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Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
3. 4. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4.2. 3.3. 3.4. 4. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.22.214.171.124.1.4. 3.1. 126.96.36.199.4.2. 2.4.1. 4. 3. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.3.3. 4. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton.220.127.116.11. 2.5. 3.2.5. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.18.104.22.168. 3.2.4. 3. 3.1. 22.214.171.124.2. 3. 3. 3. 4.1. 126.96.36.199.3. 2.3. 3. 2.1. 3. 2.Contents 2.1.7. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .188.8.131.52. 4. 184.108.40.206.3.1.
4.5.1. 5.4.1. 5. 220.127.116.11.1. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.3. 18.104.22.168.2. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.3. 5.7. 22.214.171.124.2. 126.96.36.199.Contents 4.4.3. 188.8.131.52.1.2.4. 184.108.40.206. 5.2.3. 5.1. 220.127.116.11. 4.4. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 18.104.22.168. 4. 5. 5. 5.4. 5.1.1. 5.2. 4.4. 4.6. 4.4. 22.214.171.124.1. Gulliver. 4.1. 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3. 5.2.2. 5.3. 5.3. 5. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage. 5. 4. 4. 184.108.40.206.4. 5.
3.3. 6. 220.127.116.11.2.4.4. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4. 6.1.2. 6.1. 6. 6.3.6. 6. 6.1. 6. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.3. 6.2. 6.7. 6. 18.104.22.168.4.3.1. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.2. 6.4.2.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No.4.4. 6. 22.214.171.124. 6.2. 6.2. The Seasons William Cowper. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. 6. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 6.1.
but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. Blake. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. a carrier of values. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. 3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . Being concerned with aspects of literary history. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. among others).Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. Defoe. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. Before starting your study. 2. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. Fielding. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. Swift. Milton. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. by encouraging your response to particular texts. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. In this way. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. Course objectives As already mentioned.
a Glossary. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. the Restoration. • 4. By the end of your study of this course.g. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. in a given text. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors. a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. Neoclassicism. a list of key words. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). characterisation.g. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. the Baroque. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. as part of your overall assessment. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. Each unit. and a Gallery of personalities. the Augustan Age. Besides them. in its turn.
H. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. as well as major representatives. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. Defoe. They appeal not only to your memory. Fielding and L. Sterne –. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives.Introduction 4. with main focus on Jonathan Swift.1. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. and with the evolution of this genre. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. and to draw your own conclusions. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. • 4. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. The variety of these learning tasks will.2. hopefully. and Augustan satire. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. the epic poem Paradise Lost. S. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. Richardson. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge.
narrative technique. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. with the typological definition of a work. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. if the case may be. characterisation. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. symbolic elements. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. etc. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. 4. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. the title of a work. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. line.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. at the end of the unit. stylistic features. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . an author’s work. and. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. etc. fragment) • complete sentences. etc.3. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. in the literary text you were asked to work on. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. summarise its argument.. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox.
Some terms may recur in several units.4. For instance. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information.Introduction 4. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit. in Unit 1. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. but the phrase of which that word is part. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 .3. • Further reading. with the pages where you may find relevant information. not just Being. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). For example.3. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. will also appear in Units 5 and 6. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit. you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains.1. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. for the Great Chain of Being*. at the end. the term Enlightenment. Sometimes. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. other instruments meant to assist your study. Thus. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. if necessary or desired.1. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1.
try to read each fragment more than once.5.2 will cover units 4 and 5. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. especially the poetry texts. the number of tasks. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. In any case. this should not take you too much time. while SAA no. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. before you start solving the task. 5. and 6. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. difficult. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. 5. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. The table below represents the place. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text.lIntroduction 4. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. As the texts are not very long. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. SAA no. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context.
and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . whose reading may take you some extra time. however. theoretically. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected.2 SAA no. Most of the time. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. As in the case of the SAQs. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. Of these hours. If your level of proficiency is lower. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. your course work may take you more time. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). • the coherence. 6. If you have no possibility to type your assignment. 2. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test.1 SAA no. 1. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. half of the answer is already contained in the question.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. You may. clarity. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. 3. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. 2. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). 1.
Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. and gallery of personalities).lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). glossary. and 6. of the evolution of literary genres. 5. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. The three assignments will count. as 40% of the final grade. respectively. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge.3 3 3 8 SAA no. together.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. It is structured in six units of study. representative authors. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. list of key words. At the end of Units 3. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. forms and styles. a revision of the course material. which you must write and send to your tutor.2 SAA no. whose content follows a chronological line. as well as a list of suggested further reading. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. according to a pre-established schedule. there are SAAs. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding.
1.5.5. 1. 126.96.36.199. 1.2.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.4.1. 1. 1.2. 1.3. 1. 1.4. 1.4. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. 1.1.1. 1.4. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 . 1.
the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. The victory of Reason over dogmatism.1. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. philosophy. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. The gradual achievement of political stability. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. obscurantism and intolerance. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. as well as the faith in progress. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. in the latter part of the 17th century. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. 10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a powerful flourishing nation. of the Enlightenment. mentalities.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. at the end of this period. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. science. literature. attitudes and practices. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. as the Enlightenment is often described.1. The rise. marked the entrance into modernity. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age.1. religion. 1. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. Political. social and economic life.
in particular. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. the “universal Architect.” 1. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science.1.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. This new faith – Deism. under the patronage of Charles II. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. to reconcile Reason and Faith. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. or Natural Religion –. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. and it was essentially optimistic. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. in 1662. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. The Royal Society endeavoured. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God.2. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. in a systematic effort. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws.
but also affective and instinctual. Circle T (true) or F (false). The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being.4. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. T F 3. The growing spirit of individualism. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. Read the statements below and identify the true ones.1. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. T F 4. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature. the Enlightenment. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). T F 2. for each sentence. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1.3. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. T F 5. The poet Alexander Pope indicated. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. 1.1. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. appropriately. to superstition and obscurantism. 1. continued the project of the Renaissance. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the central concern of the Enlightenment.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole.
with little or no classical knowledge. T F 8.2. for proportion. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. for instance. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. including readers of more modest education. to 1.1. read again subchapters. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. It is significant. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith.4.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. and both writers and audiences were.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. The division into Elizabethan. in one way or another. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned.1. 1. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. the decrease in the power of the Crown. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. symmetry. regularity. It was the main focus of literary attention. that the notion of reading public emerges now. at the end of the unit. After 1688. in the orbit of the crown.1. T F 7.
…on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. 2. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Complete each sentence in the provided space. Molière. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. Much of Renaissance literature. Jean Racine. …the Augustan Age. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. Corneille. a. Molière)…… d. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism.” started in the late 17th century. above all. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. The Court was the main source of influence…… b. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. Racine. Pierre Corneille. …… c. during the Augustan Age*. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. This reflects. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau.
James Thomson. …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. In parallel. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). for instance. It favoured conciseness. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. and it made extensive use of wit.3. at the end of the unit. If you have failed to make the right match. Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). John Dryden (in the former). It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). They approached other themes besides love: e. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. acquainted with the great classical authors and works. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. 4. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. concentration. The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 .2. by the Romantic poets. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. George Herbert. Thomas Carew. you need to revise subchapter 1.g. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. religious faith – John Donne. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. Alexander Pope. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. Andrew Marvell. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). or religion and politics – John Milton. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). …addressed itself to learned readers. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. original or translated epics. Robert Herrick). the ode*. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. the pastoral* lyric. in its various forms – the song*.
some of them of popular origin (the song. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It was the only form of literature which. the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon.3. a new appreciation of older poetic forms. 1. If there should be major differences between them. In the following units of this course. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). at the end of the unit. revise subchapter 1. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. through its representation on stage.4. in the space left below. together with their most outstanding representatives.
fascinating through unbounded ambition. the sensational plot.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse. murder. with the restoration of monarchy. In 1660. The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. historical drama. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. etc. with its audience arranged according to rank. From Senecan tragedy. but destroys himself along with his enemies. Milton’s Satan. 1605-6). 1. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. Of the Caroline playwrights. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. is the most gifted. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. masque*. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. insanity. pastoral drama. treachery. the wronged hero plans revenge. sensational and macabre.4. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. built around the theme of revenge. 1633). Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. rape. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. drama witnessed a decline. In such plays.1. 1607). and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. They were generally. Unlike Senecan plays. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest. play-houses were reopened. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. On the whole. tragi-comedy. and the rhetorical manner. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. while others changed. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. daring and wit. in Paradise Lost. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. was a miniature of the English society. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. 1614).
Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. in miniature. His best plays. Volpone (1606). 1. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. 1. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). T F 2. T F 3. Milton’s Satan. his comedies become darker. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. and 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. T F 6. If you have failed to identify the true statements. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy.4. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. centred on the theme of love. T F 4. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. the hierarchy of English society. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. or The Silent Woman (1609). SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. the satirical comedy.4. read again subchapters 1. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). or at least tinged with bitterness. but. in the last period of creation. at the end of the unit. read the following statements. though each in a different way.2. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy.4. with its noble characters. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. For each sentence. T F 7. T F 5. identifying the four true ones.1. reflecting. in Paradise Lost. Epicoene.
of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1.3. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. for instance. and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. The Conquest of Granada. George Villiers. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. Henry Fielding). 1769). There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy.4. 1775. a stylish and sophisticated world. The School for Scandal. 1665. 1773). Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. Heroic plays. with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty. In The Rehearsal (1671).4. 1669-70). or The Mistakes of a Night. This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e.g. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy.g. too. but serious drama declined during the 18th century. She Stoops to Conquer. John Gay. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. were a passing extravagance. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. 1722).4.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. who demanded models of virtue and decency. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. 1777). The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. Duke of Buckingham. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. Under the influence of French tragedies. 1768. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain.
at the end of the unit. together with their most outstanding representatives. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. to 1.4.4. If there should be major differences between them. revise subchapters 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays.
with its trials. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. 1612. the universal language of the Renaissance. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. Here. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. The development of an aphoristic style*. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. weaknesses. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. a precious and highly ornate language. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose.1. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. the essay* proved the most flexible. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. temptations. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. Later in the century. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . philosophical and theological writings. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose.5. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. displaying a variety of styles. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. More and more. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. on clarity and rationality.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. Gradually.5. blending concision with wit. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. in political tracts and pamphlets. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. religious writings are particularly important. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. deliberately artificial and intricate.
whose purpose was didactic or satirical. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. pamphlets* (e. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. diaries (John Evelyn. of remarkable precision and force. In the 17th century. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. etc. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). Milton’s Areopagitica. Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. 1666). a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. biographies (Izaak Walton. which analyses the constitution of human society. To these must be added the character. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. aphoristic style.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. Anatomies were monuments of learning. Like drama. Samuel Pepys). spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. unadorned style. executed in a witty. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. William Prynne’s Histriomastix. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. the biography as an emerging prose genre.g. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. “The Religion of a Doctor.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. letters. The same encyclopaedic. Samuel Purchas). inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651).
If there should be major differences between them. The victory of Reason over dogmatism.1. these two centuries correspond.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. obscurantism and intolerance. Within these two centuries.5. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. more carefully. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. between which there is continuity. as well as the faith in progress. at the end of the unit.. and 1. read again subchapters 1. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. the image of the universe was changed. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture.5. you will learn more about the periodical essay. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England. roughly. Culturally. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. Within these two centuries. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. modern science was born.
Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. often by means of paradox. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. blank verse: unrhymed verse. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B.). however.-14 A. which are reduced to the comically trivial. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. noble and heroic characters. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal. From a literary point of view. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . Ovid. predominantly middle-class. used to express observations of general truth. of serious action. drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. It is. elevated style. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits.C. a slow transition took place.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity.D. in a caricatural spirit.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry.
the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. social and moral thought. • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. Diderot (France). The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. Montesquieu. Concepts like human rights. humanism. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. Thomas Jefferson. or from history. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. anti-obscurantism. Tolerance. when it was restored. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war.C. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. social contract. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. anti-fanaticism. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. the folk tradition. In a broader sense. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. • essay: a prose composition of varying length. Rousseau. until 1660. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. civil rights. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. Voltaire. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. widely used in all ages. • classical revival: the intellectual. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. John Locke. legend. pragmatism. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). natural law. individual liberty. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. David Hume (Britain).e.): “Man is the measure of all things”. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age.
idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. It addressed itself to the poor. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . uncorrupted life.) are the great ancient models for English writers. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). in harmony with nature. of spiritual regeneration by grace. ode: an extended lyric poem. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. from the Creation to the Ascension. an idea. simple. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity. encouraging a personal experience of conversion. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church.). mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. sumptuous costumes and settings. In English literature. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). and harmony of classical art. who was a Catholic. singing and dancing. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century.C. involving elaborate dialogue. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. In architecture. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. solemn style. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models.C. who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. decorative art. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. restraint. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. often of an allegorical nature.C. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. James II Stuart. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. a person or an object. the marginal sections of society. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780).) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. painting and sculpture. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. spectacular scenic effects.
