# Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5

Angle Modulation

5.1 Introduction

Consider a sinusoid, Ac cos ( 2 π fc t + φ0 ) , where Ac is the (constant) amplitude, fc is the (constant) frequency in Hz and φ0 is the initial phase angle. Let the sinusoid be written as Ac cos ⎡ θ ( t ) ⎤ where θ ( t ) = 2 π fc t + φ0 . In chapter ⎣ ⎦

4, we have seen that relaxing the condition that Ac be a constant and making it a function of the message signal m ( t ) , gives rise to amplitude modulation. We shall now examine the case where Ac is a constant but θ ( t ) , instead of being equal to 2 π fc t + φ0 , is a function of m ( t ) . This leads to what is known as the angle modulated signal. Two important cases of angle modulation are Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase modulation (PM). Our objective in this chapter is to make a detailed study of FM and PM.

An important feature of FM and PM is that they can provide much better protection to the message against the channel noise as compared to the linear (amplitude) modulation schemes. Also, because of their constant amplitude nature, they can withstand nonlinear distortion and amplitude fading. The price paid to achieve these benefits is the increased bandwidth requirement; that is, the transmission bandwidth of the FM or PM signal with constant amplitude and which can provide noise immunity is much larger than 2W , where W is the highest frequency component present in the message spectrum.

5.1

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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Now let us define PM and FM. Consider a signal s ( t ) given by

s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡θi ( t ) ⎤ where θi ( t ) , the instantaneous angle quantity, is a ⎣ ⎦ function of m ( t ) . We define the instantaneous frequency of the angle modulated wave s ( t ) , as fi ( t ) = 1 d θi ( t ) 2π d t (5.1)

(The subscript i in θi ( t ) or fi ( t ) is indicative of our interest in the instantaneous behavior of these quantities). If θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + φ0 , then fi ( t ) reduces to the constant fc , which is in perfect agreement with our established notion of frequency of a sinusoid. This is illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1: Illustration of instantaneous phase and frequency Curve 1 in Fig. 5.1 depicts the phase behavior of a constant frequency sinusoid with φ0 = 0 . Hence, its phase, as a function of time is a straight line; that is

θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t . Slope of this line is a constant and is equal to the frequency of

the sinusoid. Curve 2 depicts an arbitrary phase behavior; its slope changes with time. The instantaneous frequency (in radians per second) of this signal at t = t1 is given by the slope of the tangent (green line) at that time.

5.2

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Prof. V. Venkata Rao

a) Phase modulation

For PM, θi ( t ) is given by θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + k p m ( t ) (5.2)

The term 2 π fc t is the angle of the unmodulated carrier and the constant k p is the phase sensitivity of the modulator with the units, radians per volt. (For convenience, the initial phase angle of the unmodulated carrier is assumed to be zero). Using Eq. 5.2, the phase modulated wave s ( t ) can be written as ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ PM = Ac cos ⎡2 π fc t + k p m ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5.3)

From Eq. 5.2 and 5.3, it is evident that for PM, the phase deviation of s ( t ) from that of the unmodulated carrier phase is a linear function of the base-band message signal, m ( t ) . The instantaneous frequency of a phase modulated signal depends on

kp ' d m (t ) 1 d θi ( t ) = fc + m (t ) . = m' ( t ) because 2π d t 2π dt

b) Frequency Modulation

**Let us now consider the case where fi ( t ) is a function of m ( t ) ; that is,
**

fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t )

(5.4) (5.5)

t

or

θi ( t ) = 2 π

−∞

∫ fi ( τ ) d τ ∫ m ( τ) d τ

t

= 2 π fc t + 2 π kf

(5.6)

−∞

**kf is a constant, which we will identify shortly. A frequency modulated signal
**

s ( t ) is described in the time domain by

⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ FM

⎡ = Ac cos ⎢2 π fc t + 2 π kf ⎢ ⎣

⎤ m ( τ ) d τ⎥ ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦

t

(5.7)

kf is termed as the frequency sensitivity of the modulator with the units Hz/volt. From Eq. 5.4 we infer that for an FM signal, the instantaneous frequency

5.3

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the envelope of PM or FM wave is a constant.4(b).5 illustrate the experimentally generated AM. 5. we observe the following: i) Unlike AM.
5. the instantaneous frequency has only two possibilities. From these illustrations.Principles of Communication
Prof. This is quite evident in Fig. ii) iii) Unlike AM. When m ( t ) is a square wave (Fig.2(b) and 5. mp (such as t = t 2 ). 5. V. the zero crossings of PM and FM waves are not uniform (zero crossings refer to the time instants at which a waveform changes from negative to positive and vice versa). Venkata Rao
deviation of s ( t ) from the (unmodulated) carrier frequency fc is a linear function of m ( t ) . we find that the minimum instantaneous frequency of the FM occurs (as expected) at those instants when m ( t ) is most negative (such as t = t1 ) and maximum instantaneous frequency occurs at those time instants when m ( t ) attains its positive peak value. it can assume only two possible values.4). Fig. FM and PM waveforms for three different base-band signals. 5. From Fig. 5.4
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.2 to 5.3(b). Correspondingly.

2: AM and FM with tone modulation
5. Venkata Rao
Fig 5.5
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. V.Principles of Communication
Prof.

5. V.6
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.Principles of Communication
Prof.3: AM and FM with the triangular wave shown as m ( t )
5. Venkata Rao
Fig.

Correspondingly. 5. which is evident from the figure. 5.5(b).7
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.
t = t1
5.4: AM and FM with square wave shown as m ( t )
iv)
A triangular wave has only two possibilities for its slope. it has zero slope and d m (t ) dt is an impulse. and constant negative slope to the right of t2 for the remaining part of the cycle shown. the PM wave has only two values for its fi ( t ) . V. Venkata Rao
Fig. 5. In Fig.5(c) is a square wave.
v)
The modulating waveform of Fig.Principles of Communication
Prof. Except at time instants such as t = t1 . it has a constant positive slope between t1 and t2 .

)
As both PM and FM have constant amplitude Ac .8
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.7 reveal a close relationship between PM and FM. 5.7.
Pav =
2 Ac . 2
regardless of the value of k p or kf . m ( t ) should not have any discontinuities.
5.
t
If mI ( t ) phase modulates a carrier with modulator
sensitivity k p = 2 π kf .3 and 5. This is justified by the fact that at t = t1 . V. θi ( t ) undergoes sudden phase change (as can be seen in the modulated waveform) which implies
d θi ( t ) tends to become an impulse. the modulated carrier is simply a sinusoid of frequency fc . Let
mI ( t ) =
−∞
∫ m ( τ) d τ . fi ( t ) has to be infinity. At t = t1 . 5. except at the time instants when m ( t ) changes its polarity. Venkata Rao
Therefore. dt
Eq. (Because of differentiation. Similarly a PM signal can be obtained using frequency modulator by differentiating m ( t ) before applying it to the frequency modulator.Principles of Communication
Prof. then the resulting signal is actually an FM signal as given by Eq. the average power of a PM or FM signal is.

V.5: PM with m ( t )
(a) a sine wave (b) a triangular wave (c) a square wave
5.9
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. Venkata Rao
Fig 5.Principles of Communication
Prof.

Let
ψ ( t ) = 100 π sin (150 t + ϕ )
1 d ψ (t ) = 50cos (150 t + ϕ ) ⋅ 150 2π d t
= 7500 cos (150 t + ϕ )
Hence maximum frequency deviation = 7500 Hz. Venkata Rao
Example 5.2
Let m ( t ) be a periodic triangular wave with period 10− 3 sec. with
m ( t )max = − m ( t )min = 1 volt. We shall find the maximum and minimum values
of the instantaneous frequency for a) b) FM with kf = 104 Hz/volt PM with k p = π rad/volt
5.
Example 5.10
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. we have
4 ⎛3 ⎞ 30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) = 50 ⎜ sin (150 t ) + cos (150 t ) ⎟ 5 ⎝5 ⎠
= 50 sin (150 t + ϕ ) where ϕ = tan− 1
(
)
4 3
Hence s ( t ) = cos ⎡ 4 π × 106 t + 100 π sin (150 t + ϕ ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Evidently.Principles of Communication
Prof. The terms ⎡30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) ⎤ can be expressed in the form ⎣ ⎦ ⎡cos α sin (150 t ) + sin α cos (150 t ) ⎤ .1
An angle modulated signal is given by
s ( t ) = cos ⎡ 2 π 2 × 106 t + 30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Let us find the maximum phase and frequency derivations. the maximum phase deviation is (100 π ) . ⎣ ⎦ As 302 + 402 = 50 . V.

fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t )
a)
( fi ( t ) )min ( fi ( t ) )max
b)
= 100 × 103 − 104 = 90 kHz = 100 × 103 + 104 = 110 kHz
kp 2π m' ( t )
For PM.
1 d θi ( t ) 2 = fi ( t ) = fc + 2 π k ( fm ) cos ωm t 2π d t d θi ( t ) 2 = 2 π fc + ωm k cos ( ωm t ) dt
5. For FM. If m ( t ) is different from cos ωm t .3
Let s ( t ) be a general angle modulated signal given by s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡θi ( t ) ⎤ = Ac cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ It is given that when m ( t ) = cos ωm t . where k is a suitable constant.000 2
= 98 kHz
Similarly. V. s ( t ) has the instantaneous frequency given by fi ( t ) = fc + 2 π k ( fm ) cos ωm t .000 .
Hence
( fi ( t ) )min
= 100 × 103 −
1 × 4. Let us
2
find the expression for θi ( t ) . what could be the expression for θi ( t ) and s ( t ) .11
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. Venkata Rao
Assume the carrier frequency to be 100 kHz. fi ( t ) = fc +
Note that m' ( t ) is a square wave with maximum and minimum values as
± 4.Principles of Communication
Prof. ( fi ( t ) )
max
= 102 kHz
Example 5.

s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡2 π × 108 t + k p m ( t ) ⎤ .
θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t − k
d ⎡m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣
and
⎡ d m (t ) ⎤ s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎢2 π fc t − k ⎥ dt ⎦ ⎣
Exercise 5. Venkata Rao
or
θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + ωm k sin ( ωm t )
= 2 π fc t − k
d ⎡cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣
Generalizing. 5. V.
5. Let the modulated signal be given by.
Fig.1
A periodic signal m ( t ) angle modulates a very high frequency carrier. 5. ⎣ ⎦ where m ( t ) is as shown in Fig.6: Modulating signal for the exercise 5.1 If ( fi )max − ( fi )min is to be 100 kHz show that k p = 10 π rad/volt.12
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.6.Principles of Communication
Prof.

Venkata Rao
5.
t
the pre-
⎡ c2 cn 2 n = Ac ⎢1 + j cf mI ( t ) − f ( mI ( t ) ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + j n f ( mI ( t ) ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ n! 2! ⎢ ⎣
⎤ jω t ⎥e c ⎥ ⎦
(5.13
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. the spectrum of the FM signal is not band-limited. (Recall that the bandwidth of any linear modulated signal is less than or equal to 2W .8) As s ( t ) = Re ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ pe . where W is the message band-width).
5. Let us take a closer look at this issue of FM bandwidth. and that of
( mI ( t ) )
3
is 3 W etc. But s ( t )
( mI ( t ) )
2
cos ( ωc t ) . For convenience.Principles of Communication
Prof.4. we shall make a detailed analysis of the bandwidth requirements of FM. It appears that.) Let cf = 2 π kf .2 Bandwidth of FM
In this section. The spectrum of
n
2
cos ( ωc t ) occupies the interval fc ± 2W and that of ( mI ( t ) ) cos ( ωc t )
occupies the interval fc ± nW . at least theoretically. it has infinite bandwidth and
S ( f ) is not simply related to M ( f ) . A similar situation prevails even in the case
of a PM signal. as MI ( f ) = consists of terms
{
}
( j 2πf )
M (f )
. we have
⎡ ⎤ 2 cf2 s ( t ) = Ac ⎢cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) − ( mI ( t ) ) cos ( ωc t ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ (5. With mI ( t ) = envelope of s ( t ) is
⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ pe = Ac exp ⎡ j ( ωc t + cf mI ( t ) ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
−∞
∫ m(τ)d τ. let s ( t ) denote the FM signal. V.9) 2! ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m ( t ) is band-limited to W . Clearly. (PM is considered in section 5. ( mI ( t ) ) sin ( ωc t ) etc. The spectrum of
3
( mI ( t ) ) ( mI ( t ) )
2
is of width 2W . then so is mI ( t ) .

5.1 NarrowBand FM (NBFM)
Assume that cf mI ( t )
max
<< 1. Venkata Rao
5. For this reason. that is. the case cf mI ( t )
max
<< 1 is called
narrowband FM (NBFM). 5. V. FM is nonlinear as
Ac cos {ωc t + cf [ mI 1 ( t ) + mI 2 ( t )]} ≠ Ac cos {ωc t + cf mI 1 ( t )} + Ac cos {ωc t + cf mI 2 ( t )}
5.9 can be well
approximated by the first two terms.Principles of Communication
Prof.10 is similar to that of an AM wave.14
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. we have the envelope of the NBFM signal given by
A ( t ) = Ac 1 + cf2 mI2 ( t )
If cf mI ( t ) << 1. 5. Similarly. Now S ( f ) is band-limited to 2W as in the case of an AM signal1. there is one important difference. s (t ) Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5.4
1
In general. This makes the time 2
domain signal of PM or FM very much different from that of an AM signal.10)
Eq. the sideband spectrum of PM or FM has a phase shift of
π with respect to the carrier. Then s ( t ) of Eq.
Example 5.
Note that from Eq. namely. A NBFM signal has phase variations with very little amplitude variations whereas the AM signal has amplitude variations with no phase variations.2. the narrowband PM (NBPM) signal can be written as s (t ) Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − k p m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5. then A ( t )
Ac .10.11)
Though the expressions for NBFM or NBPM resemble fairly closely that of an AM signal.

as mentioned earlier has. Venkata Rao
A NBFM signal. Sketch S ( f ) for a NBFM signal. s ( t ) . infinite bandwidth.Principles of Communication
Prof.2.2
Let M ( f ) =
⎛ f ⎞ ga ⎜ 3 ⎟ and fc = 106 Hz. 5. most of the power of the FM signal resides in a finite bandwidth. It is given that kf = 250 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠ 1
3
Hz/volt. which. then we have the
wideband FM.10. we observe that
fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t )
Let mp = m ( t )max = m ( t )min .
5. we have
s ( t ) = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
(
)
But Hence
mI ( t ) ←⎯ →
M (f ) j 2πf
and
cf = 2 π kf . and Ac = 4 V. called the transmission bandwidth. is generated by using m ( t ) = 103 sin c 2 103 t . as will be seen a little later. Then the instantaneous frequency varies in the
5. We shall find S ( f ) .
S (f ) =
Ac A K ⎡δ ( f − fc ) + δ ( f + fc ) ⎤ + c f ⎣ ⎦ 2 2
⎡ M ( f − fc ) M ( f + fc ) ⎤ − ⎢ ⎥ ( f + fc ) ⎥ ⎢ ( f − fc ) ⎣ ⎦
⎛ f ⎞ where M ( f ) = tri ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠
Exercise 5. From Eq. In order to estimate this bandwidth. However. at least theoretically.15
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.2 WideBand FM (WBFM)
If the condition cf mI ( t )
max
<< 1 is not satisfied. V.

