TheQur'atl, London: The British Library Board, 1976, Catalog of an exhibition of Qur'an manuscripts at the British Library, 3 April-14 August, 1976,

Lings, Martin, TheQuranitArt of Ca!!igrapl!y and Illumination. World of Islam Festival Trust/Scorpion Publishing Inc, 1976/1987,

Paton, William, "Painting as Enigma: Three strange and mysterious works by Rene Magritte". Christie':

Magazine, January /February, 2007, pp, 52-55,

Sabana, Setiawan, Mamannoor, Hendrawan Riyanto and Sjuaibun Ilias. Seni Rupia Modern. Katalog Tentan,_!!, Kebuda_yaan Islas» Indonesia, Festival Istiqlal I, 1991, Banclung: Badan Pelaksana Festival J stiqlal, 1991.Exhibitioll catalog. 1991.

Siregar, Aminuddin TH, "Pirous: Mernikirkan Sejarah Seni Kita", Visual Arts #21, 2007, pp.80-83

Subarna, Abay D. "Cakrawala Lukisan Kaligrafi Islam ill Indonesia", Visual Arts #21, 2007, pp.65-69,

Zilberg, Jonathan. "A History of the Museum Istiqlal". Subef', 2011, vol, 4, no, 2, forthcoming, Zilberg.jonathan, "An Anthropological Visit to the Museum Istiqlal". Suhuj, 2010, vol. 3, no. 2, pp, 251-277.

Jonathan Zilberg, Ph,D. is a cultural anthropologist specializing in art, religion, and museums, He is a research associate with the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign and honorary curator for Tikar Pandan in Banda Aceh.

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