This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
22.214.171.124.Contents 126.96.36.199. 4. 188.8.131.52. 3.3. 3. 4.5.4. 184.108.40.206. 2.3.2. 3.4. 4. 3. 3. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve. 2. 3.1. 3.5. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 220.127.116.11. 3.2. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton.4.5. 3. 18.104.22.168.2.2. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. 2. 2. 188.8.131.52.1. 4.6. 3.1. 3.4. 4.3.3. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .184.108.40.206.1.4.2. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. 4. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4. 2. 4. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.5.2. 220.127.116.11.1.4. 4.
1.2. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.2. 4.5. 18.104.22.168. 5. Gulliver. 4.7.4. 4. 4.4. 5.2. 5. 5. 5.4.3. 5.4. 5. 5.4. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 22.214.171.124. 4.5. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 126.96.36.199. 5. 5.2. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4.Contents 4. 4. 188.8.131.52.1.4. 5.2. 5.3. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 184.108.40.206. 4.1. 4. 5.1. 220.127.116.11.7.1. 18.104.22.168.3. 5.2. 5.2.2. 22.214.171.124.5. 5.3.4. 126.96.36.199.5.4. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1. 5.4. 5. 5.2.4. 4.6.3.
6. 6.4.4. 220.127.116.11.5. 6.2.1. 6.2. 6.2. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson. The Seasons William Cowper. 6. 6. 6.1. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.4.1. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.2. 6.2.2. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.1.4.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No.18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 6.1. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52.3.3. 6.1. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
2. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. Defoe. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country. Course objectives As already mentioned. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. Blake. among others). a carrier of values. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. 3. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. Swift. In this way. by encouraging your response to particular texts. Fielding. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. Milton. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. Being concerned with aspects of literary history. Before starting your study.
Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. the Restoration. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors. the Baroque. By the end of your study of this course. in a given text. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. and a Gallery of personalities. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. a Glossary. as part of your overall assessment. a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. Besides them.g. Each unit. Neoclassicism.g. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. the Augustan Age. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. • 4. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. in its turn. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). characterisation. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. a list of key words.
and with the evolution of this genre.2. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated).Introduction 4. H. S. Defoe. the epic poem Paradise Lost. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D.1. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. Fielding and L. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. and to draw your own conclusions. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. Sterne –. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. as well as major representatives. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. The variety of these learning tasks will. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. • 4. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . with main focus on Jonathan Swift. They appeal not only to your memory. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. and Augustan satire. Richardson. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. hopefully. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism.
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment.3. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. narrative technique. 4. fragment) • complete sentences. in the literary text you were asked to work on. and. stylistic features. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. with the typological definition of a work. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. an author’s work. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. etc.. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. etc. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. etc. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. line. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. characterisation. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. summarise its argument. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. if the case may be. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. the title of a work. symbolic elements.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them.
you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. Sometimes. but the phrase of which that word is part. will also appear in Units 5 and 6. Thus. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). not just Being. you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit.3. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. other instruments meant to assist your study. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. if necessary or desired. • Further reading. For instance. for the Great Chain of Being*. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 . Some terms may recur in several units. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. For example. with the pages where you may find relevant information. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge.4.1. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities.3. in Unit 1. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains.Introduction 4.1. at the end. the term Enlightenment.
don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary.2 will cover units 4 and 5. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. this should not take you too much time. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 5. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. The table below represents the place.lIntroduction 4. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%.5. and 6. In any case. As the texts are not very long. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. SAA no. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. 5. and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. the number of tasks. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. while SAA no. try to read each fragment more than once. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. difficult. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. especially the poetry texts. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). before you start solving the task. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature.
You may. If your level of proficiency is lower. however. clarity. • the coherence. half of the answer is already contained in the question. If you have no possibility to type your assignment. your course work may take you more time. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%).1 SAA no. theoretically.2 SAA no. 3.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . 6. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). 1. whose reading may take you some extra time. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. Of these hours. 1. and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. Most of the time. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. 2. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks. As in the case of the SAQs. 2.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work.
which you must write and send to your tutor. glossary. together. respectively. You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. forms and styles.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. At the end of Units 3. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. It is structured in six units of study.3 3 3 8 SAA no. The three assignments will count. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. there are SAAs. as well as a list of suggested further reading. 5. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. a revision of the course material.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. representative authors. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. and 6. list of key words. whose content follows a chronological line.2 SAA no. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. and gallery of personalities). according to a pre-established schedule. as 40% of the final grade. of the evolution of literary genres. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text.
1.4. 1.1.4. 1.1.4. 1.5. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 . 184.108.40.206. 1. 1.2.1. 1. 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.4. 1. 1.3. 1. 1.5.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.2.
of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society.1. The gradual achievement of political stability. social and economic life.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. at the end of this period. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. Political. as well as the faith in progress. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. religion. science. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. of the Enlightenment. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. literature.1. The rise. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. as the Enlightenment is often described. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. philosophy. in the latter part of the 17th century. mentalities. 10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a powerful flourishing nation. obscurantism and intolerance. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought.1. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. marked the entrance into modernity. 1. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. attitudes and practices.
endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws.1. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. the “universal Architect. or Natural Religion –. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. under the patronage of Charles II. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. in particular. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. to reconcile Reason and Faith.2. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. in a systematic effort. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. and it was essentially optimistic.” 1. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. This new faith – Deism. in 1662. The Royal Society endeavoured. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age.
appropriately. continued the project of the Renaissance. but also affective and instinctual. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. for each sentence. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. T F 4. the Enlightenment. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). T F 2. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth. The growing spirit of individualism. T F 3. the central concern of the Enlightenment. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. to superstition and obscurantism. T F 5. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. 1.1. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole.1.4. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries.3. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. 1. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. Circle T (true) or F (false). T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The poet Alexander Pope indicated.
The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned. the decrease in the power of the Crown. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. symmetry. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty.2. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. regularity. to 1. T F 8.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.1. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. including readers of more modest education. for proportion. It was the main focus of literary attention. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts.1. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. T F 7. that the notion of reading public emerges now. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. in the orbit of the crown. read again subchapters. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. The division into Elizabethan.4. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. It is significant. with little or no classical knowledge.1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. at the end of the unit. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. and both writers and audiences were. 1. in one way or another. for instance. After 1688. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*.
but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. Racine. This reflects. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. Complete each sentence in the provided space. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. during the Augustan Age*. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning.” started in the late 17th century. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. Corneille. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. …the Augustan Age. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. The Court was the main source of influence…… b. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. …… c. Jean Racine. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. Molière. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. Pierre Corneille. Molière)…… d. a. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. Much of Renaissance literature. above all.
In parallel. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. for instance. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. concentration. by the Romantic poets. …addressed itself to learned readers. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. John Dryden (in the former). If you have failed to make the right match.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. George Herbert. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. They approached other themes besides love: e. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . the pastoral* lyric. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. original or translated epics. Robert Herrick).2. you need to revise subchapter 1. Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Andrew Marvell. and it made extensive use of wit. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. acquainted with the great classical authors and works. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. 4. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. the ode*. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). at the end of the unit. James Thomson. Alexander Pope. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. 1. or religion and politics – John Milton. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. in its various forms – the song*.3. religious faith – John Donne. It favoured conciseness. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. Thomas Carew.g. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters.
the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). a new appreciation of older poetic forms. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). It was the only form of literature which. together with their most outstanding representatives. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. enjoyed a widely popular appeal.4. 1. through its representation on stage. in the space left below. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. at the end of the unit.3.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. If there should be major differences between them. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). revise subchapter 1. some of them of popular origin (the song. In the following units of this course. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. Milton’s Satan. drama witnessed a decline. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. with the restoration of monarchy. the wronged hero plans revenge. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. 1633). Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. daring and wit. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. They were generally. etc. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. and the rhetorical manner. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. pastoral drama.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. 1605-6). when the Puritans* closed the theatres. Unlike Senecan plays. tragi-comedy. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse. masque*. On the whole. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. fascinating through unbounded ambition. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. built around the theme of revenge. In 1660. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Of the Caroline playwrights. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. is the most gifted.4. 1607).1. play-houses were reopened. treachery. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. but destroys himself along with his enemies. historical drama. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. 1614). rape. was a miniature of the English society. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. the sensational plot. in Paradise Lost. sensational and macabre. insanity. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. murder. with its audience arranged according to rank. From Senecan tragedy. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. In such plays. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. 1. while others changed. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest.
intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. and 1. If you have failed to identify the true statements.4. the hierarchy of English society. though each in a different way. at the end of the unit. Milton’s Satan. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). in Paradise Lost. Volpone (1606). Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. T F 6. T F 4. T F 2. or at least tinged with bitterness. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. the satirical comedy. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Epicoene. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. with its noble characters. read again subchapters 1. as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life.1. T F 5. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy. T F 3.4. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. For each sentence.2. identifying the four true ones.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. centred on the theme of love. reflecting. His best plays. but. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. his comedies become darker. T F 7. in miniature. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). a genre which will survive into the 18th century. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. or The Silent Woman (1609). 1. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. 1. in the last period of creation. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another.4. read the following statements.
There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. who demanded models of virtue and decency. In The Rehearsal (1671). Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1.4. Henry Fielding).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. 1769). and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. 1669-70).g.3.4. George Villiers. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain. John Gay. 1773). 1722). 1768. a stylish and sophisticated world. of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. or The Mistakes of a Night. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty.4. This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. Duke of Buckingham. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. 1775. but serious drama declined during the 18th century. 1665. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. for instance. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. Heroic plays. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. She Stoops to Conquer. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. 1777). The School for Scandal. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. The Conquest of Granada. Under the influence of French tragedies. too.g. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. were a passing extravagance. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 .
and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays. at the end of the unit.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. revise subchapters 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4. If there should be major differences between them. together with their most outstanding representatives.2.4. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2.4. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to 1.
The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). Here.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1.5. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. The development of an aphoristic style*. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. 1612. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. religious writings are particularly important. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. More and more. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. temptations. blending concision with wit. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. displaying a variety of styles. on clarity and rationality. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. philosophical and theological writings. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. in political tracts and pamphlets. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. a precious and highly ornate language.1. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. with its trials. Later in the century. the essay* proved the most flexible. Gradually.5. deliberately artificial and intricate. the universal language of the Renaissance. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. weaknesses. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose.
A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the biography as an emerging prose genre. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). pamphlets* (e. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. Milton’s Areopagitica. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. letters.g. diaries (John Evelyn. The same encyclopaedic. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. 1666). Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. Samuel Purchas). exhausting the subjects they dealt with. William Prynne’s Histriomastix. biographies (Izaak Walton. executed in a witty. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period. Anatomies were monuments of learning. To these must be added the character. aphoristic style. etc. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. of remarkable precision and force.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. unadorned style. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. In the 17th century. 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. Samuel Pepys). “The Religion of a Doctor. Like drama. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. which analyses the constitution of human society.
the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. more carefully. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. as well as the faith in progress. If there should be major differences between them. Within these two centuries. Culturally. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. and 1. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. modern science was born. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England. the image of the universe was changed. read again subchapters 1. these two centuries correspond. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . you will learn more about the periodical essay. between which there is continuity.5. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. at the end of the unit..1. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. Within these two centuries. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. roughly. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power.5. obscurantism and intolerance.
burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal.). from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. of serious action. often by means of paradox.-14 A. predominantly middle-class. blank verse: unrhymed verse. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits.D.C. noble and heroic characters. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. which are reduced to the comically trivial. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. Ovid. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. From a literary point of view. It is. however. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. used to express observations of general truth.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry. elevated style. a slow transition took place. in a caricatural spirit. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility.
Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. until 1660. natural law. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. pragmatism. individual liberty. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B.e. legend.): “Man is the measure of all things”. widely used in all ages. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. Tolerance. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). anti-obscurantism. Rousseau. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom.C. social contract. Concepts like human rights. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. Montesquieu. the folk tradition. David Hume (Britain). civil rights. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. John Locke. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. Thomas Jefferson. humanism. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . • essay: a prose composition of varying length. social and moral thought. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. Diderot (France).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. • classical revival: the intellectual. when it was restored. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. or from history. Voltaire. anti-fanaticism. In a broader sense. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment.
) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. restraint. and harmony of classical art. in harmony with nature. ode: an extended lyric poem. painting and sculpture. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. who was a Catholic. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity. from the Creation to the Ascension. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers.C. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. It addressed itself to the poor. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. spectacular scenic effects. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). involving elaborate dialogue. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. James II Stuart.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. the marginal sections of society. sumptuous costumes and settings. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). of spiritual regeneration by grace. singing and dancing. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France.) are the great ancient models for English writers.).C. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . encouraging a personal experience of conversion. In architecture. often of an allegorical nature. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. solemn style. decorative art.C. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. an idea. simple. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). a person or an object. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. In English literature. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. uncorrupted life. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality.
