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Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.4. 3.5. 2. 3. 3.1.2. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3.3.2. 3.3. 4. 2. 3. 2. 4. 3. 3. 4.3. 4.3. 4. 3. 2. 3. 4.2.4. 188.8.131.52.Contents 184.108.40.206. 3.5.1. 3.1. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4.2.2. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.2. 3. 4. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.2.1.1. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.220.127.116.11.1.3.3. 18.104.22.168.2.3. 2.3. 22.214.171.124.2.4. 3.1. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3.5. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton.5. 3. 4.6. 126.96.36.199.6.
2. 5.4. 5. 4.3.Contents 4. 5. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 5.4. 5.4.5. 5. 4. 5.1. 5. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.220.127.116.11.1. 5. 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. 5. 5. 4.4.4. 4. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3.6.4. 4.1.4. 4. 5. 4.2.4. 5. Gulliver.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.3. 5. 220.127.116.11. 4. 5.5.2. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4.4. 18.104.22.168. 4.2.4. 4.5. 22.214.171.124.2.2. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5.4.7. 5.3. 4.3. 4. 5. 126.96.36.199.
6. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 6. 6.4. 6.1. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 6. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson. 6.4. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake. 6.2. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4.4.1. 6. 6.2.1. 6.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No. 6. 6.4. 6.2. 6.2. 220.127.116.11.3.6. The Seasons William Cowper. 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1. 6.2. 126.96.36.199. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.
such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. Before starting your study. by encouraging your response to particular texts. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. Fielding. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. Defoe. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. Milton. Blake. the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. among others). Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. Swift.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. Course objectives As already mentioned. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. a carrier of values. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country. In this way. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. 3. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. Being concerned with aspects of literary history. 2. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. It also aims at developing your “reading competence.
g. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section.g. the Restoration.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. By the end of your study of this course. a list of key words. the Baroque. Each unit. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. in a given text. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. Neoclassicism. in its turn. Besides them. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors. characterisation. a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. as part of your overall assessment. a Glossary. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style. the Augustan Age. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. • 4. and a Gallery of personalities.
• Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. Defoe.1. with main focus on Jonathan Swift. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. H. the epic poem Paradise Lost. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. S. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. The variety of these learning tasks will. and to draw your own conclusions. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. and with the evolution of this genre. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. Sterne –. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). as well as major representatives. Richardson. and Augustan satire. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context.Introduction 4. hopefully. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. They appeal not only to your memory. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. Fielding and L.2. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . • 4.
• A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. in the literary text you were asked to work on. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. line. with the typological definition of a work.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. narrative technique. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. fragment) • complete sentences. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. etc. at the end of the unit. summarise its argument. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. characterisation. 4. if the case may be. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. symbolic elements. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. etc. the title of a work. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. an author’s work. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. etc. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. and. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period.. stylistic features. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work.3.
• Further reading. you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them.4. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. if necessary or desired. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. but the phrase of which that word is part. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 .3. for the Great Chain of Being*. the term Enlightenment. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. Some terms may recur in several units. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to.3. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). not just Being. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. with the pages where you may find relevant information. in Unit 1. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. at the end. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). other instruments meant to assist your study. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. For instance. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit.Introduction 4. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. For example. Sometimes. Thus.1. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains. will also appear in Units 5 and 6.1. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources.
The table below represents the place. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. while SAA no. especially the poetry texts. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). In any case. this should not take you too much time. 5. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. the number of tasks. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. try to read each fragment more than once. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%.2 will cover units 4 and 5. before you start solving the task. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. and 6. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%.5. As the texts are not very long. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. difficult.lIntroduction 4. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. 5. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. SAA no. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. some of these texts might seem difficult to you.
You may. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). 2. If your level of proficiency is lower. 3. Most of the time. however. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. • the coherence.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). theoretically. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. your course work may take you more time. 1. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. half of the answer is already contained in the question. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. clarity. 6. 1. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included).1 SAA no. As in the case of the SAQs. If you have no possibility to type your assignment.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. whose reading may take you some extra time. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. Of these hours. 2. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible.2 SAA no. and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks.
as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. together. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. list of key words. representative authors.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. 5. glossary. whose content follows a chronological line. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. and 6. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. of the evolution of literary genres. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). forms and styles. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. a revision of the course material. It is structured in six units of study. Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. there are SAAs. and gallery of personalities). At the end of Units 3. You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text. respectively.2 SAA no. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. which you must write and send to your tutor. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. The three assignments will count. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. according to a pre-established schedule.3 3 3 8 SAA no. as well as a list of suggested further reading. as 40% of the final grade.
1. 1. 188.8.131.52.4.4.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.4. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 .184.108.40.206.5. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.1.4. 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.4. 1. 1.3. 1.
a powerful flourishing nation. marked the entrance into modernity. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. social and economic life. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. at the end of this period.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. obscurantism and intolerance. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. as well as the faith in progress. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. 1. science. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. literature. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. of the Enlightenment. philosophy. The gradual achievement of political stability. attitudes and practices. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. as the Enlightenment is often described. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*.1. mentalities. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. religion. 10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The rise.1.1. in the latter part of the 17th century. Political. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age.
had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. and it was essentially optimistic. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. This new faith – Deism. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. in a systematic effort. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good.” 1. or Natural Religion –. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 .The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born.2. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. in 1662. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. in particular. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. under the patronage of Charles II. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science.1. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. the “universal Architect.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). to reconcile Reason and Faith. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. The Royal Society endeavoured. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. was an evidence of the creator’s good will.” This idea will be echoed several decades later.
when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature.1. T F 2. 1. 1.1. appropriately. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth. for each sentence. but also affective and instinctual. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. T F 5. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. the central concern of the Enlightenment. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. to superstition and obscurantism. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. T F 4.4. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. T F 3. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. the Enlightenment. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. Circle T (true) or F (false). The poet Alexander Pope indicated. The growing spirit of individualism. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. continued the project of the Renaissance.3.
symmetry. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. to 1.2. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. the decrease in the power of the Crown. including readers of more modest education. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. with little or no classical knowledge. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. for proportion.1. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. at the end of the unit. After 1688. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. in one way or another. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. for instance. and both writers and audiences were.1. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. T F 7. It was the main focus of literary attention. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 .1. that the notion of reading public emerges now. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. T F 8. It is significant. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. 1. in the orbit of the crown. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man.4. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. The division into Elizabethan. read again subchapters. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. regularity.
The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. …the Augustan Age. Racine. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. 2. Molière. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. Complete each sentence in the provided space. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. This reflects. a. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. Pierre Corneille. during the Augustan Age*. Molière)…… d. …… c. Much of Renaissance literature. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. above all. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. Jean Racine. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. Corneille.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. The Court was the main source of influence…… b.” started in the late 17th century.
for instance. and it made extensive use of wit. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. In parallel. Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. at the end of the unit. A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. James Thomson. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric.2. 1. in its various forms – the song*. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry.g. by the Romantic poets. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. It favoured conciseness. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. you need to revise subchapter 1. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. They approached other themes besides love: e. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. original or translated epics.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). the ode*. The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. or religion and politics – John Milton. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. …addressed itself to learned readers. concentration. Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. religious faith – John Donne. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). the pastoral* lyric. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. John Dryden (in the former). combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. Robert Herrick). Other lyric forms endured: the ode. George Herbert. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. acquainted with the great classical authors and works.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. 4. If you have failed to make the right match. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. Andrew Marvell. Thomas Carew. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. Alexander Pope.
together with their most outstanding representatives. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. at the end of the unit. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. It was the only form of literature which. the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). revise subchapter 1. a new appreciation of older poetic forms.3. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). some of them of popular origin (the song. In the following units of this course. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. through its representation on stage.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. in the space left below. If there should be major differences between them. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
while others changed. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. 1. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. Unlike Senecan plays. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. sensational and macabre. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. 1607). exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. 1614). Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. is the most gifted. tragi-comedy. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. pastoral drama. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. They were generally. but destroys himself along with his enemies. drama witnessed a decline. daring and wit. masque*. In such plays. murder. On the whole. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. play-houses were reopened. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. and the rhetorical manner. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse.4. was a miniature of the English society. Milton’s Satan. etc. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. 1605-6). treachery. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. historical drama. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. built around the theme of revenge. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. rape. In 1660. with the restoration of monarchy. the sensational plot. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. Of the Caroline playwrights. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. to accommodate the tastes of a new public.1. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. insanity. 1633). with its audience arranged according to rank. fascinating through unbounded ambition. in Paradise Lost. the wronged hero plans revenge. From Senecan tragedy. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. when the Puritans* closed the theatres.
in miniature. 1. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. though each in a different way. identifying the four true ones.4. T F 5. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. His best plays. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. T F 7. the satirical comedy. T F 2. in Paradise Lost. at the end of the unit. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. T F 6. centred on the theme of love. Epicoene. Milton’s Satan. read the following statements. read again subchapters 1. T F 4. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). Volpone (1606).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. If you have failed to identify the true statements. with its noble characters. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy. as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). or at least tinged with bitterness. but.4. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. and 1. T F 3. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. the hierarchy of English society. or The Silent Woman (1609).2. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. For each sentence. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them.4. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. his comedies become darker. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies.1. in the last period of creation. reflecting. Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. 1.
Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. Henry Fielding). with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1. George Villiers. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste.3. a stylish and sophisticated world. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. were a passing extravagance. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. 1775. but serious drama declined during the 18th century. Duke of Buckingham. too. In The Rehearsal (1671). which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. who demanded models of virtue and decency. for instance. John Gay. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain.4. Heroic plays. and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. 1669-70). Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. She Stoops to Conquer. 1773). or The Mistakes of a Night. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. 1768.4. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. The Conquest of Granada. The School for Scandal.g. There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. 1722). in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e.4. 1777).g. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. 1665. Under the influence of French tragedies. 1769). This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e.
we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. together with their most outstanding representatives.4. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy.4.2.4. to 1. If there should be major differences between them.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. revise subchapters 1.
contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. Here. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). The development of an aphoristic style*. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. displaying a variety of styles. blending concision with wit.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. weaknesses. religious writings are particularly important. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. More and more. 1612. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. deliberately artificial and intricate. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. Later in the century. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. Gradually. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1.1.5. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). the essay* proved the most flexible. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. the universal language of the Renaissance. on clarity and rationality. in political tracts and pamphlets.5. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. with its trials. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. a precious and highly ornate language. temptations. philosophical and theological writings.
with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. Samuel Purchas). Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). In the 17th century.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. To these must be added the character. Like drama. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. the biography as an emerging prose genre. pamphlets* (e. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. Samuel Pepys). Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. letters. which analyses the constitution of human society. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. aphoristic style. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. unadorned style. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. Anatomies were monuments of learning.g. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). diaries (John Evelyn. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. The same encyclopaedic. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. 1666). Milton’s Areopagitica. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. biographies (Izaak Walton. etc. “The Religion of a Doctor. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). William Prynne’s Histriomastix. executed in a witty. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. of remarkable precision and force. 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period.
Culturally. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture..5. and 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. Within these two centuries. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. obscurantism and intolerance. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. at the end of the unit.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. roughly. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. Within these two centuries. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England. as well as the faith in progress. these two centuries correspond. between which there is continuity.1. If there should be major differences between them. modern science was born. more carefully. you will learn more about the periodical essay. read again subchapters 1.5. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. the image of the universe was changed.
part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. often by means of paradox. noble and heroic characters. used to express observations of general truth. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal. which are reduced to the comically trivial. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 .D. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. elevated style. in a caricatural spirit. however. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. From a literary point of view. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man.C. It is. burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. blank verse: unrhymed verse. drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity. predominantly middle-class. Ovid. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers.). with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public.-14 A. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. a slow transition took place.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry. of serious action.
The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). or from history. social and moral thought.C. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. social contract. Montesquieu. David Hume (Britain). individual liberty. when it was restored. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. Thomas Jefferson. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. legend. The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. Concepts like human rights. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. anti-obscurantism. humanism. In a broader sense. until 1660. civil rights. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. pragmatism. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . John Locke. • classical revival: the intellectual. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i.): “Man is the measure of all things”. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. Tolerance. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. anti-fanaticism. Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B.e. the folk tradition. widely used in all ages. artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. Diderot (France). • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. Rousseau. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. • essay: a prose composition of varying length. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. Voltaire. natural law.
spectacular scenic effects. restraint. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. who was a Catholic. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. singing and dancing. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. an idea. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. In English literature. sumptuous costumes and settings. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. the marginal sections of society. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. involving elaborate dialogue. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models. decorative art. and harmony of classical art. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. uncorrupted life. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. often of an allegorical nature. a person or an object. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth.C. solemn style. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive.). painting and sculpture. simple. from the Creation to the Ascension. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. in harmony with nature. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. In architecture.C. James II Stuart. encouraging a personal experience of conversion. It addressed itself to the poor. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. ode: an extended lyric poem. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). of spiritual regeneration by grace. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity.C.) are the great ancient models for English writers.
effort. Francis Bacon (England). implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. Their beliefs and convictions. Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. centred on integrity. Restoration: historically. Cervantes (Spain). selected according to genre and subject. its limits are less well defined. Sir Charles Sedley. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. Lope de Vega. 1492). It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. Philip Sidney. Duke of Buckingham. Tasso (Italy). Leonardo da Vinci. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. poetic diction: a term that. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. in the 16th and 17th centuries. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. the sense of purpose. Machiavelli. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. by Columbus. Pico della Mirandola. From a literary point of view. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. William Wycherley. Ariosto. in their view. style – used by a poet.g. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. John Vanbrugh. Thomas More. for the Neoclassic writers. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. thus. favoured the growth of individualism. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). Raphael. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). Shakespeare. Edmund Spenser. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. industry. of the rebirth of learning. Sir George Etherege. tone. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. it had not fully reformed itself. romance or the novel. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. of the expansion of education. of America. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. Boccaccio. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. which opened the modern era. especially their work ethics.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama.
