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Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
2. 4. 3. 18.104.22.168.4. 3.5.1. 22.214.171.124. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4. 4.5. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2.2. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton. 126.96.36.199.3.1.Contents 2.4. 188.8.131.52. 4. 3. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.7. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. 3. 18.104.22.168.4.3. 3. 4.2. 2.4. 4.6.1. 3. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3. 2. 2. 22.214.171.124. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.4.1. 3. 3. 3. 184.108.40.206.8. 3.5. 3.1. 3.4. 220.127.116.11. 3.
5. 4. 4.1.8. 5. 4. 4. 5.4.2. 4.4. 18.104.22.168. 5.4.4. 5. 4. 5. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2. 188.8.131.52.4. 5.7. Gulliver. 5.3.1. 4. 5. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.184.108.40.206. 5.5.2. 220.127.116.11.1.2. 5.3.4. 5.5.2. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage. 4.4.1. 5. 5.1.5. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5.3.Contents 4.3. 4.5. 5.2. 4. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124.1.2.3. 5.7. 5.2.2. 5.3. 5. 126.96.36.199.4. 188.8.131.52.3.6.6. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.4.
1. 184.108.40.206.2.2. 6.3. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.4. The Seasons William Cowper. 6.1.4. 6.4. 6. 220.127.116.11.2. 6. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 18.104.22.168. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 22.214.171.124.3. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 6. 6. 6. 6.4. 6. 6. 6.3. 6.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No. 126.96.36.199.2.2.2. 6.1.1. 188.8.131.52.3.
Course objectives As already mentioned. Defoe.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. Milton. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. a carrier of values. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. Fielding. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. In this way. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. Blake. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. Being concerned with aspects of literary history. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. Swift. by encouraging your response to particular texts. 3. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. among others). Before starting your study. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. 2.
Neoclassicism. in a given text. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. as part of your overall assessment. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. the Baroque. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. a list of key words. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. Besides them. the Augustan Age. By the end of your study of this course. a Glossary. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. • 4. Each unit. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors.g. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. in its turn. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . characterisation. the Restoration. and a Gallery of personalities. a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary.g. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style.
Richardson. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. as well as major representatives. They appeal not only to your memory.Introduction 4. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. Fielding and L. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. S. and with the evolution of this genre.1. Defoe. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . Sterne –. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. The variety of these learning tasks will. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. hopefully. and to draw your own conclusions. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. and Augustan satire.2. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). the epic poem Paradise Lost. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. • 4. with main focus on Jonathan Swift. H.
an author’s work. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. fragment) • complete sentences. etc. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. etc. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period.. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below).3. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. symbolic elements. stylistic features. line. and. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. the title of a work. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. if the case may be. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. 4. characterisation. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. in the literary text you were asked to work on. at the end of the unit. summarise its argument. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. with the typological definition of a work. etc. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. narrative technique.
The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources. for the Great Chain of Being*. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. if necessary or desired. • Further reading. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. not just Being. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit.3. with the pages where you may find relevant information.1.Introduction 4. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. For instance. in Unit 1. will also appear in Units 5 and 6. Some terms may recur in several units.4. but the phrase of which that word is part. the term Enlightenment. Thus. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). Sometimes. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 . Most of the books included there are available in any University library. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit.3. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit.1. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. at the end. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). For example. other instruments meant to assist your study.
and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. and 6. the number of tasks. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. this should not take you too much time. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. difficult. SAA no. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. 5. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. As the texts are not very long. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). try to read each fragment more than once.lIntroduction 4. before you start solving the task. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. In any case. especially the poetry texts. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. while SAA no. 5. The table below represents the place. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3.5.2 will cover units 4 and 5.
and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs.1 SAA no. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. • the coherence. You may. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 .Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. 2. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. 2. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. 1. half of the answer is already contained in the question. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. 1. If you have no possibility to type your assignment. whose reading may take you some extra time. If your level of proficiency is lower. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. however. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks. 6. your course work may take you more time. Of these hours. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). theoretically. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). clarity. 3. As in the case of the SAQs. Most of the time. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1.2 SAA no. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours.
forms and styles. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. according to a pre-established schedule. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. glossary. and gallery of personalities). representative authors. which you must write and send to your tutor. respectively. list of key words. whose content follows a chronological line. At the end of Units 3. together.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. a revision of the course material.2 SAA no. Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. It is structured in six units of study. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. of the evolution of literary genres. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. there are SAAs. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. as well as a list of suggested further reading. and 6. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. 5. as 40% of the final grade. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. The three assignments will count.3 3 3 8 SAA no. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text.
3.5. 1.1. 184.108.40.206. 1.3. 1. 1.4. 1.1.5. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 . 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 220.127.116.11.4.4.2. 1. 1. 1. 1.1.1. 18.104.22.168.4.1.
Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. philosophy. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought.1. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. social and economic life.1. religion. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. science. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. as the Enlightenment is often described. Political. The rise. 10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . marked the entrance into modernity. 1. at the end of this period. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. in the latter part of the 17th century. attitudes and practices. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. mentalities. of the Enlightenment. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. literature. a powerful flourishing nation. obscurantism and intolerance. The gradual achievement of political stability. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture.1. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. as well as the faith in progress.
a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. This new faith – Deism. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 .” 1. was an evidence of the creator’s good will.1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. or Natural Religion –. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. in particular. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. to reconcile Reason and Faith. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. in 1662. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. The Royal Society endeavoured.2. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science. the “universal Architect. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. and it was essentially optimistic. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. under the patronage of Charles II. in a systematic effort. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age.
but also affective and instinctual.4.1. T F 3. The poet Alexander Pope indicated. the central concern of the Enlightenment. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. T F 2. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. appropriately. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). with its belief in the perfectibility of man. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature. The growing spirit of individualism. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. 1. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth. 1.3.1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. continued the project of the Renaissance. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. for each sentence. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. T F 5. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. to superstition and obscurantism. the Enlightenment. Circle T (true) or F (false). T F 4.
The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. After 1688. the decrease in the power of the Crown. at the end of the unit. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. for instance. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation.1. 1. It is significant. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. read again subchapters. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. and both writers and audiences were. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. T F 8. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. including readers of more modest education.2. regularity. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. with little or no classical knowledge. for proportion.1. that the notion of reading public emerges now. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional.4. to 1.1. symmetry. in one way or another. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. The division into Elizabethan. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. It was the main focus of literary attention. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. T F 7. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. in the orbit of the crown.
Pierre Corneille. Corneille. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries.” started in the late 17th century. Racine. …the Augustan Age. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. Jean Racine. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. 2. a. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Court was the main source of influence…… b. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. Molière)…… d. Much of Renaissance literature. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. Molière. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. …… c. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. This reflects. Complete each sentence in the provided space. above all. during the Augustan Age*.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters.3. George Herbert. the ode*. the pastoral* lyric. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. original or translated epics. you need to revise subchapter 1. James Thomson. for instance. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). acquainted with the great classical authors and works. concentration. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. 1. in its various forms – the song*. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects.g. Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). …influenced English literary Neoclassicism.2. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). It favoured conciseness. If you have failed to make the right match. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. Andrew Marvell. at the end of the unit. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. Alexander Pope. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. religious faith – John Donne. Robert Herrick). or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. Thomas Carew. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. …addressed itself to learned readers. In parallel. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. by the Romantic poets. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. and it made extensive use of wit. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. 4. A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. John Dryden (in the former). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . or religion and politics – John Milton. They approached other themes besides love: e.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). through its representation on stage. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). It was the only form of literature which. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. 1. If there should be major differences between them.4. a new appreciation of older poetic forms. In the following units of this course. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. at the end of the unit. the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. some of them of popular origin (the song. revise subchapter 1. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6).3. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in the space left below. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). together with their most outstanding representatives.
1607). 1633). daring and wit. while others changed. 1. play-houses were reopened. sensational and macabre.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. historical drama. Of the Caroline playwrights.4. Milton’s Satan. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. From Senecan tragedy. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. 1605-6). exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest. murder. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. treachery. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. in Paradise Lost. insanity. built around the theme of revenge. On the whole. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. drama witnessed a decline. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. In such plays. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. Unlike Senecan plays.1. In 1660. fascinating through unbounded ambition. masque*. but destroys himself along with his enemies. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. is the most gifted. etc. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. the sensational plot. 1614). The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. with the restoration of monarchy. with its audience arranged according to rank. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. rape. and the rhetorical manner. the wronged hero plans revenge. tragi-comedy. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. They were generally. was a miniature of the English society. pastoral drama. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination.
in the last period of creation. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. T F 2. If you have failed to identify the true statements. T F 5. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. His best plays. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. T F 3. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. but. Milton’s Satan. T F 7. though each in a different way. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont.4. 1. in Paradise Lost. at the end of the unit.4. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy.1. Epicoene.4. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . For each sentence. in miniature. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. his comedies become darker. centred on the theme of love. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. 1. or The Silent Woman (1609). the hierarchy of English society. and 1. Volpone (1606). The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience.2. T F 6. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. T F 4. read again subchapters 1. read the following statements. reflecting. with its noble characters. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. or at least tinged with bitterness. the satirical comedy. identifying the four true ones.
George Villiers. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. In The Rehearsal (1671). and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy.4. John Gay. Under the influence of French tragedies. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. 1669-70). A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). 1722). This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. for instance. who demanded models of virtue and decency.g. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. Heroic plays. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. Duke of Buckingham. a stylish and sophisticated world. were a passing extravagance. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. too. The School for Scandal. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). mocks at certain theatrical conventions. 1769). Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. Henry Fielding).3. but serious drama declined during the 18th century. but it appealed to a wide middle class public.4. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1. or The Mistakes of a Night. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. 1665. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. The Conquest of Granada. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. She Stoops to Conquer. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain. of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans.g. 1773). The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. 1768. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. 1777). these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery.4. 1775. with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty.
2. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays.4. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If there should be major differences between them. to 1. revise subchapters 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. together with their most outstanding representatives.4.4. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2. at the end of the unit.
displaying a variety of styles. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin.5. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. More and more. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. Here. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. blending concision with wit. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. weaknesses. religious writings are particularly important. The development of an aphoristic style*. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. with its trials. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. a precious and highly ornate language. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith.5. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). 1625) are prose classics in English literature. Later in the century. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. temptations. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. the universal language of the Renaissance.1. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. on clarity and rationality. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. Gradually. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. the essay* proved the most flexible. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). philosophical and theological writings. deliberately artificial and intricate. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. in political tracts and pamphlets. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. 1612.
This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. aphoristic style. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. unadorned style. The same encyclopaedic. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. etc. diaries (John Evelyn.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. letters. Like drama. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). the biography as an emerging prose genre. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). William Prynne’s Histriomastix. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. biographies (Izaak Walton. In the 17th century. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). of remarkable precision and force. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. Samuel Pepys). 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. Samuel Purchas). whose purpose was didactic or satirical. which analyses the constitution of human society. Anatomies were monuments of learning. Milton’s Areopagitica. executed in a witty. Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. 1666). pamphlets* (e. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. To these must be added the character. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period.g. “The Religion of a Doctor.
since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns.5. modern science was born. If there should be major differences between them.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. these two centuries correspond. as well as the faith in progress.5. you will learn more about the periodical essay. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. Within these two centuries. more carefully. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. and 1. read again subchapters 1. obscurantism and intolerance. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. at the end of the unit. between which there is continuity. the image of the universe was changed. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. Culturally.. roughly. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England. Within these two centuries. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed.1.
blank verse: unrhymed verse. in a caricatural spirit. a slow transition took place. Ovid. drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. of serious action. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace.C. elevated style. which are reduced to the comically trivial.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry.-14 A. From a literary point of view. used to express observations of general truth. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. however. burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature.D. predominantly middle-class. noble and heroic characters. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. often by means of paradox.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . It is. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man.).
The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). anti-fanaticism. until 1660. when it was restored. characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. civil rights. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. individual liberty. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. Diderot (France). social contract. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. pragmatism. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. humanism. natural law. • classical revival: the intellectual. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. legend. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. Tolerance. Rousseau. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. anti-obscurantism. Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. widely used in all ages. In a broader sense. • essay: a prose composition of varying length. John Locke. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704).): “Man is the measure of all things”. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. Thomas Jefferson.C. Concepts like human rights. Voltaire. Montesquieu. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. social and moral thought. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms.e. David Hume (Britain). and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age. or from history. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. the folk tradition.
James II Stuart. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. In English literature. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. involving elaborate dialogue. spectacular scenic effects. decorative art. singing and dancing. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity. in harmony with nature. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 .The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. from the Creation to the Ascension. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models. encouraging a personal experience of conversion. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. solemn style. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th.) are the great ancient models for English writers. often of an allegorical nature. uncorrupted life. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. painting and sculpture.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. the marginal sections of society. an idea. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. who was a Catholic. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. a person or an object. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. sumptuous costumes and settings. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). In architecture.C.C. restraint. ode: an extended lyric poem. It addressed itself to the poor.). Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. simple. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. and harmony of classical art. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). of spiritual regeneration by grace.C. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson.
