This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
3.4.3. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2.5.2. 3. 3.2. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. 2.5. 4.3. 18.104.22.168.4. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4. 3.3. 4.3.5. 3.2. 2.4.Contents 2.7. 22.214.171.124.2. 126.96.36.199. 3. 2.2. 188.8.131.52.4.6. 3.6. 2.3. 184.108.40.206. 4.5.1. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.1. 4. 4. 4. 4. 3.4. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1.1. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3.2. 3. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton.2.1. 220.127.116.11.1.1. 3. 18.104.22.168.3. 3.2. 3.1. 3.2.4. 3.4.4.
4. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage. 4.3. 4. 5. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 5.2. 4. 4.1. 4.4.3. 4.4. 4.4.3. Gulliver.4.4. 5.3. 5.4. 5.2.2. 22.214.171.124.Contents 126.96.36.199.2. 5.4.4. 5.1. 5. 4.3. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.3.8. 18.104.22.168. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.2.2. 5.3.2. 22.214.171.124.2. 5.2. 5.1.1. 5.2. 4. 4.4. 5.2. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5.5.2. 126.96.36.199. 5. 5.4.3. 4. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.2. 5.5.3. 5. 4.3.3. 5.2. 5.2.3.
6.4. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6.1. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 188.8.131.52. 6.2.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No.184.108.40.206.3.1. 6. 220.127.116.11.4.4. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 18.104.22.168. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.1. 6.3.3. 6. 6. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 22.214.171.124.4. 6. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.126.96.36.199. 6.1.4. The Seasons William Cowper.4. 6.3.3. 6.
” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. 3. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. In this way. Defoe. the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. Blake. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. Course objectives As already mentioned. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. by encouraging your response to particular texts. Swift. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. Before starting your study. Being concerned with aspects of literary history. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country. Milton. a carrier of values. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. among others). 2. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. Fielding.
the Augustan Age. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies.g. Neoclassicism. in its turn. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. a list of key words. Besides them. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs).g. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. characterisation. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. By the end of your study of this course. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors. the Baroque. a Glossary. as part of your overall assessment. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. the Restoration. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. • 4. in a given text. and a Gallery of personalities. Each unit.
1. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. The variety of these learning tasks will. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. S. and to draw your own conclusions. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . • 4. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). and with the evolution of this genre. and Augustan satire. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. Fielding and L. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. Defoe. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. Sterne –.Introduction 4. hopefully. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. Richardson. as well as major representatives. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. with main focus on Jonathan Swift. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. the epic poem Paradise Lost. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. They appeal not only to your memory.2. H.
The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. etc. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. stylistic features. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. etc. summarise its argument. the title of a work. symbolic elements. etc. an author’s work. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. and. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. with the typological definition of a work. if the case may be. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. 4. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end.. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. in the literary text you were asked to work on. line. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. at the end of the unit. narrative technique. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. fragment) • complete sentences. characterisation. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ.
when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. Some terms may recur in several units. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. Sometimes. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. • Further reading. but the phrase of which that word is part.Introduction 4. if necessary or desired. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. the term Enlightenment. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. other instruments meant to assist your study. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1.1. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit. For example. in Unit 1. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 .3. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). the Glossaries will send you back to 1.4.1. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information. you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. for the Great Chain of Being*. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. Thus.3. with the pages where you may find relevant information. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. will also appear in Units 5 and 6. not just Being. at the end. For instance. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources.
Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. In any case. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. try to read each fragment more than once. As the texts are not very long. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. especially the poetry texts. 5. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. and 6.5. The table below represents the place.lIntroduction 4.2 will cover units 4 and 5. and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. difficult. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. while SAA no. 5. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. before you start solving the task. SAA no. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. this should not take you too much time. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. the number of tasks. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%.
2 SAA no. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. As in the case of the SAQs.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. 3. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. theoretically. Most of the time. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . half of the answer is already contained in the question. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). Of these hours. 2. whose reading may take you some extra time. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts.1 SAA no.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. 2. You may. your course work may take you more time. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. If your level of proficiency is lower. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. 6. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. however. clarity. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks. • the coherence. 1. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. If you have no possibility to type your assignment. 1.
glossary. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding.3 3 3 8 SAA no. forms and styles.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. which you must write and send to your tutor. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. At the end of Units 3. together. as well as a list of suggested further reading. and 6. representative authors.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. there are SAAs. as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit.2 SAA no. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. It is structured in six units of study. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. 5. and gallery of personalities). Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). a revision of the course material. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. The three assignments will count. as 40% of the final grade. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. of the evolution of literary genres. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. according to a pre-established schedule. list of key words. whose content follows a chronological line. respectively. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text.
188.8.131.52.1. 184.108.40.206. 1. 1.1. 1.4. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 .4.3. 1.2. 1. 1.4.4. 220.127.116.11.4. 1.4.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1. 1.2. 18.104.22.168.
10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields.1. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. obscurantism and intolerance.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. a powerful flourishing nation. mentalities. 1. Political. of the Enlightenment. philosophy. in the latter part of the 17th century. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. literature. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. marked the entrance into modernity. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. at the end of this period. The rise. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. religion. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture.1. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. as well as the faith in progress. as the Enlightenment is often described. attitudes and practices. The gradual achievement of political stability. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic.1. social and economic life. science. the year of the Glorious Revolution*.
which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. the “universal Architect. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. in particular. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). This new faith – Deism. in 1662. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. or Natural Religion –. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. to reconcile Reason and Faith. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. and it was essentially optimistic. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. under the patronage of Charles II. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. in a systematic effort.2. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age.1. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . The Royal Society endeavoured. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong.” 1.
1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. The poet Alexander Pope indicated. the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe. 1. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. the central concern of the Enlightenment. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. appropriately. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. Circle T (true) or F (false).1. The growing spirit of individualism. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . T F 5. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. T F 2. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. T F 4. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world.1. to superstition and obscurantism. for each sentence. but also affective and instinctual. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. continued the project of the Renaissance. T F 3.4.3.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth.
After 1688. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. 1. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion.1. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. in the orbit of the crown. It was the main focus of literary attention. read again subchapters. regularity. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. symmetry.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. the decrease in the power of the Crown. including readers of more modest education. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. at the end of the unit. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . for instance.2. that the notion of reading public emerges now. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. T F 7. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. for proportion. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling.1. with little or no classical knowledge. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned.4. and both writers and audiences were. T F 8. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. to 1. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. It is significant. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man.1. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. The division into Elizabethan.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in one way or another. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary.
Racine.” started in the late 17th century. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. 2. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Much of Renaissance literature. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. This reflects. Corneille. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. The Court was the main source of influence…… b. Molière)…… d. Molière. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. above all. …the Augustan Age. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. Complete each sentence in the provided space. a. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. during the Augustan Age*. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. Jean Racine. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. …… c. Pierre Corneille. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England.
In parallel. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. George Herbert. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. religious faith – John Donne. Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. by the Romantic poets.2. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. If you have failed to make the right match. or religion and politics – John Milton. James Thomson. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. original or translated epics. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. for instance. you need to revise subchapter 1. Robert Herrick). The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. 4. They approached other themes besides love: e. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It favoured conciseness. acquainted with the great classical authors and works. John Dryden (in the former). Andrew Marvell. Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . Thomas Carew. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. at the end of the unit. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). the pastoral* lyric. 1. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. in its various forms – the song*. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). concentration. Alexander Pope. the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. the ode*. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. and it made extensive use of wit.g. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. …addressed itself to learned readers. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects.3. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne.
revise subchapter 1. at the end of the unit. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. 1. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. a new appreciation of older poetic forms. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. In the following units of this course. some of them of popular origin (the song.4. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. in the space left below. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. through its representation on stage. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2).3. together with their most outstanding representatives. If there should be major differences between them. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. It was the only form of literature which.
drama witnessed a decline. murder. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest.4. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. 1605-6). A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. but destroys himself along with his enemies. Unlike Senecan plays. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. masque*. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. treachery. is the most gifted. Of the Caroline playwrights. fascinating through unbounded ambition. sensational and macabre. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. play-houses were reopened. From Senecan tragedy. On the whole. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. with the restoration of monarchy. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In such plays. was a miniature of the English society. daring and wit. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. insanity. historical drama. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. 1. in Paradise Lost.1. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. etc. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. 1607). Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. the wronged hero plans revenge. and the rhetorical manner. 1633). with its audience arranged according to rank. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. They were generally. 1614). Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. Milton’s Satan. tragi-comedy. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. rape. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. while others changed. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. In 1660. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. pastoral drama. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. the sensational plot. built around the theme of revenge.
T F 4.2. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. read the following statements. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. T F 2.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. Epicoene. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and 1. but. Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. in miniature. T F 6. or at least tinged with bitterness. read again subchapters 1. T F 7. his comedies become darker. 1. at the end of the unit. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. the satirical comedy. the hierarchy of English society. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the last period of creation. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama.4.4. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. in Paradise Lost. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. centred on the theme of love. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy. with its noble characters. His best plays. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. identifying the four true ones. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. reflecting. or The Silent Woman (1609).1. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. Volpone (1606). Milton’s Satan.4. If you have failed to identify the true statements. For each sentence. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another. T F 3. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. 1. T F 5. though each in a different way.
The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. who demanded models of virtue and decency. 1777). of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans.3. Under the influence of French tragedies. 1775. This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. a stylish and sophisticated world. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. or The Mistakes of a Night.4.4. In The Rehearsal (1671). with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). George Villiers. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1. The Conquest of Granada. John Gay.4. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. The School for Scandal. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). 1769).g. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. 1669-70). but serious drama declined during the 18th century. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain.g. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. She Stoops to Conquer. for instance. were a passing extravagance. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. Henry Fielding). Heroic plays. Duke of Buckingham. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 .The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. too. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. 1773). Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. 1722). but it appealed to a wide middle class public. 1768. 1665. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man.
4. If there should be major differences between them. together with their most outstanding representatives. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2.4. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. at the end of the unit. to 1. revise subchapters 1.2.
More and more. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. blending concision with wit. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. The development of an aphoristic style*. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. in political tracts and pamphlets. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication.5. deliberately artificial and intricate. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. religious writings are particularly important. Gradually. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. weaknesses. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. temptations. on clarity and rationality. 1612. Later in the century. philosophical and theological writings.5.1. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. the essay* proved the most flexible. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. a precious and highly ornate language. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . displaying a variety of styles. the universal language of the Renaissance. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. Here. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. with its trials. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style.
but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). Samuel Pepys).” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). diaries (John Evelyn. Samuel Purchas). 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. Like drama. To these must be added the character. letters. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel.g. pamphlets* (e. The same encyclopaedic. aphoristic style. Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. the biography as an emerging prose genre. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. biographies (Izaak Walton. a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. 1666). etc. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). unadorned style. executed in a witty. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. which analyses the constitution of human society. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. Milton’s Areopagitica. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. William Prynne’s Histriomastix. delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. Anatomies were monuments of learning. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. In the 17th century. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. “The Religion of a Doctor. of remarkable precision and force. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651).
to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. Culturally. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. modern science was born. these two centuries correspond.. Within these two centuries. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. between which there is continuity. you will learn more about the periodical essay. roughly. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Within these two centuries. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. and 1. If there should be major differences between them. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular.1.5. the image of the universe was changed. at the end of the unit. more carefully.5. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England. read again subchapters 1. obscurantism and intolerance.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. as well as the faith in progress.
It is. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. elevated style. a slow transition took place.C. of serious action. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. in a caricatural spirit. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. From a literary point of view. blank verse: unrhymed verse.D. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal. Ovid. predominantly middle-class. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. however. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. used to express observations of general truth. drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. often by means of paradox.-14 A. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 .).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry. which are reduced to the comically trivial. noble and heroic characters.
humanism. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom.C. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Montesquieu. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). until 1660. the folk tradition. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America.): “Man is the measure of all things”. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. Rousseau. individual liberty.e. widely used in all ages. Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). Tolerance. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age. In a broader sense. when it was restored. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. pragmatism. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. anti-obscurantism. social and moral thought. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. Thomas Jefferson. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. Diderot (France). Concepts like human rights. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. anti-fanaticism. • essay: a prose composition of varying length. legend. natural law. characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. or from history. • classical revival: the intellectual. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . Voltaire. David Hume (Britain). John Locke. social contract. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. civil rights. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history.
encouraging a personal experience of conversion. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 .). spectacular scenic effects. uncorrupted life. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. singing and dancing. from the Creation to the Ascension. In architecture. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith.) are the great ancient models for English writers. and harmony of classical art. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. in harmony with nature. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. In English literature. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. simple. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. a person or an object. painting and sculpture. It addressed itself to the poor. restraint. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. of spiritual regeneration by grace. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. decorative art. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. sumptuous costumes and settings.C. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models.C. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. often of an allegorical nature. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. the marginal sections of society. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. James II Stuart. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). who was a Catholic. solemn style. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). ode: an extended lyric poem. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. involving elaborate dialogue. who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones.C. an idea. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson.
Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. William Wycherley. Machiavelli. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. favoured the growth of individualism. selected according to genre and subject. the sense of purpose. of the rebirth of learning. “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. Ariosto. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Raphael. in the 16th and 17th centuries. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. tone. John Vanbrugh. 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Thomas More. for the Neoclassic writers.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). industry. of America. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. its limits are less well defined. centred on integrity. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). in their view. Edmund Spenser. Leonardo da Vinci. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. From a literary point of view. which opened the modern era. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. Boccaccio. by Columbus. Tasso (Italy). Pico della Mirandola. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. Sir Charles Sedley. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. Philip Sidney. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers.g. Shakespeare. 1492). Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. style – used by a poet. Their beliefs and convictions. of the expansion of education. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). Duke of Buckingham. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. Francis Bacon (England). Restoration: historically. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. it had not fully reformed itself. Sir George Etherege. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. effort. especially their work ethics. Lope de Vega. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. Cervantes (Spain). poetic diction: a term that. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. thus. romance or the novel. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e.
surprising associations. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. phlegm. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects. The assertion of the self. 1591-1595). The New Atlantis (published in 1627). one of the most influential literary voices of his age.): Roman statesman. with or without musical accompaniment. yellow bile – or choler. orator. Cicero. philosopher and writer. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. poet and scholar. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind.e. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. He started his literary career as a playwright. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. and with the French Revolution (1789). Jonson. phlegmatic. Amoretti.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. Edmund Spenser. 1591. according to a dominating inclination or passion. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. Astrophil and Stella. During the Renaissance. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. fluids) of the body (blood. and a writer. it meant intelligence or wisdom. song: a poem composed for singing. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . as well as an unfinished utopia. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. Sometimes. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. two fine examples of comedy of humours. the four “humours” (i. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). in which the characters act. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours.C. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. The tradition survived into the 18th century. with various rhyme patterns. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. He was also an eminent statesman. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. independently of circumstances.
): Roman historian and statesman. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.D. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. made important discoveries in the field of optics. for instance. Locke. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. politics. Italian poet and humanist.-65 A. ethics. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher.C. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. astronomer and philosopher. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. which was central to Enlightenment thought. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. For Hobbes.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”).): Roman philosopher. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan.C. Hobbes. Locke studied medicine. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. Man. or the Matter. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. Newton. writer and statesman. His political philosophy. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). Form and Power of a Commonwealth. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy. in a kind of social contract. Tacitus. the latter. besides the Characters. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. mathematician.D.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . According to him. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy. economics. author. Theophrastus (372-287 B. religion. Seneca. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. greatly influenced by Hobbes. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. unlike that of Hobbes. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus. It is fear of death. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. the instinct of self-preservation. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority.
Marvell. Pope. 1983 (pp.F. The Literature of the Beginnings. Herrick. 9-32) 2. 6. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. English Literature and Civilisation. 2.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1. Sir George Sedley. The Novel in Its Beginnings.F. 4. Turcu.4. John Gay Further reading 1. Preda. c. 6. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. 4. Milton the pastoral: Milton. Milton. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 3.T. The English Eighteenth Century. John Vanbrugh). Cornelia.3. 7. Collins.T.T. 5. Thomson.F. 5. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. Herbert. Donne. Dryden. Goldsmith. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2. artificial. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. the sonnet: Shakespeare.T. Luminiţa Elena. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. Ioan-Aurel (ed. .T. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. Macsiniuc. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. precision. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. William Wycherley.). concision and plainness: from the highly ornate.T.T. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Sir George Etherege. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. Fielding. Dryden.F. Carew. Goldsmith.2. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. d. Pope. 2003 (pp. b.T SAQ 2 a. Duke of Buckingham.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 8.T. 3. 2003 (pp. Cowley. there was a tendency towards simplicity. Marvell satire: Dryden. Blake the ode: Marvell. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. 7-49) 3.
2. 2.3.2. 2.10.2. 2.4.1. 2. 2.2.1. 2. 2.5. 2. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .4. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. 2.7.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2. 2.2. 22.214.171.124.3.1.1. 2. 2.2. 126.96.36.199. 2.6.2. 188.8.131.52.3.3. 2. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.9. 2. 2.2.8. 2. 2.2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. 2. 18.104.22.168.3.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. well-ordered universe. The former expansiveness. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. with its sense of confidence and optimism. Under Queen Elizabeth I. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order.1. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. stable and modern state. In the late Renaissance. Christopher Marlowe*. to scepticism. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. Philip Sydney*. anxiety and even pessimism. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. during whose reign England developed into a strong. The vision of a harmonious. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies.
sensualism and mysticism. its sense of form. on which the “show” of life must end. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. In lyric poetry. or the world as stage. but also to pomp. life and death.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. the spectacular and the sumptuous.1. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death.1. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. with its abundance of bloody deaths. and in its dramatic conception. proportion and symmetry. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. in literature. for excess. of confusing or transgressing limits. reason and superstition. to the macabre.1. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. the extensive use of paradox. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. wisdom and madness.2. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. both in its themes and motifs. The Renaissance cult of rational order.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. and not properly forming a “school. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. with the tendency of breaking proportions. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. grandeur. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. St. striking imagery. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. splendour. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. refinement and cruelty. and. irony and ambiguity. Although very diverse. The unexpected. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension.
If there should be major differences. R: confidence. you will be acquainted.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. read again the preceding subchapters. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. at the end of this unit. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . classical balance. In the following two subchapters. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. R: cult for order and symmetry. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. sense of form B: 4. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The Tempest. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. optimism. respectively. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. King Lear.
He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. conflicts. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart.2. devotion. moral attitudes. In Shakespeare’s whole work. his deep understanding of humanity. They are always credible. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. all mastered with supreme art. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. envy. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). language. states of mind. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. and a culmination of its literary art. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. jealousy. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. gratitude and ingratitude. romantic or trivial. aspirations and interests. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. and French. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. etc. A wide range of feelings. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. hate. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. According to the dramatic necessity. friendship. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. loyalty and betrayal. search for truth. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. craftsmen or servants. to the prose speech of simple folk. sublime or burlesque. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Shakespeare’s genius. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. sometimes even trivial. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. Italian. medieval and contemporary sources – English. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . from the variety of his work. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. in plain. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. motifs and imagery. or periods of creation. struggle for power. Othello (1604). in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. among other features. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. so that it displays a similar variety.
His romance plays. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness. If they should differ significantly. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. common in the Renaissance. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. with the effects of evil on innocence. but they deal. with the restoration of order. between truth and falsehood. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. read again the preceding subchapter. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. 2.1. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. basically. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. at the end of the unit. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. In these plays.
who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. In spite of this bloody outcome. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. when Fortinbras. the play ends on a note of hope. Her brother. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. he has the occasion to kill Claudius.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. required by his dead father.2. and continually delays the act of revenge. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. and with the immense burden of revenge. Claudius. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. has drowned herself. mistaking him for Claudius. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. who had really gone mad. brave. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. During the play.2. generous and brilliantly intelligent. Laertes. which represents a similar scene of murder. in the confusions of the final scene. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. he kills Polonius. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. old king Hamlet. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. the widow queen. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. the first in this series of masterpieces. sensitive and idealistic. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies.3. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. 2. a courtier. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 .2. but the plot escapes their control and. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. takes over the rule of Denmark. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. At one point. In another scene. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. with a poisoned sword. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. Back to the castle. all the main protagonists find their death.
read again the preceding subchapter. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. as well as the indicated fragment. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision.2. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge.1. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. SAQ 3 Text 2. which is only partly dissimulated. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . is eminently a philosopher’s effort. 2. If they should differ significantly.4.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty. at the end of the unit.
marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. which would not undo the past. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. which is that of restoring a lost order. Tragically. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. the quest for higher meanings. through paradox. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. like that of blindness. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. on the other hand. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. Goneril and Reagan. and. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. both of them prove to be the loyal. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . is closely linked. to believe him a traitor and usurper. which helps him endure his suffering. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. unconditionally loving ones. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool.2. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. Edgar. Edgar. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. Hamlet’s introspective. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. of truth and illusion. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. another “fall of princes” tragedy. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. there is madness in nature itself. of human suffering.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. The earl of Gloucester joins them. is also an exile from his own family. Maddened with grief. in reality. the Earl of Gloucester. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. whom he disinherits. Lear’s own madness. a bastard. and the Fool’s comments. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. as in Hamlet.” 2. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death.5. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. Cordelia. The motif of madness.
Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. 2. The noble protagonist. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity. In Othello. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. unfaithful. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. is led by Iago to believe his wife. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. acting against it. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. Scene from Othello. Desdemona. Othello.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. As a result of Iago’s manipulations.6. faithfulness/betrayal.2. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . innocence/guilt. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. essence. In Othello. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. Evil is that which destroys Nature.
at the end of the unit. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. / It weeps. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland. ____________________ 5. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. to 2. ____________________ 4. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds.7. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. ____________________ 3. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm. ____________________ 2. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. paradoxically. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. you need to revise subchapters 2. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). The protagonist. Macbeth. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. at the instigation of his wife. it bleeds. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. If any of your solutions should not correspond. illusion and truth. and unmotivated violence and cruelty.2. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth. underlining the theme of knowledge. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood.2. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king.2. who has a trusting nature. one of Duncan’s sons. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army. 1. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality.2. The baroque motif of madness is. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. disorder.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. kinsman and guest.6. innocence and corruption. he multiples his crimes. but. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action. 2.
Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit.2. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments. If there should be significant differences. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. scene 2. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. read the fragment once more. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. SAQ 5 In Act II. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. Text 2. from the Reader. extracted from this scene. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. / Macbeth does murder sleep.
In its opening scene. duke of Milan. the fairy-tale atmosphere. owing to the improbability of the action. a drunken servant. the sense of a benevolent providential design. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. his faithful spiritservant. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio. Alonzo. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. The Winter’s Tale. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. 2. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. respectively –. marvelous. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. magic. myth. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before.2. on which he lives alone with his daughter. They mix serious and comic action. Cymbeline. by his powers. who. involving the shipwrecked characters.g. Trinculo. as well as other passengers. the master of an island. of exile and return). His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. He had long studied the arts of magic. the jester. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. to take his throne. the long journey. Three lines of action develop. and certain themes and motifs (e. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. has turned him into a slave. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. is considered the finest. They may also be described as romance plays. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda.9. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the shipwreck. who instantly fall in love with each other. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. the pronounced elements of the supernatural.2. the choice of a remote setting. The Tempest (1611). After the tragedies. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. Alonzo. Miranda. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. and Sebastian. the theme of loss and recovery.8. king of Naples.
assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. “neglecting worldly ends. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder. at the end.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. the scholar-magician. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme.2. influenced by Ariel. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. education] can never stick. In the final act. but. The theme of power Ariel vs. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. for the emergence of a regenerated world. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. who now repent. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. he learns. and to return to the world in his full humanity. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. to master himself.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. represents pure spirit. At the opposite pole. the control of intelligence over nature. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. Caliban Innocence vs. more importantly. and then to Milan. Ariel.” claiming his throne. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. now. 2. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past. a “thing of darkness. Prospero. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda.e.10. On the island.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic.
What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think. read the fragment again. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Here. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. more carefully. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. Full of resentment.4. extracted from The Tempest. scene 2. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. or in developing self-identity.. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 .The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. by teaching him to speak. If there should be major differences. for instance. Act I.
Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest. or to impose upon it. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead.11. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. of performance. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. The playmetaphor. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Another pervading symbol is that of music. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle.12. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest.2.” The sea-journey Music 2. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays. sublimating its primitive energies. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero.2. which “delight and hurt not. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . order and harmony. whose magic art controls every incident. then at least man should strive to discern in it.
The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines. T F 4. T F 5. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. 2. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art.12.2. T F 3. of which three are false.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. was first intended to bring discredit on them. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world.9 to 2. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music. except that of terrifying him. T F 6. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. but each of them. 1. Their styles are different.2. You must find them among the following statements. in his own way. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. T F 7. at the end of the unit.3. If any of your choices should be wrong. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. revise subchapters2. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. T F 2.
and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. By means of conceits. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. which helps the poet to develop his subject.2. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. which starts from a comparison. In spite of its logical. The impression is that this experience.e. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context.3. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. united] by violence together. argumentative quality.e. “More matter and less words” 2. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. regardless of the subject of the poem. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling. As extended comparisons. a metaphor or an analogy. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. as “a combination of dissimilar images.3. hidden. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. but also his reason.1. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them. linked. and the emotions involved. a demand for “more matter and less words. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. or discovery of occult [i. a cold intellectual exercise.” A new kind of poetry emerged. Dr. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . This is an elaborate figurative device. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*. writers had to face a new exigency. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. from a most ordinary circumstance. is contemplated from a certain distance. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought.
and a highly original one.2. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In the treatment of both themes. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century.1. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. and allegory. If they should differ considerably. pastoral* conventions.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. at the end of the unit.3. and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. Use the space left below. and 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 .3.3. 2. and the same realistic force. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words.3. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. revise subchapters 2. In the following subchapters. its decorative use of classical mythology.
superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire.” “tear-floods”).” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). Donne changes this conventional vision of love. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. Donne is highly playful in this poem. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. as this would be a triple “sin.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea.4. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. Chaste. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. though greater. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. are however harmless to man. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument. beautiful. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . when accompanied by genuine feeling. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. He also suggests sometimes that physical union.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.” In fact. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. This is a seduction poem. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. which. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. may afford an experience of the transcendental. and he seems to amuse himself. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. in which their blood is now mixed. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal.3. their love being so great and “refined. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. but. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 . paying special attention to the last three stanzas.3. If they should differ significantly. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Formulate your answer in the space left below. he develops one of his most famous conceits.2. in the Reader). in no more than 18 lines / 180 words.6. as well. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. Here. Read the poem again.. you need to revise subchapter 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. at the end of the unit.
