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Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
1.Contents 2.3. 3.4. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton.4.3. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 2.2.5. 3. 3. 220.127.116.11.3. 4.2. 3.1. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve. 18.104.22.168.5.5.8. 22.214.171.124.2. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.4. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3.3.1. 3.3. 126.96.36.199. 3.1.5. 188.8.131.52.3.2. 3.2. 2. 4.2.1. 4.3. 2. 2. 3. 2. 2.4.2. 3.3. 3. 4.1. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. 3.4. 3.2.4. 3.1.1. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4. 3. 3. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3.1.3.
3. 5. Gulliver.18.104.22.168. 5.1.4. 5. 5. 4.4. 5.3.3. 5. 22.214.171.124. 5.3.2. 5. 5.3.1. 5. 126.96.36.199.4. 4. 188.8.131.52.3.4.3. 5. 5.4.3. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.1.5.5. 5. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5. 5. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4.1. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. 4. 5. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124.2. 4.3. 4.3. 4. 126.96.36.199.4.7. 5.4. 4.4.4. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4.4.4. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.1.Contents 4. 5. 5. 220.127.116.11.6. 5. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.
2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 18.104.22.168.3.2. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1.3.4. The Seasons William Cowper.4. 6. 6.2. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.22.214.171.124.2. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.3.2. 6.7. 6. 6.6. 6. 6. 6.4.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No.4.2. 6. 6. 6. 6.1.2. 6.3. 6. 6.4. 126.96.36.199. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.3. 6. 6. 188.8.131.52.4.3.1.
the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. 2. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. 3. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. a carrier of values. Defoe. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . Blake. Course objectives As already mentioned. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. Fielding. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country. Before starting your study.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. Being concerned with aspects of literary history. among others). Milton.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. by encouraging your response to particular texts. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. Swift. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. In this way. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course.
The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. • 4. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. as part of your overall assessment.g. Each unit. a Glossary. the Augustan Age. and a Gallery of personalities. characterisation.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. a list of key words. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style. By the end of your study of this course. the Baroque. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. in its turn. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors.g. Neoclassicism. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the Restoration. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. Besides them. a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. in a given text.
You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. the epic poem Paradise Lost. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. as well as major representatives. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . Richardson. and to draw your own conclusions. Defoe. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). and Augustan satire. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study.1. • 4. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. Sterne –. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs.Introduction 4. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. Fielding and L. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. S. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. and with the evolution of this genre. with main focus on Jonathan Swift. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. They appeal not only to your memory. hopefully. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet.2. H. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. The variety of these learning tasks will.
so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. 4. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. etc. at the end of the unit. and. etc. if the case may be. line. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. fragment) • complete sentences.. narrative technique. with the typological definition of a work. in the literary text you were asked to work on. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the title of a work. characterisation. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. symbolic elements. stylistic features.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. an author’s work.3. summarise its argument. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. etc.
The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information. other instruments meant to assist your study. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 . to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. • Further reading. the term Enlightenment. will also appear in Units 5 and 6. for the Great Chain of Being*. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. in Unit 1. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1.3. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. not just Being. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. at the end. Sometimes. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names).4.3. For instance. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. Some terms may recur in several units. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. if necessary or desired. with the pages where you may find relevant information. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. Most of the books included there are available in any University library.1. For example. Thus.Introduction 4. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains. but the phrase of which that word is part. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6.1.
SAA no. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries.lIntroduction 4.5. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%. try to read each fragment more than once. before you start solving the task. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. difficult. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. The table below represents the place. the number of tasks. this should not take you too much time. As the texts are not very long. especially the poetry texts. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. 5. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. In any case. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. while SAA no. and 6. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks.2 will cover units 4 and 5. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. 5.
Most of the time. your course work may take you more time.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. 1. You may. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%).3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. Of these hours. whose reading may take you some extra time. If your level of proficiency is lower. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). 2.1 SAA no. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. clarity. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. 2.2 SAA no. 6. As in the case of the SAQs. half of the answer is already contained in the question. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. 3. however. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. 1. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. theoretically. If you have no possibility to type your assignment. • the coherence. and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks.
5. there are SAAs. as 40% of the final grade. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. a revision of the course material. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England.2 SAA no. together. It is structured in six units of study. forms and styles. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text.3 3 3 8 SAA no. of the evolution of literary genres. At the end of Units 3.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. and gallery of personalities). representative authors. as well as a list of suggested further reading. whose content follows a chronological line. and 6. respectively. glossary. Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. The three assignments will count. according to a pre-established schedule. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. list of key words. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. which you must write and send to your tutor.
1. 184.108.40.206.1.1. 1. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 .2. 1. 1.4.4. 1. 1.4.5. 1. 1. 220.127.116.11.1. 1.1.1. 18.104.22.168.4. 1.3.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.4.
10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. as well as the faith in progress. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. marked the entrance into modernity. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. mentalities.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. science. obscurantism and intolerance. a powerful flourishing nation. The rise. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. philosophy. at the end of this period. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. The gradual achievement of political stability.1. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. 1. as the Enlightenment is often described. religion. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England.1. Political. in the latter part of the 17th century. social and economic life. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. literature.1. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. attitudes and practices. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. of the Enlightenment.
endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626).” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers. and it was essentially optimistic. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. the “universal Architect. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. in 1662. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age. or Natural Religion –. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science.” 1.1. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments.2. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. This new faith – Deism. under the patronage of Charles II. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. to reconcile Reason and Faith. in a systematic effort. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. in particular. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. The Royal Society endeavoured.
and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. appropriately. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . T F 3.1. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century.4. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. T F 5. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. the central concern of the Enlightenment. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. the Enlightenment. to superstition and obscurantism.1. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. continued the project of the Renaissance. 1. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature. for each sentence. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. T F 4. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). The poet Alexander Pope indicated. but also affective and instinctual. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. The growing spirit of individualism.3.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. 1. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. Circle T (true) or F (false). T F 2.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth.
that the notion of reading public emerges now. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. After 1688. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional.1. The division into Elizabethan. T F 8. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false.1. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. in one way or another. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. 1. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. T F 7. It was the main focus of literary attention. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. for instance. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. read again subchapters. with little or no classical knowledge. including readers of more modest education. for proportion. regularity. symmetry. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance.2. It is significant. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. to 1. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned.4. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste.1.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . at the end of the unit. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. and both writers and audiences were. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. the decrease in the power of the Crown. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. in the orbit of the crown.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6.
SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. during the Augustan Age*. Much of Renaissance literature. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. The Court was the main source of influence…… b. …the Augustan Age. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. Corneille. This reflects. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. Molière. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. Pierre Corneille. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. Jean Racine. Molière)…… d. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. Complete each sentence in the provided space. Racine. 2. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism.” started in the late 17th century. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. a. above all. …… c. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau.
The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). for instance. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. Thomas Carew. They approached other themes besides love: e. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. Robert Herrick). The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. It favoured conciseness. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Andrew Marvell. George Herbert. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. at the end of the unit. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. James Thomson. Alexander Pope. and it made extensive use of wit. 4. the pastoral* lyric. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. …addressed itself to learned readers. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. by the Romantic poets. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. In parallel. …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. in its various forms – the song*. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. John Dryden (in the former). the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. If you have failed to make the right match. you need to revise subchapter 1. the ode*. acquainted with the great classical authors and works. 1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. concentration. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. religious faith – John Donne.g. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. original or translated epics. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785).2.3. or religion and politics – John Milton.
the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). together with their most outstanding representatives. 1. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6).3. If there should be major differences between them. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. through its representation on stage.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). at the end of the unit. a new appreciation of older poetic forms. In the following units of this course. revise subchapter 1. some of them of popular origin (the song. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. It was the only form of literature which. in the space left below. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama.
4. 1605-6). or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest. 1. On the whole. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. built around the theme of revenge. play-houses were reopened. historical drama.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. drama witnessed a decline.1. In 1660. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. Milton’s Satan. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. in Paradise Lost. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. From Senecan tragedy. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. the wronged hero plans revenge. In such plays. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. treachery. They were generally. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. but destroys himself along with his enemies. is the most gifted. insanity. fascinating through unbounded ambition. with its audience arranged according to rank. rape. etc. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. murder. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. masque*. was a miniature of the English society. while others changed. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . sensational and macabre. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse. 1607). who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. with the restoration of monarchy. tragi-comedy. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. 1633). Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. the sensational plot. Unlike Senecan plays. and the rhetorical manner. The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. daring and wit. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. pastoral drama. 1614). Of the Caroline playwrights. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage.
his comedies become darker. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. If you have failed to identify the true statements. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. read the following statements. Volpone (1606). the hierarchy of English society. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but. and 1. in the last period of creation. 1. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another. T F 2. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. or at least tinged with bitterness. centred on the theme of love.1. Milton’s Satan. T F 4. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. T F 5. the satirical comedy. T F 3. at the end of the unit.4. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. For each sentence. with its noble characters. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. T F 6. in miniature. Epicoene.2. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. T F 7. though each in a different way. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). reflecting. read again subchapters 1. or The Silent Woman (1609). as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). 1. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. identifying the four true ones. His best plays. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. a genre which will survive into the 18th century.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. in Paradise Lost. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness.4.
A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners.3. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies.4. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. 1775. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. 1665. were a passing extravagance. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. who demanded models of virtue and decency.g. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. 1777). 1768. a stylish and sophisticated world. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. Under the influence of French tragedies. 1773). Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure.4. The Conquest of Granada. or The Mistakes of a Night. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. John Gay. Henry Fielding). She Stoops to Conquer. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. The School for Scandal. too. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1.g. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. In The Rehearsal (1671). This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. but serious drama declined during the 18th century.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1.4. 1669-70). and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. 1769). for instance. of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. Duke of Buckingham. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . George Villiers. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain. 1722). Heroic plays. with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty.
to 1.4.4. together with their most outstanding representatives. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. If there should be major differences between them.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. revise subchapters 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy. at the end of the unit. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays.
in political tracts and pamphlets.1. displaying a variety of styles. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. philosophical and theological writings. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. on clarity and rationality. religious writings are particularly important. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. a precious and highly ornate language. deliberately artificial and intricate. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style.5. Here.5. The development of an aphoristic style*. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. Later in the century. More and more.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. the essay* proved the most flexible. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. 1612. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). with its trials. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. the universal language of the Renaissance. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. Gradually. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. weaknesses. temptations. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose. blending concision with wit. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument.
delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. In the 17th century. Milton’s Areopagitica. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. Samuel Pepys). with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. which analyses the constitution of human society. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. of remarkable precision and force.g.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. “The Religion of a Doctor. pamphlets* (e. diaries (John Evelyn. Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. To these must be added the character. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). biographies (Izaak Walton. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. aphoristic style. 1666). letters. Samuel Purchas). 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. Like drama. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). executed in a witty. the biography as an emerging prose genre. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. etc. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. William Prynne’s Histriomastix. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. unadorned style. Anatomies were monuments of learning. The same encyclopaedic. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character.
at the end of the unit. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . between which there is continuity. roughly. the image of the universe was changed. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. If there should be major differences between them. modern science was born. Within these two centuries. you will learn more about the periodical essay. these two centuries correspond. more carefully. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. read again subchapters 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Within these two centuries. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture.5. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England.. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. as well as the faith in progress. obscurantism and intolerance. Culturally. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. and 1. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century.5.1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below.
which are reduced to the comically trivial. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. blank verse: unrhymed verse.-14 A. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . noble and heroic characters. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal. Ovid. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. elevated style.C. From a literary point of view. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry. predominantly middle-class. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. of serious action. often by means of paradox. however.). burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public. a slow transition took place. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. used to express observations of general truth. It is. in a caricatural spirit.D.
illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. or from history. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . Thomas Jefferson. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. until 1660. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). social contract. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. civil rights. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. when it was restored. Tolerance. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. individual liberty. Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). the folk tradition. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. • classical revival: the intellectual. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. social and moral thought. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). anti-fanaticism. artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth.): “Man is the measure of all things”. humanism. John Locke. pragmatism. legend. Voltaire. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. anti-obscurantism.C. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom.e. • essay: a prose composition of varying length.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. In a broader sense. • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. Concepts like human rights. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. Rousseau. characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. natural law. widely used in all ages. Diderot (France). • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. David Hume (Britain). • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. Montesquieu. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age.
uncorrupted life. restraint. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form.) are the great ancient models for English writers. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). a person or an object. simple. In English literature. decorative art. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . painting and sculpture. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. involving elaborate dialogue.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. who was a Catholic.). was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. the marginal sections of society. ode: an extended lyric poem.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. from the Creation to the Ascension. solemn style. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. in harmony with nature. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity. In architecture. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. often of an allegorical nature. of spiritual regeneration by grace. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models.C. singing and dancing.C. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive.C. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. an idea. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. sumptuous costumes and settings. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. It addressed itself to the poor. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. James II Stuart. and harmony of classical art. spectacular scenic effects. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. encouraging a personal experience of conversion.