Francis Bacon (England). thus. Pico della Mirandola. John Vanbrugh. of the rebirth of learning. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. selected according to genre and subject. by Columbus. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. From a literary point of view. for the Neoclassic writers. industry. of the expansion of education. in their view. of America. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. Restoration: historically. especially their work ethics. favoured the growth of individualism. effort. its limits are less well defined. tone. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Raphael. Machiavelli. it had not fully reformed itself. Shakespeare. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. Philip Sidney. Sir Charles Sedley. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. the sense of purpose. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. Boccaccio. in the 16th and 17th centuries. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. Sir George Etherege. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. Thomas More. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). which opened the modern era. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. Their beliefs and convictions. Edmund Spenser. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. 1492). style – used by a poet. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. Lope de Vega. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. Ariosto. Duke of Buckingham. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. Leonardo da Vinci. Cervantes (Spain). Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. Tasso (Italy). romance or the novel. William Wycherley. centred on integrity. poetic diction: a term that.g.
independently of circumstances. yellow bile – or choler. Jonson. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects. He was also an eminent statesman. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. During the Renaissance.e. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. fluids) of the body (blood. The New Atlantis (published in 1627).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. phlegm. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. surprising associations. philosopher and writer. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . Sometimes. He started his literary career as a playwright. poet and scholar. it meant intelligence or wisdom. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. and with the French Revolution (1789). song: a poem composed for singing. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. and a writer. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. with or without musical accompaniment. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. Cicero. Edmund Spenser. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. as well as an unfinished utopia. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. phlegmatic. orator. Amoretti. the four “humours” (i. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. Ben (1572-1637): dramatist.): Roman statesman. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. according to a dominating inclination or passion. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. The tradition survived into the 18th century. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. 1591. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. Astrophil and Stella. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). with various rhyme patterns.C. 1591-1595). Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. The assertion of the self. in which the characters act. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. two fine examples of comedy of humours.
Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. ethics. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus.C. besides the Characters. For Hobbes. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. made important discoveries in the field of optics. Theophrastus (372-287 B. Locke studied medicine. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. the latter.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. author. economics. astronomer and philosopher.): Roman philosopher. unlike that of Hobbes.-65 A. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher. politics. writer and statesman. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers.D. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). Man. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. greatly influenced by Hobbes. in a kind of social contract. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. Hobbes. Locke. Seneca. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651).D. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State.): Roman historian and statesman. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. religion. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”).C. According to him. It is fear of death. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. which was central to Enlightenment thought. mathematician. His political philosophy. for instance. the instinct of self-preservation. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy. Newton. or the Matter. Italian poet and humanist.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. Tacitus. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics.
from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. Pope. 4. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 2003 (pp.2. .T. Collins. Milton the pastoral: Milton. 5. 7-49) 3. Ioan-Aurel (ed.).F. b.T. The English Eighteenth Century.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 8.T.F. Herbert. Thomson.T SAQ 2 a. 9-32) 2. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson. English Literature and Civilisation. 4. 3. c. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance. Pope. 7.F. Dryden. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Preda. 2003 (pp. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Macsiniuc. 3. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. precision.F.T. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. Sir George Sedley. 2. Goldsmith. Luminiţa Elena. The Literature of the Beginnings. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele.T. Turcu.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1. John Vanbrugh). Fielding. d. Marvell. Dryden. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. Duke of Buckingham. Cornelia. the sonnet: Shakespeare. Herrick. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Carew. artificial. 2. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate. there was a tendency towards simplicity.3. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. 5. 6. Sir George Etherege. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Marvell satire: Dryden. Editura Universităţii Suceava. John Gay Further reading 1.4. William Wycherley.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. Milton. Cowley. 1983 (pp. Blake the ode: Marvell.T. Donne. 6. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style.T.T. Goldsmith.
22.214.171.124.3.2. 2. 2. 2.5. 2.12.3. 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.3. 2. 2.3. 184.108.40.206. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius.220.127.116.11.2.2.5. 2.1.2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 126.96.36.199. 2. 2. 2. 2.7.3. 2. 2.4.2. 2. 2. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .2.10.2.
to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. well-ordered universe. In the late Renaissance. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. Christopher Marlowe*. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. to scepticism. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. with its sense of confidence and optimism. Philip Sydney*. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. during whose reign England developed into a strong. Under Queen Elizabeth I. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. stable and modern state. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. The former expansiveness.1. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. anxiety and even pessimism. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. The vision of a harmonious.
for excess. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant.2. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. with its abundance of bloody deaths. life and death. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. St. and not properly forming a “school. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. irony and ambiguity. and in its dramatic conception. or the world as stage.1. to the macabre. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. the extensive use of paradox. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. The unexpected. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. proportion and symmetry. sensualism and mysticism. with the tendency of breaking proportions. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. grandeur. and. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. on which the “show” of life must end.1. both in its themes and motifs. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. in literature.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. splendour. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. refinement and cruelty. Although very diverse. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. the spectacular and the sumptuous. The Renaissance cult of rational order. but also to pomp. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. its sense of form.1. In lyric poetry. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. reason and superstition. wisdom and madness. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. striking imagery.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. of confusing or transgressing limits.
with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. complicated feeling and analytical detachment.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. The Tempest. at the end of this unit. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. respectively. If there should be major differences. In the following two subchapters. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. R: confidence. optimism. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. you will be acquainted. R: cult for order and symmetry. King Lear. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. read again the preceding subchapters. sense of form B: 4. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. classical balance. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
to the prose speech of simple folk. sometimes even trivial. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. loyalty and betrayal. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. Shakespeare’s genius. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. motifs and imagery. moral attitudes. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . gratitude and ingratitude.2. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. struggle for power. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. etc. or periods of creation. A wide range of feelings. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. According to the dramatic necessity. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. They are always credible. and a culmination of its literary art. Italian.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. envy. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. sublime or burlesque. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. medieval and contemporary sources – English. search for truth. so that it displays a similar variety. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. aspirations and interests. In Shakespeare’s whole work. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. language. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. and French. friendship. romantic or trivial. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. his deep understanding of humanity. craftsmen or servants. hate. among other features. conflicts. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. all mastered with supreme art. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. from the variety of his work. devotion. in plain. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. jealousy. states of mind. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). Othello (1604).
with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. with the restoration of order. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. but they deal. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. with the effects of evil on innocence. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. read again the preceding subchapter. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. 2. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. His romance plays. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance.1. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In these plays. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . If they should differ significantly. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. at the end of the unit.2. between truth and falsehood. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. common in the Renaissance. basically.
At one point. in the confusions of the final scene. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. he has the occasion to kill Claudius. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. and continually delays the act of revenge. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. sensitive and idealistic. with a poisoned sword. which represents a similar scene of murder. has drowned herself. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. Back to the castle. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. generous and brilliantly intelligent. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. In spite of this bloody outcome. and with the immense burden of revenge. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. old king Hamlet.2. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. In another scene. Her brother. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. but the plot escapes their control and. required by his dead father. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius.2. a courtier. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. takes over the rule of Denmark. the play ends on a note of hope. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer.2. mistaking him for Claudius.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. brave. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. the widow queen. who had really gone mad. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. Claudius. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. the first in this series of masterpieces. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. 2.3. all the main protagonists find their death. he kills Polonius. when Fortinbras. During the play. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. Laertes.
read again the preceding subchapter. 2. which is only partly dissimulated. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If they should differ significantly. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. SAQ 3 Text 2. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness.2.4. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Hamlet: the philosopher vs. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. is eminently a philosopher’s effort. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. as well as the indicated fragment. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty. at the end of the unit. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare.1.
there is madness in nature itself. The earl of Gloucester joins them. like that of blindness.5. to believe him a traitor and usurper. and. on the other hand. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. through paradox. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. of truth and illusion. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. is also an exile from his own family. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. of human suffering. whom he disinherits. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. Hamlet’s introspective. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. which is that of restoring a lost order. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. which helps him endure his suffering. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. another “fall of princes” tragedy. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. and the Fool’s comments. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. Tragically. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. Edgar. Edgar. The motif of madness. a bastard. as in Hamlet. which would not undo the past. Lear’s own madness. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar.” 2. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. in reality. Cordelia. unconditionally loving ones.2. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. the Earl of Gloucester. the quest for higher meanings. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. Maddened with grief. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. both of them prove to be the loyal. is closely linked. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. Goneril and Reagan. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles.
2. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. Desdemona. is led by Iago to believe his wife. Scene from Othello. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. 2. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. faithfulness/betrayal. The noble protagonist. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. Othello. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. Evil is that which destroys Nature. unfaithful. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. In Othello. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). acting against it. innocence/guilt. essence.6.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. In Othello. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs.
a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army.6. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. The baroque motif of madness is. at the end of the unit. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience.7. to 2. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. he multiples his crimes. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . at the instigation of his wife. who has a trusting nature. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. ____________________ 3. underlining the theme of knowledge. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king.2. If any of your solutions should not correspond. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds. / It weeps. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. paradoxically. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. disorder. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. innocence and corruption. one of Duncan’s sons. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. ____________________ 4. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). ____________________ 2. 1. you need to revise subchapters 2. but. kinsman and guest. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action.2. The protagonist. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland.2.2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. 2. illusion and truth. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. it bleeds. ____________________ 5. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. Macbeth. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. read the fragment once more. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in no more than 120 words / 12 lines. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. scene 2.2. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. extracted from this scene. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. / Macbeth does murder sleep.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. from the Reader. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. SAQ 5 In Act II. If there should be significant differences. Text 2. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder.
Alonzo.9. respectively –. the shipwreck. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. by his powers. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. the long journey. who. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. of exile and return). They may also be described as romance plays.g. the sense of a benevolent providential design. as well as other passengers. the fairy-tale atmosphere. has turned him into a slave. Miranda. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided.2. Cymbeline. Alonzo. on which he lives alone with his daughter. his faithful spiritservant. owing to the improbability of the action. duke of Milan. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. They mix serious and comic action. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. 2. the theme of loss and recovery. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. and Sebastian. to take his throne. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. and certain themes and motifs (e. king of Naples. magic. who instantly fall in love with each other. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. the jester. Three lines of action develop. the choice of a remote setting. Trinculo. In its opening scene. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the master of an island. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. The Winter’s Tale.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. The Tempest (1611). is considered the finest. a drunken servant. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio. involving the shipwrecked characters. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. He had long studied the arts of magic. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. myth. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. marvelous. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music.2. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter.8. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. After the tragedies.
for the emergence of a regenerated world. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. “neglecting worldly ends. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder.10. the control of intelligence over nature. Ariel. education] can never stick. Caliban Innocence vs. he learns.2. 2. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. and to return to the world in his full humanity. more importantly. who now repent. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. now. influenced by Ariel. represents pure spirit. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . At the opposite pole. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies.e. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban. In the final act. the scholar-magician.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. and then to Milan. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation.” claiming his throne. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). to master himself. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. Prospero. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. The theme of power Ariel vs. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. On the island. at the end.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. a “thing of darkness. but.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. If there should be major differences. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. for instance..4. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. by teaching him to speak. or in developing self-identity. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . extracted from The Tempest. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think. Act I. scene 2. more carefully. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. read the fragment again. Here. Full of resentment. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. which “delight and hurt not. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” The sea-journey Music 2.2.12. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays.11. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. then at least man should strive to discern in it. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. Another pervading symbol is that of music. or to impose upon it. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return.2. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. order and harmony. whose magic art controls every incident. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. sublimating its primitive energies. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers. of performance. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. The playmetaphor.
” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. was first intended to bring discredit on them. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines. except that of terrifying him. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan. T F 4. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence.2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. in his own way. T F 5. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. revise subchapters2. You must find them among the following statements. T F 3. Their styles are different. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. T F 6. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 2.2. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. of which three are false. If any of your choices should be wrong. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. 1. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. T F 2. at the end of the unit. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music.9 to 2. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world.12. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . T F 7.3. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. but each of them. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action.
which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. linked. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. As extended comparisons. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling. By means of conceits. from a most ordinary circumstance. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. and the emotions involved. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. united] by violence together. This is an elaborate figurative device. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.1. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. In spite of its logical. regardless of the subject of the poem. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. Dr. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. a metaphor or an analogy.3.e.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. or discovery of occult [i. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. The impression is that this experience. is contemplated from a certain distance. but also his reason. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . a cold intellectual exercise.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. which helps the poet to develop his subject. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. which starts from a comparison.3. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them. a demand for “more matter and less words. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning.e. hidden. argumentative quality.” A new kind of poetry emerged. writers had to face a new exigency. as “a combination of dissimilar images. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. “More matter and less words” 2. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications.2.
3. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech.3. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. Use the space left below. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences.1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 . the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. revise subchapters 2. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and a highly original one. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century.2. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. and allegory.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. If they should differ considerably. and 2. at the end of the unit. pastoral* conventions.3. its decorative use of classical mythology. In the following subchapters. 2. In the treatment of both themes. and the same realistic force. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit.
sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. and he seems to amuse himself. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). He also suggests sometimes that physical union. when accompanied by genuine feeling. are however harmless to man. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea.4. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy.” In fact.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea. but. as this would be a triple “sin.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal. beautiful. Donne’s love poems In his love poems.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. may afford an experience of the transcendental.” “tear-floods”). Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. Donne is highly playful in this poem. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument. in which their blood is now mixed. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. which. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. though greater. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. their love being so great and “refined. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. Chaste. This is a seduction poem.3. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship.
6. you need to revise subchapter 2. in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is.. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. he develops one of his most famous conceits. as well. at the end of the unit. paying special attention to the last three stanzas. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. in the Reader). Here.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 . Read the poem again.2. Formulate your answer in the space left below.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. If they should differ significantly.