27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. tone. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. of the rebirth of learning. its limits are less well defined. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. centred on integrity. 1492). consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. in their view. Boccaccio. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. industry. Sir Charles Sedley. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. Ariosto. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. Edmund Spenser. Francis Bacon (England). Pico della Mirandola. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. Leonardo da Vinci. of the expansion of education. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch.g. effort. the sense of purpose. Raphael. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. Sir George Etherege. favoured the growth of individualism. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). for the Neoclassic writers. From a literary point of view. especially their work ethics. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. Duke of Buckingham. style – used by a poet. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. poetic diction: a term that. Cervantes (Spain). and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Thomas More. romance or the novel. thus.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. Restoration: historically. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. John Vanbrugh. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. which opened the modern era. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. Their beliefs and convictions. Shakespeare. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. Philip Sidney. in the 16th and 17th centuries. Tasso (Italy). William Wycherley. by Columbus. of America. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. selected according to genre and subject. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). Machiavelli. it had not fully reformed itself. Lope de Vega.
Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. The tradition survived into the 18th century. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . in which the characters act. yellow bile – or choler.C. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. independently of circumstances. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. with various rhyme patterns. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. with or without musical accompaniment. it meant intelligence or wisdom. the four “humours” (i. phlegmatic. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. philosopher and writer. surprising associations. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. and with the French Revolution (1789). the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. song: a poem composed for singing. fluids) of the body (blood. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. Sometimes. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. phlegm. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. The assertion of the self.e. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects. poet and scholar. He started his literary career as a playwright. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. Edmund Spenser. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. as well as an unfinished utopia.): Roman statesman. Jonson. and a writer. 1591-1595). 1591. The New Atlantis (published in 1627). Cicero. according to a dominating inclination or passion. During the Renaissance. Amoretti. Astrophil and Stella. two fine examples of comedy of humours. He was also an eminent statesman. orator. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity.
Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. According to him. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. astronomer and philosopher.-65 A. the latter.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. It is fear of death. religion. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. unlike that of Hobbes. Man.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher.C. Locke studied medicine. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. Italian poet and humanist. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). of the first treatise of ancient philosophy. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. Locke. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. politics.D. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. greatly influenced by Hobbes. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. Seneca. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature.): Roman historian and statesman. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers.): Roman philosopher. the instinct of self-preservation. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy. or the Matter. ethics. economics. Newton. Theophrastus (372-287 B. writer and statesman. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. made important discoveries in the field of optics. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus. for instance. in a kind of social contract. Tacitus. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. His political philosophy. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.D.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. For Hobbes.C. besides the Characters. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. author. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. which was central to Enlightenment thought. mathematician. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. Hobbes. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 .
Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. c. 2. Sir George Sedley. Turcu. 3. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 6. 7-49) 3. 8. Cowley. the sonnet: Shakespeare. Carew. Goldsmith. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. Sir George Etherege. The Novel in Its Beginnings.T. Donne.T SAQ 2 a.F. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. Dryden. Macsiniuc. Preda.F. Pope. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate.T. precision. John Gay Further reading 1. 6. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. there was a tendency towards simplicity. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. Blake the ode: Marvell.4.T. 7. English Literature and Civilisation. 2003 (pp. Collins.T. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. Cornelia. 9-32) 2.2.T. 5.F.3. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers.F. Herrick. artificial. d. Milton the pastoral: Milton.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1. 4. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. John Vanbrugh). William Wycherley. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. Luminiţa Elena. Milton. . 3. 1983 (pp.).T. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Thomson. Ioan-Aurel (ed. Marvell satire: Dryden. Marvell. 2. 5. 4. Duke of Buckingham.T. Pope. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson. Goldsmith.T. Dryden. The Literature of the Beginnings. Fielding.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2003 (pp. b. Herbert. Editura Universităţii Suceava. The English Eighteenth Century. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period.
3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2.10. 22.214.171.124. 2. 2. 2.2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. 126.96.36.199. 2. 2. 188.8.131.52. 2. 2. 2.2. 2.4.2. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius.2.2. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1. 2.2.6. 2.3.11. 2.2.8. 2.2. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .2.5.1. 2. 2.3. 2. 2. 18.104.22.168.7. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. 2.
1. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. Christopher Marlowe*. Under Queen Elizabeth I. The former expansiveness. Philip Sydney*. during whose reign England developed into a strong. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. anxiety and even pessimism. The vision of a harmonious. with its sense of confidence and optimism. In the late Renaissance. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. to scepticism. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. well-ordered universe. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. stable and modern state.
capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the difficult – often irregular – rhythms.2. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. The unexpected. proportion and symmetry.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. of confusing or transgressing limits. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. the extensive use of paradox. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. for excess. with its abundance of bloody deaths. and not properly forming a “school. Although very diverse. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century.1. or the world as stage. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. wisdom and madness.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. but also to pomp. its sense of form. life and death. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. refinement and cruelty.1. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. the spectacular and the sumptuous. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. in literature. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. to the macabre. St.1. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. striking imagery. grandeur. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. The Renaissance cult of rational order. and in its dramatic conception. reason and superstition. both in its themes and motifs. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. on which the “show” of life must end. sensualism and mysticism. with the tendency of breaking proportions. In lyric poetry. irony and ambiguity. and. splendour.
read again the preceding subchapters. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. If there should be major differences. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. sense of form B: 4. In the following two subchapters. you will be acquainted. R: cult for order and symmetry. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. optimism. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. classical balance. R: confidence. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. The Tempest. at the end of this unit.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. respectively. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. King Lear. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3.
medieval and contemporary sources – English. moral attitudes. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. In Shakespeare’s whole work. among other features. gratitude and ingratitude. romantic or trivial. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). jealousy. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. to the prose speech of simple folk. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. states of mind. and a culmination of its literary art. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. envy. or periods of creation. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. sometimes even trivial. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. Shakespeare’s genius. in plain. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. from the variety of his work. craftsmen or servants. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. and French. hate. conflicts. so that it displays a similar variety. language. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. aspirations and interests. search for truth. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). etc. motifs and imagery.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. According to the dramatic necessity. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. They are always credible. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. A wide range of feelings. devotion. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. his deep understanding of humanity. struggle for power. loyalty and betrayal. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. Othello (1604). Italian. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. sublime or burlesque. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse.2. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. friendship. all mastered with supreme art.
The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. His romance plays. common in the Renaissance. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. at the end of the unit. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. If they should differ significantly. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.1. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . between truth and falsehood. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. with the restoration of order. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. 2. In these plays. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. but they deal. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. with the effects of evil on innocence. read again the preceding subchapter. basically.2. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation.
2. Back to the castle. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. the widow queen. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. generous and brilliantly intelligent. In another scene. the first in this series of masterpieces. During the play. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. and with the immense burden of revenge. but the plot escapes their control and.2. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. which represents a similar scene of murder. Confronted with the moral corruption around him.3. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. when Fortinbras. has drowned herself. and continually delays the act of revenge. the play ends on a note of hope. he kills Polonius. required by his dead father. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. takes over the rule of Denmark. who had really gone mad. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. in the confusions of the final scene. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. old king Hamlet. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. sensitive and idealistic. In spite of this bloody outcome. mistaking him for Claudius. all the main protagonists find their death. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection.2. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. with a poisoned sword. Her brother. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness.2. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. At one point. brave. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. he has the occasion to kill Claudius. Claudius. a courtier. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. Laertes.
in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. If they should differ significantly. is eminently a philosopher’s effort. at the end of the unit. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. 2. SAQ 3 Text 2. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. which is only partly dissimulated.4. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. read again the preceding subchapter. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. as well as the indicated fragment. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty.1.2.
he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. of truth and illusion. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. Goneril and Reagan. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. there is madness in nature itself. Hamlet’s introspective. is also an exile from his own family. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. whom he disinherits. to believe him a traitor and usurper. both of them prove to be the loyal. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. Cordelia. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. and the Fool’s comments. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. Edgar. as in Hamlet. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. a bastard. The earl of Gloucester joins them. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. Tragically. through paradox. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. unconditionally loving ones. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. the quest for higher meanings. Lear’s own madness.5. is closely linked. like that of blindness. Maddened with grief. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. the Earl of Gloucester. of human suffering.” 2. which is that of restoring a lost order. another “fall of princes” tragedy. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. which would not undo the past. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. which helps him endure his suffering. on the other hand. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. Edgar. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. and. The motif of madness. in reality. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar.
unfaithful. is led by Iago to believe his wife. 2. innocence/guilt. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. In Othello. essence.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. acting against it. Desdemona. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). Othello. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. The noble protagonist. Scene from Othello.2. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Evil is that which destroys Nature. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. faithfulness/betrayal. In Othello. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable.6. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic.
Macbeth. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. kinsman and guest. The protagonist. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. at the end of the unit. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. / It weeps. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations.2.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). to 2. he multiples his crimes. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 5. who has a trusting nature. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. 2. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either.6. The baroque motif of madness is. one of Duncan’s sons. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth. ____________________ 2. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds. but. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. you need to revise subchapters 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. innocence and corruption. paradoxically. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. 1.2.2. it bleeds. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland. ____________________ 4. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order.7.2. disorder. If any of your solutions should not correspond. illusion and truth. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. underlining the theme of knowledge. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm. at the instigation of his wife. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army.
/ Macbeth does murder sleep. from the Reader. Text 2. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. extracted from this scene. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. If there should be significant differences. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments. scene 2. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. read the fragment once more. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. SAQ 5 In Act II. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero.
who instantly fall in love with each other. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. respectively –.8. marvelous. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. and certain themes and motifs (e.g. the long journey. Cymbeline. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. the jester. Alonzo. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. Three lines of action develop. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. owing to the improbability of the action. He had long studied the arts of magic. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. to take his throne. the choice of a remote setting.2. has turned him into a slave. the fairy-tale atmosphere. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. Trinculo. myth. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. After the tragedies. Alonzo. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. his faithful spiritservant. They mix serious and comic action. the master of an island. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. a drunken servant. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island.2. 2. and Sebastian. The Winter’s Tale. The Tempest (1611). of exile and return). is considered the finest. king of Naples. who. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. the sense of a benevolent providential design. the theme of loss and recovery. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as well as other passengers. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. Miranda. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. duke of Milan.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. In its opening scene. the shipwreck. on which he lives alone with his daughter. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. by his powers.9. involving the shipwrecked characters. magic. They may also be described as romance plays.
for the emergence of a regenerated world. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban.” claiming his throne. influenced by Ariel. and to return to the world in his full humanity. education] can never stick. and then to Milan. the control of intelligence over nature. who now repent. now. 2. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. to master himself. a “thing of darkness.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). but. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand.2. The theme of power Ariel vs. represents pure spirit. “neglecting worldly ends. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past. Prospero. he learns.e.10. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. more importantly.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. On the island.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . At the opposite pole. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. Caliban Innocence vs. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. Ariel. In the final act. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. the scholar-magician. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. at the end.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think.. more carefully. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. Full of resentment. If there should be major differences. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. by teaching him to speak. read the fragment again. for instance. Here. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . or in developing self-identity. extracted from The Tempest. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. scene 2. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge.4. Act I.
The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest. Another pervading symbol is that of music. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. or to impose upon it. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. sublimating its primitive energies. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan.” The sea-journey Music 2. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which “delight and hurt not.2. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead.2. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays. then at least man should strive to discern in it. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey.11. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. The playmetaphor. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers.12. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. order and harmony. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. whose magic art controls every incident. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. of performance. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero.
in his own way. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan.12. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. was first intended to bring discredit on them. but each of them. T F 3. 2. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace.2. T F 6. of which three are false. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies.9 to 2. If any of your choices should be wrong. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music.2. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. T F 5. T F 4. revise subchapters2. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. except that of terrifying him. T F 2. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world. You must find them among the following statements. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. at the end of the unit. T F 7. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 1.3. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. Their styles are different.
often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling.” A new kind of poetry emerged. hidden.e. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. “More matter and less words” 2. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling.1.3. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. a demand for “more matter and less words. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. which helps the poet to develop his subject. regardless of the subject of the poem. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. a metaphor or an analogy. By means of conceits. Dr. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. In spite of its logical. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. but also his reason. which starts from a comparison. from a most ordinary circumstance.2. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. writers had to face a new exigency. The impression is that this experience. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. As extended comparisons. a cold intellectual exercise. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them.e. argumentative quality. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. and the emotions involved. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. as “a combination of dissimilar images. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. This is an elaborate figurative device.3. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. or discovery of occult [i. united] by violence together. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. linked. is contemplated from a certain distance.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning.