In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. Sometimes. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. Astrophil and Stella. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. The New Atlantis (published in 1627). the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. Jonson. surprising associations. with or without musical accompaniment. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. Edmund Spenser. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism.C. 1591. 1591-1595). and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects. philosopher and writer.e. phlegmatic. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. phlegm. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. The assertion of the self.): Roman statesman. Cicero. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. During the Renaissance. as well as an unfinished utopia. and a writer. it meant intelligence or wisdom. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. two fine examples of comedy of humours. according to a dominating inclination or passion. in which the characters act. Amoretti. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. orator. The tradition survived into the 18th century. poet and scholar. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. and with the French Revolution (1789). Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. independently of circumstances. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. He started his literary career as a playwright. song: a poem composed for singing. the four “humours” (i. fluids) of the body (blood. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. with various rhyme patterns. yellow bile – or choler. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind. He was also an eminent statesman.
chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Locke studied medicine. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. or the Matter.D. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. Theophrastus (372-287 B. the latter. It is fear of death. for instance. Locke.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. author.): Roman philosopher. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. the instinct of self-preservation. Tacitus. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom.D. greatly influenced by Hobbes. For Hobbes. His political philosophy.C. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651).” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. astronomer and philosopher. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. Hobbes. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. mathematician. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . economics. writer and statesman.-65 A. Man. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. unlike that of Hobbes. ethics. besides the Characters.C. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). Newton. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. politics. religion. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. Italian poet and humanist. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. which was central to Enlightenment thought. made important discoveries in the field of optics. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist.): Roman historian and statesman. According to him. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy. in a kind of social contract. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. Seneca. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose.
Blake the ode: Marvell. Herbert. there was a tendency towards simplicity. John Gay Further reading 1. Dryden. Sir George Sedley. English Literature and Civilisation. 5.T. Dryden. Goldsmith. Editura Universităţii Suceava. . Thomson. 2. 1983 (pp. c. d. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson.T. Milton.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 3. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. Herrick. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate.4. 7-49) 3. 5. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 6. 2003 (pp.T. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. 3.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers.F. Luminiţa Elena.F. Marvell. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost.T.3.T. Pope. Pope. The Literature of the Beginnings.2. Collins. Carew.T SAQ 2 a. Goldsmith. William Wycherley. John Vanbrugh). from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance.F. Ioan-Aurel (ed. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period.T. Macsiniuc. the sonnet: Shakespeare. Sir George Etherege. 2003 (pp. Donne.). Fielding. Cowley. The English Eighteenth Century. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 6. artificial. 8. 4. 7. Preda.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1. precision. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. Cornelia. 9-32) 2. Turcu. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. Milton the pastoral: Milton. Marvell satire: Dryden. b. 4.F. Duke of Buckingham.T.T. 2.
1. 2.3. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.2. 2. 2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs.3.3. 2. 2.4.11. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.6.3. 188.8.131.52.2.3.4. 2.2. 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 184.108.40.206.3.2. 2.2. 220.127.116.11. 2.2. 18.104.22.168. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 . 2. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. 2.2.3. 2.8.12. 2. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.
Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. with its sense of confidence and optimism. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. The vision of a harmonious. The former expansiveness. Christopher Marlowe*. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. well-ordered universe. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. In the late Renaissance. anxiety and even pessimism.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing.1. to scepticism. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. Philip Sydney*. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. during whose reign England developed into a strong. stable and modern state. Under Queen Elizabeth I. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability.
on which the “show” of life must end.1. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque.2. St. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2. its sense of form. with the tendency of breaking proportions. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. The unexpected. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but also to pomp. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. for excess. the spectacular and the sumptuous. and not properly forming a “school. the extensive use of paradox.1. or the world as stage. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. sensualism and mysticism. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. and. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. proportion and symmetry. of confusing or transgressing limits. in literature. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. life and death. In lyric poetry. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. with its abundance of bloody deaths. reason and superstition. The Renaissance cult of rational order. irony and ambiguity. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. wisdom and madness.1. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. both in its themes and motifs.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. and in its dramatic conception. refinement and cruelty. Although very diverse. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. grandeur. striking imagery. splendour. to the macabre. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence.
as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. read again the preceding subchapters. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. respectively. If there should be major differences. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. The Tempest. classical balance.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. you will be acquainted. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. sense of form B: 4. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. In the following two subchapters. R: confidence. King Lear. at the end of this unit. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . R: cult for order and symmetry. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. optimism. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader.
and a culmination of its literary art. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. In Shakespeare’s whole work. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. Othello (1604). Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. They are always credible. sometimes even trivial. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . devotion. gratitude and ingratitude. and French. etc. Italian. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. motifs and imagery.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. jealousy. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). medieval and contemporary sources – English. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. envy. language. hate. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. in plain. conflicts. friendship. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. all mastered with supreme art. romantic or trivial. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. search for truth. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. craftsmen or servants. loyalty and betrayal. states of mind. among other features. aspirations and interests. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. Shakespeare’s genius. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. struggle for power. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. or periods of creation. from the variety of his work. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. moral attitudes. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. A wide range of feelings. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. to the prose speech of simple folk.2. He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. sublime or burlesque. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. so that it displays a similar variety. According to the dramatic necessity. his deep understanding of humanity.
but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. In these plays. read again the preceding subchapter. If they should differ significantly. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. but they deal. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. with the restoration of order. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. common in the Renaissance. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. with the effects of evil on innocence. basically. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. between truth and falsehood. His romance plays. 2. at the end of the unit.2. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies.1.
Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. takes over the rule of Denmark. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. In another scene. which represents a similar scene of murder. has drowned herself. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. and continually delays the act of revenge. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. a courtier. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. old king Hamlet. the play ends on a note of hope. he kills Polonius. and with the immense burden of revenge. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. the widow queen. in the confusions of the final scene.3. Claudius. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. all the main protagonists find their death. During the play. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. In spite of this bloody outcome. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. mistaking him for Claudius. but the plot escapes their control and. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius.2. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. Laertes. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. Back to the castle. required by his dead father. generous and brilliantly intelligent. brave. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. the first in this series of masterpieces. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. when Fortinbras.2. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. 2. Her brother. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. sensitive and idealistic. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . he has the occasion to kill Claudius.2. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. At one point. who had really gone mad. with a poisoned sword.
4. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty. 2. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. If they should differ significantly. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below.2. at the end of the unit. read again the preceding subchapter. SAQ 3 Text 2. as well as the indicated fragment. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which is only partly dissimulated. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. is eminently a philosopher’s effort. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. Hamlet: the philosopher vs.
the Earl of Gloucester. which helps him endure his suffering. Lear’s own madness. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. the quest for higher meanings. in reality.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. Tragically. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. which is that of restoring a lost order. another “fall of princes” tragedy. and. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. through paradox. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. Cordelia. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. to believe him a traitor and usurper. is closely linked. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. which would not undo the past. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters.” 2. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. whom he disinherits. Edgar. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. on the other hand.2. of human suffering. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. as in Hamlet. both of them prove to be the loyal. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. Hamlet’s introspective. is also an exile from his own family. and the Fool’s comments. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. there is madness in nature itself. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. like that of blindness. of truth and illusion. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. unconditionally loving ones. a bastard. The earl of Gloucester joins them. Edgar. Maddened with grief. Goneril and Reagan.5. The motif of madness. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. is the victim of a staged play of appearances.
To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. Othello. Scene from Othello. essence. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. is led by Iago to believe his wife. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down.6. Evil is that which destroys Nature. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. In Othello. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). unfaithful. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. faithfulness/betrayal. 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. The noble protagonist. acting against it. In Othello. Desdemona. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. innocence/guilt.
“Our country sinks beneath the yoke. underlining the theme of knowledge. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm. Macbeth. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth.2. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. to 2. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. ____________________ 4. ____________________ 3. The protagonist. ____________________ 2. but. paradoxically. one of Duncan’s sons. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army. kinsman and guest.7. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne.2. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s).The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. innocence and corruption. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. The baroque motif of madness is. 1. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action. it bleeds.2. illusion and truth. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds. who has a trusting nature. at the instigation of his wife. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. at the end of the unit. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. you need to revise subchapters 2. disorder.6. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. ____________________ 5. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. If any of your solutions should not correspond. 2. / It weeps. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland.2. he multiples his crimes.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience.
read the fragment once more. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. / Macbeth does murder sleep.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. SAQ 5 In Act II. extracted from this scene.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. from the Reader. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines. If there should be significant differences. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. Text 2. scene 2. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit.2. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments.
owing to the improbability of the action. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. marvelous. on which he lives alone with his daughter. The Winter’s Tale.2. The Tempest (1611). They may also be described as romance plays. the master of an island. and Sebastian. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. the long journey. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. the theme of loss and recovery. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. duke of Milan.g. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. Miranda. He had long studied the arts of magic. Alonzo. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . of exile and return). They mix serious and comic action.8. has turned him into a slave. as well as other passengers. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio.9. respectively –. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. the shipwreck. who. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. king of Naples. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. a drunken servant. After the tragedies. the choice of a remote setting. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. myth. 2. involving the shipwrecked characters. his faithful spiritservant. Cymbeline. In its opening scene.2. the jester. Alonzo. the sense of a benevolent providential design. Trinculo. to take his throne. Three lines of action develop. magic. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. by his powers. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. the fairy-tale atmosphere. is considered the finest.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. and certain themes and motifs (e. who instantly fall in love with each other.
he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power.10. Prospero. to master himself. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. Caliban Innocence vs. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. On the island. who now repent. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. represents pure spirit. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme. “neglecting worldly ends. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder.2. and to return to the world in his full humanity. at the end. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. the control of intelligence over nature. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past. now.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. In the final act. he learns. for the emergence of a regenerated world. At the opposite pole. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. 2. education] can never stick. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. influenced by Ariel.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. a “thing of darkness. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. The theme of power Ariel vs.e. more importantly. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. but. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban. Ariel.” claiming his throne. the scholar-magician. and then to Milan.
Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition.4. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. Act I. for instance. by teaching him to speak. scene 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . Full of resentment. If there should be major differences. extracted from The Tempest.. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Here. more carefully. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. or in developing self-identity. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. read the fragment again.
the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. of performance. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. order and harmony. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance.12. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest.2. The playmetaphor.11.2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. sublimating its primitive energies. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. whose magic art controls every incident. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. which “delight and hurt not. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. then at least man should strive to discern in it. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature.” The sea-journey Music 2. Another pervading symbol is that of music. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . or to impose upon it. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead.
Their styles are different. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule.2. You must find them among the following statements. If any of your choices should be wrong. T F 5. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. in his own way. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . was first intended to bring discredit on them. at the end of the unit. T F 2.3. T F 6. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan.2. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. T F 4. T F 7. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. of which three are false.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 1. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. except that of terrifying him. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. revise subchapters2. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. 2.12. but each of them. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. T F 3. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world.9 to 2. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines.
Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling. By means of conceits. In spite of its logical.” A new kind of poetry emerged. writers had to face a new exigency. The impression is that this experience. Dr. hidden. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. but also his reason. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . or discovery of occult [i. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. from a most ordinary circumstance. a metaphor or an analogy. a cold intellectual exercise. as “a combination of dissimilar images. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. linked. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning. As extended comparisons.3. and the emotions involved. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications.2. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. which helps the poet to develop his subject. a demand for “more matter and less words. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. This is an elaborate figurative device. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. which starts from a comparison. argumentative quality. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. united] by violence together. is contemplated from a certain distance. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. regardless of the subject of the poem. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience.e.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*.e.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. “More matter and less words” 2. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling.1.3.
and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. at the end of the unit. In the treatment of both themes. and the same realistic force. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. pastoral* conventions. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit. revise subchapters 2. Use the space left below. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 . its decorative use of classical mythology. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. and allegory.2. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. If they should differ considerably. and a highly original one. In the following subchapters.3. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry .3. and 2. 2.3.3. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words.1. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century.