The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. Actually. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. These poems usually display contrary impulses. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy.3. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. resurrection and salvation. comparable to that of Shakespeare. divine judgement. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. in the exercise of reason. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. between idealised passion and erotic desire. on death. Satan. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. In Batter My Heart. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. for the divine saving grace. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love.5. which parallel those in his love poetry. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. of loyalty and betrayal. In his religious meditations in verse. The insistence on violence and struggle.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.
representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart.7. from the Reader.5.3. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. and read the poem again. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 .The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes.3. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. revise subchapter 2. Marvell left. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. 2. according to some critics. and love of country.6. at the end of the unit. As a Puritan* patriot. Donne suggests his contradictory. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone. If there should be significant differences. In the last six lines. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. nature.
these details as emblems of a transcendent reality.e. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry.8. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. shyness] and accept his passionate love.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time.3. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. on the scaffold. The most illustrative poem. aspiring to union with almighty God. to change the form of ruling power). and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 .3. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. On the other hand. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. is On a Drop of Dew. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. It is a seduction poem. however. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. in this respect. 2. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. for fear that it might grow] impure.7. On a Drop of Dew 2. in contrasting colours. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. lest it grow [i. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. A natural detail. He showed a deep love for the countryside. behaving with royal grace in his last minute.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend.e. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. Marvell often sees. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. pictured with remarkable precision. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry.e. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit. King Charles I Stuart. in which both of them act according to a divine order. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate.
If the difference is considerable. after revising subchapter 2. more carefully. paying attention to the logic of the argument. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. read the poem again.8. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader). which has the structure If…. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2.3. but…. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 . at the end of the unit. Love. then (therefore)…. in its sexual fulfillment.8. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
• • • •
• • •
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• • • • • • • • • •
figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
” sleep (i. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. Hamlet. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. Hamlet. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences.g. As a truly superior being. 3. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. F. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. endowed with speech. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). T.e. however. SAQ 7 1. F. This instrument. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. guided by rational will. which he resents. 5. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. complicated line of argument. T.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. 5.g. make his purposes known through words). T SAQ 8 1. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . use of conceits (extended comparisons. passion and reason. Othello. of his own sense of self. the abstract and the concrete. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). even if physically the lovers must be apart. concise expression and density of meaning 2. 6. of a clean mind. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. etc. to blend contraries (e. which remain perfectly united. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. 2. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. the development of conscience. surprising associations) 3. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. F. is a suitable emblem for their souls. From Prospero’s point of view. King Lear. T. analytical detachment from emotion 4. Hamlet. He is not a cold-blooded killer. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. From Caliban’s point of view. 7. usually between highly dissimilar elements. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. Othello. unexpected. 2. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. 3. 4. King Lear. 4.
Preda. But. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 . in fact. Ioan-Aurel (coord.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. Further reading 1. since only worms will “enjoy” it.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. Penguin Books Ltd.” which only God can effect. But I know time is merciless. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. vol. 34-40. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 1991 (pp. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. 97-105.). A Critical History of English Literature. because your charms deserve such praise. 3. He loves God.). vol. 273-287) 2. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. 1969 (pp. instead of letting it devour us slowly. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. Boris (ed. your virginity will then be worth nothing. Daiches... 267-283. in the absence of joy. 302-305) 3. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. consent and legality.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). just as the mistress. Ford. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. David. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. however. waiting for her departed lover. 246-249. English Literature and Civilisation. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. Paradoxically. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. 1983 (pp. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). and which would resemble rape. will long for him.
3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.5. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.22.214.171.124.5. 3. 3. 3.4. 126.96.36.199.1. 3. 3. 188.8.131.52. 3. 184.108.40.206.1. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton.4. 3. 3.5. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.5.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3.4.6. 220.127.116.11.2. 3.2.4. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
geography. etc. the greatest epic poem in English literature. he approached a diversity of subjects. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e.g. etc. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. religious and civil debates of his age. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. such as education. At Cambridge (1625-1629). and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. Milton. he studied Latin. politics. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. he continued to read intensively. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. In 1638. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started.). After that. Greek and Hebrew. written in English and in Latin. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. as a publicist. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. music. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State.1. he went on a trip to Italy. the freedom of the press. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His enormous learning. baroque* vision. theology. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. as well as his moral inflexibility. mathematics. Paradise Lost. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. family. religion. rhetoric and the great works of the classics.
like a priest. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. Ovid*.2. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. etc. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles.1. As in other poems. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. With the Restoration*. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. On the other hand. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. As a poet.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . his political hopes ended.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. with its pastoral delights. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. is in touch with divine secrets. but Milton did not complete his plan. for instance. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. However. In the Sixth elegy. who. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work.). he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. 3.2. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. Virgil*. which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. In some of them. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. However. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man.
c. b. 2. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive.2. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. to master a variety of styles. and on the happiness of rural life. c. the crowing of the cock. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. in his poetic work. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. there is a strong emphasis on music. and 3. the integration. In Il Penseroso. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. in L’Allegro. c. 3.e.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. 1. In both poems. In each poem. polyphonic sounds of the organ. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities.1. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.” contemplative mood. at the end of the unit. of classical erudition with biblical themes. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. If your choices should be wrong. In the latter. Milton’s literary ambition was a. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. with its simple pleasures. b. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. The secular* pleasures of common life. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. in Il Penseroso. b. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. revise subchapters 3.
variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. uses again the pastoral frame. The death of the dedicated young man. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3.The works of John Milton 3. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. Irrespective of their nature. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest.3. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. The elegy Lycidas. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. not on earth. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . or occasional and complimentary compositions. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. Milton composed another poem in which. again. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices.2. in a heavenly pastoral world. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds.2. personal manner. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. to fresh woods and pastures new.
” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. who carry out the divine his daughters will.” that they are “timely happy spirits”. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions. light denied?”). The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*.2. To prevent such a complaint.3. angels).3. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. Milton meditates on his loss of sight. since. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. at his age. but also by Christian humility. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised. confessing his temptation to ask.1. written in 1631. he must admit. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. he admits. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”). In Sonnet XVII. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. but of God’s eternal will. in 1652. that.” By this time. He has reached the age of twenty four.The works of John Milton 3. As a Christian poet.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). i.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness. In the first part of the sonnet. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. as King of Heaven. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . patiently. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). with a certain sadness. When he wrote Sonet XVII. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness.” “mean or high” as it may be.e.
paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. Virgil.2. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation.1.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. and of leaving to posterity an undying work. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667. at the end of the unit. Dante* –. read again subchapter 3. in the Reader). and he worked at it over several years. If there should be significant differences.3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. when he was already blind. and 3. 3. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same. respectively. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. Read these sonnets (Texts 3.4. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and the two sonnets.2. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure.
and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. accumulated throughout his life. and his loss of Paradise.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. the creation of the world and of man.1.” forever deprived of the glory. as he stated in the opening Invocation. “to justify the ways of God to men. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. man’s temptation and fall into sin. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. obedience and rebellion.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. which is never ornamental.e. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. are gathered to listen to Satan. The “lost Archangel. of Lucifer* from Heaven. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. brought about by his disobedience. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action.4. Finally.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. over the years. His work is encyclopaedic. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. etc. original epic scenario. in which man’s fall. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven. predestination*. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. 3. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. Milton’s ambition was. in theme a daring. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels. Milton had thought. He interprets poetically the biblical events. Starting from the dualism good/evil. in fact. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. but his erudition.” full of the bitterness of defeat. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i.
The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem.e. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. God. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. set him free from sin. by virtue of his leading position. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. Chaos and Chance. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world. surpass] hellish hate. cunning]. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. and their discussions are rendered in Book II. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. whose setting is in Heaven.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know.The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen.e. i. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. death and resurrection.” Meanwhile. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. Satan.4. and he flies away. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly.e. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. to seek the newly created Earth. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven. 3. Pandemonium*.2. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party.
in the Reader.4. What is God’s argument. at the end of the unit. If there should be major differences. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words. read again the text. more carefully.The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 .
” and that this happiness depends on his free will.” to fill in the “vacant room [i. the “divine historian. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. and. not before repeating his warning. Satan.4. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding. after the defeat of the rebel angels.e. that cannot change]. King Anointed*”. It is interesting that. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. instigated by Lucifer.The works of John Milton 3.4. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect.” Raphael leaves them.” for the evocation of the making of the world. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. sent by God. as this diminished W. Adam is grateful to Raphael. in order to prolong his guest’s visit.3. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man. sweetness. in Milton’s poem.” Man himself was created as a “better race. In Milton’s interpretation. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. space]” left by the fallen angels. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . in Book VII.4. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. the angel Raphael. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. not immutable [i. and fear to transgress!” 3. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. innocence and “virgin modesty. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. Adam admits that. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state.e. In Book VIII. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. so that he may know more about his enemy. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace.
W. A Prophecy. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. more carefully. in the Reader presents. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. through Raphael’s words. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . in no more than 10 lines/100 words.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below.7. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. read the fragment again.
Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. hate / Mistrust. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent.4. discord” – which make reason and will helpless. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. the thundering skies weep. suspicion. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. the “subtlest [i. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown. most subtle*] beast of all the field. Meanwhile. for a moment. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger.e. W. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. At last. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace.5. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. The “calm region” of their state of mind. their inward the fall on Nature peace. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. and.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration.The works of John Milton 3. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise.
He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space. hoping to arouse her pride. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. in which these moves are illustrated.8. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. He denigrates God. on a separate sheet. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. but. Satan’s victory seems complete. Match these sentences with the fragment. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. The world after the Fall In the next books. annihilate Sin and Death. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. at the end of each sentence. they taste its fruit. If any of your matches should be wrong. at the end of the unit.” is the one who will. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a. _______ e. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction. or fragments. He flatters Eve. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. _______ c. 3. which will bring her close to the condition of God. in the middle of this speech. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. but he also adds symbolic episodes.4. _______ d. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge.6. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. at last. as God himself predicts: His Son. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3. _______ f. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. _______ b.” _______ g. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity.
In Book XI. but of sadness. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. faith and good deeds. through Christ. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. The certainty that. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. from man’s own vices – violence. his suffering. death. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. God consents. – to the hostility of Nature. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. but Michael comforts him. In Book X. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. combining thus justice with mercy. intemperance. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. pride. etc. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” founded on love. redemption*: Jesus. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind.
9. read the fragment again. at the end of the unit. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. which they fully assume. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . If they should differ in major points. 3. It may be argued. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. however. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin.5.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3.
made happy in their innocent love. which is itself a paradise. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. Before his fall. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment.e. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical. and his great ambition is “to reign. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. he had been the first Archangel. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. In Hell. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free.1. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom.The works of John Milton 3. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. Over a century after the poem’s publication.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. From the beginning of the poem. where there is “neither joy nor love. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition.5. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. he naturally assumes the role of a leader.
Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word.5. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent.2. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan.” seeming reasonable and true.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. As God’s absolute antagonist. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. Satan. the destroyer of faith. It is also with “persuasive* words.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. and “out of good still to find means of evil.” He is “the author of all ill.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride. Satan is The Tempter. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions.The works of John Milton 3. It is with “high words. Awakening in man the impulse to question. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 .
. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. at the end of the unit.2.1.5. revise subchapters 3. and read the indicated fragment again.3. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “and “The mind is its own place. in Hell. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.5. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell. If there are significant differences.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. Read the whole fragment carefully. “A mind not to be changed by time or place.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.) B. and 3. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero.
Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically. of understanding and accepting his limits.e. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator.” “Our Author. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall. but W. in Book XII. but who can hope for redemption*. the titanic dimension of his suffering.” “our general mother. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. Created in God’s image. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great.” but also “our credulous mother. but as a consequence of their wrong choices.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan. but armed with the wisdom of faith.3.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. Satan’s torments in Hell.” “mother of human race. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.” “Patriarch of Mankind. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them.5. precursor]. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. In his last conversation with Michael. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition.” “Our great Progenitor [i. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. As a Christian. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith.The works of John Milton 3. deprived of worth. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. ancestor. As a humanist. Adam is called Sire* of Men. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge.
you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. he prepared himself for it during long years. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. Subchapter 3. If there should be major differences. in the Reader. one of the greatest English poets. Summary In this unit. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. Read this fragment and summarise its argument.2.5. the Nativity Ode. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet. a necessary part of His design. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . but also in which man may. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. the creation of the world and of man.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost.5. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men. his love of freedom.4. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. put in the service of evil. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. which are. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. however. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. presented in subchapter 3. his courage and majesty. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice. Subchapter 3. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. at any time. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues. Subchapter 3. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology.3. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. Undoubtedly.
he is called Satan. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. subtle: not immediately evident. It means “the carrier of light.). foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . In classical literature. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all.D. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. Sire: a respectful term of address.). guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. to cause to believe). epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. author of La Divina Commedia.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. Roman poet. It may also mean cunning. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). 800 B.C. Purgatory and Paradise. or some tragic event. the one who sets man free from sin). every. to convince. suffering and death of Christ. to a place of wild confusion.e. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. The word may refer. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses. formerly used when speaking to a king. ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey.C.” After the fall from Heaven. Homer: Greek poet (c. noise and chaos. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. clever in using tricks. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred). Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. not concerned with or related to religion. Italian poet.-17 A. Providence: God’s kindness. difficult to detect (or analyse). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.e. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. by extension. the “great and good redeemer” (i. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. predestination: from a theological point of view.