Leonardo da Vinci. Sir Charles Sedley. William Wycherley. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. Francis Bacon (England). It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. 1492). tone. Pico della Mirandola. From a literary point of view. Tasso (Italy). Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. Duke of Buckingham. which opened the modern era. of the rebirth of learning. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. of the expansion of education. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. its limits are less well defined. centred on integrity. favoured the growth of individualism. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Machiavelli. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. thus. Boccaccio. of America. for the Neoclassic writers. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. Edmund Spenser. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. Shakespeare. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. Cervantes (Spain). It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. effort. selected according to genre and subject. by Columbus.g. style – used by a poet. in their view. John Vanbrugh. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). poetic diction: a term that. the sense of purpose. Restoration: historically. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. in the 16th and 17th centuries. Lope de Vega. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. Ariosto. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. especially their work ethics. Their beliefs and convictions. Thomas More. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Philip Sidney. Raphael. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. romance or the novel. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. it had not fully reformed itself. Sir George Etherege. industry. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group.
orator. it meant intelligence or wisdom. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. poet and scholar. as well as an unfinished utopia. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. Astrophil and Stella.C. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. independently of circumstances. 1591-1595). yellow bile – or choler. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. phlegm. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). He started his literary career as a playwright. Sometimes. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind.): Roman statesman. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. The tradition survived into the 18th century. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. and with the French Revolution (1789). and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. 1591. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. with various rhyme patterns. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. and a writer. Amoretti. Cicero. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. the four “humours” (i. surprising associations. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. During the Renaissance. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. two fine examples of comedy of humours. phlegmatic.e. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects. The assertion of the self. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. fluids) of the body (blood. Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. in which the characters act. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. Edmund Spenser. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. Jonson. He was also an eminent statesman. song: a poem composed for singing. philosopher and writer. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . with or without musical accompaniment. according to a dominating inclination or passion. The New Atlantis (published in 1627).
In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. unlike that of Hobbes. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. author. greatly influenced by Hobbes. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. It is fear of death. Locke studied medicine. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. For Hobbes. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy. mathematician. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. the instinct of self-preservation.-65 A. for instance. politics.): Roman philosopher. According to him. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. His political philosophy. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. made important discoveries in the field of optics. Man.D. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). religion. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. or the Matter. astronomer and philosopher.C. Locke. in a kind of social contract.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . ethics. writer and statesman. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. the latter. which was central to Enlightenment thought. Tacitus. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651).): Greek philosopher and naturalist. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. besides the Characters. Theophrastus (372-287 B. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State.D. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. Hobbes. Italian poet and humanist.): Roman historian and statesman. Newton. Seneca. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher. economics. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government.C.
2.T SAQ 2 a. there was a tendency towards simplicity.T. 6. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. c. d. 3.T. Editura Universităţii Suceava.T. Herrick. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. 8. Pope. Blake the ode: Marvell. Dryden. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson.T. Turcu. Fielding. Cowley. Ioan-Aurel (ed.F. Dryden.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. Carew. Marvell satire: Dryden. 9-32) 2. Marvell. 2003 (pp. the sonnet: Shakespeare. Cornelia.T. . clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. 2003 (pp. 1983 (pp. Milton the pastoral: Milton. The English Eighteenth Century. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance. 6. Macsiniuc.T. Donne. John Gay Further reading 1. Thomson.3. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Herbert. 5. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. 4.2. 2.T. artificial. precision. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. b. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate. Collins. Sir George Etherege. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4. Editura Universităţii Suceava.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. The Literature of the Beginnings. 7. John Vanbrugh). Pope. Goldsmith.F. 3. English Literature and Civilisation.).1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1. Goldsmith. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Luminiţa Elena. Preda.T. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. William Wycherley. Duke of Buckingham. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. Milton.F. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. 7-49) 3. Sir George Sedley.F.4. 5.
220.127.116.11.2.12.5. 2. 2. 2.3. 2. 2.5. 2. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .1. 18.104.22.168. 2.2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs.22.214.171.124.8.2. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius.3.2. 126.96.36.199.2.8.2. 188.8.131.52. 2. 2.4. 2.3. 2.7.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2.7.1. 2. 2.2. 2.2.2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.3.1. 184.108.40.206.3.6. 2.
to scepticism. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. Under Queen Elizabeth I. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. The vision of a harmonious. to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. stable and modern state. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. Philip Sydney*. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. The former expansiveness. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. anxiety and even pessimism. with its sense of confidence and optimism. In the late Renaissance. Christopher Marlowe*. during whose reign England developed into a strong.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. well-ordered universe.
The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. on which the “show” of life must end. and in its dramatic conception.1.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. its sense of form. irony and ambiguity. the spectacular and the sumptuous. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. Although very diverse. life and death. grandeur. In lyric poetry. with its abundance of bloody deaths. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification.1. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. sensualism and mysticism. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. and. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. of confusing or transgressing limits. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. proportion and symmetry. striking imagery. wisdom and madness. and not properly forming a “school. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2.1. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. but also to pomp.2. the extensive use of paradox. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. refinement and cruelty. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. The Renaissance cult of rational order. to the macabre. in literature. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. splendour. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. both in its themes and motifs. with the tendency of breaking proportions. St. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. for excess. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. The unexpected. reason and superstition. or the world as stage.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. sense of form B: 4. read again the preceding subchapters. The Tempest. If there should be major differences. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . R: cult for order and symmetry. In the following two subchapters. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. respectively. you will be acquainted. King Lear. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. classical balance. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. at the end of this unit. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. optimism. R: confidence.
Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. language. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. romantic or trivial. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. sometimes even trivial. gratitude and ingratitude. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). Othello (1604). Italian. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. struggle for power. A wide range of feelings. his deep understanding of humanity. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. devotion. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). conflicts.2. states of mind. jealousy. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. or periods of creation. search for truth. motifs and imagery. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. in plain. In Shakespeare’s whole work. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. moral attitudes. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. According to the dramatic necessity. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. friendship. Shakespeare’s genius. sublime or burlesque. from the variety of his work. aspirations and interests. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. and a culmination of its literary art. loyalty and betrayal. hate. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). medieval and contemporary sources – English. envy. and French.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. to the prose speech of simple folk. They are always credible. so that it displays a similar variety. among other features.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. craftsmen or servants. all mastered with supreme art. etc.
His romance plays. with the restoration of order. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. In these plays. but they deal. with the effects of evil on innocence. read again the preceding subchapter. between truth and falsehood. basically. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. 2. common in the Renaissance.2. If they should differ significantly. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. at the end of the unit.1.
mistaking him for Claudius. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet.3. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. with a poisoned sword. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. During the play. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. At one point. Her brother. brave. all the main protagonists find their death. the widow queen. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. 2. generous and brilliantly intelligent. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. sensitive and idealistic. a courtier. and continually delays the act of revenge. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. Laertes. In another scene. Back to the castle. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. old king Hamlet. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. and with the immense burden of revenge. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth.2. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. which represents a similar scene of murder. but the plot escapes their control and. in the confusions of the final scene. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. who had really gone mad. the play ends on a note of hope. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. Claudius. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . required by his dead father. he kills Polonius. takes over the rule of Denmark. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. In spite of this bloody outcome. the first in this series of masterpieces.2. has drowned herself. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. he has the occasion to kill Claudius. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. when Fortinbras.2. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy.
at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. SAQ 3 Text 2. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. 2. If they should differ significantly. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. which is only partly dissimulated. as well as the indicated fragment. read again the preceding subchapter. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. is eminently a philosopher’s effort. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare.1. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below.
exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. Lear’s own madness. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. as in Hamlet. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. a bastard. The earl of Gloucester joins them. is also an exile from his own family. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. like that of blindness. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. and the Fool’s comments. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. another “fall of princes” tragedy. the Earl of Gloucester. Tragically. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. of human suffering. The motif of madness. Edgar. which would not undo the past. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whom he disinherits. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. the quest for higher meanings. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter.2. and.” 2. Goneril and Reagan. there is madness in nature itself. Hamlet’s introspective. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. through paradox.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. on the other hand. Edgar. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. in reality. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. unconditionally loving ones.5. Maddened with grief. Cordelia. is closely linked. which is that of restoring a lost order. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. to believe him a traitor and usurper. which helps him endure his suffering. of truth and illusion. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. both of them prove to be the loyal. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness.
unfaithful. 2.2. In Othello. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). is led by Iago to believe his wife. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. acting against it. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. Othello. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. faithfulness/betrayal. Desdemona. The noble protagonist.6. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. Scene from Othello. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Evil is that which destroys Nature. In Othello. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. innocence/guilt. essence. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity.
arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the instigation of his wife. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. / It weeps. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action.2. you need to revise subchapters 2. one of Duncan’s sons. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s).2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. The baroque motif of madness is. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 .2. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. to 2. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland. it bleeds. but. disorder. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm.6. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. 2. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. kinsman and guest. ____________________ 3. who has a trusting nature. ____________________ 2. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth. ____________________ 4. he multiples his crimes. 1. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. underlining the theme of knowledge.2. illusion and truth. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. ____________________ 5. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. at the end of the unit. The protagonist. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds.7. Macbeth. If any of your solutions should not correspond. paradoxically. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. innocence and corruption.
in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. Text 2. scene 2. SAQ 5 In Act II. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. / Macbeth does murder sleep. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. extracted from this scene. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero.2. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read the fragment once more. from the Reader. If there should be significant differences.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. who instantly fall in love with each other. to take his throne. Three lines of action develop. marvelous. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. He had long studied the arts of magic. Miranda. Caliban hates and fears Prospero.9. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. as well as other passengers. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. duke of Milan. involving the shipwrecked characters. They may also be described as romance plays. the fairy-tale atmosphere. After the tragedies. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. Alonzo. and certain themes and motifs (e. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Alonzo. the sense of a benevolent providential design. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. on which he lives alone with his daughter. Trinculo. 2. They mix serious and comic action. respectively –. is considered the finest. The Winter’s Tale. the jester.g. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio. his faithful spiritservant.2. myth. magic. the choice of a remote setting. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius.2. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. by his powers. In its opening scene. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son.8. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. the master of an island. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. who. The Tempest (1611). the long journey. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. the theme of loss and recovery. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. king of Naples. and Sebastian. has turned him into a slave. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. a drunken servant. of exile and return). the pronounced elements of the supernatural. the shipwreck. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. Cymbeline. owing to the improbability of the action.
2. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. On the island. and to return to the world in his full humanity. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. represents pure spirit. the control of intelligence over nature. education] can never stick. to master himself. The theme of power Ariel vs. a “thing of darkness. at the end.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. “neglecting worldly ends.10.2. he learns. Ariel. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban.e. the scholar-magician. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. Prospero. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. for the emergence of a regenerated world. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. In the final act. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. now. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. influenced by Ariel. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. At the opposite pole. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but. more importantly.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. who now repent. Caliban Innocence vs. and then to Milan.” claiming his throne.
Here. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. by teaching him to speak.. Full of resentment. Act I. more carefully.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. scene 2. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. or in developing self-identity. for instance. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . read the fragment again.4. extracted from The Tempest. If there should be major differences. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*.2. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. order and harmony. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. whose magic art controls every incident. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead. of performance. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest.2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest.11. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty.” The sea-journey Music 2. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants.12. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. Another pervading symbol is that of music. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. which “delight and hurt not. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. sublimating its primitive energies. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. The playmetaphor. then at least man should strive to discern in it. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. or to impose upon it. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays.
combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule.2. You must find them among the following statements. T F 4.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. at the end of the unit. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. Their styles are different.3. T F 2. If any of your choices should be wrong.2. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 .9 to 2. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. revise subchapters2. of which three are false. was first intended to bring discredit on them. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines.12. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. T F 3. but each of them. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. T F 7. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. in his own way. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. 2.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. 1. T F 5. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music. T F 6. except that of terrifying him.
argumentative quality. and the emotions involved. from a most ordinary circumstance. writers had to face a new exigency. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. a demand for “more matter and less words. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. but also his reason. is contemplated from a certain distance. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. regardless of the subject of the poem. which starts from a comparison. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements.3. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century.2. a metaphor or an analogy.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought.e. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . By means of conceits. This is an elaborate figurative device. In spite of its logical.” A new kind of poetry emerged. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. The impression is that this experience. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. linked. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning. “More matter and less words” 2. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. a cold intellectual exercise. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling.3.1. united] by violence together. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. As extended comparisons. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. which helps the poet to develop his subject. as “a combination of dissimilar images. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. Dr. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. or discovery of occult [i. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play.e. hidden. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime.