A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. but. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. He also suggests sometimes that physical union. are however harmless to man. though greater. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love.3. which. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument.” In fact. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. as this would be a triple “sin. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. their love being so great and “refined.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. in which their blood is now mixed. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. beautiful. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy.” “tear-floods”). may afford an experience of the transcendental. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. Chaste. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm.4. Donne is highly playful in this poem. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. when accompanied by genuine feeling. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. This is a seduction poem. and he seems to amuse himself. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 . Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.. he develops one of his most famous conceits.2. Formulate your answer in the space left below. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. as well. in the Reader).3. Read the poem again. you need to revise subchapter 2. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. paying special attention to the last three stanzas.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. at the end of the unit.6. Here. If they should differ significantly.
in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. resurrection and salvation. on death. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. comparable to that of Shakespeare. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .5. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. for the divine saving grace. Satan. between idealised passion and erotic desire. of loyalty and betrayal. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne.3. which parallel those in his love poetry. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. These poems usually display contrary impulses. In Batter My Heart. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. Actually.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. in the exercise of reason. The insistence on violence and struggle. divine judgement. In his religious meditations in verse.
7.6. In the last six lines. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. from the Reader. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). nature.3. representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart. 2. revise subchapter 2. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. Donne suggests his contradictory.3. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. If there should be significant differences. Marvell left. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . and read the poem again. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. and love of country. This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone.5. according to some critics. at the end of the unit. As a Puritan* patriot.
on the scaffold.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend. On a Drop of Dew 2. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems.e. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i.3. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious.7. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time. King Charles I Stuart. in contrasting colours. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 .e. in which both of them act according to a divine order.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun. pictured with remarkable precision. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. Although loyal to the Puritan cause.e. to change the form of ruling power). 2. however. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. It is a seduction poem. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. The most illustrative poem. A natural detail. in this respect. lest it grow [i. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. aspiring to union with almighty God. He showed a deep love for the countryside. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. Marvell often sees.3. for fear that it might grow] impure. shyness] and accept his passionate love. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. On the other hand.8. is On a Drop of Dew. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry.
which has the structure If…. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment.8. at the end of the unit. Love. after revising subchapter 2. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. more carefully. paying attention to the logic of the argument. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 . Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature. in the Reader). but…. If the difference is considerable. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2. read the poem again.8. then (therefore)…. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in its sexual fulfillment.3.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
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figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. T. analytical detachment from emotion 4. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. make his purposes known through words). F. He is not a cold-blooded killer. 2. Othello. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. use of conceits (extended comparisons. Hamlet.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. which he resents. T. 3. 5. 4. the development of conscience. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban.e. of a clean mind.g. however. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. 7. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which remain perfectly united. usually between highly dissimilar elements. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). F. As a truly superior being. From Caliban’s point of view. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. SAQ 7 1.” sleep (i. Othello.g. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. 5. of his own sense of self. Hamlet. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. Hamlet. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. even if physically the lovers must be apart. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. is a suitable emblem for their souls. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. This instrument. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. guided by rational will. etc. endowed with speech. T. surprising associations) 3.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. 3. 4. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. unexpected. 6. King Lear. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). F. 2. T SAQ 8 1. to blend contraries (e. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. passion and reason. the abstract and the concrete. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). King Lear. From Prospero’s point of view. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. concise expression and density of meaning 2. complicated line of argument.
just as the mistress. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. 1969 (pp. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. vol. Ford. since only worms will “enjoy” it. English Literature and Civilisation. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. your virginity will then be worth nothing. Further reading 1. Paradoxically. Ioan-Aurel (coord. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd.. But I know time is merciless. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. 1991 (pp. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. instead of letting it devour us slowly. Preda. Penguin Books Ltd. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 . vol. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. 1983 (pp. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Boris (ed. 246-249. Daiches. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. 3. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. in fact.” which only God can effect.). 273-287) 2. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. A Critical History of English Literature. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. David.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. 34-40. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. 302-305) 3. He loves God. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. waiting for her departed lover. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period.). Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. 97-105. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin.. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. But. because your charms deserve such praise. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. consent and legality. however. 267-283. and which would resemble rape. in the absence of joy. will long for him.
188.8.131.52. 3. 3. 3.3.1. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3.5. 3. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.184.108.40.206. 3.3.2. 3.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3. 3.6. 3.2.4. 220.127.116.11.2. 18.104.22.168. 3. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton. 3. 3.4. 3. 22.214.171.124.4.4. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.5. 3. 3.5.
music. such as education. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. as a publicist. Greek and Hebrew. religious and civil debates of his age. religion. theology. After that. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. family. as well as his moral inflexibility. In 1638. His enormous learning. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. etc. Paradise Lost. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. Milton. the greatest epic poem in English literature. written in English and in Latin. etc. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. politics.). and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. geography. baroque* vision. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century.g. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. he approached a diversity of subjects.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he studied Latin.1. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. mathematics. the freedom of the press. At Cambridge (1625-1629). the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. he went on a trip to Italy. he continued to read intensively.
Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. for instance. is in touch with divine secrets. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. As a poet. In the Sixth elegy. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. However. Virgil*. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. However. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. his political hopes ended. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to whose excellence he aspired to rise. etc. with its pastoral delights. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence.1. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. 3. but Milton did not complete his plan. As in other poems. On the other hand. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. Ovid*.2. which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. In some of them. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. who. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology.). in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality.2. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. With the Restoration*. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. like a priest.
b. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. In both poems. the crowing of the cock. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. b. to master a variety of styles.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. In Il Penseroso. in L’Allegro. If your choices should be wrong. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. c. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. at the end of the unit. in Il Penseroso. 1. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere.e.2. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. and on the happiness of rural life. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark.” contemplative mood. 3. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. In the latter. and 3. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. revise subchapters 3. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. in his poetic work. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. b. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. there is a strong emphasis on music. of classical erudition with biblical themes. The secular* pleasures of common life.1. 2. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. Milton’s literary ambition was a. polyphonic sounds of the organ. c. the integration. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. c. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. with its simple pleasures. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. In each poem.
66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Milton composed another poem in which. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. The death of the dedicated young man.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. Irrespective of their nature.2. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. The elegy Lycidas. uses again the pastoral frame. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. or occasional and complimentary compositions. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. not on earth. personal manner. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined.3. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long.The works of John Milton 3.2. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. to fresh woods and pastures new. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. in a heavenly pastoral world. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. again. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life.
” that they are “timely happy spirits”. with a certain sadness. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). In Sonnet XVII. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces.” “mean or high” as it may be. in 1652. since. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions. As a Christian poet.The works of John Milton 3. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. that. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. who carry out the divine his daughters will. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII).3. written in 1631. he admits.” By this time. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3.e. angels). Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. To prevent such a complaint. he must admit.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*. When he wrote Sonet XVII. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. In the first part of the sonnet. but of God’s eternal will. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. Milton meditates on his loss of sight.3.1. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . confessing his temptation to ask.2. but also by Christian humility. patiently. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring. light denied?”). i. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised. as King of Heaven. at his age. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. He has reached the age of twenty four. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”). Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit.
read again subchapter 3. at the end of the unit. in the Reader). As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). Dante* –. and of leaving to posterity an undying work. If there should be significant differences. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. Read these sonnets (Texts 3. and the two sonnets. and 3. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same.2.4. Virgil. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . respectively.1.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation.3. and he worked at it over several years. 3.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. when he was already blind.2.
These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. Finally.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. in fact. etc. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action.e. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. are gathered to listen to Satan. predestination*. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. His work is encyclopaedic. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning.4. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. brought about by his disobedience. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. but his erudition. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. over the years. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. 3. Milton’s ambition was. obedience and rebellion. original epic scenario. in which man’s fall.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. “to justify the ways of God to men. the creation of the world and of man.1. as he stated in the opening Invocation. of Lucifer* from Heaven. and his loss of Paradise.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. The “lost Archangel. Starting from the dualism good/evil. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner. man’s temptation and fall into sin.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –.” full of the bitterness of defeat. Milton had thought.” forever deprived of the glory. in theme a daring. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. He interprets poetically the biblical events. accumulated throughout his life. which is never ornamental. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition.
and their discussions are rendered in Book II. Chaos and Chance.” Meanwhile. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem. 3.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. cunning]. to seek the newly created Earth. and he flies away. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. by virtue of his leading position. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. God.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man.e. surpass] hellish hate.4. Pandemonium*. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. set him free from sin. Satan. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven.e.The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party.e.2. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. death and resurrection. whose setting is in Heaven. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. i. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king.
read again the text. at the end of the unit. If there should be major differences. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. What is God’s argument.4. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words. in the Reader. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 . more carefully.The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3.
in Milton’s poem. innocence and “virgin modesty. It is interesting that. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect.e. the angel Raphael.e. so that he may know more about his enemy. and fear to transgress!” 3.” to fill in the “vacant room [i. King Anointed*”. space]” left by the fallen angels. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember.4. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost.The works of John Milton 3. and. Adam is grateful to Raphael.3. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. not before repeating his warning. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace. In Book VIII. in order to prolong his guest’s visit. sent by God. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man.” Man himself was created as a “better race. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions. not immutable [i. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. In Milton’s interpretation. Satan. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created.4. that cannot change]. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. instigated by Lucifer. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. after the defeat of the rebel angels. as this diminished W.” Raphael leaves them. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. sweetness.4. Adam admits that. the “divine historian. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being. in Book VII.” for the evocation of the making of the world.
If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . more carefully. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. A Prophecy.7. in the Reader presents. at the end of the unit. read the fragment again. in no more than 10 lines/100 words. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below. W. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. through Raphael’s words.
flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. suspicion. and. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. their inward the fall on Nature peace. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent.The works of John Milton 3. the thundering skies weep.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. The “calm region” of their state of mind. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. hate / Mistrust. W. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. for a moment.e.4.5. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. Meanwhile. discord” – which make reason and will helpless. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown. At last.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the “subtlest [i. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her. most subtle*] beast of all the field. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful.
but. as God himself predicts: His Son. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan.8. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. 3. which will bring her close to the condition of God. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. at the end of the unit. _______ e. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. _______ c. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. Match these sentences with the fragment. He flatters Eve. in which these moves are illustrated. a. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. The world after the Fall In the next books. on a separate sheet. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If any of your matches should be wrong. hoping to arouse her pride.4. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. He denigrates God.” is the one who will. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space. in the middle of this speech. at the end of each sentence.6. annihilate Sin and Death. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. but he also adds symbolic episodes.” _______ g. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. or fragments. _______ b. at last. they taste its fruit. _______ f. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. Satan’s victory seems complete. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. _______ d. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction.
Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. through Christ. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. but of sadness. his suffering. pride. etc. The certainty that. – to the hostility of Nature. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. intemperance. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. from man’s own vices – violence. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. God consents. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. but Michael comforts him. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. redemption*: Jesus. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. In Book X. death. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within.” founded on love. In Book XI. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. faith and good deeds. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. combining thus justice with mercy.
however. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. It may be argued. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. which they fully assume. while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. 3. more carefully.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. read the fragment again. If they should differ in major points. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . at the end of the unit.9.
5. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. From the beginning of the poem. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero. Before his fall. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge.The works of John Milton 3. where there is “neither joy nor love.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. and his great ambition is “to reign. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. made happy in their innocent love.1.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom.e. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical. In Hell. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. he had been the first Archangel. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. Over a century after the poem’s publication. which is itself a paradise.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he is envious of God’s omnipotence.
” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride.The works of John Milton 3.” He is “the author of all ill.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 . Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. It is with “high words. Satan. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent. the destroyer of faith. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan.5. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim.” seeming reasonable and true. Satan is The Tempter. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. Awakening in man the impulse to question. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. and “out of good still to find means of evil.2. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness. It is also with “persuasive* words. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. As God’s absolute antagonist. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force.
. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. and read the indicated fragment again.3. “and “The mind is its own place.5. in Hell. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “A mind not to be changed by time or place. If there are significant differences.2. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. Read the whole fragment carefully. and 3.) B.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. revise subchapters 3. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell.5. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A.1.