3.). and 2. in which he explores his inner hell.C. and thus of destroying man. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. • Read attentively this fragment. Send-away assignment no. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death. 1. 2. At the beginning of Book IV. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition. Texts 2. God’s creation.2. at the end of the play. romantic in The Tempest –. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration).1. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit.The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. and the last paragraph of 2. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul.2. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience.6. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue.2.5. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. one of the greatest Roman poets. In both of them. Text 3.. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. A revision of subchapter 3.4. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%..1. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan. before the final battle. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. with special attention to the indicated subchapters. in Milton’s Paradise Lost.
responsible for his choices. i. SAA no.b. The fall of man. but the consequence of evil influence. like that of the angels. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1.” In the case of man. Created “just and right. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. • the coherence. or reason. is that one may choose right or wrong. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality. is thus not attributable to God.. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. his blindness.e. clarity. not God. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . however. Remember that. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. The paradox of freedom. and reason makes man. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave). Milton emphasises the geometrical..c. The implication is that God gave man conscience. 2. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. The poet places his trust in Providence. 3. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. in grading your paper. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time.a. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come.
e. Ioan-Aurel (coord. This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. Further reading 1. faith and love untested. If Hell is a space of freedom. SAQ 7 1. Incapable of obedience to God. 1969 (pp. 435-449) 2. 2.The works of John Milton Architect”). 1. 2. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). i.e. Daiches. 1983 (pp. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). of human solidarity. English Literature and Civilisation. David. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. A Critical History of English Literature. vol. Man is not a free creature. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom.4. Turcu. i. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. under the guidance of Providence. Paradise is now a forbidden place. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. f. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love. unless he exercises his will and reason. with passive virtue. 2. d. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). Editura Universităţii Suceava. g.3. SAQ 5 a. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 2003 (pp. c. to be dictated by Reason. The Literature of the Beginnings. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. Luminiţa Elena. If God leaves man’s loyalty. 153-163) 3. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). 1..). b. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell.4. Forced to look ahead. 2. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. 3. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . Preda. as God has made him. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. e. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). and the image of the terrible gates.
1. 4. 4. 4.1. 4. 4.2. 4.4. 4.3.5. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.3. Gulliver. 4.2.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 4.4. 4.6. 4. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .126.96.36.199.1.1.2. 4. 4.3.1. 4.7. 4. 4.2. 188.8.131.52.4. 184.108.40.206.2. 4.2 4.5. 4.4.4. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4.
♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. Human nature. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. it was a period of transition as well.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism.1. From a literary point of view. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction.1. and. and Jonathan Swift. the cast of actors included women. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. and of considerable diversity. clarity and elegant restraint. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. 4. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. under the influence of French theatres. drama holds a place apart. under the patronage of king Charles II. Alexander Pope. Nature. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. of increasing rationalism and secularisation. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. addressing itself to an inclusive public. and their re-opening in 1660.1. Unit objectives 4. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration.
reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines. Gallantry. exotic places. an artificial. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. the cynicism. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. although each in its own way and for different reasons. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. Conquest and seduction.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. or Court Wits. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. and. above all. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. sumptuous costumes. lust. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. refinement and sophistication. on the other. magnificent settings. were essential for the true man of the world. 4.1. The action was usually set in remote.3. on the one hand. wit*. both of them highly conventional forms. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*.2. It made fun of the people from the countryside. A certain coarseness of feeling. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. and absolute villains. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. adultery. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . fashionable manners. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse.1. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. jealousy. Sensational turns of situation.
selfish and manipulative. lacking complexity.” without scruples. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. the lusty widow. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. Contrasting types were the coquette. the country squire*. the ingénue. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. cynical. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. despising marriage. the scheming valet. Another frequent type was the fop*.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. If characters were usually static. young or old. deliberately superficial in construction. aspiring to the perfect adventure. and the trusting husband as dupe. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated. etc. pleasure-seeking. or fool.
T F 4. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. refinement and sophistication.1.4. simple action.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. read again subchapters 4. T F 3. by doing the exercise that follows. 4. hedonism and amorality at Court. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration.3. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. at the end of the unit. frivolity. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. such as the impoverished gallant. It displays typical Restoration characters. to 4. T F 9. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. T F 7. T F 8. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). elegance. T F 5. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single. Restoration comedy praised wit. If any of them should turn out to be wrong. T F 2. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. William Congreve. T F 220.127.116.11. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). 1. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language.
Towards the end of the 17 th century. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. the pair of witty lovers. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. the witty and resourceful servant. The new audience in the theatres. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. is extremely complex. as these were remote from their experience. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. psychologically subtle and complex. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. consistent characters. and friendship to jealousy. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. the awkward country-girl. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion.5. affection. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. increasingly middle class. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion.1. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. 4. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. involving a multitude of characters. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. half-amused. admiration. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. etc. bringing it to perfection. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. The situation. half-sad. and the shifting relationships and alliances. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy.
4. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as well as the indicated fragment.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. Read Text 4.. In a witty dialogue. If there should be significant differences. in Act IV. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions. their agreement has serious implications.1. under the appearance of frivolity. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. they seem to be playing a game. which presents Millamant's demands.1.. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words. Mirabell is a reformed rake. at the end of the unit. read again subchapter 4. However. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract. Millamant is also in love.
The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. Besides Dryden and Pope.2. John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. balance.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . In both cases. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century.2. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art.1. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. In it. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. and harmony extended beyond literature. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 . The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. elegance. 4. Joseph Addison*. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity.
which usually presented ordinary people and actions. The most eloquent example.2. humble style.2. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors.. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift.3. yet achieve great beauty. for the Augustans. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. The study of human nature in its individual aspects.2. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. comedy. lacking ornament. The rule of decorum 4. i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . i. required an elevated style. for instance. a dignified diction. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. This was the case of the genius. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. skill. of infinite variety. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. the most valuable store of literary experience. and the poet might disregard them. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. to make form and substance adequate to each other. Epic and tragedy. was Shakespeare. the emphasis on discipline in art. and to those patterns of behaviour. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. on the other hand. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. skilful transgression.e. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging.e. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. in satirical or burlesque* works. was expected to use a common. A poet’s innate talent needed training.
If there should be significant differences. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*.3. a combination achieved through reason. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. but also to imported French ideas – e. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill. at the end of the unit. or art*.3. and the indicated fragment. SAQ 3 Text 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.g. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. What are the main ideas in this fragment.2. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines). read again subchapter 4.
affectation were rejected. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*. too. but to be a functional part of the community. precision and clarity.” Augustan wit 4. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements.2. unnecessary ornament. its effects were considerable on prose. where nothing seems to be studied. “grace and strength united. manners and taste.5. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. The writer's art was a form of social communication. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. In the context of general progress.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled.4. of quick accumulation of information. or. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity.3. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*. Ostentation. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. of critical debate in every field. eloquence with restraint. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. refinement with wisdom. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower.2.
for a clientele of ships' captains. Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. dominantly middle class. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. In order to counterbalance this tendency. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. at cultivating their minds. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip.” that ignorance is a source of evil. and they were published with varying regularity. At the same time. some of them being issued daily.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. the middle class readers. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. opened in 1688. with Alexander Pope. or to the discussion of literary matters. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. They believed. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public.
whose essays were published several times in the century. Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). 4. think again and try to do the exercise once more. and by far the most popular ones. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. on a separate sheet.3. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . collected in book form. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711).1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. If they are significantly different.e. Like other writers. Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. The Tatler and The Spectator. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. at the end of the unit. Think of present relevance of this remark.
a man of the world.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example.e. in his county. laziness. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class.” • Captain Sentry. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. a courageous. and great experience. and the reflections of “Mr. bravery in battle]. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. for instance. • Will Honeycomb. Now. “a very philosophic man. turned to the study of literature. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation. modest and commonsensical person. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. a middle-aged squire. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit.” and “his familiarity with the customs. a gallant. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. for The Spectator.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class.e. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club. • A gentleman who. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . wit and understanding. and sloth [i. • Sir Andrew Freeport.” or that “diligence [i.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. as his father had intended for him.e. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. generous and cheerful. manners. hard work and skill. for true power is to be got by arts [i.e. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. • A clergyman. He believes. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. a competent justice of the peace*. a rich London merchant. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. skills] and industry. He is a man of “great probity. strong reason. a model of honesty.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe.” of wide learning. an expert in fashion and gossip. “a person of indefatigable industry*. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer. in which they collaborated. rather than a merit. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman.
3. 8. 7. 5. 6.3. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. If there should be major discrepancies. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. and write them in the indicated spaces below. 4. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. Identify at least eight such features.1. 2. more carefully. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. common sense. read again subchapter 4. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . cheerful disposition. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. at the end of the unit. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. 1.
Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. king David.1. often touched by ironic humour. from political and social life. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. 1743). Political and religious dissensions. its cult of reason and common sense. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. Bayes*. greed. are mingled: the evil conspirator. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. 15-18). The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. intrigues. appears also as a stormy spirit. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). contradictions and dark aspects. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. Samuel. 4. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. genuinely gifted for leadership. selfishness.4. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. admiration and condemnation. a passionate. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets.2. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. and satire became their formidable weapon. hypocrisy. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. brave and fearless man. Pope. to religious debates and literary practices. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne.4. the Duke of Monmouth. folly. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden.4. disloyal and excessively ambitious. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. 4. struggle for power and profit.
The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. Art. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. and revise subchapter 4. Its implications. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit. read the fragment again. SAQ 6 Text 4.2. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more attentively. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . are more disturbing than entertaining. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order.4. Philosophy. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. concerning satire. Explain this analogy. and Morality. If it should be significantly different. Here. Religion. Science.e. however. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. he reflects on the art of the satirist. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. Truth. imagination).The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire. imaginative inventiveness.
3. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. In Balnibarbi. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. in his potential as a rational creature. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend.4.4. Glubbdubdrib. a hater of pedantry and pretence. social and intellectual realities.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. justice and freedom. the Yahoos. and where human creatures. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. In his last voyage. curious and resourceful.A Voyage to Lilliput II.A Voyage to Laputa. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. building houses starting from the roof. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. an uncompromising defender of truth.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. religious. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. In it. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason. economic. the flying island. In Luggnagg. bigger than himself. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. Jonathan Swift.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. It is an allegorical satirical travel book.4. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. he learns about the Struldbruggs.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. intelligent speaking horses. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. or softening marble to make pincushions. respectively. philosophical. Balnibarbi. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. Luggnagg and Japan IV. Like many of his contemporaries. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. Gulliver is finally expelled. with a sharp sense of observation.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. and literary. Back in England. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. From this last country. Laputa. In his third voyage he visits several strange places.
who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. Find. 2. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy.The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. 4. 3. and he prefers now the company of horses. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one).5. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. read the fragment carefully once more. four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. in Text 4. from the Reader. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. 1. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind.
4. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. In the Yahoos. of the capacity for affection. Gulliver.). The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. cruel and hypocritical. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. The fourth voyage. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example.5. etc. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority).The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. by dancing on a rope. his vulnerability increases. means de-humanisation. governed only by reason. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. issues or figures. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. In the Houyhnhnms.6. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. jumping over or creeping under a stick. ambitious. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. In Brobdingnag. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. Gulliver is confronted. ruled by an enlightened monarch. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*.4. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. in his last adventure. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. etc. vain. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). from which he chooses to leave. he sees ideal creatures. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation. Dissenters and Catholics. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. However. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world.
In a “theological” perspective. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo . For many readers. unteachable and ungovernable. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. makes him a frustrated idealist.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . filthy.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 . in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. The careful reader will.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. If there should be major differences. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect. For Gulliver. and to revise subchapter 4. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. you need to read the fragment again.6. however. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit.4. from the Reader. find anti-utopian elements in it.6. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4.
which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. Congreve. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life.7. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. parody. both in verse (Dryden. when literary Neoclassicism developed. Steele. Satire. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason. Gradually. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements.). Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. a wide public. Swift. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy.4. Goldsmith. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. etc. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. comedy was licentious and cynical. placing wit above virtue. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. caricature. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. Like heroic tragedy (e. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. It is an age of transition. Dryden). generally. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. dominantly middle class. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. Addison. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. Pope. grotesque. on the rule of decorum. and by means of it. his learning and sense of literary tradition. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. therefore also capable of error.g. was another characteristic genre. and.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Steele). For Swift. Dryden. Pope) and in prose (Swift). narrow-sightedness. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. Dryden. including that of Reason itself.
his craftsmanship. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos. affectation: a manner of speech. but is intended to impress others. baroque: see again subchapter 2. the acquired competence of the writer. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. which designated a fashionable. achieved by training and practice. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. or escort. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. greatly concerned with appearances. Art may generally refer to the work of man.1. In her empire of darkness and confusion. For instance.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. political or religious orientation. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18).” where Dryden would come regularly. admirer. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. and the Glossary in Unit 2. dress or behaviour which is not natural. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. In Pope’s satire. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French).1. coffee houses: since the 1650s. “Will’s Coffee House. well-dressed man. profession or interest. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature).
“Dull” also means uninteresting. a strictly ordered hierarchical system. referring not only to external nature. trait . surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. In Pope’s satire. dulness: in a strict sense. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer.e. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. In this kind of comedy. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. and distinction. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad. slowness in thinking and learning. Mr.” Nature: an inclusive concept. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. or “humour. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. Bayes. “Mr.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. stupidity. It derives from “bay.3 in Unit 1. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 . from dunce. unexciting. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame.4.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. honour. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. i. but to the whole of created reality.” another word for “laurel”. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. inclination.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725).” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. to deceive). landscape. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. boring.
1. for the notion of sentimentalism. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. i. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. Dryden. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. author of poems. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. founder of literary journalism. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. and topos = place). this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. making literature “dull.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516). Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. Among the latter. squire: a country gentleman. or literature in general. elegant.4. of imagination and originality. or who chats or talks idly. essays and dramatic works.3 in Unit 5. perfect society (literally: “no place.e. especially the main landowner in a village. of taste or skill. polished). sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. He excelled in all literary genres of his time.4. he translated from ancient authors. Boileau.4 in Unit 1.” from Greek u = not. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn.