Principles of Communication
Prof.
( BT )FM
= 2∆f ?
The above expression for the transmission bandwidth is valid only when
∆ f >> W . to a very good approximation. as will be shown
later. In the 1920s radio engineers. it should not be equated with spectral frequency.
∆ f = kf mp . ( BT )FM ≠ 2 ∆ f but 2W .
5. fi ( t ) . When we refer to the spectrum X ( f ) of a signal x ( t ) . maybe only for a few cycles.16
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. can we assume that. That is. less than 2W ) by choosing ∆ f appropriately! The fallacy here lies in equating the instantaneous frequency to the spectral frequency. the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal. As the total range of frequency deviation (with centre at fc ) is 2 kf mp . for all practical purposes. Then. felt that bandwidth requirement of FM can be made less than that of AM (that is. on the other hand represents the frequency of a cosine signal that can be treated to have a constant frequency for a very short duration. ( BT )FM is
(
)
(
)
( BT )FM
= 2 kf mp
?
Let ∆ f denote the maximum deviation of the carrier frequency fc . Spectral frequency f is the independent variable of the frequency domain where as fi ( t ) is a time dependent quantity indicating the time behavior of a signal with angle modulation. In the case ∆ f << W . Venkata Rao
range fc − kf mp to fc + kf mp . can we assume that. Although fi ( t ) is measured in Hz. and each one of these exponentials exists for all t with the given frequency. V. we imply that
x ( t ) is composed of the complex exponentials with the magnitude and phase
specified by X ( f ) . This is indeed the fallacy that gave birth to FM in the first place. thinking that the actual bandwidth of an FM signal is 2 ∆ f . We shall now give some justification that bandwidth of an FM signal is never less than 2W .

where ∆ f >> W . as
( BT )FM
by 2 ∆ f . (Note that about 92% of the energy of 1 ). T
(
)
a rectangular pulse of duration T sec. is from ⎡fc + kf m ( tk ) − 2W ⎤ to ⎡fc + kf m ( tk ) + 2W ⎤ . lies in the frequency range f ≤
Hence.13)
5.17
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. A typical pulse and its spectrum are shown in Fig.12)
For the wideband FM case.
= 2 k f mp + 4 W = 2 ∆ f + 4 W = 2 ( ∆ f + 2 W )
(5. this staircase approximation is justified as long as the width of each rectangle (separation between two adjacent samples) is less than or equal to 1 . we shall treat the adjacent sample separation to be equal to
The FM wave for the staircase-approximated signal will consist of a sequence of sinusoidal pulses. 5. its spectral range (between the first nulls) as
shown in Fig. The most commonly used rule. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Clearly the significant part of the spectrum of the FM signal will lie in the interval
( fc − kf mp − 2W )
to fc + kf mp + 2W . ⎛ 1 ⎞ The frequency of the RF pulse in the interval ⎜ tk . 2W
convenience. From the sampling theorem (to be discussed in chapter 6).7(a). 5. V. other rules of thumb for FM bandwidths are to be found. each of a constant frequency and duration of 1 sec. ( BT )FM can be well approximated
In the literature. tk + ⎟ 2W ⎠ ⎝ is
fi ( tk ) = fc + kf m ( tk ) . Venkata Rao
Let the base-band signal m ( t ) be approximated by a staircase signal. 5. is
( BT )FM
= 2(∆ f + W )
(5. Hence. as shown in Fig.Principles of Communication
Prof.7(c). we can take as one possible value of the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal. For 2W 1 . called the Carson’s rule.7(b) and (c) 2W respectively.

In other cases. V. Venkata Rao
Fig.12 gives a better estimate than does Eq.7: Estimation of FM spectral width
Carson’s rule gives a better bandwidth estimate than does Eq.12 for the NBFM
(∆ f
<< W ) case.13. namely.18
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.Principles of Communication
Prof.
5. 5. where ∆ f << W is not satisfied (wideband and intermediate cases) Eq. 5. its
bandwidth is approximately 2W . 5. This is in agreement with our result on NBFM. 5.

In this case.Principles of Communication
Prof. V.16a) (5.15)
where k varies between 1 and 2.1 NBFM
s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ωc t + β sin ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
= Ac cos ( ωc t ) cos ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) − sin ( ωc t ) sin ( β sin ( ωm t ) )
{
}
5.13 can be combined into
( BT )FM
(5.16b)
s ( t ) = Re ⎡s pe ( t ) ⎤ = Ac cos ( ωc t + β sin ( ωm t ) ) ⎣ ⎦
5. As can be seen. β =
kf Am and fm
j β sin( ωm t ) ⎤ spe ( t ) = Ac e j ωc t ⎡e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(5.3 Tone Modulation
Let m ( t ) = Am cos ( 2 π fm t ) Then mI ( t ) =
Am sin ( ωm t ) . Venkata Rao
We now define the deviation ratio D .14)
Then Eq.13 are special cases of Eq.15. assuming mI ( − ∞ ) = 0 ωm
⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ A spe ( t ) = Ac exp ⎢ j ⎜ ωc t + cf m sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ ωm ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ k A = Ac exp ⎢ j ⎜ ωc t + f m sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ fm ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ For tone modulation.12 and Eq. as
D =
∆f W = 2W ( D + k )
(5.12 and 5. 5. 5. 5.3. ∆ f = kf Am and W = fm . for tone modulation.
5. 5. the deviation ratio is referred to as the modulation index and is usually denoted by the symbol β . That is. Eq.19
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.

26). and β sin ( ωm t ) . 4. V.
In the case of AM. 5.17b)
Then.17c)
Fig. it is perpendicular to the carrier phasor in NBFM. s ( t ) = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − β sin ( ωm t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ β ⎧ ⎫ = Ac ⎨cos ( ωc t ) + ⎡cos ( ωc + ωm ) t − cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎩ ⎭ Corresponding expression for AM (Eq 4.8.17(b) can be written as
A β ⎧ s ( t ) = Re ⎨ Ac e j ωc t + c 2 ⎩
− j ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎫
⎡e j ( ωc ⎢ ⎣
+ ωm ) t
−e
⎥⎬ ⎦⎭
(5. (5.7) is µ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ ⎤ ⎣s ( t ) ⎦ AM = Ac ⎨cos ( ωc t ) + 2 ⎡cos ( ωc + ωm ) t + cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Eq.20
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. 5. we construct the phasor diagram for NBFM. the resultant of the side-band phasors is collinear with the carrier phasor whereas. Let β be small enough so that we can use the approximations cos ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) sin ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) 1 .Principles of Communication
Prof. we make the following observation. 5. Venkata Rao
NBFM: small β . 5.) Comparing the phasor diagram for the NBFM with that of the AM signal (Fig.
5. shown in Fig. (We have taken the carrier phasor as the reference.8: Phasor diagram for NBFM with tone modulation
Using Eq.17(c).17a) (5.

18)
The integral on the RHS of Eq.18 is recognized as the nth order Bessel
function of the first kind and argument β and is commonly denoted by the symbol
Jn ( β ) . that is.19.19a)
That is. 5.2 WBFM
The exponential term in the brackets in Eq.
e
j β sin( ωm t )
=
n = −∞
∑
∞
Jn ( β ) e j n ωm t
(5.21
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.Principles of Communication
Prof. we have fm =
e
j β sin( ωm t )
n = −∞
1 2 fm 1 − 2 fm
∑
∞
xn e j n ωm t
where xn = fm
∫
e
j β sin( ωm t )
e−
j n ωm t
dt
Let θ = ωm t .16(a) is a periodic signal with period 1 .
5.3. Then.19b)
Hence.
e
j β sin( ωm t )
←⎯ →
n = −∞
∑
∞
Jn ( β ) δ ( f − n fm )
(5.19c)
Using Eq. xn
1 = Jn ( β ) = 2π
−π
∫
π
j β sin θ − n θ ) e ( dθ
(5. we can express spe ( t ) as
5. 5. Venkata Rao
It is this quadrature relationship between the two phasors of NBFM that produces angle variations resulting in corresponding changes in fi ( t ) .
xn
1 = 2π
−π
∫
π
j β sin θ − n θ ) e ( dθ
(5. 5. Expressing this term in Fourier series. V.

Venkata Rao
spe ( t ) = Ac
n = −∞
∑
∞
Jn ( β ) e
j ⎡ 2 π( fc + n fm ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
(5.22)
Exercise 5.20)
As s ( t ) = Re ⎡s pe ( t ) ⎤ .19(c) gives the Fourier transform of e a) e
j β cos( ωm t )
j β sin( ωm t )
. we have
S (f ) = Ac 2
n = −∞
∑
∞
Jn ( β ) ⎡δ ( f − fc − n fm ) + δ ( f + fc + n fm ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
(5.21)
Taking the Fourier transform of s ( t ) . V. Show that
←⎯ →
n = −∞
n ∑ ( j ) Jn (β ) δ ( f
∞
∞
+ n fm )
b)
Ac cos ⎡ωc t + β cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ = Ac ⎣ ⎦
⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ j β sin ⎢ωm ⎜ − t ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ωm ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e
n =
∑
π⎤ ⎡ Jn ( β ) cos ⎢( ωc + n ωm ) t + n ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ −∞
Hint: e
j β cos( ωm t )
=
If x ( t ) = e
j β sin ωm ( − t )
. Jn ( β )
( β 2 )n
n!
5. we obtain ⎣ ⎦
s ( t ) = Ac
n = −∞
∑
∞
Jn ( β ) cos ⎡2 π ( fc + n fm ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
(5.Principles of Communication
Prof.
1) 2) 3)
Jn ( β ) is always real (For all n and β )
Jn ( β ) = ( − 1) J − n ( β )
n
For small values of β .3
Eq. 5.
Properties of J n ( β ) : The following properties of Jn ( β ) can be established. then e
j β cos( ωm t )
⎛ π ⎞ = x ⎜t − ⎟. 2 ωm ⎠ ⎝
Now use the Fourier transform properties for time reversal and time shift.22
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.

Thus. only J0 ( β ) and J1 ( β ) are significant. fc ± fm . β
Fig. for small values of β . etc. in contrast to AM.5.4 . the carrier component is very nearly zero
(approximately 50 dB below the maximum value). Venkata Rao
Hence.23
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 4) From Fig.
5. 5. As can be seen from the plot.Principles of Communication
Prof. 1) The spectrum of a tone modulated FM wave contains carrier component and an infinite set of side-frequencies located symmetrically on either side of the carrier at frequency separations of n fm . n > 1
4)
n = −∞
∑
∞
2 Jn ( β ) = 1
Fig 5.9(b). n = 1.4.9 depicts the behavior of Jn ( β ) . we find that Jn ( β ) decays monotonically for that Jn ( β ) << 1 for
n > 1 and β
n >> 1 . We now make the following observations regarding the spectrum ( f > 0 ) of a tone modulated FM signal. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2) For small β . 5. V. 3) The amplitude of the carrier component varies with β according to J0 ( β ) . Moreover. Then the FM spectrum has only three components: at fc .
J0 ( β )
1
J1 ( β )
Jn ( β )
β 2
0. this amplitude ‘contains’ part of the message information.10 gives the spectral plots obtained from a spectrum analyzer with
β
2. 2. J0 ( β ) = 0 for some values β ( β = 2.) . This situation corresponds to the special case of NBFM. 5.

the average power Pav of the FM signal with tone modulation is Pav =
2 Ac 2
n = −∞
∑
∞
2 Jn ( β ) .
5. we expect
0. For n = 4 . 5. Fig. we treat the largest magnitude as 0 dB and compare the rest respect to with this value.430 0. 5.24
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.43
spectrum analyzer agrees with this. the value as observed on the plot of Fig.25 .11(b) is in 0.066 = − 17. 5. Hence 20 log10
0. we have
J 4 ( β ) = 0. that is.43
close agreement with this. Fig. Similarly.21. Spectrum analyzer display is in close agreement with this.11(b) is the spectral plot as observed on a spectrum analyzer.281 = − 3.1 0. For n = 1 . theoretical value is 20 log
dB.
From Eq. We
see from this plot that the third spectral component has the largest magnitude which is an agreement with the theory.11(a). 5. for 20 log10
n = 5 . V.11(a) gives the theoretical plot of various spectral components for
β
4 . Let us normalize the dB plot with respect to the largest magnitude.132 = − 10.7 and value indicated by the 0.Principles of Communication
Prof.281. Venkata Rao
Fig 5. The values of the remaining spectral components can be similarly be verified.

Principles of Communication
Prof. Venkata Rao
Fig.
n for fixed β β
5. V.9: Bessel Functions: (a) Jn ( β ) vs.25
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. β for fixed n (b) Jn ( β ) vs. 5.

we have
n = −∞
∑
∞
2 Jn ( β ) = 1. V.26
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.24a)
This in agreement with Eq.
( BT )FM
= 2 ( β + 1) fm
(5.23)
For large β . which implies that the
Pav of the tone modulated FM signal is
2 Ac . then. Venkata Rao
Fig.15. If we neglect the values of Jn ( β ) for n > β + 1 . 5.
5. with k = 2 . we state that
( Pav )FM
( BT )FM
=
2 Ac 2
(5. 5. then
= 2 n fm = 2 ( β + 2 ) fm
(5.15 with k = 1.4
But from property 4 of Jn ( β ) . This result is true in general 2
(whether m ( t ) is a tone or not) because an FM signal is essentially a constant amplitude cosine signal with time varying frequency. As the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency.Principles of Communication
Prof. 5. if we assume that we can neglect Jn ( β ) for n > β + 2 .24b)
which corresponds to Eq.10: Spectrum analyzer output with β
2.