As a Christian. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. but armed with the wisdom of faith. of understanding and accepting his limits. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them.” “Our Author. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. ancestor. but as a consequence of their wrong choices. precursor]. deprived of worth.” “our general mother. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. in Book XII. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan.3. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. As a humanist.e. Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 .” but also “our credulous mother.” “mother of human race. Adam is called Sire* of Men. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. but who can hope for redemption*. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues.5. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. the titanic dimension of his suffering.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. In his last conversation with Michael. Satan’s torments in Hell.” “Patriarch of Mankind. but W.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind.” “Our great Progenitor [i. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. Created in God’s image. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.The works of John Milton 3. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall.
a necessary part of His design. at the end of the unit.2. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. Subchapter 3. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the Nativity Ode. one of the greatest English poets. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. Summary In this unit. If there should be major differences. in the Reader. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. he prepared himself for it during long years. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet.5. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. Read this fragment and summarise its argument.
presented in subchapter 3. his love of freedom. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. which are. Subchapter 3. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity.5. but also in which man may. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision. put in the service of evil.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. Subchapter 3. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. as a sign of consecration or sanctification.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. the creation of the world and of man. Undoubtedly. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. however. his courage and majesty. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology. at any time.4. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels.
or some tragic event. In classical literature. clever in using tricks. by extension. Providence: God’s kindness. suffering and death of Christ. It may also mean cunning. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. It means “the carrier of light. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. to a place of wild confusion. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider.” After the fall from Heaven. Sire: a respectful term of address. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). benevolent care or protection of his creatures. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred).e. pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all. Roman poet. noise and chaos. the “great and good redeemer” (i. every. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. formerly used when speaking to a king.).The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. to convince. subtle: not immediately evident. Homer: Greek poet (c.C. predestination: from a theological point of view. Italian poet. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . author of La Divina Commedia. difficult to detect (or analyse).C. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. he is called Satan. to cause to believe).-17 A. the one who sets man free from sin).). redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.e.D. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. not concerned with or related to religion. The word may refer. Purgatory and Paradise. 800 B.
2. at the end of the play.C. one of the greatest Roman poets. God’s creation. Send-away assignment no. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. 2. At the beginning of Book IV. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan..3.2. with special attention to the indicated subchapters.2. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. before the final battle. 1. • Read attentively this fragment. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. and thus of destroying man.6. in Milton’s Paradise Lost. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration).. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest. A revision of subchapter 3. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2.). In both of them. and the last paragraph of 2.5. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. in which he explores his inner hell.The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B.1. and 2.1. Texts 2. Text 3. romantic in The Tempest –. It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit.4.
however. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. • the coherence. Remember that. The paradox of freedom. and reason makes man. in grading your paper.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. Milton emphasises the geometrical. i. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. is that one may choose right or wrong. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time.. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality.e. but the consequence of evil influence. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. The poet places his trust in Providence. or reason. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). is thus not attributable to God. 3. his blindness. responsible for his choices.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%.b. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom.a. Created “just and right. clarity. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. SAA no. not God. The implication is that God gave man conscience. The fall of man. 2.. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .c. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave). like that of the angels. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence.” In the case of man.
Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. 2. Daiches. unless he exercises his will and reason. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. to be dictated by Reason. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). 153-163) 3. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love.e.4. Ioan-Aurel (coord. 2. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. and the image of the terrible gates. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. Further reading 1.The works of John Milton Architect”). Editura Universităţii Suceava. If God leaves man’s loyalty. e. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. The Literature of the Beginnings. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). SAQ 7 1. Forced to look ahead. f. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice.4. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. 2. Incapable of obedience to God. Turcu. 2. 1983 (pp.3. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”).. under the guidance of Providence. 1. Paradise is now a forbidden place. Luminiţa Elena. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. d. SAQ 5 a. David. 3. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. i. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. Preda.e. 435-449) 2. as God has made him.). i. If Hell is a space of freedom. Man is not a free creature. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). 1969 (pp. faith and love untested. 1. 2003 (pp. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. b. of human solidarity. c. English Literature and Civilisation. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. with passive virtue. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. vol. A Critical History of English Literature. g.
The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 4. 4. Gulliver. 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.5.3. 184.108.40.206.2. 4. 4.5. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4. 4.4.2. 4. 4. 4.2.1. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.2. 4.1. 4.4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.220.127.116.11.1.1. 4.1.2. 4. 18.104.22.168 4. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.
Unit objectives 4. and. drama holds a place apart. and their re-opening in 1660. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment.1. under the patronage of king Charles II. Nature. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. of increasing rationalism and secularisation.1. and of considerable diversity. and Jonathan Swift. it was a period of transition as well. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. the cast of actors included women. Human nature. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. clarity and elegant restraint. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. Alexander Pope. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. From a literary point of view. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. under the influence of French theatres. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. addressing itself to an inclusive public. 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama.1. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change.
” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. refinement and sophistication. exotic places. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners.2. A certain coarseness of feeling. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. the cynicism. 4. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. Gallantry. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama.3. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. were essential for the true man of the world. Conquest and seduction.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. lust. both of them highly conventional forms. It made fun of the people from the countryside. or Court Wits. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. sumptuous costumes. The action was usually set in remote. and absolute villains. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. and. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration.1. above all. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. Sensational turns of situation. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . on the one hand. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. adultery. an artificial. fashionable manners. jealousy. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. wit*.1. magnificent settings. on the other. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. although each in its own way and for different reasons.
” without scruples.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. cynical. the country squire*. the scheming valet. the ingénue. etc. If characters were usually static. lacking complexity. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. Another frequent type was the fop*. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . aspiring to the perfect adventure. pleasure-seeking. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated. Contrasting types were the coquette. deliberately superficial in construction. young or old. despising marriage. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. selfish and manipulative. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. the lusty widow. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. and the trusting husband as dupe. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). or fool.
T F 9. at the end of the unit. to 4.3. T F 6. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. simple action. T F 2. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. elegance. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama.4. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. Restoration comedy praised wit. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). If any of them should turn out to be wrong. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. hedonism and amorality at Court. William Congreve.1. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. 4. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language. by doing the exercise that follows.1.1. T F 5. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. such as the impoverished gallant. read again subchapters 4. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age.1. refinement and sophistication. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). T F 4. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. frivolity. T F 8. It displays typical Restoration characters. T F 3. T F 7. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. 1.
as these were remote from their experience. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. etc. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. half-sad. and the shifting relationships and alliances. the pair of witty lovers. The situation. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. and friendship to jealousy.5. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant.1. the witty and resourceful servant. half-amused. the awkward country-girl. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. involving a multitude of characters. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). Towards the end of the 17 th century. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . increasingly middle class. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. consistent characters. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. is extremely complex. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. bringing it to perfection. The new audience in the theatres. 4. admiration. affection. psychologically subtle and complex. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists.
If there should be significant differences. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. in Act IV.1. their agreement has serious implications. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . However. under the appearance of frivolity. at the end of the unit." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.. read again subchapter 4. which presents Millamant's demands.. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. In a witty dialogue.4. they seem to be playing a game.1. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract. Read Text 4. as well as the indicated fragment.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World. Millamant is also in love. Mirabell is a reformed rake. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . balance. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 . Besides Dryden and Pope. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. and harmony extended beyond literature.2. Joseph Addison*. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). 4. In it. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. elegance. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues.2. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. In both cases.1.
Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. of infinite variety. in satirical or burlesque* works.. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre. and the poet might disregard them. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors.e. for instance. The rule of decorum 4. This was the case of the genius. for the Augustans. lacking ornament. skilful transgression. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. i. required an elevated style. Epic and tragedy. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. yet achieve great beauty. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet.3. was Shakespeare. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. i. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models.e.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. comedy. was expected to use a common. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. a dignified diction.2. the emphasis on discipline in art. skill. to make form and substance adequate to each other. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. The most eloquent example. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. A poet’s innate talent needed training. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. the most valuable store of literary experience. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift. humble style.2.2. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. on the other hand. and to those patterns of behaviour.
g.3. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*. a combination achieved through reason.3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. but also to imported French ideas – e. and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill. If there should be significant differences.2. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines).The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. at the end of the unit. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . read again subchapter 4. or art*. and the indicated fragment. What are the main ideas in this fragment. SAQ 3 Text 4. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason.
The writer's art was a form of social communication. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. manners and taste. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility.” Augustan wit 4. where nothing seems to be studied. precision and clarity.5. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. of quick accumulation of information. affectation were rejected. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. of critical debate in every field. 4. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. In the context of general progress. but to be a functional part of the community. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. “grace and strength united. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. too.3. refinement with wisdom. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . or.4. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. unnecessary ornament. Ostentation. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason.2. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*.2. its effects were considerable on prose. eloquence with restraint.
and they were published with varying regularity. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section.” that ignorance is a source of evil. opened in 1688. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. dominantly middle class. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. or to the discussion of literary matters. In order to counterbalance this tendency. with Alexander Pope. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. for a clientele of ships' captains. They believed. some of them being issued daily. At the same time. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. at cultivating their minds. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. the middle class readers.
Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. and by far the most popular ones. The Tatler and The Spectator. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). think again and try to do the exercise once more. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. Like other writers. collected in book form. on a separate sheet. Think of present relevance of this remark.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. whose essays were published several times in the century.e. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711).1. 4.3. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. at the end of the unit. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. If they are significantly different. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
• Will Honeycomb. for The Spectator. wit and understanding. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types.e. He is a man of “great probity. a model of honesty. hard work and skill. laziness. generous and cheerful. and sloth [i. an expert in fashion and gossip. rather than a merit.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. skills] and industry. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. in which they collaborated.” • Captain Sentry. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. He believes. Now. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. a middle-aged squire. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. a gallant. as his father had intended for him. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. and the reflections of “Mr. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . for true power is to be got by arts [i. a competent justice of the peace*. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives.” and “his familiarity with the customs. and great experience. in his county. “a very philosophic man. • A gentleman who. a rich London merchant. manners. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. for instance. “a person of indefatigable industry*. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i.” or that “diligence [i. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. bravery in battle]. strong reason. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit. a man of the world.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. • A clergyman. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. a courageous.e. • Sir Andrew Freeport.e. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals.” of wide learning. modest and commonsensical person.e. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. turned to the study of literature.
Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and write them in the indicated spaces below. more carefully.1. 1. 7. common sense.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. Identify at least eight such features. 4. read again subchapter 4. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. 8. cheerful disposition. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. 2. at the end of the unit. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues.3. If there should be major discrepancies. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. 5. 3. 6.
often touched by ironic humour. Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. admiration and condemnation. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. are mingled: the evil conspirator. its cult of reason and common sense. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. selfishness. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. brave and fearless man. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. Pope. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. disloyal and excessively ambitious. Political and religious dissensions. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . from political and social life.4. greed. 4. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. appears also as a stormy spirit. the Duke of Monmouth. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. hypocrisy. king David. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character.1. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. contradictions and dark aspects. and satire became their formidable weapon. struggle for power and profit.4. intrigues. folly. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. a passionate. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. Bayes*. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. 1743). Samuel. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism.4. 4. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden.2. 15-18). Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. genuinely gifted for leadership.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. to religious debates and literary practices.
Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. SAQ 6 Text 4. he reflects on the art of the satirist. read the fragment again. however. more attentively. imagination). Religion. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. Philosophy.4. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. imaginative inventiveness. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. Its implications. Explain this analogy.e. Truth. If it should be significantly different. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire. Here. are more disturbing than entertaining. and Morality. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. concerning satire. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order.2. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. Art. Science. and revise subchapter 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos.
3. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. philosophical. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver.4. Balnibarbi. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason.4. Glubbdubdrib. respectively. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused.4. building houses starting from the roof. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. or softening marble to make pincushions. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). Jonathan Swift. he learns about the Struldbruggs.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In it. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. In his last voyage. and where human creatures. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. Back in England.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. the Yahoos. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. Gulliver is finally expelled.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. justice and freedom. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. Luggnagg and Japan IV. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. a hater of pedantry and pretence. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. the flying island.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. In Balnibarbi. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. Laputa. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. Like many of his contemporaries.A Voyage to Lilliput II. curious and resourceful. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. economic. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. and literary. bigger than himself.A Voyage to Laputa. intelligent speaking horses. an uncompromising defender of truth. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. social and intellectual realities. In Luggnagg. with a sharp sense of observation. In his third voyage he visits several strange places. in his potential as a rational creature. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. From this last country. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. religious.A Voyage to Brodingnag III.
who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. 1. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 2. read the fragment carefully once more. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy.The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. 3. and he prefers now the company of horses. Find. in Text 4. 4. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. at the end of the unit. from the Reader.5. SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one). four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share.
Gulliver is confronted. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. etc. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. cruel and hypocritical. ambitious. means de-humanisation. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. in his last adventure. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. by dancing on a rope. Dissenters and Catholics. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). from which he chooses to leave. vain. ruled by an enlightened monarch. etc.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4.6. The fourth voyage. In the Yahoos. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. Gulliver.4. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. In Brobdingnag. he sees ideal creatures. of the capacity for affection. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage.5. However. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation.4. jumping over or creeping under a stick. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . In the Houyhnhnms. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. governed only by reason. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. issues or figures. his vulnerability increases. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature.). and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag.
the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . filthy. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. unteachable and ungovernable. For many readers. In a “theological” perspective. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo . makes him a frustrated idealist.
however. more carefully. find anti-utopian elements in it. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect.6. If there should be major differences. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable.4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 .The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. you need to read the fragment again. and to revise subchapter 4. The careful reader will.6. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. from the Reader. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. For Gulliver.