Donne displays the same sophisticated wit. revise subchapters 2. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and the same realistic force. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. pastoral* conventions.1.3. and 2. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith.3. and allegory. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. 2. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century.3. its decorative use of classical mythology. Use the space left below.2. and a highly original one. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. at the end of the unit.3. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 . In the treatment of both themes. In the following subchapters. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. If they should differ considerably.
Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. as this would be a triple “sin.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. This is a seduction poem. and he seems to amuse himself. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. Donne changes this conventional vision of love.3. in which their blood is now mixed. Donne is highly playful in this poem.4.” In fact. may afford an experience of the transcendental.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. when accompanied by genuine feeling. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. are however harmless to man. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). but. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal.” “tear-floods”). in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy. He also suggests sometimes that physical union. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. their love being so great and “refined. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. Chaste.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. which. though greater. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. beautiful. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea.
2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. Here. Formulate your answer in the space left below. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.3. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. at the end of the unit. you need to revise subchapter 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 .6. paying special attention to the last three stanzas. he develops one of his most famous conceits. Read the poem again. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love.. in the Reader). in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. as well. If they should differ significantly.
in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. of loyalty and betrayal. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. In Batter My Heart.3. on death. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. Actually. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. which parallel those in his love poetry. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. for the divine saving grace. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. In his religious meditations in verse. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. divine judgement. These poems usually display contrary impulses.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . comparable to that of Shakespeare. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. resurrection and salvation. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin.5. The insistence on violence and struggle. between idealised passion and erotic desire. Satan. in the exercise of reason.
and read the poem again. representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart.3. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. As a Puritan* patriot. If there should be significant differences. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . nature.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. In the last six lines.6. This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone.3. from the Reader. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. Donne suggests his contradictory. according to some critics. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). at the end of the unit. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. Marvell left.7. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. and love of country. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. 2. revise subchapter 2.5.
the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 . King Charles I Stuart. aspiring to union with almighty God.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. in contrasting colours. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit.e.7. On a Drop of Dew 2. 2. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. It is a seduction poem. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent. pictured with remarkable precision.e.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun. shyness] and accept his passionate love. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time.3. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. in which both of them act according to a divine order. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. is On a Drop of Dew.8. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate. in this respect.3. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. for fear that it might grow] impure. He showed a deep love for the countryside. On the other hand.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems. A natural detail. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. Marvell often sees. lest it grow [i. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. on the scaffold. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. The most illustrative poem. however. and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature.e. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. to change the form of ruling power). which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal.
If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. If the difference is considerable. in its sexual fulfillment.8. but…. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all.8. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 . more carefully. read the poem again. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature. Love. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. which has the structure If…. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2. in the Reader). is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality.3. paying attention to the logic of the argument. after revising subchapter 2. then (therefore)….
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
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figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
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by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. of a clean mind. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). which remain perfectly united. From Prospero’s point of view. concise expression and density of meaning 2. T. complicated line of argument. passion and reason. King Lear. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. Hamlet.” sleep (i.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. the abstract and the concrete.g. endowed with speech. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. T. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. 5. King Lear. 4. T SAQ 8 1. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. F. 4. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which he resents. Hamlet.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. even if physically the lovers must be apart.e. usually between highly dissimilar elements. analytical detachment from emotion 4. 6. T. 3. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. Othello. make his purposes known through words). From Caliban’s point of view. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. 3. Hamlet. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. unexpected. SAQ 7 1.g. F. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. This instrument. the development of conscience. however. to blend contraries (e. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. is a suitable emblem for their souls. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. surprising associations) 3. of his own sense of self. use of conceits (extended comparisons. F. 7. 5. Othello. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. 2. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. As a truly superior being. guided by rational will. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. 2. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. etc. He is not a cold-blooded killer.
since only worms will “enjoy” it. Paradoxically. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. 267-283. consent and legality. But. waiting for her departed lover. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Penguin Books Ltd.. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. Ford. Further reading 1. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin. in the absence of joy. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. however. A Critical History of English Literature. 273-287) 2. because your charms deserve such praise. 97-105. 1983 (pp. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. 302-305) 3.). 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 . 1991 (pp.” which only God can effect. 34-40.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference.).. 246-249. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. will long for him. Ioan-Aurel (coord. your virginity will then be worth nothing. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. instead of letting it devour us slowly. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. But I know time is merciless. vol. Boris (ed. in fact. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). English Literature and Civilisation. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. 3. He loves God.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. Preda. and which would resemble rape. 1969 (pp. vol. just as the mistress. David. Daiches. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body.
2.2. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4. 3.2. 3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .220.127.116.11.2. 3. 18.104.22.168.4.2.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3. 3. 22.214.171.124. 3.5. 3.4.4. 3. 3. 126.96.36.199. 3.4. 3.1.5. 3. 3.4. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton.1.5. 3.2. 3. 3. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.1.
Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. the greatest epic poem in English literature. as a publicist. the freedom of the press. etc. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. In 1638. religion. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. His enormous learning. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. Greek and Hebrew. such as education. as well as his moral inflexibility. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. Paradise Lost. baroque* vision. he continued to read intensively.g. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. he studied Latin. politics. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. At Cambridge (1625-1629).). After that. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. religious and civil debates of his age. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. he approached a diversity of subjects. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. etc. Milton. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. music. family. he went on a trip to Italy. theology. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. written in English and in Latin. mathematics. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. geography. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century.
2. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. Virgil*. With the Restoration*. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. Ovid*. As a poet. In some of them. but Milton did not complete his plan. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. is in touch with divine secrets. However.2. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. etc. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. his political hopes ended. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet.1.). with its pastoral delights. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. On the other hand. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. for instance. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. 3. who. As in other poems. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. In the Sixth elegy. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. However. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. like a priest. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
2. there is a strong emphasis on music.” contemplative mood. in Il Penseroso.e. the integration. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. The secular* pleasures of common life. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. 3. revise subchapters 3. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. in his poetic work. In each poem. Milton’s literary ambition was a. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. at the end of the unit. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. c. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . b. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. of classical erudition with biblical themes. the crowing of the cock. In both poems. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. c. to master a variety of styles. b. b. polyphonic sounds of the organ. with its simple pleasures. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. In Il Penseroso. In the latter. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere. in L’Allegro. c. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. and 3. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. If your choices should be wrong. 1. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. 2. and on the happiness of rural life.1.
again. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life.3.The works of John Milton 3. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. Milton composed another poem in which. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The death of the dedicated young man. personal manner. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. to fresh woods and pastures new. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. or occasional and complimentary compositions. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling.2. in a heavenly pastoral world. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. not on earth.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). uses again the pastoral frame.2. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. Irrespective of their nature. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. The elegy Lycidas. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge.
” By this time. in 1652. he must admit. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. at his age.” “mean or high” as it may be. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions. He has reached the age of twenty four. who carry out the divine his daughters will. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. but of God’s eternal will.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. i. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. confessing his temptation to ask. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. In Sonnet XVII. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. light denied?”).e. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . since. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. patiently. Milton meditates on his loss of sight. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”). To prevent such a complaint. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*. written in 1631. angels). God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. When he wrote Sonet XVII.” that they are “timely happy spirits”.2.1. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. as King of Heaven. he admits. but also by Christian humility.3.The works of John Milton 3. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. that. In the first part of the sonnet.3. As a Christian poet. with a certain sadness.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring.
2. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). respectively.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667.3.4. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same. and 3. in the Reader). and of leaving to posterity an undying work. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. and the two sonnets. Dante* –. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. at the end of the unit. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. when he was already blind. Read these sonnets (Texts 3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. 3. and he worked at it over several years. Virgil. If there should be significant differences. read again subchapter 3.1.
and his loss of Paradise. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. Milton had thought. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. of Lucifer* from Heaven. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. “to justify the ways of God to men. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. accumulated throughout his life. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels. in which man’s fall. His work is encyclopaedic. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. man’s temptation and fall into sin. He interprets poetically the biblical events.” forever deprived of the glory. obedience and rebellion. in fact. over the years.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths.” full of the bitterness of defeat. which is never ornamental. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. are gathered to listen to Satan. as he stated in the opening Invocation.e.1. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. original epic scenario. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. The “lost Archangel. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. Finally. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. in theme a daring.4.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. the creation of the world and of man. brought about by his disobedience. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. Starting from the dualism good/evil. but his erudition. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. 3. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. Milton’s ambition was. predestination*. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. etc. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action.
the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world. death and resurrection. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. Satan. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. and he flies away. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III.e. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. 3. by virtue of his leading position. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden.e. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. i. Pandemonium*.2. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. to seek the newly created Earth.4.e. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. cunning].The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. Chaos and Chance. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. and their discussions are rendered in Book II. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. God. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party. set him free from sin.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. surpass] hellish hate. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whose setting is in Heaven.” Meanwhile.
in the Reader. read again the text. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words.4. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. more carefully. If there should be major differences. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 . at the end of the unit.The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. What is God’s argument.
he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. and fear to transgress!” 3. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man.4. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. the angel Raphael.4. not immutable [i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan.” for the evocation of the making of the world. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. It is interesting that.4.e.The works of John Milton 3. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions. sent by God. sweetness.” Raphael leaves them. Adam is grateful to Raphael. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. instigated by Lucifer. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace.3.e. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence. that cannot change]. In Book VIII. in Milton’s poem. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. King Anointed*”. innocence and “virgin modesty. in Book VII. Adam admits that. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. in order to prolong his guest’s visit. after the defeat of the rebel angels. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect.” Man himself was created as a “better race. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. space]” left by the fallen angels. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. as this diminished W. In Milton’s interpretation. Satan. so that he may know more about his enemy. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos.” to fill in the “vacant room [i. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. not before repeating his warning. the “divine historian.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. and.
read the fragment again. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. through Raphael’s words. more carefully. W. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. in no more than 10 lines/100 words.7. in the Reader presents. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. A Prophecy.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below.
since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her.4. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. for a moment. the “subtlest [i. and. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. W. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. suspicion. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. most subtle*] beast of all the field. discord” – which make reason and will helpless. their inward the fall on Nature peace.The works of John Milton 3. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. Meanwhile.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone.e. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. The “calm region” of their state of mind. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .5. At last. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. hate / Mistrust. the thundering skies weep. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent.
He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. annihilate Sin and Death. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan.6. _______ c.” is the one who will. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space. but. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. hoping to arouse her pride. Match these sentences with the fragment. If any of your matches should be wrong. _______ d. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. 3. on a separate sheet. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. at the end of the unit. or fragments. in the middle of this speech. as God himself predicts: His Son. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. _______ e. _______ f.” _______ g. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. they taste its fruit. at the end of each sentence. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. at last. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. in which these moves are illustrated. Satan’s victory seems complete. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. which will bring her close to the condition of God. He denigrates God. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes.4. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. The world after the Fall In the next books. a. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. He flatters Eve. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction.8. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. but he also adds symbolic episodes. _______ b.
” founded on love. his suffering. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. – to the hostility of Nature. from man’s own vices – violence. In Book X.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. through Christ. The certainty that. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. etc. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. redemption*: Jesus. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. God consents. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. combining thus justice with mercy. In Book XI. death. intemperance. faith and good deeds. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. but Michael comforts him. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. but of sadness. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. pride. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance.
The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. however. while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. more carefully. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. It may be argued.9. 3. read the fragment again. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 .5. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. If they should differ in major points. which they fully assume. at the end of the unit. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin.
the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero. Before his fall. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical.e.The works of John Milton 3. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. where there is “neither joy nor love. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Over a century after the poem’s publication. which is itself a paradise. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. and his great ambition is “to reign. he had been the first Archangel. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power. From the beginning of the poem. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i.5. made happy in their innocent love.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan. In Hell.1. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven.
” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride. and “out of good still to find means of evil.The works of John Milton 3. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. As God’s absolute antagonist.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent. Satan.” He is “the author of all ill. It is also with “persuasive* words. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil.2. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word.” seeming reasonable and true. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim. It is with “high words. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. the destroyer of faith. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan.5. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness. Satan is The Tempter. Awakening in man the impulse to question. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 .
.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.3. If there are significant differences. “A mind not to be changed by time or place. and read the indicated fragment again.5. at the end of the unit.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell.1. and 3. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words. revise subchapters 3.5. “and “The mind is its own place.) B. Read the whole fragment carefully. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. in Hell.2. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
deprived of worth.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great.” “our general mother. but W.” “Patriarch of Mankind. in Book XII.” “Our great Progenitor [i. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace.The works of John Milton 3. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. ancestor.” “mother of human race.” but also “our credulous mother. Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. but as a consequence of their wrong choices. precursor]. but armed with the wisdom of faith. of understanding and accepting his limits.3. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested.5. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them.e. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. As a humanist. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall.” “Our Author. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. Satan’s torments in Hell. the titanic dimension of his suffering. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. Created in God’s image. As a Christian. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . In his last conversation with Michael. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. but who can hope for redemption*. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan. Adam is called Sire* of Men.
