What is GPS? 
GPS or Global Positioning Systems is a highly

sophisticated navigation system developed by the United States Department of Defense. This system utilizes satellite technology with receivers and high accuracy clocks to determine the position of an object.

The Global Positioning System 

constellation of 24 highaltitude satellites

Longitude and Altitude) Information.  A complete system of 21 satellites and 3 spares. transmitting precise time and position (Latitude. which orbit the earth twice a day. .GPS is  A constellation of satellites.

Tracking 4. Location 3.Where is everything else? . Mapping 5.Monitoring something as it moves . Navigation . Timing .GPS at Work 1.When will it happen? .Where am I? .Where do I want to go? 2.


Why do we need GPS?  Safe Travel  Traffic Control  Resource Management  Defense Mapping  Utility Management  Property Location  Construction Layout .

4 µbirds¶ (as we say) for 3-D fix .

Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Applications in Power Systems .

Analyses of blackouts have led many companies to place GPS-based time synchronization devices in power plants and substations . Repeated power blackouts have demonstrated to power companies the need for improved time synchronization throughout the power grid.Power companies and utilities have fundamental requirements for time and frequency to enable efficient power transmission and distribution.

021° for a 60 Hz system and 0. A 1-microsecond error translates into 0.Why GPS For power Eng It furnishes a common-access timing pulse which is accurate to within 1 microsecond at any location on earth.018 ° for a 50 Hz system and is certainly more accurate than any other application .

GPS time synchronization By synchronizing the sampling processes for different signals which may be hundreds of kilometers apart it is possible to put their phasors in the same phasor diagram .

GPS time synchronization V1 V Substation 1 V1 V2 V2 V Substation 2 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 GPS time synchronized pulses FFT or any other technique gives: ‡Magnitude ‡Phase angle With respect to GPS .

Absolute Time Reference Across the Power System .

their potential use in power system applications has not yet been fully realized by many of power system engineers. .Phasor Measurement Units PMUs Synchronized phasor measurements (SPM) have become a practical proposition. As such.

Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) [or SYNCHROPHASORS] .


.Phasor Measurement Units PMUs Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) They are devices which use synchronization signals from the global positioning system (GPS) satellites and provide the phasor voltages and currents measured at a given substation.

T. PMU output Corresponding Voltage or Current phasors .Phasor Measurement Units PMUs input Secondary sides of the 3 P.T. or C.

Phasor Monitoring Unit (PMU) Hardware Block Diagram: .

Sampling at Fixed Time Intervals Using an Absolute Time Reference v LPF A/D Synchronized Phasor hs Time Synch GPS Clock .

and second. The time could be the local time. or the UTC (Universal Time Coordinated). The analog signals are derived from the voltage and current transformer secondary's. day. The l-pps signal is usually divided by a phase-locked oscillator into the required number of pulses per second for sampling of the analog signals. hour.The GPS receiver provides the 1 pulse-per-second (pps) signal. minute. . which consists of the year. this is 12 times per cycle of the fundamental frequency. and a time tag. In most systems being used at present.

1960- .The Birth of the PMUs  Computer Relaying developments in 1960-70s.

 Now SELSEL-421 RES 521 .

Phasor Measurement Unit¶s .

Phasor Measurement Units PMUs central data collection .

 Data Concentrator (Central Data Collection) .

Different applications of PMUs in power system .

State estimation 4.Applications of PMU in power 1. Instability prediction 3. Fault recording 6. Improved control 5. Adaptive relaying System 2. Transmission and generation modeling verification 8.Fault location . Wide area Protection 9. Disturbance recording 7.

Applications of PMU in power System 1-Adaptive relaying Adaptive relaying is a protection philosophy which permits and seeks to make adjustments in various protection functions in order to make them more tuned to prevailing power system conditions .

Applications of PMU in power System 2-Instability prediction ‡ The instability prediction can be used to adapt load shedding and/or out of step relays. . thanks to the technique of synchronized phasor measurements. ‡ We can actually monitor the progress of the transient in real time.

a state vector that can follow the system dynamics can be constructed. ‡ For the first time in history. and. calculates the power system state.Applications of PMU in power System 3-State estimation ‡ The state estimator uses various measurements received from different substations. ‡ By maintaining a continuous stream of phasor data from the substations to the control center. through an iterative nonlinear estimation procedure. synchronized phasor measurements have made possible the direct observation of system oscillations following system disturbances .

‡ The PMU was necessary to capture data during the staged testing and accurately display this data and provide comparisons to the system model.Applications of PMU in power System 4-Improved control ‡ Power system control elements use local feedback to achieve the control objective. ‡ The shown figure shows a typical example of one of the output plots from the PMU data .