It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. Shakespeare. effort. Philip Sidney. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. Ariosto. by Columbus. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. Sir Charles Sedley. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. industry. Raphael. its limits are less well defined. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. selected according to genre and subject.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. thus. Edmund Spenser. Lope de Vega. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Duke of Buckingham. From a literary point of view. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). Their beliefs and convictions. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. especially their work ethics. William Wycherley. centred on integrity. in their view. 1492). favoured the growth of individualism. Sir George Etherege. John Vanbrugh. the sense of purpose. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). who rejected the authority of the English Church because. Machiavelli. Cervantes (Spain). of the rebirth of learning. Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. romance or the novel. in the 16th and 17th centuries. Restoration: historically. 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Boccaccio. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. style – used by a poet. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. Francis Bacon (England). Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. which opened the modern era. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. Thomas More. Tasso (Italy). on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. of the expansion of education. Pico della Mirandola.g. it had not fully reformed itself. of America. poetic diction: a term that. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. tone. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. Leonardo da Vinci. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. for the Neoclassic writers.
the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. phlegmatic. Sometimes. Jonson. Cicero. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere.): Roman statesman. song: a poem composed for singing. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. The assertion of the self. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. During the Renaissance. and a writer. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. the four “humours” (i. He started his literary career as a playwright. with various rhyme patterns. two fine examples of comedy of humours. 1591-1595). with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). Astrophil and Stella. and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. in which the characters act. orator. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. and with the French Revolution (1789). Amoretti. Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. with or without musical accompaniment. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. according to a dominating inclination or passion. phlegm. The New Atlantis (published in 1627). poet and scholar. it meant intelligence or wisdom. philosopher and writer. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. surprising associations. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). fluids) of the body (blood. 1591. as well as an unfinished utopia.e. independently of circumstances. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind. Edmund Spenser. The tradition survived into the 18th century. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . He was also an eminent statesman.C. yellow bile – or choler. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . the instinct of self-preservation.D. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. in a kind of social contract.): Roman historian and statesman. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. Man. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. mathematician. religion.C. made important discoveries in the field of optics. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. Hobbes. which was central to Enlightenment thought. greatly influenced by Hobbes. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. Locke. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus.-65 A. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. For Hobbes. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. Italian poet and humanist. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. Newton. besides the Characters.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. author.D.): Roman philosopher. Locke studied medicine. for instance. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. ethics. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). His political philosophy. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. Seneca. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. Theophrastus (372-287 B. unlike that of Hobbes. astronomer and philosopher. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. Tacitus. According to him. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. economics. writer and statesman. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. It is fear of death. or the Matter. politics. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher.C. the latter.
T. 5. c. Pope. Thomson. Marvell satire: Dryden. Milton the pastoral: Milton. 3. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare.T SAQ 2 a. Herbert. Duke of Buckingham.T. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate. Blake the ode: Marvell. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson.T. Goldsmith.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1.T. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. 2. Fielding. 9-32) 2. Cowley. . Carew.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. d. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson. the sonnet: Shakespeare.F. 3. The English Eighteenth Century.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. Pope. English Literature and Civilisation. Dryden. b. William Wycherley. John Gay Further reading 1. Goldsmith. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. Herrick. there was a tendency towards simplicity.F. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. 7. Milton. artificial.T. Turcu. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2.F. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance. precision. Luminiţa Elena. Preda. 6. 5. The Novel in Its Beginnings. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost.T. Donne. Editura Universităţii Suceava.F. Sir George Sedley. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. 4. 6.2. 4. 2003 (pp.4. Sir George Etherege. Ioan-Aurel (ed.3.). Marvell. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 1983 (pp.T. 8. Collins. 7-49) 3. The Literature of the Beginnings. Macsiniuc. Cornelia. 2003 (pp.T. John Vanbrugh). Dryden. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period.
5.2.2. 2. 2. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199. 2. 2.3.6. 2. 2.2.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2. 2. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.2.3. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius.1. 2. 2. 2.2. 220.127.116.11.1.2.5. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs.2. 2.3. 2. 18.104.22.168. 2. 2.10. 2. 2.3.12. 2.4. 2. 2.2.7. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .2.1.2. 2.2.
well-ordered universe. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. during whose reign England developed into a strong. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. anxiety and even pessimism. with its sense of confidence and optimism. In the late Renaissance. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. The vision of a harmonious. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. Under Queen Elizabeth I. The former expansiveness.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2.1. to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. to scepticism. Christopher Marlowe*. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. stable and modern state. Philip Sydney*. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*.
1. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. life and death. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. but also to pomp. The unexpected. of confusing or transgressing limits. with the tendency of breaking proportions. its sense of form.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2. In lyric poetry. wisdom and madness. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. Although very diverse. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. irony and ambiguity. with its abundance of bloody deaths. the extensive use of paradox. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. and not properly forming a “school. and. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms.2. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. splendour. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. reason and superstition. the spectacular and the sumptuous. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. sensualism and mysticism. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. or the world as stage. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . both in its themes and motifs. to the macabre. proportion and symmetry. grandeur. in literature. St. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. The Renaissance cult of rational order.1. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. and in its dramatic conception. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension.1. on which the “show” of life must end. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. for excess. refinement and cruelty. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. striking imagery. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. you will be acquainted. read again the preceding subchapters. sense of form B: 4. R: cult for order and symmetry. optimism. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. The Tempest. at the end of this unit. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . King Lear. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. If there should be major differences. classical balance. respectively. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. R: confidence. In the following two subchapters. complicated feeling and analytical detachment.
In Shakespeare’s whole work. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . among other features. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. etc. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). sublime or burlesque.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. A wide range of feelings. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. moral attitudes. craftsmen or servants. friendship. devotion. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. According to the dramatic necessity. jealousy. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. motifs and imagery. his deep understanding of humanity. medieval and contemporary sources – English. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. Othello (1604). from the variety of his work. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. envy. loyalty and betrayal. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). struggle for power. gratitude and ingratitude. to the prose speech of simple folk. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. hate. which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. and a culmination of its literary art. aspirations and interests. He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions.2. language. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. romantic or trivial. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. all mastered with supreme art. They are always credible. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). in plain. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. search for truth. or periods of creation. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. and French. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. Italian. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. so that it displays a similar variety. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. states of mind. Shakespeare’s genius. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. sometimes even trivial. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. conflicts. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608).
1. If they should differ significantly. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. common in the Renaissance. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. basically. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. His romance plays. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. with the effects of evil on innocence. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. with the restoration of order. at the end of the unit. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. between truth and falsehood. 2. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. read again the preceding subchapter. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. In these plays. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. but they deal.
who had really gone mad. with a poisoned sword. Her brother. Back to the castle. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude.3. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. mistaking him for Claudius. the first in this series of masterpieces. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia.2. 2. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. Laertes. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. and continually delays the act of revenge. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. the widow queen. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 .2. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. he has the occasion to kill Claudius.2. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. required by his dead father. and with the immense burden of revenge. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. In spite of this bloody outcome. has drowned herself. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. old king Hamlet. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. takes over the rule of Denmark. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. in the confusions of the final scene. brave. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. sensitive and idealistic. In another scene. a courtier. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. During the play. when Fortinbras. all the main protagonists find their death. At one point. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. he kills Polonius. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. the play ends on a note of hope. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. generous and brilliantly intelligent. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. which represents a similar scene of murder. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. but the plot escapes their control and. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. Claudius. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed.
is eminently a philosopher’s effort. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems.4.2. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. read again the preceding subchapter. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. SAQ 3 Text 2. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. as well as the indicated fragment. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. 2. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. If they should differ significantly. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty. at the end of the unit. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which is only partly dissimulated.1. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
2. in reality. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. which would not undo the past. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. the quest for higher meanings. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . there is madness in nature itself. of truth and illusion. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. Edgar. and the Fool’s comments. to believe him a traitor and usurper. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. Hamlet’s introspective. unconditionally loving ones. through paradox. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. another “fall of princes” tragedy. whom he disinherits. is closely linked. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. Goneril and Reagan. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. the Earl of Gloucester. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. The motif of madness. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. which helps him endure his suffering. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. which is that of restoring a lost order. and. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. a bastard. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. Maddened with grief. Tragically.5. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. The earl of Gloucester joins them.” 2. of human suffering. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. like that of blindness. Lear’s own madness. Cordelia. both of them prove to be the loyal. as in Hamlet. is also an exile from his own family. Edgar. on the other hand. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia.
innocence/guilt. Evil is that which destroys Nature. Desdemona. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. acting against it. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity.2. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. In Othello. 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. Scene from Othello. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). Othello. The noble protagonist. is led by Iago to believe his wife. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. In Othello.6. faithfulness/betrayal. essence. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. unfaithful. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being.
____________________ 3. kinsman and guest. Macbeth. The baroque motif of madness is. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army.7. you need to revise subchapters 2. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. he multiples his crimes. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth.2. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 2. at the end of the unit.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. one of Duncan’s sons. it bleeds. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. The protagonist. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating.2. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). / It weeps. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. at the instigation of his wife. ____________________ 4. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. who has a trusting nature. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds.2. underlining the theme of knowledge. If any of your solutions should not correspond. paradoxically.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. to 2. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action. illusion and truth. innocence and corruption.2. disorder. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . ____________________ 5. but. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. 1. ____________________ 2. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him.6.
from the Reader. SAQ 5 In Act II. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. If there should be significant differences. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. read the fragment once more. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. / Macbeth does murder sleep. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. extracted from this scene. scene 2. Text 2. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin.
We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. the fairy-tale atmosphere. involving the shipwrecked characters. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. Three lines of action develop. Cymbeline. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. has turned him into a slave. magic. a drunken servant. the long journey. They may also be described as romance plays.g. duke of Milan. owing to the improbability of the action. king of Naples. the jester. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits.8. They mix serious and comic action. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. The Tempest (1611). but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. to take his throne. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. He had long studied the arts of magic. 2. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him.9. his faithful spiritservant. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. and Sebastian. After the tragedies. respectively –. In its opening scene. the choice of a remote setting. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. Alonzo. the theme of loss and recovery. who. is considered the finest.2. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. Miranda. Alonzo. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. as well as other passengers. on which he lives alone with his daughter. Trinculo. by his powers. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. the sense of a benevolent providential design. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. the shipwreck. marvelous. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. Caliban hates and fears Prospero.2. and certain themes and motifs (e. who instantly fall in love with each other. of exile and return). The Winter’s Tale. the master of an island. myth. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son.
“neglecting worldly ends. 2. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies. for the emergence of a regenerated world. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. On the island.2. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. more importantly. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. and then to Milan. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. Caliban Innocence vs. influenced by Ariel. Ariel.10.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). represents pure spirit. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban. In the final act. Prospero. to master himself. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder.e. but. now. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. the personification of Prospero’s imagination.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. who now repent. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. At the opposite pole. he learns. the scholar-magician. and to return to the world in his full humanity. a “thing of darkness. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. The theme of power Ariel vs. at the end. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme. education] can never stick.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. the control of intelligence over nature.” claiming his throne.
Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . for instance. Here. Full of resentment. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. If there should be major differences. extracted from The Tempest.. or in developing self-identity. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. more carefully. Act I. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. scene 2. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. by teaching him to speak. read the fragment again. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4.
2. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. sublimating its primitive energies. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. The playmetaphor. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. order and harmony. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. which “delight and hurt not. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty.12. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. then at least man should strive to discern in it. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest.11. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance.2. Another pervading symbol is that of music. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . or to impose upon it. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays. whose magic art controls every incident. of performance. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest.” The sea-journey Music 2.
9 to 2. You must find them among the following statements. at the end of the unit. was first intended to bring discredit on them. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan.2. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. T F 6.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. T F 7. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. 1. in his own way. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. T F 4. Their styles are different. T F 5. T F 2. 2. but each of them. T F 3. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines.3. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. of which three are false.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. except that of terrifying him.2.12. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. If any of your choices should be wrong. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. revise subchapters2.
as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion.3.” A new kind of poetry emerged. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry. “More matter and less words” 2. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. a cold intellectual exercise. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. united] by violence together.e.2. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. and the emotions involved. a demand for “more matter and less words.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. which starts from a comparison. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic.1. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning. Dr. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling. As extended comparisons. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. a metaphor or an analogy. argumentative quality. hidden. from a most ordinary circumstance.3. as “a combination of dissimilar images. regardless of the subject of the poem. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. or discovery of occult [i. which helps the poet to develop his subject.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. This is an elaborate figurative device. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete.e. is contemplated from a certain distance. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. but also his reason. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. By means of conceits. The impression is that this experience. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. linked. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. In spite of its logical. writers had to face a new exigency.