The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he prepared himself for it during long years. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text.2. in the Reader. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. a necessary part of His design. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. at the end of the unit. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. Read this fragment and summarise its argument. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. Summary In this unit. If there should be major differences. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet. Subchapter 3. one of the greatest English poets. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. the Nativity Ode.
presented in subchapter 3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . his courage and majesty. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. the creation of the world and of man. Subchapter 3.3. his love of freedom. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. Subchapter 3. but also in which man may. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. which are. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision. however. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. Undoubtedly. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist.5.4. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. put in the service of evil. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. at any time. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues. In Milton’s vision of the original sin.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word.
pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ.-17 A. ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i.C. It means “the carrier of light. not concerned with or related to religion. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. predestination: from a theological point of view.). humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. formerly used when speaking to a king. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. In classical literature. 800 B. Roman poet. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. to cause to believe). Sire: a respectful term of address. suffering and death of Christ. the “great and good redeemer” (i. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred).D. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. difficult to detect (or analyse). Italian poet. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. or some tragic event. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 .). to a place of wild confusion.” After the fall from Heaven. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. It may also mean cunning.e. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. by extension. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. the one who sets man free from sin). the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. author of La Divina Commedia.C. The word may refer. Providence: God’s kindness. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider.e. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. Homer: Greek poet (c. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. every. subtle: not immediately evident. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all. Purgatory and Paradise. clever in using tricks. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. he is called Satan. noise and chaos. to convince.
You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan. 2. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve.1.. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3.3.1. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words.4. with special attention to the indicated subchapters. God’s creation. before the final battle. • Read attentively this fragment.2.5. Send-away assignment no. Text 3. At the beginning of Book IV. romantic in The Tempest –. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan.2. one of the greatest Roman poets. 1. A revision of subchapter 3. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). at the end of the play. in Milton’s Paradise Lost..The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. Texts 2. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death. and 2. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. and the last paragraph of 2. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. in which he explores his inner hell.6. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed.C. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. and thus of destroying man. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest.). In both of them.2.
comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. clarity. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. Remember that. is thus not attributable to God. The fall of man. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. Created “just and right. responsible for his choices.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. or reason. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. is that one may choose right or wrong. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come.a. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . like that of the angels.b. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. The paradox of freedom.” In the case of man.. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave).c. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. and reason makes man. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. Milton emphasises the geometrical. not God. his blindness.. The poet places his trust in Providence. i. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. 3. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). however. The implication is that God gave man conscience. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. but the consequence of evil influence. 2.e. SAA no. • the coherence. in grading your paper.
Man is not a free creature. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. If Hell is a space of freedom. d. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). vol. Incapable of obedience to God. under the guidance of Providence. e. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). SAQ 5 a. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. Ioan-Aurel (coord. of human solidarity. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). as God has made him. 2003 (pp.4.The works of John Milton Architect”). b. f. English Literature and Civilisation. 2. 435-449) 2. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 2.e. with passive virtue.4. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). i. unless he exercises his will and reason. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. David. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. Daiches. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. Preda. Luminiţa Elena. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. g. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. and the image of the terrible gates.3.. 153-163) 3. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. 1983 (pp. faith and love untested.e. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. The Literature of the Beginnings. 1. Further reading 1. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. If God leaves man’s loyalty. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. SAQ 7 1. to be dictated by Reason. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Turcu. i. 3. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . c.). 1969 (pp. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. 2. 2. A Critical History of English Literature. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love. 1. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. Paradise is now a forbidden place. Forced to look ahead. This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition.
4.5. 4.4. 4. 4. 4.1. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4.1.3. 4. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 4.1.4. 4. 188.8.131.52 4.4.4. 184.108.40.206.2.4.2. 4.4. 220.127.116.11.1.7.1. 4. 4. 4. Gulliver. 18.104.22.168.3. 4. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.2.1.4. 4.1.5. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.2. 4.6. 4.4. 4.1. 4.1.
its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. under the patronage of king Charles II. clarity and elegant restraint.1. Alexander Pope. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. and. Nature. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . it was a period of transition as well. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. and their re-opening in 1660. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. of increasing rationalism and secularisation. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order.1. Human nature. From a literary point of view. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. Unit objectives 4. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. the cast of actors included women. addressing itself to an inclusive public. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. 4. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. and Jonathan Swift. drama holds a place apart. under the influence of French theatres. and of considerable diversity.1.
jealousy. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. above all.3. and absolute villains.2. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. magnificent settings. exotic places. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. although each in its own way and for different reasons. Gallantry. It made fun of the people from the countryside. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. were essential for the true man of the world. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). both of them highly conventional forms. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed.1. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. sumptuous costumes. Conquest and seduction. The action was usually set in remote. adultery. the cynicism. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. or Court Wits. 4. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. and. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. an artificial. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. lust. on the one hand. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. wit*. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. refinement and sophistication. fashionable manners. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines.1. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. on the other.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. Sensational turns of situation. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. A certain coarseness of feeling.
whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. or fool. selfish and manipulative. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. etc. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. Contrasting types were the coquette.” without scruples. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. cynical. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. lacking complexity. If characters were usually static. the scheming valet. pleasure-seeking. and the trusting husband as dupe. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. aspiring to the perfect adventure. the lusty widow. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated. the ingénue. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . Another frequent type was the fop*.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. young or old. the country squire*. despising marriage. deliberately superficial in construction.
who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. It displays typical Restoration characters. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language.1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. T F 2. by doing the exercise that follows. hedonism and amorality at Court. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single. T F 8. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). T F 5. simple action. 1. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. elegance.4. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness.1. read again subchapters 4. T F 3. T F 7. at the end of the unit. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*.1. If any of them should turn out to be wrong. T F 9. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. frivolity. Restoration comedy praised wit.3. T F 4. such as the impoverished gallant. refinement and sophistication. William Congreve. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. T F 6. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723).1. 4. to 4. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love.
A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. as these were remote from their experience. the pair of witty lovers. involving a multitude of characters. is extremely complex. admiration. the witty and resourceful servant. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. 4. consistent characters. Towards the end of the 17 th century. psychologically subtle and complex. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. and friendship to jealousy. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. increasingly middle class. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. half-sad.1. the awkward country-girl. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. bringing it to perfection. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. half-amused. affection. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. and the shifting relationships and alliances. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant.5. The new audience in the theatres. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . etc. The situation. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies.
which presents Millamant's demands. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. they seem to be playing a game.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World.. their agreement has serious implications.1. In a witty dialogue.. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract.1. Mirabell is a reformed rake. read again subchapter 4. If there should be significant differences. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions. However. in Act IV. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below.4. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . under the appearance of frivolity. as well as the indicated fragment. Read Text 4. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Millamant is also in love.
John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation.2. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. elegance. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. and harmony extended beyond literature. balance.2. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. Besides Dryden and Pope. Joseph Addison*. In both cases. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. 4. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation.1. In it. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 .
on the other hand. to make form and substance adequate to each other. humble style. skilful transgression. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. required an elevated style. A poet’s innate talent needed training. Epic and tragedy. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*.2. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre.2. i. i. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. the emphasis on discipline in art.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. yet achieve great beauty. the most valuable store of literary experience.2. for the Augustans. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . and the poet might disregard them.. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. was Shakespeare. and to those patterns of behaviour. a dignified diction. comedy. which in turn required good judgment and common sense.3. lacking ornament. of infinite variety.e. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet. The most eloquent example. skill. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. for instance. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. This was the case of the genius. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. was expected to use a common. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. in satirical or burlesque* works. The rule of decorum 4. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors.e. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms.
read again subchapter 4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 .2.3. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. a combination achieved through reason. but also to imported French ideas – e. or art*. and the indicated fragment. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*.g. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. What are the main ideas in this fragment. at the end of the unit. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below.3. and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines). to those of Nicolas Boileau*. SAQ 3 Text 4. If there should be significant differences.
precision and clarity. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. too. refinement with wisdom. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. its effects were considerable on prose. unnecessary ornament. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it. of quick accumulation of information.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. where nothing seems to be studied. manners and taste. The writer's art was a form of social communication. Ostentation.” Augustan wit 4. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity.4. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . or. “grace and strength united. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. 4. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility. eloquence with restraint.3.5. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. In the context of general progress. affectation were rejected. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*. but to be a functional part of the community.2. of critical debate in every field. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*).2. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public.
meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. At the same time. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. They believed. the middle class readers. Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. dominantly middle class. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. and they were published with varying regularity. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. In order to counterbalance this tendency. or to the discussion of literary matters. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. for a clientele of ships' captains. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. some of them being issued daily. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. at cultivating their minds.” that ignorance is a source of evil. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. with Alexander Pope.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. opened in 1688. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
think again and try to do the exercise once more. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. The Tatler and The Spectator. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. whose essays were published several times in the century. and by far the most popular ones.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. Like other writers. Think of present relevance of this remark. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711). on a separate sheet. If they are significantly different.3. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists.1. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking.e. 4. Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. at the end of the unit. collected in book form.
generous and cheerful. an expert in fashion and gossip. modest and commonsensical person. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity.” of wide learning.e. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. • A clergyman. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and the reflections of “Mr. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. rather than a merit. • Will Honeycomb. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley.e.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. turned to the study of literature. He is a man of “great probity.e. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. a middle-aged squire. He believes. manners. skills] and industry. for The Spectator. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. a courageous. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. a rich London merchant.e. in which they collaborated. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. “a very philosophic man. hard work and skill. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. for instance. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. • Sir Andrew Freeport. a model of honesty. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. a competent justice of the peace*. “a person of indefatigable industry*. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer. as his father had intended for him. bravery in battle]. wit and understanding. and great experience. a man of the world. for true power is to be got by arts [i. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen.” or that “diligence [i. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation. a gallant. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. • A gentleman who. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. laziness. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit. in his county. and sloth [i. Now.” and “his familiarity with the customs. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. strong reason.” • Captain Sentry. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour.
Identify at least eight such features. If there should be major discrepancies. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. 5.1. 2. 6.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. 1. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. read again subchapter 4. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. common sense. and write them in the indicated spaces below. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club.3. cheerful disposition. 4. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . more carefully. 3. at the end of the unit. 8. 7.
The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. Pope. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . disloyal and excessively ambitious. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. 1743). 4. to religious debates and literary practices.4. and satire became their formidable weapon. contradictions and dark aspects. intrigues. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. Bayes*. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. folly. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets. brave and fearless man. genuinely gifted for leadership. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. Samuel. admiration and condemnation. selfishness.4. are mingled: the evil conspirator. Political and religious dissensions.1. hypocrisy.2. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. king David. 15-18).The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. often touched by ironic humour. struggle for power and profit. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. appears also as a stormy spirit. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature.4. a passionate. the Duke of Monmouth. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. from political and social life. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. greed. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. its cult of reason and common sense. 4.
and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. imagination). Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. Philosophy. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Religion. SAQ 6 Text 4. are more disturbing than entertaining. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire. however. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. more attentively. Science. concerning satire. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. If it should be significantly different. read the fragment again. Explain this analogy.e. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. Its implications. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. he reflects on the art of the satirist. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit.4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame.2. Here. and Morality. imaginative inventiveness. Art. Truth. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. and revise subchapter 4.
and where human creatures. the flying island. he learns about the Struldbruggs. a hater of pedantry and pretence. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. respectively. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused.A Voyage to Laputa. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. justice and freedom.4. bigger than himself. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. Glubbdubdrib.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. religious. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals.4. From this last country.4. building houses starting from the roof. Gulliver is finally expelled. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . philosophical. In Luggnagg.3.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. In his last voyage. with a sharp sense of observation. the Yahoos. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. an uncompromising defender of truth. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. Luggnagg and Japan IV. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. Balnibarbi. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. Back in England. Laputa.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Like many of his contemporaries. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. Jonathan Swift. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. curious and resourceful. social and intellectual realities. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). In Balnibarbi. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. and literary. In it. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. economic. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. or softening marble to make pincushions. In his third voyage he visits several strange places.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. intelligent speaking horses. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. in his potential as a rational creature.A Voyage to Lilliput II. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man.
SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one).5. and he prefers now the company of horses. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. Find. 3. in Text 4. from the Reader. read the fragment carefully once more. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. at the end of the unit. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. 4. four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 1. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. 2.The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind.
Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. The fourth voyage. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. by dancing on a rope.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. etc. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. his vulnerability increases. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man.6. In the Houyhnhnms.4. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. ruled by an enlightened monarch. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). ambitious. jumping over or creeping under a stick. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. from which he chooses to leave. of the capacity for affection. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. vain. In Brobdingnag. In the Yahoos. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection.4. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. Gulliver. issues or figures. Gulliver is confronted. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. cruel and hypocritical. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world.). his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. Dissenters and Catholics. he sees ideal creatures. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. governed only by reason. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). However. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion.5. in his last adventure. means de-humanisation. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. etc. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation.