For Swift. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. narrow-sightedness. It is an age of transition. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. and by means of it. was another characteristic genre. his learning and sense of literary tradition. Dryden. grotesque.). on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. Steele. caricature. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. Like heroic tragedy (e. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life. Pope) and in prose (Swift).g. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. parody. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. Swift. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . placing wit above virtue. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. when literary Neoclassicism developed. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. Dryden. both in verse (Dryden. generally. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. Congreve. Satire. a wide public. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. Pope. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. dominantly middle class. comedy was licentious and cynical. Gradually. and. etc. including that of Reason itself.7. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. on the rule of decorum. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. Addison. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. Dryden). Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. Steele). therefore also capable of error. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. Goldsmith. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason.4. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege.
all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. admirer. political or religious orientation. his craftsmanship.1. coffee houses: since the 1650s. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature). and the Glossary in Unit 2. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. the acquired competence of the writer. it may also refer to a woman’s lover.” where Dryden would come regularly. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . greatly concerned with appearances. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. In Pope’s satire. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. For instance. but is intended to impress others. Art may generally refer to the work of man. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. dress or behaviour which is not natural. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. achieved by training and practice. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. affectation: a manner of speech. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. or escort. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news.1. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18). Anarch: a personification of anarchy. baroque: see again subchapter 2. “Will’s Coffee House. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. which designated a fashionable. profession or interest. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French). In her empire of darkness and confusion. well-dressed man.
heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. honour. to deceive). stupidity. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. “Mr. referring not only to external nature. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. or “humour.e. boring. landscape. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. a strictly ordered hierarchical system. “Dull” also means uninteresting. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity.4.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. Bayes. from dunce. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible.” Nature: an inclusive concept.3 in Unit 1. but to the whole of created reality. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. and distinction. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). In Pope’s satire. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. trait . unexciting. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. Mr. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. dulness: in a strict sense. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 . fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance.” another word for “laurel”. inclination. slowness in thinking and learning.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. It derives from “bay. In this kind of comedy.” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. i.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat.
e.4 in Unit 1. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world.” from Greek u = not. founder of literary journalism.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516).1. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. or who chats or talks idly. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer.4. for the notion of sentimentalism. making literature “dull. polished). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Boileau. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. i. squire: a country gentleman. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. elegant. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. author of poems. perfect society (literally: “no place.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. of imagination and originality. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. Among the latter. he translated from ancient authors. and topos = place). in which he outlines the features of an ideal. or literature in general. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. especially the main landowner in a village. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. of taste or skill.3 in Unit 5. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. essays and dramatic works. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age.4. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. Dryden.
a masterpiece of 18th century fiction.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. Goldsmith. satires and epistles. 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Sprat. Steele. and The Man of Mode. member of the Royal Society. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. and a major representative of English sentimentalism.). Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. Pope. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. Hogarth. author of odes. who called him a “comic history-painter. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. Johnson. of Irish origin. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason.C. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). Wycherley. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). concise and flexible. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. Like his friend.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). Swift. a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. and A Modest Proposal (1729). George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. Among various other works. political and moral vices. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer. He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). an unequalled master of irony and wit. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. clear. Together with Addison. William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. Virgil. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition.
regardless of their particular condition. or judgment.e. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. opinions and tastes. good judgment. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. benevolence. 2.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. of those features which are universal. furnished with ideas. 8. good breeding.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. abdicating from reason.F. good sense. 6. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature. in an analogous sense. industry.e.T. 4. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. reasonableness.F.T. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. by the standards of her social environment. for sophisticated Millamant. of Human nature.F. and. 9.T. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. 3. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. integrity. 5. Civilised reserve in society. common sense. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow.” Just as weeds (i. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist.T. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. sense of responsibility. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . In marriage.T. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. 7. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. diligence. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature.e. SAQ 5 honesty. is. modesty. open-mindedness.
which breeds imaginary ills. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. only the species counts. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. The irrational greed and avarice. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants).” the subtlety of his accusations. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering. which is meant only for procreation. 2. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. 5. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. Cornelia. 537-550) 2. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. David. Macsiniuc. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. the exclusion of opinion. Ioan-Aurel (coord. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. 2003 (pp.. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. Further reading 1. The spirit of competition. 1983 (pp. which makes social progress inconceivable. They practice population control. The tendency to idleness. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows.” SAQ 7 1. 4. In the absence of affective attachment. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. conflict and self-interest. English Literature and Civilisation. 3. The individual is of no importance.). 180-187) 3. vol. the “fineness. A Critical History of English Literature. Daiches. The Novel in Its Beginnings. 1969 (pp. Editura Universităţii Suceava. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. The English Eighteenth Century. ultimately of imagination. Preda.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 .188.8.131.52. 5.2.1. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4.3. 5. 184.108.40.206.3. 5.2. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 220.127.116.11. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5. 5. 18.104.22.168. 5. 5.2. 5.2.1. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2.5. 5.2.3. 188.8.131.52.1.8. 184.108.40.206.4. 5.4.3. 5.4.5. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5. 5.2.
Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class.1. and there is a connection between. in the early years of the 18 th century. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. the rise of the middle classes. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance.1.1. more inclusive reading public. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. tolerance. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. whose action was often set in remote. whose vast majority was middle-class. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. and generally about women. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. and the development of the novel. exotic settings. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. 5. natural rights. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5. mostly imitations of French models. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new.
By contrast. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. On the other hand. Thus. in its concerns. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. For most women. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 .1. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. The novel reflects. Characters are no longer idealised.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe.2. by common people. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. moral or psychological detail. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. The ordinary aspects of life. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. but from contemporary life. history. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. legend. 5. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. in the novel. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. its normality. On the one hand. but distinct individualities. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. Realism – or. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. socially and materially dependent on men. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. the province of the novel was the familiar. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. or previous literature. vague and abstract figures. in Augustan terms. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. romances were therefore literature of escape. the novel’s didactic vocation. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions.
Women were … 3.1. If there should be major differences. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. … 4.1. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. read again subchapters 5.2. 1. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. and public/social norms and conventions.1. and 5. on the other. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion. The rise of the middle classes … 2. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. on the one hand. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below.
3. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Richardson). and the world represented in such novels is open. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. Fielding).g. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. displayed not only in fiction. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. classic models to follow. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. On the other hand. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail.g. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. romance is trivialised through parody*. therefore an ally to realism. on events. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. Instead. irony and burlesque*. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. a wide variety of influences went into its making. The motif of the travel is central. and extremely diverse. inclusive. belonging to several categories at once.e. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . repetitious. but to literature as well. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. from which it borrowed devices. for the author. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. Many novels cut across divisions. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. confusion. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. in which the action is episodic. and the hero’s various encounters are. forms of expression. i. loosely structured.1. the romance). but also in poetry and in drama. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. patterns and motifs.
• SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. 3. ________________________ 8. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. after each sentence. usually with supernatural ingredients. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. ________________________ 7. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. read again subchapter 5.. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. 1. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration.3. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. trivial subjects. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict. ________________________ 5.1. in their confrontation with moral choice. ________________________ 4. ________________________ 6. ________________________ 2. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. at the end of the unit. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. in an atmosphere of gloom. It presents a tale of mystery and horror.
They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . They are pragmatic. Puritan* background. Mariner. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). on his fiction. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. This confers vividness to their narratives. in actions. They share a middle class. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. in circumstantial details.2. in the next years. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. cast in a picaresque form. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. but also on the Continent. several adventure novels. 5. They were all stories of success. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position.1. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. when the writer was almost sixty. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. to the influence. dynamic and versatile. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. their social insertion. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement.2. published in 1719. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.
of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. to buy slaves.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. Under Defoe’s pen.2.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. Providence helps him finally leave the island.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he turns from a reckless. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. After 26 years.2. The only survivor.” It is. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. prudent and calculating mature man. On his return to England. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. In the 28 years of solitary life. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. In the hope of increasing his wealth. He marries. such an experience became an archetypal one. C. one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. After several misadventures at sea. romantic youth into a realistic. where he has established a colony. has three children. he starts a voyage to Africa.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. Wyeth . in fact. not only physical but also spiritual.” and leaves home on board a ship. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil. in soon left a widower.
tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father). Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design. In this light. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 .” 5. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word. Isolation is no longer a misfortune. Gradually. In his initial struggle with despair.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words.. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness.2. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat.2. If it should differ considerably. to the awakening of religious conscience. as a political or economic utopia.2.3. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions.2. at the end of the unit. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance.1. read again subchapters 5. and 5. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases.
Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work. in the space below. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience..2. which will serve his instinct for independence. at the end of the unit. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description.. 2. 4. morally autonomous.. perseverance.” However. as well as the fragment in the Reader. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise. or the felix culpa*. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion.g. It has its spiritual rewards. as a self-reliant individual. In this connection. He takes pleasure in his work). Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. or by a sentence (e.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. inventiveness. ingenuity). Like Adam. subchapter 5. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. perspicacity.3. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. You may render these features either by a single noun (e. SAQ 4 Read Text 5.” desires and “delights. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 1. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life. Changed in his “notion of things. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. 3. Enumerate. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter.2. g. the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God.2. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot.
lack of unnecessary ornamentation. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. concreteness.2. read the fragment and subchapter 5. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. he paid little attention to matters of form. containing. on a separate sheet. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. clarity. in the Reader from the point of view of its style.4. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. with unmatched vividness. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. His linear. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. clear language. whose reality is difficult to doubt. His simple.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative.2. at the end of the unit. 1. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure. which. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4 once more and do the exercise again. rendered in a simple.2. at the same time. the frequent enumerations and inventories. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. of familiar detail. 2. 4. 3. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. solid world. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. The richness of concrete detail. the promise of symbolic meanings.
who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. Mr. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. In Clarissa. in Bedfordshire. B’s relatives and friends. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. In her new state. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. hoping that she will give in. the latter’s son. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. Upon the death of her mistress. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. not only in England but also on the Continent. cruel and greedy relatives. unanimously loved and admired. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. as well as for his didactic purpose. Pamela continues a diary. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. B_. B_’s hands. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. Mr. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. There. In Pamela. whose affection she finally gains. of the struggle between virtue and vice. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her.2. Mr. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . At the same time. B_’s sister. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. The plot of Pamela. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. Faced with her resistance. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity.5. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. His influence was considerable.6.2. sensibility and morality. recording the details of her ordeal. As the first great sentimental novelist.
The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr.7. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs.2. to set moral standards to the nation. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. the rights of the individual.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Through its subject and theme. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. Richardson’s implicit radical message. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. a complete novelty in fiction. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. F. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. as a traditionally dominant class. the freedoms that he takes with her. B_. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity.
Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge.2. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations.8. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. though in quality [i. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor.7. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. If there should be significant differences. read again attentively subchapters 5. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. as a servant. at the end of the unit. Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger. to obey Mr.2.2. and 5.”? Answer in the space left below. between hate and admiration. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination. 5.e.
and considering also Text 5. however. In Pamela’s letters and diary.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr.4. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling.. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. on the one hand. What counts. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5.3. at the end of the unit. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus.9.2. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings. excerpted from Pamela. her sentimental response to them. which are captured in the process of their emergence. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. read again subchapter 5. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. in the Reader). 1. on the other. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. B_ follows a similar evolution. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.. 2. and his developing love.
The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. Cervantes. burlesque and comic satire. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. to his native village. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Fielding abandons parody.1. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. in London. Mr. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. and. The careful narrative architecture of his novels.” Mr. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. above all. modest and gentle creature. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. 1790) 132 . but a snobbish. At this point. they mirror a wide range of human types. Slipslop. performed by means of comic satiric devices. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. B_’s aunt. including Pamela and her husband. Joseph’s sweetheart. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. priggish* upstart. but a voice external to the story. started as a parody. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. All important characters meet here. Abraham Adams. Through the omniscient* narrator. Pope.3. Booby. Mr. the author asserts himself. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. irony. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. relationships and actions. whose servant he was. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. Mrs. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. but also by the maid. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. author of Don Quixote” (1742). as well as their inclusiveness. Fielding was a master of parody. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. so that he sets out for home. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners.3.
in the spirit of comedy. for true or false) for each of them.3. T F 8. Mr.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. Fielding likes to play with genres. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. T F 4. carefully. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . whom they had met during their journey. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. Cervantes. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. T F 6. is an ingredient of romantic plots. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. T F 7. 1. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. T F 3. For instance. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. Wilson. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). read the text once more. 5. which closes the plot. which turns out to be gentle*.5. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. or the pattern of the adventurous journey. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. alluding thus to the older genre. Read Text 5.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance.2. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. T F 2. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. T F 5. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status.
in spite of the many instances of greed. Along the novel. often making him appear ridiculous. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. but also moral instruction. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). but they placed their main interest in the individual. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 .3.4.3. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters.3. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. doctors. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. In other words. etc. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. Like his literary ancestor. For the author. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. but good deeds and charity. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. but manners. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. not an individual. there are both good and bad innkeepers. which often create comic effects. At the same time. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. as for Richardson. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. as he himself says. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. cruelty. active goodness. In the beginning. which must give substance to faith. both honest and hypocrite priests. above all. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. lawyers. he describes “not men. By means of techniques of contrast. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. Every social class. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. etc. Joseph emerges as morally mature. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. in Fielding. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. masters.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.