3. and 2. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits.1. If they should differ considerably. In the following subchapters. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion.3. at the end of the unit. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. In the treatment of both themes. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. revise subchapters 2. and a highly original one. its decorative use of classical mythology. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. pastoral* conventions. Use the space left below. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit.3. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century. and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. and the same realistic force. and allegory.2. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . 2. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 . ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. as this would be a triple “sin. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. but. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. and often emphasising the need for mutual love.4. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . their love being so great and “refined. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. may afford an experience of the transcendental. Chaste. Donne is highly playful in this poem. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. and he seems to amuse himself. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. though greater. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. which.” “tear-floods”). He also suggests sometimes that physical union. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. beautiful. are however harmless to man. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. in which their blood is now mixed.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal. This is a seduction poem. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed).3.” In fact. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. when accompanied by genuine feeling. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument.
Here. in the Reader). which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. you need to revise subchapter 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. If they should differ significantly. paying special attention to the last three stanzas. Read the poem again. Formulate your answer in the space left below. he develops one of his most famous conceits..2. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. at the end of the unit. as well.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 .
between idealised passion and erotic desire. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. In his religious meditations in verse. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. The insistence on violence and struggle. In Batter My Heart. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. which parallel those in his love poetry. Actually. of loyalty and betrayal. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. on death. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. divine judgement. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity.5. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. comparable to that of Shakespeare. for the divine saving grace. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. These poems usually display contrary impulses. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. resurrection and salvation. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. Satan.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. in the exercise of reason.
living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. and read the poem again. and love of country. nature. Marvell left. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. In the last six lines. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. As a Puritan* patriot.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2.3. 2. revise subchapter 2. Donne suggests his contradictory. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. at the end of the unit. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love.7.5. If there should be significant differences. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone.3. according to some critics.6. from the Reader.
” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths.e. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. in this respect. behaving with royal grace in his last minute.e. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 . The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry. King Charles I Stuart. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. A natural detail. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. He showed a deep love for the countryside. On the other hand. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. Marvell often sees. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. It is a seduction poem. on the scaffold. shyness] and accept his passionate love.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend.8. lest it grow [i. is On a Drop of Dew. in which both of them act according to a divine order. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. pictured with remarkable precision. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems. The most illustrative poem. to change the form of ruling power). in contrasting colours. 2.3. for fear that it might grow] impure. and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit.7.e. On a Drop of Dew 2. however. aspiring to union with almighty God.
Love. If the difference is considerable. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. then (therefore)…. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. more carefully.8. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all.3. paying attention to the logic of the argument. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 . If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which has the structure If…. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure. in the Reader).8. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature. in its sexual fulfillment. but…. at the end of the unit.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. after revising subchapter 2. read the poem again.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
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figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
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endowed with speech. is a suitable emblem for their souls. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. From Caliban’s point of view. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). of a clean mind. to blend contraries (e. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. Hamlet. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. 3. make his purposes known through words). As a truly superior being. T. analytical detachment from emotion 4. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . This instrument. SAQ 7 1. King Lear.g. 5. F. T. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. 5. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). concise expression and density of meaning 2. 4. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. Othello. usually between highly dissimilar elements. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. He is not a cold-blooded killer. the development of conscience. 4. which he resents. surprising associations) 3. 6. 7. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. From Prospero’s point of view. guided by rational will. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. use of conceits (extended comparisons.g.” sleep (i.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. F. T.e. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. T SAQ 8 1. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. etc. passion and reason. F. unexpected. Hamlet. which remain perfectly united. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). 2. Hamlet. the abstract and the concrete. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. King Lear. however. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. 2. Othello. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. even if physically the lovers must be apart. complicated line of argument. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. 3. of his own sense of self.
your virginity will then be worth nothing.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. will long for him. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. waiting for her departed lover. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body. David. 1969 (pp. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. 302-305) 3. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Preda. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin.). because your charms deserve such praise. 267-283.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. in the absence of joy.. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. But.” which only God can effect. 246-249. He loves God. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. A Critical History of English Literature. just as the mistress. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. 1991 (pp. Ford. Further reading 1.). 34-40.. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). Boris (ed. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. however. consent and legality. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. instead of letting it devour us slowly. vol. 1983 (pp. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. and which would resemble rape. Ioan-Aurel (coord. 3. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. Paradoxically. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. since only worms will “enjoy” it. Daiches. in fact. vol. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. English Literature and Civilisation. But I know time is merciless. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. 97-105. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. 273-287) 2. Penguin Books Ltd. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 .
2.5.5. 3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. 3.3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.4. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.2. 3. 3. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton. 3. 3.3.3. 3.4.1. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4. 184.108.40.206.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3. 3. 3.4.
Paradise Lost. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. etc. he studied Latin. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. music. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. as a publicist. politics. he went on a trip to Italy. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. etc. Greek and Hebrew. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. he approached a diversity of subjects. religion. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. he continued to read intensively. theology. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In 1638. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. Milton. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. At Cambridge (1625-1629). family. After that. His enormous learning.g. as well as his moral inflexibility.1. mathematics. the freedom of the press. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. religious and civil debates of his age. geography. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*.). such as education. baroque* vision. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. written in English and in Latin. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. the greatest epic poem in English literature.
or the two sides of the poet’s soul. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. In some of them. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. etc. Virgil*. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. with its pastoral delights.2. As a poet.). but Milton did not complete his plan. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. On the other hand. However. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes. who. is in touch with divine secrets. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. In the Sixth elegy. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. his political hopes ended. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes.2. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. like a priest. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration.1. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. for instance. Ovid*.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. As in other poems. 3. However. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. With the Restoration*. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet.
If your choices should be wrong. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. in Il Penseroso. of classical erudition with biblical themes.” contemplative mood. Milton’s literary ambition was a. b. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. the integration. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. with its simple pleasures. c.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers.2. c. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. at the end of the unit. b. and on the happiness of rural life. The secular* pleasures of common life.e. c. In both poems. In the latter. revise subchapters 3.1. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. 2. in his poetic work. and 3. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. in L’Allegro. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. to master a variety of styles. polyphonic sounds of the organ. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. b. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. the crowing of the cock. 3. In each poem. there is a strong emphasis on music. 1. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. In Il Penseroso. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower.
Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. uses again the pastoral frame. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The elegy Lycidas. Milton composed another poem in which. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long.The works of John Milton 3. to fresh woods and pastures new. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds.2.3. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. again.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. personal manner. Irrespective of their nature. in a heavenly pastoral world. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. not on earth. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist.2. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. The death of the dedicated young man. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. or occasional and complimentary compositions. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God.
as King of Heaven.3.3. As a Christian poet. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. To prevent such a complaint. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him.2. In the first part of the sonnet. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”). angels). that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time.1. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions.” “mean or high” as it may be.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness. at his age. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. written in 1631. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). and confronts the evidence of a “late spring. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised.e. but of God’s eternal will. confessing his temptation to ask. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. with a certain sadness. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. he admits. but also by Christian humility. patiently. he must admit. who carry out the divine his daughters will. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. Milton meditates on his loss of sight. When he wrote Sonet XVII. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . In Sonnet XVII. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. i. in 1652. light denied?”). he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII).The works of John Milton 3. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces.” By this time. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory.” that they are “timely happy spirits”. since. that. He has reached the age of twenty four.
Read these sonnets (Texts 3.4. and of leaving to posterity an undying work. at the end of the unit. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation.2. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. 3. and he worked at it over several years. Dante* –.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667. Virgil.3. and the two sonnets. when he was already blind. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader). and 3. read again subchapter 3. If there should be significant differences. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. respectively. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same.2.
Finally. in theme a daring. of Lucifer* from Heaven.1. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. He interprets poetically the biblical events. Starting from the dualism good/evil. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. 3. and his loss of Paradise. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs.e. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history.” forever deprived of the glory. original epic scenario. etc. as he stated in the opening Invocation. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. over the years.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. predestination*. man’s temptation and fall into sin. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. are gathered to listen to Satan. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action. in which man’s fall. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. “to justify the ways of God to men. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. accumulated throughout his life. in fact.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. but his erudition.” full of the bitterness of defeat. Milton had thought. obedience and rebellion. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him.4. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. brought about by his disobedience. Milton’s ambition was. His work is encyclopaedic. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. the creation of the world and of man. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. which is never ornamental. The “lost Archangel. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny.
the “wild abyss” governed by Night. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. Chaos and Chance.” Meanwhile. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king. to seek the newly created Earth. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. death and resurrection.2. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. Pandemonium*. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. i. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. Satan. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace.4. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. surpass] hellish hate.e. God. cunning]. and he flies away. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. 3. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem.e. set him free from sin. by virtue of his leading position.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world.e. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. whose setting is in Heaven. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. and their discussions are rendered in Book II.The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge.
The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. at the end of the unit. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words. read again the text. in the Reader. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. If there should be major differences. more carefully. What is God’s argument. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 .
innocence and “virgin modesty. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world. In Book VIII. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. not before repeating his warning. sweetness. and. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace.4. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels. in Book VII. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence. Adam admits that. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V.” Man himself was created as a “better race. It is interesting that. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. King Anointed*”. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding.3. that cannot change].” Raphael leaves them. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. as this diminished W. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve.” for the evocation of the making of the world. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. in order to prolong his guest’s visit.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost.e.4. the angel Raphael. in Milton’s poem. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. not immutable [i. so that he may know more about his enemy.” to fill in the “vacant room [i. space]” left by the fallen angels. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. Adam is grateful to Raphael. instigated by Lucifer.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. after the defeat of the rebel angels. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. and fear to transgress!” 3.The works of John Milton 3. the “divine historian. Satan.e. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man.4. sent by God. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. In Milton’s interpretation. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being.
What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. in the Reader presents. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . W. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. in no more than 10 lines/100 words. read the fragment again. A Prophecy. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. at the end of the unit. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. through Raphael’s words.7.
flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm.e. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. At last. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. The “calm region” of their state of mind. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .5. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. their inward the fall on Nature peace. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace. the thundering skies weep.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. for a moment. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. hate / Mistrust. the “subtlest [i. suspicion. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her.The works of John Milton 3. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. Meanwhile. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. and. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown. discord” – which make reason and will helpless.4. W. most subtle*] beast of all the field. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise.
in which these moves are illustrated. The world after the Fall In the next books. at the end of each sentence. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. Match these sentences with the fragment. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. If any of your matches should be wrong. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. at last. which will bring her close to the condition of God. 3. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. but. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. _______ b. annihilate Sin and Death. He flatters Eve. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. _______ d. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. hoping to arouse her pride. or fragments. _______ e. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things.” is the one who will. _______ f. they taste its fruit. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan. a. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. on a separate sheet. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. as God himself predicts: His Son.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3.8. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. Satan’s victory seems complete. He denigrates God. in the middle of this speech. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. at the end of the unit. but he also adds symbolic episodes.” _______ g.6. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX.4. _______ c. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space.
Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . changed drastically after Adam’s fall. his suffering. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. death. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. faith and good deeds. – to the hostility of Nature. but Michael comforts him. God consents. The certainty that.” founded on love. pride. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. from man’s own vices – violence. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. but of sadness. and the poem closes not on a note of despair.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. intemperance. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. through Christ. In Book X. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. etc. combining thus justice with mercy. In Book XI. redemption*: Jesus. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable.
which they fully assume. 3. If they should differ in major points. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. more carefully. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan.9. It may be argued. however. read the fragment again. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. at the end of the unit. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost.
He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven. he had been the first Archangel. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels.5. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. From the beginning of the poem. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical. Before his fall. In Hell. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan.e.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. and his great ambition is “to reign. he is envious of God’s omnipotence.The works of John Milton 3.1. which is itself a paradise. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven. made happy in their innocent love. where there is “neither joy nor love.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. Over a century after the poem’s publication. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment.
Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions. and “out of good still to find means of evil. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. Awakening in man the impulse to question. Satan is The Tempter. the destroyer of faith. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word. Satan. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. As God’s absolute antagonist. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent.” seeming reasonable and true.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride. It is with “high words.” He is “the author of all ill.The works of John Milton 3. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 .2. It is also with “persuasive* words. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness.5. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim.
and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3.. “and “The mind is its own place. Read the whole fragment carefully. If there are significant differences. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero. and read the indicated fragment again.1.2. at the end of the unit. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.) B. revise subchapters 3.3. and 3. “A mind not to be changed by time or place.5.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words.5. in Hell. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers.
He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. As a Christian. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man.” “Our great Progenitor [i.” “mother of human race. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. but who can hope for redemption*. but as a consequence of their wrong choices. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them.” but also “our credulous mother. ancestor. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.” “our general mother. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. but armed with the wisdom of faith. Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically. As a humanist.5. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. of understanding and accepting his limits. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator.e. Adam is called Sire* of Men. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition.” “Patriarch of Mankind. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan. Satan’s torments in Hell. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. Created in God’s image. precursor]. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. the titanic dimension of his suffering. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. in Book XII.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace.3.” “Our Author. deprived of worth. but W. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall. In his last conversation with Michael. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –.The works of John Milton 3. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them.
Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. Subchapter 3.2. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. the Nativity Ode. Read this fragment and summarise its argument. in the Reader. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. at the end of the unit. Summary In this unit.5. a necessary part of His design. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. he prepared himself for it during long years. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. If there should be major differences. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. one of the greatest English poets. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. in no more than 8 lines/80 words.
Undoubtedly. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. but also in which man may. which are. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. Subchapter 3. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. however. his love of freedom. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. his courage and majesty. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. at any time. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice.3. put in the service of evil. Subchapter 3. the creation of the world and of man. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets.5. presented in subchapter 3. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues.4.
or some tragic event. Italian poet.e. he is called Satan. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. every. by extension. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey.-17 A.” After the fall from Heaven. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.e. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. to convince. the “great and good redeemer” (i. suffering and death of Christ. ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. predestination: from a theological point of view. to cause to believe). Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. clever in using tricks.D.). Roman poet. 800 B. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. formerly used when speaking to a king. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. difficult to detect (or analyse). the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. noise and chaos. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred). epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. not concerned with or related to religion. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. Sire: a respectful term of address. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. The word may refer. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. Homer: Greek poet (c. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.). the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course.C. author of La Divina Commedia. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. to a place of wild confusion. subtle: not immediately evident.C. It may also mean cunning. pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Providence: God’s kindness. It means “the carrier of light. the one who sets man free from sin). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . In classical literature. Purgatory and Paradise. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses.
with special attention to the indicated subchapters. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. • Read attentively this fragment. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3. At the beginning of Book IV.). It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. one of the greatest Roman poets. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition.2.6.5. in Milton’s Paradise Lost. and 2. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition. Texts 2. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . Send-away assignment no.4. God’s creation. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. before the final battle. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero. at the end of the play.1. 2. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan.C. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death.. In both of them.The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. romantic in The Tempest –. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. and the last paragraph of 2.1. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve.. A revision of subchapter 3. Text 3.3. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan.2.2. in which he explores his inner hell. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. 1. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest. and thus of destroying man.
is thus not attributable to God. not God. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. responsible for his choices. The paradox of freedom. in grading your paper. however. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands.a.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. The poet places his trust in Providence. clarity.e. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). Created “just and right.c. The fall of man. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come. 2.. SAA no. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality. like that of the angels. and reason makes man. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave). i. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. his blindness. is that one may choose right or wrong. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. The implication is that God gave man conscience.b. but the consequence of evil influence..” In the case of man. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. Remember that. • the coherence. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). Milton emphasises the geometrical. or reason.
4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. If God leaves man’s loyalty. Paradise is now a forbidden place. 1. c. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. 1. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. 1983 (pp. i. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 2. 2003 (pp. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. of human solidarity. to be dictated by Reason. Daiches. e. Ioan-Aurel (coord. g. b. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). unless he is put in the situation of making choices. If Hell is a space of freedom. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. faith and love untested. David. Forced to look ahead. 3. d. Incapable of obedience to God. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). Luminiţa Elena. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . i. vol. 153-163) 3.. 2.3. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. The Literature of the Beginnings. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice.4. f. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. 2.4. as God has made him. SAQ 7 1. Man is not a free creature. 2. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. SAQ 5 a. unless he exercises his will and reason. Turcu. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression.The works of John Milton Architect”). and the image of the terrible gates. with passive virtue. 435-449) 2. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love.). This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). A Critical History of English Literature. Preda. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.e. under the guidance of Providence. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Further reading 1. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. 1969 (pp.e. English Literature and Civilisation.
1.2 4. 4. 220.127.116.11.2.1. 4.2. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator. 4. 18.104.22.168.4. 4.4. 4. 4.1.3. 4.1. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. 4.5.2. 4.4. Gulliver. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.4.2.4. 22.214.171.124.4.4.2. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage. 4.1.5. 4. 4. 4. 4.1.5. 4. 4.4.2. 4. 4.7.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 126.96.36.199.3.
♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. under the influence of French theatres.1. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. Unit objectives 4.1. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. and of considerable diversity. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. the cast of actors included women. addressing itself to an inclusive public. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change. and. clarity and elegant restraint. of increasing rationalism and secularisation.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. drama holds a place apart. under the patronage of king Charles II. and Jonathan Swift. The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. it was a period of transition as well. From a literary point of view.1. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. Nature. Human nature. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. 4. and their re-opening in 1660. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. Alexander Pope. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction.
above all.1.1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. although each in its own way and for different reasons. refinement and sophistication. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. the cynicism. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. A certain coarseness of feeling. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*.3. fashionable manners. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. Sensational turns of situation. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. wit*. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. exotic places. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. and absolute villains. or Court Wits. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. Gallantry. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. both of them highly conventional forms. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. on the one hand. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. 4. magnificent settings. The action was usually set in remote. Conquest and seduction. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. on the other. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines. sumptuous costumes. an artificial. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. jealousy. adultery. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. It made fun of the people from the countryside. and. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). were essential for the true man of the world. lust. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains.
the country squire*. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . cynical. young or old. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). the scheming valet. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. deliberately superficial in construction. selfish and manipulative. the ingénue. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. or fool. pleasure-seeking. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. and the trusting husband as dupe. despising marriage. the lusty widow. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated.” without scruples. aspiring to the perfect adventure. Another frequent type was the fop*. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. etc. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. Contrasting types were the coquette. lacking complexity. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. If characters were usually static. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire.
If any of them should turn out to be wrong. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. 4. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language.1. T F 7. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. read again subchapters 4. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. T F 9.1. hedonism and amorality at Court. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false).1. 1. T F 2. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. simple action. William Congreve. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single.3. Restoration comedy praised wit. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. T F 3. T F 6. T F 8. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to 4. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love.1. at the end of the unit. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. elegance. T F 4. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. by doing the exercise that follows. frivolity.4. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. such as the impoverished gallant. It displays typical Restoration characters. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. refinement and sophistication. T F 5.
which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. admiration.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. the pair of witty lovers. psychologically subtle and complex. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. involving a multitude of characters. the awkward country-girl. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. Towards the end of the 17 th century. increasingly middle class. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). The new audience in the theatres. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. as these were remote from their experience. is extremely complex. half-sad. half-amused. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. the witty and resourceful servant. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. etc. and friendship to jealousy. affection. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. and the shifting relationships and alliances. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit.5.1. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. 4. The situation. consistent characters. bringing it to perfection. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 .
their agreement has serious implications. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. Millamant is also in love. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World. as well as the indicated fragment.. If there should be significant differences. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Mirabell is a reformed rake.1. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. which presents Millamant's demands. read again subchapter 4." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. Read Text 4. in Act IV.4. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. However. In a witty dialogue.1. they seem to be playing a game.. under the appearance of frivolity. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract. at the end of the unit.
Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. balance.2. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 . but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. Besides Dryden and Pope. and harmony extended beyond literature. John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. In both cases. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*. elegance.1. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. In it. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . Joseph Addison*. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). 4.2. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues.
This was the case of the genius. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. on the other hand. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. the most valuable store of literary experience. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. i. The most eloquent example. required an elevated style. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. The rule of decorum 4. which usually presented ordinary people and actions.2. and the poet might disregard them. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. humble style. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. was Shakespeare. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. of infinite variety. comedy. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. a dignified diction. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. to make form and substance adequate to each other. Epic and tragedy. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. for the Augustans. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. skill.e. was expected to use a common.2.2. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet.. yet achieve great beauty. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. the emphasis on discipline in art.3. skilful transgression.e. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. A poet’s innate talent needed training. and to those patterns of behaviour. i. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. for instance. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift. lacking ornament. in satirical or burlesque* works. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety].
read again subchapter 4.3.g. at the end of the unit. a combination achieved through reason. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines). but also to imported French ideas – e. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. If there should be significant differences. and the indicated fragment. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . or art*. What are the main ideas in this fragment. and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill.3. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. SAQ 3 Text 4. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2.
but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason.2. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. but to be a functional part of the community. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. of quick accumulation of information. its effects were considerable on prose. affectation were rejected. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. 4. “grace and strength united. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama.” Augustan wit 4. eloquence with restraint. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*. In the context of general progress. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. Ostentation. of critical debate in every field.4. refinement with wisdom.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint.2.3.5. too. manners and taste. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. or. precision and clarity. where nothing seems to be studied. with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*. unnecessary ornament. The writer's art was a form of social communication. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace.
or to the discussion of literary matters. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. some of them being issued daily. In order to counterbalance this tendency. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. They believed. dominantly middle class. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. At the same time. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. at cultivating their minds. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. and they were published with varying regularity. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. with Alexander Pope. for a clientele of ships' captains. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. the middle class readers. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. opened in 1688.” that ignorance is a source of evil.
they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). Like other writers.3. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. think again and try to do the exercise once more. and by far the most popular ones. Think of present relevance of this remark. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele).e. on a separate sheet. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711).The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays.1. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. 4. If they are significantly different. Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. The Tatler and The Spectator. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. at the end of the unit. collected in book form. whose essays were published several times in the century.
” and “his familiarity with the customs. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club. Now. laziness.e. wit and understanding. rather than a merit.e. in which they collaborated. a middle-aged squire. and sloth [i. • A gentleman who.e. strong reason. a courageous. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. a man of the world. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals.e. a rich London merchant. in his county. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “a very philosophic man. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. • A clergyman. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. He is a man of “great probity. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. a model of honesty. an expert in fashion and gossip. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. • Sir Andrew Freeport.” • Captain Sentry. a gallant.” of wide learning. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. skills] and industry. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. bravery in battle]. turned to the study of literature. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. “a person of indefatigable industry*. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. manners. for The Spectator. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. for instance. and the reflections of “Mr. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. • Will Honeycomb. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. for true power is to be got by arts [i. and great experience. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. He believes. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example.” or that “diligence [i. a competent justice of the peace*.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. generous and cheerful. modest and commonsensical person. hard work and skill. as his father had intended for him.
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 6. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. and write them in the indicated spaces below.3. 7. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . If there should be major discrepancies. 8. 3. cheerful disposition. at the end of the unit. read again subchapter 4. more carefully.1. 1. 5. Identify at least eight such features. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. 4. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. 2. common sense.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation.
The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . greed. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. folly. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets. admiration and condemnation. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. hypocrisy.1. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury.2. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. 1743). appears also as a stormy spirit. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. genuinely gifted for leadership. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. Samuel. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682).The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction.4. a passionate. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness.4. Bayes*. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. brave and fearless man. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. king David. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. intrigues. are mingled: the evil conspirator. its cult of reason and common sense. from political and social life. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. the Duke of Monmouth. and satire became their formidable weapon. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. disloyal and excessively ambitious. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr.4. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. Political and religious dissensions. contradictions and dark aspects. Pope. 4. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. to religious debates and literary practices. 4. 15-18). struggle for power and profit. Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. often touched by ironic humour. selfishness.
and revise subchapter 4. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. more attentively. read the fragment again. he reflects on the art of the satirist. Religion. imagination). are more disturbing than entertaining.2. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire. however. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. concerning satire. Art.e. Truth. imaginative inventiveness.4. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . SAQ 6 Text 4. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. Explain this analogy. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. and Morality. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. Here. Its implications. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. Science.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. If it should be significantly different. Philosophy.
Laputa. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. economic.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. a hater of pedantry and pretence. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. in his potential as a rational creature. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. In Balnibarbi. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. the flying island. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. In his last voyage.4. an uncompromising defender of truth.4. he learns about the Struldbruggs. bigger than himself. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend. religious. the Yahoos.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Like many of his contemporaries. From this last country. and literary. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason.4. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. or softening marble to make pincushions. Gulliver is finally expelled. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. respectively. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books.A Voyage to Lilliput II. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. with a sharp sense of observation. In Luggnagg. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). Jonathan Swift. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. In it. justice and freedom.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. Balnibarbi. philosophical. building houses starting from the roof. In his third voyage he visits several strange places. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. and where human creatures.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. Luggnagg and Japan IV.A Voyage to Laputa. curious and resourceful. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. social and intellectual realities. intelligent speaking horses. Back in England. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. Glubbdubdrib.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political.3. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers.
four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. 2. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror.5. and he prefers now the company of horses. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. from the Reader. 4. Find. in Text 4. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. read the fragment carefully once more. 1. SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one).The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. 3. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers.