Venkata Rao
Fig.11(a): Jn ( β ) for β = 4 (b) Spectrum analyzer output for β
4
Consider β = 5 . we have J7 ( 5 ) = 0.053 and
J8 ( 5 ) = 0.Principles of Communication
Prof.
5. From Appendix A5.018 . P1 .1. V.27
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. the average power of these two is. 5.

28
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.2 where BT .0031) . For example. As such.1 and BT .31 % . 5.
With tone modulation. For a given β . then
BT = 2 nsig fm
(5. Venkata Rao
P1 =
2 Ac A2 ( 0.1.2 = 2 ( β + 2 ) fm
5. 2 2
Hence. Also listed in the table are BT . nsig can be found from the table in
Appendix A5. V. we find that even Eq.0031 = 0. it is possible to estimate the value of BT to the accuracy desired.24c)
where nsig is such that Jn ( β ) ≥ 0.) Let fm = f0 when β = 20 . if β = 20 . and BT .01 for n ≤ nsig . we see that practically the entire power of the FM signal is confined to the
frequency range [fc ± 6 fm ] . These are listed in Table 5. As Jn ( 5 ) for n ≥ 9 are much smaller than
J8 ( 5 ) . 5.0003 ) = c ( 0.
( Pav )FM
P1
= 0.0028 + 0. If we take Ac = 1. In this case. Let us tabulate BT for a few other values of β .1.then
nsig would be 25.24(b) is a fairly good measure of ( BT )FM for tone modulation. let us define transmission bandwidth such that it includes all those spectral components whose magnitude is greater than one percent of the
unmodulated carrier amplitude.. We will keep ∆ f = 20 f0 .1 = 2 ( β + 1) fm (Carson’s rule). but reduce the value of β by increasing
fm . etc. the magnitude of a spectral component depends only on Jn ( β ) and these Bessel coefficients have been tabulated extensively. (For β = 10.Principles of Communication
Prof.

in absolute terms.5).1.2
f0
2 f0 4 f0 10 f0 20 f0 40 f0 60 f0 200 f0
50 28 16 8 6 4 4 2
50 f0 56 f0 64 f0 80 f0 120 f0 160 f0 240 f0 400 f0
42 f0 44 f0 48 f0 60 f0 80 f0 120 f0 160 f0 440 f0
44 f0 48 f0 56 f0 80 f0 120 f0 200 f0 280 f0 840 f0
Table 5.1
2 nsig
BT
BT . As such.1: BT of Eq.1 .24c for various values of β with ∆ f = 20f0
From the above table. ∆ f becomes less and less significant in the calculation of BT . (From the table. For β = 0.33 0. with
β = 20 .1 .2 (which is generally considered to overestimate the bandwidth requirement) is less than BT as given 5.2 is better. Venkata Rao
fm
β
20 10 5 2 1 0.29
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. we require a BT of 50 f0 where as with β = 0. BT does not go zero.) iii)
BT . 10 and 20. as β → 0 .
It is interesting to note that for β = 5. Otherwise. we find that
40 f0 2∆f 1 = = 400 f0 10 BT
ii)
For small values of β . In fact. 5.5 0. bandwidth is essentially decided by the highest frequency component in the input spectrum. BT . BT . we see that i) For small values of β (less than or equal to 0. it increases. BT required is
400 f0 .1
BT . which is based on Carson’s rule is in close agreement with BT only
for very small values of β .Principles of Communication
Prof. V.

30
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. We know that. the ratio
Power of any spectral component not included in BT Pav
is less than With
( 0.25b)
max
5.2
and
( J8 ( 5 ) Ac )
(
2 Ac
2
)
2
= 3.2 resulting in a larger value for the bandwidth. 5. In other words.25a)
where m' ( t ) is the derivative of m ( t ) .01 Ac .Principles of Communication
Prof. 5.
fi ( t ) = kp ' 1 d θi ( t ) = fc + m (t ) 2π d t 2π
(5. where m'p = m' ( t )
(5. V. It is instructive to analyze the FM signal when m ( t ) is a sum of sinusoids.38 × 10− 4 . Venkata Rao
by Eq.24(c) neglects only those frequency components whose magnitude is less than or equal to 0. BT as given by Eq. This has been done in the Appendix A5. That is.
2
BT .
∆f =
kp
2π
m'p .24(c). for phase modulation.4.3.24(c) includes few
more spectral components in the bandwidth than that taken into account by BT . Therefore.
5. Another measure of bandwidth that is useful in the study of frequency modulation is the rms bandwidth.01 Ac )2
2 Ac
2
2
= 10− 4
takes into account only upto
J7 ( 5 )
β = 5. This has been dealt with in Appendix A5.4 Phase Modulation
All the results derived for FM can be directly applied to PM. This is because BT of Eq. 5.

there is one important difference between PM and FM. What is the frequency sensitivity of the source? Keeping Am at 2 V. Strong high frequency components in M ( f ) would result in large values of m'p .5
To determine the frequency sensitivity of an FM source. Starting near about zero. Venkata Rao
( BT )PM
= 2[∆ f + k W ] . As a result. ( BT )PM will be much larger than for the case of the signals with strong spectral components at lower frequencies. for PM. V. Am is gradually increased and ⎣ ⎦ when Am = 2 V. for signals with strong high frequency components. it has been found that the carrier component goes to zero for the first time. Similarly. frequency fm is decreased until the carrier component goes zero for the second time. as ∆ f = kf mp .Principles of Communication
Prof. For FM. What is the value of fm for this to happen?
(
)
5. ∆ f is a function of m'p and this value is strongly dependent on M ( f ) .26)
⎡ k m' ⎤ p p = 2⎢ + kW ⎥ ⎢ 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
With respect to ∆ f .31
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. The FM generator is fed a tone modulating signal
Am ⎡cos 4 π × 103 t ⎤ . the following method has been used. On the other hand. predominance of lower-frequency components will result in a lower value of m'p . Hence the bandwidth of WBFM is essentially independent of the spectrum of m ( t ) (It has a weak dependence on W ). 1 < k < 2 (5. it depends only on the peak value of the modulating signal.
Example 5.

8 × 103 fm 4.8 × 103 = 872 Hz 5.32
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.Principles of Communication
Prof.
Ac µ = Ac J1 ( 8 ) ⇒ µ = 2 J1 ( 8 ) 2
= 0.4 . (That is.5 . find the modulation index of AM.4 . we have kf =
4. the magnitude of the spectral components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz is
Ac µ .6
A 1.5
or
fm =
Example 5. Unmodulated carrier amplitude is the same for both AM and FM. the smallest value of β for which J0 ( β ) = 0 is
β = 2. the magnitude of the spectral components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz is 2 Ac J1 ( 8 ) . That is. For AM.4 fm = 4. Hence.
5. Venkata Rao
With tone modulation. For FM. we know that carrier goes to zero for the first time when β = 2. V.4 .8 = 2.0 kHz tone is used to generate both an AM and an FM signal. The modulation index β of FM is 8.4 kHz/V 2
The carrier component is zero for the second time when β = 5.47
5. fm
∆ f = 2.8 kHz = kf mp
As mp is 2 V. If the frequency components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz have the same magnitude in AM as well as FM.5 = 4.)
But β = ∆f = 2.

33
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. A5. i) ii) (a) B T
( )FM
and
(b) B T
( )PM for the following combinations
f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz
We will assume that Jn ( β ) can be neglected if n > β + 2 . we have
s ( t ) = Ac ∑∑ Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) cos ⎡( ωc + m ω1 + n ω2 ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
m n
β1 = β2 =
5 × 103 = 10 500 5 × 103 × 0. Venkata Rao
Example 5.7
In this example we will show that the bandwidth of the PM signal is strongly dependent on M ( f ) whereas this dependence is weak in the case of an FM signal.
a)
( B T )FM
Case i) f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz From Eq. Then.85 cos ( 2 π f2 t ) be used to generate an FM as well as a PM signal. Let us compute of f1 and f2 .1 (Appendix 5.Principles of Communication
Prof.85 700 6
We shall take into account Jm ( β1 ) upto m = 12 ( = β1 + 2 ) and
Jn ( β2 ) upto n = 8 ( = β2 + 2 ) .3.2 × 103 Hz
5.
( B T )FM
= 2 (12 × 500 + 8 × 700 ) = 23. Let m ( t ) = cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + 0. V. Modulator constants are kf = 5 kHz/V and k p = 10 rad/V.3).

0002
5. we see that the magnitude of any spectral component depends on the product. V.Principles of Communication
Prof.391 × 0. Venkata Rao
In the equation for s ( t ) above.018 × 0. D = J8 ( 5 ) J6 ( 3 ) = 0.
B = J8 (10 ) J5 ( 6 ) = 0.115 . and this product is
C = J 4 ( 5 ) J2 ( 3 ) = 0.0114
= 0.0006
A = J13 (10 ) J9 ( 6 ) = 0.486 = 0. Let us calculate the ratio
J13 (10 ) J8 ( 6 ) ⎡Jm (10 ) Jn ( 6 ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
so as to get an idea of the
max
magnitude of the spectral components that have been neglected in calculating B T Let
( )FM . then
( B T )FM
= 2 7 × 103 + 5 × 1400 = 28 × 103 Hz
(
)
Of course the maximum value of Jm ( β1 ) and Jn ( β2 ) occurs for
m = 4 and n = 2 . Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) . B
Case ii) f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz Now.
A = 0.
Then. we have β1 = 5 and β2 3.19
However.0052 . Let.34
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.02
From the tables (Appendix A5.362
= 0. we find that the maximum value of the product Jm (10 ) Jn ( 6 ) occurs for m = 8 and n = 5 .318 × 0.
If we account for Jm ( β1 ) and Jn ( β2 ) upto m = 7 and n = 5 .
= 0.03 × 0.1).

2 × 103 Hz.Principles of Communication
Prof. Venkata Rao
Hence
D 0.0002 = C 0.
( B T )FM
b)
= 2 ( 6000 + 5 × 1400 ) = 26 × 103 Hz
which is fairly close to the previous value of 23.
( B T )PM
m' ( t ) = − ⎡2 π f1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) + 0.85 ( 2 π f2 ) sin ( 2 π f2 t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
Now m' ( t ) frequency modulates the carrier
β1 =
Similarly.19
0.001. J 4 ( 5 ) J2 ( 3 )
Then.003 which is closer to ( A B ) than 0.85 k p = 8. then. V.35
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. If we restrict ourselves to the number of spectral components upto
m = β + 1.
2 π f1 = k p = 10 2π f1
kp
⋅
β2 = 0.5
Case i) f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz
( B T )PM
= 2 (12 × 500 + 10 × 700 ) = 26 × 103 Hz
Case ii) f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz As β1 and β2 remains unchanged. J7 ( 5 ) J 6 ( 3 ) = 0. we have
( B T )PM
= 2 12 × 103 + 10 × 1400 = 52 × 103 Hz
(
)
5.001
This is much less than ( A B ) which implies that we have taken into account more number of spectral components than case (i) above.

5 Generation of FM
We had earlier identified two different categories of FM.Principles of Communication
Prof. 5.
Exercise 5.36
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. namely. Venkata Rao
This is twice B T
( )PM
of case (i). If s ( t ) can be expressed in the form
a)
s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ω 'c t − β sin ( 2 ωm t ) ⎤ . V.
5. We shall now present the schemes for their generation.12: Scheme for the Exercise 5. This example shows that the
bandwidth of the PM signals is strongly dependent on M ( f ) .
Fig. 5.12.4
Consider the scheme shown in Fig. NBFM and WBFM. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
what are the values of fc' and β ? b) What are the frequency components in the spectrum of s ( t ) ?
Ans:
⎛ k A2 ⎞ fc' = ⎜ fc + f m ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ β =
2 kf Am 2 fm
5.4 Let fc be the frequency of the modulator when m ( t ) = 0 .

This is shown schematically in Fig.Principles of Communication
Prof. Applying m ( t ) directly to the balanced modulator.37
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. This is then converted to WBFM by using frequency multiplication.13: Generation of NBFM signal
5.13 can be used to generate the NBFM signal.first a narrowband FM signal is generated.
s (t )
Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
The system shown in Fig. 5.attributed to Armstrong . 5.
a) Indirect FM (Armstrong’s method)
In this method .5.
Fig. V. Details on their generation are as follows. 5. From the approximation (5.5.2 WBFM: Indirect and direct methods
There are two distinct methods of generating WBFM signals: a) Direct FM b) Indirect FM.14. Venkata Rao
5.
5.10) we have.1 Narrowband FM
One of the principal applications of NBFM is in the (indirect) generation of WBFM as explained later on in this section. results in NBPM with a suitable value for k p .

n ∆ f . ..14: Generation of WBFM (Armstrong method)
The generation of NBFM has already been described...27 can be filtered out to give an FM output with the carrier frequency 2 fc and frequency deviation twice that of the input FM signal.38
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.
y ( t ) = cos2 ⎡θ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
=
1 1 + cos ⎡2 θ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2
{
}
⎤ m (α ) d α⎥ ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦
t
=
⎡ 1 1 + cos ⎢2 ωc t + 4 π kf 2 2 ⎢ ⎣
(5.. An input-output relation of the type y ( t ) = a1 x ( t ) + a2 x 2 ( t ) + . The multiplier scheme used in a commercial FM transmitter is indicated in Fig. an x n ( t ) will give rise to FM output components at the frequencies fc .. 5. . V. where ∆f is the
frequency deviation of the input NBFM signal.. 5. Let x ( t ) be the FM signal given by. 2 fc . The required WBFM signal can be obtained by a suitable BPF...
5.Principles of Communication
Prof. Venkata Rao
Fig.27)
The DC term in Eq.
x ( t ) = cos ⎡θ ( t ) ⎤ . Then.. frequency multiplication can be resorted to in more than one stage.15.. For simplicity. consider a square law device with output y ( t ) = x 2 ( t ) where x ( t ) is the input. A frequency multiplier is a nonlinear device followed by a BPF. n fc with the corresponding frequency deviations ∆ f . A nonlinearity of order n can give rise to frequency multiplication by a factor of n . 2 ∆ f . If necessary. where θ ( t ) = ωc t + 2 π kf ⎣ ⎦
−∞
∫ m (α) d α
t
Note that we have dropped the subscript i from θi ( t ) .. 5.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 5.15: Multiplier chain used in typical commercial FM transmitter

The carrier frequency of the NBFM signal fc 1 , is 200 kHz with the corresponding ∆ f1 = 25 Hz. Desired FM output is to have the frequency deviation ∆ f4 kHz and a carrier fc 4 of 91.2 MHz. 75

( )

To obtain ∆ f4 = 75 kHz starting from ∆ f1 = 25 Hz, we require a total frequency multiplication of

**(75 × 10 ) = 3000 . In the scheme of Fig. 5.11, this
**

3

25

has been accomplished in two stages, namely, multiplication by 64 followed by multiplication by 48, giving a total multiplication by the factor 64 × 48 = 3072 . (Actually each stage of multiplication is implemented by a cascade of frequency doublers or triplers. Thus multiplication by 64 is obtained by 6 doublers in cascade where as multiplication by 48 is implemented by a cascade of a frequency tripler and 4 doublers.) Multiplication of fc 1 = 200 kHz by 3072 gives a carrier frequency fc 4 = 614.4 MHz. As the final required carrier frequency is 91.2 MHz, a frequency conversion stage is used to down convert fc 2 (12.8 MHz) to fc 3 (1.9 MHz). In this process of down conversion, frequency deviation is unaffected ( ∆ f2 = ∆ f3 = 1.6 kHz ) . The possible drawbacks of this scheme are the introduction of noise in the process of multiplication and distortion in the

5.39

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

generation of NBFM signal especially for low modulating frequencies as could become excessive.