3. and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. In the treatment of both themes. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry .1. and 2. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith.3. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. pastoral* conventions. In the following subchapters. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 .3. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. and the same realistic force. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. and a highly original one. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. Use the space left below. revise subchapters 2. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century. at the end of the unit.2. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. its decorative use of classical mythology. If they should differ considerably. and allegory. 2.3.
Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. are however harmless to man. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea. He also suggests sometimes that physical union. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. though greater. Chaste. may afford an experience of the transcendental.4. as this would be a triple “sin.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”).” In fact. and he seems to amuse himself. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). beautiful. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. which. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. This is a seduction poem. when accompanied by genuine feeling. Donne is highly playful in this poem. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. in which their blood is now mixed. their love being so great and “refined.3. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument.” “tear-floods”). Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire.
Here. you need to revise subchapter 2. as well.. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 .2.6. in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. paying special attention to the last three stanzas. Formulate your answer in the space left below. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. at the end of the unit. he develops one of his most famous conceits. Read the poem again. in the Reader). Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If they should differ significantly.3.
this need is expressed by means of several conceits. Satan.5. which parallel those in his love poetry. in the exercise of reason. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. between idealised passion and erotic desire. on death. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. of loyalty and betrayal. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. These poems usually display contrary impulses. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In Batter My Heart. for the divine saving grace. In his religious meditations in verse. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. divine judgement. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. Actually. comparable to that of Shakespeare.3. resurrection and salvation. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. The insistence on violence and struggle.
This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words.7. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 .The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. and read the poem again. As a Puritan* patriot. If there should be significant differences. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. revise subchapter 2. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets.3. according to some critics. nature. Marvell left. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. In the last six lines. 2.5. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. from the Reader. representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. at the end of the unit.3. and love of country. Donne suggests his contradictory.
Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. The most illustrative poem. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. is On a Drop of Dew.7. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. in which both of them act according to a divine order. lest it grow [i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 . A natural detail. On the other hand. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate. for fear that it might grow] impure. however. On a Drop of Dew 2. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling. to change the form of ruling power). and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature. He showed a deep love for the countryside.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend.3. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship.e. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. shyness] and accept his passionate love. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun.3. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent. in contrasting colours. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems.8. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. 2. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature.e. King Charles I Stuart. pictured with remarkable precision. Marvell often sees.e. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. on the scaffold. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. aspiring to union with almighty God.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. in this respect. It is a seduction poem.
read the poem again. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. If the difference is considerable. at the end of the unit. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. in its sexual fulfillment.3. but….8. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 . it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature. then (therefore)…. after revising subchapter 2. which has the structure If…. in the Reader). Love. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2.8. paying attention to the logic of the argument. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
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figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
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innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. T. F. T SAQ 8 1. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. Othello. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. 5. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. As a truly superior being.g. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast.e. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. 7. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. is a suitable emblem for their souls. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. however. F. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . T. F. 5. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). T. use of conceits (extended comparisons. This instrument. 2. etc. King Lear. He is not a cold-blooded killer. the abstract and the concrete.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. From Prospero’s point of view. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. 2. guided by rational will. make his purposes known through words). King Lear. Hamlet. concise expression and density of meaning 2. Hamlet. 3. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. which he resents. 6. complicated line of argument. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. SAQ 7 1. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). 4. of a clean mind. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. passion and reason. 4. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. through language (knowing his “own meaning”).g. Hamlet. of his own sense of self. unexpected.” sleep (i. From Caliban’s point of view. which remain perfectly united. endowed with speech. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. surprising associations) 3. usually between highly dissimilar elements. the development of conscience.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. even if physically the lovers must be apart. Othello. analytical detachment from emotion 4. 3. to blend contraries (e.
since only worms will “enjoy” it. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce.. 267-283. Ioan-Aurel (coord. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. 1991 (pp. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body. because your charms deserve such praise. Paradoxically. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –.” which only God can effect. 3. your virginity will then be worth nothing. David. vol. 97-105. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). 246-249. instead of letting it devour us slowly. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. however. 1983 (pp. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin.. Daiches. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. But. 1969 (pp. Ford.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. will long for him. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. consent and legality. vol. A Critical History of English Literature. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 . just as the mistress. He loves God. English Literature and Civilisation. Boris (ed. 273-287) 2. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. Penguin Books Ltd. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.). waiting for her departed lover.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. in the absence of joy. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. But I know time is merciless. in fact. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). 34-40.). while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. 302-305) 3. and which would resemble rape. Further reading 1. Preda. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love.
5.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3. 3. 3.4.4. 3. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.188.8.131.52. 3. 184.108.40.206. 3. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton.6. 3.1.1. 3.3.3. 3.5. 3.5. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3. 3.4.4. 3.5. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 3.2. 3. 3. 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.
63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . family. Paradise Lost. the freedom of the press. written in English and in Latin. At Cambridge (1625-1629). and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. he approached a diversity of subjects. His enormous learning. as a publicist. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. In 1638. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England.). and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. theology. as well as his moral inflexibility. he studied Latin. mathematics. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. such as education.1. the greatest epic poem in English literature. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. Milton. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. geography. religious and civil debates of his age. he continued to read intensively. music. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. After that. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. etc. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e.g. etc. Greek and Hebrew. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. religion. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. baroque* vision. he went on a trip to Italy.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. politics. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century.
as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. In some of them. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. is in touch with divine secrets. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. On the other hand. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. etc. 3. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. As in other poems. However. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. his political hopes ended. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. like a priest. but Milton did not complete his plan. with its pastoral delights. Virgil*. who.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*.2. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. As a poet. for instance. However.). Ovid*. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. With the Restoration*. In the Sixth elegy. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes.1. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes.
c. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. of classical erudition with biblical themes. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. 1. 3. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. in his poetic work. the integration. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. c. with its simple pleasures. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. b. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. revise subchapters 3. to master a variety of styles. the crowing of the cock. and 3.e. In the latter. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. b. at the end of the unit. In Il Penseroso. there is a strong emphasis on music. Milton’s literary ambition was a. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. in L’Allegro.” contemplative mood. c. If your choices should be wrong. and on the happiness of rural life. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. In each poem. In both poems.2. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. in Il Penseroso. b. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere.1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . polyphonic sounds of the organ. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. The secular* pleasures of common life. 2. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. not on earth. again.The works of John Milton 3. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. The elegy Lycidas.2. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. Milton composed another poem in which. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. to fresh woods and pastures new. uses again the pastoral frame. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form.3. or occasional and complimentary compositions. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). Irrespective of their nature. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. in a heavenly pastoral world. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge.2. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. The death of the dedicated young man. personal manner. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest.
The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. light denied?”). Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. In the first part of the sonnet. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. with a certain sadness. in 1652.” “mean or high” as it may be. that. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). he must admit. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . angels). He has reached the age of twenty four. Milton meditates on his loss of sight. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring.e. he admits. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. As a Christian poet. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. written in 1631. but also by Christian humility.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness. When he wrote Sonet XVII.3. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”).1. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time.The works of John Milton 3. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). at his age.” that they are “timely happy spirits”. as King of Heaven. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions.” By this time. who carry out the divine his daughters will. To prevent such a complaint.3. since. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness. i. but of God’s eternal will. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. confessing his temptation to ask. patiently.2. In Sonnet XVII.
3. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). Read these sonnets (Texts 3. and of leaving to posterity an undying work.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet.2. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. respectively. in the Reader).3. and the two sonnets. Dante* –. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. when he was already blind. If there should be significant differences. at the end of the unit. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words.1. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. and 3. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. read again subchapter 3. and he worked at it over several years. Virgil.2.4. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer.
The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. in theme a daring. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. as he stated in the opening Invocation. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. “to justify the ways of God to men. in fact. of Lucifer* from Heaven. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. Finally.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. and his loss of Paradise. are gathered to listen to Satan. He interprets poetically the biblical events. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. accumulated throughout his life. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. brought about by his disobedience. original epic scenario. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. Milton had thought. which is never ornamental. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. The “lost Archangel. the creation of the world and of man. man’s temptation and fall into sin. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 .1. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”.” full of the bitterness of defeat. obedience and rebellion. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. 3. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. Starting from the dualism good/evil. Milton’s ambition was. etc. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. predestination*. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. over the years. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell.4. but his erudition.” forever deprived of the glory.e. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner. in which man’s fall. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. His work is encyclopaedic. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven.
the “wild abyss” governed by Night. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven. Chaos and Chance. cunning].The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. Satan.” Meanwhile. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. by virtue of his leading position. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man.2. i. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. and their discussions are rendered in Book II. God.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. 3. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king.e. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. Pandemonium*. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. to seek the newly created Earth.e. set him free from sin. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. surpass] hellish hate.e. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. death and resurrection. and he flies away. whose setting is in Heaven.4.
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 .The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. at the end of the unit. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words. read again the text. If there should be major differences. What is God’s argument.4. in the Reader. more carefully.
not before repeating his warning. in Book VII. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 .4. the angel Raphael. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. sent by God. space]” left by the fallen angels.3.e.e. King Anointed*”. Adam admits that. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. that cannot change].” to fill in the “vacant room [i. in Milton’s poem.4. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding.4. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. the “divine historian. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. sweetness. Satan. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. in order to prolong his guest’s visit. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. not immutable [i. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man. after the defeat of the rebel angels. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. so that he may know more about his enemy. It is interesting that.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer.The works of John Milton 3. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence.” Man himself was created as a “better race. and fear to transgress!” 3.” for the evocation of the making of the world. innocence and “virgin modesty. and. In Milton’s interpretation. as this diminished W. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace. Adam is grateful to Raphael. instigated by Lucifer. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions.” Raphael leaves them. In Book VIII.
W. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. A Prophecy. in the Reader presents. read the fragment again. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. through Raphael’s words. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . more carefully.7.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. at the end of the unit. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below. in no more than 10 lines/100 words.
their inward the fall on Nature peace. for a moment. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. the thundering skies weep. Meanwhile. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin.5. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace. most subtle*] beast of all the field. discord” – which make reason and will helpless. the “subtlest [i. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. hate / Mistrust. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. and all The effects of Nature is in pain.e. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. and. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her.4. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. At last. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. W. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. suspicion. The “calm region” of their state of mind. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise.The works of John Milton 3.
Match these sentences with the fragment.” is the one who will. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. but. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. but he also adds symbolic episodes. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. or fragments. _______ c.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3. 3. annihilate Sin and Death. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. at last. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. _______ d.6. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. hoping to arouse her pride. _______ e. a. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction. He flatters Eve. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. He denigrates God. in the middle of this speech. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space. at the end of the unit. _______ b. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. at the end of each sentence. Satan’s victory seems complete. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. on a separate sheet. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. The world after the Fall In the next books. _______ f. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. If any of your matches should be wrong. which will bring her close to the condition of God. in which these moves are illustrated. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. they taste its fruit.4.” _______ g. as God himself predicts: His Son.8. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again.
etc. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. but of sadness. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. The certainty that. combining thus justice with mercy. death. pride. faith and good deeds. – to the hostility of Nature. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. intemperance. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. his suffering. but Michael comforts him. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. from man’s own vices – violence. In Book X. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. through Christ. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. God consents. and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. redemption*: Jesus. In Book XI. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven.” founded on love.
It may be argued.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. read the fragment again. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 3. at the end of the unit. If they should differ in major points. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. more carefully. which they fully assume.5. however.9. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words.
Before his fall. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free. he had been the first Archangel. and his great ambition is “to reign. Over a century after the poem’s publication. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude.1.e.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation. In Hell. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven. which is itself a paradise. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i.5. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero.The works of John Milton 3. made happy in their innocent love. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment. From the beginning of the poem. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. where there is “neither joy nor love.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power.
The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions.5.” He is “the author of all ill. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 . he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. Satan is The Tempter. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. It is also with “persuasive* words. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim. and “out of good still to find means of evil. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness.The works of John Milton 3. It is with “high words. Awakening in man the impulse to question. the destroyer of faith.” seeming reasonable and true. As God’s absolute antagonist.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. Satan.2. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric.
“and “The mind is its own place.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit.5. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in Hell. and 3. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words.2. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell.5. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. revise subchapters 3. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. and read the indicated fragment again.. “A mind not to be changed by time or place.1.) B. If there are significant differences. Read the whole fragment carefully. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.3.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3.
Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. ancestor.” “mother of human race. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man.” “our general mother. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil.” “Patriarch of Mankind. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. precursor].” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan. Created in God’s image.” but also “our credulous mother. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them. Satan’s torments in Hell.e. but as a consequence of their wrong choices.” “Our great Progenitor [i. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God.” “Our Author. As a Christian. the titanic dimension of his suffering. As a humanist. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. but W. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. Adam is called Sire* of Men. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. In his last conversation with Michael. deprived of worth.The works of John Milton 3.5. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them. in Book XII. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair. but armed with the wisdom of faith. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . of understanding and accepting his limits. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. but who can hope for redemption*.3. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen.
Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes.2. the pastoral elegy Lycidas.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. If there should be major differences. he prepared himself for it during long years. the Nativity Ode. Summary In this unit. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. Subchapter 3. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. Read this fragment and summarise its argument. in the Reader. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet.5. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. at the end of the unit. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a necessary part of His design. one of the greatest English poets.
at any time. his love of freedom. put in the service of evil. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. however. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. which are. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues.5. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 .4. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. presented in subchapter 3. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will.3. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. the creation of the world and of man. Undoubtedly. Subchapter 3. but also in which man may. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision. Subchapter 3. his courage and majesty.
Italian poet. every. clever in using tricks. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. Sire: a respectful term of address. Providence: God’s kindness. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. formerly used when speaking to a king. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses.D. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. It means “the carrier of light. by extension. to cause to believe). In classical literature. It may also mean cunning. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. to a place of wild confusion. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. the “great and good redeemer” (i. author of La Divina Commedia. 800 B.). to convince.). guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. Roman poet.e. difficult to detect (or analyse).e. noise and chaos. or some tragic event.C. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. the one who sets man free from sin). The word may refer. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone.C. pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. not concerned with or related to religion.-17 A. suffering and death of Christ. Homer: Greek poet (c. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. subtle: not immediately evident. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.” After the fall from Heaven. he is called Satan. predestination: from a theological point of view. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all. Purgatory and Paradise. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens.
The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. and the last paragraph of 2. with special attention to the indicated subchapters. romantic in The Tempest –. and 2. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . in Milton’s Paradise Lost. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2..1. one of the greatest Roman poets.. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve.2. and thus of destroying man.The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. • Read attentively this fragment.6. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan. A revision of subchapter 3. before the final battle. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest. in which he explores his inner hell. Send-away assignment no. God’s creation. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed.). Text 3. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death.2. In both of them. Texts 2. 2. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition.3.4. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). at the end of the play. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit.C. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda.1. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition.2. At the beginning of Book IV. 1.5. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero.
like that of the angels.c. The paradox of freedom. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. however. 3. 2. his blindness. SAA no. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will.” In the case of man. in grading your paper. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free.b. • the coherence.. but the consequence of evil influence. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. Milton emphasises the geometrical. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. clarity. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. is thus not attributable to God. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality..e. i.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. or reason. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). The implication is that God gave man conscience. and reason makes man. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave). Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. Created “just and right. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. The fall of man.a. not God. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). responsible for his choices. is that one may choose right or wrong. The poet places his trust in Providence. Remember that.
1983 (pp. 2. 2. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Paradise is now a forbidden place. of human solidarity. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. to be dictated by Reason. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. SAQ 7 1. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). with passive virtue. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 435-449) 2. If Hell is a space of freedom. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos).. Incapable of obedience to God. under the guidance of Providence. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 .4. faith and love untested.e. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. David. b. 2. unless he exercises his will and reason. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). Luminiţa Elena. Turcu. Man is not a free creature.e. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. 2. Preda. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. Further reading 1. Forced to look ahead. g. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. e. c. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. d. 1.The works of John Milton Architect”). but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love.4. f. 153-163) 3. SAQ 5 a. Daiches. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. If God leaves man’s loyalty. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. The Literature of the Beginnings. This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. i. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. vol. English Literature and Civilisation. as God has made him. 1. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. Ioan-Aurel (coord. and the image of the terrible gates. 2003 (pp. A Critical History of English Literature. 1969 (pp. i.3.). 3.
4. 4.4. 4. 4.4.2 4.1. 4. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4.1. 4.2. 4.3.4. 4. 4.5. 4.4.1. 4.4. 4.2. 126.96.36.199.1.1.1. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.6.4. Gulliver.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 188.8.131.52.3.4. 4.4. 4.7. 184.108.40.206.4.2. 4.5. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.1.2. 4. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 220.127.116.11. 4. 4.
The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. the cast of actors included women. addressing itself to an inclusive public. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. it was a period of transition as well. From a literary point of view. drama holds a place apart. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. under the patronage of king Charles II. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age.1. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. under the influence of French theatres. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. 4. clarity and elegant restraint. and Jonathan Swift. and of considerable diversity.1. of increasing rationalism and secularisation.1. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . Alexander Pope. Unit objectives 4. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. Nature. and. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. Human nature. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. and their re-opening in 1660. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change.
on the other. were essential for the true man of the world. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. It made fun of the people from the countryside. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). of incredible cruelty and perfidy. sumptuous costumes.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Conquest and seduction. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. on the one hand. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. refinement and sophistication. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated.1. The action was usually set in remote. Sensational turns of situation. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. Gallantry. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. and. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection.1. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem.2. adultery. lust. an artificial. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. A certain coarseness of feeling. exotic places. and absolute villains. jealousy.3. fashionable manners. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. 4.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. although each in its own way and for different reasons. both of them highly conventional forms. above all. the cynicism. magnificent settings. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines. wit*. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. or Court Wits.
whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . Contrasting types were the coquette. the lusty widow. Another frequent type was the fop*. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. etc. young or old. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. the ingénue. despising marriage. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. pleasure-seeking. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. the scheming valet. or fool. cynical. and the trusting husband as dupe. aspiring to the perfect adventure. If characters were usually static. lacking complexity. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). the country squire*.” without scruples. selfish and manipulative. deliberately superficial in construction.
such as the impoverished gallant. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). T F 6. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. William Congreve. It displays typical Restoration characters. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. T F 3. T F 2. 4. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. If any of them should turn out to be wrong. at the end of the unit. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). hedonism and amorality at Court. by doing the exercise that follows.3. T F 7. read again subchapters 4. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. T F 9.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. 1.1. elegance. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. refinement and sophistication. T F 5.1. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. frivolity. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. to 4. Restoration comedy praised wit. T F 4. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single.4. simple action. T F 8.1. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. Read the statements below and identify five true ones.1. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances.
affection. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. etc. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. as these were remote from their experience. consistent characters. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. half-amused.5. The new audience in the theatres. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. The situation. increasingly middle class. psychologically subtle and complex. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. the pair of witty lovers. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. Towards the end of the 17 th century. and friendship to jealousy. the awkward country-girl. is extremely complex. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. 4. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . admiration.1. and the shifting relationships and alliances. involving a multitude of characters. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. half-sad. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). the witty and resourceful servant. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. bringing it to perfection.
Mirabell is a reformed rake. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract. If there should be significant differences. as well as the indicated fragment. However.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World.. at the end of the unit. under the appearance of frivolity.1. In a witty dialogue. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. read again subchapter 4. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words. which presents Millamant's demands. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . they seem to be playing a game. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. in Act IV..1. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. their agreement has serious implications.4. Read Text 4. Millamant is also in love.
In both cases. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism.2. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. elegance. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*. Joseph Addison*. Besides Dryden and Pope. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). balance. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. In it. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. and harmony extended beyond literature. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 .1. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. 4.2. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance.
The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. and the poet might disregard them.2. of infinite variety. was expected to use a common. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. required an elevated style. on the other hand. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. lacking ornament.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. for instance. in satirical or burlesque* works. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. i. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet.2. A poet’s innate talent needed training. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift.e. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. skilful transgression. a dignified diction. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate.3. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. yet achieve great beauty. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. skill. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*.. to make form and substance adequate to each other. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . was Shakespeare. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. i.e. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. This was the case of the genius. The rule of decorum 4. The most eloquent example. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. for the Augustans. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. humble style. Epic and tragedy. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. and to those patterns of behaviour. comedy. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art.2. the emphasis on discipline in art. the most valuable store of literary experience.
SAQ 3 Text 4. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. read again subchapter 4. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines).3.2.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . but also to imported French ideas – e. What are the main ideas in this fragment. If there should be significant differences. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and the indicated fragment. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. a combination achieved through reason. or art*. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. at the end of the unit.g.3.
and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4.3.4. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. of quick accumulation of information.” Augustan wit 4.2. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it. affectation were rejected. or. but to be a functional part of the community. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. In the context of general progress. too. manners and taste.5. precision and clarity. 4. Ostentation. where nothing seems to be studied. of critical debate in every field. “grace and strength united. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements. unnecessary ornament. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. The writer's art was a form of social communication. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. its effects were considerable on prose. refinement with wisdom.2. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. eloquence with restraint. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility. with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*.
for a clientele of ships' captains. or to the discussion of literary matters. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. at cultivating their minds. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. the middle class readers. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . and they were published with varying regularity. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. At the same time. In order to counterbalance this tendency. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. They believed. some of them being issued daily.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. dominantly middle class. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. opened in 1688.” that ignorance is a source of evil. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. with Alexander Pope.
Think of present relevance of this remark. on a separate sheet.e. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711). Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. whose essays were published several times in the century. The Tatler and The Spectator. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. think again and try to do the exercise once more. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. at the end of the unit.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. If they are significantly different. in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. and by far the most popular ones. Like other writers. collected in book form.3.1. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4.
bravery in battle]. a man of the world. manners. a courageous.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. generous and cheerful. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. an expert in fashion and gossip. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman.” of wide learning. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career.e.” and “his familiarity with the customs. • Sir Andrew Freeport. • A clergyman. strong reason. turned to the study of literature. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. for instance. as his father had intended for him. skills] and industry.” or that “diligence [i. a middle-aged squire. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. rather than a merit. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen.e. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . wit and understanding. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club.” • Captain Sentry. a rich London merchant. a model of honesty. laziness. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. and sloth [i. modest and commonsensical person. Now. He believes. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation.e. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer. for The Spectator. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit. He is a man of “great probity. hard work and skill. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. “a very philosophic man. and the reflections of “Mr. • A gentleman who. for true power is to be got by arts [i. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. a competent justice of the peace*.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. “a person of indefatigable industry*. a gallant. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. in which they collaborated. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. in his county.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. • Will Honeycomb. and great experience.e.
3. Identify at least eight such features. more carefully. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. at the end of the unit.1. common sense. 5. cheerful disposition. and write them in the indicated spaces below. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. 4. 2. If there should be major discrepancies. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation.3.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. read again subchapter 4. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. 1. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 8. 7. 6.
at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. brave and fearless man. 15-18). turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. and satire became their formidable weapon. Samuel. struggle for power and profit.4. Bayes*. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. greed. king David. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. are mingled: the evil conspirator. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction.2. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets.4. admiration and condemnation. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. selfishness. Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. disloyal and excessively ambitious. a passionate. folly. to religious debates and literary practices. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. appears also as a stormy spirit. contradictions and dark aspects.1.4. Political and religious dissensions. its cult of reason and common sense. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. 4. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. genuinely gifted for leadership. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. intrigues. from political and social life. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. the Duke of Monmouth. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. hypocrisy. 1743). often touched by ironic humour. Pope. 4. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne.
he reflects on the art of the satirist. more attentively. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution.e. imagination). Explain this analogy. and Morality. and revise subchapter 4. imaginative inventiveness. are more disturbing than entertaining. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. Art. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Science. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Religion. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit. Its implications.4. Philosophy. concerning satire. If it should be significantly different. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. SAQ 6 Text 4. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. Here. however. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit.2. read the fragment again. Truth.
A Voyage to Brodingnag III. bigger than himself.A Voyage to Laputa.4. the Yahoos. In his third voyage he visits several strange places. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. curious and resourceful. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused.3. In it. Like many of his contemporaries.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. In his last voyage. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. in his potential as a rational creature. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. Luggnagg and Japan IV. Glubbdubdrib. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason. Jonathan Swift. Laputa. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. or softening marble to make pincushions. economic. philosophical. an uncompromising defender of truth.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. social and intellectual realities. religious. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. and literary. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. Back in England. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). building houses starting from the roof. From this last country.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. respectively. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. and where human creatures. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. the flying island. he learns about the Struldbruggs. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. In Balnibarbi. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and.4. Gulliver is finally expelled. Balnibarbi. intelligent speaking horses. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. In Luggnagg. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. justice and freedom. a hater of pedantry and pretence. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature.A Voyage to Lilliput II. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. with a sharp sense of observation.4. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles.
The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. at the end of the unit. read the fragment carefully once more. 2. 3. 1. SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one). 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. from the Reader. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. and he prefers now the company of horses. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. Find. 4. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind. four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. in Text 4.5. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers.
he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. of the capacity for affection.). The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. governed only by reason. ambitious. Gulliver.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Dissenters and Catholics. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation. means de-humanisation. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. in his last adventure. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. ruled by an enlightened monarch. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. vain. The fourth voyage. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. jumping over or creeping under a stick. etc.5. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. his vulnerability increases. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. However.4. etc. and they constitute a miniature picture of England.4. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). In the Houyhnhnms. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. by dancing on a rope. Gulliver is confronted. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. In the Yahoos. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. cruel and hypocritical. he sees ideal creatures. In Brobdingnag. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country.6. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. issues or figures. from which he chooses to leave.
In a “theological” perspective. filthy. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo . the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. makes him a frustrated idealist. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . unteachable and ungovernable. For many readers. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct.