In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. ruled by an enlightened monarch. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. his vulnerability increases. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling.). of the capacity for affection. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. In the Houyhnhnms. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. etc. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . jumping over or creeping under a stick. In Brobdingnag. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature.4. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. by dancing on a rope. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. in his last adventure. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world. In the Yahoos. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. cruel and hypocritical.6. from which he chooses to leave. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation. ambitious. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. means de-humanisation.5. he sees ideal creatures. However. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. Dissenters and Catholics. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. governed only by reason. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. issues or figures. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. etc. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. Gulliver is confronted. Gulliver. The fourth voyage.4. vain. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature.
the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo . or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . makes him a frustrated idealist. For many readers. filthy. unteachable and ungovernable. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. In a “theological” perspective. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope.
in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. from the Reader.6. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 .The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. and to revise subchapter 4. however. The careful reader will. find anti-utopian elements in it. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect. you need to read the fragment again. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. If there should be major differences.6. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. For Gulliver.4.
Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. narrow-sightedness. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. a wide public. Steele). placing wit above virtue. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. Steele.4. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. Gradually. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. Addison. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift.g. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. Like heroic tragedy (e. caricature. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. his learning and sense of literary tradition. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. Pope. Satire. on the rule of decorum. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. Swift. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. and by means of it. both in verse (Dryden. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . therefore also capable of error. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. comedy was licentious and cynical. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. including that of Reason itself. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. Dryden). Congreve. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. was another characteristic genre. when literary Neoclassicism developed. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. For Swift. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. dominantly middle class. Dryden. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. generally. and. Dryden. parody. etc. Goldsmith. It is an age of transition.). Pope) and in prose (Swift).7. grotesque.
For instance. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. greatly concerned with appearances. which designated a fashionable. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18). They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. “Will’s Coffee House. the acquired competence of the writer. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature). but is intended to impress others. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. and the Glossary in Unit 2. baroque: see again subchapter 2. admirer. affectation: a manner of speech. coffee houses: since the 1650s.” where Dryden would come regularly.1. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. profession or interest. political or religious orientation. dress or behaviour which is not natural. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. In her empire of darkness and confusion.1. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . well-dressed man. Art may generally refer to the work of man. or escort. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. his craftsmanship. achieved by training and practice. In Pope’s satire. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French).
” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. boring. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. i. trait .4. referring not only to external nature. inclination. a strictly ordered hierarchical system.3 in Unit 1. to deceive). Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. unexciting. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. It derives from “bay.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. or “humour. “Dull” also means uninteresting. Mr. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. “Mr. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. Bayes. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. honour. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. dulness: in a strict sense. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. slowness in thinking and learning. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible.” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. from dunce. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 . who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). stupidity. In Pope’s satire. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. and distinction.e. In this kind of comedy. landscape. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber.” Nature: an inclusive concept.” another word for “laurel”. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. but to the whole of created reality. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law.
author of poems. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5. or who chats or talks idly. he translated from ancient authors.4 in Unit 1. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.” from Greek u = not.4.1. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. Boileau. of imagination and originality. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. squire: a country gentleman. of taste or skill. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. founder of literary journalism. for the notion of sentimentalism. or literature in general. Dryden. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world. especially the main landowner in a village. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. elegant.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners.e. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516). making literature “dull. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. Among the latter.3 in Unit 5. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. polished). i. essays and dramatic works. perfect society (literally: “no place.4. and topos = place).
He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. Steele. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. Wycherley.). Among various other works. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). author of odes. Sprat. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. and The Man of Mode. who called him a “comic history-painter. William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. and A Modest Proposal (1729). political and moral vices. concise and flexible. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Like his friend. Swift. 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. an unequalled master of irony and wit. satires and epistles. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). of Irish origin. Virgil. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. and a major representative of English sentimentalism. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. Johnson. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). Hogarth. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. Together with Addison. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). clear. Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. Pope. member of the Royal Society.C. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. Goldsmith. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism.
is. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. 6. industry.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1.F. 8. by the standards of her social environment. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. Civilised reserve in society. reasonableness. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. 2. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind.e. furnished with ideas. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. for sophisticated Millamant. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. good sense. 5. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles.F.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. common sense. regardless of their particular condition. of Human nature. or judgment.e. In marriage. 7. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. and.T.T. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i.F. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. 4. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. open-mindedness. 3. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes. integrity. good judgment.” Just as weeds (i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . diligence. SAQ 5 honesty.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages.T.T. modesty. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. abdicating from reason. in an analogous sense. benevolence. good breeding. sense of responsibility. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist.e. of those features which are universal. 9. opinions and tastes.T.
1969 (pp. In the absence of affective attachment. 2. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering. vol. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. the exclusion of opinion. ultimately of imagination. Preda. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. 180-187) 3. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. Macsiniuc. which is meant only for procreation. The individual is of no importance. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 5.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Cornelia. which breeds imaginary ills. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 4. The tendency to idleness. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. The spirit of competition. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation.” SAQ 7 1. which makes social progress inconceivable.. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. Ioan-Aurel (coord. the “fineness. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. Daiches. A Critical History of English Literature. The Novel in Its Beginnings.” the subtlety of his accusations. They practice population control. only the species counts. 537-550) 2. conflict and self-interest.). The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 1983 (pp. English Literature and Civilisation. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. David. 2003 (pp. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. 3. Further reading 1. The irrational greed and avarice.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. The English Eighteenth Century.
2.6. 5. 5.2. 5. 188.8.131.52. 5.5. 5.5.4. 5. 5.4.2. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11.2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 .2. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. 5.1. 5. 5. 5.3. 5. 5.3.1. 5.2.4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5. 5.4. 126.96.36.199.2.1. 5. 5. 5. 188.8.131.52.2.1. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5.3.4. 5.7.3.
values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. mostly imitations of French models. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. and the development of the novel. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. and there is a connection between. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5.1. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. tolerance.1. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. and generally about women. natural rights. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. in the early years of the 18 th century. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. the rise of the middle classes. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. whose action was often set in remote. whose vast majority was middle-class. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. 5. exotic settings.1. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. more inclusive reading public.
By contrast. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. the province of the novel was the familiar. romances were therefore literature of escape. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. in the novel.2. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. Thus. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. The novel reflects. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. legend. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. history. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. or previous literature. the novel’s didactic vocation. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. but distinct individualities. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. in Augustan terms. 5. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. For most women. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. by common people. moral or psychological detail. vague and abstract figures. its normality. Characters are no longer idealised. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly.1. in its concerns. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. On the one hand. socially and materially dependent on men. On the other hand. The ordinary aspects of life. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . but from contemporary life. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. Realism – or.
Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion. 1. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below.1. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations.1. on the other. at the end of the unit. Women were … 3.1.2. read again subchapters 5. … 4. and 5. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The rise of the middle classes … 2. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. If there should be major differences. and public/social norms and conventions. on the one hand.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies.
displayed not only in fiction. Fielding). a wide variety of influences went into its making. romance is trivialised through parody*. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. The motif of the travel is central. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. and the world represented in such novels is open. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e.1. patterns and motifs. but to literature as well. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion.3. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. in which the action is episodic. On the other hand. repetitious. Instead. inclusive. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. Richardson). The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. but also in poetry and in drama. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. the romance). from which it borrowed devices. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. therefore an ally to realism. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. i. and the hero’s various encounters are. loosely structured. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. for the author. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. Many novels cut across divisions.g. on events. and extremely diverse. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour.g. confusion. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. forms of expression. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. belonging to several categories at once. classic models to follow. irony and burlesque*. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding.e.
________________________ 6. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. 3. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. ________________________ 4. It presents a tale of mystery and horror. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. usually with supernatural ingredients. ________________________ 5. 1. after each sentence. in an atmosphere of gloom. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. ________________________ 8.3. in their confrontation with moral choice. trivial subjects. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel.1. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. at the end of the unit. read again subchapter 5. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. ________________________ 2. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. ________________________ 7..
Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. Puritan* background. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. 5. in actions. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. but also on the Continent. This confers vividness to their narratives.2. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. several adventure novels. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. dynamic and versatile. They share a middle class.2. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. They are pragmatic. published in 1719. Mariner. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. cast in a picaresque form. in the next years. to the influence. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. their social insertion. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. on his fiction.1. when the writer was almost sixty. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. They were all stories of success. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. in circumstantial details.
2. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. romantic youth into a realistic. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. has three children. Providence helps him finally leave the island. In the 28 years of solitary life.2. where he has established a colony. he starts a voyage to Africa. Under Defoe’s pen.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The only survivor.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. He marries. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. C. On his return to England. he turns from a reckless. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. to buy slaves. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. In the hope of increasing his wealth. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Son of a successful German merchant settled in England.” It is. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. Wyeth . Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N.” and leaves home on board a ship.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. such an experience became an archetypal one. in soon left a widower. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. After 26 years. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. in fact. After several misadventures at sea. not only physical but also spiritual. prudent and calculating mature man.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. If it should differ considerably. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. Gradually. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 . read again subchapters 5. In his initial struggle with despair.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions.2.2.. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. and 5. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation.” 5.2. at the end of the unit. In this light. as a political or economic utopia. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness.2. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father). Isolation is no longer a misfortune. to the awakening of religious conscience.3. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design.
or the felix culpa*. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. subchapter 5.g. g. Enumerate. It has its spiritual rewards. He takes pleasure in his work). its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life.. 1. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism..2. Like Adam. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. morally autonomous. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. at the end of the unit.. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour.” desires and “delights. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. perspicacity. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5.2. in the space below. 3. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work. Changed in his “notion of things. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description.” However. 4. In this connection. 2.3. inventiveness. which will serve his instinct for independence. perseverance. ingenuity). the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value.2. or by a sentence (e. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. You may render these features either by a single noun (e.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise. as well as the fragment in the Reader. as a self-reliant individual.
of familiar detail. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. clarity. 2. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. concreteness. whose reality is difficult to doubt. 4. 1.2. solid world. at the end of the unit.4.2. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure. the frequent enumerations and inventories. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. read the fragment and subchapter 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. containing.4 once more and do the exercise again. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. His linear.2. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the promise of symbolic meanings. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. he paid little attention to matters of form. with unmatched vividness. His simple. clear language. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. 3. in the Reader from the point of view of its style. at the same time. The richness of concrete detail. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. on a separate sheet. which. rendered in a simple. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative.
Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. There. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. Upon the death of her mistress.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The plot of Pamela. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. Mr. in Bedfordshire. of the struggle between virtue and vice. whose affection she finally gains. In Pamela. B_’s hands. His influence was considerable. as well as for his didactic purpose. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. Mr. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. sensibility and morality. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace.2. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. unanimously loved and admired. B_’s sister. recording the details of her ordeal. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. hoping that she will give in. B_. cruel and greedy relatives. Pamela continues a diary. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. B’s relatives and friends. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. the latter’s son. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_.6. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . As the first great sentimental novelist. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. Faced with her resistance. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. not only in England but also on the Continent. Mr. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. In Clarissa. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her.5.2. In her new state. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. At the same time.
Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. F. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. the rights of the individual. a complete novelty in fiction. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues.7. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. B_. to set moral standards to the nation. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious. as a traditionally dominant class. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. Richardson’s implicit radical message.2. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. Through its subject and theme.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the freedoms that he takes with her. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy.” but she defends her dignity as an individual.
2.8. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge. between hate and admiration. at the end of the unit. read again attentively subchapters 5. though in quality [i. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. If there should be significant differences. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess.”? Answer in the space left below. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words.2. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.e.2. to obey Mr. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty. 5. Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger. as a servant. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts.7. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor.6. and 5.
read again subchapter 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. in the Reader). excerpted from Pamela. and his developing love. her sentimental response to them. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. which are captured in the process of their emergence.4. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader. on the other. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling. on the one hand.3. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart.9. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. and considering also Text 5. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions.2. at the end of the unit.. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus. What counts. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each.. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. however. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. 2. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. B_ follows a similar evolution. In Pamela’s letters and diary. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . 1. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character.
in London. and. Mrs. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. relationships and actions. above all. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. the author asserts himself. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. Slipslop. so that he sets out for home. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. Fielding abandons parody. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. Booby. B_’s aunt. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. Fielding was a master of parody. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. irony. but a snobbish. At this point. as well as their inclusiveness. modest and gentle creature. Abraham Adams.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. 1790) 132 . Cervantes. but a voice external to the story. burlesque and comic satire. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend.1.3. but also by the maid. Through the omniscient* narrator.3. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. Joseph’s sweetheart. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. author of Don Quixote” (1742). and he thought to propose his own version of morality. started as a parody. whose servant he was. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. they mirror a wide range of human types. Mr. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. performed by means of comic satiric devices. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. priggish* upstart. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. Pope. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. Mr. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. All important characters meet here. to his native village.” Mr. including Pamela and her husband. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. His works are panoramic reflections of the age.
T F 2.3. T F 6. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . whom they had met during their journey. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. T F 7. T F 4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. in the spirit of comedy. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. is an ingredient of romantic plots. T F 5. Read Text 5. For instance. alluding thus to the older genre. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. carefully. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. T F 3. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). T F 8. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. for true or false) for each of them. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. which closes the plot. Wilson. Cervantes.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status. 5. which turns out to be gentle*. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. 1. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy.2. Mr. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. read the text once more. at the end of the unit.5. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. or the pattern of the adventurous journey. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. Fielding likes to play with genres.
Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. doctors. At the same time. but good deeds and charity. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. lawyers. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. Along the novel.3. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. not an individual. he describes “not men. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. Like his literary ancestor. but manners. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. In the beginning. In other words. as he himself says. cruelty.3. in spite of the many instances of greed. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. Joseph emerges as morally mature.4.3. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). often making him appear ridiculous. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. etc. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. in Fielding. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. but they placed their main interest in the individual. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. Every social class. but also moral instruction. masters. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. etc.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. which must give substance to faith. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. active goodness. above all. both honest and hypocrite priests. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. By means of techniques of contrast. which often create comic effects. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . there are both good and bad innkeepers. For the author. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. as for Richardson.
3. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined.3.8. 2. Explain them. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature. and he believes. His commentaries and reflections on his own art. drawing short comparisons. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. through its moral and temperamental types.. and 5. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each. 5. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 . incorporated in the substance of his works. like many Augustan writers.4.2. 3.. 5. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation.3. unaffected. at the end of the unit.. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony. read again subchapters 5. At the same time. Fielding is the most “Augustan.4.5. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. 1.. If they should differ substantially. provide the first theory of the novel. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel.2. He is a moralist. 5.2. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices.
Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. he seems to have. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life.” in every sense.1. and his long. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction. of his uncle. at every point. 5. by accident. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. does not manage to give a shape to his story. Tristram. in Joseph Andrews. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. that.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals.e.4. unpredictable narrative. that he was. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. the narrator. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. He digresses continually. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account.4. moulds reality into a literary pattern. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. at the age of five. is an erudite philosopher.4. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation. corporal Trim. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. However. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. Fielding had demonstrated. With Sterne. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. the priest who baptised Tristram.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. which isolates each of them in his mental universe.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” individuals dominated by some private obsession. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. Walter Shandy. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. as well as of Parson Yorick. i. His father. the relation between life and literature. other interesting things to relate. the history of a private life.2. In spite of his promises. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. Walter.
there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. Understandably. generosity. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. pitiful creature. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts. therefore.4. On the other hand. and discharged from the army. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. However. The “nonsensical. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. good-humoured. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. amiability. They cannot share their thoughts. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. as comic eccentricity. with man as a vulnerable. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. absorbed in this activity. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. character and destiny.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. above all. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. gentleness. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. Wounded in Flanders. modesty and. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. which influences all his thoughts and actions. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life. were being fought on the continent. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. It is not type (social. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. ironic terms.3.
in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. To remember the features of the tragic hero.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. Ch. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words. Write the answer in the space left below. as well as the fragment from the Reader. If the difference is considerable. at the end of the unit.6. V. I. SAQ 10 In Vol. Read this short chapter (Text 5. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit.3.. in the Glossary to Unit 2.4. see again the fall of princes. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*. read again subchapter 5.
The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom.” Not only as a man. Tristram resorts to other means of communication. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. and he takes great delight in digressions. does not seem to move towards any climax. i. the “imperfections of words. The zigzagging narrative. watched as if by a slow motion camera. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. For example. Sterne’s rambling narrative. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. Typographically. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. points of suspension. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 .4. but also to how it is told. Sterne defamiliarises them. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface. in Sterne’s novel. coherent plots. to a certain view of writing. The structure of the book is equally odd. with its multitude of dashes. It is.e. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories. asterisks. the book is a comic oddity. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past.4. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in.4.5. but also as an author. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. which he calls “the sunshine of reading. drawings and graphs. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. etc. and gives the impression of stagnation. makes the reader aware of them.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. for instance. 5. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. there are several dedications scattered through the book. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. so different from Fielding’s tight. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. by exploiting them in a parodic way.
e. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. which is connected.e. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. of life as pure chance. at the structural level. i. Its extravagant. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. Metafictionally.4. The unpredictable. as it explores – halfseriously. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. It is a half-amused. In volume VI.” with their digressions. metafiction is fiction about fiction. As metafiction. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . on the author’s vision of life. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create.6. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. Basically. however. the process of its own writing. formless reality. ultimately. in the first four volumes. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. The meaning of metafiction depends. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. works which call attention to their own devices. the narrated time and the time of reading. i. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience.
Write them in the spaces indicated below. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5. 2. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it.5. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. If they differ significantly. which he discusses in the very text of the work.. and read the fragment attentively once more. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 . and 5. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel.4. 3. 1.6. In this way.7. go again through subchapters 5. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. Instead of continuing the story. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them.4.
looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. At the beginning of the 18th century. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. Sterne. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. Henry Fielding. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. Lastly. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. However. completely ignored by Augustan poetics. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. in his novels of manners. Samuel Richardson. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. Fielding. the novel was a minor form. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. and Laurence Sterne. Since its settlement on the literary scene. on the other hand.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance.
consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. and he seeks social integration. rogue) – belongs. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. a hobbyhorse is a toy. or education. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. happiness. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). gentle: of good breeding. Cinderella: an old fairy story. gaiety. The hero – the picaro (i. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. or “narcissistic” – i. metafiction: literally. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. lifelikeness: closeness to life. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). mirth: laughter. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. booby: silly or stupid person. in which the poor heroine. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. fixed idea.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. epistolary manner: in a novel. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. literacy: the ability to read and write. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. whose style. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). literally: novel of formation. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action.e. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. tone. exact representation of life. played like a piano. to the lower ranks of society.e. fun. but producing a different sound. characteristically. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. Concretely. “beyond fiction”. Bildungsroman: German term. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. a Fool.
squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). like a knight-errant of former times. 1615). Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote.e. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. Don Quixote starts. honest and brave hidalgo (i.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. The high aspirations of this generous. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. Britain joined Austria. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1.
• the coherence. 1. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. You will have. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent.. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. Horrified. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule.1. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder.1. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words.2. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. the king rejects this tribute. Text 4.4. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it.4. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels. In order to win the good graces of the king. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. 3. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. and 5. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. as illustrated by this fragment. Remember that. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. to revise the preceding unit.. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns. 2. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. SAA no. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. in grading your paper. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . Text 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. therefore. clarity.1. with special attention to subchapter 4.
3. optimism. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. 5. realistic account. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. 4. 2. vividness. and also authors of novels. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. 2. 6. immediacy. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. In the social order. resilience. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. SAQ 4 Tenacity. sharp sense of observation. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. industriousness. SAQ 2 1. inventiveness. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. 4. plainness. SAQ 5 factuality. 5. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. the capacity for learning from mistakes. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. concreteness. rationality. all souls are equal. patience. 3. and by the form of autobiographical record. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. pragmatism.
5. 3F. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. living and the act of writing overlap each other. 2. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. This is not Tristram’s case. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth.T. 7. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely.T.T. they create a sort of suspense. SAQ 11 1. who write in the first person. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. 6. In this way. 2. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. enjoying title.F SAQ 9 1. 2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. 3. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity.T. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . 3. SAQ 7 1.” but in “pitiful misadventures. 3. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. wealth and power. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer.F. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind.T. He is always a prominent figure. SAQ 8 1. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. he is concerned with human types.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. 8. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil. 4. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. that is. 2. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters.
Macsiniuc. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2003 (pp. David. 1969 (pp. Daiches. 143-163. The English Novel. Cornelia.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 116127. 179-195. Allen. 217-231. A Critical History of English Literature. Walter. 37-42. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 76-80) 2. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. 1991 (pp. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 701-704. 712-718. 731-736) 3. 598-602. 43-46. vol. Penguin Books Limited.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 53-59.
3. 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2. 6. 6.2.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6. 6.4.1. 6.4.3. 6.5. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake. 6.3. 18.104.22.168. 6.1. 6.4. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson. 6. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 .4. 6.4. 6. The Seasons William Cowper.4. 6.2. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2.2. 22.214.171.124.4.1.3. 6. 6. 126.96.36.199. 6.
Swift. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. The interest in individual psychology. elegance and decorum*. and for night as a setting. however. The sentimental novel* (e. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele.g. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. discipline. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. and cultivated its public relevance.1.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. Pope. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. Addison. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. was eminently the Age of Reason. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. Like any modern age. For instance. regarded art as the product of civilisation. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. harmony. Neoclassicism*. the century of the Enlightenment*. The concern with personal. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. and Fielding). The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. with its emphasis on order. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel.
1.English pre-Romantic poetry 6.1. Night Thoughts (1742-1745). and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. wild. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. In 1765. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. and misty. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*.D. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. His long poem in nine books. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. death and immortality. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue.2. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . and folk literature in general. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. sublime landscapes. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation.1. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry.
If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. reflected… 4. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. … 3. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. in 1765. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. 1. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. aspiring to poetic fame. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. c. … as well as Gothic fiction. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. Like James Macpherson. regarding him as a martyr. at the end of the unit. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). The publication. read again the previous subchapters. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. d. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. … a. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . imagination. When his literary fraud was exposed. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. Chatterton committed suicide. with its gloomy atmosphere. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. b.
There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. The emphasis on sentimental response. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. The return to blank verse 6. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. such as the song and the ballad. busy life of the city with moral confusion. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects. William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry.g. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. the state of nature began to be idealised. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . characteristic of the Enlightenment.3. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. but also literary forms. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. The pre. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. The great novelists (e. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. In the following subchapters. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. Towards the end of the century. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. Samuel Taylor Coleridge).2. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent.1. the interest in the local and national past. In the latter part of the century.English pre-Romantic poetry 6.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. in its magnificence and diversity. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history.3.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. patriotic enthusiasm. not only the perception of nature. becomes an object of interest in itself. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. James Thomson. etc. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. than the works of Nature.3. His poem educated. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. In spite of its eclectic nature. 6. nature. manifest as early as the 1730s.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. and the moral sentiment. but also the feeling for it. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. Samuel Johnson said. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). the philosophical reflection. “Winter. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His praise of nature and of the countryside. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. the splendour of summer. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature. As Dr. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation. political comments. and the apparent cruelty of winter. an expression of national pride. Britannia. in many generations of readers. praise of friends.1. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. more amusing. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. exerting a considerable influence on both of them.
Passages of moral and political commentary. more carefully.3. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. at the end of the unit. William Cowper. Like Thomson and Collins. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. with its short. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. which actually inspired Thomson).English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6..2. He was interested in the mediaeval past.3. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. social satire. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. living in retirement from the city. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. in popular superstitions and the supernatural. and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. If there should be major differences. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 . from the third part. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746).” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. read text C again. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). records his observations and reflections. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. “Autumn. the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. William Collins 6. unrhymed stanzas. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*.
Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. SAQ 5 Text 6. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. Wordsworth.e. 1856 The Task. / Paradise that has survived the fall. with its vices and follies. Coleridge). fearing that “The town has tinged [i. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. in the 18th century. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. in the Reader. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. but the joy of communion with friends. affected] the country. indicate an affectionate observer. As a poet of nature. represents one of the most memorable statements. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. however. domestic activities. He praises the simple pleasures.4. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. T.” Sometimes. concerning the opposition country/town. and of simple. like gardening.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. the peace and quiet of village life. S. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 .4. to the special way in which he produced his work. William Blake.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. to a large extent. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. Milton. The combination of calligraphic text. A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. but also a gifted painter and engraver.4. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. 6. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. widening the range of meanings. our sense of a common fate for all humanity. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. and recognised as one of the most original creators. Blake’s late fame is due. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. the rural setting. Thomson. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. In his first great illuminated work. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. He was not only a poet. he turns his attention to the rural world. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). and Macpherson. Gray. Each copy was then coloured by hand. In Blake. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. Like other pre-Romantic poets. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. and he rejected the classical standards of style. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression.1. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. Apart from a volume of early verse. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings.civilisation. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet.
/ I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. in a way. a tribute to Milton. a prophet. or be enslaved by another man’s. and he denounces the evils of civilisation. 6. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in Blake’s last poem. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination.” This is Blake’s own creed. Los*. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). original and strange. unpremeditated act. Like the other English Romantics. Blake. for instance: “I copy Imagination. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity.4. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. Blake was a rebel. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own. The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. They are.” or “I write when commanded by spirits. and his whole work.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems.2. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. says.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory. Jerusalem: “I must create a system.
If you have made mistaken choices. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. 6. 1. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. enjoy] to hear. of the world seen through the eyes of the child. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. The Echoing Green. revise the whole subchapter. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. For Blake. T F 4. The Shepherd. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. Poems like Infant Joy. T F 6. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. T F 5. T F 3.e. T F 2. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. The Blossom. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. at the end of the unit. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books.4. T F 7. Spring. As a poet.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. that is. innocent delights. and the three statements that are false. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry. their clarity of expression and their musicality. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. Laughing Song. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). and its origin was visionary experience.
” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. gratified desire. or even Jesus. the guardian angel. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. does not mean ignorance. the shepherd. meadow]”. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy. The good shepherd.” can “laugh away care. In these poems. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas.” Throughout his work. is a biblical allusion. in Nurse’s Song. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. For Blake. although the sun has set. and absence of frustration or inhibition. which a proper education should develop. with which Blake was acquainted. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man. Innocence. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. “Old John. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination.e. Besides the children themselves. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in his natural tendency to virtue. with white hair. The nurse. In The Echoing Green. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. associated with childhood. According to him. love.
5. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader.” Answer in the space below. and in which he represents to himself its “making. If there should be a significant difference between them. at the end of the unit. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 . What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb.
5. love and joy have been replaced by fear. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. In London. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. standing equal before God. However. in which man’s lot is hard work. envy and deceit. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love.4. for instance.4. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. poverty and oppression. full of indignation and anger. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. but. or the mind of others. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. for instance. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. often. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. when this life ends. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. disease. which deny man his freedom. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. In The Chimney Sweeper*. In Songs of Experience. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. Like the chimney sweeper. hate.4. which is a promise of divine mercy. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. i. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. society and divinity. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. In the fallen state of Experience. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. of “stony laws*”. nature.e. the thirst for war. even sarcastic. 6. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. protesting against the evils of his time.
Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below. If it should differ in major respects. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. at the end of the unit. innocent question (“Little Lamb. with no explicit answer. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. by ambiguity and even obscurity. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. in Songs of Experience. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.e. provoking more anxiety than certainty. who made thee [i.4. dangerous tiger. you]?) and his own answer. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively.6. Read this poem – Text 6. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work.6. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow.
” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. which are thus strengthening their own power. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. The church. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church. and His Priest.” which lead to contrary visions.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters. with its “mysteries”*.7. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity. indeed. bearing even the same titles. This is the God of the world of Experience.4. He displays. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God. and he is also a child.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth. for keeping man at a distance from God. served by the institutionalised churches.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London. was responsible. in fact. since those are “babes reduced to misery. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. A deeply religious person. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. but with ways of seeing and feeling. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. In the poem of Innocence. tyrannical figure. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. “contrary states of the human soul. a stern.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture.” or with a “multitude of lambs. Reason and Energy*.” In the counterpart poem. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in Blake’s view. They reveal. Contraries are essential to progression. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. in Songs of Experience. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him.
in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience. revise subchapters 6. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. and read the poem again more carefully. except as an act of remembering. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 . If there should be major differences between them. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state.1. at the end of the unit.4. but he is no longer able to do that.4.7. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted.2.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. to 6.. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. to regain the vision of Innocence.
Subchapter 6. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past. The “Graveyard” poets (e. 6. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings..2. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest.3. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall.. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. nature-civilisation. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. imagination and feelings. g. now threatened by the march of Progress. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake.4. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. The other feature is primitivism. In subchapter 6. the interest in early poetry. The last subchapter.
Haunted castles. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. in Unit 4. Sometimes. as the next subchapter will show. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. For the small farmers. Energy: for Blake. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.e. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. while Reason was concerned with setting limits.2. which has survived in parts of Scotland. for the sake of more profitable farming. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. Ireland and Wales. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. for instance. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. and horror. which they could climb more easily. Their father was Zeus. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. ruins. the enclosures meant ruin. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. goddess of Memory. Celtic: related to the Celts. Initially. passion.2. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. decorum: see subchapter 4. or Erse. putting fences round) common land. Imagination was free Energy. Gray is sadly ironic. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. graveyards. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. favour melancholy or morbid themes.
sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. See also subchapter 4. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1.3. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. The Book of Urizen. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. philosophical and political convictions. 2 in Unit 4. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. to attend the religious service. etc. The Book of Los. Milton. as well as against the sophistication. on which the Ten Commandments were written. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). in Unit 1. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. The custom in London was to bring the poor. primitive: original. or of gold or silver paint. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. Pity. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. Jerusalem. the 39th day after Easter.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. in Unit 3. A Prophecy. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. belonging to the beginnings. in Unit 5.3. with His laws formulated as interdictions. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . etc.1. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. used to secure the hands of a prisoner. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. Among the most important of them are America.. wild landscapes. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. Paul’s Cathedral.1. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. The Four Zoas. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. the Passions.2. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God.
Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 .11. SAA no.. The Chimney Sweeper.13.9. and 6. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection.10. Remember that.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song.. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.12. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. 6.. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution. gardens or estates. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. • the coherence. clarity. 6. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762). and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task.).” usurous: from usury. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate. Send-away assignment no.8. in grading your paper. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. with his law of love. meant to win a patron’s favour. 6. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). 6. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words..
on his soul. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. and on his thoughts. or seek for power. and love of man. c SAQ 2 1. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. 3.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. a. In the city. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. love of nature. b. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. d. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. For Cowper. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. Its bare. the “drooping weary” father. the vagants’] wanderings. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. 2. disease and poverty.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty. in which everything seems to be in decline. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. the “feeble.e. Meditation leads to illumination. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. Nor e’er had changed.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. but relieved their pain” 6. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. 4. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. all intensified. nor wished to change his place” 3. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. “He chid their [i. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. “Unpractised he to fawn.
“Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. T. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. T. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. the God of Love. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. and. T. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. confinement and oppressive authority.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. At the same time. In a vision of Innocence. in the state of Experience. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. Man. which he has lost. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. “My mother groaned. F. and is itself one more care in the family. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. In the simple economy of the poem. 4. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. 2. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. struggles in vain. T. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. 6. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. against which man. 3. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. 2. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. 5. F. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild.” that is. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. the “Lamb of God. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. in Blake’s vision. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. therefore. being thus a source of oppression. In the second stanza. meadow. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. but are symbols of limitation. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. 7.
. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . vol. 1991 (pp.4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). A Critical History of English Literature.). and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. 1991 (pp. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Ford.English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. 1969 (pp. Boris (ed. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Ford. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 692-699) 2. Penguin Books Ltd. Daiches.. 671-684. Further reading 1.5 (“From Blake to Byron”). vol. 84-94) 3. 652-658. Penguin Books Ltd.). vol. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Boris (ed.. David.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). foregone* all custom of exercises. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. the earth. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. the air. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). şi. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. încât acest frumos tărâm. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. Hamlet (Act II. William Shakespeare. to me.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. acest preaminunat baldachin. forewent. pentru mine. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. vedeţi. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. this brave* overhanging* firmament*. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. of late recently wherefore why. this most excellent canopy*. in moving.excelent. – lost all my mirth*.g. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. cum să spun. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. the sky) brave minunat. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. look you. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . pământul. seems to me a sterile promontory. văzduhul. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. alcătuirile şi mişcările. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. şi totuşi. într-adevăr. – but wherefore* I know not.1.
William Shakespeare. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. The death of each day’s life. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină.” the innocent sleep. Macbeth (Act II. To the last syllable of recorded time. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. trifling (mărunt. Out*. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. Macbeth (Act V. and tomorrow. to creep. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. sore* labour’s bath. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. a poor player. Signifying nothing. full of sound* and fury. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. trivial.2. and tomorrow. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. out. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. William Shakespeare. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. ţanţoş.3. And then is heard no more. a se furişa) petty inessential. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. great nature’s second course*. it is a tale Told by an idiot. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. Balm of hurt minds. desfirat. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti.Reader TEXT 2. TEXT 2. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. semeţ. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. El.
Which any print* of goodness will not take. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. mârşav. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. tot mereu. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda.4. mărginit) shameful and evil. Took pains to make thee speak. netrebnic. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. William Shakespeare. abject. Caliban: You taught me language. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. a suporta therefore as a result. Though thou didst learn*. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. cruel. Know thine* own meaning. TEXT 2. stupid (necioplit. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. ticălos) race neam. Te stinge. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. The Tempest (Act I. nasty (josnic. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. a bâigui) brutish coarse. savage. sălbatic.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. redus. Un biet actor. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit.
În stare de orice. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. the gorgeous palaces. au fost. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. TEXT 2. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. Te-am învăţat de toate.5. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. temelie) fabric building. As I foretold* you. foretold: a anunţa. The cloud-capped towers*. dar. chiar pământul. Te-am surghiunit aici. William Shakespeare. etc. toţi. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. all which it inherit. structure. the great globe itself. shall dissolve And. The Tempest (Act IV. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. literary) truly. duşi. se vor topi Şi. The solemn temples. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. These our actors. Scoteai doar mugete. colour. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. când tu. into thin air: And. framework (clădire. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. Leave not a rack* behind. Biserici maiestoase. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. palate mândre. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . fiară. pe drept. consistency. Actorii Ţi-am spus. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. duhuri. dar proasta-ţi fire. Yea*.
is innocent. Like the other foot. where I begun. No tear-floods. And makes me end. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. lips. But we by a love so much refined. John Donne. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. obliquely run. to go. If they be two. Inter-assured of the mind*. Thy* soul the fixed foot. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. That our selves know not what it is. It leans*. and hearkens* after it. The breath goes now. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it.Reader Făcute-s visele. nor sigh-tempests* move. makes no show To move. Though I must go. no: So let us melt*. Care less eyes. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. And grows erect*. which are one. Men reckon* what it did and meant. endure* not yet A breach*. But trepidation of the spheres. and some say. and hands to miss. but doth. as that comes home. Such wilt* thou* be to me. who must. TEXT 2. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. Our two souls therefore.6. and make no noise. they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . And though it in centre sit. Yet when the other far doth roam*. but an expansion. Like gold to aery thinness beat. Though greater far. if the other do. And whisper* to their souls.
to undergo breach break. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. datorat to labour to work hard. overthrown: a nimici. or break that knot again. fig. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. except you ravish* me. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. Take me to you. That I may* rise. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. to break. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. But is captived. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . to struggle to no end vainly. o’erthrow me*. never shall be free. untie*. a rătăci to lean. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. and bend Your force*. Yet dearly I love you. leant a se apleca. and make me new. to no end*. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. and seek to mend. blow. me should defend. I. Labour* to admit you. Nor ever chaste. imprison me. three-personed God*. for. a elibera to enthrall a supune. and would be loved fain*. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. and stand. apply your force due cuvenit. precis. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon.: inflexibil. Divorce me. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods.7. to another due*. like an usurped town. Reason your viceroy* in me. a lua cu sila. exact Text 2. overthrew. ferm. a înrobi. and proves weak or untrue*. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. for I Except your enthrall* me. burn. rupture stiff rigid. but oh. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. John Donne. shine. breathe. you As yet* but knock.Reader pass away to die mildly gently.
8. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. But thirty thousand to the rest. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. Two hundred to adore each breast. yet we will make him run. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. in thy marble vault*. and pass our long love’s day. and time. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. do there embrace. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. Nor would I love at lower rate. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. Andrew Marvell. And you should. But none. Now let us sport* while we may. An age at least to every part. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. We would sit down. Lady. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. For. shall sound My echoing song. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. I think. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. and think which way To talk. Thy beauty shall no more be found. Thus. and on thy* forehead gaze. And the last age should show your heart. Lady. if you please. Now therefore. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. And now. like amorous birds of prey. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Nor.Reader TEXT 2. This coyness*. were no crime. you deserve this state*.
fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings.: swift. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. sfială. nuanţă. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. groapă youthful de tinereţe. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . peculiar. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. fig. patimă) grave mormânt. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. which. tineresc hue culoare. in spite of her coyness. a lâncezi. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. torn) a smulge.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed.
insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. who best Bear his mild yoke*. appears [in me] much less – i. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. and the will of heaven. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. the subtle* thief of youth. destiny mean humble. and present My true account. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. speed. All is. Yet be it less or more. however mean* or high. opportune happy fortunate. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. returning. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. or soon or slow. John Milton. Toward which time leads me.1. John Milton. lucky endueth endues. if I have grace to use it so. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. in this dark world and wide. Ere* half my days. lest he. they serve him best. a strict overseer TEXT 3. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. obscure. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. but Patience. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. to prevent That murmur*.2. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. chide*. rush bud mugur.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
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Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
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From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
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Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
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Why. your eyes.Reader TEXT 3. reach* then. Warmed by the Sun. 3. Goddess humane. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. as they know. then. and ye shall be like Gods. Them nothing. And what are Gods. His worshippers? He knows that. Me who have touched and tasted. or this tree Impart against his will. producing every kind. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. ye you (pl. for this fair* Earth I see. Knowing both good and evil. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. What can your knowledge hurt him. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble.8. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. and freely taste.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. Queen of the Universe. by the Threatener? look on me. by venturing* higher than my lot. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. in the day Ye eat thereof*. that Man may not become As they. that all from them proceeds*. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. John Milton. I question it. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. 4. ye* shall not die. and that advantage use On our belief.
but wiped them soon. John Milton. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. and Providence their guide. Waved over by that flaming brand*.9. where to choose Their place of rest. with wandering steps and slow. The world was all before them. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .Reader TEXT 3. beheld (archaic. hand in hand. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. They. beheld to behold. so late* their happy seat*. Through Eden took their solitary way. looking back. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They.
which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. because they may be your relations*. nor kiss before folks*. Come to dinner when I please. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. so far trifle fleac. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. to wear what I please.1. because they are your acquaintance. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. as if we were proud of one another the first week. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. wherever I am. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. William Congreve. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. and then never be seen there together again. to write and receive letters. And lastly. to be sole* empress of my tea table. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . to provoke eyes and whispers*. manierat. To have my closet* inviolate*. nor go to a play together. or to be intimate with fools. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. and ashamed of one another ever after. without giving a reason. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. (…) fond affectionate.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. reserved well-bred binecrescut. Let us never visit together. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant.