Applications of PMU in power System 5-Fault Recording ‡ They can capture and display actual 60/50 Hz wave form and magnitude data on individual channels during power system fault conditions. .

Applications of PMU in power System 6-Disturbance Recording ‡ Loss of generation. loss of load. or loss of major transmission lines may lead to a power system disturbance. possibly affecting customers and power system operations. .

Applications of PMU in power System Disturbance Recording These figures are examples of long-term data used to analyze the effects of power system disturbances on critical transmission system buses. .

‡ In years past.Applications of PMU in power System 7-Transmission and Generation Modeling Verification ‡ Computerized power system modeling and studies are now the normal and accepted ways of ensuring that power system parameters have been reviewed before large capital expenditures on major system changes. actual verification of computer models via field tests would have been either impractical or even impossible ‡ The PMU class of monitoring equipment can now provide the field verification required .

Applications of PMU in power System 7-Transmission and Generation Modeling Verification ‡ The shown figure compares a remote substation 500 kV bus voltage captured by the PMU to the stability program results .

Applications of PMU in power System

8-Wide ± Area protection
The introduction of the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) has greatly improved the observability of the power system dynamics. Based on PMUs, different kinds of wide area protection, emergency control and optimization systems can be designed

Applications of PMU in power System

9-Fault Location
A fault location algorithm based on synchronized sampling. A time domain model of a transmission line is used as a basis for the algorithm development. Samples of voltages and currents at the ends of a transmission line are taken simultaneously (synchronized) and used to calculate fault location.

Applications of PMU in power System

Fault Location

The Phasor measurement units are installed at both ends of the transmission line. The three phase voltages and three phase currents are measured by PMUs located at both ends of line simultaneously

PMU A Synchroniz ed phasor

Modal Transform of synchronized samples

PMU B Synchroniz ed phasor

SPM-based applications in power systems  off-line studies  real-time monitoring and visualization  real-time control. protection and emergency control 42 .

SOME RESEARCH PROGECTS (I participated in) .

Mohamed M. Dr.Marwa M. Said Fouad Mekhemer . Abo El-Nasr Supervised by Prof. Mansour Dr.Global Positioning System (GPS)Based Synchronized Phasor Measurement By Eng .

CONCLUSIONS The conclusions extracted form the present work can be summarized as follows: 1. A technique for estimating the fault location based on synchronized data for an interconnected network is developed and implemented using a modal transform 2. One-bus deployment strategy is more useful than tree search for fault location detection as it gives more system observability .

Conclusions 3. . while the average value of the 3 modes is used for line-to-line-ground and line-to-ground faults 4.The average value of mode 1 and 2 of Karrenbauer transformation is used for 3-phase and line-to-line faults.The results obtained from applying the developed technique applied to a system depicted from the Egyptian network show acceptable accuracy in detecting the fault and locations of different faults types.


Essence: This thesis is to address three issues: 1. 3- . 2Large scale power system state estimation utilizing the optimal allocation of PMUs based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS).Optimal allocation of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) using Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO) technique. Power system voltage stability monitoring based on the allocated PMUs readings.

M.WIDE AREA PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR MAXIMIZING POWER SYSTEM STABILITY Fahd Mohamed Adly Hashiesh Prof. Hossam Eldin M. Mansour Dr. M. Abdel-Rahman A. Atia Dr. Dr. Khatib Cairo Egypt 2006 49 Prepared By Under Supervision of .

and fast broadband communication through wide area measurement. through employing adaptive protection relays. 50 . Configure and adapt the proposed system to be applied on Egypt wide power system network.Research Objective Propose a protection system (strategy) to counteract wide area disturbance (instability).

.A Master Student is Trying to Implement a PMU Lab Prototype in Ain-Shams Univ.

 the toughest challenge today is to pass from Wide Area Measurements Systems (WAMS) to Wide Area Control Systems (WACS) and WAP. Egypt !. Europe. and to a less extent the real-time control.CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS  thanks to their multiple advantages.  up to now most applications based on synchronized phasor measurements have concerned mainly off-line studies. on-line monitoring and visualization. China..). Protection.. nowadays. and the emergency control. 52 . the technologies based on synchronized phasor measurements have proliferated in many countries worldwide (USA. Brazil. Canada.