At the same time. 5. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation. incorporated in the substance of his works. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 . and he believes.4. like many Augustan writers.3.2.3. 5. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel.. through its moral and temperamental types. Fielding is the most “Augustan.. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Explain them. His commentaries and reflections on his own art. and 5. read again subchapters 5. 5. 1. 2. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature..2.5. 3. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. at the end of the unit. drawing short comparisons. If they should differ substantially. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. provide the first theory of the novel. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language.2..4. He is a moralist.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.8.3. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. unaffected. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province.
instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. However. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. as well as of Parson Yorick. In spite of his promises.4. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. corporal Trim. that. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . With Sterne. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps.4. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction.” in every sense. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative. Walter Shandy. he seems to have. other interesting things to relate. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. Walter.2. unpredictable narrative. is an erudite philosopher. Fielding had demonstrated. the history of a private life.4. moulds reality into a literary pattern. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the relation between life and literature. the priest who baptised Tristram.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. i. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. that he was.1. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. He digresses continually. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. the narrator. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. and his long. at the age of five. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. His father. at every point. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. by accident.e. in Joseph Andrews. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. Tristram. does not manage to give a shape to his story. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. of his uncle.
Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. character and destiny. On the other hand. ironic terms. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. and discharged from the army. pitiful creature. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. 5. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. modesty and. which influences all his thoughts and actions. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. The “nonsensical. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. amiability. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . uniqueness is achieved in extreme. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. They cannot share their thoughts. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. therefore. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. with man as a vulnerable. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts. were being fought on the continent. as comic eccentricity. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. Wounded in Flanders. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. generosity. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. However. above all. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. but the uniqueness of each individual mind.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. gentleness. Understandably. It is not type (social. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. absorbed in this activity. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. good-humoured. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life.3.4. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute.
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.3. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit.6. SAQ 10 In Vol. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. at the end of the unit. To remember the features of the tragic hero. read again subchapter 5. I. Ch.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. V. Write the answer in the space left below. in the Glossary to Unit 2. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words..4. If the difference is considerable. Read this short chapter (Text 5. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*. see again the fall of princes. as well as the fragment from the Reader.
It is. Sterne’s rambling narrative. but also as an author.4. watched as if by a slow motion camera.” Not only as a man. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. by exploiting them in a parodic way. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. in Sterne’s novel. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament.4. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight. The zigzagging narrative. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. does not seem to move towards any climax. The structure of the book is equally odd. which he calls “the sunshine of reading. there are several dedications scattered through the book. Typographically. coherent plots. the book is a comic oddity. but also to how it is told. so different from Fielding’s tight. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface.e. For example. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. with its multitude of dashes. the “imperfections of words. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. drawings and graphs. Sterne defamiliarises them. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. to a certain view of writing. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. and gives the impression of stagnation. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. makes the reader aware of them.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. i. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . for instance.4. etc. asterisks. and he takes great delight in digressions. points of suspension. 5. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre.5. Tristram resorts to other means of communication.
i.4. The unpredictable. i. which is connected. The meaning of metafiction depends. as it explores – halfseriously.e. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the structural level. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. In volume VI. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. ultimately. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. metafiction is fiction about fiction. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. in the first four volumes. formless reality. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. of life as pure chance. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. works which call attention to their own devices. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices.6. on the author’s vision of life. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative.” with their digressions. the process of its own writing. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. however. It is a half-amused. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. Basically. the narrated time and the time of reading. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do.e. As metafiction. Metafictionally. Its extravagant.
In this way. Instead of continuing the story.5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5.4.. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. 3. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it. Write them in the spaces indicated below. If they differ significantly. and read the fragment attentively once more. at the end of the unit.6. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 .7. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. which he discusses in the very text of the work.4. and 5. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel. 2. 1. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. go again through subchapters 5. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Since its settlement on the literary scene. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. and Laurence Sterne. Lastly. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. At the beginning of the 18th century. in his novels of manners. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. on the other hand. the novel was a minor form. However. Sterne. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. Henry Fielding. completely ignored by Augustan poetics. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. Samuel Richardson. Fielding. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century.
minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. mirth: laughter. played like a piano. booby: silly or stupid person. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). exact representation of life. fixed idea. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. gentle: of good breeding. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. rogue) – belongs. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. but producing a different sound. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. whose style. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. which became popular in England through translation and imitation.e. “beyond fiction”. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. tone.e. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. fun. happiness. or education.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. lifelikeness: closeness to life. The hero – the picaro (i. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. to the lower ranks of society. characteristically. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. literally: novel of formation. a hobbyhorse is a toy. in which the poor heroine. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. or “narcissistic” – i. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). Cinderella: an old fairy story. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. epistolary manner: in a novel. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. metafiction: literally. literacy: the ability to read and write. Concretely. a Fool. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he seeks social integration. Bildungsroman: German term. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. gaiety.
The high aspirations of this generous. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. like a knight-errant of former times. honest and brave hidalgo (i. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713.e. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. Don Quixote starts. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Britain joined Austria. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. 1615). Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1.
Horrified. to revise the preceding unit. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. clarity.. SAA no. and 5. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment.4. 3. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. You will have.1. 1. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. • the coherence. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. Text 4. Text 5.2. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. in grading your paper.1.4. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. In order to win the good graces of the king. with special attention to subchapter 4. the king rejects this tribute. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%.1. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. 2. as illustrated by this fragment. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. Remember that. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns. therefore. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment.. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels.
… novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. resilience. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. SAQ 5 factuality. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. concreteness. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. 3. inventiveness.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . 2. all souls are equal. industriousness. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. 3. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. 4. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. immediacy. sharp sense of observation. 2. In the social order. vividness. 5. patience. pragmatism. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. rationality. 5. and also authors of novels. realistic account. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. SAQ 4 Tenacity. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. optimism. 4. plainness. the capacity for learning from mistakes. 6. and by the form of autobiographical record. SAQ 2 1.
2. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character.T.T. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. In this way. wealth and power. This is not Tristram’s case. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. 3F. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. 5. 2.T. living and the act of writing overlap each other. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake.T. SAQ 11 1. He is always a prominent figure. SAQ 7 1. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. 3. they create a sort of suspense. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth. 6. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. 4. 3. enjoying title. 7. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. he is concerned with human types. 2. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil. SAQ 8 1. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. 2.T. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. 3.” but in “pitiful misadventures. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i.F.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. who write in the first person. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters. 8.F SAQ 9 1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. that is.
A Critical History of English Literature. 37-42. vol. Daiches. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. Penguin Books Limited. The English Novel. 179-195. 76-80) 2. Allen. Macsiniuc. 116127. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Walter.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 143-163. 701-704. 217-231. 43-46. 731-736) 3. 2003 (pp.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 1969 (pp. 53-59. Cornelia. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 1991 (pp. David. 712-718. 598-602.
2.1.4. 6. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.220.127.116.11.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6. 18.104.22.168. 6. 22.214.171.124. 6. 6. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 6. 126.96.36.199. 6. 6.2. 6.4. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6.4. 188.8.131.52. 6.4.4. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 .4.3.1. 6.4. The Seasons William Cowper.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.
Neoclassicism*. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. was eminently the Age of Reason. Addison. Pope. and Fielding). and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. The sentimental novel* (e. discipline. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. The concern with personal. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. however. and for night as a setting. harmony. For instance. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. The interest in individual psychology. and cultivated its public relevance. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions.g. Swift. regarded art as the product of civilisation. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. Like any modern age. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. elegance and decorum*. the century of the Enlightenment*.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine.1. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. with its emphasis on order.
wild. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. and misty. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. In 1765. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse.1. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A.1. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. known as the Graveyard School of poetry.2. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past.1. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. death and immortality.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. and folk literature in general. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). His long poem in nine books. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. Night Thoughts (1742-1745). The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. sublime landscapes.D.
b. … as well as Gothic fiction. with its gloomy atmosphere. d. … 3. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. in 1765. 1. regarding him as a martyr. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. aspiring to poetic fame. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. read again the previous subchapters. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. imagination. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. The publication. reflected… 4. c. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. Chatterton committed suicide. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). When his literary fraud was exposed. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. Like James Macpherson. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. … a.
In the following subchapters. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. Samuel Taylor Coleridge). the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. The great novelists (e. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. The return to blank verse 6. the interest in the local and national past. Towards the end of the century. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom.2. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. busy life of the city with moral confusion. The pre. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. the state of nature began to be idealised. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. characteristic of the Enlightenment.1. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. In the latter part of the century.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life.g. William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. such as the song and the ballad. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. The emphasis on sentimental response.3. but also literary forms.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm. Samuel Johnson said. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –.1. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. In spite of its eclectic nature. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. the philosophical reflection. becomes an object of interest in itself. nature. the splendour of summer. an expression of national pride. His poem educated.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. than the works of Nature. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. etc. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. in many generations of readers. 6. and the apparent cruelty of winter. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. not only the perception of nature. in its magnificence and diversity. Britannia. patriotic enthusiasm. manifest as early as the 1730s.3.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. James Thomson. but also the feeling for it. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). and the moral sentiment. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe. As Dr. more amusing.3. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. praise of friends. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. “Winter. political comments. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. exerting a considerable influence on both of them. His praise of nature and of the countryside.
and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. from the third part. with its short. William Cowper. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 . records his observations and reflections.3. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). in popular superstitions and the supernatural. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759).2. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. Passages of moral and political commentary.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly.. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. unrhymed stanzas. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. more carefully. living in retirement from the city. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. He was interested in the mediaeval past. Like Thomson and Collins. read text C again. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. at the end of the unit. William Collins 6. the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. which actually inspired Thomson).3. social satire. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. “Autumn. If there should be major differences. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*.
represents one of the most memorable statements. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. however. / Paradise that has survived the fall. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. concerning the opposition country/town. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. but the joy of communion with friends. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. indicate an affectionate observer. and of simple. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. Coleridge).e. in the Reader. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective.4. Wordsworth. 1856 The Task. S. affected] the country. domestic activities. with its vices and follies. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. He praises the simple pleasures. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life.” Sometimes. at the end of the unit. like gardening. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. T. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. As a poet of nature. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. SAQ 5 Text 6. in the 18th century. the peace and quiet of village life.
A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. the rural setting. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. In Blake. our sense of a common fate for all humanity. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. Gray. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. Blake’s late fame is due. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. Like other pre-Romantic poets. widening the range of meanings. Thomson. 6. Each copy was then coloured by hand. In his first great illuminated work. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. he turns his attention to the rural world. The combination of calligraphic text. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. and Macpherson. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. He was not only a poet.1. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. to a large extent. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper).civilisation. to the special way in which he produced his work. and he rejected the classical standards of style.4. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . and recognised as one of the most original creators. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought.4. Milton. but also a gifted painter and engraver. Apart from a volume of early verse. William Blake.
original and strange. Blake was a rebel. and his whole work. They are. for instance: “I copy Imagination.4. Los*. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets.2. The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. Like the other English Romantics. says. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. in Blake’s last poem. a tribute to Milton. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. unpremeditated act. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. a prophet. 6. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. and he denounces the evils of civilisation.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. or be enslaved by another man’s. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create.” or “I write when commanded by spirits.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” This is Blake’s own creed. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. Jerusalem: “I must create a system. Blake. in a way.
their clarity of expression and their musicality. 6. T F 3. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which echoed the rhythms of popular verse.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work. revise the whole subchapter. If you have made mistaken choices. and its origin was visionary experience. T F 7. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. enjoy] to hear. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience.3. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. T F 2. that is. innocent delights. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature.4. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. The Echoing Green. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. The Blossom. Spring. The Shepherd. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. and the three statements that are false. of the world seen through the eyes of the child. Laughing Song. T F 5. For Blake. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. T F 6. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. 1. at the end of the unit. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. As a poet. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry. Poems like Infant Joy. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions.e.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. T F 4. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy.
with which Blake was acquainted. associated with childhood. and absence of frustration or inhibition. in his natural tendency to virtue. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs.” Throughout his work. is a biblical allusion. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. Innocence. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. in Nurse’s Song. According to him. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. with white hair. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. In The Echoing Green. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. Besides the children themselves. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. does not mean ignorance.e.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man.” can “laugh away care. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. gratified desire. The nurse. the guardian angel. “Old John. meadow]”. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. For Blake. or even Jesus. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. although the sun has set. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. In these poems. the shepherd. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination. love. The good shepherd. which a proper education should develop. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy.
which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb.5.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. in the Reader. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. If there should be a significant difference between them. and in which he represents to himself its “making. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 . revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation.” Answer in the space below. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words.