In Batter My Heart. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. on death.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. comparable to that of Shakespeare. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. Actually. of loyalty and betrayal. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart.3. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. between idealised passion and erotic desire. Satan. In his religious meditations in verse. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. The insistence on violence and struggle. divine judgement. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. in the exercise of reason. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. These poems usually display contrary impulses.5. which parallel those in his love poetry. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. resurrection and salvation. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. for the divine saving grace. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
Donne suggests his contradictory. This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart. In the last six lines.6. revise subchapter 2. from the Reader.3. according to some critics.3. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. at the end of the unit. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words.5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . As a Puritan* patriot. If there should be significant differences. 2. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. Marvell left. nature. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2.7. and love of country. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and read the poem again.
these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. aspiring to union with almighty God. King Charles I Stuart.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures.3. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. He showed a deep love for the countryside. 2. in which both of them act according to a divine order. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling. to change the form of ruling power).e.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit. is On a Drop of Dew. however. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. On a Drop of Dew 2. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. The most illustrative poem. On the other hand. lest it grow [i.7. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 . Marvell often sees. A natural detail. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency.3. shyness] and accept his passionate love. pictured with remarkable precision. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. It is a seduction poem. for fear that it might grow] impure. in contrasting colours. on the scaffold. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship.e. and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature.8.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. in this respect. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them.e.
Love.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. which has the structure If….8. If the difference is considerable. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 .3. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature.8. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. in the Reader). then (therefore)…. read the poem again. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. after revising subchapter 2. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all. at the end of the unit. more carefully. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure. in its sexual fulfillment. but…. paying attention to the logic of the argument.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
• • • •
• • •
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• • • • • • • • • •
figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
unexpected. He is not a cold-blooded killer. Othello. of his own sense of self. even if physically the lovers must be apart. 7. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. usually between highly dissimilar elements. 2.g. F. F. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the development of conscience. complicated line of argument.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. guided by rational will. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. is a suitable emblem for their souls. to blend contraries (e. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. Othello. 4. Hamlet. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. T. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place.e. Hamlet. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience.” sleep (i. the abstract and the concrete. 3. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. of a clean mind. surprising associations) 3. 6. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. 5. which remain perfectly united. etc. From Prospero’s point of view. T. make his purposes known through words). he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. passion and reason. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. This instrument. From Caliban’s point of view. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. which he resents. 4. As a truly superior being. 2. however. 3. T. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. use of conceits (extended comparisons. endowed with speech. King Lear. analytical detachment from emotion 4. SAQ 7 1. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. F. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity.g. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. concise expression and density of meaning 2. King Lear. T SAQ 8 1. 5.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. Hamlet.
vol. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. your virginity will then be worth nothing. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. David. will long for him. English Literature and Civilisation. Boris (ed. 1969 (pp. Ioan-Aurel (coord.). 302-305) 3. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). 34-40.. 97-105. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. 267-283. Preda. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. But. Ford. and which would resemble rape. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. waiting for her departed lover. Daiches. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body.).” which only God can effect. because your charms deserve such praise.. vol. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. instead of letting it devour us slowly. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Paradoxically. 273-287) 2. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. in fact. consent and legality. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. in the absence of joy. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. He loves God. Penguin Books Ltd. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 .” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. 1983 (pp. 246-249. 3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. since only worms will “enjoy” it. Further reading 1. But I know time is merciless. just as the mistress. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. however. 1991 (pp. A Critical History of English Literature.
3. 3. 188.8.131.52.3.2.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3.5. 3. 3.2.6. 3.2. 3.1. 3. 3. 184.108.40.206. 3. 220.127.116.11. 3.4. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. 3.4.3. 3.2. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton.5.1.4. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4. 3. 3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 18.104.22.168.1.4.2. 3.
etc. baroque* vision. religion. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. written in English and in Latin. as a publicist. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. such as education. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. politics. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. he approached a diversity of subjects. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. geography. At Cambridge (1625-1629). Milton. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. After that. and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. His enormous learning. etc. religious and civil debates of his age. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. Paradise Lost. he went on a trip to Italy. music. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. as well as his moral inflexibility. the greatest epic poem in English literature. he studied Latin.). 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . family. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. Greek and Hebrew. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century. In 1638. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. he continued to read intensively. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation.1. the freedom of the press.g. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. theology. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. mathematics.
2. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. On the other hand. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. Ovid*. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality.). which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist.1. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. In some of them. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. With the Restoration*. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. As a poet. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. However. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. However. who. 3. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. In the Sixth elegy. for instance. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation.2. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. his political hopes ended. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . like a priest. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. is in touch with divine secrets.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. Virgil*. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. etc. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. with its pastoral delights. but Milton did not complete his plan. As in other poems.
at the end of the unit. the crowing of the cock. 2. to master a variety of styles.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. In the latter. polyphonic sounds of the organ. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. in his poetic work. and on the happiness of rural life. b. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. In Il Penseroso. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in Il Penseroso. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere. 1.” contemplative mood. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. b. of classical erudition with biblical themes.e. In each poem. c. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music.1. c. 3. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. If your choices should be wrong. In both poems. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. and 3. b. Milton’s literary ambition was a. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. there is a strong emphasis on music. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. The secular* pleasures of common life.2. in L’Allegro.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . c. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. the integration. with its simple pleasures. revise subchapters 3.
He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. personal manner.3. Milton composed another poem in which. Irrespective of their nature. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. to fresh woods and pastures new. or occasional and complimentary compositions. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. The death of the dedicated young man.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. uses again the pastoral frame.2. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. not on earth. in a heavenly pastoral world. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church.2. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. The elegy Lycidas. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637).The works of John Milton 3. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. again. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long.
God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. but of God’s eternal will.” By this time. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot.3. In Sonnet XVII. since.1. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness.3. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. patiently. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised. He has reached the age of twenty four. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. he must admit. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness. as King of Heaven. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. in 1652.e. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”). confessing his temptation to ask. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring.” “mean or high” as it may be. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. As a Christian poet. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. with a certain sadness. angels). light denied?”). Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. In the first part of the sonnet. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions. i. at his age. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). To prevent such a complaint. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. but also by Christian humility.The works of John Milton 3. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. When he wrote Sonet XVII.2.” that they are “timely happy spirits”. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. he admits. who carry out the divine his daughters will. Milton meditates on his loss of sight.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. that. written in 1631.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness.
Dante* –.3.2.2. 3.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. and 3. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same. Read these sonnets (Texts 3.4. read again subchapter 3. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667.1. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. when he was already blind. Virgil. and he worked at it over several years. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. and the two sonnets. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. in the Reader). at the end of the unit. respectively. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. If there should be significant differences. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. and of leaving to posterity an undying work.
knowledge and ignorance/innocence. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner.1. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny.4. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. etc. which is never ornamental. man’s temptation and fall into sin. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. 3. over the years. and his loss of Paradise. are gathered to listen to Satan.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. Milton had thought. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”.” forever deprived of the glory. accumulated throughout his life. “to justify the ways of God to men. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation.” full of the bitterness of defeat. predestination*.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. in theme a daring. original epic scenario. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. Starting from the dualism good/evil. in fact. The “lost Archangel. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. His work is encyclopaedic.e. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. but his erudition. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven. obedience and rebellion. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. in which man’s fall. Finally.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. the creation of the world and of man. as he stated in the opening Invocation. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. brought about by his disobedience. of Lucifer* from Heaven. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. Milton’s ambition was. He interprets poetically the biblical events.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven.
the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. death and resurrection. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. i. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes.e. set him free from sin. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king. Satan. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. and their discussions are rendered in Book II.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. to seek the newly created Earth. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. cunning]. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. whose setting is in Heaven. surpass] hellish hate. and he flies away. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. God. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos.” Meanwhile. by virtue of his leading position. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. 3.The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. Pandemonium*. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .e.2. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. Chaos and Chance. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God.e.4. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 . If there should be major differences. at the end of the unit. in the Reader.4. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall.The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. What is God’s argument. more carefully. read again the text. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words.
4. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. sent by God. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. that cannot change]. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. not immutable [i. space]” left by the fallen angels. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man. in Milton’s poem. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. not before repeating his warning. the angel Raphael.” for the evocation of the making of the world.e. Adam is grateful to Raphael. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. after the defeat of the rebel angels. It is interesting that. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. Adam admits that.e. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels.” to fill in the “vacant room [i.4. Satan.” and that this happiness depends on his free will.3. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions. instigated by Lucifer. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. as this diminished W. in Book VII. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . the “divine historian. and. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature.” Man himself was created as a “better race. in order to prolong his guest’s visit. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. King Anointed*”. sweetness.The works of John Milton 3. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence.” Raphael leaves them. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being. innocence and “virgin modesty. In Milton’s interpretation. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. and fear to transgress!” 3. In Book VIII.4. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. so that he may know more about his enemy. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember.
the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. in no more than 10 lines/100 words. at the end of the unit.7. W. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below. read the fragment again. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. through Raphael’s words. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. A Prophecy. in the Reader presents.
Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. W. and. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. suspicion. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles.The works of John Milton 3.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. hate / Mistrust. for a moment. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. discord” – which make reason and will helpless. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame.5. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown. Meanwhile. At last. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her. the “subtlest [i. most subtle*] beast of all the field.e.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god.4. their inward the fall on Nature peace. The “calm region” of their state of mind. the thundering skies weep. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty.
a. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. Satan’s victory seems complete. He flatters Eve. Match these sentences with the fragment. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. or fragments. which will bring her close to the condition of God. but. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. at last. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. _______ c. as God himself predicts: His Son. at the end of each sentence. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good.4. _______ f. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. He denigrates God. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. hoping to arouse her pride.8. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. in the middle of this speech. they taste its fruit. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. annihilate Sin and Death. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. If any of your matches should be wrong. at the end of the unit. 3.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3.” is the one who will. _______ e. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction. in which these moves are illustrated. The world after the Fall In the next books. on a separate sheet. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but he also adds symbolic episodes. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final.6.” _______ g. _______ b. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan. _______ d. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things.
The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. combining thus justice with mercy. intemperance. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. etc. death. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. from man’s own vices – violence. pride. but Michael comforts him. In Book XI. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. faith and good deeds.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. The certainty that. redemption*: Jesus. through Christ. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. God consents. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. his suffering. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. – to the hostility of Nature. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. In Book X. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable.” founded on love. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. but of sadness.
read the fragment again. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. 3. at the end of the unit. It may be argued. however. which they fully assume. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. If they should differ in major points. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.9.5. more carefully.
and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. Before his fall. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. In Hell. where there is “neither joy nor love. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero.The works of John Milton 3. From the beginning of the poem. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger.e.1.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free. made happy in their innocent love. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical. and his great ambition is “to reign. which is itself a paradise. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. he had been the first Archangel. Over a century after the poem’s publication. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . since it is accompanied by suffering and torment. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven.5. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven.
5.” He is “the author of all ill. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. Awakening in man the impulse to question. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness. the destroyer of faith.” seeming reasonable and true. Satan.The works of John Milton 3. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. As God’s absolute antagonist. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word.2.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 . It is also with “persuasive* words. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. It is with “high words. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride. Satan is The Tempter. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent. and “out of good still to find means of evil. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric.
“and “The mind is its own place. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words. revise subchapters 3. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell. “A mind not to be changed by time or place.5. at the end of the unit. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero.3.5. and read the indicated fragment again.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Read the whole fragment carefully.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. in Hell. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. If there are significant differences.2.) B.1.. and 3. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
As a humanist. deprived of worth. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity.” “Our great Progenitor [i. Fallen man is not a hateful creature.3. ancestor. In his last conversation with Michael. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God.” “Our Author. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose.” but also “our credulous mother. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them. but who can hope for redemption*. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan. the titanic dimension of his suffering. in Book XII. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall.” “mother of human race. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.5. precursor]. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition.e. but W. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them.” “Patriarch of Mankind.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind. Satan’s torments in Hell. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. of understanding and accepting his limits. Adam is called Sire* of Men. but armed with the wisdom of faith. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. As a Christian.” “our general mother. Created in God’s image. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality.The works of John Milton 3. but as a consequence of their wrong choices. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil.
presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. in the Reader. Summary In this unit. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. Subchapter 3. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. at the end of the unit.2. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. If there should be major differences. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3.5. he prepared himself for it during long years. the Nativity Ode. a necessary part of His design. one of the greatest English poets. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. Read this fragment and summarise its argument. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable.
his courage and majesty. put in the service of evil. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . as a sign of consecration or sanctification.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice. however. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history.4. Undoubtedly.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. presented in subchapter 3.3. which are. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. at any time. Subchapter 3. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology. Subchapter 3. the creation of the world and of man. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. but also in which man may. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. his love of freedom. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision.5. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men.
Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). formerly used when speaking to a king. clever in using tricks. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. or some tragic event. The word may refer. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. In classical literature. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition.e. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. Roman poet. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. difficult to detect (or analyse). he is called Satan.D. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. It may also mean cunning. pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.).C. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. noise and chaos. author of La Divina Commedia. the “great and good redeemer” (i. not concerned with or related to religion. by extension. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.-17 A. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred). suffering and death of Christ. to a place of wild confusion. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. subtle: not immediately evident. Providence: God’s kindness. to cause to believe).).C. Homer: Greek poet (c. predestination: from a theological point of view. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses.” After the fall from Heaven. 800 B.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. the one who sets man free from sin). Purgatory and Paradise. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Italian poet. to convince. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. every. Sire: a respectful term of address.e. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. It means “the carrier of light.