For many readers.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. filthy. the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. In a “theological” perspective. unteachable and ungovernable. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Houyhnhnm and Yahoo . and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. makes him a frustrated idealist. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians.
in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. and to revise subchapter 4.6. find anti-utopian elements in it. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia.4. more carefully. however. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect. For Gulliver. If there should be major differences. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 . you need to read the fragment again. The careful reader will. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. from the Reader.
and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. Pope.7. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. and by means of it.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. on the rule of decorum. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. Swift. dominantly middle class. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. caricature. Steele. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. when literary Neoclassicism developed. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. narrow-sightedness. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason. therefore also capable of error. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. comedy was licentious and cynical. Like heroic tragedy (e. Congreve. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. Dryden). Addison. including that of Reason itself. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. a wide public. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. parody. Satire. grotesque. his learning and sense of literary tradition. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege.). For Swift. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. Pope) and in prose (Swift). and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. It is an age of transition. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. Steele). It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. both in verse (Dryden. placing wit above virtue. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. Dryden. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. Goldsmith. generally. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life.g. and. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. Gradually.4. was another characteristic genre. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. etc. Dryden.
art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1.” where Dryden would come regularly.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature). acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. “Will’s Coffee House.1. well-dressed man. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. coffee houses: since the 1650s. affectation: a manner of speech. greatly concerned with appearances. which designated a fashionable. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. profession or interest. achieved by training and practice. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . dress or behaviour which is not natural. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. For instance. the acquired competence of the writer. or escort. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French). Art may generally refer to the work of man. and the Glossary in Unit 2. admirer. In her empire of darkness and confusion. In Pope’s satire.1. baroque: see again subchapter 2. political or religious orientation. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18). Anarch: a personification of anarchy. but is intended to impress others. his craftsmanship. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news.
fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. honour. but to the whole of created reality. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. In this kind of comedy. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. a strictly ordered hierarchical system.3 in Unit 1. stupidity. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible. “Mr.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. referring not only to external nature. unexciting.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. Bayes. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. or “humour. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1.” Nature: an inclusive concept.” another word for “laurel”. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. “Dull” also means uninteresting. i. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. landscape. and distinction. trait . boring. to deceive). mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Mr. It derives from “bay. inclination. from dunce. slowness in thinking and learning. In Pope’s satire. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 .” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. dulness: in a strict sense.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1.4. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad.e. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama).
elegant.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. founder of literary journalism. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. of taste or skill.e. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. and topos = place). Boileau. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. polished). Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined.4 in Unit 1.” from Greek u = not. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. author of poems. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. perfect society (literally: “no place. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. Dryden.1. Among the latter. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. especially the main landowner in a village.4. he translated from ancient authors.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516). or who chats or talks idly. squire: a country gentleman. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. or literature in general. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. for the notion of sentimentalism.3 in Unit 5. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. essays and dramatic works. i. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. of imagination and originality. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. making literature “dull. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. in which he outlines the features of an ideal.4.
his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas.C. and The Man of Mode. author of odes. Virgil. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. clear. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). and A Modest Proposal (1729). Swift. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. Johnson.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. of Irish origin. a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. concise and flexible. Pope. William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. Among various other works.). Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. an unequalled master of irony and wit. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. member of the Royal Society. who called him a “comic history-painter. Like his friend. He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. and a major representative of English sentimentalism.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. Together with Addison. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. Goldsmith. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). Wycherley. Sprat. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). satires and epistles. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. Hogarth. Steele. political and moral vices. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733).
and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. for sophisticated Millamant. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. 9. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. of those features which are universal. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. sense of responsibility. opinions and tastes.e.T. integrity. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. 5. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature. common sense.F. SAQ 5 honesty. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. good judgment. benevolence. industry. 7. or judgment. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention.T.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i. in an analogous sense. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . 2. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. modesty.e. and. abdicating from reason. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. 3. good sense.T.T. 8.F. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. regardless of their particular condition. 4.e. diligence. 6. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. Civilised reserve in society. is. by the standards of her social environment. open-mindedness. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. good breeding.” Just as weeds (i. reasonableness. furnished with ideas.T. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. of Human nature.F. In marriage. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles.
the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 537-550) 2. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. the exclusion of opinion. 180-187) 3. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. ultimately of imagination. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. David. vol. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. In the absence of affective attachment. only the species counts. Ioan-Aurel (coord. 5. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 2003 (pp. Cornelia. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. The Novel in Its Beginnings. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Macsiniuc. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way.. which is meant only for procreation. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring.). The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Further reading 1. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. which breeds imaginary ills. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. the “fineness. which makes social progress inconceivable.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. 1969 (pp. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). 1983 (pp. conflict and self-interest. The English Eighteenth Century. Preda. The spirit of competition. The tendency to idleness. Daiches. 4.” the subtlety of his accusations. Editura Universităţii Suceava. English Literature and Civilisation. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. 2. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. They practice population control. A Critical History of English Literature. The individual is of no importance. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. The irrational greed and avarice.” SAQ 7 1. 3. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage.
22.214.171.124. 5.2.3. 5. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 . 5.2. 5. 5. 5. 5. 126.96.36.199.5.8. 5. 188.8.131.52.4.4. 5.1.4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5.1. 5. 5. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168. 5. 5.2.2. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2. 22.214.171.124.6. 5. 5.5.2. 5. 5.4. 5.6.3. 126.96.36.199. 5.3. 5.1.
Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. mostly imitations of French models. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. whose vast majority was middle-class. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. exotic settings. and generally about women.1.1. in the early years of the 18 th century.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. and there is a connection between. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and the development of the novel. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5.1. 5. the rise of the middle classes. more inclusive reading public. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. tolerance. whose action was often set in remote. natural rights.
romances were therefore literature of escape. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. the province of the novel was the familiar. in Augustan terms. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. but from contemporary life. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. Characters are no longer idealised. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. On the one hand. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. Realism – or. Thus. On the other hand. legend. moral or psychological detail. 5. by common people. its normality. but distinct individualities. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. in its concerns. vague and abstract figures. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. the novel’s didactic vocation. or previous literature. The novel reflects. in the novel. history. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. The ordinary aspects of life. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim.2. By contrast. socially and materially dependent on men. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them.1. For most women.
1. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. on the one hand. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . … 4. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. The rise of the middle classes … 2. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations.1. and 5. If there should be major differences. on the other.2. Women were … 3.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. and public/social norms and conventions. read again subchapters 5. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion. at the end of the unit.1. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. 1.
but to literature as well. from which it borrowed devices. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. a wide variety of influences went into its making. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. displayed not only in fiction. classic models to follow. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. in which the action is episodic. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. romance is trivialised through parody*. the romance). The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. Instead. for the author. and the hero’s various encounters are.g. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. patterns and motifs. loosely structured. i. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. belonging to several categories at once. On the other hand. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. Fielding). and the world represented in such novels is open. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. but also in poetry and in drama. and extremely diverse.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. repetitious. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding.1. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e.g. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. forms of expression. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism.e. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels.3. The motif of the travel is central. confusion. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. inclusive. on events. irony and burlesque*. therefore an ally to realism. Many novels cut across divisions. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. Richardson).
at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. ________________________ 7. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. in an atmosphere of gloom. ________________________ 2. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. after each sentence. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. usually with supernatural ingredients. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. read again subchapter 5. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration.1. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. 1. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values.. in their confrontation with moral choice. ________________________ 6.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. trivial subjects. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. ________________________ 5. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. at the end of the unit. 3.3. ________________________ 8. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. It presents a tale of mystery and horror. ________________________ 4. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict.
dynamic and versatile. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement.1. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. This confers vividness to their narratives. their social insertion. published in 1719.2. in circumstantial details. when the writer was almost sixty. They are pragmatic. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. several adventure novels. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. in actions. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. on his fiction. in the next years.2. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. to the influence. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. They share a middle class. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. Puritan* background. but also on the Continent. They were all stories of success. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. Mariner. cast in a picaresque form. 5.
On his return to England.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. not only physical but also spiritual. to buy slaves. romantic youth into a realistic.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. Under Defoe’s pen. in soon left a widower. After 26 years. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. In the hope of increasing his wealth. such an experience became an archetypal one. Providence helps him finally leave the island. After several misadventures at sea. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity.2. one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. prudent and calculating mature man. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man.” without “any appearance of fiction in it.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he turns from a reckless.2. The only survivor.” and leaves home on board a ship.” It is. Wyeth . struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. he starts a voyage to Africa. In the 28 years of solitary life. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. has three children. He marries. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. in fact. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. C. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. where he has established a colony.
the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance.2. to the awakening of religious conscience. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter.” 5. In his initial struggle with despair.. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word.2. read again subchapters 5. Gradually.2. and 5. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 . as a political or economic utopia. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Isolation is no longer a misfortune. at the end of the unit. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words.2. In this light. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father).1. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory.3. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness. If it should differ considerably.
subchapter 5. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience. the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. inventiveness. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. Changed in his “notion of things. Enumerate. or the felix culpa*.2. or by a sentence (e. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. in the space below.. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God. You may render these features either by a single noun (e. as well as the fragment in the Reader. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot. morally autonomous.2.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise. 2.. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life.3. Like Adam. He takes pleasure in his work). The enormous effort by which he secures shelter.” However. It has its spiritual rewards. as a self-reliant individual.g. 4. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3. perspicacity.. perseverance. 1.2. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value.” desires and “delights. ingenuity). Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. which will serve his instinct for independence. In this connection. g.
His linear. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. in the Reader from the point of view of its style. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. clear language. 2. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. The richness of concrete detail. containing. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. the frequent enumerations and inventories. of familiar detail. which. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. concreteness. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. 1. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. on a separate sheet. His simple. 3. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. the promise of symbolic meanings. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. 4. whose reality is difficult to doubt. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. lack of unnecessary ornamentation.2. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure. read the fragment and subchapter 5.4 once more and do the exercise again. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. clarity. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. with unmatched vividness. rendered in a simple. at the same time. he paid little attention to matters of form. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. solid world.4. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. but on the complexity of character and human relationship.2. at the end of the unit.
B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. At the same time. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. There. Faced with her resistance. As the first great sentimental novelist. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. Mr. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. His influence was considerable. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). of the struggle between virtue and vice.2. In Clarissa. as well as for his didactic purpose.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. B_’s sister. Upon the death of her mistress. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. unanimously loved and admired. B_’s hands. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. The plot of Pamela. Pamela continues a diary. in Bedfordshire. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. In her new state. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. In Pamela. recording the details of her ordeal. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. B_. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. hoping that she will give in. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. not only in England but also on the Continent. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. the latter’s son.5. whose affection she finally gains. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. cruel and greedy relatives. B’s relatives and friends.2. Mr. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. Mr.6. sensibility and morality. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5.
Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious.7. Richardson’s implicit radical message. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. to set moral standards to the nation. B_. a complete novelty in fiction. the rights of the individual. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. Through its subject and theme. the freedoms that he takes with her. F. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. as a traditionally dominant class. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl.2.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor. read again attentively subchapters 5. though in quality [i. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words.”? Answer in the space left below.6. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty.2. Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger.8. between hate and admiration.7. as a servant. to obey Mr. and 5. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination.2.e.2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. at the end of the unit. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations. If there should be significant differences. 5. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable.
If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader.2. at the end of the unit. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. her sentimental response to them. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. and his developing love. read again subchapter 5. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. however. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. What counts. which are captured in the process of their emergence. in the Reader). find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. In Pamela’s letters and diary. on the one hand.4. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart.9. and considering also Text 5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus. 1. excerpted from Pamela. B_ follows a similar evolution.. 2.. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings.3. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling. on the other. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character.