∆f fm

Example 5.8

Armstrong’s method is to be used to generate a WBFM signal. The NBFM signal has the carrier frequency fc1 = 20 kHz. The WBFM signal that is required must have the parameters fc = 6 MHz and ∆ f = 10 kHz. Only frequency triplers are available. However, they have a limitation: they cannot produce frequency components beyond 8 MHz at their output. Is frequency conversion stage required? If so, when does it become essential? Draw the schematic block diagram of this example.

Total frequency multiplication required =

6 × 106 20 × 103

= 300 . Using only

frequency triplers, we have 35 = 243 and 36 = 729 . Hence a set of six multipliers is required. But these six cannot be used as a single cascade because, that would result in a carrier frequency equal to 20 × 103 × 36 = 14.58 MHz and the last multiplier cannot produce this output. However, cascade of 5 triplers can be used. After this, a frequency conversion stage is needed.

Fig 5.16: Generation of WBFM from NBFM of example 5.8

Block diagram of this generation scheme is shown in Fig. 5.16. As the final frequency deviation required is 10 kHz, the NBFM must have a

5.40

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

( ∆ f )1

=

10 × 103 = 13.71 Hz. After the frequency conversion stage, we have 729

one more stage multiplication by 3. If fc 3 is the carrier frequency at the mixer output, then fc 3 × 3 = 6 MHz ⇒ fc 3 = 2 MHz. Assuming that fLo is greater than incoming carrier frequency of 4.86 MHz, we require fLo = 6.86 MHz so that the difference frequency component is 2 MHz.

Exercise 5.5

In the indirect FM scheme shown in Fig. 5.17, find the values of fc, i and ∆ fi for i = 1, 2 and 3 . What should be the centre frequency, f0 , of the BPF. Assume that fLO > fc,2 .

Fig. 5.17: Scheme for the Exercise 5.5

Exercise 5.6

In the indirect FM scheme shown in Fig. 5.18, find the values of the quantities with a question mark. Assume that only frequency doublers are available. It is required that fLO < fc,2 .

**Fig. 5.18: Scheme for the Exercise 5.6 5.41
**

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Method 2 below gives the details of this scheme. The electronic switch is designed such that it is in position 1 when y ( t ) = V0 and goes to position 2 when y ( t ) = − V0 . Further. V. Let us first examine the case when the input v m ( t ) is a positive constant v 0 . y ( t ) changes from + V0 to − V0 when x ( t ) reaches + E0 and from − V0 to + V0 when x ( t ) reaches − E0 .19(b). We shall explain below two methods of constructing a VCO. The relationship between x ( t ) and y ( t ) is shown in Fig. Then y ( t ) goes to − V0 and the electronic switch assumes position 2. the oscillation frequency varies linearly with the control voltage. the direct generation of FM is quite simple and any such system can be called as a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). The Schmitt trigger
output y ( t ) is + V0 when the integrator output x ( t ) is increasing. 5.
Method 1: Consider the scheme shown in Fig. Method 1 below gives the details of this scheme. The value of t1 can be obtained from
5. Another way of realizing a VCO is to vary the reactive component of a tuned circuit oscillator such as Colpitt’s oscillator or Hartley oscillator.
One can construct a VCO by using an integrator and hysteric comparator (such as Schmitt trigger circuit). In a VCO. let x ( t ) become E0 . we have
x ( t ) = − E0 +
1 ∫v d τ RC 0 0
t
When t = t1 . Consider the situation at t = 0 when y ( t ) has just switched to V0 and the switch going from position 2 to position 1. We can generate the required FM signal from a VCO by using the message signal m ( t ) in the control voltage.Principles of Communication
Prof. 5. At this point. Venkata Rao
b) Direct FM
Conceptually.
x ( t ) has attained the value − E0 . Then.19(a). and − V0 when x ( t ) is decreasing.42
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. for 0 < t ≤ t1 .

1 . Venkata Rao
E0
1 = − E0 + RC 2 RC E0 v0
t1 0
∫ v0 d τ
or
t1 =
Fig. By 4 RC
1 . x ( t ) and y ( t ) are periodic with period v0
−1
⎡ 4 RC E0 ⎤ 4 RC E0 or the fundamental frequency of these waveforms is f0 = ⎢ ⎥ v0 ⎣ v0 ⎦ Note that f0 depends on the input signal v 0 . 5. That is. where 4 RC
5.43
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. we can have f0 = fc =
. If v 0 = E0 then f0 = properly choosing the values of R and C . It is easy to see that ( t 2 − t1 ) =
2 RC E0 .19: Direct FM generation (method 1) The output x ( t ) now keeps decreasing until t = t2 when x ( t ) = − E0 .Principles of Communication
Prof. V.

44
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. we can have
the instantaneous frequency of s ( t ) as fc + kf m ( t ) . which is the desired result.Principles of Communication
Prof. Venkata Rao
fc is the required carrier frequency. Though all junction diodes have inherent junction capacitance. LC0
k ωc .
Method 2: The oscillation frequency f0 of a parallel tuned circuit with inductance
L and capacitance C is given by
f0 =
1 or ω0 = 2 π LC 1 LC
Let C be varied by the modulating signal m ( t ) . In very simple terms. as given by
C ( t ) = C0 − k m ( t )
where k is an appropriate constant. varactor diodes are designed and fabricated such that the value of the junction capacitance is significant (varactors are available with nominal ratings from 0. Then. If the triangular wave x ( t ) is the input to a narrowband BPF tuned to fc . the output s ( t ) is Ac cos ( 2 π fc t ) . where cf =
One of the more recent devices for obtaining electronically variable capacitance is the varactor (also called varicap. Then ωi ( t ) = 1 ⎡ k m (t ) ⎤ LC0 ⎢1 − ⎥ C0 ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ k m (t ) ⎤ 1 ⎢1 + ⎥ 2C0 ⎦ LC0 ⎣ Let ωc = 1 . V. Then. or voltacap).1 to 2000 pF). 2 C0
when
k m (t ) C0
<< 1
ωi ( t ) = ωc + cf m ( t ) . Varactor diodes. when used as voltage-variable capacitors are reverse biased and the capacitance of the junction varies inversely with the applied (reverse) voltage. the varactor is a junction diode.
5. by making
v m ( t ) = v 0 + k m ( t ) where k is a constant such that k m ( t ) < v 0 .

RFC is an RF choke that prevents the RF energy of the oscillator circuit from feeding into the audio transformer. When the message signal m ( t ) is ' ' on. VB reverse biases D such that when m ( t ) = 0 .
Direct FM generation can produce sufficient frequency deviation and requires little frequency multiplication.20. 5. V. However. The frequency of the oscillator output depends on L1 and Ceq where Ceq = C1 || Cd . Ceq is of the correct value to result in output frequency fc .45
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 5. Cd can be taken as. 5.Principles of Communication
Prof. R1 limits the current in the circuit in the event that the peaks of the audio signal voltage exceed the voltage of the DC source and momentarily forward bias the diode D . C2 is a blocking capacitor to isolate the DC level of the varactor from the rest of the modulator circuit. where C0 = C1 + C0
(
)
The other components in Fig. it suffers from the carrier
5.14 have the following functions. Venkata Rao
Fig. with
m ( t ) = 0 . Note that C2 >> Cd or C1 and is essentially a short at the required FM frequencies.
' ' C ( t ) = C1 + C0 − k m ( t ) = C0 − k m ( t ) . Cd = C0 − k m ( t ) where C0 is the value of Cd . Hence C ( t ) of the oscillator circuit is. Cd being the capacitance of the varactor D .20: Direct FM generation (method 2)
Consider the scheme shown in Fig.

46
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. V.) To make the VCO chip functional. Some additional circuitry is required to achieve frequency stability. Donald Tillman describes a new VCO design (called a quadrature trapezoid VCO) especially suited for electronic music applications. Koster.
Voltage controlled oscillators are available in the form of IC chips. 5. Details are available at: http://www. PLLs are discussed in sec. Texas Instruments CD 4046 is an inexpensive VCO chip with a normal operating frequency range upto 1.till. For example XR-2206 of the EXAR Corporation.4. CD 74HC7046 is another PLL chip with VCO. Another chip with an operating frequency range of about 1 MHz is LM 566.html.
5. (Actually CD 4046 is a PLL and VCO is a part of it.com/articles/QuadTrapVCO/discussion.5. what is required is an external capacitor and one or two external resistors.Principles of Communication
Prof. Free running frequency of the VCO is 18 MHz.4 MHz. Venkata Rao
frequency instability as the carrier frequency is not obtained from a highly stable oscillator.01 Hz to 1 MHz. Waldow and Ingo Wolf describe a VCO operating in the frequency range 100 MHz to 4 GHz [1]. USA has an operating frequency range of 0.

is related to the reverse bias as.054 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ . Write the expression for the generated FM signal.86 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (Note that C2 is a short circuit at the frequencies being generated. Let VB = 4 V and
m ( t ) = 0.2 × 10− 12 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3
(
)
(
)
Show that fi ( t ) = 2 × 106 + 705. It is given that C1 = 250 pF and the circuit ⎣ ⎦ resonates at 2 MHz when m ( t ) = 0 .20 for the direct generation of FM. by using the binomial approximation. 5.)
(
)
(
)
c)
Let Ac be the amplitude of oscillations of the VCO. Cd = where v d 100 pF 1 + 2vd is the voltage across the varactor.
5. Cd can be put in the form Cd b) 10− 10 = − 0. The diode capacitance Cd . Venkata Rao
Exercise 5.47
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. V. a) Show that.Principles of Communication
Prof.7
Consider the circuit of Fig.

m ( t ) = 0. 5. Of course. ( fi )max 91.21.14
The varactor diodes
D1 and
D2
are connected back-to-back. Do not use any approximations. L1 = 50 µ H and the capacitance of the varactor diode Cd . 5. as far as the tuned circuit is concerned. This
arrangement helps to mitigate the effect of the RF signal of the tuned circuit (also called tank circuit) driving a single diode into conduction on its peaks which will change the bias voltage (and thereby the frequency that is generated). Calculate the carrier
Let VB = 5
V.4 kHz and ( fi )min 90.8
A simple variation of the circuit of Fig.
(
)
frequency fc . Venkata Rao
Exercise 5. What are the values of ( fi )max and ( fi )min . V.20 is shown in Fig. follows the relation Cd = 50 pF vd
where v d is the voltage across the diode. ( fi )max and ( fi )min from the above scheme.21: A variation of the VCO circuit of Fig. 5. the two diodes are in series. 5. 5.48
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. given that C1 = 50 pF.
Fig.6 kHz.Principles of Communication
Prof. this means the capacitance of the combination is one-half that of a single diode.5cos 2 π × 103 t . Ans: fc 91 kHz. if you use binomial approximation. without any
approximation.

and α and β are constants) over the FM band would yield an output proportional to the instantaneous frequency. ( f > 0 .
1
Band-pass limiters have been analyzed in section 5.49
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.Principles of Communication
Prof. Hence a frequency selective network with a transfer function of the from H ( f ) = α f + β .
Consider the scheme shown in Fig. It is assumed that the time constant of the network is small enough in comparison with the variations in the instantaneous frequency of the FM signal. We shall now indicate three ways of implementing this demodulation scheme. the circuit converts the frequency deviation into a corresponding amplitude change.6. the message signal. (for f > 0 ).7.
5.1 FM-to-AM conversion
The instantaneous frequency of an FM signal is given by fi = fc + kf m ( t ) . which in this case is proportional to m ( t ) . 5.22 where
d represents a banddt
pass differentiator with the magnitude characteristic H ( f ) = α f + β . BPL1 is a Band-Pass Limiter which eliminates amplitude fluctuations from the received FM signal. over the required bandwidth. Venkata Rao
5. V. That is.6 Demodulation of FM
A variety of techniques and circuits have been developed for demodulating FM signals. We shall consider a few of these techniques falling under the following categories: 1) 2) 3) 4) FM-to-AM conversion Phase shift discrimination Zero crossing detection Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
5.

giving rise to an FM signal with constant envelope.28. The envelope of s ' ( t ) = Ac ⎡ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ (we assume that ∆ f = kf mp ≤ fc . cause variations in Ac ).50
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. is given by ⎡ s' ( t ) = − Ac ⎡ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ sin ⎢ωc t + 2 π kf ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ m (α) dα⎥ ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦
t
(5. after the DC-block. 5. the
output of the differentiator. which implies ⎣ ⎦ that the envelope of s' ( t ) does not contain a term proportional to m ( t ) . Then. Band-pass limiter eliminates the amplitude fluctuations.28)
Eq. Let Ac ( t ) denote the envelope of the FM signal.
The need for a BPL is as follows. 5. the envelope of s ' ( t ) would be Ac ( t ) ⎡ ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ . ⎣ ⎦ hence.
d Ac ( t ) on the RHS of Eq.to . signal m ( t ) can ⎣ ⎦ be obtained from s ' ( t ) . 5. ⎡ ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ≥ 0 ).AM conversion
s ( t ) is the constant amplitude FM signal to be demodulated.Principles of Communication
Prof. fading etc. s ' ( t ) . it is essential to maintain the FM envelope at a constant level.28 represents a signal that is both amplitude and frequency modulated. Therefore. there would be an additional term. As Ac ωc represents a DC term. We shall now indicate some schemes to implement this method of demodulation. Even if this term were to be dt
neglected.
5. Assume that the received FM signal (with amplitude fluctuations) is applied directly as the input to the differentiator. V.22: Schematic of an FM demodulator based on FM . Venkata Rao
Fig. (Several factors such as channel noise.