5.).2. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. one of the greatest Roman poets. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition.3. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. At the beginning of Book IV..2. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience.. and thus of destroying man. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition.4. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words.2. A revision of subchapter 3. romantic in The Tempest –. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. Send-away assignment no.1. in which he explores his inner hell. God’s creation. In both of them. with special attention to the indicated subchapters. Texts 2. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit. 2. and the last paragraph of 2. and 2. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death.1. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest.C. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. 1. before the final battle. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . in Milton’s Paradise Lost. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. at the end of the play. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero.6. Text 3.The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. • Read attentively this fragment.
the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). clarity. in grading your paper. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. is thus not attributable to God..e.” In the case of man. SAA no. The paradox of freedom. The poet places his trust in Providence. and reason makes man. 2. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. The implication is that God gave man conscience. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality. but the consequence of evil influence.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave).b.c. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. 3. or reason. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. however. responsible for his choices. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. is that one may choose right or wrong. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. Remember that. Created “just and right.. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose.a. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The fall of man. i. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. his blindness. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. not God. • the coherence. Milton emphasises the geometrical. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. like that of the angels. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come.
Editura Universităţii Suceava. Incapable of obedience to God. d. Man is not a free creature. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. under the guidance of Providence. f. Forced to look ahead.). 1983 (pp.4. SAQ 5 a. Daiches. vol. If God leaves man’s loyalty. Paradise is now a forbidden place. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). 153-163) 3. g. 435-449) 2. 1. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. Luminiţa Elena. as God has made him. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. 2.. unless he exercises his will and reason. with passive virtue. of human solidarity. 2.4. 2. The Literature of the Beginnings.3. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. English Literature and Civilisation. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). 2. and the image of the terrible gates.e. 1969 (pp. A Critical History of English Literature. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). to be dictated by Reason. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. 2003 (pp. i. Preda. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. David. b. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. i. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). If Hell is a space of freedom. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. e. 1. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. SAQ 7 1. faith and love untested. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). c. Further reading 1. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Turcu. 3.e. Ioan-Aurel (coord.The works of John Milton Architect”).
22.214.171.124.2.4. 4.2. 4.2. 126.96.36.199.4.2. 4. 188.8.131.52. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1.6. 4.2 4. 4.7.1. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.2. 184.108.40.206. 4.1. 4. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve. 4.2. 4. 4. 4.4.3. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.4. Gulliver.4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 4.4. 4.4.3. 4.3. 4. 4. 4. 4.1.4. 220.127.116.11.
The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. and their re-opening in 1660. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. clarity and elegant restraint. drama holds a place apart. under the patronage of king Charles II. under the influence of French theatres. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. the cast of actors included women. Human nature. Unit objectives 4. and.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. Nature. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –.1. and of considerable diversity. From a literary point of view. 4. and Jonathan Swift. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted.1. Alexander Pope. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.1. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. it was a period of transition as well. addressing itself to an inclusive public. of increasing rationalism and secularisation.
3. on the one hand. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. adultery. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. magnificent settings. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. the cynicism. were essential for the true man of the world. although each in its own way and for different reasons. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. and absolute villains. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. jealousy. sumptuous costumes. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. lust.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour.1. wit*. Sensational turns of situation. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. exotic places. The action was usually set in remote. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. It made fun of the people from the countryside. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. or Court Wits. Gallantry. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. an artificial. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*.1. Conquest and seduction. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . fashionable manners. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. both of them highly conventional forms. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. above all. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. 4. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. on the other. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. A certain coarseness of feeling. and.2. refinement and sophistication.
etc. aspiring to the perfect adventure. the lusty widow. the scheming valet. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. deliberately superficial in construction. selfish and manipulative. despising marriage. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . lacking complexity. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. young or old.” without scruples. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). If characters were usually static. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated. cynical. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. pleasure-seeking. the country squire*.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. Another frequent type was the fop*. Contrasting types were the coquette. the ingénue. and the trusting husband as dupe. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. or fool. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace.
to 4. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language.1. hedonism and amorality at Court. It displays typical Restoration characters. William Congreve. such as the impoverished gallant. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. T F 2. T F 4. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. T F 9. Restoration comedy praised wit. T F 8. 1. T F 3. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Restoration comedy built its plot on a single.3. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. at the end of the unit. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. T F 6.1. T F 7.1. frivolity. T F 5. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. simple action. by doing the exercise that follows. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character.1. elegance. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour.4. refinement and sophistication.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. If any of them should turn out to be wrong. read again subchapters 4. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. 4.
admiration. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. half-sad. as these were remote from their experience. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. consistent characters. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. Towards the end of the 17 th century. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. and friendship to jealousy. and the shifting relationships and alliances. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. The situation. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. The new audience in the theatres.1. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. bringing it to perfection. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. affection. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. etc. increasingly middle class.5. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. the witty and resourceful servant. the awkward country-girl. involving a multitude of characters. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. half-amused. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. is extremely complex. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. 4. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. psychologically subtle and complex. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. the pair of witty lovers. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience.
. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words. in Act IV.. under the appearance of frivolity. If there should be significant differences. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. they seem to be playing a game. at the end of the unit. Mirabell is a reformed rake. which presents Millamant's demands. as well as the indicated fragment. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions.1. Read Text 4. read again subchapter 4. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. Millamant is also in love.1.4. However. their agreement has serious implications. In a witty dialogue.
Besides Dryden and Pope. In it. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. balance. Joseph Addison*. In both cases. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 .2. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. elegance.1. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. 4. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. and harmony extended beyond literature. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art.2. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*.
the most valuable store of literary experience.2. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. A poet’s innate talent needed training. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. The rule of decorum 4. yet achieve great beauty. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate..2. and to those patterns of behaviour. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade.3.2. skill. i. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. in satirical or burlesque* works. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. humble style. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors. required an elevated style. comedy. lacking ornament. was expected to use a common. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. the emphasis on discipline in art. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art.e. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. Epic and tragedy. and the poet might disregard them. was Shakespeare. to make form and substance adequate to each other. i.e. This was the case of the genius. on the other hand. The most eloquent example. for instance. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. a dignified diction. for the Augustans. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. skilful transgression. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. of infinite variety. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. but a general intellectual tendency in the age.
and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. but also to imported French ideas – e. SAQ 3 Text 4. read again subchapter 4. a combination achieved through reason. and the indicated fragment. What are the main ideas in this fragment.2. at the end of the unit.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . If there should be significant differences. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. or art*.3. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines).3. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*.g.
The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements.2. affectation were rejected. of quick accumulation of information. manners and taste. but to be a functional part of the community. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4. or. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. of critical debate in every field. unnecessary ornament. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason. The writer's art was a form of social communication. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure.3. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it.4. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. too. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. refinement with wisdom. “grace and strength united. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style.” Augustan wit 4. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. its effects were considerable on prose. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. eloquence with restraint. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*.5. where nothing seems to be studied.2. Ostentation. In the context of general progress. precision and clarity. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour.
th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. the middle class readers. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. for a clientele of ships' captains. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . dominantly middle class. At the same time. In order to counterbalance this tendency. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. with Alexander Pope. some of them being issued daily. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. at cultivating their minds. Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord.” that ignorance is a source of evil. opened in 1688. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. They believed. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. and they were published with varying regularity.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. or to the discussion of literary matters. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. consisting in essays on a variety of topics.
Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. and by far the most popular ones. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop.3. at the end of the unit. on a separate sheet. The Tatler and The Spectator. If they are significantly different. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whose essays were published several times in the century. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711). 4. Think of present relevance of this remark. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking.1. think again and try to do the exercise once more. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. collected in book form. Like other writers. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing.e. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. in no more than 12 lines / 120 words.
laziness. He believes. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. skills] and industry. a rich London merchant. modest and commonsensical person. manners. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. • A clergyman. • Will Honeycomb. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword.” of wide learning. an expert in fashion and gossip.” and “his familiarity with the customs.” • Captain Sentry. He is a man of “great probity. and sloth [i. Now. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe.e. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. a gallant. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. a middle-aged squire.e. “a person of indefatigable industry*. strong reason. wit and understanding. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit. hard work and skill.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example. for instance. a model of honesty. “a very philosophic man. and great experience. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . • A gentleman who. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. in his county. bravery in battle]. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. for The Spectator. as his father had intended for him. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club. turned to the study of literature. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. a man of the world. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation. for true power is to be got by arts [i. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. • Sir Andrew Freeport. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. and the reflections of “Mr. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer.e.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. rather than a merit. a competent justice of the peace*. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. in which they collaborated.” or that “diligence [i. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. a courageous.e. generous and cheerful.
at the end of the unit. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 6. cheerful disposition. 5. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. and write them in the indicated spaces below.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. 8. more carefully. 4. 2. common sense. 1.1. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. 3. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. read again subchapter 4.3. 7. If there should be major discrepancies. Identify at least eight such features.
turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. 4. and satire became their formidable weapon. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. Political and religious dissensions. Bayes*. folly. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. are mingled: the evil conspirator. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. selfishness. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. king David. greed. 1743). 4. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . Pope. its cult of reason and common sense. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. Samuel. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. disloyal and excessively ambitious. brave and fearless man. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets.2. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. genuinely gifted for leadership. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. often touched by ironic humour. 15-18).The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4.4. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. hypocrisy.4. a passionate. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. to religious debates and literary practices. contradictions and dark aspects. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf.1. the Duke of Monmouth. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728.4. admiration and condemnation. intrigues. appears also as a stormy spirit. from political and social life. struggle for power and profit. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance.
and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. Philosophy. and Morality. Religion. more attentively.4. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. he reflects on the art of the satirist. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . are more disturbing than entertaining. imaginative inventiveness.2. and revise subchapter 4. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. concerning satire. SAQ 6 Text 4. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. If it should be significantly different. Here. imagination). Its implications. however. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Truth. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. Art. read the fragment again. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. Science. Explain this analogy.e. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit.
A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. Luggnagg and Japan IV. an uncompromising defender of truth. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. intelligent speaking horses. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. the flying island. building houses starting from the roof. Gulliver is finally expelled. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers.4.4. and literary.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). social and intellectual realities. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. Glubbdubdrib. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. with a sharp sense of observation. justice and freedom.3. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag.4. curious and resourceful. and where human creatures. In Balnibarbi. Jonathan Swift. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. In his third voyage he visits several strange places.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. From this last country.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. In his last voyage. respectively. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. In it. Balnibarbi. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. he learns about the Struldbruggs. In Luggnagg. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. a hater of pedantry and pretence. in his potential as a rational creature. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. Laputa.A Voyage to Laputa.A Voyage to Lilliput II. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. economic. Like many of his contemporaries. the Yahoos. religious. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason. bigger than himself. philosophical. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. Back in England. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. or softening marble to make pincushions.
Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. Find. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and he prefers now the company of horses. SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one).The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. 2. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind. 1. 4. from the Reader. 3. in Text 4. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. read the fragment carefully once more. at the end of the unit. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions.5.
with its religious controversies among Anglicans. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. The fourth voyage. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. issues or figures. jumping over or creeping under a stick. However.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason.6. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. In the Houyhnhnms. Gulliver. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. means de-humanisation. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. etc. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. ruled by an enlightened monarch. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. in his last adventure. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. etc. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature.4.4. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. Gulliver is confronted. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. ambitious. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. In the Yahoos. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. In Brobdingnag. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. his vulnerability increases.). its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. cruel and hypocritical. from which he chooses to leave. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. governed only by reason. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). Dissenters and Catholics.5. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. by dancing on a rope. of the capacity for affection. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. he sees ideal creatures. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. vain. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation.
Houyhnhnm and Yahoo . filthy. For many readers. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. makes him a frustrated idealist. the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope. unteachable and ungovernable. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. In a “theological” perspective.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations.
in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. find anti-utopian elements in it.6. The careful reader will. and to revise subchapter 4. If there should be major differences. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 .6. For Gulliver.4. you need to read the fragment again. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4. more carefully.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. from the Reader. however. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect.
and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. etc. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. Dryden. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment.7. Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. Dryden. placing wit above virtue. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason.g. It is an age of transition.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. and. For Swift. Pope) and in prose (Swift). Steele). which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. caricature. was another characteristic genre. grotesque. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. comedy was licentious and cynical. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony.). and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. including that of Reason itself. Like heroic tragedy (e. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. narrow-sightedness. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. on the rule of decorum. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason.4. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. Goldsmith. his learning and sense of literary tradition. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. and by means of it. Addison. Congreve. both in verse (Dryden. Swift. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. generally. dominantly middle class. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. Satire. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. when literary Neoclassicism developed. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. Dryden). Steele. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. therefore also capable of error. Pope. a wide public. Gradually. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. parody.
in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18).The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. well-dressed man. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. “Will’s Coffee House. admirer.” where Dryden would come regularly. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. For instance. achieved by training and practice. profession or interest. which designated a fashionable. coffee houses: since the 1650s. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos. and the Glossary in Unit 2. but is intended to impress others.1. In Pope’s satire. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. baroque: see again subchapter 2. or escort. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1.1. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. Art may generally refer to the work of man. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. affectation: a manner of speech. greatly concerned with appearances. his craftsmanship. dress or behaviour which is not natural. political or religious orientation. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature). In her empire of darkness and confusion. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French). They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. the acquired competence of the writer.
hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. It derives from “bay. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn.3 in Unit 1. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture.4. boring. landscape. but to the whole of created reality. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1.” another word for “laurel”. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. referring not only to external nature. and distinction. Bayes.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat.” Nature: an inclusive concept. stupidity. Mr. In Pope’s satire. “Dull” also means uninteresting. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. a strictly ordered hierarchical system. i. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. slowness in thinking and learning.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. or “humour. dulness: in a strict sense. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. inclination. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 . trait . In this kind of comedy. “Mr.e. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive.” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). honour. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. unexciting. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). from dunce. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. to deceive). Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad.