For Gulliver.4. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and to revise subchapter 4. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. If there should be major differences. find anti-utopian elements in it.6.6. you need to read the fragment again. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. from the Reader.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. however. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 . more carefully. The careful reader will.
Gradually. on the rule of decorum. Like heroic tragedy (e. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. Dryden. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. It is an age of transition. was another characteristic genre. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. Dryden. Addison. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. narrow-sightedness. Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period.g.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. when literary Neoclassicism developed. a wide public. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. etc. his learning and sense of literary tradition. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. Satire. therefore also capable of error. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. both in verse (Dryden. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. Swift. Pope. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. parody. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients.7. caricature. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. and. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. Pope) and in prose (Swift). Goldsmith. including that of Reason itself. For Swift. placing wit above virtue. Dryden). dominantly middle class. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. generally. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. comedy was licentious and cynical. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. grotesque. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. Steele. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. Steele). Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. Congreve. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. and by means of it.).
coffee houses: since the 1650s. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. well-dressed man. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. dress or behaviour which is not natural. For instance. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature).” where Dryden would come regularly. achieved by training and practice. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18). Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. political or religious orientation. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. which designated a fashionable.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French). In her empire of darkness and confusion.1. Art may generally refer to the work of man. In Pope’s satire. baroque: see again subchapter 2. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. greatly concerned with appearances. “Will’s Coffee House. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. his craftsmanship. admirer. profession or interest.1. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. or escort. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but is intended to impress others. and the Glossary in Unit 2. affectation: a manner of speech. the acquired competence of the writer. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless.
honour. trait . shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. to deceive). who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. stupidity. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad.3 in Unit 1. “Dull” also means uninteresting. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. slowness in thinking and learning. “Mr. a strictly ordered hierarchical system. referring not only to external nature.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. landscape. and distinction. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. inclination. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. or “humour.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). i. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. unexciting. In this kind of comedy. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture.e. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame.” Nature: an inclusive concept.” another word for “laurel”. boring. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. Bayes. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. Mr. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. from dunce. It derives from “bay. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). dulness: in a strict sense. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 .” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. In Pope’s satire. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive.4. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. but to the whole of created reality.
or who chats or talks idly. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. Among the latter. i.3 in Unit 5. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. making literature “dull. especially the main landowner in a village. squire: a country gentleman. for the notion of sentimentalism.1.4. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners.e. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516). Dryden. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. essays and dramatic works. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. or literature in general. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. he translated from ancient authors. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. and topos = place). sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. elegant. perfect society (literally: “no place.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. of taste or skill. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. founder of literary journalism. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison.” from Greek u = not. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world. polished). He excelled in all literary genres of his time.4. Boileau. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age.4 in Unit 1. of imagination and originality. author of poems. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer.
Pope. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). and a major representative of English sentimentalism. Together with Addison. Steele. of Irish origin. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer.C. Sprat. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. Johnson. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. Like his friend. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. author of odes. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it.). a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. Virgil. a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. who called him a “comic history-painter. clear. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. and The Man of Mode. member of the Royal Society. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). political and moral vices. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. Among various other works. satires and epistles. Swift. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676).The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. Hogarth. George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. concise and flexible. Wycherley. He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. an unequalled master of irony and wit. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and A Modest Proposal (1729). Goldsmith. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social.
and. Civilised reserve in society. 2. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. good sense. diligence. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes.F.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. SAQ 5 honesty. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i. good breeding. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature.e. common sense. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment.e. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature.T. 5. of Human nature. is. 4. 7. 6. furnished with ideas.T. benevolence. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. in an analogous sense. 3. sense of responsibility. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. 8. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . modesty. for sophisticated Millamant. opinions and tastes.T. regardless of their particular condition. 9. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. In marriage.e. reasonableness. by the standards of her social environment. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. open-mindedness. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. integrity. abdicating from reason.” Just as weeds (i. industry. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention.F.T.F. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. good judgment. or judgment. of those features which are universal. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i.T. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination.
They practice population control. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. conflict and self-interest. Daiches. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. which breeds imaginary ills. the exclusion of opinion. 4.. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Editura Universităţii Suceava. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. 2. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. 537-550) 2. The tendency to idleness. English Literature and Civilisation. only the species counts. 2003 (pp. which makes social progress inconceivable. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). David. 1983 (pp. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. vol.” SAQ 7 1. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. In the absence of affective attachment. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. The spirit of competition. Macsiniuc. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. Cornelia. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. A Critical History of English Literature. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. 180-187) 3. The irrational greed and avarice. The English Eighteenth Century.” the subtlety of his accusations. Ioan-Aurel (coord. 5. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). the “fineness. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. Further reading 1. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. 1969 (pp. 3. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. Preda. The Novel in Its Beginnings. which is meant only for procreation. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. The individual is of no importance.). ultimately of imagination. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.1.2. 126.96.36.199. 5.2.2. 5. 188.8.131.52. 5.3.2. 184.108.40.206.2.7. 5.4.2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5.2. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5.2.3. 5. 5.1.3. 5. 5. 220.127.116.11. 5. 5.1. 5.4. 5.4. 5.3.4. 5.4. 5. 5. 18.104.22.168.3. 5. 22.214.171.124.4.
The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. more inclusive reading public. mostly imitations of French models. whose action was often set in remote. whose vast majority was middle-class. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. 5. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty.1. natural rights. exotic settings. tolerance. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. and there is a connection between. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. the rise of the middle classes. and the development of the novel. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women.1. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance.1. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. and generally about women. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. in the early years of the 18 th century.
By contrast. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. its normality. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. the novel’s didactic vocation. by common people. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. The novel reflects. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. 5. in its concerns. vague and abstract figures. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. in Augustan terms. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. Thus. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. but distinct individualities. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. legend. socially and materially dependent on men. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. but from contemporary life. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. romances were therefore literature of escape. in the novel. history. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). moral or psychological detail. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. On the other hand.1. the province of the novel was the familiar. For most women.2. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. The ordinary aspects of life. On the one hand. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. Characters are no longer idealised. Realism – or. or previous literature.
If there should be major differences. read again subchapters 5. on the other. The rise of the middle classes … 2.1. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. and 5. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. and public/social norms and conventions.2. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion. on the one hand. … 4. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations. 1.1. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below.1. Women were … 3.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. at the end of the unit.
Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. irony and burlesque*. classic models to follow. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. Fielding). on events. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. Richardson).The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. loosely structured. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. repetitious. and the hero’s various encounters are. and the world represented in such novels is open. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason.e. confusion. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature.g. but to literature as well.3. On the other hand. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. romance is trivialised through parody*. forms of expression. patterns and motifs. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. from which it borrowed devices. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. Many novels cut across divisions.1. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. displayed not only in fiction. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. for the author. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour. a wide variety of influences went into its making. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. inclusive. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding.g. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. in which the action is episodic. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. i. and extremely diverse. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . but also in poetry and in drama. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. belonging to several categories at once. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. therefore an ally to realism. the romance). Instead. The motif of the travel is central.
122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success.3. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. 1. after each sentence.1. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict. read again subchapter 5. ________________________ 6. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. ________________________ 2. ________________________ 5. It presents a tale of mystery and horror. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common.. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. ________________________ 4. at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. 3. ________________________ 8. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. in their confrontation with moral choice. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. trivial subjects. at the end of the unit. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. in an atmosphere of gloom. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. usually with supernatural ingredients. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration. ________________________ 7.
They were all stories of success.2.1. but also on the Continent. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. Mariner. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. in circumstantial details. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement. in actions.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems.2. on his fiction. to the influence. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. They share a middle class. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. They are pragmatic. when the writer was almost sixty. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. This confers vividness to their narratives. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. several adventure novels. Puritan* background. 5. their social insertion. dynamic and versatile. published in 1719. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. cast in a picaresque form. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). in the next years.
” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity.2. one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. C. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. not only physical but also spiritual. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. Wyeth . Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact.” It is.” and leaves home on board a ship.2.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. he starts a voyage to Africa. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. The only survivor. Providence helps him finally leave the island. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. in fact. Under Defoe’s pen.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . where he has established a colony. On his return to England. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. has three children. After 26 years. In the hope of increasing his wealth. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. romantic youth into a realistic. he turns from a reckless. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. He marries.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. such an experience became an archetypal one. After several misadventures at sea. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. prudent and calculating mature man. in soon left a widower. to buy slaves. In the 28 years of solitary life.
embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory.. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father). If it should differ considerably. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance. at the end of the unit. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design.3.” 5. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation.2. Isolation is no longer a misfortune.2. and 5. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness. to the awakening of religious conscience. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word.2. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. In this light. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. Gradually. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 . the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. as a political or economic utopia.2. In his initial struggle with despair.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter. read again subchapters 5.
at the end of the unit. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. perseverance. morally autonomous. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. It has its spiritual rewards. ingenuity). You may render these features either by a single noun (e. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work.2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter. SAQ 4 Read Text 5.. 3. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction.. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. He takes pleasure in his work). 4. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God.2.3.g. as well as the fragment in the Reader. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. inventiveness. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience. Enumerate. subchapter 5..” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise. Changed in his “notion of things.” desires and “delights. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. which will serve his instinct for independence. Like Adam. the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. as a self-reliant individual. or the felix culpa*. g. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. in the space below. 1. In this connection. 2. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. or by a sentence (e. perspicacity.2.” However. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. His linear. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. which.4. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. 2. easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. concreteness. clarity. containing. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. clear language. he paid little attention to matters of form. on a separate sheet. 4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The richness of concrete detail. the promise of symbolic meanings. His simple. in the Reader from the point of view of its style. solid world. read the fragment and subchapter 5. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. the frequent enumerations and inventories. 3. whose reality is difficult to doubt. of familiar detail. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness.2. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. 1. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking.4 once more and do the exercise again. with unmatched vividness. at the same time. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit.2. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. rendered in a simple. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist.2.
6. At the same time. whose affection she finally gains. sensibility and morality. in Bedfordshire. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. In Clarissa. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. B_’s hands. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. Mr. the latter’s son. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5.5. There. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. Pamela continues a diary. not only in England but also on the Continent. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. B’s relatives and friends. Mr.2. Faced with her resistance. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. In Pamela. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. B_’s sister. His influence was considerable. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. As the first great sentimental novelist. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure.2. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Upon the death of her mistress. of the struggle between virtue and vice. recording the details of her ordeal. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. unanimously loved and admired. as well as for his didactic purpose. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). cruel and greedy relatives. In her new state. The plot of Pamela. B_. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. hoping that she will give in.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Mr.
She sees social hierarchy as “natural.7. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. F. B_. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. a complete novelty in fiction. the rights of the individual. the freedoms that he takes with her. to set moral standards to the nation. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious.2. Through its subject and theme. Richardson’s implicit radical message. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment. as a traditionally dominant class. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty. read again attentively subchapters 5. between hate and admiration. If there should be significant differences. Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess.7. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge. at the end of the unit.8. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable.6. 5. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination.e. and 5. as a servant. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. it is easier for her to stand his abuses.2.2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. to obey Mr. though in quality [i.”? Answer in the space left below.
her sentimental response to them. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. and his developing love. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. however. What counts. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character.4. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. read again subchapter 5.3. on the other. in the Reader). B_ follows a similar evolution. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. excerpted from Pamela. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader. In Pamela’s letters and diary. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. 2.. 1. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. at the end of the unit. and considering also Text 5. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist.. which are captured in the process of their emergence. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.9. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. on the one hand.2. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique.
The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. Mr. but also by the maid. Slipslop. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. At this point. author of Don Quixote” (1742). required a narrator who should be no longer a character. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. Joseph’s sweetheart. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. as well as their inclusiveness. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. Pope. the author asserts himself. Mr. including Pamela and her husband. modest and gentle creature. whose servant he was. burlesque and comic satire. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. Cervantes. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. and.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. above all. relationships and actions. priggish* upstart. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. Abraham Adams. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. in London. they mirror a wide range of human types. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. started as a parody. irony. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. Mrs. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. so that he sets out for home. Booby. 1790) 132 . Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. to his native village. performed by means of comic satiric devices.3.1. B_’s aunt. Through the omniscient* narrator. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. but a snobbish. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. Fielding was a master of parody.3.” Mr. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. All important characters meet here. Fielding abandons parody. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. but a voice external to the story. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect.
