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Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
2.1.3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 126.96.36.199.7.1. 4.5. 4. 4.8. 2. 3. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.1. 3. 3.6.3. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton. 3. 4. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124.5.4.2. 2.1. 3. 2. 3. 2.2. 3.3. 3. 3. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.4. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.1. 4.5.4. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1. 4. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve. 220.127.116.11.2. 3.3. 3. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3. 3.4. 4.3. 2. 3.Contents 2.5.1.
18.104.22.168.4. 4. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.3.4.4. 4.2. 5. 5. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage. 5.4. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.4. 4. 22.214.171.124.5. 5.3. 5.4.2. 126.96.36.199. 4. 5. 5. 4.2.2. 188.8.131.52.1. 5. 5.3.1. 5.4.4. 4.Contents 184.108.40.206.4.6. 220.127.116.11.3. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5.2. 5.4. 4. 5. 4. 5.5. 5.2.5. 18.104.22.168.2.4.4. 5. 4.5. 5. 4.4.8. Gulliver. 5. 5.1. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 5.3. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2. 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.7.2.
1. 6. 6. The Seasons William Cowper. 6.4.4. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.3.4.1. 6. 6. 6. 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.7. 6.2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 6. 6.2.1. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.1. 6.3.1. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.5. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.4.3. 6.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No. 6. 6.2. 6. 6.4. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 6. 6.2.3. 6.2.3.
Blake. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. among others). Being concerned with aspects of literary history. Fielding. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. a carrier of values. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. Milton. Before starting your study. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. 2. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. Course objectives As already mentioned. Swift. In this way. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. by encouraging your response to particular texts. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . 3.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. Defoe. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country.
lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. as part of your overall assessment. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors.g. Each unit. and a Gallery of personalities. in its turn. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. By the end of your study of this course. • 4. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. a Glossary. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style.g. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. the Restoration. a list of key words. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. Besides them. Neoclassicism. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. characterisation. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). in a given text. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. the Augustan Age. the Baroque. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary.
• Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. S. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. and to draw your own conclusions. and with the evolution of this genre. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. the epic poem Paradise Lost. They appeal not only to your memory. as well as major representatives. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. The variety of these learning tasks will. hopefully. Fielding and L. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. Richardson. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . with main focus on Jonathan Swift. Defoe. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. Sterne –.2. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination.Introduction 4. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. and Augustan satire. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. H.1. • 4.
You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. stylistic features.. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. characterisation. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. in the literary text you were asked to work on. symbolic elements. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . etc. fragment) • complete sentences. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning.3. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. 4. line. with the typological definition of a work. summarise its argument. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. the title of a work. narrative technique. at the end of the unit. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. etc.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. etc. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. if the case may be. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. an author’s work. and. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase.
the Glossaries will send you back to 1.4. Sometimes. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. Thus. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources. Some terms may recur in several units. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. but the phrase of which that word is part. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). at the end. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. in Unit 1.3.3. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. the term Enlightenment. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. with the pages where you may find relevant information. For instance.1.Introduction 4. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. if necessary or desired. other instruments meant to assist your study. • Further reading. for the Great Chain of Being*. For example. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. will also appear in Units 5 and 6. not just Being. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains.1. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 . • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit.
2 will cover units 4 and 5. and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. before you start solving the task. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3.5. difficult. try to read each fragment more than once. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task.lIntroduction 4. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. this should not take you too much time. especially the poetry texts. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. In any case. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. As the texts are not very long. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. the number of tasks. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. and 6. SAA no. 5. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. 5. while SAA no. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. The table below represents the place.
so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. however. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. If you have no possibility to type your assignment. 3. 1.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. As in the case of the SAQs. If your level of proficiency is lower. whose reading may take you some extra time. 1. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. clarity. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). 2. You may. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs.1 SAA no. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. Of these hours. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. half of the answer is already contained in the question. • the coherence. theoretically. 6. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings.2 SAA no. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. your course work may take you more time. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. Most of the time. 2. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks.
but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. as well as a list of suggested further reading. list of key words. whose content follows a chronological line. a revision of the course material. 5. as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. glossary. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. respectively. It is structured in six units of study. At the end of Units 3. Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. according to a pre-established schedule. which you must write and send to your tutor. The three assignments will count. and gallery of personalities). which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. forms and styles. You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and.2 SAA no. there are SAAs. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text. as 40% of the final grade. and 6. representative authors. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). of the evolution of literary genres.3 3 3 8 SAA no. together. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
188.8.131.52. 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 .4. 184.108.40.206.1.3. 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1. 1. 1. 1. 1.4.1. 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.1. 1. 1.