Together with Addison. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). Steele. Among various other works. a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. satires and epistles. Pope. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. and a major representative of English sentimentalism. Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Goldsmith. William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits.C. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766).). George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. concise and flexible. an unequalled master of irony and wit. and A Modest Proposal (1729). He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. Like his friend. clear. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. and The Man of Mode. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. who called him a “comic history-painter. a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. author of odes. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). Hogarth. member of the Royal Society. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. of Irish origin.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. Sprat. Virgil. political and moral vices. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. Swift. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. Wycherley. Johnson. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704).
SAQ 5 honesty. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow. of Human nature. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. integrity. regardless of their particular condition. sense of responsibility. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. 9. 5. modesty. 8. In marriage.F. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. open-mindedness. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature.e. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. for sophisticated Millamant. benevolence.F.” Just as weeds (i. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. in an analogous sense.F. abdicating from reason. industry. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship.T. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. opinions and tastes. furnished with ideas.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. and. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. good breeding. by the standards of her social environment.e. 3.e. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. 2. common sense. Civilised reserve in society. 6.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. of those features which are universal. good judgment.T. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field.T. 4.T. or judgment. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. good sense. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. diligence. reasonableness. 7. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. is.T.
1983 (pp. Macsiniuc. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. which makes social progress inconceivable. which breeds imaginary ills. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd.” the subtlety of his accusations. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.” SAQ 7 1. 180-187) 3. ultimately of imagination. The spirit of competition. only the species counts. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. In the absence of affective attachment. A Critical History of English Literature. which is meant only for procreation. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws.). decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Preda. They practice population control. the “fineness. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. David. Daiches. The tendency to idleness. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. 2. conflict and self-interest. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). the exclusion of opinion.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. 4. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. Cornelia. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. The irrational greed and avarice. English Literature and Civilisation. The English Eighteenth Century. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 5. 3.. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. Ioan-Aurel (coord. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. The Novel in Its Beginnings. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. Editura Universităţii Suceava. The individual is of no importance. 537-550) 2. 2003 (pp. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. Further reading 1. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. 1969 (pp. vol. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult.
5.7. 18.104.22.168.1.3.1. 5. 22.214.171.124. 5.2. 5. 5. 5.3.3. 5. 5.4. 5.4. 5. 5. 5. 126.96.36.199.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 5. 5.2. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.3. 5.4. 5. 5.2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 . 220.127.116.11.3.5. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.3. 126.96.36.199.4. 5.2.4.
1. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. mostly imitations of French models. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. and generally about women. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. the rise of the middle classes.1. 5. exotic settings. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. in the early years of the 18 th century. and there is a connection between. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. and the development of the novel. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. whose vast majority was middle-class. more inclusive reading public. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. whose action was often set in remote.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. natural rights. tolerance. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit.
a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. in Augustan terms. By contrast. in the novel. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. its normality. the province of the novel was the familiar. 5. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. romances were therefore literature of escape. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify).The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. For most women. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. but distinct individualities. The ordinary aspects of life. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. moral or psychological detail.1. Thus. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. history. but from contemporary life. On the other hand. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. On the one hand. vague and abstract figures. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. Characters are no longer idealised. Realism – or. The novel reflects. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary.2. socially and materially dependent on men. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. or previous literature. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. by common people. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. the novel’s didactic vocation. in its concerns. legend. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them.
The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. and public/social norms and conventions. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion. … 4. and 5.2.1. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations. on the other. 1. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances.1. Women were … 3. If there should be major differences. on the one hand. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies.1. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The rise of the middle classes … 2. read again subchapters 5.
and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. confusion. from which it borrowed devices. The motif of the travel is central. loosely structured. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms.g. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. and extremely diverse. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. romance is trivialised through parody*. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. and the world represented in such novels is open. irony and burlesque*.g. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. in which the action is episodic. therefore an ally to realism. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. inclusive. and the hero’s various encounters are. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. Instead.3. Richardson). for the author.e. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. but also in poetry and in drama. displayed not only in fiction. classic models to follow. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. On the other hand. belonging to several categories at once. repetitious. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. a wide variety of influences went into its making. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. patterns and motifs. Fielding). The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. i. the romance). but to literature as well. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . on events. Many novels cut across divisions. forms of expression. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. exposing their irrelevance and unreality.
________________________ 8. at the end of the unit. trivial subjects. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society.. It presents a tale of mystery and horror. ________________________ 4. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. in an atmosphere of gloom. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. 1. read again subchapter 5. after each sentence. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict.3. ________________________ 7. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. ________________________ 5. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. 3. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. ________________________ 6. at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. ________________________ 2. usually with supernatural ingredients. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. in their confrontation with moral choice. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration.1.
They share a middle class.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. to the influence. They are pragmatic. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. 5. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. in actions. when the writer was almost sixty. Their rise to social respectability and wealth.2. in the next years. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. in circumstantial details. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. published in 1719. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. Puritan* background. but also on the Continent. on his fiction. This confers vividness to their narratives. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. several adventure novels. dynamic and versatile. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. They were all stories of success. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . cast in a picaresque form.1. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background.2. their social insertion. Mariner. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement.
one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. He marries.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. has three children. After 26 years. After several misadventures at sea. such an experience became an archetypal one. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. C. In the hope of increasing his wealth. to buy slaves. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands.” and leaves home on board a ship. where he has established a colony. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man.2.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity.2. Wyeth . Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. Providence helps him finally leave the island. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. In the 28 years of solitary life. prudent and calculating mature man. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. not only physical but also spiritual.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. On his return to England.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The only survivor. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. in fact. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. romantic youth into a realistic. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil. Under Defoe’s pen. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. he turns from a reckless.” It is. he starts a voyage to Africa.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. in soon left a widower.
If it should differ considerably. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. Gradually.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions.2. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 .2. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition.” 5. read again subchapters 5. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness. and 5. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. In this light.1. to the awakening of religious conscience.. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word. at the end of the unit.2. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. as a political or economic utopia. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father).2.3. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation. In his initial struggle with despair. Isolation is no longer a misfortune.
In this connection. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there.g. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. g.2. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life.” desires and “delights. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience. at the end of the unit. 4. 1. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. as a self-reliant individual. inventiveness. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress.. morally autonomous.3. perspicacity. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. It has its spiritual rewards. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the space below. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . You may render these features either by a single noun (e. 3. the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall.2. Like Adam. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot.. ingenuity).” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise.2. He takes pleasure in his work). as well as the fragment in the Reader. or the felix culpa*. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. perseverance. Changed in his “notion of things. which will serve his instinct for independence..” However. or by a sentence (e.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God. 2. subchapter 5. Enumerate. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise.
episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. 4. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. at the same time.2. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. containing. His linear. he paid little attention to matters of form. of familiar detail. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable.4.2. clear language. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the most common objects and actions in their particularity.4 once more and do the exercise again. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. the frequent enumerations and inventories. 2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. rendered in a simple. His simple. easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. clarity. in the Reader from the point of view of its style. at the end of the unit. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The richness of concrete detail. read the fragment and subchapter 5. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. the promise of symbolic meanings. with unmatched vividness. 1. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action.2. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. concreteness. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. 3. solid world. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. whose reality is difficult to doubt. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. on a separate sheet. which. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure.
or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. the latter’s son. There. B_. B_’s hands. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. His influence was considerable. As the first great sentimental novelist. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. as well as for his didactic purpose. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. cruel and greedy relatives. hoping that she will give in. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. B_’s sister. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. not only in England but also on the Continent. whose affection she finally gains. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her.2. of the struggle between virtue and vice.6. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Mr. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. The plot of Pamela. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. Mr.5. In her new state. Mr. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power.2. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. Faced with her resistance. unanimously loved and admired. At the same time.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. In Clarissa. recording the details of her ordeal. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). Pamela continues a diary. B’s relatives and friends. sensibility and morality. Upon the death of her mistress. in Bedfordshire. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. In Pamela. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr.
The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. as a traditionally dominant class. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . F. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. Richardson’s implicit radical message. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. a complete novelty in fiction.7. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious. B_.2. Through its subject and theme. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. the freedoms that he takes with her. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. to set moral standards to the nation. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment. the rights of the individual.
in no more than 10 lines / 100 words.”? Answer in the space left below. and 5.e. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master.6.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read again attentively subchapters 5. If there should be significant differences. 5. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination.7. as a servant. though in quality [i.2. between hate and admiration. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. to obey Mr. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts.8. Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger.2. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. at the end of the unit.2.
The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. 2. her sentimental response to them. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling.. at the end of the unit. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. excerpted from Pamela. however.4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . and his developing love.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. In Pamela’s letters and diary. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character. which are captured in the process of their emergence. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. B_ follows a similar evolution.3.9. 1. read again subchapter 5. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. on the other. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. and considering also Text 5. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness.2. What counts. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is.. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. on the one hand. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. in the Reader).
so that he sets out for home. Joseph’s sweetheart. 1790) 132 . He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. whose servant he was. irony.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly.3. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. priggish* upstart. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. relationships and actions. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. the author asserts himself. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. started as a parody. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. in London. Mr. as well as their inclusiveness. to his native village. Booby. and.3. Slipslop. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. Fielding was a master of parody. B_’s aunt. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. they mirror a wide range of human types. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. Cervantes. At this point. but also by the maid. but a voice external to the story. burlesque and comic satire. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. Mrs. All important characters meet here. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*.” Mr. Pope. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. Fielding abandons parody. performed by means of comic satiric devices. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. but a snobbish.1. above all. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. modest and gentle creature. Abraham Adams. author of Don Quixote” (1742). and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. Through the omniscient* narrator. including Pamela and her husband. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. Mr.
in the spirit of comedy. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration.3. T F 8. Cervantes. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . which closes the plot.2. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). is an ingredient of romantic plots. carefully. Fielding likes to play with genres. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. T F 3. for true or false) for each of them. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. T F 4. T F 6. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Read Text 5. whom they had met during their journey. at the end of the unit.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. For instance. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. which turns out to be gentle*. 1. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. T F 5. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. or the pattern of the adventurous journey. T F 7. Mr. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. T F 2. 5. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes.5. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. Wilson.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. read the text once more. alluding thus to the older genre. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status.
Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness.3. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society.3. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. lawyers. Like his literary ancestor.3. often making him appear ridiculous. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. active goodness. not an individual. above all. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . In other words. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. etc. but manners. he describes “not men. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. Along the novel. as he himself says. Joseph emerges as morally mature. By means of techniques of contrast. in Fielding. In the beginning. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. etc. both honest and hypocrite priests. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. as for Richardson.4. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. which must give substance to faith. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. doctors. but good deeds and charity. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). but also moral instruction. which often create comic effects. but they placed their main interest in the individual. At the same time. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. masters. in spite of the many instances of greed. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. cruelty. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. Every social class. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. For the author. there are both good and bad innkeepers. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends.
Fielding is the most “Augustan. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists. like many Augustan writers. 5. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature. and 5.. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit..The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. 2. He is a moralist.2.3. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each.3. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices. His commentaries and reflections on his own art. 5. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 .4. through its moral and temperamental types.2. Explain them.. unaffected. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. provide the first theory of the novel. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. drawing short comparisons.4. incorporated in the substance of his works. 3. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech. 5.. and he believes.3.5. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson.2. 1. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province. read again subchapters 5.8. At the same time. If they should differ substantially. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation.
of his uncle. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. that. does not manage to give a shape to his story. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. corporal Trim. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. in Joseph Andrews. Tristram. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. the narrator. Fielding had demonstrated. However.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. In spite of his promises. moulds reality into a literary pattern. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. Walter Shandy. unpredictable narrative. and his long. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. With Sterne. His father. the relation between life and literature. other interesting things to relate. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. by accident. the history of a private life.1. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.4.2. 5. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. that he was. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. as well as of Parson Yorick. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. Walter. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account. He digresses continually.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*.4. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. the priest who baptised Tristram. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. at the age of five. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. at every point.4. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation.” in every sense. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. i. is an erudite philosopher. he seems to have.e. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). that his brother Bobby died suddenly.
On the other hand. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. and discharged from the army. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. were being fought on the continent. generosity. absorbed in this activity. pitiful creature. modesty and. 5. amiability. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. as comic eccentricity. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. with man as a vulnerable. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. They cannot share their thoughts. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol.3. gentleness. therefore. character and destiny. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. However. Wounded in Flanders. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. Understandably.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity.4. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. above all. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. ironic terms.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. It is not type (social. which influences all his thoughts and actions. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. The “nonsensical. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. good-humoured. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics.
restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Read this short chapter (Text 5.4.. If the difference is considerable. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. in the Glossary to Unit 2. see again the fall of princes. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. read again subchapter 5. as well as the fragment from the Reader. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. V. I.6. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*. To remember the features of the tragic hero. SAQ 10 In Vol. Ch. Write the answer in the space left below.
The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. and gives the impression of stagnation. drawings and graphs. asterisks. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. for instance.4. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus.4. but also as an author. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick. and he takes great delight in digressions. to a certain view of writing. the “imperfections of words. The zigzagging narrative.5.4. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. points of suspension. with its multitude of dashes. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. coherent plots. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. there are several dedications scattered through the book. i. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. It is. so different from Fielding’s tight. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. Sterne’s rambling narrative. etc. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. but also to how it is told. Sterne defamiliarises them. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories. in Sterne’s novel. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in.” Not only as a man. The structure of the book is equally odd. Tristram resorts to other means of communication. the book is a comic oddity. which he calls “the sunshine of reading. 5. by exploiting them in a parodic way. watched as if by a slow motion camera. makes the reader aware of them. For example.e. Typographically. does not seem to move towards any climax.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight.