The careful narrative architecture of his novels. Mrs. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. burlesque and comic satire. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. Slipslop. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. whose servant he was. Pope. B_’s aunt. but a voice external to the story. in London. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. and. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. Joseph’s sweetheart. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. so that he sets out for home. Mr. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. 1790) 132 . relationships and actions. Booby. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue.3. but also by the maid. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. All important characters meet here. author of Don Quixote” (1742). started as a parody. Fielding was a master of parody. to his native village. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. Mr. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. Fielding abandons parody. Through the omniscient* narrator.” Mr. Cervantes. At this point. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. modest and gentle creature. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. the author asserts himself.1. but a snobbish. irony. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. above all. they mirror a wide range of human types. including Pamela and her husband. priggish* upstart. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. Abraham Adams. performed by means of comic satiric devices.3. as well as their inclusiveness. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill.
indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. Read Text 5. Wilson. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. T F 8. 5. carefully. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. read the text once more. alluding thus to the older genre.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. whom they had met during their journey. which closes the plot.5. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. or the pattern of the adventurous journey.2. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. 1. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. at the end of the unit. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . For instance. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. for true or false) for each of them. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. T F 4. which turns out to be gentle*. is an ingredient of romantic plots. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. T F 2.3. Mr. T F 7. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). in the spirit of comedy. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status. T F 6. Fielding likes to play with genres. T F 3. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. T F 5. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. Cervantes. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . etc. he describes “not men. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. above all. Like his literary ancestor. cruelty. By means of techniques of contrast. masters. At the same time. In the beginning. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. but good deeds and charity. not an individual. Joseph emerges as morally mature. doctors. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. which often create comic effects. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. active goodness. which must give substance to faith.3.3. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. but manners. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. but also moral instruction. For the author. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. Along the novel. as he himself says. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. etc.4. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. often making him appear ridiculous.3. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). Every social class. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. as for Richardson. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. there are both good and bad innkeepers. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. In other words. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. in spite of the many instances of greed. lawyers. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. in Fielding.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. but they placed their main interest in the individual. both honest and hypocrite priests.
provide the first theory of the novel. If they should differ substantially.2.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel.. read again subchapters 5. and 5. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each.4. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and he believes. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 . of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language.3. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama.5. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony.3. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. at the end of the unit. His commentaries and reflections on his own art. unaffected.2. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition.. incorporated in the substance of his works. like many Augustan writers. Fielding is the most “Augustan.3.4. drawing short comparisons. 1. through its moral and temperamental types. 3. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. 5. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists.. At the same time. He is a moralist. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech. 5. Explain them. 2.8. 5.2.. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.
corporal Trim. the history of a private life. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. With Sterne. as well as of Parson Yorick. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. His father.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.4.1.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness.4. Tristram. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. the priest who baptised Tristram. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. at every point. Fielding had demonstrated. 5. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things.4. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. the relation between life and literature. the narrator. i. by accident. However. other interesting things to relate. moulds reality into a literary pattern. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. He digresses continually.” in every sense. in Joseph Andrews.e. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. at the age of five. and his long. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. In spite of his promises. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. is an erudite philosopher. that he was.2. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction. unpredictable narrative. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. of his uncle. does not manage to give a shape to his story. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life. Walter. that. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. he seems to have. Walter Shandy. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation.
It is not type (social. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. Understandably. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. Wounded in Flanders. which influences all his thoughts and actions. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. were being fought on the continent. They cannot share their thoughts. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature.3. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. with man as a vulnerable. ironic terms. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. character and destiny. modesty and. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. and discharged from the army. However. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. therefore. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts. generosity. as comic eccentricity. amiability. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. above all. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. pitiful creature. The “nonsensical. absorbed in this activity. gentleness.4. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. good-humoured. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. On the other hand. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life.
4. see again the fall of princes. V. I. at the end of the unit. Write the answer in the space left below. Ch. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*. SAQ 10 In Vol. in the Glossary to Unit 2.. To remember the features of the tragic hero. as well as the fragment from the Reader. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words.3. If the difference is considerable.6.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. Read this short chapter (Text 5. read again subchapter 5. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit.
” Not only as a man. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. etc. Tristram resorts to other means of communication. Sterne’s rambling narrative. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . by drawing his attention not only to what is told. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in. The structure of the book is equally odd. the book is a comic oddity. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. watched as if by a slow motion camera. points of suspension. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. For example.4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. makes the reader aware of them. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. The zigzagging narrative. and he takes great delight in digressions. 5. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. and gives the impression of stagnation. which he calls “the sunshine of reading.4. does not seem to move towards any climax. there are several dedications scattered through the book. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. i. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. to a certain view of writing. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds.e. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight.4. but also as an author. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. in Sterne’s novel. with its multitude of dashes.5. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. so different from Fielding’s tight. Sterne defamiliarises them. the “imperfections of words. coherent plots. but also to how it is told. by exploiting them in a parodic way. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. for instance. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. drawings and graphs. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. asterisks. Typographically. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface. It is.
into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. Metafictionally. Tristram draws the narrative “lines.” with their digressions. metafiction is fiction about fiction. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. ultimately. As metafiction. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. of life as pure chance. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. It is a half-amused. on the author’s vision of life. i.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.6. the narrated time and the time of reading. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive.e. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which is connected. in the first four volumes. In volume VI. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction.e. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time. i. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. the process of its own writing. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. The unpredictable. at the structural level.4. however. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. Its extravagant. The meaning of metafiction depends. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. Basically. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. formless reality. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. as it explores – halfseriously. works which call attention to their own devices.
go again through subchapters 5. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 . If they differ significantly.5. In this way.4. which he discusses in the very text of the work.. and 5. Write them in the spaces indicated below. 1. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel.6. Instead of continuing the story. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them. 2. 3.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel.4. at the end of the unit. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing.7. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and read the fragment attentively once more.
which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Sterne. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. completely ignored by Augustan poetics. the novel was a minor form. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. and Laurence Sterne. However. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. Lastly. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. Samuel Richardson. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. on the other hand.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. Fielding. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. in his novels of manners. Henry Fielding. Since its settlement on the literary scene. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. At the beginning of the 18th century. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance.
to the lower ranks of society. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). happiness. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). gaiety. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive.e. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. The hero – the picaro (i. in which the poor heroine. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. played like a piano. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. rogue) – belongs. booby: silly or stupid person. literacy: the ability to read and write.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. or “narcissistic” – i. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. a Fool. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. whose style. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. characteristically. “beyond fiction”. exact representation of life. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. metafiction: literally.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. Cinderella: an old fairy story. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church.e. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. Concretely. mirth: laughter. but producing a different sound. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. and he seeks social integration. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. lifelikeness: closeness to life. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. gentle: of good breeding. Bildungsroman: German term. fixed idea. tone. epistolary manner: in a novel. or education. a hobbyhorse is a toy. literally: novel of formation. fun.
honest and brave hidalgo (i. Britain joined Austria. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote. 1615). like a knight-errant of former times. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. Don Quixote starts. Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. The high aspirations of this generous.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713.e. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment.4. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. You will have. as illustrated by this fragment. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent. 1. 2.. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island.2. In order to win the good graces of the king. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. Remember that. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. SAA no. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels.1. Text 4.1. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. the king rejects this tribute. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. 3. therefore. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. and 5. to revise the preceding unit. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. in grading your paper. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. with special attention to subchapter 4. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. Text 5. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule.. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . clarity. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. Horrified.4. • the coherence.
3. inventiveness. immediacy. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. industriousness. SAQ 4 Tenacity. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. concreteness. rationality. and also authors of novels. 5. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. patience. all souls are equal. 2. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. realistic account. 4. plainness. and by the form of autobiographical record. 2. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. sharp sense of observation. optimism. SAQ 5 factuality. 5. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . resilience. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. pragmatism. the capacity for learning from mistakes. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. SAQ 2 1. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. vividness. 3. 6. In the social order. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. 4.
T. he is concerned with human types.T. 3F.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil.F. SAQ 8 1. 2.T. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. wealth and power. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. SAQ 11 1.T. living and the act of writing overlap each other. 4. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style.T. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. 5.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great.F SAQ 9 1. 6. 2. SAQ 7 1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. who write in the first person. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind. In this way. that is. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. 8. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer. 2. they create a sort of suspense. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience.” but in “pitiful misadventures. This is not Tristram’s case. 3. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. 3. enjoying title. 3. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. 7. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. 2. He is always a prominent figure.
Editura Universităţii Suceava. 598-602. 76-80) 2. Macsiniuc. vol. A Critical History of English Literature. 731-736) 3. 2003 (pp. 179-195. Penguin Books Limited. 1991 (pp. 217-231. David.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 116127.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 43-46. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Allen. Daiches. 701-704. 53-59. 143-163. Walter. 37-42. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. Cornelia. 1969 (pp. The English Novel. 712-718.
4. 6. 6.1.4. 6.4.2. 6.1.4. 6. The Seasons William Cowper. 6. 6. 6.2.3. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2.4.1. 188.8.131.52.4. 184.108.40.206.4.4. 6.3.5. 6. 6.3.1. 6. 6.2. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 .1.3. 6.2.4. 6.3. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6.2. 6. 220.127.116.11.1.
discipline. Swift. regarded art as the product of civilisation. the century of the Enlightenment*. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry.1. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. Neoclassicism*. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. with its emphasis on order. Pope. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. The interest in individual psychology. Like any modern age. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. and for night as a setting. For instance. elegance and decorum*. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. harmony.g. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. The sentimental novel* (e. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. however. was eminently the Age of Reason. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. The concern with personal. and Fielding). whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine. Addison. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. and cultivated its public relevance.
English pre-Romantic poetry 6. death and immortality. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. and misty. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads.1. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity.1. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. In 1765. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time.D. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. His long poem in nine books. which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. Night Thoughts (1742-1745). It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). and folk literature in general. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language.2. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry.1. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. wild. sublime landscapes. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry.
… for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. … as well as Gothic fiction. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. with its gloomy atmosphere. b. read again the previous subchapters. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. c. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. at the end of the unit. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. … 3. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. imagination. 1. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. … a. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. When his literary fraud was exposed.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. regarding him as a martyr. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. The publication. in 1765. Chatterton committed suicide.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. d. Like James Macpherson. aspiring to poetic fame. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. reflected… 4.
the state of nature began to be idealised.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. In the latter part of the century. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. but also literary forms. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. The return to blank verse 6. such as the song and the ballad.1.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. The pre.g. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent. the interest in the local and national past. The great novelists (e. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. characteristic of the Enlightenment. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects.2. busy life of the city with moral confusion. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. The emphasis on sentimental response.3. Towards the end of the century. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. In the following subchapters. Samuel Taylor Coleridge).
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
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English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
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political comments. not only the perception of nature. 6. etc.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. patriotic enthusiasm.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating.1.3. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. and the apparent cruelty of winter. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “Winter. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). the splendour of summer. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. more amusing. As Dr. Britannia.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. becomes an object of interest in itself. His poem educated. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. in its magnificence and diversity. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him.3. nature. and the moral sentiment. praise of friends. exerting a considerable influence on both of them. but also the feeling for it. manifest as early as the 1730s. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons. in many generations of readers. Samuel Johnson said. James Thomson. the philosophical reflection. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. an expression of national pride. In spite of its eclectic nature. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. than the works of Nature.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. His praise of nature and of the countryside.
but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement.3. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. from the third part. Like Thomson and Collins.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. William Collins 6. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. “Autumn. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). records his observations and reflections. with its short. Passages of moral and political commentary. and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. social satire. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. more carefully.2. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age.3. which actually inspired Thomson). the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. If there should be major differences. He was interested in the mediaeval past. read text C again. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 . at the end of the unit. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. in popular superstitions and the supernatural.. William Cowper.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. living in retirement from the city. unrhymed stanzas.
in the 18th century.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. however. SAQ 5 Text 6. the peace and quiet of village life. with its vices and follies. Coleridge). of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. represents one of the most memorable statements. at the end of the unit. Wordsworth. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. like gardening.e. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. As a poet of nature. 1856 The Task. T. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. but the joy of communion with friends. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. affected] the country. in the Reader. domestic activities. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. and of simple. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. / Paradise that has survived the fall.4. concerning the opposition country/town. indicate an affectionate observer. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . S. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. He praises the simple pleasures. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper.” Sometimes.
The combination of calligraphic text. widening the range of meanings. In Blake. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry.1. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. Each copy was then coloured by hand. the rural setting. and he rejected the classical standards of style. to the special way in which he produced his work. and Macpherson. Gray. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. In his first great illuminated work. Apart from a volume of early verse.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . He was not only a poet. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. Milton. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. 6. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). Blake’s late fame is due. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. to a large extent. our sense of a common fate for all humanity. he turns his attention to the rural world.4. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought.4. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. Like other pre-Romantic poets.civilisation. William Blake. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. but also a gifted painter and engraver. and recognised as one of the most original creators. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . Thomson. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way.
owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer.” or “I write when commanded by spirits.2. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. Los*. and he denounces the evils of civilisation. The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). Blake was a rebel. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. 6. or be enslaved by another man’s. original and strange. Jerusalem: “I must create a system.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. a tribute to Milton. and his whole work.” This is Blake’s own creed.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory. for instance: “I copy Imagination. They are. says. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. Like the other English Romantics. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in Blake’s last poem. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated.4. unpremeditated act. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets. Blake. in a way. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. a prophet. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own.
4. T F 2. and the three statements that are false. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. The Blossom. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. revise the whole subchapter. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). Laughing Song.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. that is. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. Spring. T F 6. Poems like Infant Joy. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. T F 7. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. 6. If you have made mistaken choices. T F 5. The Echoing Green. of the world seen through the eyes of the child. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry.3. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. enjoy] to hear. The Shepherd.e. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . T F 4.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. their clarity of expression and their musicality. innocent delights. and its origin was visionary experience. As a poet. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. at the end of the unit. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. For Blake. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. T F 3. 1.