5. The transfer characteristic of a tuned circuit in a small region off resonance is approximately linear. Venkata Rao
Scheme 1: Circuit implementation of the scheme of Fig.51
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 5. we can use the
straight line segment between A and B (for f > 0 . A' to B' ) for demodulation purposes.23. for f < 0 . The parts of the characteristic shown in red have been drawn as straight lines. we have shown the resonance characteristic of a tuned circuit. (This is a good approximation to the actual characteristic.
Fig. 5.22. 2 2 f1 + f2 and 2
5. V. This is shown in Fig. 5.23: Magnitude characteristics of a tuned circuit
In Fig.
Scheme 2 (Slope detection): Another way of implementing the FM-to-AM
conversion scheme is through a simple tuned circuit followed by an envelope detector. can be carried out
by constructing an op-amp differentiator circuit followed by an envelope detector.Principles of Communication
Prof. Let us assume that the FM signal to be demodulated has the carrier frequency fc =
f1 ≤ fc − BT B where as f2 ≥ fc + T .24.) Assuming that
m ( t ) > 0 produces an increase in the instantaneous frequency. we have the corresponding segment.

The primary of the coupled circuit is tuned to fc 1 whereas the secondary is tuned to f0 .24: Segment A to B of Fig. Envelope detection of this output will produce the required message signal.52
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. then. If. where f0 > fc . V.
Fig.25: Tuned circuit demodulator
Consider the demodulator circuit shown in Fig. 5. over the frequency range f ± fc ≤ BT .23
As can be seen from the figure. the detector stage follows the IF stage. fc gets
converted to fIF .Principles of Communication
Prof. As such. we can expect the m ( t ) to resemble m ( t ) fairly closely. changes in the instantaneous frequency will give rise to corresponding changes in the output amplitude. 5.25. the output of the primary is 2
fairly constant. it suffers from the following disadvantages: the resonant circuits on the primary and secondary side are
1
In a superheterodyne receiver.
5. 5. 5. Venkata Rao
Fig. This method of demodulating an FM signal is also known as slope detection.
Though the method is fairly simple.

below fc .Principles of Communication
Prof. 5. the frequency range of linear amplitude response of a tuned circuit is somewhat limited. the difference of the two envelope detected outputs would be proportional to m ( t ) . V.53
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. The scheme. it suffers from the disadvantage that the three tuned circuits are to be maintained at three different frequencies. Venkata Rao
tuned to two different frequencies. The outputs of the tuned circuits on the secondary are envelope detected separately. where 2 B is the width of the 3-dB bandwidth of the individual tuned circuits)
and does not require any DC bock (The two resonant frequencies of the secondary are appropriately selected so that output of the discriminator is zero for f = fc ). the width of linear frequency response is about
3 B . 5.26(a) has three tuned circuits: two on the secondary side of the input transformer and one on the primary.
Scheme 3 (Balanced slope detection): This latter problem is partially overcome
by using a balanced configuration (balanced slope detection). The resonant circuit on the primary is tuned to fc whereas the two resonant circuits on the secondary side are tuned to two different frequencies. making the demodulation of a WBFM unsatisfactory.
Though the balanced configuration has linearity over a wider range (as can be seen from Fig.26(b).
5. shown in Fig. one above fc and the other.

9
Let the FM waveform of Fig. Venkata Rao
Fig. 5.4(b) be the input to a differentiator followed by an envelope detector.Principles of Communication
Prof. Let us find an expression for the output of the differentiator and sketch the output of the envelope detector.54
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. V.26: Balanced slope detection (a) circuit schematic (b) response curve
Example 5.
5. We shall assume that the differentiator will produce the appropriate step change in the output for sudden changes in the input frequency. 5.

V. t3 )
be taken as cos ( 2 π f2 t ) . 5.
d dt
Example 5. Hence.) The output of the ED is proportional to A1 during t1 < t < t2 and proportional to A2 during t2 < t < t3 . followed by ED with a DC block. A2 > 0 .4(a).0 MHz.55
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. with two different frequencies. would act as a demodulator for the FM.
where f2 > f1 .28. this can act as a differentiator. t2 )
be taken as
( t 2 .Principles of Communication
Prof. we have the output of ED as shown in Fig 5. For the values of R and C given. t1 < t < t2 : 2 π f1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) = A1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) t2 < t < t3 : 2 π f2 sin ( 2 π f2 t ) = A2 sin ( 2 π f2 t ) with A2 > A1 and A1 .27: Output of the ED
After DC block.
5.27
Fig. we will show that for frequencies around 1. 5. we obtain the modulating square wave signal.10
a)
Consider the RC network shown in Fig. Then the output of the differentiator is. Taking the constant of proportionality as unity. (Imagine Figure 5. Venkata Rao
Let the FM waveform between the time instants
cos ( 2 π f1 t ) and that between time instants
( t1.

For the above network.56
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. If v out ( t ) is envelope detected. Venkata Rao
Fig. let v in ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡2 π × 106 t + cf mI ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ where kf m ( t ) << 106 Hz.
= 5 × 10− 9 j 2 π f
H (f )
(
)
b) c)
for frequencies around some fc .28: The RC network of Example 5. we can take H ( f ) as 100
j 2 π f RC . 2 π f R C << 1. we can recover m ( t ) from the ED output. V. v out ( t ) is v out ( t ) = 5 × 10− 9 d ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣
5. we will show that. j 2πf RC 1 + j 2πf RC
c)
a)
H (f ) =
RC = 100 × 50 × 10− 12 = 5 × 10− 9 and for frequencies around 1. With s ( t ) as the input.
2 π f RC = 2 π × 106 × 5 × 10− 9 = 10 π × 10− 3 = As
π 100
π << 1.00 MHz.Principles of Communication
Prof. we require. 5. which is a differentiator.10
b)
Let us find the condition on R and C such that this network can act as a differentiator for frequencies around some frequency fc .

⎦ ∆t ⎣
φ ( t − ∆ t ) can be obtained from φ ( t ) with a delay line or a network with
linear phase.6. we have the Foster-Seely discriminator (and its variant the ratio detector) and the
quadrature detector. Venkata Rao
= 5 × 10− 9 Ac sin ⎡2 π × 106 t + cf mI ( t ) ⎤ 2 π × 106 + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎣ ⎦
{
}
Output of the ED = 5 × 10− 9 Ac ⎡2 π × 106 + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ k ⎡ ⎤ = 2 π × 106 × 5 × 10− 9 Ac ⎢1 + f6 m ( t ) ⎥ .
5.
Quadrature Detector (QD): Consider the FM signal
s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ωc t + φ ( t ) ⎤ where ⎣ ⎦
φ ( t ) = 2 π kf
−∞
∫ m (λ ) d λ
t
d φ (t ) = 2 π kf m ( t ) Then φ' ( t ) = dt
1 ⎡ φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ .2 Phase shift discriminator
This method of FM demodulation involves converting frequency variations into phase variations and detecting the phase changes. In other words. Under this category.57
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.Principles of Communication
Prof. Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have
been discussed in appendix A5. V. We shall now explain the operation of the quadrature detector. this method makes use of linear phase networks instead of the linear amplitude characteristic of the circuits used in the previous method. 10 ⎣ ⎦
=
π Ac 100
kf ⎡ ⎤ ⎢1 + 106 m ( t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
5. provided ∆ t is small.2.

namely.29: Block diagram of a quadrature detector With H ( f ) specified as above.
5. the term at the
− ∆ t ) + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) −
π ⎤ + ωc ∆ t ⎥ 2 ⎦
j ⎢ωc t 1 = Ac e ⎣ 2
⎡
+ ϕ( t − ∆ t ) −
π⎤ 2⎥ ⎦
. A (f )
⎧ ⎪− ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩
B π − 2 π ( f − fc ) ∆ t . H ( f ) has the transfer characteristic given by H (f ) = e
j A( f )
where A ( f ) .58
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.29)
Fig. Venkata Rao
Consider the scheme shown in Fig.29. (which will contribute a delay of ∆ t ). 5. let us calculate the output of the network with the input Ac cos ⎡ ωc t + φ ( t ) ⎤ = Ac ⎣ ⎦
+ ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎦
e
j ⎡ωc t + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
+e 2
− j ⎡ωc t + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
.Principles of Communication
Prof. can be well approximated by a linear phase function.
We
can
take
1 j ⎡ω t Ac e ⎣ c 2
to represent the positive part of the spectrum. V. As H ( f ) has the
j 2πf ∆t
linear phase term e − output of the filter is
j ⎢ ωc ( t 1 Ac e ⎣ 2
⎡
. f − fc < T 2 2 BT π − 2 π ( f + fc ) ∆ t . the phase function. 5. f > 0 . f + fc < 2 2
(5. f < 0 .

Principles of Communication
Prof. Venkata Rao
Similarly. y (t ) k1{φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t )}
= k1 ∆ t ϕ' ( t )
= k2 m ( t )
where k1 and k2 are constants with k2 = cf k1 ∆ t .
Fig.29.29
5. 5.
Combining these two terms. the output corresponding to the negative part of the input spectrum
− 1 would be Ac e 2 π⎤ ⎡ j ⎢ωc t + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ . Consider the series RLC circuit shown in Fig. 5. ⎣ ⎦ Assuming ∆ t to be very small. y ( t ) can be approximated as. ⎣ ⎦ 2⎦ ⎣
The
π phase shift provided by H ( f ) at f = ± fc gives rise to the term 2
quadrature detector.30: A network to provide the phase of Eq. Several tuned circuits. V. 5. when properly designed. can provide the bandpass response with the phase characteristic given by Eq. 5. the quantity
π⎤ ⎡ Ac cos ⎢ωc t + ϕ ( t − ∆ t ) − ⎥ = Ac sin ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ .30. Multiplication of this output by Ac cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ followed ⎣ ⎦ by low pass filtering yields the output y ( t ) proportional to sin ⎡ φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ . we have at the
output of the filter.59
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.

Eq. Then.30 reduces to 2 πL 2 π LC
H (f ) =
(f
2 0
− f 2 + j ( f fb )
2 f0
)
Consider f > 0 ⎛ ff ⎞ ⎡ ⎤ arg ⎣H ( f ) ⎦ = − tan− 1 ⎜ 2 b 2 ⎟ ⎜f − f ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ = −
2 ⎛ f 2 − f0 ⎞ π − tan− 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ff ⎟ 2 b ⎝ ⎠
= −
⎡ ( f + f0 ) ( f − f0 ) ⎤ π − tan− 1 ⎢ ⎥ 2 f fb ⎣ ⎦
Let the circuit be operated in a small frequency interval. 5. then.60
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.31)
5. f0 arg ⎡H ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ − π 2Q ( δ f ) − 2 f0 (5. − − where Q =
f0 fb
f0 . f + f0 2 f0 .Principles of Communication
Prof. around f0 so that f Then. V.
(f
+ f0 ) f fb
2 and fb
arg ⎡H ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
2(δ f ) π − tan− 1 2 fb 2 ( δ f )Q π − tan− 1 f0 2
δ f = ( f − f0 )
and
If
2 ( δ f )Q << 1 . Venkata Rao
H (f ) =
V0 ( f ) = Vi ( f ) R + j 2πf L +
=
1 j 2πf C 1 j 2πf C
2
1
j 2 π f RC − ( 2 π f ) LC + 1
(5.30)
Let f0 =
R 1 and fb = .

5. have built high quality FM receivers using QD as the FM demodulator. Some details on these FM receivers can be found in Roddy and Coolen [2].Principles of Communication
Prof.31: Another phase shift circuit for the QD
Here C provides a very high reactance at the carrier frequency and the parallel tuned circuit resonates at f = fc .6.31 is another possibility. 5. When the input to the hard limiter is a sine wave of period T0 . 5. The circuit given in Fig.
Fig.
Quadrature detector is well suited to IC construction.3 Zero-crossing detection
Consider the scheme shown in Fig. we will have arg ⎡H ( − f ) ⎤ = − arg ⎡H ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ By choosing f0 = fc . 5.30) that can provide the required phase shift for the quadrature detector. Companies such as Signetics. with the transitions in the square wave occurring at the zero
5.
5. V.61
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.32(a). we have δ f = ( f − fc ) and ∆ t = Q 1 ⋅ π fc
There are other circuit configurations (other than the one given in Fig. Venkata Rao
As H ( f ) is the frequency response of a network with real impulse response. it produces at its output a square wave of the same period.

where W is the W fc
highest frequency present in the input signal. We shall assume that during the T sec.32(b)). we will have y ( t ) being proportional to m ( t ) . When the input to the hard limiter is an FM signal.62
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. triggers a monostable pulse generator. The number of such pulses in this interval nT
vI (t ) =
1 T
T fi ( t ) with an average value. Then the monostable output. 5.Principles of Communication
Prof. the message signal m ( t ) is essentially constant which implies that instantaneous frequency fi ( t ) is also a near constant (Fig. V. v p ( t ) . the hard limiter output appears as a square wave of varying frequency. looks like a pulse train of nearly constant period.
5. which produces a short pulse of amplitude A and duration τ at each upward (or downward) transition of v H ( t ) . Consider a time interval T such that 1 1 >> T >> . interval. The hard limiter output v H ( t ) . which is the desired result.
t −T
∫
t
v p (λ) d λ
=
1 nT A τ T
A τ fi ( t )
After the DC block. Venkata Rao
crossings of the input sine wave.