140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. as it explores – halfseriously. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. metafiction is fiction about fiction. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. ultimately. Metafictionally. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. i. The meaning of metafiction depends. Its extravagant. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. i. which is connected. the narrated time and the time of reading. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. in the first four volumes.e. at the structural level.6. the process of its own writing. Basically. however.” with their digressions. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. formless reality. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. It is a half-amused. As metafiction.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. works which call attention to their own devices. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. The unpredictable.e. of life as pure chance. In volume VI. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. on the author’s vision of life.4.
The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel.5.4. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel. and read the fragment attentively once more. at the end of the unit..7. If they differ significantly. 3. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. which he discusses in the very text of the work. and 5. Write them in the spaces indicated below. Instead of continuing the story. In this way. 2.6. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it. 1.4. go again through subchapters 5. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 .
You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. Fielding. on the other hand. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. the novel was a minor form. However. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. in his novels of manners. At the beginning of the 18th century. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. Sterne. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. Since its settlement on the literary scene. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. completely ignored by Augustan poetics. Henry Fielding. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. Samuel Richardson. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. Lastly. and Laurence Sterne.
The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. whose style. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. happiness. exact representation of life. a Fool.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. The hero – the picaro (i. fun. in which the poor heroine. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. or “narcissistic” – i. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. lifelikeness: closeness to life. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. fixed idea.e. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). gaiety. literacy: the ability to read and write. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). or education. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. Bildungsroman: German term. gentle: of good breeding. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman.e. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. booby: silly or stupid person. Cinderella: an old fairy story. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. mirth: laughter. to the lower ranks of society. literally: novel of formation. and he seeks social integration. characteristically. Concretely. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. metafiction: literally. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. a hobbyhorse is a toy. but producing a different sound. epistolary manner: in a novel. “beyond fiction”. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. tone. rogue) – belongs. played like a piano. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . felix culpa: see subchapter 3. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter.
The high aspirations of this generous. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. Britain joined Austria. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote.e.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. 1615). Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. like a knight-errant of former times. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Don Quixote starts. honest and brave hidalgo (i. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne.
Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. and 5.. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task.4. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent. Text 4. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. 1. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. Text 5. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . in grading your paper.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. 2. You will have. as illustrated by this fragment. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. the king rejects this tribute. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself.1. to revise the preceding unit.1. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule. SAA no. 3.. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns.2. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment. with special attention to subchapter 4.4.1. clarity. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. therefore. In order to win the good graces of the king. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. Horrified. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. • the coherence. Remember that. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels.
but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. optimism. resilience. In the social order. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. and by the form of autobiographical record. plainness. 4. realistic account. 2. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. the capacity for learning from mistakes. 4. immediacy. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. inventiveness. 2. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. pragmatism. and also authors of novels. SAQ 4 Tenacity. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. 5. rationality. 5. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. concreteness. 3. vividness. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. industriousness. patience. 3. all souls are equal. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. SAQ 5 factuality. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. sharp sense of observation. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. SAQ 2 1. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. 6.
it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters. 7.” but in “pitiful misadventures. 6. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely. 4. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. enjoying title. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind. SAQ 7 1. 2. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. 3.F. 8. 3. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. This is not Tristram’s case.T. In this way. SAQ 11 1. 2. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. 5. He is always a prominent figure. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth.T.T. 2. he is concerned with human types. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. that is. who write in the first person. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. 3. 2. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson.T. 3F. living and the act of writing overlap each other.T.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. wealth and power. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character. SAQ 8 1. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals.F SAQ 9 1.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. they create a sort of suspense. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness.
The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. Daiches. 598-602. Macsiniuc. Cornelia. Editura Universităţii Suceava. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Allen. 1991 (pp. 1969 (pp. 712-718.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 217-231. The English Novel. 116127. A Critical History of English Literature. 143-163. 701-704. 76-80) 2. 731-736) 3. David. vol. Penguin Books Limited. Walter. 37-42.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 2003 (pp. 53-59. 179-195. 43-46.
4. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.4. 6.2.1. 6. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.2. 6. The Seasons William Cowper. 6. 6. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4.1. 6. 6.3.1. 6. 6.2. 6.3.1.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6.2. 6.4. 220.127.116.11. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 18.104.22.168. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 .2. 6.6. 22.214.171.124.3. 6. 6.5.1. 6.4.
the century of the Enlightenment*. Like any modern age. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. and for night as a setting. Swift. and Fielding). was eminently the Age of Reason. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. Addison. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. For instance. Pope. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. The concern with personal. Neoclassicism*. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. harmony. however. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice.g. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. The interest in individual psychology.1. and cultivated its public relevance. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . led to an increasing attention to emotional response. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. with its emphasis on order. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. discipline. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. regarded art as the product of civilisation. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. The sentimental novel* (e. elegance and decorum*.
His long poem in nine books. death and immortality. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. In 1765. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). Edward Young (1683-1765) 6.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). Night Thoughts (1742-1745). which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. and misty. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training.D. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. and folk literature in general.1. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent.2.1. sublime landscapes. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose.1. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. wild. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard.
Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. reflected… 4. b. When his literary fraud was exposed. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. read again the previous subchapters. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. c. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. Like James Macpherson. Chatterton committed suicide. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. … a. 1. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. d. at the end of the unit. in 1765. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. … 3. … as well as Gothic fiction. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). aspiring to poetic fame.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. with its gloomy atmosphere. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. imagination. regarding him as a martyr. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. The publication. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School.
and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . Samuel Taylor Coleridge). William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. the interest in the local and national past. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. In the following subchapters. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression.3. the state of nature began to be idealised.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. Towards the end of the century. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. but also literary forms. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom.g.1. such as the song and the ballad. The great novelists (e. The emphasis on sentimental response. busy life of the city with moral confusion. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. The return to blank verse 6. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. characteristic of the Enlightenment. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. The pre.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue.2. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. In the latter part of the century.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
1.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. 6. “Winter. but also the feeling for it. manifest as early as the 1730s. Samuel Johnson said. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. nature.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. the philosophical reflection. more amusing. patriotic enthusiasm. political comments. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons. and the moral sentiment. than the works of Nature. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. praise of friends. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization.3.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. and the apparent cruelty of winter. not only the perception of nature. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. James Thomson. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. exerting a considerable influence on both of them. the splendour of summer. in its magnificence and diversity. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . etc.3. becomes an object of interest in itself. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. an expression of national pride. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. Britannia. His poem educated. In spite of its eclectic nature. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. His praise of nature and of the countryside. in many generations of readers. As Dr.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century.
with its short. Like Thomson and Collins.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). at the end of the unit.. and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 .3. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. more carefully. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. which actually inspired Thomson). whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. “Autumn. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. If there should be major differences. unrhymed stanzas. from the third part. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. William Cowper. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. living in retirement from the city. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*.2. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. read text C again. He was interested in the mediaeval past. records his observations and reflections. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. social satire. in popular superstitions and the supernatural.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. Passages of moral and political commentary. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere.3. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. William Collins 6.
with its vices and follies. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. like gardening. and of simple. He praises the simple pleasures. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . S. Coleridge). indicate an affectionate observer. but the joy of communion with friends. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. at the end of the unit. however.” Sometimes. affected] the country. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. 1856 The Task. concerning the opposition country/town. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. SAQ 5 Text 6. T. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. As a poet of nature. the peace and quiet of village life. represents one of the most memorable statements. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. Wordsworth. / Paradise that has survived the fall. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects.e. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. domestic activities. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. in the 18th century. in the Reader.4.
our sense of a common fate for all humanity. the rural setting. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. but also a gifted painter and engraver. A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). William Blake (1757-1827) 6. In Blake. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. The combination of calligraphic text. He was not only a poet. Apart from a volume of early verse. and Macpherson. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 .1. In his first great illuminated work. William Blake.civilisation. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. he turns his attention to the rural world.4. Like other pre-Romantic poets. widening the range of meanings. 6. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. to the special way in which he produced his work. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). Thomson. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. and recognised as one of the most original creators.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. Milton. Gray. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. to a large extent. and he rejected the classical standards of style. He was an admirer of Shakespeare.4. Each copy was then coloured by hand. Blake’s late fame is due.
English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. says.” This is Blake’s own creed. or be enslaved by another man’s.4. and his whole work.2.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. and he denounces the evils of civilisation. 6. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. a prophet. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory. They are. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. for instance: “I copy Imagination. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own. a tribute to Milton. Blake. Like the other English Romantics. in a way. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). unpremeditated act. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. Jerusalem: “I must create a system. in Blake’s last poem. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets. Blake was a rebel.” or “I write when commanded by spirits. Los*. original and strange. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination.
revise the whole subchapter. The Echoing Green. T F 4.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work.e. For Blake. enjoy] to hear. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. their clarity of expression and their musicality. As a poet. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. innocent delights. T F 5. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. The Shepherd. 1. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. T F 3. Poems like Infant Joy. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). Laughing Song.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . of the world seen through the eyes of the child. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. and the three statements that are false. 6. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. T F 7. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. The Blossom. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry. at the end of the unit. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse.4. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint.3. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. that is. and its origin was visionary experience. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. If you have made mistaken choices. T F 2. Spring. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. T F 6.
The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. The good shepherd.” can “laugh away care.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. love. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. with white hair. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In these poems. In The Echoing Green. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. the shepherd. the guardian angel.e. in Nurse’s Song. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. and absence of frustration or inhibition. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy. or even Jesus. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man. “Old John. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. gratified desire. does not mean ignorance. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. which a proper education should develop. is a biblical allusion. although the sun has set. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. Besides the children themselves. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom.” Throughout his work. with which Blake was acquainted. According to him. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. Innocence. The nurse. For Blake.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. meadow]”. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. associated with childhood. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. in his natural tendency to virtue. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination.
What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 .English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb.” Answer in the space below. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. and in which he represents to himself its “making. If there should be a significant difference between them. in the Reader. at the end of the unit. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb.
the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. In The Chimney Sweeper*. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. full of indignation and anger. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. society and divinity. even sarcastic. hate. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. which is a promise of divine mercy. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man.4. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience.4. In London. poverty and oppression. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. in which man’s lot is hard work.e. often. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. love and joy have been replaced by fear. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. However. In Songs of Experience. or the mind of others. for instance. In the fallen state of Experience. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. the thirst for war. nature. protesting against the evils of his time. 6. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. which deny man his freedom. of “stony laws*”. when this life ends. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. but. standing equal before God. disease. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. for instance.5. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. envy and deceit. Like the chimney sweeper.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. i.
4. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow. with no explicit answer. who made thee [i. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. innocent question (“Little Lamb. provoking more anxiety than certainty. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below. Read this poem – Text 6.English pre-Romantic poetry 6.e.6. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. by ambiguity and even obscurity. If it should differ in major respects. at the end of the unit. The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain.6. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. dangerous tiger. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. you]?) and his own answer. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. in Songs of Experience.
The church. but with ways of seeing and feeling. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. and His Priest.” which lead to contrary visions. They reveal. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church. with its “mysteries”*. This is the God of the world of Experience.” In the counterpart poem. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. Reason and Energy*. in Blake’s view. was responsible.4. Contraries are essential to progression. since those are “babes reduced to misery.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. tyrannical figure. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. which are thus strengthening their own power.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth. a stern. and he is also a child. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God. A deeply religious person. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. in Songs of Experience.7. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London. indeed. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. for keeping man at a distance from God. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination. “contrary states of the human soul.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. in fact. He displays. served by the institutionalised churches. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament.” or with a “multitude of lambs. In the poem of Innocence. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters. bearing even the same titles. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption.
1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 . to regain the vision of Innocence. but he is no longer able to do that.7. If there should be major differences between them. and read the poem again more carefully. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state.2. revise subchapters 6.4. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience.. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. at the end of the unit. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words.4. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted. except as an act of remembering. to 6.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6.
The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. The other feature is primitivism. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. g.3. In subchapter 6. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. Subchapter 6. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past. imagination and feelings. now threatened by the march of Progress.. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall.4. nature-civilisation. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. the interest in early poetry. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit..English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe.2. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. The “Graveyard” poets (e. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. 6. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. The last subchapter. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside.
which has survived in parts of Scotland. the enclosures meant ruin. as the next subchapter will show. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. for instance. Their father was Zeus.e. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. or Erse. Imagination was free Energy. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i.2. Gray is sadly ironic. Ireland and Wales. ruins. goddess of Memory.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. which they could climb more easily. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Sometimes. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. graveyards.2. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . putting fences round) common land. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. and horror. passion. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. for the sake of more profitable farming. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. Energy: for Blake. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. decorum: see subchapter 4. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Initially. For the small farmers. the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. in Unit 4. Celtic: related to the Celts. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. favour melancholy or morbid themes. Haunted castles.
concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century.. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. The custom in London was to bring the poor. used to secure the hands of a prisoner.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. 2 in Unit 4. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless.3. the 39th day after Easter. with His laws formulated as interdictions. in Unit 1. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. in Unit 3. on which the Ten Commandments were written. Among the most important of them are America. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3.1. etc. as well as against the sophistication. etc. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. primitive: original. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. or of gold or silver paint. See also subchapter 4. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. Paul’s Cathedral. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. in Unit 5. to attend the religious service. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. philosophical and political convictions. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. the Passions. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people.1. wild landscapes. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . Jerusalem.2. A Prophecy. Pity. The Book of Urizen. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. The Four Zoas. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. Milton.3. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. belonging to the beginnings. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. The Book of Los. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated.