” can “laugh away care. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. in his natural tendency to virtue.e. which a proper education should develop. and absence of frustration or inhibition. According to him. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. in Nurse’s Song. Innocence. with white hair. In The Echoing Green. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. For Blake.” Throughout his work. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. In these poems. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. “Old John. does not mean ignorance. is a biblical allusion. the guardian angel. meadow]”. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. although the sun has set. The nurse. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. associated with childhood. the shepherd. Besides the children themselves. The good shepherd. with which Blake was acquainted. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. or even Jesus. love. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy. gratified desire. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 . Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. at the end of the unit.5. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and in which he represents to himself its “making. in the Reader. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. If there should be a significant difference between them. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb.” Answer in the space below.
4. poverty and oppression. in which man’s lot is hard work. for instance. which deny man his freedom. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. for instance. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. the thirst for war. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . when this life ends. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. which is a promise of divine mercy. i. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. or the mind of others. society and divinity. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. protesting against the evils of his time. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them. In The Chimney Sweeper*. nature. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. even sarcastic. disease.5. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice.4. hate. 6. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. Like the chimney sweeper. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –.4. In London.e. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. However. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. full of indignation and anger. standing equal before God. envy and deceit. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. but. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. In Songs of Experience. love and joy have been replaced by fear. In the fallen state of Experience. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. of “stony laws*”. often.
you]?) and his own answer. innocent question (“Little Lamb.6. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. by ambiguity and even obscurity. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. provoking more anxiety than certainty.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below.6. who made thee [i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. with no explicit answer. in Songs of Experience.4. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain. If it should differ in major respects.e. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. Read this poem – Text 6. at the end of the unit. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. dangerous tiger. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow.
seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. but with ways of seeing and feeling. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity. indeed. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture. was responsible. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. which are thus strengthening their own power. This is the God of the world of Experience. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. in Songs of Experience. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church. served by the institutionalised churches. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. with its “mysteries”*. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. A deeply religious person. bearing even the same titles.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. Reason and Energy*. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London. in Blake’s view. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters. Contraries are essential to progression. The church. a stern. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. “contrary states of the human soul.” which lead to contrary visions.7. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. and His Priest. He displays. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church. since those are “babes reduced to misery. and he is also a child.4. in fact. They reveal. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well.” or with a “multitude of lambs. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” In the counterpart poem.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. tyrannical figure. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. In the poem of Innocence. for keeping man at a distance from God.
Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted. to 6. at the end of the unit. If there should be major differences between them.7. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 . in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state.4.4. but he is no longer able to do that. revise subchapters 6. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6..2. except as an act of remembering. to regain the vision of Innocence. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. and read the poem again more carefully.1.
the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view.3. imagination and feelings. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . now threatened by the march of Progress. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. nature-civilisation. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility.2. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings.. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. 6. The “Graveyard” poets (e.4.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. The other feature is primitivism. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. In subchapter 6. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. g. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. The last subchapter. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. the interest in early poetry. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past. Subchapter 6.. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside.
or Erse. goddess of Memory. favour melancholy or morbid themes. for the sake of more profitable farming.e. ruins. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule.2. Initially. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. Sometimes. as the next subchapter will show. graveyards. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. the enclosures meant ruin. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Haunted castles. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. in Unit 4. and horror. passion. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. Ireland and Wales. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. Celtic: related to the Celts. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. which they could climb more easily.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. Energy: for Blake. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i.2. Gray is sadly ironic. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). Their father was Zeus. putting fences round) common land. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. for instance. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. Imagination was free Energy. the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. decorum: see subchapter 4. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. For the small farmers. which has survived in parts of Scotland.
3. The Four Zoas. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God. in Unit 5.3. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. The Book of Los. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. A Prophecy.1. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. wild landscapes. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. the 39th day after Easter. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. Among the most important of them are America. on which the Ten Commandments were written.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. primitive: original. as well as against the sophistication. etc. etc. were typical settings in Gothic fiction.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. to attend the religious service. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. 2 in Unit 4. The Book of Urizen. with His laws formulated as interdictions. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. the Passions. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. Jerusalem.2. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. philosophical and political convictions. The custom in London was to bring the poor. Pity. Milton. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. Paul’s Cathedral. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. belonging to the beginnings. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. in Unit 1. in Unit 3.1. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. or of gold or silver paint. used to secure the hands of a prisoner. See also subchapter 4.. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen).
• the coherence.11. with his law of love.. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. Remember that. 6.12. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 . and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task.).13.10.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau. meant to win a patron’s favour.” usurous: from usury. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762). 6. in grading your paper... clarity. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. gardens or estates. Send-away assignment no. and 6. The Chimney Sweeper. 6. SAA no. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection.. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate.9. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). 6. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks.8.
in which everything seems to be in decline. nor wished to change his place” 3.e. d. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. on his soul. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. disease and poverty. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. the “drooping weary” father. In the city. Meditation leads to illumination.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. Its bare. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. or seek for power. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. 4. For Cowper. the “feeble. b. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The country is thus a substitute for Eden. and on his thoughts. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. but relieved their pain” 6. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. “He chid their [i. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. a. c SAQ 2 1. Nor e’er had changed. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 3. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. all intensified. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. love of nature. and love of man. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. the vagants’] wanderings. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. “Unpractised he to fawn. 2. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside.
F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. confinement and oppressive authority. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. F. 6. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. 4. T. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. which he has lost. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. In a vision of Innocence. 2. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. F. the “Lamb of God. the God of Love. meadow. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. Man. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. but are symbols of limitation. “My mother groaned. At the same time. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . gentle and humble like the lamb itself. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. in Blake’s vision. 2. being thus a source of oppression. therefore. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. In the simple economy of the poem. 3. and. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. against which man. T. the few elements of the natural setting (stream.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. 7. In the second stanza. The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering.” that is. T. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. in the state of Experience. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. T. 5. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. and is itself one more care in the family. struggles in vain.
English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. Daiches. Ford. 671-684. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Boris (ed.. 1969 (pp. Further reading 1. Boris (ed. 692-699) 2. Penguin Books Ltd. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. 652-658. Penguin Books Ltd.). 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . vol.. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”).5 (“From Blake to Byron”). Ford. A Critical History of English Literature. vol. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd.).. vol. David. 1991 (pp.4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). 84-94) 3. 1991 (pp.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. încât acest frumos tărâm.excelent. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. văzduhul. in moving. forewent. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. pentru mine. foregone* all custom of exercises.1. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. the earth. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . alcătuirile şi mişcările. într-adevăr. look you. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. acest preaminunat baldachin. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. this most excellent canopy*. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. this brave* overhanging* firmament*. Hamlet (Act II. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. of late recently wherefore why. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. – lost all my mirth*. the air. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. William Shakespeare. seems to me a sterile promontory.g. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. to me. vedeţi. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. cum să spun. şi totuşi. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. şi. pământul. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). the sky) brave minunat. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. – but wherefore* I know not. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. pildă a vieţuitoarelor.
2. El. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). Signifying nothing. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. and tomorrow. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El.3. Macbeth (Act V. And then is heard no more. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. great nature’s second course*. it is a tale Told by an idiot. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. and tomorrow. Macbeth (Act II. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî.” the innocent sleep. a poor player. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. desfirat. to creep. trivial.Reader TEXT 2. trifling (mărunt. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . ţanţoş. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. Balm of hurt minds. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. full of sound* and fury. The death of each day’s life. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. To the last syllable of recorded time. sore* labour’s bath. semeţ. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. a se furişa) petty inessential. Out*. TEXT 2. out.
abject. cruel. a suporta therefore as a result. Un biet actor. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. mârşav. mărginit) shameful and evil. Know thine* own meaning. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . tot mereu. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. redus. Took pains to make thee speak. Which any print* of goodness will not take. sălbatic. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. Caliban: You taught me language. savage. ticălos) race neam. Te stinge.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. nasty (josnic. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. a bâigui) brutish coarse. stupid (necioplit. Though thou didst learn*. The Tempest (Act I. netrebnic. TEXT 2. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda.4. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. William Shakespeare.
the gorgeous palaces. când tu.5. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. au fost. fiară. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. William Shakespeare. framework (clădire. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. consistency. Scoteai doar mugete. duşi. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. palate mândre. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. Biserici maiestoase. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. foretold: a anunţa. duhuri. structure. dar proasta-ţi fire. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. toţi. etc. se vor topi Şi. all which it inherit. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. literary) truly. Te-am învăţat de toate. Te-am surghiunit aici. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. into thin air: And. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. The Tempest (Act IV. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. Yea*. temelie) fabric building. These our actors. colour. În stare de orice. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. Leave not a rack* behind. Actorii Ţi-am spus. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. TEXT 2. As I foretold* you.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. pe drept. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. The solemn temples. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. dar. shall dissolve And. The cloud-capped towers*. chiar pământul. the great globe itself.
And grows erect*. Care less eyes. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. And whisper* to their souls. If they be two. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. John Donne. Inter-assured of the mind*. Like the other foot. The breath goes now. Thy* soul the fixed foot. if the other do. Men reckon* what it did and meant. and some say. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. That our selves know not what it is. Though greater far. TEXT 2. lips. who must. Though I must go. and hands to miss. obliquely run. which are one. Such wilt* thou* be to me. but doth. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. and make no noise. they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two.Reader Făcute-s visele.6. Our two souls therefore. nor sigh-tempests* move. And makes me end. where I begun. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. but an expansion. Like gold to aery thinness beat. and hearkens* after it. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . endure* not yet A breach*. no: So let us melt*. as that comes home. is innocent. But we by a love so much refined. Yet when the other far doth roam*. to go. But trepidation of the spheres. makes no show To move. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. No tear-floods. It leans*. And though it in centre sit.
to undergo breach break. a lua cu sila. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. a înrobi. o’erthrow me*. fig. burn. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. Nor ever chaste. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. and proves weak or untrue*. Yet dearly I love you. for. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. for I Except your enthrall* me. datorat to labour to work hard. blow. ferm. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. and bend Your force*. I. untie*. but oh. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. to no end*. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. imprison me. to struggle to no end vainly.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. rupture stiff rigid. a elibera to enthrall a supune. John Donne. breathe.7. you As yet* but knock. to break. shine. and make me new. That I may* rise. except you ravish* me. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. Divorce me. a rătăci to lean. apply your force due cuvenit.: inflexibil. overthrew. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. overthrown: a nimici. like an usurped town. to another due*. and would be loved fain*. Take me to you. and seek to mend. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. exact Text 2. leant a se apleca. or break that knot again. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. precis. and stand. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. me should defend. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. three-personed God*. Labour* to admit you. But is captived. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. Reason your viceroy* in me. never shall be free.
Andrew Marvell. Lady. An age at least to every part. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and pass our long love’s day. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. you deserve this state*. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. Now therefore. do there embrace. Lady. This coyness*. and time. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow.8. yet we will make him run. But thirty thousand to the rest. if you please. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. I think. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. And now. were no crime. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. But none. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. Thy beauty shall no more be found. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. Thus. We would sit down. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. And the last age should show your heart. in thy marble vault*. Nor. and think which way To talk. For. Now let us sport* while we may. Two hundred to adore each breast. shall sound My echoing song. And you should. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. like amorous birds of prey. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough.Reader TEXT 2. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. and on thy* forehead gaze. Nor would I love at lower rate.
a lâncezi. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. tineresc hue culoare. nuanţă. fig. patimă) grave mormânt.: swift. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. in spite of her coyness. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. sfială. which. torn) a smulge. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. groapă youthful de tinereţe. peculiar.
and present My true account. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. rush bud mugur. chide*. opportune happy fortunate. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. a strict overseer TEXT 3. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. obscure. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. appears [in me] much less – i. All is. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. returning. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. in this dark world and wide. they serve him best. John Milton. or soon or slow. but Patience.1.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and the will of heaven. speed. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. Toward which time leads me. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. lest he.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. however mean* or high. to prevent That murmur*. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. who best Bear his mild yoke*. the subtle* thief of youth. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. Yet be it less or more. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment.2. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. Ere* half my days. lucky endueth endues. destiny mean humble. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*. John Milton. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. if I have grace to use it so. light denied*?” I fondly* ask.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
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Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
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From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
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Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
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8. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me.Reader TEXT 3. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. by the Threatener? look on me.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. by venturing* higher than my lot. that Man may not become As they. or this tree Impart against his will. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. for this fair* Earth I see. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. that all from them proceeds*. What can your knowledge hurt him. Goddess humane. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. Me who have touched and tasted. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. ye* shall not die. 4. then. Them nothing. Why. Warmed by the Sun. I question it. and ye shall be like Gods. His worshippers? He knows that. 3. in the day Ye eat thereof*. ye you (pl. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. as they know. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. and freely taste. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. reach* then. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. your eyes. And what are Gods. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . Knowing both good and evil. producing every kind. Queen of the Universe. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. and that advantage use On our belief. John Milton.