4. society and divinity. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. even sarcastic. hate. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. in which man’s lot is hard work. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. or the mind of others. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. for instance. which deny man his freedom. nature. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. but. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. standing equal before God. In London. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. often. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. full of indignation and anger. the thirst for war. envy and deceit. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. for instance. In The Chimney Sweeper*. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience.4. protesting against the evils of his time. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. In the fallen state of Experience. 6. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. when this life ends. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. of “stony laws*”. disease. i. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. poverty and oppression.5. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. which is a promise of divine mercy.4. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. However. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. In Songs of Experience. love and joy have been replaced by fear. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. Like the chimney sweeper.e.
and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful.4. innocent question (“Little Lamb. who made thee [i. you]?) and his own answer. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain.e. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below. by ambiguity and even obscurity. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary.6. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow. If it should differ in major respects. Read this poem – Text 6. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience. with no explicit answer. provoking more anxiety than certainty. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. in Songs of Experience. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. dangerous tiger.
and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. indeed. but with ways of seeing and feeling. In the poem of Innocence. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. and His Priest.” In the counterpart poem.4. a stern. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God.” which lead to contrary visions. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. with its “mysteries”*. in Songs of Experience. was responsible. served by the institutionalised churches. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. The church. He displays. A deeply religious person. tyrannical figure. Reason and Energy*.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. and he is also a child.7. in fact. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. Contraries are essential to progression. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . This is the God of the world of Experience.” or with a “multitude of lambs. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. which are thus strengthening their own power. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. “contrary states of the human soul. for keeping man at a distance from God. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. They reveal. since those are “babes reduced to misery. bearing even the same titles. in Blake’s view.
but he is no longer able to do that. and read the poem again more carefully.7. except as an act of remembering. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience. to 6. revise subchapters 6.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words.1.. If there should be major differences between them.4. to regain the vision of Innocence.4.2. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 . The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted.
The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. In subchapter 6. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. Subchapter 6. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall. 6. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. nature-civilisation. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. The last subchapter. The “Graveyard” poets (e. The other feature is primitivism.. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature.2. g. the interest in early poetry. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend.3. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. imagination and feelings. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. now threatened by the march of Progress. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination.. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view.4. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age.
for the sake of more profitable farming. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records.2. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i. Sometimes. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. putting fences round) common land. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. Imagination was free Energy. for instance. goddess of Memory. Celtic: related to the Celts. Their father was Zeus. Ireland and Wales. favour melancholy or morbid themes. which has survived in parts of Scotland. decorum: see subchapter 4. which they could climb more easily. Energy: for Blake. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). in Unit 4. For the small farmers.e. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events.2. Initially. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. Gray is sadly ironic. ruins. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. graveyards. or Erse. Haunted castles. passion. as the next subchapter will show. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. and horror. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. the enclosures meant ruin.
sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. Among the most important of them are America. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God. The Book of Urizen. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. used to secure the hands of a prisoner. belonging to the beginnings. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. The Four Zoas. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. See also subchapter 4. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3.3. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. etc. The custom in London was to bring the poor. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. with His laws formulated as interdictions. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. The Book of Los.1. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. the 39th day after Easter. the Passions. wild landscapes. 2 in Unit 4. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . philosophical and political convictions. A Prophecy. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics.1.. in Unit 3. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1.3. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. or of gold or silver paint.2. Jerusalem. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. on which the Ten Commandments were written. Pity. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. in Unit 1. etc. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. primitive: original. Paul’s Cathedral. as well as against the sophistication. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. in Unit 5. Milton. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. to attend the religious service.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Pay special attention to the instructions for the task. 6.13. Remember that. Send-away assignment no. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%).English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. 6. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate. • the coherence. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection. meant to win a patron’s favour.9. and 6.).. 6.. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 . Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau.12. The Chimney Sweeper. clarity. in grading your paper. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. 6.10. with his law of love. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger.” usurous: from usury. SAA no. gardens or estates. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest...8. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution.11. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762).
Crabbe presents a desolate picture.e.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. the vagants’] wanderings. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. Meditation leads to illumination. love of nature. 3. the “drooping weary” father. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. Nor e’er had changed. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. In the city. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4. b. “He chid their [i. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. all intensified. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. or seek for power. and love of man. and on his thoughts. 2. c SAQ 2 1. in which everything seems to be in decline. but relieved their pain” 6. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. “Unpractised he to fawn. a. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. For Cowper. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. nor wished to change his place” 3.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. disease and poverty. the “feeble. d. on his soul. Its bare. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry.
in the state of Experience. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. At the same time. T. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. and is itself one more care in the family. meadow. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. In the simple economy of the poem. T. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. F. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. 2. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. 7. 6. In the second stanza. 4. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. which he has lost. 2. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. 5. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. being thus a source of oppression. in Blake’s vision. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. T. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. but are symbols of limitation. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. T. therefore. the few elements of the natural setting (stream.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. against which man. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . a child’s birth is no cause for joy. and. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. F. In a vision of Innocence. the God of Love. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. 3. “My mother groaned. The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience.” that is. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. struggles in vain. the “Lamb of God. confinement and oppressive authority. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. Man.
1991 (pp.. Penguin Books Ltd. 652-658.. vol. A Critical History of English Literature. 671-684. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature.English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. Daiches.. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 84-94) 3.). Further reading 1. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 1969 (pp.).5 (“From Blake to Byron”). Ford. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. vol. Boris (ed. 1991 (pp. Penguin Books Ltd. David. 692-699) 2. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . vol. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. Ford.4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). Boris (ed.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
this brave* overhanging* firmament*. the earth. cum să spun. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. the sky) brave minunat. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. – lost all my mirth*.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. Hamlet (Act II. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours.excelent. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. – but wherefore* I know not. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). William Shakespeare. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. acest preaminunat baldachin. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. forewent.g. of late recently wherefore why. văzduhul. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). foregone* all custom of exercises. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. într-adevăr. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. the air. seems to me a sterile promontory. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. alcătuirile şi mişcările. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. încât acest frumos tărâm. şi totuşi. this most excellent canopy*. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. to me. şi. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. pământul. in moving. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. pentru mine.1. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . vedeţi. look you.
out. a poor player. And then is heard no more. The death of each day’s life. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti.2. ţanţoş. sore* labour’s bath.3. and tomorrow. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. full of sound* and fury. Balm of hurt minds. To the last syllable of recorded time. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. William Shakespeare. to creep. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. trivial. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. desfirat. and tomorrow. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. great nature’s second course*. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. Macbeth (Act II. trifling (mărunt. TEXT 2. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. William Shakespeare. Out*. El. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. semeţ.Reader TEXT 2. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. it is a tale Told by an idiot. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel.” the innocent sleep. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). Signifying nothing. a se furişa) petty inessential. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . Macbeth (Act V.
therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. netrebnic. redus. Took pains to make thee speak. Know thine* own meaning. Though thou didst learn*. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. Caliban: You taught me language. savage. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. stupid (necioplit. tot mereu. TEXT 2. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. abject. a bâigui) brutish coarse. mărginit) shameful and evil. a suporta therefore as a result. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. William Shakespeare. ticălos) race neam. sălbatic. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. mârşav. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. Te stinge. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. nasty (josnic.4. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. The Tempest (Act I. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. Un biet actor. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. Which any print* of goodness will not take. cruel.
Cu tot ce-a moştenit. These our actors. duşi. consistency. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. William Shakespeare. TEXT 2. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. all which it inherit. As I foretold* you. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. colour. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. pe drept.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. Te-am surghiunit aici. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. se vor topi Şi. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic.5. The solemn temples. duhuri. toţi. chiar pământul. Yea*. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. temelie) fabric building. Actorii Ţi-am spus. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. Leave not a rack* behind. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. framework (clădire. Scoteai doar mugete. the great globe itself. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. The Tempest (Act IV. când tu. literary) truly. palate mândre. The cloud-capped towers*. Biserici maiestoase. structure. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. into thin air: And. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. dar proasta-ţi fire. fiară. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. În stare de orice. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. etc. foretold: a anunţa. dar. au fost. shall dissolve And. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. the gorgeous palaces. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. Te-am învăţat de toate. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii.
they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. But we by a love so much refined. and hands to miss. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. It leans*. nor sigh-tempests* move. That our selves know not what it is. But trepidation of the spheres. And whisper* to their souls. Thy* soul the fixed foot. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. and make no noise. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. And grows erect*. makes no show To move.6. And makes me end. and hearkens* after it. TEXT 2. Such wilt* thou* be to me. Though greater far. Like gold to aery thinness beat. The breath goes now. to go. but an expansion. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. as that comes home. where I begun. but doth. John Donne. No tear-floods. Our two souls therefore. Men reckon* what it did and meant. If they be two. Inter-assured of the mind*. who must. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. And though it in centre sit. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .Reader Făcute-s visele. Yet when the other far doth roam*. Though I must go. and some say. obliquely run. which are one. Care less eyes. if the other do. Like the other foot. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. no: So let us melt*. lips. endure* not yet A breach*. is innocent.
o’erthrow me*. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. but oh. exact Text 2.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. and bend Your force*. blow. to another due*. me should defend. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. you As yet* but knock. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. Reason your viceroy* in me. That I may* rise. overthrew. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. apply your force due cuvenit. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . rupture stiff rigid. and seek to mend. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. burn. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. for. overthrown: a nimici. and make me new. Labour* to admit you. untie*. leant a se apleca. and proves weak or untrue*. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. never shall be free.7. or break that knot again. a înrobi. for I Except your enthrall* me. three-personed God*. except you ravish* me. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. and would be loved fain*. imprison me. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. to struggle to no end vainly. breathe. Nor ever chaste. I. to break. John Donne. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. precis.: inflexibil. to undergo breach break. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. Take me to you. and stand. shine. like an usurped town. a rătăci to lean. ferm. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. Divorce me. datorat to labour to work hard. to no end*. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. a lua cu sila. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. Yet dearly I love you. a elibera to enthrall a supune. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. But is captived. fig.
And the last age should show your heart. Thy beauty shall no more be found. This coyness*. Nor would I love at lower rate. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. But none. yet we will make him run. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. I think. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. and on thy* forehead gaze. An age at least to every part.Reader TEXT 2. But thirty thousand to the rest. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and time. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. like amorous birds of prey. shall sound My echoing song. and pass our long love’s day. Nor. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. Thus. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. Andrew Marvell. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. were no crime. Lady.8. Now let us sport* while we may. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. Now therefore. in thy marble vault*. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. you deserve this state*. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. And now. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. And you should. We would sit down. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. For. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. and think which way To talk. Two hundred to adore each breast. if you please. do there embrace. Lady.
a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . tineresc hue culoare. groapă youthful de tinereţe. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. peculiar. a lâncezi. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. which. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. sfială. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. fig. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. patimă) grave mormânt.: swift. nuanţă. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. torn) a smulge. in spite of her coyness.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate.
chide*. Ere* half my days. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. they serve him best. who best Bear his mild yoke*. if I have grace to use it so. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. to prevent That murmur*.2. a strict overseer TEXT 3.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the subtle* thief of youth. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. or soon or slow. lest he. destiny mean humble. rush bud mugur. Toward which time leads me. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. Yet be it less or more. speed. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*. John Milton. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. All is. but Patience. John Milton. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. lucky endueth endues. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. obscure. in this dark world and wide.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. returning. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. appears [in me] much less – i. opportune happy fortunate. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. however mean* or high. and present My true account. and the will of heaven. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie.1.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
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Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
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From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
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Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
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for this fair* Earth I see. Them nothing. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. Goddess humane. ye you (pl. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. then. Queen of the Universe. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. producing every kind. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. What can your knowledge hurt him. your eyes. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. in the day Ye eat thereof*. by venturing* higher than my lot. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. that Man may not become As they. reach* then. as they know. And what are Gods. by the Threatener? look on me. Me who have touched and tasted. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. Why.Reader TEXT 3. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. John Milton. His worshippers? He knows that. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. and that advantage use On our belief.8. Knowing both good and evil. and ye shall be like Gods. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . and freely taste. Warmed by the Sun. ye* shall not die.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. or this tree Impart against his will. I question it. 4. that all from them proceeds*. 3.