10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . as well as the faith in progress. social and economic life. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. of the Enlightenment. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”.1. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. at the end of this period. philosophy. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. science. in the latter part of the 17th century. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. as the Enlightenment is often described. a powerful flourishing nation. Political. literature. mentalities. marked the entrance into modernity. religion. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period.1. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. obscurantism and intolerance. The gradual achievement of political stability.1. attitudes and practices. 1. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. The rise.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. in a systematic effort.2. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. in particular. and it was essentially optimistic. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science. or Natural Religion –. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. the “universal Architect.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. The Royal Society endeavoured. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers. This new faith – Deism. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age.1. under the patronage of Charles II. to reconcile Reason and Faith. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism.” This idea will be echoed several decades later.” 1. in 1662. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought.
Circle T (true) or F (false). The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. but also affective and instinctual. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. the Enlightenment. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. 1. T F 5. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. appropriately. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. The poet Alexander Pope indicated. for each sentence.3. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. T F 3. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling.1. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. T F 4. 1. to superstition and obscurantism. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. continued the project of the Renaissance. The growing spirit of individualism.1. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. T F 2. the central concern of the Enlightenment. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being.
in the orbit of the crown. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. T F 8. After 1688. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and both writers and audiences were. The division into Elizabethan. with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*.1. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. that the notion of reading public emerges now. for instance. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. T F 7. to 1. including readers of more modest education. read again subchapters. at the end of the unit. It was the main focus of literary attention. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty.4. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. It is significant. 1.1. for proportion.2. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. with little or no classical knowledge.1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. regularity. the decrease in the power of the Crown. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. in one way or another. symmetry. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature.
The Court was the main source of influence…… b. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. Much of Renaissance literature. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. …… c. …the Augustan Age. 2. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. Molière)…… d. Jean Racine. This reflects. Pierre Corneille. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. during the Augustan Age*. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. Racine. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. Molière.” started in the late 17th century. Complete each sentence in the provided space. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. Corneille. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. above all. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV.
The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. It favoured conciseness. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. in its various forms – the song*. 1. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. original or translated epics. Alexander Pope. 4. and it made extensive use of wit. Robert Herrick). at the end of the unit. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. by the Romantic poets. …addressed itself to learned readers. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). concentration. They approached other themes besides love: e. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. tight logical coherence and striking imagery.2. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. If you have failed to make the right match. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. religious faith – John Donne. Thomas Carew. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. the pastoral* lyric. the ode*. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. Andrew Marvell.3. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. for instance. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In parallel. George Herbert.g. acquainted with the great classical authors and works. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. John Dryden (in the former). continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. James Thomson. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. you need to revise subchapter 1. or religion and politics – John Milton.
revise subchapter 1. in the space left below. It was the only form of literature which. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. at the end of the unit. through its representation on stage. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. 1. together with their most outstanding representatives.3. the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. some of them of popular origin (the song. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. In the following units of this course. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). If there should be major differences between them. In little more than half a century (1580-1642).4. a new appreciation of older poetic forms. the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2).
each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination.1. is the most gifted. the sensational plot. play-houses were reopened. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. etc. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. masque*. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. treachery. 1614). The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. insanity. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest. built around the theme of revenge. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. drama witnessed a decline. 1633). while others changed. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. the wronged hero plans revenge. in Paradise Lost. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. tragi-comedy. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. Milton’s Satan. From Senecan tragedy. 1. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. Of the Caroline playwrights. Unlike Senecan plays. In such plays. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. with the restoration of monarchy. and the rhetorical manner. On the whole. with its audience arranged according to rank. They were generally. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. was a miniature of the English society.4. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. 1605-6). sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. daring and wit. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. historical drama. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. pastoral drama. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. rape. In 1660. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. but destroys himself along with his enemies. sensational and macabre. 1607). fascinating through unbounded ambition. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse. murder. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine.
