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Derived from two terms: * LOGUS – science or study * SOCIUS – group or patterns “Sociology is the scientific study of human society and social interactions.”

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Hence, sociology deals with the study of groups. From this, patterns of behavior evolve. Relationships are developed and group life is achieved. It is clear that the primary focus of sociology is not on individuals and individual behavior but on social behavior.

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1. To understand – sociology is the “study of society” 2. Encourages critical thinking – Famous Peter Berger quote: “It can be said that the first wisdom of sociology is this – things are not what they seem” 3. Knowledge of social forces gives us power over those forces 4. Ultimately, make the world a better place?
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Sociology and Science
• Science is “...a body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws.” • As a science, sociology employs the scientific method.
The Scientific Method Analyze Data

Gather Data

Choose research design

Formulate hypotheses

Review of literature
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• Being a science, sociology uses methods and techniques of inquiry and investigations which are scientific. • Scientists study certain people or events to find patterns. Natural scientists study the natural world. • In the study of sociology, one looks at the ways in which groups are formed, and the results of group conduct.

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AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY (Hauser) 1. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION - covers the study of various social institutions, social groups, social stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy, ethnic groups and other similar activities. - Topics like the family, education, politics, religion, economy, etc. are studied in this area.
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2. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - deals with the study of human nature as an outcome of group life, social attitudes, collective behavior, and personality formation. - deals with group life and the individual’s traits, attitudes, beliefs, etc. as influenced by group life.

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AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY (Hauser) 3. SOCIAL CHANGE AND SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION - deals with the study of change in culture and social relations and the disruption that may occur in society. - deals with the study of such current social problems in society as juvenile delinquency, criminality, drug addiction, family conflicts, divorce, population problems and other similar subjects.
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AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY (Hauser) 4. HUMAN ECOLOGY - studies the nature and behavior of a given population and its relationships to the group’s present social institutions. - for instance, studies of this kind have shown the prevalence of mental illness, criminality, delinquencies, prostitution, and drug addiction in urban centers and other highly developed places.

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AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY (Hauser) 5. POPULATION OR DEMOGRAPHY - concerned with the study of population number, composition, change, and quality as they influence the economic, political and social system.

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AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY (Hauser) 6. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY AND METHOD - concerned with the applicability and usefulness of the principles and theories of group life as bases for the regulation of man’s social environment. This includes theory building and testing as bases for the prediction and control of man’s social environment.

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AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY (Hauser) 7. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY - utilizes the findings of pure sociological research in various fields such as criminology, social work, community development, education, industrial relations, marriage, ethnic relations, family counseling, and other aspects and problems of daily life.

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Taken from two Greek words: * LOGOS / LOGIA – study or to study * ANTHROPOS – which means “man” “Anthropology defines itself as a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings.”
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Anthropologists seek answers to an enormous variety of questions about humans. They are interested in discovering when, where, and why humans appeared on earth, how and why they have changed since then, and how and why modern populations vary in certain physical features.

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MAN, THE MAIN CONCERN IN ANTHROPOLOGY •Man is the main focus and unit of investigation and analysis in this field. • Man is studied and analyzed regardless of the color of his skin, the nature of his commitment to ideology, or the level of his technological advancement.

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MAN, THE MAIN CONCERN IN ANTHROPOLOGY • Man’s different religious affiliations: Christians, Buddhists, Mohammedans, Hindu, Taoist, etc. • Man’s works or achievements

• Man’s body and behavior are also anthropologists’ interesting subject of inquiry.

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MAN, THE MAIN CONCERN IN ANTHROPOLOGY • Man’s biological foundations, physical similarities and differences, evolution, differentiation and classifications are also scrutinized. • Any various fields that can be a subject of study of man.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY • Both are social sciences. • Both sciences attempt to understand the way of life of various cultures or societies.

• The 2 sciences borrow heavily from each other. Ex: the concept of culture of Edward Taylor is now widely used in the field of sociology.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY • Sociology is more on society and social processes while
anthropology is on culture.
• It is a fact that society and culture are interrelated and interdependent concepts.

• In terms of their origins, the 2 sciences differ. Anthropology started with the study of primitive (nonliterate groups) considered exotic and queer by the Westerners. Sociology started as the study of Western civilization and later of advanced and contemporary societies.
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY • Both sciences are interested in the study of social issues. • In terms of methods, they differ. Sociology allows sampling of the subject of the study while anthropology uses the wholistic approach. Participant observation is common.

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RELEVANCE OF SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY • The 2 sciences introduce us to various concepts and principles vital in our understanding of culture and society.

• Through the study of these two disciplines, we are able to see ourselves as parts of a larger social pattern. This expands our view of the world, thereby appreciating society and culture better.

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RELEVANCE OF SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY • It will make us understand better why people of different groups and culture behave the way they do. Through this understanding, we may be able to adjust ourselves to their peculiar ways and patterns.

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• It will give us the insight that our group is different from others. Through this, we may be led to respect the identity and unique nature of other groups and members of such groups. • It will be helpful in promoting inter-ethnic and cultural understanding. It can promote national unity and progress, and international understanding through promotion and cross-cultural knowledge.

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