The Chimney Sweeper. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 .. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution.12. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection. 6. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau. 6. • the coherence. SAA no.. gardens or estates. with his law of love. Remember that. in grading your paper. meant to win a patron’s favour.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance.10. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words.9.8. 6.” usurous: from usury. and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. Send-away assignment no. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task.11. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. 6.). clarity.. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762).13. and 6. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate.. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality.
SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. Nor e’er had changed. c SAQ 2 1. For Cowper. the vagants’] wanderings. but relieved their pain” 6. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty. Meditation leads to illumination. In the city. and love of man. 2. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. b. and on his thoughts. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. nor wished to change his place” 3. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. Its bare. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. the “feeble. love of nature. all intensified. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. in which everything seems to be in decline.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . on his soul. “Unpractised he to fawn. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. d. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. “He chid their [i.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. a. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. 3. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. or seek for power. 4. he focuses sharply on the withered tree.e. disease and poverty. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. the “drooping weary” father. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things.
it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. T. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. 2. confinement and oppressive authority. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. Man. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. “My mother groaned. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. meadow. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . struggles in vain.” that is. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. therefore. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. T. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. F. F. the God of Love. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. 7. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. At the same time. which he has lost. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. against which man. 5. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. In a vision of Innocence. and. 3. T. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. being thus a source of oppression. In the second stanza. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. T. but are symbols of limitation. In the simple economy of the poem. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. in the state of Experience. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. 4.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. 2. 6. and is itself one more care in the family. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. the “Lamb of God. in Blake’s vision.
). London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Penguin Books Ltd. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Boris (ed. Penguin Books Ltd...4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. 692-699) 2. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 84-94) 3. vol. David. 1991 (pp. 1991 (pp. Ford.. Further reading 1.). 671-684. vol. Ford.5 (“From Blake to Byron”). 652-658. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. vol. A Critical History of English Literature. 1969 (pp. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. Boris (ed. Daiches.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
this brave* overhanging* firmament*. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). foregone* all custom of exercises.excelent.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. cum să spun. şi totuşi. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…).1. şi. Hamlet (Act II. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. the air. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. this most excellent canopy*. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. forewent. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. look you. William Shakespeare. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. într-adevăr. in moving. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. pentru mine. to me. – but wherefore* I know not.g. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. pământul. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. of late recently wherefore why. văzduhul. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. acest preaminunat baldachin. seems to me a sterile promontory. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. vedeţi. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. încât acest frumos tărâm. alcătuirile şi mişcările. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. the sky) brave minunat. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. – lost all my mirth*. the earth.
scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. The death of each day’s life. full of sound* and fury. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day.Reader TEXT 2. it is a tale Told by an idiot. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. desfirat. and tomorrow. out. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. El. Macbeth (Act II. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. and tomorrow. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. trivial. a poor player. Out*.” the innocent sleep. a se furişa) petty inessential. to creep. Macbeth (Act V.2. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. TEXT 2. And then is heard no more. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. William Shakespeare. ţanţoş. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. William Shakespeare. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. sore* labour’s bath. semeţ. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. trifling (mărunt. Balm of hurt minds. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). great nature’s second course*. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. To the last syllable of recorded time. Signifying nothing. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 .3. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn.
ticălos) race neam. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. nasty (josnic. TEXT 2. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. a bâigui) brutish coarse. Know thine* own meaning. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*.4. mârşav. Though thou didst learn*. stupid (necioplit. redus. cruel. a suporta therefore as a result. Took pains to make thee speak. Te stinge. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. Which any print* of goodness will not take. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. netrebnic. abject. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. Un biet actor. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. The Tempest (Act I. William Shakespeare. tot mereu. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. Caliban: You taught me language. mărginit) shameful and evil. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. sălbatic. savage. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison.
all which it inherit.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. structure. Yea*. În stare de orice. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. dar proasta-ţi fire. The solemn temples. etc. These our actors. chiar pământul. Actorii Ţi-am spus. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. Te-am surghiunit aici. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. Te-am învăţat de toate. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. când tu. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. foretold: a anunţa. pe drept. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. dar. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. The Tempest (Act IV. into thin air: And. Biserici maiestoase. framework (clădire. temelie) fabric building. Leave not a rack* behind. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. toţi. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. fiară. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. the great globe itself. the gorgeous palaces. literary) truly. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. se vor topi Şi. palate mândre.5. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. The cloud-capped towers*. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. Scoteai doar mugete. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. colour. duhuri. As I foretold* you. shall dissolve And. duşi. consistency. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. William Shakespeare. TEXT 2. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. au fost. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă.
TEXT 2. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. is innocent. Care less eyes. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. and hands to miss. nor sigh-tempests* move. No tear-floods. That our selves know not what it is. endure* not yet A breach*. Like gold to aery thinness beat. Thy* soul the fixed foot. as that comes home. Though I must go. to go. which are one. It leans*. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. Men reckon* what it did and meant.6. John Donne. And grows erect*. Such wilt* thou* be to me. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. Our two souls therefore. and hearkens* after it. But we by a love so much refined. and make no noise. Yet when the other far doth roam*. And though it in centre sit. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. And makes me end. And whisper* to their souls. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. but an expansion. But trepidation of the spheres. but doth. Though greater far. lips. Inter-assured of the mind*. If they be two. Like the other foot. makes no show To move. obliquely run. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. and some say. no: So let us melt*. who must. where I begun.Reader Făcute-s visele. The breath goes now. if the other do.
with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. to struggle to no end vainly. untie*. apply your force due cuvenit. but oh. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. a rătăci to lean. rupture stiff rigid. to undergo breach break. a înrobi. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. for. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. Yet dearly I love you. But is captived. ferm. overthrew. like an usurped town. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. That I may* rise. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. and proves weak or untrue*. to break. except you ravish* me. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. a elibera to enthrall a supune. three-personed God*. and make me new. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. breathe.: inflexibil. precis. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. or break that knot again. leant a se apleca. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. Nor ever chaste. o’erthrow me*. and would be loved fain*. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. a lua cu sila. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. I. Reason your viceroy* in me. burn. shine. imprison me. Labour* to admit you. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . to no end*. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. me should defend. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. and bend Your force*. for I Except your enthrall* me. fig. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. and seek to mend.7.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. Take me to you. John Donne. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. and stand. Divorce me. datorat to labour to work hard. blow. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. never shall be free. you As yet* but knock. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. overthrown: a nimici. exact Text 2. to another due*.
My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. and time. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. Thy beauty shall no more be found. But thirty thousand to the rest. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*.8. and think which way To talk. And the last age should show your heart. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. Nor. and on thy* forehead gaze. were no crime. and pass our long love’s day. And now. Thus. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. But none. Lady. you deserve this state*. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. if you please. in thy marble vault*. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. like amorous birds of prey. This coyness*. And your quaint* honor turn to dust.Reader TEXT 2. For. We would sit down. shall sound My echoing song. Andrew Marvell. And you should. Lady. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. An age at least to every part. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. Now let us sport* while we may. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. do there embrace. Nor would I love at lower rate. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. yet we will make him run. Now therefore. I think. Two hundred to adore each breast. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity.
a lâncezi. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd.: swift. nuanţă. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. tineresc hue culoare. which. patimă) grave mormânt. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. a se veseli to languish a se ofili.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. fig. sfială. peculiar. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. torn) a smulge. in spite of her coyness. groapă youthful de tinereţe.
Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker.2.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. opportune happy fortunate. Ere* half my days. however mean* or high. obscure.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. lucky endueth endues. or soon or slow. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. which endues some more timely-happy spirits.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. returning. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. if I have grace to use it so. the subtle* thief of youth. All is. in this dark world and wide. appears [in me] much less – i. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. and present My true account. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. speed. lest he. Toward which time leads me. John Milton. destiny mean humble. to prevent That murmur*. who best Bear his mild yoke*. Yet be it less or more. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*. and the will of heaven. but Patience. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. they serve him best. rush bud mugur. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. a strict overseer TEXT 3. chide*.1. John Milton. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. ye you (pl. and ye shall be like Gods. 3. for this fair* Earth I see. Knowing both good and evil. Them nothing. And what are Gods. then. I question it. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. Warmed by the Sun. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. as they know. Queen of the Universe. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. that all from them proceeds*. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . Why. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. and freely taste. 4. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. in the day Ye eat thereof*. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first.8. your eyes. by the Threatener? look on me. that Man may not become As they. reach* then.Reader TEXT 3. John Milton. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. His worshippers? He knows that. or this tree Impart against his will. ye* shall not die. by venturing* higher than my lot. producing every kind. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. Goddess humane. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. Me who have touched and tasted. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. What can your knowledge hurt him. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. and that advantage use On our belief.
where to choose Their place of rest. and Providence their guide. The world was all before them. so late* their happy seat*. with wandering steps and slow. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . beheld (archaic. Waved over by that flaming brand*. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They. beheld to behold. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. They. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. John Milton.Reader TEXT 3. looking back. but wiped them soon.9. hand in hand. Through Eden took their solitary way.
nor go to a play together. without giving a reason. and ashamed of one another ever after. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. to wear what I please. to write and receive letters. wherever I am. to be sole* empress of my tea table. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. Come to dinner when I please. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. nor kiss before folks*. manierat. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . or to be intimate with fools. as if we were proud of one another the first week.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. so far trifle fleac. because they may be your relations*. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. And lastly. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. (…) fond affectionate. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. To have my closet* inviolate*. because they are your acquaintance. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. to provoke eyes and whispers*.1. reserved well-bred binecrescut. and then never be seen there together again. Let us never visit together. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. William Congreve.
ticălos. Shakespeare is. dobitoc. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. pungaş. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. secătură. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. above all writers. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. but just representations of general nature. variabil fanciful capricios. descendenţi to supply a oferi. and please long. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. and leaves it standing in its place. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. Particular manners* may be known to few. rogue pungaş. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. Samuel Johnson. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. a livra. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary.Reader TEXT 4. John Dryden. cap sec knave escroc. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. a blockhead*. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. potlogar villain nemernic. escroc. the poet of nature. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. which can operate but* upon small numbers. unpractised by the rest of the world. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. at least above all modern writers. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. successfully irregular neuniform.2.
He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. in a discourse one day with the King. should from a nice*. endued* with admirable talents for government. so that among us would be little esteemed. history. and the fortunes of his people. to justice and lenity*. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. entities.Reader TEXT 4. and profound learning. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. of strong parts. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. The learning of this people is very defective. and almost adored by his subjects. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. For I remember very well. love. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. refinement and intrigue. either in a prince or a minister. and transcendentals*.4. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. great wisdom. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. and mathematics. Jonathan Swift. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. abstractions. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. the liberties. poetry. and esteem. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. And as to ideas. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. consisting only in morality. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. unnecessary scruple. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 .
which all could see in the rest. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. as sometimes happens. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. without delay determination rezolvare. and carry them away. and mischievous* in disposition. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . so. the shortness of my claws*. government. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. they will instead of eating peaceably. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. to restrict bound limit. (…) That. Ch. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. our manners. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. as I had described them. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. (…) As to learning. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. and therefore* to protect himself. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. a asigura. but still looking round with great caution. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious. speed. and our actions. Jonathan Swift. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. from the representation I had given him of our lives. manufactures*. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. For. fall together by ears*.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. in some fields of his country. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. and the like. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. a fi iniţiat în. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. but not in themselves. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest.5. than any of the rest. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. a i se încredinţa (e. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors.g. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. there are certain shining stones of several colors. and activity. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. arts.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
which it did admirably well. and how many fell out*. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. It happened after some time. I had no notion of a kiln*. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. a se desprinde clay lut. or glazing* them with lead*. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. after having laboured hard to find the clay. (fell. how many of them fell in*. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas.2. and placed my firewood* all round it. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. to pity a căina awkward incomod.. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. and pipkins*. such as the potters* burn in. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. what odd. ugly things I made. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. (fell. though I had some lead to do it with.Reader TEXT 5. flat dishes*. a cădea fell out to fall. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. misshapen*. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. or rather laugh at me. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. in a word how. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. which none of these could do. pitchers*. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). and observed that they did not crack at all*. fallen) out: a se desface. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. de pământ jar oală. I was agreeably surprised to see it. to temper* it. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). with a great heap of embers* under them. to dig* it. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. Daniel Defoe. one upon another. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. so as to make it burn me some pots. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. to bring it home and work it. When I saw them clear red. a frământa. and. being set out too hastily*. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. and bear* the fire. anevoios. and red as a tile*. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*. But all this would not answer my end*. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. and any things my hand turned to*.
nor when it began. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). in which he confesses his affection for her.] This letter. a depăşi) TEXT 5. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. than the dry*. but it has crept*. I must own* to you. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. is not a voluntary thing – Love. […] Forgive. when I expected some new plot*. it looked like love. scop. and of so much honour too. can be. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. a învinge. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. nay*.4. I had no reason to expect. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. forgive me! but I found. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. my dear father. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. I beseech* you. But to be sure*. […] O my dear parents. plin de viaţă) height culme. crept. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. and before I knew what was the matter. O my unguarded* youth. before. punct culminant. dubious uncertain. born) a rezista. and tender years*. This was a good fortune. Samuel Richardson. to my grief*. narrative. did I say! […] I know not how it came.Reader dish blid. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. Samuel Richardson. has greatly affected me. to find him capable of so much openness. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. intenţie to bear (bore. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). so much affection. chinuri womb pântece. however. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. durere. apogeu distress nefericire. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. and so it is: but love. I am quite overcome*. I imagine. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. but now. like a thief.3. upon me. B_.
by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. of inferior manners. I hope. who had used me so hardly. differing from comedy. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. and introducing a greater variety of characters. and consequently. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. in its sentiments and diction*. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. and to one too. [Memorandum*.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. and resignation to the Divine Will. to consider of this. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. containing a much larger circle of incidents. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. when I get home. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi.) treacherous trădător (adj. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. and therefore*. as I thought. Henry Fielding. însemnare TEXT 5. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. Yet. O my treacherous*. for there it is never properly introduced.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. In the diction. a rupe memorandum notă. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. only dangerous attacks! After all.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. thy whole self. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. în consecinţă to tear (tore. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. a implora grieved amărât. I think. întristat.5.e. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. or tear* it out of my writing. before summons* came. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. în mod clar rigorous aspru. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. torn) out a smulge. sever grief durere. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly.] plot uneltire. in this. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. for giving up so weakly. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . will enable me to get over this heavy trial.
the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. though. Burlesque is in writing. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. and. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. and where our delight. yet. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. It may be likewise noted. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. therefore. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. or hath not the virtue he affects. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. […] Now. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. arises from the surprising absurdity. to the degree he would be thought to have it. that. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. yet when it comes from vanity only. as they proceed* from very different motives.Reader burlesque kind. not men. Indeed. and consequently more ridiculous. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. or e converso*. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. which that of the hypocrite hath. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. what Caricatura is in painting. is more surprising. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. if we examine it. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. And here I shall observe. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. than when from vanity. it be nearly allied to deceit*. in order to purchase* applause. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. Now. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. which this is not intended to be. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural.
cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. which at first moved our compassion. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not.: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. tend* only to raise our mirth*. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault. of our pity. cu stângăcie. smaller faults. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. But for not being what they would be thought*. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. fig.