read the following statements. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. in Paradise Lost. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. T F 4. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. identifying the four true ones. as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). For each sentence. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Milton’s Satan. in miniature. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness.2. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. If you have failed to identify the true statements. Volpone (1606). T F 5. at the end of the unit. but. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy.4. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. in the last period of creation. 1. read again subchapters 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. His best plays. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. centred on the theme of love. T F 3. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. though each in a different way. 1. the satirical comedy. Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. the hierarchy of English society. or The Silent Woman (1609).4. T F 2. T F 6.1. reflecting. Epicoene. his comedies become darker.4. T F 7. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). with its noble characters. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). and 1. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. or at least tinged with bitterness.
It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. Duke of Buckingham. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728).4. who demanded models of virtue and decency. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. George Villiers.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731).g. 1665. and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. were a passing extravagance. The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. 1768. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. 1769). Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. In The Rehearsal (1671). with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty.4. for instance. Henry Fielding). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . Under the influence of French tragedies. The School for Scandal. John Gay. She Stoops to Conquer. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. 1669-70).4. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. a stylish and sophisticated world. but serious drama declined during the 18th century. 1775. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. The Conquest of Granada. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. 1722). Heroic plays. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. too. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals.3. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. 1777). but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. 1773). or The Mistakes of a Night. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy.g.
20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . together with their most outstanding representatives. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy.2.4. at the end of the unit. revise subchapters 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays. to 1.4. If there should be major differences between them.4. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2.
deliberately artificial and intricate. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. blending concision with wit. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. displaying a variety of styles. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. temptations. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. The development of an aphoristic style*. 1612. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. More and more. in political tracts and pamphlets. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). philosophical and theological writings. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. the universal language of the Renaissance.5. the essay* proved the most flexible. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. with its trials.5. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. Here. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. Later in the century. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. Gradually. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. religious writings are particularly important. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. weaknesses. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678).1. a precious and highly ornate language. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. on clarity and rationality.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1.
1666). Samuel Purchas). etc. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). William Prynne’s Histriomastix. In the 17th century. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .g. letters. Like drama. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. which analyses the constitution of human society. Anatomies were monuments of learning. Milton’s Areopagitica. biographies (Izaak Walton. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. diaries (John Evelyn. a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. unadorned style. The same encyclopaedic. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. the biography as an emerging prose genre. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). Samuel Pepys). 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. of remarkable precision and force. with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). executed in a witty.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. pamphlets* (e. aphoristic style. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. To these must be added the character. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). “The Religion of a Doctor. the great literary achievement of the 18th century.
as well as the faith in progress. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. Within these two centuries. you will learn more about the periodical essay. more carefully. If there should be major differences between them. these two centuries correspond.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. read again subchapters 1. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. the image of the universe was changed. roughly. and 1. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. obscurantism and intolerance. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 .1. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. Within these two centuries.5. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries.. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. between which there is continuity. The victory of Reason over dogmatism.5. Culturally. at the end of the unit. modern science was born. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England.
” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry.). predominantly middle-class. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. however.D. burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. a slow transition took place. blank verse: unrhymed verse. Ovid.-14 A. It is. used to express observations of general truth. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature.C.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. often by means of paradox. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. in a caricatural spirit. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. From a literary point of view. noble and heroic characters. elevated style. of serious action. which are reduced to the comically trivial. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal.
worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. natural law. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789).): “Man is the measure of all things”. civil rights. • classical revival: the intellectual. Voltaire. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). social and moral thought. Rousseau. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age. social contract. until 1660. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. or from history. the folk tradition. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom. individual liberty. legend. Concepts like human rights.C.e. David Hume (Britain). humanism. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. Diderot (France). This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. widely used in all ages. characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . pragmatism. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. Tolerance. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. anti-fanaticism. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. Thomas Jefferson. Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. • essay: a prose composition of varying length. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). John Locke. Montesquieu. when it was restored. In a broader sense. anti-obscurantism. The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge.