Dryden. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. i.4. making literature “dull. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world.e. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. he translated from ancient authors. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age. essays and dramatic works. perfect society (literally: “no place. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. founder of literary journalism. especially the main landowner in a village. author of poems.4 in Unit 1. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. of imagination and originality. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. and topos = place).1.3 in Unit 5. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. for the notion of sentimentalism. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. of taste or skill. or who chats or talks idly. elegant. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world.” from Greek u = not. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. polished). He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. Boileau. Among the latter.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516).4. or literature in general.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. squire: a country gentleman. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Pope. and A Modest Proposal (1729). Johnson.C. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. clear. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). Among various other works. satires and epistles. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. political and moral vices. Swift. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. Steele. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. who called him a “comic history-painter. of Irish origin. 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Goldsmith. Hogarth. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. and The Man of Mode. Sprat. Wycherley. an unequalled master of irony and wit. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. member of the Royal Society. William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. author of odes. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). and a major representative of English sentimentalism. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). concise and flexible. George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. Virgil. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). Together with Addison. Like his friend.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church.).
regardless of their particular condition. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. is. 2. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. Civilised reserve in society. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature.F.F. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. 8. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship.F.T.T. diligence. SAQ 5 honesty. common sense. sense of responsibility. 9. modesty. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i. 7.” Just as weeds (i. and. abdicating from reason. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. 6. reasonableness. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. furnished with ideas. good breeding. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . opinions and tastes.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. benevolence. good judgment.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. integrity. 4. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination.e. 5. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes. or judgment.T. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. industry. of Human nature. of those features which are universal.e. 3. In marriage. in an analogous sense. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. open-mindedness.T.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. for sophisticated Millamant. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature.T. good sense. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. by the standards of her social environment.e. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature.
Macsiniuc. 537-550) 2. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. The irrational greed and avarice. the “fineness. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult.” SAQ 7 1. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Cornelia. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses.” the subtlety of his accusations. vol. David. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. Editura Universităţii Suceava. ultimately of imagination. 2003 (pp. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. They practice population control. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. 2. which breeds imaginary ills. 5. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. English Literature and Civilisation. Ioan-Aurel (coord.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. 180-187) 3. The individual is of no importance. A Critical History of English Literature. Preda. which makes social progress inconceivable. Further reading 1. 4. 1983 (pp. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. the exclusion of opinion.). deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. which is meant only for procreation. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. Daiches.. conflict and self-interest. In the absence of affective attachment. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). The spirit of competition.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3. only the species counts. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering. The tendency to idleness. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 1969 (pp. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. The English Eighteenth Century.
18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124.2. 5. 5. 5.1. 5. 5.4. 5.4. 5.1.2. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2. 184.108.40.206.2.3.5. 5. 5.1.1. 220.127.116.11.2.3. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5. 5. 5. 5. 18.104.22.168. 5.6. 5. 22.214.171.124.4.5. 5.3. 5. 5. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 .2. 5.3.3.
confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . exotic settings. 5. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation.1. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. and generally about women. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. the rise of the middle classes. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5.1. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. whose vast majority was middle-class.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. tolerance. and the development of the novel. more inclusive reading public. whose action was often set in remote.1. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. and there is a connection between. in the early years of the 18 th century. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. natural rights. mostly imitations of French models.
by common people. or previous literature. Realism – or. Thus. but from contemporary life.1. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. The novel reflects. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. Characters are no longer idealised. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. romances were therefore literature of escape. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. in Augustan terms. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. socially and materially dependent on men. 5. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. the province of the novel was the familiar. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. in the novel.2. The ordinary aspects of life. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. By contrast. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . but distinct individualities. For most women. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. in its concerns. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. On the one hand. vague and abstract figures. On the other hand. legend. the novel’s didactic vocation. moral or psychological detail. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. history. its normality.
and 5. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. on the one hand. read again subchapters 5. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations. on the other.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. Women were … 3.2. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below. and public/social norms and conventions. … 4. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. The rise of the middle classes … 2. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. 1. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If there should be major differences. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion.1.1.
The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. but to literature as well. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. displayed not only in fiction. belonging to several categories at once. Fielding). loosely structured. forms of expression. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. Instead. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. on events. and the hero’s various encounters are.3. classic models to follow. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. the romance). examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. irony and burlesque*. but also in poetry and in drama.1. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism.g. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . inclusive. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. On the other hand. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. for the author. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. therefore an ally to realism. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. in which the action is episodic. Many novels cut across divisions. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. from which it borrowed devices.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. and extremely diverse. and the world represented in such novels is open. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. romance is trivialised through parody*. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. a wide variety of influences went into its making. The motif of the travel is central. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. patterns and motifs. confusion. i.e. Richardson).g. repetitious.
Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. It presents a tale of mystery and horror. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. ________________________ 8. at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. read again subchapter 5. ________________________ 7. usually with supernatural ingredients. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. in an atmosphere of gloom. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. at the end of the unit. ________________________ 6. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. after each sentence. 1. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration. 3.1. ________________________ 2. in their confrontation with moral choice. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres.. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. ________________________ 5. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values.3. trivial subjects. ________________________ 4.
Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. They were all stories of success. in the next years. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. This confers vividness to their narratives. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement.2. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. their social insertion. They are pragmatic. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. when the writer was almost sixty. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. Mariner. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. They share a middle class. on his fiction. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival.2. but also on the Continent. in circumstantial details. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. in actions. published in 1719.1. Puritan* background. several adventure novels. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. to the influence. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. cast in a picaresque form. dynamic and versatile. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling.
a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. he starts a voyage to Africa. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. not only physical but also spiritual. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. In the 28 years of solitary life. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. he turns from a reckless. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. After several misadventures at sea.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. to buy slaves. Providence helps him finally leave the island. one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. has three children.2. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. On his return to England. in soon left a widower. After 26 years. Wyeth . Under Defoe’s pen.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. In the hope of increasing his wealth.” It is. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. The only survivor. where he has established a colony. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. such an experience became an archetypal one.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . prudent and calculating mature man. C.2. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N.” and leaves home on board a ship. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil. He marries.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. romantic youth into a realistic. in fact.
In his initial struggle with despair. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness.2. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance.. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word.1. If it should differ considerably. to the awakening of religious conscience. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words.3. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. and 5.2.2. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. Isolation is no longer a misfortune. read again subchapters 5.2. In this light. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father). and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design.” 5. as a political or economic utopia. at the end of the unit. Gradually.
perseverance. at the end of the unit. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. or by a sentence (e. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God. 2. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise. as a self-reliant individual. Enumerate.. subchapter 5.. In this connection. or the felix culpa*.. as well as the fragment in the Reader. 4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection.” However. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot. You may render these features either by a single noun (e.2.” desires and “delights. Changed in his “notion of things.g. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life. It has its spiritual rewards. 1. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value.2. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience.2. in the space below. morally autonomous. perspicacity. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work. g. He takes pleasure in his work). food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. 3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter.3. ingenuity). which will serve his instinct for independence. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. inventiveness. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. Like Adam.
which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. concreteness. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. the promise of symbolic meanings. in the Reader from the point of view of its style. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. solid world. the frequent enumerations and inventories. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. read the fragment and subchapter 5. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking.4 once more and do the exercise again.2.2. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. which. with unmatched vividness. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. 2. whose reality is difficult to doubt.2. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. clarity. clear language. 3. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. 4. on a separate sheet. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. 1. he paid little attention to matters of form. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. His simple. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure.4. The richness of concrete detail. at the same time. containing. at the end of the unit. rendered in a simple. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. of familiar detail. His linear. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable.
Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. cruel and greedy relatives. whose affection she finally gains. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. sensibility and morality. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue.2. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. Mr. hoping that she will give in.5. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. There. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. the latter’s son. B_’s sister. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. Mr. Faced with her resistance. The plot of Pamela. not only in England but also on the Continent. as well as for his didactic purpose. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_.6. In Pamela. Mr.2. In her new state. Upon the death of her mistress. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. in Bedfordshire. His influence was considerable. B’s relatives and friends. In Clarissa. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. B_. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. unanimously loved and admired. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. recording the details of her ordeal. As the first great sentimental novelist. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. Pamela continues a diary. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. B_’s hands. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). At the same time. of the struggle between virtue and vice.
Through its subject and theme.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object.7. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. as a traditionally dominant class. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. B_. the rights of the individual. a complete novelty in fiction. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. Richardson’s implicit radical message. F. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. the freedoms that he takes with her. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment.2. to set moral standards to the nation.
Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel.6. to obey Mr. and 5. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 5. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts.e. though in quality [i. as a servant. between hate and admiration. at the end of the unit.2.2.8. If there should be significant differences. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty.7. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. read again attentively subchapters 5. Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger.”? Answer in the space left below. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations.
There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness.3. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. In Pamela’s letters and diary. on the other. excerpted from Pamela. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. 2. B_ follows a similar evolution.. What counts. read again subchapter 5.2. her sentimental response to them. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings. 1. which are captured in the process of their emergence. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. however. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader.9. on the one hand.4. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus. in the Reader). and considering also Text 5. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit.. and his developing love.
Fielding was a master of parody.1. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. and.” Mr. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. they mirror a wide range of human types. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. author of Don Quixote” (1742). More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. B_’s aunt. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. Mr. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. Cervantes. whose servant he was. Slipslop. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. priggish* upstart. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. as well as their inclusiveness. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. the author asserts himself. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. Mr. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. Pope. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. Through the omniscient* narrator. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5.3. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. At this point. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. but also by the maid. performed by means of comic satiric devices. burlesque and comic satire. but a snobbish. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. relationships and actions. 1790) 132 . including Pamela and her husband. modest and gentle creature. started as a parody.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal.3. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. so that he sets out for home. irony. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. to his native village. Mrs. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. Fielding abandons parody. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. in London. but a voice external to the story. Booby. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. Joseph’s sweetheart. All important characters meet here. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. above all. Abraham Adams.
T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status.2. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. T F 3. 1. Read Text 5. Wilson. in the spirit of comedy.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. For instance. Fielding likes to play with genres. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. whom they had met during their journey. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. alluding thus to the older genre. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”).The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. T F 7. carefully. at the end of the unit. which closes the plot. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. for true or false) for each of them. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. Mr. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. 5. is an ingredient of romantic plots. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. T F 5. read the text once more. which turns out to be gentle*. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . Cervantes. T F 4. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. T F 8.3. or the pattern of the adventurous journey.5. T F 2. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. T F 6. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key.
Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations.3. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. etc. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. in Fielding.3. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). Joseph emerges as morally mature. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. in spite of the many instances of greed. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. which often create comic effects. Like his literary ancestor. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. etc. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. doctors. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. At the same time. active goodness. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. In other words. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. as for Richardson. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. In the beginning. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. cruelty. often making him appear ridiculous. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. For the author. masters. he describes “not men. above all. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. not an individual. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. which must give substance to faith. there are both good and bad innkeepers. but manners. as he himself says. Along the novel. but also moral instruction. By means of techniques of contrast. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose.3. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. lawyers. but they placed their main interest in the individual. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . but good deeds and charity.4. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. both honest and hypocrite priests. Every social class.
he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province.8. at the end of the unit.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature.. If they should differ substantially.. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel. Explain them.. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. His commentaries and reflections on his own art. 5. Fielding is the most “Augustan. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 .2. and 5. unaffected. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each. 5.4.. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists. incorporated in the substance of his works. 5. provide the first theory of the novel.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. 1. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language.4. through its moral and temperamental types. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson.3. like many Augustan writers. 2. He is a moralist. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. 3. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. and he believes.3. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices. drawing short comparisons. read again subchapters 5. At the same time.2.2.5.
who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life.2.4. that. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. In spite of his promises. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. Walter Shandy. the narrator. is an erudite philosopher. by accident. at the age of five. corporal Trim.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. the relation between life and literature. moulds reality into a literary pattern.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. in Joseph Andrews. that he was. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). as well as of Parson Yorick. He digresses continually. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. other interesting things to relate. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. Walter. does not manage to give a shape to his story.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness.4. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Fielding had demonstrated. and his long. 5. With Sterne. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative. he seems to have. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation.4. the priest who baptised Tristram. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. Tristram. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction.” in every sense. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. of his uncle. However. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. i. unpredictable narrative. His father. at every point. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. the history of a private life.1.e. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. that his brother Bobby died suddenly.
which influences all his thoughts and actions. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. It is not type (social. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. However. Understandably. On the other hand. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. 5. with man as a vulnerable.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. above all. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. ironic terms. good-humoured.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. gentleness. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. modesty and. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. generosity. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. pitiful creature. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. The “nonsensical.4. They cannot share their thoughts. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts. as comic eccentricity. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. character and destiny. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. and discharged from the army. were being fought on the continent. absorbed in this activity. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. Wounded in Flanders.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. therefore. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. amiability.
see again the fall of princes. Ch.4. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit. Write the answer in the space left below. in the Glossary to Unit 2. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. as well as the fragment from the Reader. To remember the features of the tragic hero. If the difference is considerable. read again subchapter 5. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. Read this short chapter (Text 5. V.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. SAQ 10 In Vol. I.6.3. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words.