63
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. frequency synthesis etc. In the case of demodulation of FM.
The basic aim of a PLL is to lock (or synchronize) the instantaneous angle of a VCO output to the instantaneous angle of a signal that is given as input to the PLL. PLL consists of a phase detector and a VCO connected as shown in Fig. the input signal to PLL is the received FM signal.33(a). 5. timing recovery. recall the squaring loop.6. V.2.32: Zero-crossing detector
5.Principles of Communication
Prof.3).
5.4 FM demodulation using PLL
PLL is a versatile building block of the present day communication systems. Besides FM demodulation.
In its simplest form. Section 4. Venkata Rao
Fig 5. it has a large number of other applications such as carrier tracking (in schemes with a pilot carrier and even suppressed carrier.

shown in Fig. In this figure.64
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. s is the variable of the Laplace transform. the most common PD is that of an analog multiplier followed by a LPF (Fig.)
A number of circuits are available which have been used as phase detectors. if necessary with some fixed phase
difference. G ( s ) is system function in the 5.33(c). (This will become evident later.Principles of Communication
Prof. 5. Venkata Rao
Fig. the instantaneous phase of v ( t ) locks on to
θ x ( t ) . 5. The scheme resembles closely that of a negative feedback amplifier configuration. the instantaneous phase of x ( t ) . and is designed such that θv ( t ) . 5. V.33(b)). In the context of FM demodulation.33: Phase lock loop (a) Basic configuration (b) PD of (a) in functional form (c) PLL as a negative feedback loop PD makes the comparison of the instantaneous phase of x ( t ) and v ( t ) .

x ( t ) = cos ⎡ ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
Let
and
let
the
VCO
output
be. Here after. 5. we want e ( t ) to be zero where ϕ ( t ) = ψ ( t ) . This is not the characteristic of a proper phase detector.Principles of Communication
Prof.32)
(We are assuming that the LPF has unit gain) As the phase detector. from Fig. This anomaly can be corrected. by making the amplifier gain ga sufficiently large. if the loop provides a π 2
phase shift so that the output of the VCO is sin ⎡ ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ . V. we shall assume this VCO output. That is.65
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 5. Let x ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
5. Then. e1 ( t ) is maximum when ϕ ( t ) = ψ ( t ) .32. A properly designed negative feedback system ensures that the error quantity e2 ( t ) is fairly close to zero so that v1 ( t )
x1 ( t ) .33(b). that is ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 cos ⎡ ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 (5. ⎣ ⎦ w ( t ) = x ( t ) v ( t ) = cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ cos ⎡ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = Only the term e1 ( t ) = 1 cos ⎡2 ωc t + ϕ ( t ) + ψ ( t ) ⎤ + cos ⎡ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2
{
}
1 cos ⎡ ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ will appear at the output of the LPF.
v ( t ) = cos ⎡ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ . Similarly. Venkata Rao
forward path whereas H ( s ) is the network in the feedback path. the loop ⎣ ⎦ locks in phase quadrature. but from Eq. This is ensured by providing sufficiently high
loop gain. it is possible to make θv ( t ) follow the changes in θ x ( t ) . π phase shift in the 2
Now let us look at the demodulation of FM.

5. its frequency is fc . which is a known quantity).33(b) is.
5.36)
Using Eq. 5. the
t
control voltage is zero.34a)
where h ( t ) is the impulse response of the LPF.33(c). The VCO is designed such that when y ( t ) . the VCO output can be written as v ( t ) = Av sin ⎡ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ where ψ ( t ) = 2π kv ∫ y ( τ ) d τ and kv is the voltage sensitivity of the VCO. where K1 = 2 π kv e1 ( t ) of Fig. 5. Hence. we can draw following block diagram (Fig. This is called the free running frequency of the VCO. in units of Hz/volt.33a) (5. e1 ( t ) = Ac Av sin ⎡ ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ∗ h ( t ) ⎣ ⎦ 2
t
(5. (As mentioned earlier. Venkata Rao
where ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf
−∞
∫ m ( τ ) d τ .33c)
(5.66
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 5.34) for the PLL. in a superhet.Principles of Communication
Prof.35.35)
Then y ( t ) =
= K 2 sin ⎡θe ( t ) ⎤ ∗ h ( t ) .34b) (5. and Let
y ( t ) = ga e1 ( t ) θe ( t ) = ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) Ac Av ga sin ⎡θe ( t ) ⎤ ∗ h ( t ) ⎣ ⎦ 2 Ac Av ga 2
(5.36 and 5. the demodulator follows the IF stage and fc is actually fIF .33b)
(5. where K 2 = ⎣ ⎦
(5. Or ψ' ( t ) = 2π kv y ( t )
= K1 y ( t ) . V.

67
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. where in the quantities involved are instantaneous phase deviations of the input and the VCO output.34: Equivalent circuit of a PLL
Fig.Principles of Communication
Prof. it is not used in practice because of its limited range of linearity.34 brings out much more clearly the negative feedback nature of the PLL. Then
ϕ' ( t ) . V.
Summary of the Detectors:
Slope detection using a single tuned circuit has been presented to show how simple an FM demodulator could be. refer Taub and Shilling [3]. 5. Venkata Rao
Fig. For a more detailed and rigorous analysis.
we have ϕ' ( t ) = 2 π kf m ( t )
ψ' ( t ) Hence y ( t ) = K1 2 π kf m ( t ) . That is.
The above has been a very elementary analysis of the operation of PLL. θe ( t ) << 1 for all
t
Let the loop be in lock so that
sin θe ( t ) θe ( t ) . As ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf
−∞
∫ m ( τ) d τ . Though balanced slope detection offers linearity over a wider frequency range. Literature on PLL is very widespread. 5. it suffers from the problem of tuning. The Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been the work horses of the FM industry 5. y ( t ) K1
α m (t ) . ψ ( t ) ϕ ( t ) and ψ' ( t )
t .

g. PLL performs better than other demodulators when the signal-tonoise ratio at the input to the detector is somewhat low. if the envelope A ( t ) is not a constant.
5. the received signal may not possess this property. we want A ( t ) = A . Venkata Rao
until recently. BPL helps us to recover the constant envelope FM signal from the one that has envelope fluctuations. A divide by ten counter inserted after the hard limiter extends the range up to 100 MHz. This is due to various impairments during propagation on the channel. etc. It is less useful when the frequency deviation is a small fraction of the carrier frequency.68
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. the amplitude changes of the carrier are irrelevant. As such.
A band-pass limiter consists of a hard limiter followed by a band-pass filter. In fact. from the point of view of proper demodulation. namely. it will give rise to distortion in the demodulated output. the rest of the detector. The input-output relationship of a hard-limiter is given by
5. including the IF amplifier is available in a single chip (e.
Though the FM signal that is generated at the transmitter has a constant envelope. distortion introduced by the channel. In other words.6. as was pointed out in section 5. RCA CA 3089E). channel noise. they are now becoming less and less important as better circuit configurations have been developed especially from the point of view of IC design. The quadrature detector offers very high linearity and is commonly used in high quality receivers.7 BandPass Limiter (BPL)
We know that information in an FM wave resides in the instantaneous frequency (or in the zero-crossings) of the signal. a constant.1 % linearity and can operate from 1Hz to 10 MHz. Except the phase-shifting network.1. This type of detector is best suited when exceptional linearity over a very large frequency deviation is required. V. Commercial zero crossing detectors have better than 0.Principles of Communication
Prof.

Hence.Principles of Communication
Prof. then the output would be a sequence of alternate positive and negative rectangular pulses with durations that are not uniform.35(b). will be a periodic square wave (with period 2 π ) when the input to the limiter is a cosine signal. x ( t ) < 0 ⎩
(5. Venkata Rao
⎧ A .37)
where x ( t ) is the input. However.
Fig. cos θ as a function of θ is always periodic with period 2 π . if
x ( t ) = cos ω t = cos θ .35: (a) Input to the hard limiter (b) Output of the hard limiter Then the output with A taken as 1. Let x ( t ) be as shown in Fig. Hence the hard limiter output. 5. then
5. Such a wave is difficult to analyze. 5. If the input to the hard limiter is the FM signal (with or without envelope fluctuations).35(a). x (t ) > 0 ⎪ y (t ) = ⎨ ⎪− A . when considered as a function of θ . y ( t ) is the output and A is a constant.69
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. V. would be as shown in Fig. 5.

that
θ = θi ( t ) = ωc t + cf
∫ m ( τ ) d τ = ωc t + ϕ(t )
t
Then. namely y ( θ) = 4⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎢cos θ − 3 cos3 θ + 5 cos5 θ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ π⎣ ⎦ (5. 1.2. 5. we can expand it in terms of Fourier
series. See Sec.38. Hence Fourier series consists of only cosine terms with the even harmonics missing.2. With an appropriate BPF. 3. Venkata Rao
⎧ 1. 5.36).70
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. we have y ( θ) = 4 4 cos [ ωc t + ϕ(t )] − cos ⎡3 ( ωc t + ϕ(t ) ) ⎤ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎣ ⎦ 3π π
At the output of BPL. cos θ < 0
Fig.38)
(Note that y ( θ ) is real. 5. V. suppressing the components with spectra centered at the
5.36: Hard limiter output with cos θ as input
y ( θ ) being a periodic signal (Fig. it is possible for us to obtain constant envelope FM signal with carrier frequency fc and deviation ∆ f . We will assume that BPF will pass the required FM signal. from Eq. and has half-wave symmetry. 5 etc.) Let θ be the instantaneous angle of the FM signal. where n = 1.Principles of Communication
Prof. cos θ > 0 y ( θ) = ⎨ ⎩− 1. we have the constant envelope FM waves with carrier frequencies n fc and frequency n ∆ f respectively.

37 can be easily be realized in practice.1 Monophonic FM Reception
FM stations operate in the frequency range 88.37: Circuit realization of a hard limiter
As shown in the figure. 5.Principles of Communication
Prof. as defined by Eq. The receiver for the broadcast FM is of the superheterodyne variety with the intermediate frequency of 10.
Let us now look at the receiver for the single channel (or monophonic) broadcast FM.8 Broadcast FM
5.38) also has the
5. 5. Incidentally.
Fig. Zeners can be chosen to have the appropriate break down voltages. Like the superhet for AM.71
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 5. etc. As the audio bandwidth is 15 kHz. One such circuit is shown in Fig. the circuit consists of a high gain amplifier.9 MHz with stations being separated by 200 kHz. Venkata Rao
harmonics of fc .8. 7. a current limiting resistor R and two zener diodes arranged in a back-to-back
configuration. the transmission bandwidth allocation for each station is about 200 kHz. these stations can broadcast high quality music. 5. that is.37. 5. multiplication factors being 3. V.7 MHz.
5.1 to 107.
A hard limiter. the FM receiver (Fig. BPL can be used as a frequency multiplier.

we have a lot of choices: Foster-Seely. Assume. the net DC voltage is zero and LO frequency will not be changed. (Recall that. which is different from the AM radio.
Fig. PLL etc. mixer stage and IF stage.38: FM broadcast superhet receiver
The need for a band-pass limiter has already been explained.72
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. V. in the case AM. Also. that LO frequency is
' ' not correct. where fIF < fIF .Principles of Communication
Prof.) However. most of the present day receivers might be using frequency synthesizers in place of a LO. operating at the allocated frequencies. As far as the frequency discriminator is concerned. Assume that the receiver is properly tuned so that fLO − fc = fIF . These being fairly stable. Then the input to the S-curve of
5. the envelope detector output is used for AVC. however. AFC is not a requirement. As such. where the envelope detector is the invariable choice. quadrature detector. This is unlike AM. Venkata Rao
front end tuning. ratio detector. This is very important as a change in the frequency of the LO can result in improper demodulation. RF stage. hence the discriminator output will vary symmetrically with respect to zero output.
Basic operation of the AFC block is as follows. Let fLO − fc = fIF . Then the discriminator input will have equal frequency variations with respect to fIF . the output of the discriminator is used in a feedback mode to control the frequency stability of the local oscillator. 5. This will be followed by the limiter-discriminator combination.

39: FM stereo transmission scheme
1
Output of the discriminator goes through a de-emphasis network before being applied to a base-
band amplifier. then the discriminator output is positive most of
the time which implies a net positive DC value. Pre-emphasis at the transmitter and de-emphasis at the receiver are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio performance. This voltage will increase the
' capacitance of the varicap which implies fLO decreases and this makes fIF tend
to fIF . Similarly. V. These are generally called as left microphone and the right microphone. The two. If this voltage is applied to the varicap in the LO circuit.73
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.
5. audio signal is derived as the output of two separate microphones. In other words.39.Principles of Communication
Prof. if ' ' fLO − fc = fIF where fIF > fIF . fLO will increase which implies
' ' fIF will be increased. fIF tends towards fIF .
5. in the two-channel case. Let the corresponding output signals be denoted by mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) .8.channel transmitter is shown in Fig. Discriminator output goes through a base-band amplifier1 (with a bandwidth of 15 kHz). whose output drives the speaker. This means that the discriminator output will have a net negative voltage.
Fig. Venkata Rao
the discriminator will be operating mostly in the negative output region. 5. 5. As the name indicates.2 Two-channel (stereo) FM
Two-channel (stereo) FM is fairly common these days and stereo transmission has been made compatible with mono-aural reception. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis will be discussed in Chapter 7.