Waved over by that flaming brand*. but wiped them soon. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. so late* their happy seat*. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They.Reader TEXT 3. John Milton. beheld (archaic. looking back. with wandering steps and slow. The world was all before them. and Providence their guide. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. hand in hand. where to choose Their place of rest. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş.9. beheld to behold. Through Eden took their solitary way. They. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. or to be intimate with fools. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. so far trifle fleac. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. and then never be seen there together again. as if we were proud of one another the first week. William Congreve.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. And lastly. To have my closet* inviolate*. to be sole* empress of my tea table. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. nor go to a play together. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. to write and receive letters. manierat. to wear what I please. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. wherever I am. reserved well-bred binecrescut. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. because they are your acquaintance. Let us never visit together. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*.1. to provoke eyes and whispers*. nor kiss before folks*. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. (…) fond affectionate. because they may be your relations*. and ashamed of one another ever after. without giving a reason. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. Come to dinner when I please. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only.
or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. rogue pungaş. Shakespeare is. the poet of nature. potlogar villain nemernic. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. cap sec knave escroc. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. John Dryden. Particular manners* may be known to few. secătură. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. a livra. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. escroc. variabil fanciful capricios. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.3. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. Samuel Johnson. at least above all modern writers.Reader TEXT 4. and please long. dobitoc. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. and leaves it standing in its place. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. ticălos. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. successfully irregular neuniform. but just representations of general nature. unpractised by the rest of the world. which can operate but* upon small numbers. above all writers. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. a blockhead*. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. pungaş. descendenţi to supply a oferi.
yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). and the fortunes of his people. Jonathan Swift. poetry. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. and transcendentals*. in a discourse one day with the King. and almost adored by his subjects. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. either in a prince or a minister.4. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. and mathematics. to justice and lenity*. The learning of this people is very defective. of strong parts. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. so that among us would be little esteemed. love. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. should from a nice*. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. history. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. And as to ideas. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . abstractions. For I remember very well. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. endued* with admirable talents for government. and esteem. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. entities. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. great wisdom. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. unnecessary scruple. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. consisting only in morality. refinement and intrigue. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. and profound learning. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. the liberties. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science.Reader TEXT 4. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II.
a i se încredinţa (e. speed.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. arts. so. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. which all could see in the rest. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. and activity. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. and the like. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. manufactures*. (…) As to learning. and therefore* to protect himself. they will instead of eating peaceably. Ch. Jonathan Swift.g. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. but not in themselves. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. but still looking round with great caution. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. and mischievous* in disposition. the shortness of my claws*. to restrict bound limit. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. (…) That. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara.5. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. For. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . without delay determination rezolvare. government. a fi iniţiat în. from the representation I had given him of our lives. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. and our actions. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. there are certain shining stones of several colors. as sometimes happens. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. than any of the rest. fall together by ears*. a asigura. and carry them away. in some fields of his country. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious. as I had described them. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. our manners.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
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TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
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grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
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UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
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I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). This set me to studying how to order* my fire. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. I was agreeably surprised to see it. which none of these could do. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. after having laboured hard to find the clay. and placed my firewood* all round it. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. Daniel Defoe. how many of them fell in*. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. or glazing* them with lead*. a se desprinde clay lut. ugly things I made. and any things my hand turned to*. But all this would not answer my end*.. and red as a tile*. misshapen*. in a word how. and pipkins*. pitchers*. and how many fell out*. and. de pământ jar oală. It happened after some time. one upon another. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. When I saw them clear red.Reader TEXT 5. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. a cădea fell out to fall. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. what odd. being set out too hastily*. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . fallen) out: a se desface. with a great heap of embers* under them. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. anevoios. which it did admirably well. I had no notion of a kiln*.2. such as the potters* burn in. and observed that they did not crack at all*. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. (fell. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. though I had some lead to do it with. to temper* it. a frământa. and bear* the fire. so as to make it burn me some pots. (fell. to pity a căina awkward incomod. and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. or rather laugh at me. to dig* it. to bring it home and work it. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. flat dishes*.
apogeu distress nefericire. I must own* to you. than the dry*. to find him capable of so much openness. so much affection. born) a rezista. O my unguarded* youth. durere. forgive me! but I found. plin de viaţă) height culme. upon me. like a thief. Samuel Richardson. my dear father. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. I beseech* you. and before I knew what was the matter. I am quite overcome*. Samuel Richardson. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). I imagine. and tender years*. punct culminant. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. intenţie to bear (bore. I had no reason to expect. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. in which he confesses his affection for her. dubious uncertain. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. and so it is: but love. but it has crept*.] This letter. nay*. nor when it began. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. a învinge. can be. is not a voluntary thing – Love. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings.Reader dish blid. This was a good fortune. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and of so much honour too. narrative. chinuri womb pântece. but now. a depăşi) TEXT 5. But to be sure*. has greatly affected me. before. scop. B_. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. crept. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. when I expected some new plot*. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. however. did I say! […] I know not how it came. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec.4. […] Forgive. to my grief*. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). it looked like love. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr.3. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. […] O my dear parents.
thy whole self. în consecinţă to tear (tore. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. I hope. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 .my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*.5. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. torn) out a smulge. only dangerous attacks! After all. [Memorandum*. before summons* came. and therefore*. and introducing a greater variety of characters. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. who had used me so hardly. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. to consider of this.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew.e. Henry Fielding. and consequently. for giving up so weakly. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. însemnare TEXT 5. in its sentiments and diction*. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. or tear* it out of my writing. in this. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. întristat. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. when I get home.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. and resignation to the Divine Will. sever grief durere. as I thought. în mod clar rigorous aspru. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. and to one too. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. I think. a rupe memorandum notă. differing from comedy. O my treacherous*. Yet. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. a implora grieved amărât.) treacherous trădător (adj. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. containing a much larger circle of incidents. In the diction.] plot uneltire. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. of inferior manners. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. for there it is never properly introduced.
the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. Burlesque is in writing. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe.Reader burlesque kind. or e converso*. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. Indeed. and consequently more ridiculous. Now. or hath not the virtue he affects. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. it be nearly allied to deceit*. it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. not men. that. in order to purchase* applause. as they proceed* from very different motives. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. yet when it comes from vanity only. than when from vanity. which that of the hypocrite hath. arises from the surprising absurdity. which this is not intended to be. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. and where our delight. yet. And here I shall observe. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. It may be likewise noted. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. is more surprising. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. if we examine it. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. therefore. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. what Caricatura is in painting. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. […] Now. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. though. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. to the degree he would be thought to have it. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues.
: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . smaller faults. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. But for not being what they would be thought*. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. fig. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. which at first moved our compassion. cu stângăcie. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. tend* only to raise our mirth*. of our pity.
to annoy ungracious răutăcios.7. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. which. Laurence Sterne. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. Laurence Sterne. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. two contrary motions are introduced into it. I fear. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. and reconciled. povară signal însemnat. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. and that I fly off* from what I am about. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. I wish I had been born in the Moon. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. Tristram Shandy (Vol. or expected indeed. on my conscience.6. my work is digressive. – not but the planet is well enough*. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. not for want of penetration* in him. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. In a word. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. with reverence be it spoken*. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […].I. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. and it is progressive too. a izbuti. brought forth born scurvy păcătos.Reader TEXT 5. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. – and at the same time. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the merit of which has all along. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. as you observe. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. been overlooked* by my reader. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. Gentleman. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. in a digression. dirty planet of ours. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. nefericit TEXT 5.
from the beginning of this. and if he goes on with his main work. has been kept agoing. and forbids the appetite to fail. his whole work stands stock-still*. one wheel within another*. For which reason.Reader Digressions. brings in variety. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. then there is an end of his digression. is truly pitiable*: For. – they are the life. that the whole machine. I observe. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. you see. the soul of reading. but also of the author. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. restore them to the writer. you might as well take the book along with them. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. whose distress*. cum trebuie. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. are the sunshine. from that moment. what’s more. in general. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. in this matter. – and. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. bids* All hail*. This is vile work*. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. if he begins a digression. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. – take them out of this book for instance. incontestably.
to all the country dear. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. Or theirs. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. nor wished to change his place. Nor e’er* had changed.2. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. the matron* pale. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. cortegiu şir chid to chide. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. a mângâia) TEXT 6. Or hers. hoinar. croit to prize a preţui. He chid* their wanderings*. chid: to rebuke. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. propped* on that rude* staff*. The Deserted Village A man he was. modelat. a boy. Oliver Goldsmith. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. look within. or seek for power. a alina. devout (evlavios. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year.1. Go. passing rich trecând drept bogat. he climbed the loftiest bough*. Then his first joy. and ask if peace be there.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. distant godly pious. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. Unpracticed he to fawn*. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. George Crabbe. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. cerşetor train alai. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. but his sad emblem now. Who. to scold (a dojeni. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share.
James Thomson. Inflames imagination. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. coarse. generos ease tihnă. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all.Reader ye you (pl. chief*. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . The love of Nature. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. and man made the town. As varied. jalnic. Of human race. părinte offspring vlăstar. urmaş feeble plăpând. to elevate. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. pace smooth calm. unconfined*. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. simple. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. What wonder then that health and virtue.4.3. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. to stimulate. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet.) gentle nobil. ales. and as high: Devotion. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. The Task (1785) God made the country. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. William Cowper. and. With all the social offspring of the heart*. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. o’er over to exalt to raise. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. nenorocit hearth vatră. sprijinit. sorbitură grove crâng. rezemat rude rudimentary. linişte.
6. Struggling in my father’s hands. gentle and uncomplaining (blând. William Blake.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. piping* loud. a înlănţui. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. Striving against my swaddling bands*. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Little Lamb. wooly* bright. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. William Blake. a ţâşni.5.Reader TEXT 6. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. naked. God bless thee. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. and he is mild*. We are called by his name. not violent (blajin. and bid thee feed*. Softest clothing. leapt: a sări. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. cuminte. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. bound: a lega strâns. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. my father wept*. a închide weary tired. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. Gave thee such a tender voice. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. to groan a geme. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. Little Lamb. Little Lamb. Helpless. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. I’ll tell thee. God bless thee. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. supus) mild gentle. Bound* and weary*. Gave thee clothing of delight.
at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. well. And every thing else is still. let us play. no. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind.” “No. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. That so many sweet flowers bore*. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. So I turned to the Garden of Love. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. tranquil. Besides. green pajişte verde at rest calm. a sălta. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. My heart is at rest* within my breast. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. Where I used to play on the green. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. And the hills are all covered with sheep. And I saw it was filled with graves*. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. come leave off play. go and play till the light fades away*. William Blake. And then go home to bed. William Blake.Reader TEXT 6. bore. Come. for it is yet day. in the sky the little birds fly. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies.7. And the dews* of night arise.” “Well. “Then come home my children. And we cannot go to sleep. And laughing is heard on the hill. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări.8. the sun is gone down. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*.
And your winter and night in disguise. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. foşnet.” And so he was quiet. they need not fear harm. And the Angel told Tom. Tom. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. whisperings şoapte. and that very night. and in soot* I sleep.9. if he'd be a good boy. There’s little Tom Dacre. And so Tom awoke. for when your head's bare. So if all do their duty. a irosi TEXT 6. all their bags left behind. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. Then down a green plain leaping. and we rose* in the dark. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. And wash in a river. As Tom was a-sleeping.10. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. William Blake. Tom was happy and warm. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. my children. Then come home. They rise upon clouds.Reader TEXT 6. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. My face turns green* and pale. the sun is gone down. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. weep. And the dews of night arise. Then naked and white. Ned and Jack. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. William Blake. Joe. freamăt dale vale. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. Though the morning was cold. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. Dick. never mind it. they run. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. weep. and shine in the Sun. and sport* in the wind. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . laughing.
Crying “weep*. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. alături. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. They think they have done me no injury*. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. O what a multitude they seemed. They clothed me in the clothes of death. potoleşte-te. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. And smiled among the winter’s snow. but multitudes of lambs.12. their innocent faces clean. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. a se deştepta TEXT 6. coşciug by aproape. hornar sold to sell.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. And because I am happy and dance and sing. risen): a se scula. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow.11. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. în preajmă to sport a zburda. William Blake. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. Beneath them sit the aged men. Because I was happy upon the heath*. with wands* as white as snow. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. William Blake.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. Then cherish* pity. wise guardians of the poor. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. The hum* of multitudes was there.
gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. rece. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. soft. and to the Last Judgement. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine.13. Babe can never hunger there. And where-e’er the rain does fall. a iubi) lest ca să nu. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the 40 day after Easter. For where-e’er* the sun does shine. Nor poverty the mind appal*. re-built th in the late 17 century. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. who helped the priest in various ways. neroditor thorn spin. fertil. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. William Blake. It is eternal winter there. sterp. lugubru bare gol. And their ways are filled with thorns*. a goni TEXT 6. fruitful fecund.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui.
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