The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion.2. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. unpractised by the rest of the world. secătură. escroc. a blockhead*. and leaves it standing in its place. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. pungaş. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. a livra. the poet of nature. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi.3. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. Particular manners* may be known to few.Reader TEXT 4. ticălos. Shakespeare is. cap sec knave escroc. at least above all modern writers. potlogar villain nemernic. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. but just representations of general nature. and please long. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. descendenţi to supply a oferi. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. John Dryden. Samuel Johnson. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. above all writers. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. successfully irregular neuniform. dobitoc. rogue pungaş. which can operate but* upon small numbers. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. variabil fanciful capricios.
(…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. and profound learning. and transcendentals*. so that among us would be little esteemed. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. entities. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). great wisdom. unnecessary scruple. and esteem. The learning of this people is very defective.4. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. and mathematics. in a discourse one day with the King. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. either in a prince or a minister. abstractions. refinement and intrigue. and the fortunes of his people. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. consisting only in morality. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. endued* with admirable talents for government. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*.Reader TEXT 4. the liberties. should from a nice*. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . history. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. love. to justice and lenity*. For I remember very well. And as to ideas. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. poetry. Jonathan Swift. and almost adored by his subjects. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. of strong parts. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done.
to restrict bound limit. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. Ch. (…) That. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think.g. Jonathan Swift. manufactures*. they will instead of eating peaceably. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. but not in themselves. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. (…) As to learning. arts. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. and the like. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. as I had described them. a fi iniţiat în. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. in some fields of his country. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. speed. fall together by ears*. from the representation I had given him of our lives. there are certain shining stones of several colors. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. our manners. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. For. than any of the rest. a i se încredinţa (e. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. as sometimes happens. the shortness of my claws*. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. and therefore* to protect himself. and activity. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty.5. a asigura. and mischievous* in disposition. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. but still looking round with great caution. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. and our actions. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. and carry them away. government. which all could see in the rest. without delay determination rezolvare. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. so. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
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TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
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grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
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UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
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I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. in a word how. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. a frământa. When I saw them clear red. and. to pity a căina awkward incomod.2. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. so as to make it burn me some pots. a se desprinde clay lut. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . But all this would not answer my end*. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. after having laboured hard to find the clay. It happened after some time. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. and bear* the fire. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. misshapen*. to temper* it. such as the potters* burn in. which none of these could do. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. one upon another. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. I had no notion of a kiln*. though I had some lead to do it with. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. Daniel Defoe. and observed that they did not crack at all*. and placed my firewood* all round it. ugly things I made. (fell. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. to dig* it. and red as a tile*. and pipkins*. anevoios. (fell. or rather laugh at me. pitchers*. a cădea fell out to fall. which it did admirably well. and how many fell out*. to bring it home and work it. what odd. how many of them fell in*. flat dishes*. being set out too hastily*.Reader TEXT 5. I was agreeably surprised to see it. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig.. or glazing* them with lead*. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. fallen) out: a se desface. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. with a great heap of embers* under them. de pământ jar oală. and any things my hand turned to*. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*.
born) a rezista. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. to my grief*. apogeu distress nefericire.3. narrative. durere. plin de viaţă) height culme. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. to find him capable of so much openness. forgive me! but I found. This was a good fortune. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. it looked like love. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. and before I knew what was the matter. and of so much honour too. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). […] O my dear parents. intenţie to bear (bore. my dear father. I beseech* you. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. can be. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. has greatly affected me. nor when it began. chinuri womb pântece. I imagine. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. B_.] This letter. is not a voluntary thing – Love. dubious uncertain. scop. a depăşi) TEXT 5. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. than the dry*. nay*. Samuel Richardson. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. punct culminant. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. however. and so it is: but love. upon me. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. […] Forgive. like a thief. when I expected some new plot*. before. a învinge.Reader dish blid. and tender years*. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul.4. But to be sure*. so much affection. did I say! […] I know not how it came. O my unguarded* youth. I must own* to you. crept. but it has crept*. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. I am quite overcome*. Samuel Richardson. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but now. in which he confesses his affection for her. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. I had no reason to expect.
a înştiinţa mischief neajuns.] plot uneltire.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly.5. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. and resignation to the Divine Will. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. before summons* came. in its sentiments and diction*. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. containing a much larger circle of incidents. when I get home. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. I think. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . and to one too. a rupe memorandum notă. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. and therefore*. Henry Fielding. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. thy whole self. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. însemnare TEXT 5. întristat.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. only dangerous attacks! After all. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. or tear* it out of my writing. differing from comedy. and introducing a greater variety of characters. Yet. în mod clar rigorous aspru. and consequently. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. of inferior manners. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. In the diction. in this. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. for giving up so weakly. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. în consecinţă to tear (tore. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. as I thought. sever grief durere. a implora grieved amărât. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar.e. torn) out a smulge. to consider of this.) treacherous trădător (adj. for there it is never properly introduced. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. I hope. O my treacherous*. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. who had used me so hardly. [Memorandum*. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart.
yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. which this is not intended to be. as they proceed* from very different motives. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. arises from the surprising absurdity. Now. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. therefore. or hath not the virtue he affects. Burlesque is in writing.Reader burlesque kind. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. to the degree he would be thought to have it. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. and where our delight. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. that. though. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. which that of the hypocrite hath. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. […] Now. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. and consequently more ridiculous. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. in order to purchase* applause. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. what Caricatura is in painting. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. it be nearly allied to deceit*. is more surprising. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . than when from vanity. yet. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. And here I shall observe. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. and. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. not men. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. yet when it comes from vanity only. or e converso*. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. Indeed. if we examine it. It may be likewise noted.
The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. of our pity. smaller faults. which at first moved our compassion. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. But for not being what they would be thought*. tend* only to raise our mirth*.: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 .Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. cu stângăcie. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. fig. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty.
but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. the merit of which has all along. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . with reverence be it spoken*. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. as you observe. In a word. Tristram Shandy (Vol. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune.6. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. been overlooked* by my reader. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. – not but the planet is well enough*. and reconciled. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. Gentleman. not for want of penetration* in him.I. or expected indeed. dirty planet of ours. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. in a digression. and it is progressive too. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. on my conscience. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. – and at the same time. nefericit TEXT 5. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil.Reader TEXT 5. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. to annoy ungracious răutăcios. povară signal însemnat. Laurence Sterne. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. two contrary motions are introduced into it. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi.7. which. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. my work is digressive. and that I fly off* from what I am about. I wish I had been born in the Moon. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. Laurence Sterne. a izbuti. I fear.
brings in variety. whose distress*. cum trebuie. and if he goes on with his main work. then there is an end of his digression. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. This is vile work*. you might as well take the book along with them. bids* All hail*. is truly pitiable*: For. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. you see. – they are the life. but also of the author. in this matter. that the whole machine. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. – and. his whole work stands stock-still*. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 .Reader Digressions. are the sunshine. the soul of reading. from the beginning of this. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. and forbids the appetite to fail. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. what’s more. I observe. from that moment. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. – take them out of this book for instance. For which reason. one wheel within another*. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. has been kept agoing. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. in general. restore them to the writer. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. if he begins a digression. incontestably. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*.
More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. cerşetor train alai. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. a mângâia) TEXT 6. passing rich trecând drept bogat. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. Or theirs.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. the matron* pale. he climbed the loftiest bough*. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. to scold (a dojeni. to all the country dear. Go. devout (evlavios. nor wished to change his place. The Deserted Village A man he was. cortegiu şir chid to chide. Or hers. Oliver Goldsmith. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. Who. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. George Crabbe. a boy. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit.2. croit to prize a preţui.1. Nor e’er* had changed. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. Unpracticed he to fawn*. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. a alina. modelat. Then his first joy. distant godly pious. and ask if peace be there. chid: to rebuke. but his sad emblem now. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. look within. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. He chid* their wanderings*. propped* on that rude* staff*. hoinar. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. or seek for power. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. that offspring* round their feeble* fire.
3. pace smooth calm. rezemat rude rudimentary. urmaş feeble plăpând. The Task (1785) God made the country. nenorocit hearth vatră.4. and. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. generos ease tihnă. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. and man made the town. o’er over to exalt to raise. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. James Thomson. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. to stimulate. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. Of human race. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. William Cowper. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. sorbitură grove crâng. sprijinit. Inflames imagination.Reader ye you (pl. coarse.) gentle nobil. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. With all the social offspring of the heart*. and as high: Devotion. chief*. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. jalnic. to elevate. ales. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. What wonder then that health and virtue. unconfined*. As varied. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . The love of Nature. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. părinte offspring vlăstar. linişte. simple.
who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. William Blake. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to groan a geme. cuminte. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. a închide weary tired. I’ll tell thee. a ţâşni. Striving against my swaddling bands*. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. not violent (blajin. Little Lamb. and bid thee feed*. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. Struggling in my father’s hands. gentle and uncomplaining (blând. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. and he is mild*. supus) mild gentle. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. Softest clothing. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. bound: a lega strâns.Reader TEXT 6. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. wooly* bright. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. God bless thee. a înlănţui. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*.6. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. Gave thee clothing of delight. Little Lamb. my father wept*. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. Bound* and weary*.5. God bless thee. Little Lamb. leapt: a sări. William Blake. Helpless. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. We are called by his name. naked. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. piping* loud. Gave thee such a tender voice.
And the hills are all covered with sheep. go and play till the light fades away*. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. well. William Blake. And laughing is heard on the hill. Where I used to play on the green. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie. William Blake. come leave off play. the sun is gone down. And I saw it was filled with graves*. And then go home to bed. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. And we cannot go to sleep. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 .8. My heart is at rest* within my breast. green pajişte verde at rest calm. for it is yet day. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. a sălta. And every thing else is still. Come. So I turned to the Garden of Love.” “No. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. no.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. let us play.Reader TEXT 6. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. That so many sweet flowers bore*.” “Well. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. in the sky the little birds fly. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. bore. “Then come home my children. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind. And the dews* of night arise. Besides. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş.7. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. tranquil.
Though the morning was cold. never mind it. and we rose* in the dark. and that very night. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . And the dews of night arise. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. So if all do their duty.10. and in soot* I sleep. My face turns green* and pale. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. William Blake. Ned and Jack. a irosi TEXT 6. foşnet. freamăt dale vale. And the Angel told Tom. As Tom was a-sleeping. Joe. and shine in the Sun.Reader TEXT 6. Tom. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. and sport* in the wind. And wash in a river. weep. all their bags left behind. Tom was happy and warm. They rise upon clouds. laughing. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. whisperings şoapte. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. Dick. And so Tom awoke. if he'd be a good boy. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. There’s little Tom Dacre. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. Then naked and white. Then come home. the sun is gone down.” And so he was quiet. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind.9. they need not fear harm. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. Then down a green plain leaping. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. for when your head's bare. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. my children. And your winter and night in disguise. weep. William Blake. they run.
a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. risen): a se scula. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. Beneath them sit the aged men. O what a multitude they seemed. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. They think they have done me no injury*. The hum* of multitudes was there. hornar sold to sell. Crying “weep*. William Blake. their innocent faces clean.11. They clothed me in the clothes of death. Then cherish* pity. potoleşte-te. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. wise guardians of the poor. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. with wands* as white as snow. William Blake. alături. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. în preajmă to sport a zburda. coşciug by aproape. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. And smiled among the winter’s snow. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). Because I was happy upon the heath*. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song.12. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. a se deştepta TEXT 6. but multitudes of lambs. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. And because I am happy and dance and sing.
And their fields are bleak* and bare*. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. sterp. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. William Blake. who helped the priest in various ways. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see.13. a goni TEXT 6. soft. And where-e’er the rain does fall. and to the Last Judgement. a iubi) lest ca să nu.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. lugubru bare gol. rece. Nor poverty the mind appal*. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . neroditor thorn spin. the 40 day after Easter. fertil. fruitful fecund. And their ways are filled with thorns*. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. Babe can never hunger there. For where-e’er* the sun does shine. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London. It is eternal winter there. re-built th in the late 17 century.
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