5. 5.40. V. 5. y 3 ( t ) and 19 kHz primary carrier. Venkata Rao
As shown in the figure. let us look at the operations performed by the stereo receiver after recovering mB ( t ) from s ( t ) . The final base-band signal mB ( t ) consists of the sum of y1 ( t ) .74
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.38 (that is.40: Spectrum of the final base-band signal The signal mB ( t ) is used to frequency modulate the carrier allotted to the station. the other input to modulator being the carrier with a frequency of 38 kHz. The carrier 38 kHz is derived from the primary source at 19 kHz and a frequency doubler.
The block schematic of the stereo receiver upto the discriminator is the same as shown in Fig. The signals v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) go through a pre-emphasis stage. monophonic case). v1 ( t ) = mL ( t ) + mR ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) = mL ( t ) − mR ( t ) . The signal y 2 ( t ) is applied to a balanced modulator. 5. Hence. Typical spectrum (for f > 0 ) of the base-band signal as shown in Fig. The resulting signal s ( t ) is transmitted on to the channel.Principles of Communication
Prof.
V1 ( f ) = mL ( f ) + mR ( f )
Y3 ( f ) = K ⎡Y2 ( f − f0 ) + Y2 ( f + f0 ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ f0 = 38 kHz and K is a constant Fig. Hence y 3 ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal.

will drive the two speakers. after de-emphasis will yield v1 ( t ) and
v 2 ( t ) . after suitable power amplification.) r1 ( t ) and r2 ( t ) . namely mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) are obtained. (Note that if a pilot carrier of 38 kHz had been sent.75
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.41: Scheme to recover mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) From v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) . If the receiver is not stereophonic.)
Fig.Principles of Communication
Prof. it would respond only to v1 ( t ) thereby making it stereo transmission and monophonic reception compatible. arranged such that one is on the left and the other is on the right. (Note that constants of proportionality are ignored and are taken as 1. it would have been difficult to extract it at the receiver. These signals. The DSB-SC signal is coherently demodulated by generating the 38 kHz carrier from the pilot carrier of 19 kHz.41. 5. Venkata Rao
These operations are indicated in Fig. V.
5. the individual channels signals. 5.

76
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.0435 0.0040 0.0014 -
6 0.0533 0.0033 0.0152 0.3576 0.0025 0.0120
5.1506 .0430 0.0145 0.2196 .0340 0.0660 0.5767 0.3206 0.0012 0.3912 0.1321 0.4861 0.2458 0.0.2423 0.4302 0.2167 0.Principles of Communication
Prof.0002 -
1 0.9385 0.0184 0.0010
10 .0491 0.0212 0.0070 0.3091 0.0256 0.2459 0.0634 0.1 Table of Bessel Functions
Jn (β )
β
n
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
0.0025 0.3648 0.7652 0.3621 0.0.3376 0.0608 0.0.1310 0.0002 -
5 .0465 0.3391 0.1054 0.1320 0.1776 .2546 0.0055 0.0002 -
2 0.0001 -
8 0.0.2341 .2611 0.0565 0.0584 .0.0.1149 0.2346 .1263 0. V.5 0.0009 0.2601 0.0.2429 0.0.1289 0.0.2767 -0.3971 .0005 0.2075 0.1717 0.0096 0.2911 . Venkata Rao
Appendix A5.3528 0.0290 0.0.3179 0.1130 .1858 0.0.2811 0.0196 0.0026 0.0001 -
4 .0005 0.4401 0.0114 0.3276 0.0070 0.1148 0.1296 0.0002 -
3 .0.1231 0.3641 0.0306 0.0020 0.2919 0.2239 0.0.2235 0.

5.2.1 Foster-Seely discriminator
Fig. we may neglect the primary resistance and any impedance coupled from the secondary. the primary current 5. A5.26. When evaluating the primary current. C3 and C4 are essentially short circuits. Note the similarity between this circuit and the circuit of Fig.
Fig. Hence.2 Phase Shift Discriminator (i) (ii) Foster-Seely Discriminator The Ratio Detector
A5.77
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. C . Venkata Rao
Appendix A5. which implies that the entire input voltage Vin would appear across L .2.Principles of Communication
Prof. The mutually coupled double tuned circuit has high primary and secondary Q and low mutual inductance. V. an additional inductance L and only a single tuned circuit on the secondary ( L2 || C2 ) . Major differences are a by-pass capacitor C between the primary and secondary.2.1: Circuit schematic of Foster-Seely discriminator
In the frequency band of operation.1 illustrates the circuit diagram of this discriminator where all the resonant circuits involved are tuned to the same frequency. A5.

3 is given by ωC2 V23 = Is − j XC2 =
(
)
( R2 + j ( X L
Vs − j XC2
2
)
− XC2
)
( )
=
j M Vin XC2 where X 2 = X L2 − XC2 L1 R2 + j X 2
The voltage applied to diode D1 . A5. we have
⎛M ⎞ Vs = − ⎜ ⎟ Vin ⎝ L1 ⎠
Assuming the diode circuit will draw very little current. Venkata Rao
Ip =
Vin j ω L1
(A5.2.78
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.2. we calculate the current in the secondary because of Vs as.2)
where the sign depends on the direction of the winding. Hence. the voltage across the terminals 2.Principles of Communication
Prof. V62 .1 in Eq. Is = R2 + j X L2 − XC2
(
Vs
)
where R2 is the resistance associated with the inductance L2 . is V62 = VL + = Vin + 1 V23 2 1 V 2 23 (A5.3)
5.2. V.2. A5.1)
(Note that all the voltages and currents are phasor quantities)
The voltage induced in series with the secondary as a result of the primary current is given by
Vs = ± j ω M I p
(A5.2.2. X L2 = ω L2 and XC2 = 1 . Taking the negative sign and using Eq.

fc is
actually fIF . When the input frequency f = fc we have V23 = ⎛ M X c2 j M Vin XC2 = j⎜ ⎜ LR L1 R2 ⎝ 1 2 ⎞ ⎟Vin ⎟ ⎠ (A5. Let us 2 2
construct a phasor diagram by taking Vin as reference. Thus 1 1 V23 will lead Vin by 90 and − V23 will lag Vin by 90 .2(a). is V63 = Vin − 1 V23 2 (A5. Venkata Rao
Similarly. A5. irrespective of the incoming carrier frequency.2.79
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. and the discriminator circuit is always tuned to fIF . As the magnitude of the voltage vectors applied to the diodes D1 and D2 .
1
Note that in a superheterodyne receiver. the voltages V64 and V65 are equal and hence the final output V54 is zero.Principles of Communication
Prof. f > fc and f < fc .5a)
That is. V. V54 = V64 − V65 which is proportional to
{V62
i)
− V63 } . the voltage applied to diode D2 .2. This is shown in Fig. We will consider three different cases: f = fc 1.2. the secondary voltage V23 leads the primary voltage by 90 . V62 and V63 respectively are equal. V63 .
5. the demodulator follows the IF stage.4)
The final output voltage V54 is. Hence.

2. Let R2 + j X 2 = Z2 e j θ .Principles of Communication
Prof. This is shown in Fig.2(b). As the magnitude of the vector V62 is greater than that of V63 .
V23 = Vin XC2 M j ( 90 − θ ) j M Vin XC2 e = L1 R2 + j X 2 L1 Z2
ii)
(A5. V23 leads in Vin by less than 90 and − V23 lags in Vin by more than 90 . Then.5b)
That is. Venkata Rao
Fig. V64 > V65 which implies the final output V54 = V64 − V65 is positive.2. V.
5.80
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.2. A5. A5. X 2 = X L2 − XC2 is positive.2: Phasor diagram illustrative of the operation of Foster-Seely discriminator when the input frequency exceeds fc .

Now. Let the input to the discriminator be fi ( t ) = fc . say ∆ f1 . the voltages across R3 and R4 are equal and let this value be 3 V. We can take the voltage decrease on R4 also as 2 V. This implies
5.3: Response curve of the Foster-Seely discriminator
iii)
Similarly.Principles of Communication
Prof. we can easily argue that the final output would be negative when f < fc . V. let fi ( t ) be such that voltage across R3 increases while that across R4 decreases.2(c). which is usually termed as the S-curve of the discriminator.2. In other words. Fig. A5.2.3 gives the plot of the frequency response of the Foster-Seely discriminator. A5. Venkata Rao
Fig. we have the voltage at point 4 equal to 5 volts where as the voltage at point 5 equal to 1 V.81
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. for the given frequency deviation.2. Then. The actual value of the final output depends on how far away the input frequency is from fc . A5.2. based on the phasor diagram of Fig. Let the voltage increase on R3 be 2 Volts.3) normally lies between the 3 dB points of the tuned circuit which forms part of the discriminator circuit. Useful range of the discriminator (frequency range of linear response.
Foster-Seely discriminator responds also to input amplitude variations. shown in red in Fig. A5.

Then
V64 = 5.2. Let V64 denote voltage across R3 and V65 . V65
Let the input signal strength be increased such that.4. it is possible to have a demodulator circuit which has built in capability to handle the amplitude changes of the input FM signal.82
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
.2.
A5. Vout V65
changes from the previous value.
Comparing the ratio detector circuit with that of the Foster-Seely discriminator. Hence. thereby obviating the need for an amplitude limiter. A5. the voltage
across R4 . Though the ratio
V64 remains at 5.Principles of Communication
Prof.
5. Venkata Rao
Vout = ( 5 − 1) = 4 . The resulting circuit is called the ratio detector which has been shown in Fig. the circuit responds not only to frequency changes but also to changes in the incoming carrier strength. Foster-Seely discriminator has to be the preceded by a BPL. V. Then V64 will become 10 Volts whereas V65 becomes 2 V.2 Ratio Detector
By making a few changes in the Foster-Seely discriminator. we find the following differences: direction of D2 is reversed. when fi ( t ) = fc . Now let fi ( t ) change such that we have the deviation ∆ f1 as in the previous case. That is. V64 = V65 = 6 . We shall now briefly explain the operation of the circuit. a parallel RC combination consisting of ( R5 + R6 ) and C5 has been added and the output Vout is taken across a different pair of points. with their difference being equal to 8 V.

A5. any variation in the magnitude of this sum voltage can be considered to be spurious. the voltage V54 represents the sum voltage.2. the sum V62 + V63 remains constant.1 and the corresponding phasor diagrams.
With the diode D2 being reversed. Venkata Rao
Fig. Taking R5 = R6 .A5.Principles of Communication
Prof. we find that by and large.83
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. we find Vout = V64 + V47 = V64 − V74 = V64 −
= V64 −
1 V54 2
V56 + V64 2
=
1 [V64 − V56 ] 2
= k ⎡ V62 − V63 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
5.2. we find that the voltages V64 and V65 are series aiding rather than series opposing and as such. Suppression of these spurious variations would result in a detector that is unaffected by input voltage fluctuations which implies that circuit does not require a separate limiter stage. V. Hence. How the sum voltage is kept constant would be explained a little later.4: Circuit schematic of a ratio detector
Reexamining Fig.

Principles of Communication
Prof.
For a large number of years. C5 charges to the full potential existing between the points 5 and 4. V64 = V56 which implies that Vout is zero. A5.84
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. If Vin is constant. The situation now is that the current in the diodes' load has risen but the voltage across the load has not changed. This nearly counteracts the rise in the input voltage. when Vin increases. Hence at resonance. C3 = C4 and R3 = R4 . C5 will tend to oppose any rise in Vout . the Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been the work horses of the FM industry.4. The gain of the driving amplifier increases thereby counteracting the fall in the input voltage. For example. Some details can be found in Roddy and Coolen [2]. the damping is reduced. V. as indicated earlier is essentially a constant. Thus the ratio detector provides variable damping. of late. which. Similarly. the secondary of the ratio detector transformer is more heavily damped. and the output is negative.2. Venkata Rao
Usually.
5. as V64 > V56 . If Vin tries to increase. Above resonance. extra diode current flows trying to charge C5 . C5 is a capacitor of a rather large value. As these circuit configurations are not very convenient from the point of view of IC fabrication. This is because as the input voltage tries to rise. Companies such as Motorola have built high quality FM receivers using the Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector. But V54 remains constant at first because C5 is a fairly large capacitance and it is not possible for the voltage across it to change instantaneously. Q falls and so does the gain of the amplifier driving the detector.
In the circuit Fig. C5 is of the order of 5 µ F whereas C3 and C4 are of the order 300 pF. their utility has come down. the output is positive whereas below resonance V56 > V64 . This being so.

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ . 3.3 Multi-tone FM
Let m ( t ) = A1 cos ω1 t + A2 cos ω2 t where f1 and f2 are arbitrary. 2. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 3) A set of side frequency components due to f2 : These components have amplitudes J0 ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± n f2 ) .3. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
Cross spectral terms of the type given at (4) above clearly indicate the non-linear nature of FM. Then. 3. 2.
j β sin ω t spe ( t ) = Ac ⎡e 1 ( 1 ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
⎡e j β2 sin( ω2 t ) ⎤ e j ωc t ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
where β1 =
A1 kf A k and β2 = 2 f f1 f2
⎧⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎪ spe ( t ) = Ac ⎨ ⎢ ∑ Jm ( β1 ) e j m ω1 t ⎥ ⎢ ∑ Jn ( β2 ) e j n ω2 t ⎥ ⎬ e j ωc t ⎪⎣ m ⎦⎣n ⎦⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Hence. These terms are not present in linear modulation. s ( t ) = Ac
∑∑ Jm (β1) Jn (β2 ) cos ⎡( ωc + m ω1 + n ω2 ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
m n
(A5. linear modulation generates only those components with m = 1 and n = 1 . 3. V. Venkata Rao
Appendix A5.
5.Principles of Communication
Prof.85
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. 3.1)
The (discrete) spectrum of s ( t ) can be divided into 4 categories: 1) 2) Carrier component: amplitude = J0 ( β1 ) J0 ( β2 ) when f = fc A set of side frequency components due to f1 : These components have amplitudes Jm ( β1 ) J0 ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± m f1 ) . 2. Even with respect to the terms of the type (2) and (3). n = 1. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 4) A set of cross modulation (or beat frequency) terms with amplitudes
Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) at frequencies
( fc
± m f1 ∓ n f2 ) where m = 1.
n = 1. m = 1. 2.