The structure of the book is equally odd. there are several dedications scattered through the book. with its multitude of dashes. Tristram resorts to other means of communication.5. the book is a comic oddity. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface. but also as an author. points of suspension. coherent plots.e. watched as if by a slow motion camera. and he takes great delight in digressions.4. in Sterne’s novel. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. Sterne’s rambling narrative. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language.4. by exploiting them in a parodic way. asterisks. but also to how it is told. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. i. and gives the impression of stagnation. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. Typographically. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. to a certain view of writing. etc. It is. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick. which he calls “the sunshine of reading. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight. so different from Fielding’s tight.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. makes the reader aware of them. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. The zigzagging narrative. Sterne defamiliarises them. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. the “imperfections of words. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. does not seem to move towards any climax. for instance. For example.4.” Not only as a man. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. 5. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. drawings and graphs. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in.
on the author’s vision of life. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices.4. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. however. ultimately. works which call attention to their own devices. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. Its extravagant. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. i. i.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing.” with their digressions. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. It is a half-amused. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. metafiction is fiction about fiction. The meaning of metafiction depends.e. at the structural level. as it explores – halfseriously. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. As metafiction.6. in the first four volumes. The unpredictable. Metafictionally. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness.e. In volume VI. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. which is connected. the process of its own writing. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. formless reality. the narrated time and the time of reading. of life as pure chance. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. Basically. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time.
at the end of the unit. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. go again through subchapters 5.5.. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 . If they differ significantly. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. 2. which he discusses in the very text of the work. In this way.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions.4.7. and read the fragment attentively once more. Instead of continuing the story. Write them in the spaces indicated below. 1. 3.4. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel. and 5.6.
Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. Since its settlement on the literary scene. the novel was a minor form. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. Sterne. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. Lastly. Samuel Richardson. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. Fielding. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. completely ignored by Augustan poetics. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. and Laurence Sterne. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. Henry Fielding. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. At the beginning of the 18th century. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. on the other hand. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. However. in his novels of manners.
The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). The hero – the picaro (i. in which the poor heroine. but producing a different sound. literacy: the ability to read and write. fun. whose style. Concretely. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail.e. metafiction: literally. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. Cinderella: an old fairy story. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. epistolary manner: in a novel. literally: novel of formation. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. booby: silly or stupid person. played like a piano. characteristically. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). felix culpa: see subchapter 3. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. rogue) – belongs. or “narcissistic” – i. a Fool. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. gaiety. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). exact representation of life. mirth: laughter. to the lower ranks of society. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. a hobbyhorse is a toy. or education.e. tone. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. “beyond fiction”. happiness. fixed idea. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. Bildungsroman: German term. gentle: of good breeding.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. and he seeks social integration. lifelikeness: closeness to life.
• 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. Don Quixote starts. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. Britain joined Austria. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. like a knight-errant of former times. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). 1615). Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote. The high aspirations of this generous. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. honest and brave hidalgo (i. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life.e. priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605.
The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%.1. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule. 3. Text 5. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). Horrified. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. Remember that.4.. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels.2. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. to revise the preceding unit. clarity. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. and 5.. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag.1. as illustrated by this fragment. Text 4. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. SAA no. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. 1. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. in grading your paper. You will have. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. 2. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5.4. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. therefore. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. with special attention to subchapter 4. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment.1. • the coherence. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. the king rejects this tribute. In order to win the good graces of the king.
He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. 2. In the social order. 4. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. 4. sharp sense of observation. patience. realistic account. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. the capacity for learning from mistakes. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. 3. industriousness. inventiveness. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. immediacy. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. SAQ 4 Tenacity. 5. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . SAQ 2 1. 3. concreteness. SAQ 5 factuality. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. pragmatism. plainness. optimism.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. resilience. and by the form of autobiographical record. and also authors of novels. rationality. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. all souls are equal. 6. 5. vividness. 2. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message.
F. enjoying title. 2. 3.T. 8. This is not Tristram’s case. who write in the first person. 3F. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. SAQ 7 1. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. 2. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature.F SAQ 9 1.T. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. they create a sort of suspense.T. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. he is concerned with human types.T. SAQ 8 1. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth. living and the act of writing overlap each other.T. 5. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. that is. SAQ 11 1. 7. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. 4. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. 3. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. 2. 2. wealth and power. 3. In this way. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer. 6.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i.” but in “pitiful misadventures. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. He is always a prominent figure. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely.
David. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. Cornelia. The English Novel. 2003 (pp. 37-42. 76-80) 2. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Walter. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Daiches. Allen. 116127.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 701-704.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 217-231. 1969 (pp. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 712-718. 1991 (pp. 598-602. 43-46. A Critical History of English Literature. 143-163. vol. 179-195. Macsiniuc. Penguin Books Limited. 731-736) 3. 53-59.
4. 6. 6. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2.1.4. 6.1.3. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.2. 6. 6.4. 6.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6. 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3. 6. 6. 184.108.40.206. 6.1.1. The Seasons William Cowper. 6.3. 6.1.4. 6. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 .220.127.116.11.7. 6. 6.2.3. 6. 6.4. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.18.104.22.168. 6.
Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . led to an increasing attention to emotional response.1. with its emphasis on order. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. was eminently the Age of Reason. For instance. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. Pope. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. the century of the Enlightenment*. harmony. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. discipline. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. The interest in individual psychology. Swift. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine.g. Addison. and Fielding). Neoclassicism*. The sentimental novel* (e. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. The concern with personal. and cultivated its public relevance. elegance and decorum*. and for night as a setting. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. regarded art as the product of civilisation. Like any modern age. however.
The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. death and immortality. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). wild.D. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk.1. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. and folk literature in general. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation.1. sublime landscapes. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. and misty. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. In 1765. Night Thoughts (1742-1745). Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry. which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity.2.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language.1. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. His long poem in nine books.
When his literary fraud was exposed. c. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). … 3. reflected… 4. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. The publication. in 1765. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. 1.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. Chatterton committed suicide. … a. … as well as Gothic fiction. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . with its gloomy atmosphere. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. Like James Macpherson. imagination. d. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. b. read again the previous subchapters. regarding him as a martyr. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. at the end of the unit. aspiring to poetic fame.
and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. Towards the end of the century. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. such as the song and the ballad. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . The return to blank verse 6. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. busy life of the city with moral confusion. William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. the interest in the local and national past.3. but also literary forms.2. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects. The pre. The emphasis on sentimental response. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. characteristic of the Enlightenment. The great novelists (e. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. Samuel Taylor Coleridge). A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. In the latter part of the century.1. In the following subchapters. the state of nature began to be idealised. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions.g.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
In spite of its eclectic nature. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. exerting a considerable influence on both of them.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. James Thomson. Samuel Johnson said. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. “Winter. becomes an object of interest in itself. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. than the works of Nature. praise of friends. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons. and the moral sentiment. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730).3. the philosophical reflection. in its magnificence and diversity. nature. His praise of nature and of the countryside. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . more amusing. an expression of national pride.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. and the apparent cruelty of winter. in many generations of readers. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. patriotic enthusiasm. As Dr. etc. but also the feeling for it. Britannia. not only the perception of nature.3. manifest as early as the 1730s. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. His poem educated. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. the splendour of summer. 6. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. political comments. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him.1.
One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. He was interested in the mediaeval past. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. “Autumn. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. Passages of moral and political commentary. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 . Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. unrhymed stanzas.2. from the third part. which actually inspired Thomson). religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. with its short. If there should be major differences. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. in popular superstitions and the supernatural. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly.3.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. Like Thomson and Collins. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*. William Cowper. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. at the end of the unit.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. social satire.3. read text C again. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. William Collins 6. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. records his observations and reflections. the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). more carefully. living in retirement from the city..
Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. at the end of the unit. / Paradise that has survived the fall.4. and of simple. He praises the simple pleasures. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. affected] the country. however. Coleridge). indicate an affectionate observer.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster.” Sometimes. Wordsworth. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. in the Reader.e. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. As a poet of nature. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . fearing that “The town has tinged [i. concerning the opposition country/town. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. domestic activities. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. in the 18th century. with its vices and follies. T. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. S. represents one of the most memorable statements. like gardening. but the joy of communion with friends. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. SAQ 5 Text 6. the peace and quiet of village life. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. 1856 The Task.
4. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. In Blake. William Blake. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. Each copy was then coloured by hand. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. Thomson. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. the rural setting.civilisation. widening the range of meanings. to the special way in which he produced his work. our sense of a common fate for all humanity.4. to a large extent. The combination of calligraphic text. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. Apart from a volume of early verse. He was not only a poet. In his first great illuminated work. and he rejected the classical standards of style. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. 6. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. and Macpherson.1.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. Like other pre-Romantic poets. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . but also a gifted painter and engraver. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. Milton. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. Blake’s late fame is due. Gray. he turns his attention to the rural world. and recognised as one of the most original creators.
in Blake’s last poem.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –.” This is Blake’s own creed. They are.2. Los*. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. and his whole work.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. for instance: “I copy Imagination.4. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. and he denounces the evils of civilisation.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory. unpremeditated act. in a way. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. a tribute to Milton. Jerusalem: “I must create a system.” or “I write when commanded by spirits. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). or be enslaved by another man’s.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own. The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. Like the other English Romantics. a prophet. Blake was a rebel. original and strange. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. 6. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. Blake. says.
and the three statements that are false. and its origin was visionary experience. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. T F 3.e. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. their clarity of expression and their musicality. The Blossom. For Blake. revise the whole subchapter. T F 7.4. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. enjoy] to hear. at the end of the unit. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. If you have made mistaken choices. T F 6. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Poems like Infant Joy. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. The Echoing Green. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse. 6. Laughing Song. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. Spring. T F 5.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. The Shepherd. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence.3. T F 2. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. of the world seen through the eyes of the child. T F 4. As a poet. 1.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work. innocent delights. that is. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry.
and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. in Nurse’s Song. the shepherd. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man. love. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. in his natural tendency to virtue. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity.” Throughout his work.e.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. with which Blake was acquainted. In The Echoing Green. meadow]”. Besides the children themselves. which a proper education should develop.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. In these poems. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. and absence of frustration or inhibition. “Old John. does not mean ignorance. although the sun has set. According to him. The nurse. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the guardian angel. or even Jesus. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. gratified desire. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. is a biblical allusion. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination.” can “laugh away care. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. with white hair. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. The good shepherd. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. For Blake. Innocence. associated with childhood. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination.
at the end of the unit. in the Reader. and in which he represents to himself its “making. If there should be a significant difference between them. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 .” Answer in the space below. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb.
of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. standing equal before God.5. However. In London.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. in which man’s lot is hard work. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. even sarcastic. often. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. society and divinity. 6. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. full of indignation and anger. of “stony laws*”. love and joy have been replaced by fear. nature. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. envy and deceit.4. but. In the fallen state of Experience. or the mind of others.4. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. disease. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. for instance. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. which deny man his freedom. protesting against the evils of his time. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. which is a promise of divine mercy. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. for instance. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. the ethical and social implications are more obvious.4. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them. i. the thirst for war. Like the chimney sweeper. hate. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. In The Chimney Sweeper*. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. poverty and oppression. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state.e. In Songs of Experience. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . when this life ends.
The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. innocent question (“Little Lamb. you]?) and his own answer.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below. at the end of the unit. provoking more anxiety than certainty. who made thee [i.6. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. by ambiguity and even obscurity. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions.4. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. If it should differ in major respects. in Songs of Experience. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most.6. with no explicit answer. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary.e. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. Read this poem – Text 6. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. dangerous tiger. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work.
168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture. a stern. and he is also a child. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination.” or with a “multitude of lambs. He displays. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. bearing even the same titles. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church. tyrannical figure. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. but with ways of seeing and feeling. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence.” which lead to contrary visions.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. in Blake’s view.4. This is the God of the world of Experience. They reveal. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. “contrary states of the human soul. was responsible. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. and His Priest. since those are “babes reduced to misery. in Songs of Experience. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. which are thus strengthening their own power. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. with its “mysteries”*. The church. Reason and Energy*. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. In the poem of Innocence. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. for keeping man at a distance from God. A deeply religious person.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life.7. Contraries are essential to progression. indeed. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. served by the institutionalised churches. in fact.” In the counterpart poem.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church.
but he is no longer able to do that. at the end of the unit. except as an act of remembering. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state.7. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted.4. and read the poem again more carefully. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 .1.4.2. revise subchapters 6.. If there should be major differences between them. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. to regain the vision of Innocence. to 6.
The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. nature-civilisation. The last subchapter. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings.4. In subchapter 6. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. 6. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. the interest in early poetry. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. imagination and feelings. g. The “Graveyard” poets (e. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. Subchapter 6. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. now threatened by the march of Progress. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination..3.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts.2. The other feature is primitivism. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other.. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past.
Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. Their father was Zeus.2. and horror. the enclosures meant ruin. graveyards. Haunted castles. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). favour melancholy or morbid themes. ruins. as the next subchapter will show. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. for instance. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. decorum: see subchapter 4. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. goddess of Memory. Energy: for Blake. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. Ireland and Wales. putting fences round) common land. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. passion. which they could climb more easily. in Unit 4. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. Sometimes. Initially. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. Imagination was free Energy. Gray is sadly ironic. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. Celtic: related to the Celts. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records.e. or Erse. which has survived in parts of Scotland. for the sake of more profitable farming. For the small farmers.2. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery.
The Book of Los. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century.2. See also subchapter 4. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament.. in Unit 3. the Passions. Among the most important of them are America. used to secure the hands of a prisoner.1. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. with His laws formulated as interdictions. Pity. belonging to the beginnings. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. The Book of Urizen. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. to attend the religious service. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. the 39th day after Easter. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. philosophical and political convictions. A Prophecy. as well as against the sophistication. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. etc.1. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture.3. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. wild landscapes. Paul’s Cathedral. on which the Ten Commandments were written.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Jerusalem. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. in Unit 5. orphaned children from the charity schools to St.3.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. The custom in London was to bring the poor. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. or of gold or silver paint. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. Milton. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. in Unit 1. primitive: original. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. 2 in Unit 4. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. The Four Zoas. etc.
gardens or estates. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection. 6. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate.). He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task. in grading your paper. 6.11. clarity.. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau.” usurous: from usury. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. SAA no.13.. • the coherence. The Chimney Sweeper.. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest. Remember that. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762). Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. meant to win a patron’s favour. 6.9.. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. Send-away assignment no. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%).8. with his law of love. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 . and 6.10.12. 6. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution.
Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty. the vagants’] wanderings. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. in which everything seems to be in decline. disease and poverty. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. nor wished to change his place” 3. Meditation leads to illumination. the “feeble. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. love of nature. or seek for power. “He chid their [i. but relieved their pain” 6. d. In the city. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. on his soul. 3. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. b. c SAQ 2 1. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. For Cowper. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. “Unpractised he to fawn. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. Nor e’er had changed. and love of man.e. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 4. and on his thoughts. 2. Its bare. a. the “drooping weary” father. all intensified.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life.
The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. F. Man. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. a child’s birth is no cause for joy.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. In the second stanza. and is itself one more care in the family. In the simple economy of the poem. “My mother groaned. in Blake’s vision. T. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. In a vision of Innocence. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. the God of Love. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. T. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. the “Lamb of God. in the state of Experience. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. 4.” that is. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. 7. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. T. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . and. F. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. meadow. therefore. At the same time. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. which he has lost. 3. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. but are symbols of limitation. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. 6. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. 2. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. 5.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. confinement and oppressive authority. being thus a source of oppression. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. 2. T. against which man. struggles in vain. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature.
Ford. 652-658. 84-94) 3.5 (“From Blake to Byron”). 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”).. Penguin Books Ltd. 671-684. 1969 (pp. Boris (ed. Daiches. 1991 (pp.). vol.4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). 1991 (pp. vol. Penguin Books Ltd. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Further reading 1.. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . vol. Boris (ed.). 692-699) 2. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Ford. A Critical History of English Literature..English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. David.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
şi totuşi. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. look you. forewent.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. pentru mine. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). the earth. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. pământul. foregone* all custom of exercises. of late recently wherefore why. văzduhul. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. seems to me a sterile promontory. vedeţi. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp.1. Hamlet (Act II. – but wherefore* I know not. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. într-adevăr. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . this brave* overhanging* firmament*. to me. alcătuirile şi mişcările. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. acest preaminunat baldachin. cum să spun. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. this most excellent canopy*. – lost all my mirth*. the air. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. William Shakespeare. in moving. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. încât acest frumos tărâm. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. the sky) brave minunat.excelent. şi.g. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego.
to creep.3. a poor player. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. sore* labour’s bath. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. Out*. and tomorrow. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. The death of each day’s life. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . William Shakespeare. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. Macbeth (Act II. El.Reader TEXT 2. ţanţoş. desfirat. it is a tale Told by an idiot. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. Balm of hurt minds. Signifying nothing. trivial. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). To the last syllable of recorded time. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. a se furişa) petty inessential. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. full of sound* and fury. and tomorrow. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. semeţ. great nature’s second course*. Macbeth (Act V.” the innocent sleep. And then is heard no more.2. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. TEXT 2. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. trifling (mărunt. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. out. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. William Shakespeare.
cruel. Took pains to make thee speak. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. a suporta therefore as a result. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. a bâigui) brutish coarse. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Un biet actor. redus. netrebnic. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. abject. Which any print* of goodness will not take. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. The Tempest (Act I. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. tot mereu. Know thine* own meaning. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. TEXT 2. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. nasty (josnic. sălbatic. William Shakespeare. mârşav. mărginit) shameful and evil. Caliban: You taught me language. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. Te stinge. savage. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. stupid (necioplit. Though thou didst learn*. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi.4. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. ticălos) race neam. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*.
ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. literary) truly. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. shall dissolve And. chiar pământul. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. toţi. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. These our actors. framework (clădire. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. se vor topi Şi. etc. Leave not a rack* behind. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. când tu. palate mândre. colour. The cloud-capped towers*. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. The solemn temples. William Shakespeare. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. fiară. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. structure. au fost. the gorgeous palaces. Scoteai doar mugete. În stare de orice. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. pe drept. Te-am învăţat de toate. foretold: a anunţa. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. duhuri.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. dar. into thin air: And. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. Te-am surghiunit aici. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. temelie) fabric building. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. the great globe itself. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. Yea*. TEXT 2. all which it inherit. As I foretold* you. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. dar proasta-ţi fire. The Tempest (Act IV. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. duşi.5. Actorii Ţi-am spus. Biserici maiestoase. consistency.
If they be two. And whisper* to their souls. And though it in centre sit. But trepidation of the spheres. Such wilt* thou* be to me. to go.6. Thy* soul the fixed foot. is innocent. and hearkens* after it. Care less eyes. they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. which are one. and hands to miss. Though I must go. It leans*. Yet when the other far doth roam*.Reader Făcute-s visele. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. And grows erect*. obliquely run. But we by a love so much refined. Men reckon* what it did and meant. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. and make no noise. if the other do. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. Like the other foot. Though greater far. No tear-floods. endure* not yet A breach*. The breath goes now. where I begun. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. And makes me end. no: So let us melt*. Like gold to aery thinness beat. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. but an expansion. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but doth. as that comes home. who must. John Donne. and some say. Our two souls therefore. makes no show To move. nor sigh-tempests* move. That our selves know not what it is. Inter-assured of the mind*. lips. TEXT 2. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love.
a lua cu sila. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. That I may* rise.: inflexibil. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. you As yet* but knock. but oh. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. Divorce me. datorat to labour to work hard. to struggle to no end vainly. shine. I. never shall be free. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. for I Except your enthrall* me. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. a rătăci to lean. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. me should defend. o’erthrow me*. Yet dearly I love you. or break that knot again. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. three-personed God*. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. exact Text 2. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. breathe. and would be loved fain*. a elibera to enthrall a supune. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. fig. imprison me. blow. Take me to you. precis. and seek to mend. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. ferm. and bend Your force*. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. a înrobi. and make me new.7. untie*. and proves weak or untrue*. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. overthrown: a nimici. rupture stiff rigid. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. burn. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . overthrew. to another due*. Labour* to admit you. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. to no end*. and stand. like an usurped town. leant a se apleca. for. except you ravish* me. to break. to undergo breach break. Reason your viceroy* in me. But is captived.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. Nor ever chaste. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. apply your force due cuvenit. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. John Donne.
And the last age should show your heart. Thy beauty shall no more be found. And now. Lady. and pass our long love’s day. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. Now let us sport* while we may. For. Two hundred to adore each breast. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. But none. But thirty thousand to the rest. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. you deserve this state*. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. I think. This coyness*. We would sit down. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. were no crime. do there embrace. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. like amorous birds of prey. Andrew Marvell.8. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. Thus. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. and think which way To talk. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Nor. and on thy* forehead gaze. Lady. yet we will make him run. and time. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. if you please.Reader TEXT 2. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. Now therefore. in thy marble vault*. shall sound My echoing song. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. And you should. Nor would I love at lower rate. An age at least to every part. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes.
torn) a smulge. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. a lâncezi. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. peculiar. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . nuanţă. which. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece.: swift. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. patimă) grave mormânt. in spite of her coyness. sfială.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. fig. groapă youthful de tinereţe. tineresc hue culoare. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore.
John Milton. or soon or slow. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. however mean* or high. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. All is. the subtle* thief of youth. to prevent That murmur*. if I have grace to use it so. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. Ere* half my days. and present My true account. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. in this dark world and wide. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness.2. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. obscure. destiny mean humble. but Patience. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . John Milton. speed. light denied*?” I fondly* ask.1. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. Toward which time leads me. lucky endueth endues. which endues some more timely-happy spirits.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. Yet be it less or more. rush bud mugur. appears [in me] much less – i. who best Bear his mild yoke*. returning. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. opportune happy fortunate. chide*. a strict overseer TEXT 3. lest he. and the will of heaven. they serve him best. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
in the day Ye eat thereof*. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. ye* shall not die. or this tree Impart against his will. and ye shall be like Gods. What can your knowledge hurt him. Warmed by the Sun. ye you (pl. that Man may not become As they. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. 4. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. Queen of the Universe. His worshippers? He knows that. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. and that advantage use On our belief.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. John Milton. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . that all from them proceeds*. I question it. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. by venturing* higher than my lot.8.Reader TEXT 3. Goddess humane. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. reach* then. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. for this fair* Earth I see. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. as they know. and freely taste. 3. your eyes. by the Threatener? look on me. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. Me who have touched and tasted. Why. Knowing both good and evil. Them nothing. producing every kind. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. then. And what are Gods.
beheld to behold. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. The world was all before them. Through Eden took their solitary way.9. beheld (archaic. They. looking back. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. where to choose Their place of rest. and Providence their guide. Waved over by that flaming brand*. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They. John Milton. so late* their happy seat*. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. but wiped them soon.Reader TEXT 3. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. hand in hand. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . with wandering steps and slow.
Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. wherever I am. William Congreve. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. and ashamed of one another ever after. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. to be sole* empress of my tea table. as if we were proud of one another the first week. Come to dinner when I please. reserved well-bred binecrescut. to provoke eyes and whispers*. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. (…) fond affectionate. because they may be your relations*. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus.1. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. nor kiss before folks*. so far trifle fleac. to write and receive letters. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. To have my closet* inviolate*. Let us never visit together. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. manierat. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . because they are your acquaintance. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. to wear what I please. and then never be seen there together again. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. And lastly. without giving a reason. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. or to be intimate with fools. nor go to a play together.
or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. ticălos. a blockhead*. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Particular manners* may be known to few. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body.3. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. the poet of nature.Reader TEXT 4. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. at least above all modern writers. măcelărire fineness eleganţă.2. which can operate but* upon small numbers. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. descendenţi to supply a oferi. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. Samuel Johnson. but just representations of general nature. variabil fanciful capricios. pungaş. and leaves it standing in its place. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. a livra. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. above all writers. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. potlogar villain nemernic. Shakespeare is. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. escroc. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. dobitoc. secătură. unpractised by the rest of the world. cap sec knave escroc. successfully irregular neuniform. John Dryden. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. rogue pungaş. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. and please long. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many.
A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. either in a prince or a minister. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. For I remember very well. and the fortunes of his people.4. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings.Reader TEXT 4. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. and transcendentals*. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. The learning of this people is very defective. And as to ideas. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. great wisdom. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. and profound learning. Jonathan Swift. love. refinement and intrigue. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. should from a nice*. entities. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. and mathematics. to justice and lenity*. of strong parts. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. history. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. and almost adored by his subjects. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. poetry. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. and esteem. in a discourse one day with the King. so that among us would be little esteemed. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. abstractions. endued* with admirable talents for government. unnecessary scruple. the liberties. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. consisting only in morality.
boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. in some fields of his country. our manners. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. but not in themselves. arts. speed. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. a i se încredinţa (e. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. and the like. than any of the rest. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. a asigura. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. Ch. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. which all could see in the rest. For. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. and mischievous* in disposition. manufactures*. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. as sometimes happens. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. there are certain shining stones of several colors. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. Jonathan Swift. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. so. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. from the representation I had given him of our lives. as I had described them. and our actions. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. they will instead of eating peaceably. fall together by ears*. and activity. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. but still looking round with great caution. and therefore* to protect himself. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. a fi iniţiat în. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious.5. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. without delay determination rezolvare. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. the shortness of my claws*. (…) As to learning. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. government. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. (…) That. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. to restrict bound limit.g. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. and carry them away.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
and. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. such as the potters* burn in. and bear* the fire. ugly things I made. Daniel Defoe. When I saw them clear red. how many of them fell in*.. which none of these could do. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. or rather laugh at me.Reader TEXT 5. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. and red as a tile*. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. and observed that they did not crack at all*. which it did admirably well. I was agreeably surprised to see it. and placed my firewood* all round it. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. after having laboured hard to find the clay. and pipkins*. flat dishes*. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. (fell. anevoios. pitchers*. or glazing* them with lead*. in a word how. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. with a great heap of embers* under them. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. a cădea fell out to fall. so as to make it burn me some pots. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. a frământa. de pământ jar oală. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*.2. misshapen*. (fell. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). to pity a căina awkward incomod. But all this would not answer my end*. though I had some lead to do it with. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. a se desprinde clay lut. to dig* it. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. to temper* it. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. and how many fell out*. I had no notion of a kiln*. fallen) out: a se desface. and any things my hand turned to*. It happened after some time. one upon another. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. what odd. to bring it home and work it. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. being set out too hastily*. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*.
placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. when I expected some new plot*. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. durere. apogeu distress nefericire. plin de viaţă) height culme. did I say! […] I know not how it came. But to be sure*. intenţie to bear (bore. in which he confesses his affection for her. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. O my unguarded* youth. and before I knew what was the matter. born) a rezista. Samuel Richardson. upon me. is not a voluntary thing – Love. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. I am quite overcome*. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. to my grief*. can be. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. than the dry*. so much affection. nor when it began. and tender years*. like a thief. dubious uncertain. but it has crept*. I had no reason to expect. punct culminant. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. to find him capable of so much openness. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*.4. Samuel Richardson. scop. a depăşi) TEXT 5. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. I beseech* you. crept. I imagine. I must own* to you. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. B_. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. […] Forgive. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. This was a good fortune. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel.Reader dish blid. that my heart was too partial* in his favour.] This letter. but now. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5.3. forgive me! but I found. and of so much honour too. however. my dear father. before. narrative. it looked like love. chinuri womb pântece. has greatly affected me. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. […] O my dear parents. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. and so it is: but love. nay*. a învinge. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say.
that as in the one these are grave and solemn. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. and resignation to the Divine Will. I think. and therefore*. before summons* came. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. In the diction. în consecinţă to tear (tore. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. I hope. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. întristat. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl.5. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. sever grief durere. to consider of this. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. a rupe memorandum notă. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. însemnare TEXT 5. only dangerous attacks! After all. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. Yet. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. when I get home. for there it is never properly introduced.e. in its sentiments and diction*. in this. containing a much larger circle of incidents. Henry Fielding. [Memorandum*. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. who had used me so hardly. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. and introducing a greater variety of characters. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . torn) out a smulge. O my treacherous*. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. and to one too. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. for giving up so weakly. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. as I thought. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit.) treacherous trădător (adj. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. differing from comedy. and consequently. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. thy whole self. of inferior manners. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*.] plot uneltire. or tear* it out of my writing. a implora grieved amărât. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. în mod clar rigorous aspru.