Reader TEXT 3. so late* their happy seat*. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. They. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Through Eden took their solitary way. but wiped them soon. looking back. beheld to behold. hand in hand. beheld (archaic. with wandering steps and slow. John Milton. where to choose Their place of rest. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. and Providence their guide. The world was all before them.9. Waved over by that flaming brand*. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped.
you shall always knock at the door before you come in. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. so far trifle fleac. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. to write and receive letters. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. To have my closet* inviolate*. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. Come to dinner when I please. Let us never visit together. reserved well-bred binecrescut. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. nor go to a play together. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. manierat. and ashamed of one another ever after. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please.1. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. as if we were proud of one another the first week. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. and then never be seen there together again. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. wherever I am. William Congreve. to wear what I please. because they may be your relations*. without giving a reason. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. or to be intimate with fools. nor kiss before folks*. to provoke eyes and whispers*. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. (…) fond affectionate.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. And lastly. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. because they are your acquaintance. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. to be sole* empress of my tea table. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 .
a livra. descendenţi to supply a oferi. pungaş. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. potlogar villain nemernic. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many.Reader TEXT 4. successfully irregular neuniform.2. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. Shakespeare is. at least above all modern writers. secătură. escroc. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. the poet of nature. above all writers. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. cap sec knave escroc. unpractised by the rest of the world. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. dobitoc. and please long. ticălos. variabil fanciful capricios. a blockhead*. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Samuel Johnson. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. rogue pungaş. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. Particular manners* may be known to few. which can operate but* upon small numbers. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire.3. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. but just representations of general nature. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. John Dryden. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. and leaves it standing in its place. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity.
as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. The learning of this people is very defective. And as to ideas. Jonathan Swift. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. unnecessary scruple. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). and esteem. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. and the fortunes of his people. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. of strong parts. poetry. endued* with admirable talents for government. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. and profound learning. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. so that among us would be little esteemed. history. the liberties. great wisdom.Reader TEXT 4. For I remember very well. to justice and lenity*. refinement and intrigue. and mathematics. love. and almost adored by his subjects. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. abstractions. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. in a discourse one day with the King. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. consisting only in morality. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. should from a nice*. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. and transcendentals*. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. entities. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . either in a prince or a minister.4.
and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. and our actions. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. which all could see in the rest. and mischievous* in disposition. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. (…) As to learning. but not in themselves.5. a asigura. government. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. from the representation I had given him of our lives. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. than any of the rest. fall together by ears*. manufactures*. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. to restrict bound limit. and therefore* to protect himself. Ch. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. without delay determination rezolvare. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. in some fields of his country. Jonathan Swift. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. as sometimes happens. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. arts. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. a i se încredinţa (e. they will instead of eating peaceably. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. so. our manners. and the like. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. there are certain shining stones of several colors. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious.g. a fi iniţiat în. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. and activity. (…) That. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. speed. but still looking round with great caution. the shortness of my claws*. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and carry them away. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. For. as I had described them.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
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TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
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grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
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UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
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No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. and. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). which it did admirably well. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. in a word how. such as the potters* burn in. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. after having laboured hard to find the clay. and placed my firewood* all round it. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. and observed that they did not crack at all*. But all this would not answer my end*. to bring it home and work it. It happened after some time. misshapen*. and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. I was agreeably surprised to see it. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. de pământ jar oală. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. This set me to studying how to order* my fire.Reader TEXT 5. When I saw them clear red. I had no notion of a kiln*. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. and how many fell out*. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. being set out too hastily*. a frământa. and pipkins*. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. which none of these could do. to temper* it. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. what odd. to pity a căina awkward incomod. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. one upon another. flat dishes*. a se desprinde clay lut. though I had some lead to do it with. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. and any things my hand turned to*. and bear* the fire. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). to dig* it.2. a cădea fell out to fall. pitchers*. or rather laugh at me. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. (fell. or glazing* them with lead*. ugly things I made. fallen) out: a se desface. (fell. with a great heap of embers* under them. how many of them fell in*. Daniel Defoe. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. and red as a tile*.. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*. anevoios. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. so as to make it burn me some pots. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun.
intenţie to bear (bore. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. and before I knew what was the matter. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. This was a good fortune. and of so much honour too. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. I must own* to you. apogeu distress nefericire.3.] This letter. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. crept.4. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . I am quite overcome*. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. plin de viaţă) height culme. so much affection. Samuel Richardson. has greatly affected me. and tender years*. durere. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. I beseech* you. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. a depăşi) TEXT 5. than the dry*. like a thief. to my grief*. born) a rezista. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). I had no reason to expect. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. I imagine. however. my dear father. before. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. to find him capable of so much openness. nay*. when I expected some new plot*. chinuri womb pântece. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. but it has crept*. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. dubious uncertain. Samuel Richardson. it looked like love. narrative. O my unguarded* youth. […] O my dear parents. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. but now. forgive me! but I found. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. B_. can be. upon me. […] Forgive. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. and so it is: but love. is not a voluntary thing – Love. nor when it began. punct culminant. a învinge. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. But to be sure*.Reader dish blid. did I say! […] I know not how it came. in which he confesses his affection for her. scop.
mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. întristat. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. before summons* came. when I get home. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer.e. O my treacherous*. for giving up so weakly. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. containing a much larger circle of incidents. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. and consequently. In the diction. and to one too. and therefore*. torn) out a smulge. or tear* it out of my writing. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. in this. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. differing from comedy.] plot uneltire.5. who had used me so hardly. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. Yet.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. for there it is never properly introduced. and resignation to the Divine Will.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. în mod clar rigorous aspru. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. a implora grieved amărât. and introducing a greater variety of characters. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. only dangerous attacks! After all. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose.) treacherous trădător (adj. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. of inferior manners. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. Henry Fielding. I think. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. sever grief durere. [Memorandum*. în consecinţă to tear (tore. a rupe memorandum notă. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. I hope. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. in its sentiments and diction*. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. însemnare TEXT 5. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. as I thought. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. thy whole self. to consider of this.
though. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. and where our delight. is more surprising. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). in order to purchase* applause. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. if we examine it. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. to the degree he would be thought to have it. […] Now. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. Now. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. yet when it comes from vanity only. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. that. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. and consequently more ridiculous. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. arises from the surprising absurdity. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. therefore. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. or e converso*. Indeed. as they proceed* from very different motives. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. it be nearly allied to deceit*. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. Burlesque is in writing. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. which this is not intended to be. or hath not the virtue he affects. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. not men. which that of the hypocrite hath. yet. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. And here I shall observe. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. what Caricatura is in painting. It may be likewise noted. and. than when from vanity. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance.Reader burlesque kind. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer.
or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault. of our pity. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. smaller faults. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . fig. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu.: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. But for not being what they would be thought*. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. tend* only to raise our mirth*. cu stângăcie. which at first moved our compassion. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci.
the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. nefericit TEXT 5. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. on my conscience. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. my work is digressive.6. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. not for want of penetration* in him. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. Tristram Shandy (Vol. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. In a word. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. which. as you observe. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Gentleman. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. two contrary motions are introduced into it. or expected indeed. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. a izbuti. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. I wish I had been born in the Moon. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. and it is progressive too. – not but the planet is well enough*. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. the merit of which has all along. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. I fear. with reverence be it spoken*. to annoy ungracious răutăcios. and that I fly off* from what I am about. and reconciled. Laurence Sterne. in a digression.7. – and at the same time. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. been overlooked* by my reader. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. dirty planet of ours. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. povară signal însemnat. Laurence Sterne.Reader TEXT 5. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for.I.
and if he goes on with his main work. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. his whole work stands stock-still*. what’s more. is truly pitiable*: For. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. one wheel within another*. This is vile work*. if he begins a digression. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. are the sunshine. incontestably. you see. – take them out of this book for instance. that the whole machine. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. in general. brings in variety. For which reason. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. but also of the author. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. then there is an end of his digression. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. from that moment. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. from the beginning of this. and forbids the appetite to fail. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. the soul of reading. – they are the life. I observe. restore them to the writer. has been kept agoing. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . cum trebuie.Reader Digressions. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. you might as well take the book along with them. whose distress*. in this matter. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. bids* All hail*. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. – and.
distant godly pious. Oliver Goldsmith.2. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. a mângâia) TEXT 6. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour.1. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. the matron* pale. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. Go. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. Nor e’er* had changed. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. to all the country dear. Or hers. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. cerşetor train alai. he climbed the loftiest bough*. passing rich trecând drept bogat. The Deserted Village A man he was. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. look within. nor wished to change his place. Unpracticed he to fawn*. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. George Crabbe. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. Or theirs. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. and ask if peace be there. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. a boy.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. hoinar. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. a alina. chid: to rebuke. cortegiu şir chid to chide. croit to prize a preţui. He chid* their wanderings*. modelat. to scold (a dojeni. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. or seek for power. Who. propped* on that rude* staff*. devout (evlavios. Then his first joy. but his sad emblem now. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*.
încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. nenorocit hearth vatră. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. sorbitură grove crâng. As varied. chief*. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. What wonder then that health and virtue. ales. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. generos ease tihnă. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. jalnic.3. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. The love of Nature. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt.4. to elevate. părinte offspring vlăstar. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. urmaş feeble plăpând. o’er over to exalt to raise. and as high: Devotion. Inflames imagination. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. rezemat rude rudimentary. and man made the town. and. sprijinit. With all the social offspring of the heart*. James Thomson. coarse.) gentle nobil. Of human race. The Task (1785) God made the country. unconfined*. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. linişte. to stimulate. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. pace smooth calm. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. William Cowper. simple. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment.Reader ye you (pl.
my father wept*. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. Helpless. Bound* and weary*. Little Lamb. leapt: a sări. Struggling in my father’s hands. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. William Blake. supus) mild gentle.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. a înlănţui. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. Softest clothing.5. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. Gave thee clothing of delight. a închide weary tired. Striving against my swaddling bands*. Little Lamb. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. God bless thee. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. piping* loud. and he is mild*. William Blake. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . God bless thee. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap.Reader TEXT 6. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. gentle and uncomplaining (blând. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. We are called by his name. and bid thee feed*. to groan a geme. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. not violent (blajin. cuminte. I’ll tell thee. wooly* bright. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. Gave thee such a tender voice.6. Little Lamb. a ţâşni. naked. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. bound: a lega strâns.
bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . My heart is at rest* within my breast. And the dews* of night arise. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die.7. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. And laughing is heard on the hill. come leave off play. And the hills are all covered with sheep. And every thing else is still. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. green pajişte verde at rest calm. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. William Blake. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. So I turned to the Garden of Love. Come. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. William Blake. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. in the sky the little birds fly. let us play. Where I used to play on the green. Besides. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. That so many sweet flowers bore*. the sun is gone down. And then go home to bed. tranquil. well. go and play till the light fades away*. for it is yet day. a sălta. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*.8. And we cannot go to sleep. bore. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind. And I saw it was filled with graves*. “Then come home my children.” “No. no.Reader TEXT 6. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door.” “Well. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*.
the sun is gone down.9. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. and we rose* in the dark. And your winter and night in disguise. a irosi TEXT 6. all their bags left behind. and in soot* I sleep. Tom was happy and warm. if he'd be a good boy. they run. William Blake. Though the morning was cold. for when your head's bare. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. And the Angel told Tom. Ned and Jack. My face turns green* and pale. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. Dick.” And so he was quiet. There’s little Tom Dacre. freamăt dale vale. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. Tom. William Blake. And wash in a river. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. And the dews of night arise. weep.10. Then come home. Then down a green plain leaping. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. and that very night. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. and shine in the Sun. my children. foşnet. weep. they need not fear harm. Then naked and white. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. whisperings şoapte. As Tom was a-sleeping. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. and sport* in the wind. never mind it. laughing. Joe. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. They rise upon clouds. And so Tom awoke. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde.Reader TEXT 6. So if all do their duty.
And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. They clothed me in the clothes of death. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. Beneath them sit the aged men. They think they have done me no injury*. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. în preajmă to sport a zburda. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. potoleşte-te. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 .” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. Then cherish* pity. coşciug by aproape. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. a se deştepta TEXT 6. alături.11. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. O what a multitude they seemed. hornar sold to sell. And because I am happy and dance and sing. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). their innocent faces clean. William Blake. The hum* of multitudes was there. Because I was happy upon the heath*. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. but multitudes of lambs. Crying “weep*. with wands* as white as snow. wise guardians of the poor. risen): a se scula. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. William Blake.12. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. And smiled among the winter’s snow.
and to the Last Judgement. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. who helped the priest in various ways. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London.13. sterp. rece. fertil. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. a iubi) lest ca să nu. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . soft. William Blake. Nor poverty the mind appal*. Babe can never hunger there. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. It is eternal winter there. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. And their ways are filled with thorns*. For where-e’er* the sun does shine. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. the 40 day after Easter. fruitful fecund.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. And where-e’er the rain does fall. neroditor thorn spin. lugubru bare gol. re-built th in the late 17 century. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. a goni TEXT 6.
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