4.2a) 2
0
where PT is the total power of the process and
5. null-to-null bandwidth. N ( f ) . S X . Then. has the properties of a
∫
PDF.86
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
. N ( f ) =
∞ −∞
SX (f ) SX (f ) d f
. The WBFM process.1b)
2
where ( f − f0 ) =
2
∫ (f
− f0 ) S X ( f ) d f
2
∞
0
∫ SX (f ) d f
2
0
∞
=
∫ (f
− f0 ) S X ( f ) d f PT (A5. 2 σf can be used as a measure of the spectral width of the process. can be treated as a band-pass random process.4 RMS Bandwidth of WBFM
We have already used a number of measures for the bandwidths of signals and systems. V.1a) (A5. We shall define the r ms bandwidth of a band-pass process as Brms = 2 ⎛ ( f − f0 ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ or
2 Brms = 4 ( f − f0 )
∞
1 2 ⎞2
(A5. noise equivalent bandwidth. Venkata Rao
Appendix A5.Principles of Communication
Prof.4. The basic idea behind the r ms bandwidth is as follows.4. with fc >> ∆ f . another meaningful and useful bandwidth quantity is the r ms bandwidth. Let σf denote the standard deviation of S X . etc. Let S X ( f ) denote the power spectral density of a random process X ( t ) . the normalized PSD. In the context of WBFM. such as 3-dB bandwidth. Then.

pM ⎜ ⎟ is the positive part of the spectrum.4.Principles of Communication
Prof. as such. Let pM ( m ) denote the PDF of the process. 2
⎛ f − fc ⎞ In Eq.3)
Using quasi-static approximation.) For the WBFM process.4. we have fi = fc + kf m where m is a specific value of m ( t ) for some t .)
5. FM wave appears to be a regular sinusoid
2 Ac and fi can be replaced by f . instead of the earlier symbol f (
) . We will now ⎝ kf ⎠
show that
( Brms )WBFM
= 2 kf ⎡RM ( 0 ) ⎤ 2 where RM ( 0 ) = M 2 ( t ) .4. (Note that RM ( τ ) is the ACF of the process. it has been shown by Peebles [4] that. A5.2b)
Let M ( t ) be a strict sense stationary message process with m ( t ) as a sample function. V.4. the mean ⎣ ⎦
1
square value of the process. (Note that we are using the symbol p (
)
to denote the PDF.4. Then m =
( fi
− fc ) kf
(A5. this
has been done to avoid confusion.) For the FM case. f denotes only the frequency variable. it is assumed that fi ( t ) remains constant for a sufficiently long period. ⎛ f + fc ⎞ ⎤ PT ⎡ ⎛ f − fc ⎞ ⎡S X ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦WBFM = 2 k ⎢ pM ⎜ k ⎟ + pM ⎜ k ⎟ ⎥ f ⎣ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎝ f ⎠⎦ (A5.87
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.4)
(Note that in quasi-static approximation. Venkata Rao
f0 =
2 PT
∞
0
∫ f SX (f ) d f
(A5. In this derivation. PT = ST = .

2(a). It is given that
⎧1 ⎪ .4. A5. A WBFM signal is generated using m ( t ) as the message signal.Principles of Communication
Prof. we have
∞
0
(
Let
2 Brms
)
WBFM
8 = PT
∫ (f
− fc ) ⋅
2
⎛ f − fc ⎞ PT pM ⎜ ⎟ df .
( Brms )WBFM = 2 kf
Example A5. S X ( f ) is symmetrical with respect to f = fc (we assume that the input PDF is symmetric about zero) and hence f0 = fc . Venkata Rao
For f > 0 . V. Then. Using Eq.4. we have f = fc . What is the value of Brms ? As pM ( m ) is uniform.5)
Let m ( t ) be a sample function of a strict sense stationary process M ( t ) . When m = 0 . kf
(
2 Brms
)
∞
WBFM
= 4
−
2 ∫ ( λ kf ) pM ( λ ) d λ fc kf
∞
4
kf2
−∞
∫
λ 2 pM ( λ ) d λ = 4 kf2 M 2 ( t )
= 4 kf2 RM ( 0 ) That is.88
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. m < 1 pM ( m ) = ⎨ 2 ⎪0 . otherwise ⎩ a) b) Find ⎡S X ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦WBFM .
5.4. we expect the PSD of the resulting WBFM also to be uniform over the appropriate frequency range. 2 kf ⎝ kf ⎠
f − fc = λ .1
RM ( 0 )
(A5.4 in A5.4.

In other words. A5. That is. we require that the RHS of Eq.Principles of Communication
Prof.4. the frequency range over which SM ( f ) exists is
⎛ f − fc ⎞ ⎛ f + fc ⎞ fc − kf < f < fc + kf . V. f − kf < f < fc + kf ⎪ = ⎨ 8 kf c ⎪ ⎩ 0 . Venkata Rao
whereas m = ± 1 results in the instantaneous frequency to be fc ± kf respectively.1: Shape of the PSD of Example A5. 2
∫
⎤ A2 α df⎥ = c 2 ⎥ ⎦
2 2 Ac Ac ⋅ α ( 2 kf ) = 2 kf 2
That is. if m ( t ) is the sample function of a Guassian process.1.89
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.4.1 To find the value of α . when integrated over the entire range should be equal to ⎡ A2 2⎢ c ⎢ 4 kf ⎣ or
fc + kf fc − kf
2 Ac .4. ⎝ kf ⎠ ⎝ kf ⎠
Fig. otherwise
⎡ ⎤ Hence. A5. Let pM ⎜ ⎟ + pM ⎜ ⎟ be as shown in Fig. α =
1 2
2 ⎧ Ac . ⎣S X ( f ) ⎦ WBFM
In a few situations Brms might be quite meaningful.4. there is a small but finite
(
)
5. A5. For example.4.

For example if m ( t ) belongs
to a Guassian process and say pM ( m ) is N ( 0.4.4.
∞
⎡B ⎣ rms
(
)M ⎤ ⎦
2
=
−∞
∫
f 2 SM ( f ) d f RM ( 0 )
(A5.90
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.7)
5. 9 ) .1
We define the RMS bandwidth of any lowpass process M ( t ) as.Principles of Communication
Prof.4.6)
Let B rms
(
)PM
denote the RMS bandwidth of the PM signal. then
( Brms )WBFM
(Note that
= 2 × 3 × kf = 6 kf 9 = 3)
RM ( 0 ) =
Exercise A5. As Brms weights the large frequency derivations with small probabilities. Brms
(
)
(
)
will not be unduly excessive. Venkata Rao
probability that m ( t ) will assume very large values. V. Show that = 2 kp RM ( 0 ) ⎡ B rms ⎣
( B rms )PM
(
)M ⎤ ⎦
(A5. This implies that ∆ f becomes excessive and as such BT given by Carson’s rule or its variants would be extremely high.

we have real time reception almost at any point on this globe. Maybe. V. With a suitable carrier component. based on the NTSC standard used in North America and Japan. VSB becomes the automatic choice. We shall now take a closer look at the modulation techniques used in (commercial) TV. because of the high power levels at the transmitter.2 MHz. Venkata Rao
Appendix A5. (Note that color transmission can be viewed on a monochrome receiver.91
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. m v ( t ) .) As such. Our purpose here is to illustrate how various modulation techniques have been used in a practical scheme. The bandwidth allocated to each TV station by the
regulatory body is about 6 MHz. Distances are no longer a barrier. blackand-white transmission can be viewed on a color receiver. not too far into the future.5 Modulation Techniques in TV
Color television is an engineering marvel.
As the TV transmission and reception started with monochrome (black and white) signals we shall begin our discussion with this scheme. we may be able to watch any program of our choice in the language we prefer to listen either in real time or near real time.)
The bandwidth of a monochrome video signal is about 4. (Filtering method is ruled out because of appreciable low frequency content in Mv ( f ) and because of the fairly wide bandwidth. we have access to so much information and entertainment in such a fine detail (audio as well as video with all its hues and colors) that the angels could envy the humans on this count. Similarly. we have seen that VSB can be envelope detected. it is only partially VSB.Principles of Communication
Prof. it is difficult to design a filter with an exact vestigial sideband. Let
m v ( t ) denote this signal. At the flick of a button on a remote. designing the HT with required specifications in extremely difficult. Hence PAL and SECAM systems have not been discussed. Actually at the transmitter. It is at
5. It is very difficult to generate the SSB of the video signal. Hence the use of DSB is ruled out.

A5. V. A5.2: Audio and video spectrum of a monochrome TV signal
5.
Fig.1: Modulation stages in a monochrome TV transmitter
Fig.2.Principles of Communication
Prof.5. Venkata Rao
the IF stage of the receiver that perfect VSB shaping is achieved. Details of the magnitude spectrum of the transmitted signal is given in Fig.5.
Fig. A5. A5.5.5. subsequently it is demodulated.1 shows the block diagram of the modulation scheme of a monochrome TV transmitter.92
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.

Fig. The maximum frequency deviation is 25 kHz.
5.5.5 MHz.5. v1 ( t ) . That part of LSB spectrum between ( fcv − 0. LSB is gradually attenuated reaching
almost zero level at ( fcv − 1. Venkata Rao
In this figure. band-limited to 10 kHz frequency modulates the audio carrier.93
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. A5. A5.75 ) to fcv is transmitted without any attenuation. Below the frequency
( fcv − 0. The characteristic of the VSB shaping filter is shown in Fig. is applied to an IF amplifier and VSB shaping network.2 MHz. it is termed as partial VSB. V.25 MHz ) . Hence.
TV receiver is of the superheterodyne variety.75 )
MHz.
The audio signal. fcv is the video carrier and fca is the carrier for audio.3.Principles of Communication
Prof. A part of the reciever structure is shown in Fig.5. (The video carrier fcv is 1.25 MHz above the lower frequency limit allotted to the station)
The USB of the video occupies the full bandwidth of 4. the audio bandwidth can be taken as 2 ( ∆ f + W ) = 2 ( 25 + 10 ) = 70 kHz. The IF amplifier has a pass-band of 41 to 47 MHz. A5.3: (Partial) Block diagram of monochrome TV receiver The mixer output.4. As this is not exactly a VSB characteristic. which is higher than fcv by 4.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. A5.5.4: VSB shaping in TV receiver

The frequency modulated audio signal is also passed by the IF stage but with much less gain than the video part. That is, v 2 ( t ) consists of the video signal of the (VSB+C) type and the FM audio signal, with a carrier at 4.5 MHz and with Aca << Acv where Aca is the audio carrier amplitude and Acv is the amplitude of the video carrier. Under these conditions, it can be shown that v 3 ( t ) , the output of the envelope detector, has the video as well as required audio. The video amplifier removes the audio from v 3 ( t ) . The output of the video amplifier is processed further and is displayed on the picture tube. v 3 ( t ) is also applied as input to an IF stage, with the IF of 4.5 MHz. The audio part of the v 3 ( t ) is passed by this IF stage; the FM demodulator that follows produces the audio signal.

Color TV: The three primary colors, whose linear combination can give rise to

other colors are: Red, Blue and Green. These color signals, pertaining to the scene that is being shot, are available at the outputs of three color cameras. Let us denote these signals as mR ( t ) , mG ( t ) and mB ( t ) respectively. These basic color components are linearly combined to produce (i) the video signal of the monochrome variety (this is called the luminance signal and is denoted by

mL ( t ) )) and (ii) two other independent color signals (called the in-phase

**component of the color signal and the quadrature component of the color signal). 5.94
**

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Let us denote these components as mI ( t ) and mQ ( t ) respectively. The equations of the linear transformation are given below in the form of a matrix equation.

⎡ mL ( t ) ⎤ 0.59 0.11 ⎤ ⎡ 0.3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.6 − 0.28 − 0.32⎥ ⎢ mI ( t ) ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0.21 − 0.52 0.31 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ mQ ( t ) ⎦

M

⎡mR ( t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ mG ( t ) ⎥ ⎢ mB ( t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(A5.5.1)

From Eq. A5.5.1, we obtain

mL ( t ) = 0.3 mR ( t ) + 0.59 mG ( t ) + 0.11mB ( t )

(A5.5.2)

It has been found that mL ( t ) as given by Eq. A5.5.2 closely resembles mv ( t ) of the monochrome system. mL ( t ) has the same bandwidth as mv ( t ) namely, 4.2 MHz. This is required to preserve the sharp transitions in the intensity of light at the edges in a scene. However, the eye is not as sensitive to color transitions in a scene and is possible to reduce the bandwidth occupancy of mI ( t ) and mQ ( t ) . In the NTSC system, bandwidth allocation for mI ( t ) is 1.5 MHz and that of

mQ ( t ) is 0.5 MHz. These chrominance signals are quadrature multiplexed

(QAM) on the color subcarrier as shown in Fig. A5.5.5.

Fig. A5.5.5: Generation of composite baseband video

5.95

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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The composite video signal mbv ( t ) is modulated on to the carrier fcv . This implies that color subcarrier, fcc , is 3.58 MHz above fcv and fca is 4.5 MHz above fcv . As such, the color information gets interleaved in between the spectral lines of the luminance signal and no additional bandwidth is required for the color TV system. In order to facilitate coherent demodulation of the QAM signal, a few cycles of the color subcarrier (called color burst) is sent along with the transmitted signal. This reference carrier is tracked by a PLL in the receiver. The VCO output of the PLL is used in the demodulation of the chrominance signal. For more details on TV transmission and reception, refer to Carlson, Crilly and Rutledge [5] or Leon Couch [6].

TV modulator circuit is available in an IC chip. For example, Motorola MC 1374 includes an FM audio modulator, sound carrier oscillator, RF dual input modulator. It is designed to generate a TV signal from audio and video inputs. It is also suited for applications such as video tape recorders, video disc players, TV games etc. The FM system can also be used in the base station of a cordless telephone. Circuit details and other parameters can be obtained from the manual.

Exercise A5.5.1

Indirect method can used to generate the FM signal for the audio in TV. Required carrier is 4.5 MHz and ∆ f = 25 kHz. Using fc1 = 200 kHz and ∆ f1 < 20 Hz, design the modulator such that frequency at any point in the modulator does not exceed 100 MHz. Use the shortest possible chain of frequency doublers and triplers.

5.96

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). PHI. (4th ed.rfdesign.Principles of Communication
Prof. PP58-66 (website: http://www.. Schilling. Electronic communications. Couch II. Communication systems (4th ed.. April 2001. Digital and Analog Communication systems (6th ed. Rutledge.). V.). Addison-Wesley.com) 2) Dennis Roddy and John Coolen. source-coupled J-FET VCO. McGraw Hill International ed. A unique low voltage. McGraw Hill International ed.).97
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. Crilly and Janet C. Bruce Carlson. 1986 4) 5) Peebles P.. 2001
5. 2002 6) Leon W. Peter Waldow and Ingo Wolff. 1995 3) Herbert Taub and Donald L. 1976 A. RF signal processing. Venkata Rao
References
1) Bettina Koster. (2nd ed. Paul B. Principles of communication systems. Pearson Education-Asia. Communication system principles. Z.