Now. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. It may be likewise noted. that. not men. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. is more surprising. and. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. though. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. to the degree he would be thought to have it. which that of the hypocrite hath. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. arises from the surprising absurdity. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. if we examine it. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*.Reader burlesque kind. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . […] Now. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. Burlesque is in writing. in order to purchase* applause. it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. than when from vanity. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. Indeed. or e converso*. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. it be nearly allied to deceit*. as they proceed* from very different motives. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. therefore. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. yet. And here I shall observe. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. or hath not the virtue he affects. which this is not intended to be. and consequently more ridiculous. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. and where our delight. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. yet when it comes from vanity only. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. what Caricatura is in painting. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man.
but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. fig.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . which at first moved our compassion. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. tend* only to raise our mirth*. cu stângăcie. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. But for not being what they would be thought*. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility.: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. smaller faults. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. of our pity.
7. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. my work is digressive. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. I fear. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. been overlooked* by my reader. and reconciled. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. nefericit TEXT 5. and that I fly off* from what I am about. or expected indeed. not for want of penetration* in him. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. – and at the same time. povară signal însemnat. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. two contrary motions are introduced into it. Laurence Sterne. on my conscience.Reader TEXT 5.6. which. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. dirty planet of ours. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. Tristram Shandy (Vol. Gentleman. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. a izbuti. the merit of which has all along. in a digression. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. – not but the planet is well enough*.I. and it is progressive too. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. with reverence be it spoken*. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. as you observe. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. I wish I had been born in the Moon. Laurence Sterne. to annoy ungracious răutăcios. In a word.
his whole work stands stock-still*. and forbids the appetite to fail. but also of the author. if he begins a digression. cum trebuie. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. This is vile work*. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. brings in variety. For which reason. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. has been kept agoing. restore them to the writer. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . whose distress*. then there is an end of his digression. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*.Reader Digressions. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. you might as well take the book along with them. is truly pitiable*: For. incontestably. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. that the whole machine. – and. in general. bids* All hail*. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. from that moment. – they are the life. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. the soul of reading. you see. – take them out of this book for instance. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. are the sunshine. what’s more. from the beginning of this. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. one wheel within another*. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. I observe. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. and if he goes on with his main work. in this matter.
or seek for power. devout (evlavios. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. but his sad emblem now. croit to prize a preţui. he climbed the loftiest bough*. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. cortegiu şir chid to chide. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. Oliver Goldsmith. chid: to rebuke. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. Or hers. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. Nor e’er* had changed. Or theirs. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. modelat. a alina.2. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. nor wished to change his place. Unpracticed he to fawn*. The Deserted Village A man he was. Go. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. passing rich trecând drept bogat. a mângâia) TEXT 6. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . hoinar. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. look within. distant godly pious. He chid* their wanderings*. propped* on that rude* staff*. the matron* pale. a boy.1. Then his first joy. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. and ask if peace be there. to scold (a dojeni. cerşetor train alai. Who. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. to all the country dear.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. George Crabbe. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest.
unconfined*. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. and man made the town. As varied. Inflames imagination. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. The Task (1785) God made the country. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. What wonder then that health and virtue. to stimulate. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy.3. William Cowper. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt. linişte. Of human race. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. sorbitură grove crâng. jalnic. and. coarse. sprijinit. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . urmaş feeble plăpând. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. chief*. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. simple. generos ease tihnă.) gentle nobil. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. nenorocit hearth vatră. and as high: Devotion. The love of Nature. o’er over to exalt to raise. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. James Thomson. ales.Reader ye you (pl.4. rezemat rude rudimentary. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. pace smooth calm. părinte offspring vlăstar. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. With all the social offspring of the heart*. to elevate.
cuminte. Little Lamb. Struggling in my father’s hands.Reader TEXT 6.6. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. a înlănţui. I’ll tell thee. a închide weary tired. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. Little Lamb. Gave thee clothing of delight. Helpless. to groan a geme. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. William Blake. naked. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. We are called by his name.5. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. Softest clothing. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . William Blake. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. a ţâşni. my father wept*. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. wooly* bright. supus) mild gentle. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. Gave thee such a tender voice. not violent (blajin. Little Lamb. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. piping* loud. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. and bid thee feed*. Striving against my swaddling bands*. Bound* and weary*. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. leapt: a sări. bound: a lega strâns. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. God bless thee. and he is mild*. God bless thee. gentle and uncomplaining (blând.
And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*.Reader TEXT 6. So I turned to the Garden of Love. And the hills are all covered with sheep. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. And I saw it was filled with graves*. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. green pajişte verde at rest calm.” “No. for it is yet day.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. And every thing else is still. well. a sălta. My heart is at rest* within my breast. And laughing is heard on the hill.7. And the dews* of night arise. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . Where I used to play on the green. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. William Blake. in the sky the little birds fly. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. bore.” “Well. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. the sun is gone down. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie. no. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. let us play. Besides. “Then come home my children. Come.8. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind. William Blake. tranquil. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. go and play till the light fades away*. come leave off play. And then go home to bed. That so many sweet flowers bore*. And we cannot go to sleep.
and that very night. never mind it. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy.9. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. the sun is gone down.” And so he was quiet. Dick. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. Tom was happy and warm. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. Then come home. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. for when your head's bare. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. Then down a green plain leaping. all their bags left behind. weep. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. whisperings şoapte. Tom. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. a irosi TEXT 6. they run. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. There’s little Tom Dacre. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. freamăt dale vale. And wash in a river. and we rose* in the dark. and shine in the Sun. William Blake. Joe. William Blake. And the dews of night arise. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. My face turns green* and pale. my children. They rise upon clouds. Then naked and white. Though the morning was cold.Reader TEXT 6. if he'd be a good boy. they need not fear harm. And so Tom awoke. And the Angel told Tom. As Tom was a-sleeping. and sport* in the wind. foşnet. And your winter and night in disguise. So if all do their duty. and in soot* I sleep. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black.10. Ned and Jack. laughing. weep.
sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets).Reader chimney sweeper coşar. They think they have done me no injury*. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. Then cherish* pity. Crying “weep*. The hum* of multitudes was there. a se deştepta TEXT 6. William Blake. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. Because I was happy upon the heath*. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. And smiled among the winter’s snow. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. coşciug by aproape. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. wise guardians of the poor. risen): a se scula. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. potoleşte-te. but multitudes of lambs. their innocent faces clean. William Blake. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. O what a multitude they seemed.12. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu.11. They clothed me in the clothes of death. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. alături. And because I am happy and dance and sing. Beneath them sit the aged men. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. with wands* as white as snow. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. în preajmă to sport a zburda. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. hornar sold to sell.
For where-e’er* the sun does shine. lugubru bare gol. It is eternal winter there. Nor poverty the mind appal*. William Blake. And their ways are filled with thorns*. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . re-built th in the late 17 century. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. the 40 day after Easter. soft. a iubi) lest ca să nu. who helped the priest in various ways. fruitful fecund. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London.13. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. And where-e’er the rain does fall. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. and to the Last Judgement. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. a goni TEXT 6. Babe can never hunger there. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. neroditor thorn spin.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. rece. sterp. fertil.
or. Oxford University Press. edited. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. William.. edited with an introduction by Arthur Humphreys. 7 (Macbeth). vol.. Samuel.English pre-Romantic poetry Sources Abrams. Joseph Andrews and Shamela. Craig. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. Penguin Books. W. H (Gen. Opere complete. 1965 Fielding. XI (Furtuna) Bucureşti: Editura pentru Literatură Universală. The Complete Works. Clarissa. William. or the History of a Young Lady. Norton & Company. 1993 Defoe. Pamela. Penguin Books Ltd. I. Ltd. 1984) Sterne. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 1988 Shakespeare. William. with and introduction by Margaret Ann Doody. London: W. edited with an Introduction by Angus Ross. Dent and Sons Ltd. London: Henry Pordes. II New York. Ed.J. Opere complete. Penguin Books Ltd. 1963 Shakespeare. vol. 1987 Milton. Leviţchi. Gentleman. John. London and Melbourne: J. M. The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. edited with an introduction by Ian Campbell Ross. 1996 Richardson. Daniel. M. ediţie îngrijită şi comentată de Leon D.. Penguin Books Ltd. Paradise Lost.. vol.. ed. William. ediţie îngrijită şi comentată de Leon D.). 1980 Shakespeare. Opere. by Peter Sabor. with a glossary by W. 1986 Shakespeare. Laurence. Henry. Samuel. Mariner. 5 (Hamlet). Leviţchi. 1983 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 215 . 1985 Richardson. Virtue Rewarded. Vols. edited with an introduction by Angus Ross. Bucureşti: Editura Univers.
R. 1967 Cuddon. Partial Magic. Clive (ed. Oxford University Press. Penguin Books Ltd. History of English Literature. New York: W. Peter. 1985 Fairer. Leavis). 1979 Cartianu. 1970 Corns. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. A. 1975 Bloom. David. Literatura europeană în epoca luminilor. Norton and Company. The Novel as a Self-Conscious Genre. Émile. Ana. The Poetry of Alexander Pope. Inc. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică. The Mid-Eighteenth Century. Cornelia. 3). Gulliver’s Travels. London: Penguin Books. 1991 Greenberg. 2. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 1993 Allen. Representation and the Popular Imagination. M. Norton & Company.). Berkeley. The English Novel..). Robert A. 1987 216 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Cambridge Companion to English Poetry. Penguin Books. The Poetry of William Blake..). Joseph Andrews. Penguin Books. 1991 Ford. 1660-1837. New York. 5). Penguin Books Ltd. (vols. V. H (Gen... Boyson and J. Margaret (ed. 1971 Legouis. Vols. 1961 Hammond. I. Novel and Romance. The Novel in Its Beginnings. London and New York: Routlege. Donne to Marvell¸ Cambridge University Press.. (ed. David. 1992 Daiches. David. London: University of California Press. The Macmillan Press Ltd. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. 1993 Coveney. John. Romanticism.. London: W. 2003 McDermott. Michael.. The Norton Anthology of English Literature.F. Inc.). London: Penguin Books Ltd. 1996 Day. Thomas N (ed. Gerald (ed. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature (vols. Bucureşti: Editura Enciclopedică Română. W. An Annotated Text with Critical Essays. Los Angeles. 1963 Drabble. A Short History of English Literature (transl. Aiden. Twayne Publishers. Jonathan Swift.). The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Romul.). 4. Walter.. Ioan Aurel Preda (eds. The Odyssey to Tom Jones. Ed.. 3. 1969 Day. Jacobean Poetry and Prose: Rhetoric. 1988 Butt. W. J. Robert. II New York. 1989 Ferber. 1991 Alter. Hubert. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. A Critical History of English Literature.). Penguin Books Ltd.. Macmillan Education Ltd. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Jonathan Swift.Bibliography SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams. Robert. Boris (ed. 1965 Macsiniuc. 1989 Munteanu. 1988 Hunting. 1974 Nokes. Coulson). Martin.). The Image of Childhood (with an introduction by F.. Garden City: Doubleday & Company. Dicţionar al Literaturii Engleze. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. The English Eighteenth Century. The Metaphysical Poets.
Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature. 1983 Sampson. Cambridge University Press. Tudor. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. Blake and the New Age. 3). studiu introductiv şi note de Dan Grigorescu. Bucureşti: Editura “Grai şi suflet – Cultura naţională”. 1979 Richetti.” 2000 Watt. 1996 Robert. 1994 Protopopescu. Richardson and Fielding. A Survey of English Literature from Beowulf to Jane Austen. Fenomenul englez (vol. Romanul începuturilor şi începuturile romanului. The Literature of the Beginnings. English Literature and Civilisation. Studies in Defoe.). Luminiţa Elena. Editura Universităţii Bucureşti. 2003 Raine. Dragoş. George. Ian. Marthe. Ioan-Aurel (ed. Kathleen. Morfologia romanului european în secolul al XVIIIlea. Ioan-Aurel. 2003 Volceanov. Chatto & Windus. Cambridge University Press. Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei “România de Mâine. 1970 Turcu. Studies in Eighteenth Century Fiction and Romantic Poetry. John (ed. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. 1983 Preda. Bucureşti: Editura Univers.). George. London: George Allen and Unwin.Bibliography Olteanu. 1974 Preda. ediţie îngrijită. The Cambridge Companion to the EighteenthCentury Novel. 1974 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 217 . The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Ian. Editura Universităţii Suceava. The Rise of the Novel. Four Myths of Individualism. 1991 Watt. Cambridge University Press.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.