2. For instance. Wilson. read the text once more. 1. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. is an ingredient of romantic plots. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. alluding thus to the older genre. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. 5. Mr. which closes the plot. T F 4. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. or the pattern of the adventurous journey. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. carefully. T F 2. T F 7. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. Fielding likes to play with genres.3. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. at the end of the unit.5. T F 8. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. T F 3. which turns out to be gentle*. Read Text 5. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. T F 5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . for true or false) for each of them. whom they had met during their journey. T F 6. in the spirit of comedy. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. Cervantes. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false.
but they placed their main interest in the individual. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. in Fielding.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. but also moral instruction. By means of techniques of contrast. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. etc. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. there are both good and bad innkeepers. he describes “not men. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. often making him appear ridiculous. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. but manners. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. in spite of the many instances of greed. both honest and hypocrite priests. cruelty. In other words. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. lawyers. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. Joseph emerges as morally mature. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. which often create comic effects. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. Like his literary ancestor. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. but a species” (Joseph Andrews).3. active goodness. as for Richardson. etc. For the author. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. as he himself says. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning.4. which must give substance to faith. above all. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . but good deeds and charity. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. At the same time. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. Every social class. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. In the beginning. Along the novel.3. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. not an individual. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends.3. doctors. masters. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible.
2. He is a moralist.2. 5.2. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation. Explain them. provide the first theory of the novel. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province.3. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. and 5. His commentaries and reflections on his own art.. and he believes. drawing short comparisons. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature.3. If they should differ substantially. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel. At the same time.4. 1. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices. like many Augustan writers. unaffected. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language. 5. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech.. incorporated in the substance of his works. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. through its moral and temperamental types.8. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony.4. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. at the end of the unit. 3... Fielding is the most “Augustan. preoccupied with the reformation of manners.3.5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. read again subchapters 5. 2. 5.
4. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. He digresses continually. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. Fielding had demonstrated. In spite of his promises. at every point. the priest who baptised Tristram. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. corporal Trim. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation. Walter Shandy. However.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. in Joseph Andrews. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. i. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). is an erudite philosopher. unpredictable narrative. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. moulds reality into a literary pattern.2. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. With Sterne. by accident. other interesting things to relate. Tristram. that he was. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. 5. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps.” in every sense. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the narrator.e. that. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. he seems to have. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. and his long. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. of his uncle.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. as well as of Parson Yorick. Walter. the relation between life and literature. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. does not manage to give a shape to his story.4. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision.1. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. at the age of five. His father.4. the history of a private life.
They cannot share their thoughts. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. pitiful creature. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. modesty and. and discharged from the army. as comic eccentricity. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. Wounded in Flanders. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. with man as a vulnerable. 5. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. therefore.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. which influences all his thoughts and actions. gentleness. ironic terms. The “nonsensical. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. It is not type (social. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol.4. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. above all. good-humoured.3.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. were being fought on the continent.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. On the other hand. Understandably. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. However. generosity. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. amiability. character and destiny. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life. absorbed in this activity. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world.
Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.3.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. in the Glossary to Unit 2. see again the fall of princes. V.4.6. at the end of the unit. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them.. Ch. I. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Write the answer in the space left below. Read this short chapter (Text 5. If the difference is considerable. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*. SAQ 10 In Vol. To remember the features of the tragic hero. as well as the fragment from the Reader. read again subchapter 5.
in Sterne’s novel. The zigzagging narrative. 5.e. the “imperfections of words.” Not only as a man. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . drawings and graphs. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. points of suspension. and gives the impression of stagnation. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories.4. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. asterisks. coherent plots. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. with its multitude of dashes. The structure of the book is equally odd. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. It is. to a certain view of writing. does not seem to move towards any climax. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. so different from Fielding’s tight. For example. and he takes great delight in digressions.4.4. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. the book is a comic oddity.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. Sterne defamiliarises them. Tristram resorts to other means of communication. but also to how it is told. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words.5. makes the reader aware of them. etc. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in. by exploiting them in a parodic way. but also as an author. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. Sterne’s rambling narrative. for instance. watched as if by a slow motion camera. there are several dedications scattered through the book. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight. Typographically. which he calls “the sunshine of reading. i.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. marking a moment of affectionate recollection.
The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. The unpredictable. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices. As metafiction.e. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. the process of its own writing.e. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative.” with their digressions. of life as pure chance. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. Its extravagant. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional.4. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. Metafictionally. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. ultimately. It is a half-amused. in the first four volumes. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. however. Basically. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. i. formless reality. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. on the author’s vision of life. which is connected.6. In volume VI. metafiction is fiction about fiction. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. The meaning of metafiction depends. the narrated time and the time of reading. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. works which call attention to their own devices. at the structural level. as it explores – halfseriously. i. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English.
4. and read the fragment attentively once more. Write them in the spaces indicated below.5.4. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it. and 5. In this way. 3. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them. go again through subchapters 5. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 . which he discusses in the very text of the work. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel.6.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. 2. If they differ significantly. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. at the end of the unit. 1. Instead of continuing the story..7.
completely ignored by Augustan poetics. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. and Laurence Sterne. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. the novel was a minor form. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. Since its settlement on the literary scene. Samuel Richardson. in his novels of manners. on the other hand. Fielding. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. At the beginning of the 18th century. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. Sterne. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. Henry Fielding. Lastly. However.
Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. literally: novel of formation.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. epistolary manner: in a novel. booby: silly or stupid person. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. or education. “beyond fiction”. fixed idea. Bildungsroman: German term. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. lifelikeness: closeness to life. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). in which the poor heroine. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. mirth: laughter. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . tone. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. and he seeks social integration. metafiction: literally.e. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. a hobbyhorse is a toy. gaiety. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). Cinderella: an old fairy story. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. but producing a different sound. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. characteristically. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. exact representation of life. fun. rogue) – belongs.e. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. happiness. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. Concretely. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. or “narcissistic” – i. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. to the lower ranks of society. gentle: of good breeding. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. played like a piano. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. literacy: the ability to read and write. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. whose style. The hero – the picaro (i. a Fool. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject.
priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote. Don Quixote starts. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. 1615). the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. Britain joined Austria. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605. Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). like a knight-errant of former times. Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. The high aspirations of this generous. honest and brave hidalgo (i.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read.e.
1. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. • the coherence.2. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. 2. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%.1. in grading your paper. SAA no. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island.. Text 5. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. as illustrated by this fragment. the king rejects this tribute. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5.4.1. and 5. clarity. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. therefore. with special attention to subchapter 4. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. Text 4. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels. 1. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention.4. In order to win the good graces of the king. Remember that. You will have.. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns. 3. Horrified. to revise the preceding unit.
plainness. industriousness. all souls are equal. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. pragmatism.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. patience. resilience. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. realistic account. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. concreteness. 4. vividness. 5. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. the capacity for learning from mistakes. 2. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. 2. SAQ 5 factuality. rationality. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. optimism. SAQ 4 Tenacity. sharp sense of observation. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. and also authors of novels. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. inventiveness. 5. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. In the social order. 4. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. immediacy. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. and by the form of autobiographical record. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. 3. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. SAQ 2 1. 6. 3.
T. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. 4. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters. This is not Tristram’s case.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. 2. 3. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. who write in the first person. 3F. SAQ 11 1. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. 6. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. they create a sort of suspense.” but in “pitiful misadventures. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character.F. SAQ 8 1. In this way. living and the act of writing overlap each other.T. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. 2. 3.T. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind. 2. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. 2. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. wealth and power. 5. 7. 8.F SAQ 9 1. enjoying title. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. his gifts and virtues set him above common people.T. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. he is concerned with human types. 3. SAQ 7 1. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will.T. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. that is. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil. He is always a prominent figure. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer.
712-718. Cornelia. 116127. 1969 (pp. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Walter. 43-46. David. Macsiniuc. Daiches. The English Novel. Penguin Books Limited.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 76-80) 2. 2003 (pp. 179-195. 217-231. 598-602.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 701-704. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 53-59. 143-163. 37-42. vol. 1991 (pp. A Critical History of English Literature. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. Allen. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 731-736) 3.
English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6.1.2. 6. 6. 6. 6. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.5. 126.96.36.199.2.4. 6.1. 6.4.3. 6.3.4. 188.8.131.52.4.4.4. The Seasons William Cowper.2.1.2. 6.2. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson. 6.2. 6. 6.4.4. 6. 6. 184.108.40.206.2.3.4. 220.127.116.11. 6.1. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 . 6. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.
Neoclassicism*. The sentimental novel* (e. For instance. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. was eminently the Age of Reason. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. harmony. with its emphasis on order.1. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. the century of the Enlightenment*. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. The interest in individual psychology. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. and for night as a setting. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. Pope. however.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6.g. Swift. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. discipline. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. Addison. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. elegance and decorum*. and cultivated its public relevance. Like any modern age. The concern with personal. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. regarded art as the product of civilisation. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and Fielding). which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling.
1. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. In 1765.1. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. sublime landscapes. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. death and immortality. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard.2. Night Thoughts (1742-1745).D. which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). and folk literature in general. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads.1. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. and misty. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. His long poem in nine books. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. wild. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. whose life had passed in complete anonymity.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*.
The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. in 1765. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. … a. imagination. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. at the end of the unit. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. Like James Macpherson. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. b. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . reflected… 4. d. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. When his literary fraud was exposed. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. with its gloomy atmosphere. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. … 3. c. read again the previous subchapters. aspiring to poetic fame. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. … as well as Gothic fiction. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. 1. The publication.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. Chatterton committed suicide. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. regarding him as a martyr. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry.
an interest developed in popular forms of poetry.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent. Towards the end of the century. The return to blank verse 6. Samuel Taylor Coleridge).1.g. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. the state of nature began to be idealised. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. characteristic of the Enlightenment. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. the interest in the local and national past.2. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. but also literary forms. The pre. The emphasis on sentimental response. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom.3. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. busy life of the city with moral confusion. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects. The great novelists (e. In the latter part of the century. such as the song and the ballad. William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. In the following subchapters.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
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English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
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English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
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English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
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and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons.3.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. in its magnificence and diversity.3. more amusing. becomes an object of interest in itself. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature. 6. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation. “Winter. political comments. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730).” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. nature. and the apparent cruelty of winter. In spite of its eclectic nature. Britannia. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. exerting a considerable influence on both of them. Samuel Johnson said. manifest as early as the 1730s. As Dr. His praise of nature and of the countryside. the philosophical reflection. praise of friends. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. but also the feeling for it. the splendour of summer. in many generations of readers.1. James Thomson.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. patriotic enthusiasm. not only the perception of nature. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. an expression of national pride. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. than the works of Nature. His poem educated. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. and the moral sentiment. etc.
and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 . which actually inspired Thomson). the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. records his observations and reflections.3. “Autumn. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). William Collins 6. Passages of moral and political commentary. social satire. more carefully. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. living in retirement from the city. Like Thomson and Collins. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. from the third part.2. If there should be major differences. read text C again.3. in popular superstitions and the supernatural. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression.. He was interested in the mediaeval past. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. at the end of the unit. unrhymed stanzas. with its short. William Cowper. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746).
1856 The Task. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. and of simple. Coleridge). concerning the opposition country/town. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. T. As a poet of nature. affected] the country.4. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. but the joy of communion with friends. represents one of the most memorable statements. the peace and quiet of village life. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. indicate an affectionate observer. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” Sometimes. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. however. with its vices and follies.e. S. in the Reader. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. / Paradise that has survived the fall. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. domestic activities. like gardening. at the end of the unit. Wordsworth. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. in the 18th century. SAQ 5 Text 6.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. He praises the simple pleasures.
and he rejected the classical standards of style.4. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. to a large extent. widening the range of meanings. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. and Macpherson. Blake’s late fame is due. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. Apart from a volume of early verse. Thomson. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. to the special way in which he produced his work. The combination of calligraphic text.4.1. he turns his attention to the rural world.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. Milton. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. In his first great illuminated work. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. William Blake. He was not only a poet. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. Gray. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. Each copy was then coloured by hand. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. 6.civilisation. but also a gifted painter and engraver. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. Like other pre-Romantic poets. and recognised as one of the most original creators. In Blake. our sense of a common fate for all humanity. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. the rural setting. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters.
original and strange. unpremeditated act. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Los*. and his whole work. Like the other English Romantics. a tribute to Milton. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets. 6. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820).4. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory.” This is Blake’s own creed. The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. Blake. They are. Blake was a rebel. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*.” or “I write when commanded by spirits.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. a prophet. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. for instance: “I copy Imagination. Jerusalem: “I must create a system. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. in a way. and he denounces the evils of civilisation.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. in Blake’s last poem.2. says. or be enslaved by another man’s. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer.
of the world seen through the eyes of the child. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. T F 4. The Shepherd. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. that is. T F 6. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. innocent delights. T F 3. If you have made mistaken choices. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. T F 7. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. As a poet. 1. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. revise the whole subchapter. at the end of the unit. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse.3. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry.4. 6. enjoy] to hear. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. T F 2.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. and its origin was visionary experience. their clarity of expression and their musicality. and the three statements that are false. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. T F 5. For Blake. Spring. Laughing Song. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. Poems like Infant Joy. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The Echoing Green. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man.e. The Blossom. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work.
with which Blake was acquainted. The nurse. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. the guardian angel. gratified desire. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. Besides the children themselves. and absence of frustration or inhibition. is a biblical allusion. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. which a proper education should develop. in his natural tendency to virtue. The good shepherd. the shepherd. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering.” can “laugh away care. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. although the sun has set. or even Jesus.e. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. meadow]”. associated with childhood.” Throughout his work. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. In these poems. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. According to him. “Old John. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. In The Echoing Green. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. does not mean ignorance. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . with white hair.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. For Blake. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. love. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination. in Nurse’s Song. Innocence.
5. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 . and in which he represents to himself its “making. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. If there should be a significant difference between them. at the end of the unit.” Answer in the space below.
the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. standing equal before God. envy and deceit. In London. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate.4. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. nature. for instance. of “stony laws*”. full of indignation and anger. when this life ends. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. poverty and oppression. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . even sarcastic.4. in which man’s lot is hard work. In The Chimney Sweeper*. society and divinity. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. In Songs of Experience. often. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. which is a promise of divine mercy. protesting against the evils of his time. disease. Like the chimney sweeper. the thirst for war. In the fallen state of Experience. or the mind of others. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. for instance. 6. love and joy have been replaced by fear.4. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. which deny man his freedom. hate. but. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent.e. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. i.5. However. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence.
you]?) and his own answer. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. at the end of the unit. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. by ambiguity and even obscurity. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . dangerous tiger. innocent question (“Little Lamb. who made thee [i.6. The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. Read this poem – Text 6.e. provoking more anxiety than certainty. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below.4. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. in Songs of Experience. with no explicit answer. If it should differ in major respects.
He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture.” or with a “multitude of lambs. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world.7. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. Contraries are essential to progression. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church. which are thus strengthening their own power. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. with its “mysteries”*. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. They reveal. in Blake’s view. indeed.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. In the poem of Innocence. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery.” which lead to contrary visions. and he is also a child. was responsible.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. A deeply religious person. bearing even the same titles. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. “contrary states of the human soul. in fact. a stern.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. for keeping man at a distance from God. and His Priest. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion.” In the counterpart poem. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God. Reason and Energy*. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. This is the God of the world of Experience. in Songs of Experience. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination. tyrannical figure. He displays. since those are “babes reduced to misery. served by the institutionalised churches. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. but with ways of seeing and feeling. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. The church. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption.
1.2.4. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. but he is no longer able to do that. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state. and read the poem again more carefully.7. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience. If there should be major differences between them. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 .English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted. at the end of the unit..4. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. except as an act of remembering. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. to regain the vision of Innocence. to 6. revise subchapters 6.
as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. g. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. The other feature is primitivism. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. nature-civilisation. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. the interest in early poetry. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. In subchapter 6. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications.4.3. imagination and feelings. Subchapter 6. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination.. 6. The last subchapter.2.. The “Graveyard” poets (e. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. now threatened by the march of Progress. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside.
English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. decorum: see subchapter 4.2. the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Imagination was free Energy. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). Initially. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. in Unit 4. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. passion. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. favour melancholy or morbid themes. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . For the small farmers. for instance. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. or Erse.2. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. Sometimes. Their father was Zeus. which they could climb more easily. the enclosures meant ruin. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. and horror. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. as the next subchapter will show. Ireland and Wales. ruins. Gray is sadly ironic. Celtic: related to the Celts.e. for the sake of more profitable farming. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. which has survived in parts of Scotland. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. putting fences round) common land. graveyards. Energy: for Blake. goddess of Memory. Haunted castles.
Among the most important of them are America.3.. The Book of Los. The Book of Urizen. with His laws formulated as interdictions.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. Pity. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. Milton. to attend the religious service.2. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. 2 in Unit 4. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. A Prophecy. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. wild landscapes. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. Jerusalem. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. in Unit 3. See also subchapter 4. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. on which the Ten Commandments were written. the 39th day after Easter.1.3. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. belonging to the beginnings. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. The custom in London was to bring the poor. sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. in Unit 5. The Four Zoas. used to secure the hands of a prisoner. or of gold or silver paint.1. etc. philosophical and political convictions. Paul’s Cathedral. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. the Passions. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). in Unit 1. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. primitive: original. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. etc. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. as well as against the sophistication. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit.
6. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. clarity. SAA no.12. in grading your paper. Send-away assignment no.” usurous: from usury.. Remember that.9.8. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau. and 6. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. 6.. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution.). • the coherence. The Chimney Sweeper. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%).. 6. 6.13. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest. meant to win a patron’s favour. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762).10. with his law of love.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. and Holy Thursday (Texts 6.11. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words.. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. gardens or estates. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 .
the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. the “drooping weary” father. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. nor wished to change his place” 3. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. “Unpractised he to fawn. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. b. a. disease and poverty. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “He chid their [i. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. and on his thoughts. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. d. Its bare. 2. In the city. love of nature. on his soul. the vagants’] wanderings. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. but relieved their pain” 6. c SAQ 2 1. For Cowper. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. 3. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. and love of man. or seek for power. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. the “feeble. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. all intensified. 4.e. Meditation leads to illumination. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. in which everything seems to be in decline. Nor e’er had changed.
T. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. but are symbols of limitation. F. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. 2.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. meadow. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. the “Lamb of God. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. 4. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. In the simple economy of the poem. and is itself one more care in the family. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. 2. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. Man. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. against which man. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole.” that is. In the second stanza. 6. T. 7. in Blake’s vision. 3. In a vision of Innocence. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. and. therefore. confinement and oppressive authority. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. in the state of Experience. the God of Love. At the same time. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. T. F. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. T. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. “My mother groaned. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. being thus a source of oppression.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. which he has lost. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. 5. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. struggles in vain.
652-658.. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. 671-684. 1969 (pp. Ford. David. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). Daiches. vol. vol.4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). 1991 (pp.).5 (“From Blake to Byron”). Penguin Books Ltd. 1991 (pp..English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. 84-94) 3. Boris (ed. A Critical History of English Literature. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Ford. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Penguin Books Ltd.. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature.). The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. 692-699) 2. Further reading 1. Boris (ed. vol.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. încât acest frumos tărâm. Hamlet (Act II. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. the air. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). to me. in moving. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. the sky) brave minunat. of late recently wherefore why. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. foregone* all custom of exercises. – lost all my mirth*. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. şi totuşi. forewent. this most excellent canopy*. William Shakespeare. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. văzduhul. într-adevăr. this brave* overhanging* firmament*. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii.g. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. the earth. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. alcătuirile şi mişcările. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . seems to me a sterile promontory.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. pentru mine. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. acest preaminunat baldachin. cum să spun. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. şi.excelent. pământul. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. – but wherefore* I know not. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. vedeţi. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa.1. look you. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel.
a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . William Shakespeare. El. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. Out*. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. semeţ. ţanţoş. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. to creep. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow.” the innocent sleep. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage.3. a poor player. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. The death of each day’s life. TEXT 2. great nature’s second course*. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care.2. Macbeth (Act V. a se furişa) petty inessential. it is a tale Told by an idiot.Reader TEXT 2. full of sound* and fury. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. William Shakespeare. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. and tomorrow. and tomorrow. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. out. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. Macbeth (Act II. Balm of hurt minds. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. sore* labour’s bath. To the last syllable of recorded time. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. trivial. Signifying nothing. trifling (mărunt. And then is heard no more. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. desfirat.
The Tempest (Act I. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. Took pains to make thee speak. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. cruel. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. tot mereu. ticălos) race neam. TEXT 2. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. savage. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. abject. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. stupid (necioplit. Te stinge. a suporta therefore as a result. Though thou didst learn*. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. William Shakespeare. mârşav. Un biet actor. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*.4. mărginit) shameful and evil. redus. Caliban: You taught me language. a bâigui) brutish coarse. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . nasty (josnic. Which any print* of goodness will not take. netrebnic.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. Know thine* own meaning. sălbatic.
TEXT 2. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . The Tempest (Act IV. Actorii Ţi-am spus. all which it inherit. literary) truly. etc. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. The solemn temples. William Shakespeare. Biserici maiestoase. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. shall dissolve And. În stare de orice. Scoteai doar mugete. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. dar proasta-ţi fire. palate mândre. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. Te-am surghiunit aici.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. foretold: a anunţa. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi.5. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. consistency. the gorgeous palaces. colour. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. fiară. duşi. These our actors. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. Yea*. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. au fost. duhuri. framework (clădire. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. Te-am învăţat de toate. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. into thin air: And. temelie) fabric building. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. toţi. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. pe drept. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. the great globe itself. chiar pământul. structure. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. As I foretold* you. când tu. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. The cloud-capped towers*. se vor topi Şi. dar. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. Leave not a rack* behind.
Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. If they be two. And whisper* to their souls. Inter-assured of the mind*. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. Though I must go. who must. and some say.Reader Făcute-s visele. And makes me end. obliquely run. But we by a love so much refined. endure* not yet A breach*. That our selves know not what it is. lips. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. and hands to miss. Men reckon* what it did and meant. The breath goes now. But trepidation of the spheres. where I begun. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. and make no noise. Yet when the other far doth roam*. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Care less eyes. to go. Thy* soul the fixed foot. but an expansion. nor sigh-tempests* move. makes no show To move. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. Like the other foot. and hearkens* after it. no: So let us melt*. TEXT 2. but doth. No tear-floods.6. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. John Donne. Our two souls therefore. And grows erect*. if the other do. It leans*. which are one. Though greater far. Such wilt* thou* be to me. And though it in centre sit. as that comes home. Like gold to aery thinness beat. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. is innocent.
a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. Take me to you. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. to another due*. rupture stiff rigid. Nor ever chaste. a înrobi. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. and stand. or break that knot again. breathe. except you ravish* me. untie*. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. like an usurped town. That I may* rise. leant a se apleca. to undergo breach break. Reason your viceroy* in me. But is captived. precis. me should defend. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. burn. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. Labour* to admit you.7. never shall be free. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. apply your force due cuvenit. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. shine. to break. to no end*. and seek to mend. a elibera to enthrall a supune. for I Except your enthrall* me. datorat to labour to work hard. overthrew. Yet dearly I love you. and bend Your force*. and would be loved fain*. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. ferm. imprison me. but oh. fig. overthrown: a nimici. I. blow. o’erthrow me*. John Donne. three-personed God*. and proves weak or untrue*. and make me new. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. you As yet* but knock. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. a lua cu sila.Reader pass away to die mildly gently.: inflexibil. a rătăci to lean. exact Text 2. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. Divorce me. to struggle to no end vainly. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. for.
Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. But thirty thousand to the rest. Nor would I love at lower rate. and pass our long love’s day.8. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. Now therefore. and time. if you please. Andrew Marvell. And now. do there embrace. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. and think which way To talk. Lady.Reader TEXT 2. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. you deserve this state*. And the last age should show your heart. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. shall sound My echoing song. were no crime. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. Now let us sport* while we may. Thy beauty shall no more be found. Lady. yet we will make him run. But none. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. For. and on thy* forehead gaze. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. Two hundred to adore each breast. I think. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. Nor. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. like amorous birds of prey. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . We would sit down. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. An age at least to every part. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. in thy marble vault*. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. And you should. This coyness*. Thus.
a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . peculiar. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. which. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. patimă) grave mormânt. a lâncezi. in spite of her coyness. tineresc hue culoare. nuanţă.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. groapă youthful de tinereţe. sfială. torn) a smulge. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd.: swift. fig.
boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. chide*. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . returning. if I have grace to use it so. obscure. rush bud mugur. however mean* or high. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. speed. to prevent That murmur*. John Milton. All is. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. but Patience. and present My true account. lest he. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. who best Bear his mild yoke*. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. a strict overseer TEXT 3. lucky endueth endues. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. and the will of heaven. the subtle* thief of youth. Yet be it less or more. John Milton. opportune happy fortunate.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. in this dark world and wide. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time.1. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. they serve him best. appears [in me] much less – i. Ere* half my days. '”Doth God exact* day-labour.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. or soon or slow. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. Toward which time leads me. destiny mean humble.2.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
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Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
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From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
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Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
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that Man may not become As they. What can your knowledge hurt him. Me who have touched and tasted. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. producing every kind. reach* then. that all from them proceeds*.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. by the Threatener? look on me. His worshippers? He knows that. Goddess humane. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. Warmed by the Sun. Why. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. Queen of the Universe. I question it. And what are Gods. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. in the day Ye eat thereof*. do not believe Those rigid threats of death.8. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. then. 3. 4. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. and freely taste. by venturing* higher than my lot. Knowing both good and evil. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. your eyes. as they know. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. ye* shall not die. John Milton. and that advantage use On our belief. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. ye you (pl. and ye shall be like Gods. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. Them nothing. or this tree Impart against his will. for this fair* Earth I see. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. modest thereof din ace(a)sta.Reader TEXT 3.
beheld to behold.9. but wiped them soon. The world was all before them. They. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . hand in hand. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. where to choose Their place of rest. beheld (archaic. with wandering steps and slow. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. John Milton.Reader TEXT 3. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. so late* their happy seat*. Through Eden took their solitary way. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. and Providence their guide. Waved over by that flaming brand*. looking back. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They.