I.6. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours.7. not for want of penetration* in him. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. and it is progressive too. a izbuti. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. Tristram Shandy (Vol. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. I wish I had been born in the Moon. and reconciled. two contrary motions are introduced into it. my work is digressive. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. In a word. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. Gentleman. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. I fear. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. Laurence Sterne. povară signal însemnat. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. – not but the planet is well enough*. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. the merit of which has all along. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to annoy ungracious răutăcios. as you observe. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. on my conscience. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. Laurence Sterne. or expected indeed. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune.Reader TEXT 5. which. been overlooked* by my reader. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. dirty planet of ours. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. with reverence be it spoken*. – and at the same time. and that I fly off* from what I am about. nefericit TEXT 5. in a digression. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate.
For which reason. restore them to the writer. brings in variety. you see. are the sunshine. one wheel within another*. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. cum trebuie. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. the soul of reading. what’s more. and if he goes on with his main work. from that moment. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. – they are the life. but also of the author. This is vile work*. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. his whole work stands stock-still*. – take them out of this book for instance. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. from the beginning of this. whose distress*. that the whole machine. then there is an end of his digression. – and. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. you might as well take the book along with them. incontestably.Reader Digressions. has been kept agoing. in this matter. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. and forbids the appetite to fail. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. bids* All hail*. is truly pitiable*: For. I observe. if he begins a digression. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. in general.
whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. the matron* pale. Or hers. Unpracticed he to fawn*. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. George Crabbe. nor wished to change his place. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. The Deserted Village A man he was. chid: to rebuke. hoinar. Or theirs. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. passing rich trecând drept bogat. modelat. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. Then his first joy. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. a mângâia) TEXT 6. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. distant godly pious. croit to prize a preţui. look within. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. but his sad emblem now. a boy. He chid* their wanderings*. to scold (a dojeni. and ask if peace be there. cerşetor train alai. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. Oliver Goldsmith. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. Who. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. propped* on that rude* staff*. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. Nor e’er* had changed. cortegiu şir chid to chide. devout (evlavios. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6.1.2. or seek for power. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. Go. a alina. to all the country dear. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. he climbed the loftiest bough*.
rezemat rude rudimentary.Reader ye you (pl. o’er over to exalt to raise. Of human race. linişte. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt.4. to elevate. and as high: Devotion. părinte offspring vlăstar. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6.3. simple. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. and. Inflames imagination. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. chief*. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. As varied. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. and man made the town. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. jalnic. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. sprijinit. pace smooth calm. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. generos ease tihnă.) gentle nobil. William Cowper. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. coarse. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. The Task (1785) God made the country. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. sorbitură grove crâng. ales. What wonder then that health and virtue. unconfined*. James Thomson. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. With all the social offspring of the heart*. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. urmaş feeble plăpând. nenorocit hearth vatră. The love of Nature. to stimulate.
bound: a lega strâns.Reader TEXT 6. to groan a geme. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. piping* loud. God bless thee. We are called by his name. supus) mild gentle. and he is mild*. Little Lamb. Gave thee clothing of delight. Bound* and weary*. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. William Blake. Into the dangerous world I leapt*.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. cuminte. my father wept*. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. Gave thee such a tender voice. a ţâşni. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb.6. William Blake. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. Striving against my swaddling bands*. naked. I’ll tell thee. Little Lamb. wooly* bright. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. leapt: a sări. and bid thee feed*. Struggling in my father’s hands. Softest clothing. gentle and uncomplaining (blând. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. God bless thee. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*.5. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. a înlănţui. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. not violent (blajin. Little Lamb. a închide weary tired. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. Helpless.
no. let us play.Reader TEXT 6. Where I used to play on the green.7. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. So I turned to the Garden of Love. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. come leave off play. William Blake. for it is yet day. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. the sun is gone down.” “No. William Blake. That so many sweet flowers bore*. My heart is at rest* within my breast. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. And I saw it was filled with graves*. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie. And we cannot go to sleep. “Then come home my children. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. Besides. bore. And every thing else is still. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. well. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş.8. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. And the hills are all covered with sheep.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . Come. a sălta. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. And laughing is heard on the hill. And then go home to bed. And the dews* of night arise.” “Well. tranquil. in the sky the little birds fly. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. go and play till the light fades away*. green pajişte verde at rest calm.
weep. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . My face turns green* and pale. There’s little Tom Dacre. And wash in a river.Reader TEXT 6. Ned and Jack. and sport* in the wind. William Blake.10. So if all do their duty. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. and we rose* in the dark. laughing. And the dews of night arise. freamăt dale vale. foşnet. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. Then come home.” And so he was quiet. And so Tom awoke. the sun is gone down. all their bags left behind. Then naked and white. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. William Blake. Tom was happy and warm. my children. Joe. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. Then down a green plain leaping. and in soot* I sleep. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. Dick. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. They rise upon clouds. they need not fear harm. never mind it. a irosi TEXT 6. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. for when your head's bare. As Tom was a-sleeping. and that very night. and shine in the Sun. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. whisperings şoapte. And your winter and night in disguise.9. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. they run. weep. Tom. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. And the Angel told Tom. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. Though the morning was cold. if he'd be a good boy.
coşciug by aproape. wise guardians of the poor. but multitudes of lambs. their innocent faces clean. Beneath them sit the aged men. în preajmă to sport a zburda. The hum* of multitudes was there. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. Then cherish* pity. risen): a se scula. And smiled among the winter’s snow.12. with wands* as white as snow. And because I am happy and dance and sing. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). They clothed me in the clothes of death. Because I was happy upon the heath*. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. William Blake. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. Crying “weep*. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*.11.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. a se deştepta TEXT 6. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. They think they have done me no injury*. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. hornar sold to sell. potoleşte-te. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. O what a multitude they seemed. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . William Blake. alături. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu.
And where-e’er the rain does fall. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. re-built th in the late 17 century. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London. soft. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. a goni TEXT 6. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who helped the priest in various ways. rece. Nor poverty the mind appal*. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. Babe can never hunger there. neroditor thorn spin. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. a iubi) lest ca să nu. And their ways are filled with thorns*. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. fruitful fecund. lugubru bare gol. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. sterp. It is eternal winter there. William Blake. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. For where-e’er* the sun does shine.13. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. and to the Last Judgement. fertil. the 40 day after Easter. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui.
). 1963 Shakespeare.J. Penguin Books.. vol. edited with an Introduction by Angus Ross. William. Ed. Joseph Andrews and Shamela. XI (Furtuna) Bucureşti: Editura pentru Literatură Universală. Vols. W. edited with an introduction by Arthur Humphreys. Opere complete. Ltd. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. M.. Laurence. Penguin Books Ltd. Clarissa. 1987 Milton.. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. 5 (Hamlet). vol. 1984) Sterne. I.. with a glossary by W. ediţie îngrijită şi comentată de Leon D. Mariner. edited with an introduction by Angus Ross. edited. William. Penguin Books Ltd. Pamela. or the History of a Young Lady. Leviţchi. John. H (Gen. M. William. Daniel. 1993 Defoe. Oxford University Press. Samuel. 1988 Shakespeare. vol. Norton & Company. Virtue Rewarded. Paradise Lost. 1980 Shakespeare. by Peter Sabor. The Complete Works. Leviţchi. 7 (Macbeth). Gentleman. William.. ediţie îngrijită şi comentată de Leon D. with and introduction by Margaret Ann Doody. 1965 Fielding. edited with an introduction by Ian Campbell Ross. 1996 Richardson. Samuel. Henry. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. ed. 1983 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 215 . Penguin Books Ltd. 1986 Shakespeare. London: W. London and Melbourne: J. or. II New York. Craig. The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York.English pre-Romantic poetry Sources Abrams. Dent and Sons Ltd. 1985 Richardson. Opere. Opere complete. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. London: Henry Pordes.
W.Bibliography SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams. 1974 Nokes. Jonathan Swift. Partial Magic.. Norton and Company.. 1963 Drabble. Boyson and J. The Mid-Eighteenth Century. Penguin Books. Jacobean Poetry and Prose: Rhetoric. Vols. Penguin Books Ltd. 1993 Coveney.. The Novel in Its Beginnings. 1979 Cartianu. Macmillan Education Ltd. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. 1989 Munteanu. Gerald (ed. Leavis). W. 1988 Butt. John.F. 1975 Bloom.). Ed. David. The Novel as a Self-Conscious Genre. 2003 McDermott. The English Novel. Romanticism. Robert. II New York. A Critical History of English Literature. 3. Los Angeles. 1660-1837. Robert A.. Robert. Coulson). London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Jonathan Swift. The Norton Anthology of English Literature... Twayne Publishers. 1967 Cuddon. 1996 Day. (vols. The Metaphysical Poets. Walter. Thomas N (ed. Joseph Andrews. H (Gen. 1969 Day. Ana. 5). Representation and the Popular Imagination. 1971 Legouis. History of English Literature. Bucureşti: Editura Enciclopedică Română. Penguin Books Ltd. The English Eighteenth Century. 1988 Hunting. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.). Michael. I.. Émile. V. New York: W.. 1970 Corns. M. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. The Macmillan Press Ltd. Inc.). David. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică. Hubert. Norton & Company. Garden City: Doubleday & Company. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 1991 Ford. Ioan Aurel Preda (eds. The Odyssey to Tom Jones. An Annotated Text with Critical Essays..). 1965 Macsiniuc. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature (vols. A. 4. Penguin Books Ltd. Literatura europeană în epoca luminilor. Inc. Donne to Marvell¸ Cambridge University Press. Boris (ed. J. Martin. 1961 Hammond. 1991 Greenberg. 1985 Fairer. London and New York: Routlege. The Oxford Companion to English Literature.). The Poetry of William Blake. Peter. Gulliver’s Travels. London: Penguin Books.).R. Oxford University Press. London: W. Novel and Romance. London: University of California Press.). Cornelia. London: Penguin Books Ltd. David. 1992 Daiches. New York. Dicţionar al Literaturii Engleze.). Penguin Books... Berkeley. The Cambridge Companion to English Poetry. The Poetry of Alexander Pope. Romul. Aiden. 1989 Ferber. 2. Margaret (ed. Clive (ed. 1991 Alter. The Image of Childhood (with an introduction by F. A Short History of English Literature (transl. (ed. 1993 Allen. 1987 216 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. 3).
The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature. 1983 Preda. Ian. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. Cambridge University Press. George. London: George Allen and Unwin. Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei “România de Mâine.). From Beowulf to Paradise Lost.). 1996 Robert.” 2000 Watt. Kathleen. English Literature and Civilisation. 2003 Volceanov. Studies in Defoe. Romanul începuturilor şi începuturile romanului. Editura Universităţii Bucureşti. 1994 Protopopescu. Studies in Eighteenth Century Fiction and Romantic Poetry. The Rise of the Novel. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 1983 Sampson. ediţie îngrijită. Dragoş. Four Myths of Individualism. John (ed. Ioan-Aurel (ed. Morfologia romanului european în secolul al XVIIIlea. George. The Cambridge Companion to the EighteenthCentury Novel. 1974 Preda. Tudor. 2003 Raine. Blake and the New Age. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. Bucureşti: Editura “Grai şi suflet – Cultura naţională”. Richardson and Fielding. 1974 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 217 . Chatto & Windus. 1979 Richetti. Editura Universităţii Suceava.Bibliography Olteanu. A Survey of English Literature from Beowulf to Jane Austen. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. studiu introductiv şi note de Dan Grigorescu. The Literature of the Beginnings. 1991 Watt. Ioan-Aurel. Ian. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. Marthe. Luminiţa Elena. 3). 1970 Turcu. Fenomenul englez (vol.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.