Off-line SPM-based applications  software simulation validation SPM-based technologies can be very useful to help the validation of (dynamic) simulation software  system parameter/model identification (e. the use of SPM allows more flexibility and effectiveness. etc.  synchronized disturbances record and replay this task is like that of a digital fault recorder. for loads. 54 .) the identification of accurate model/parameter is a very important and tough task for the power system analysis and control. lines. generators.g. which can memorize triggered disturbances and replay the recorded data if required. difficulty: large number of power system components having timevarying characteristics.

 generators operation status monitoring this function allows the drawing of generator (P-Q) capability curve. real-time frequency and its rate of change.  on-line "hybrid" state estimation the SPM can be considered. in an on-line "hybrid" state estimation. can be supervised. dynamic voltage magnitude evolution. 55 . which may lead to significant frequency variation in time and space. dynamic phase angle separation.Real-time monitoring SPM-based applications  fault location monitoring accurate fault location allows the time reduction of maintenance of the transmission lines under fault and help evaluating protection performance.  power system frequency and its rate of change monitoring the accurate dynamic wide-area measured frequency is highly desirable especially in the context of disturbances. Thus.  transmission line temperature monitoring the thermal limit of a line is generally set in very conservative criteria.  SPM-based visualization tools used in control centers display: dynamic power flow. the generator MVAr reserve. which ignores the actual cooling possibilities. in addition to those from the Remote Terminal Units (RTU) of the traditional SCADA system. The use of SPM allows the higher loading of a line at very low risk. etc.

the solution of this optimization problem can be used to update settings of those reactive power controllers. 56 . in particular. are designed to act against predefined contingencies identified in off-line studies while being less effective against unforeseen disturbances.  transient angle instability since such instability form develops very quickly. every few seconds.  damping of low frequency inter-area oscillations (small-signal angle instability) low frequency inter-area oscillations (in the range of 0. nowadays. controllable ratio transformers and shunt elements while keeping all bus voltage within limits. in the context of WAMS application. Special Protection Systems (SPS).2 1 Hz) are a serious concern in power systems with increasing their size and loadability. also known as Remedial Action Schemes (RAS). In Europe. many research studies have been performed to reveal such oscillations as well as provide best remedial actions to damp them out.Real-time (emergency) control SPM-based applications  automatic (secondary and tertiary) voltage control aim: optimize the var distribution among generators.

or long-term voltage instability a responde-based (feedback) Wide-Area stability and voltage Control System (WACS) is presently in use by BPA.Real-time (emergency) control SPM-based applications (cont¶d)  short. this control system uses powerful discontinuous actions (switching on/off of shunt elements) for power system stabilization. 57 .  frequency instability the underfrequency load shedding has its thresholds set for worst events and may lead to excessive load shedding. new predictive SPM-based approaches are proposed aiming to avoid the drawbacks of the conventional protection.

it gives almost better locations and sometimes less number of PMUs for large power systems. However for large power systems. DPSO gives either equivalent or better results. DPSO determines the optimal PMUs' allocation for complete observability of the large system depicted from the Egyptian unified electrical power network.Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Technique: A new modified DPSO technique is developed to determine the optimal number and locations for PMUs in power system network for different depths of unobservability. It gives the optimal PMUs' allocation for different depths of unobservability comparable to other techniques The developed DPSO is tested on both 14-bus and 57-bus IEEE standard systems. For small power systems.Conclusions: A. .

It is also applied to a large system depicted from the Egyptian unified electrical power network.Conclusions (continued): B. . PMUs' outputs affect the state estimation analysis in a precious way. The hybrid state estimation technique is tested on both 14-bus and 57-bus IEEE standard systems. It improves the response and the output of the traditional state estimation. The effect of changing the locations and numbers of PMUs through the buses of the power network on the system state estimation is also studied with a new methodology.Hybrid State Estimation Technique: The phasors readings of PMUs are taken into consideration in a new hybrid state estimation analysis to achieve a higher degree of accuracy of the solution.

the estimation analysis begins to magnify the measurements error of the other devices. The system parameters. For each system there is a certain number of PMUs with certain connections that reduces the estimation error significantly. .Conclusions (continued): The locations of PMUs according to state estimation improvement do not need to be similar to those locations according to observability depth. As the number of PMUs' increases over the optimal solution. system layout and power flow affect the PMUs' positioning for optimal state estimation.

The time taken by the alarming predictor is small.Conclusions (continued): C. The voltage instability alarming predictor concept is tested on both 14-bus IEEE standard system. one for voltage limit violation (10% voltage decrease) and the other for voltage collapse prediction according to the maximum permissible angle difference between bus voltages for certain bus loading angle. . The predictor gives two types of alarms.On-line Voltage Instability Alarming Predictor: The readings of the allocated PMUs are to be utilized using a newly developed technique for on-line voltage instability alarming predictor. and is determined by the speed of PMUs and the used computational system. It gives effective results. The alarming predictor is applied to the large system depicted from the Egyptian unified electrical power network. with the aid of the voltage instability limits calculation of the system.

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