And lastly. to be sole* empress of my tea table. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. without giving a reason. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . Let us never visit together.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. because they are your acquaintance. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. wherever I am. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. as if we were proud of one another the first week. To have my closet* inviolate*.1. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. to provoke eyes and whispers*. William Congreve. manierat. or to be intimate with fools. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. so far trifle fleac. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. (…) fond affectionate. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. to write and receive letters. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. nor kiss before folks*. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. Come to dinner when I please. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. reserved well-bred binecrescut. because they may be your relations*. and then never be seen there together again. nor go to a play together. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. to wear what I please. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. and ashamed of one another ever after. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell.
rogue pungaş. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. and please long. and leaves it standing in its place. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. potlogar villain nemernic. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. dobitoc. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. Particular manners* may be known to few. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. the poet of nature.2. a livra. secătură. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. ticălos.Reader TEXT 4. Samuel Johnson. descendenţi to supply a oferi. pungaş.3. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. unpractised by the rest of the world. at least above all modern writers. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. John Dryden. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. but just representations of general nature. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. cap sec knave escroc. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. successfully irregular neuniform. which can operate but* upon small numbers. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. above all writers. Shakespeare is. escroc. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. variabil fanciful capricios. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . măcelărire fineness eleganţă. a blockhead*.
wherein* they must be allowed to excel. and the fortunes of his people. of strong parts. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. entities. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. Jonathan Swift. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. refinement and intrigue. unnecessary scruple. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II.4. and transcendentals*. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. in a discourse one day with the King. and esteem. and profound learning. love. endued* with admirable talents for government. and mathematics. great wisdom. poetry. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. either in a prince or a minister. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. consisting only in morality. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. The learning of this people is very defective. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. And as to ideas.Reader TEXT 4. and almost adored by his subjects. abstractions. to justice and lenity*. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. so that among us would be little esteemed. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . For I remember very well. should from a nice*. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. the liberties. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. history. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature.
but not in themselves. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. as sometimes happens. so. For. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. as I had described them. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. This favorite is hated by the whole herd.5. in some fields of his country. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. our manners. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. Ch. and carry them away. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. than any of the rest. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. arts. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. Jonathan Swift. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. a asigura. a i se încredinţa (e. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. and the like. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. they will instead of eating peaceably. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. (…) As to learning. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. from the representation I had given him of our lives. and our actions. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. there are certain shining stones of several colors. a fi iniţiat în. manufactures*. and therefore* to protect himself. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious.g. which all could see in the rest. the shortness of my claws*. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. but still looking round with great caution. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . (…) That. and activity. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. without delay determination rezolvare. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. to restrict bound limit. and mischievous* in disposition. fall together by ears*. speed. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. government. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
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TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
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grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
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UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
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ugly things I made. But all this would not answer my end*. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. and pipkins*. how many of them fell in*. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. or glazing* them with lead*. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. which none of these could do. with a great heap of embers* under them.2. I had no notion of a kiln*. and red as a tile*. anevoios. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. to dig* it. or rather laugh at me. in a word how. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. flat dishes*. to bring it home and work it. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. one upon another. and any things my hand turned to*. a cădea fell out to fall. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. such as the potters* burn in. after having laboured hard to find the clay. a se desprinde clay lut. and bear* the fire.. so as to make it burn me some pots. to pity a căina awkward incomod. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. a frământa. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. de pământ jar oală. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. Daniel Defoe. It happened after some time. and observed that they did not crack at all*. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. (fell. though I had some lead to do it with. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. what odd. misshapen*. (fell. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. being set out too hastily*. which it did admirably well. I was agreeably surprised to see it. When I saw them clear red. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*.Reader TEXT 5. pitchers*. and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. to temper* it. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. fallen) out: a se desface. and how many fell out*. and placed my firewood* all round it. and.
to my grief*. when I expected some new plot*. chinuri womb pântece. in which he confesses his affection for her. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. and before I knew what was the matter. I am quite overcome*. did I say! […] I know not how it came. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. and tender years*. Samuel Richardson. but now. O my unguarded* youth. a învinge. I had no reason to expect.4. however.] This letter. nor when it began. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. plin de viaţă) height culme. than the dry*. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). is not a voluntary thing – Love. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. punct culminant. I beseech* you. Samuel Richardson. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. it looked like love. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). nenorocire pangs mâhnire. I must own* to you. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . so much affection. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. […] O my dear parents. crept. intenţie to bear (bore. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. can be. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. to find him capable of so much openness. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. durere.3. like a thief. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. has greatly affected me. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. and of so much honour too. upon me. But to be sure*. B_.Reader dish blid. nay*. but it has crept*. This was a good fortune. apogeu distress nefericire. scop. and so it is: but love. before. my dear father. a depăşi) TEXT 5. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. dubious uncertain. […] Forgive. I imagine. born) a rezista. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. narrative. forgive me! but I found.
only dangerous attacks! After all. of inferior manners. for there it is never properly introduced. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. in its sentiments and diction*. însemnare TEXT 5. I hope. to consider of this.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. torn) out a smulge.5. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. and introducing a greater variety of characters. thy whole self. as I thought. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. and consequently. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. [Memorandum*. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. întristat. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. în mod clar rigorous aspru. before summons* came. în consecinţă to tear (tore.] plot uneltire. and therefore*. In the diction. differing from comedy. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart.e. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. and resignation to the Divine Will. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. a rupe memorandum notă. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. and to one too.) treacherous trădător (adj. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . sever grief durere. containing a much larger circle of incidents. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. a implora grieved amărât. for giving up so weakly. Yet. when I get home. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. or tear* it out of my writing.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. in this. who had used me so hardly. I think. Henry Fielding. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. O my treacherous*.
so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. Burlesque is in writing. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. it be nearly allied to deceit*. Indeed. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage.Reader burlesque kind. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. if we examine it. which that of the hypocrite hath. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. yet when it comes from vanity only. and. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. Now. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. therefore. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. not men. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. that. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. […] Now. and consequently more ridiculous. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. though. or hath not the virtue he affects. to the degree he would be thought to have it. is more surprising. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. as they proceed* from very different motives. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. which this is not intended to be. It may be likewise noted. in order to purchase* applause. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. than when from vanity. And here I shall observe. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. arises from the surprising absurdity. or e converso*. and where our delight. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. yet. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. what Caricatura is in painting. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them).
But for not being what they would be thought*. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. tend* only to raise our mirth*. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. of our pity. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. cu stângăcie.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. which at first moved our compassion. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. fig. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. smaller faults. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault.: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty.
I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. to annoy ungracious răutăcios. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. a izbuti. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. the merit of which has all along. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. nefericit TEXT 5. my work is digressive. I fear. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. on my conscience. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. been overlooked* by my reader. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. and that I fly off* from what I am about. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. Laurence Sterne. in a digression. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so.Reader TEXT 5. Gentleman. dirty planet of ours.I.6. povară signal însemnat. In a word. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. not for want of penetration* in him. – not but the planet is well enough*. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. with reverence be it spoken*. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. and reconciled. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . – and at the same time. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. Tristram Shandy (Vol. I wish I had been born in the Moon.7. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. as you observe. and it is progressive too. Laurence Sterne. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. two contrary motions are introduced into it. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. which. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. or expected indeed.
his whole work stands stock-still*. I observe. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. in general. you might as well take the book along with them. – and. what’s more. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. has been kept agoing. you see. brings in variety. and if he goes on with his main work. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. from that moment. – they are the life. in this matter. if he begins a digression. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. and forbids the appetite to fail. but also of the author. incontestably. one wheel within another*.Reader Digressions. whose distress*. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. For which reason. then there is an end of his digression. is truly pitiable*: For. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. are the sunshine. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. – take them out of this book for instance. that the whole machine. restore them to the writer. bids* All hail*. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. cum trebuie. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. This is vile work*. the soul of reading. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. from the beginning of this.
a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. The Deserted Village A man he was. Nor e’er* had changed. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. devout (evlavios. the matron* pale. a boy. Or hers. Oliver Goldsmith. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. or seek for power. He chid* their wanderings*. croit to prize a preţui. and ask if peace be there. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. look within. a alina. cortegiu şir chid to chide. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. Who. Unpracticed he to fawn*. hoinar. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*.2. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. cerşetor train alai. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. chid: to rebuke. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Go. distant godly pious. to scold (a dojeni. George Crabbe. Then his first joy. nor wished to change his place. he climbed the loftiest bough*. to all the country dear. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. propped* on that rude* staff*. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. but his sad emblem now. a mângâia) TEXT 6. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. passing rich trecând drept bogat. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast.1. modelat. Or theirs.
(…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. Inflames imagination. simple. sprijinit. The Task (1785) God made the country. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt. James Thomson. chief*. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. sorbitură grove crâng. and as high: Devotion.4. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. urmaş feeble plăpând. jalnic. to elevate. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . The love of Nature. pace smooth calm. părinte offspring vlăstar. nenorocit hearth vatră. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. William Cowper. rezemat rude rudimentary. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. to stimulate. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. With all the social offspring of the heart*. What wonder then that health and virtue. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. unconfined*. and. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. and man made the town. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. generos ease tihnă. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity.Reader ye you (pl.3. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. ales. o’er over to exalt to raise. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. Of human race. linişte. coarse. As varied.) gentle nobil.
gentle and uncomplaining (blând. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. a înlănţui. and bid thee feed*. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. my father wept*. We are called by his name.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. Bound* and weary*. cuminte. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. a ţâşni. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. and he is mild*. God bless thee. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. to groan a geme. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. supus) mild gentle.5. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. I’ll tell thee. not violent (blajin. Gave thee clothing of delight. William Blake. naked. leapt: a sări. a închide weary tired. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. William Blake. Helpless. wooly* bright. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. Struggling in my father’s hands. Little Lamb. God bless thee.Reader TEXT 6. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. Striving against my swaddling bands*. Little Lamb. Little Lamb. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. Softest clothing. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . bound: a lega strâns. piping* loud.6. Gave thee such a tender voice. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte.
for it is yet day. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. no. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. And the dews* of night arise. the sun is gone down. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind. a sălta. William Blake. So I turned to the Garden of Love. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. And every thing else is still. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie.” “No. green pajişte verde at rest calm. And the hills are all covered with sheep. come leave off play. William Blake. And I saw it was filled with graves*. let us play. go and play till the light fades away*. Come.Reader TEXT 6. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . “Then come home my children. well. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. My heart is at rest* within my breast. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love.7.” “Well. And we cannot go to sleep. Where I used to play on the green. And laughing is heard on the hill. tranquil. in the sky the little birds fly. bore.8. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. That so many sweet flowers bore*. And then go home to bed. Besides. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires.
freamăt dale vale.10. and that very night. whisperings şoapte.9. weep. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. Ned and Jack. Then come home. never mind it. And wash in a river. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. if he'd be a good boy. the sun is gone down. a irosi TEXT 6. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. Tom. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. And the dews of night arise. William Blake. My face turns green* and pale. Then down a green plain leaping. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. And the Angel told Tom. foşnet. and shine in the Sun. for when your head's bare. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. And so Tom awoke. and in soot* I sleep. my children. and we rose* in the dark. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . was shaved: so I said “Hush*. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. There’s little Tom Dacre. Tom was happy and warm. And your winter and night in disguise. they run. Then naked and white. laughing. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. Joe.Reader TEXT 6. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. As Tom was a-sleeping. William Blake. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. Dick. weep. They rise upon clouds. and sport* in the wind. So if all do their duty.” And so he was quiet. Though the morning was cold. they need not fear harm. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. all their bags left behind. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play.
hornar sold to sell. Beneath them sit the aged men. a se deştepta TEXT 6. wise guardians of the poor. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. Because I was happy upon the heath*. The hum* of multitudes was there. And because I am happy and dance and sing. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. potoleşte-te.11. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. their innocent faces clean. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. O what a multitude they seemed. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. but multitudes of lambs. with wands* as white as snow. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. risen): a se scula. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . lest* you drive* an angel from your door. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). alături. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. coşciug by aproape. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. în preajmă to sport a zburda. William Blake.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. Then cherish* pity. They clothed me in the clothes of death.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. And smiled among the winter’s snow. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. They think they have done me no injury*. Crying “weep*. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow.12. William Blake.
especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. a iubi) lest ca să nu. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the 40 day after Easter. neroditor thorn spin. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. lugubru bare gol. rece. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. soft. Babe can never hunger there. And their ways are filled with thorns*. Nor poverty the mind appal*.13. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. sterp. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. re-built th in the late 17 century. a goni TEXT 6. And where-e’er the rain does fall. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. It is eternal winter there. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. For where-e’er* the sun does shine. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. fruitful fecund. and to the Last Judgement. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. William Blake. who helped the priest in various ways. fertil.
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