who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones.). The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). sumptuous costumes and settings. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. who was a Catholic. James II Stuart. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. of spiritual regeneration by grace.C. singing and dancing. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. Glorious Revolution: in 1688.) are the great ancient models for English writers. solemn style. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. restraint. simple. an idea. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. In architecture. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. involving elaborate dialogue. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. the marginal sections of society.C. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. in harmony with nature.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. often of an allegorical nature. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. encouraging a personal experience of conversion. spectacular scenic effects. a person or an object. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. uncorrupted life.C. In English literature. It addressed itself to the poor. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. and harmony of classical art. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. ode: an extended lyric poem. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. decorative art. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. painting and sculpture. from the Creation to the Ascension. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church.
in the 16th and 17th centuries. Tasso (Italy). Edmund Spenser. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. the sense of purpose. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. Machiavelli. Boccaccio. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. for the Neoclassic writers. From a literary point of view. industry. by Columbus. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. poetic diction: a term that. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. centred on integrity. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. Cervantes (Spain). Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. effort. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. favoured the growth of individualism. it had not fully reformed itself. of the rebirth of learning.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama.g. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Sir George Etherege. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. William Wycherley. Shakespeare. Lope de Vega. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). 1492). Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. its limits are less well defined. John Vanbrugh. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. Francis Bacon (England). Their beliefs and convictions. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. Raphael. Restoration: historically. which opened the modern era. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. in their view. Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. Pico della Mirandola. romance or the novel. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. of America. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Thomas More. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. Philip Sidney. of the expansion of education. tone. style – used by a poet. Leonardo da Vinci. Duke of Buckingham. Sir Charles Sedley. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. selected according to genre and subject. “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. especially their work ethics. Ariosto. thus. it overlaps with the Augustan Age.
1591-1595). Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. it meant intelligence or wisdom. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. During the Renaissance. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. in which the characters act. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. philosopher and writer. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind. orator.): Roman statesman. The assertion of the self. Jonson. He was also an eminent statesman. The New Atlantis (published in 1627).C. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects. poet and scholar. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . Gallery of personalities • Bacon. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. independently of circumstances. Amoretti. Cicero. and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. phlegmatic. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. the four “humours” (i. phlegm. Edmund Spenser.e. surprising associations. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). and a writer. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. The tradition survived into the 18th century. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. with or without musical accompaniment.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. yellow bile – or choler. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. He started his literary career as a playwright. according to a dominating inclination or passion. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. 1591. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. Astrophil and Stella. with various rhyme patterns. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). song: a poem composed for singing. and with the French Revolution (1789). The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. as well as an unfinished utopia. fluids) of the body (blood. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. two fine examples of comedy of humours. Sometimes.
C. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. Theophrastus (372-287 B. Form and Power of a Commonwealth.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. the latter. in a kind of social contract. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. unlike that of Hobbes. Man. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy.D. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. Lucius Annaeus (4 B.-65 A. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). According to him. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus. greatly influenced by Hobbes. Hobbes. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. Newton. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature.C. His political philosophy. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. writer and statesman. economics. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. Locke studied medicine. religion. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). author.): Roman philosopher. politics. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. It is fear of death. For Hobbes. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. mathematician. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher. Locke. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. which was central to Enlightenment thought.D. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. the instinct of self-preservation. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. made important discoveries in the field of optics. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order.): Roman historian and statesman. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. or the Matter. Seneca. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . Italian poet and humanist. ethics. for instance. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. astronomer and philosopher. besides the Characters. Tacitus.
Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.F. 2. 5. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . precision. 6. Pope. 2003 (pp. Marvell. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. .T. Turcu.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 4. c. 9-32) 2. the sonnet: Shakespeare. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style.3. English Literature and Civilisation. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. Pope. Herrick. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. d. there was a tendency towards simplicity. Cowley. Sir George Etherege. 6. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. Preda. Carew. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost.). 8. William Wycherley.F. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Donne. 4. 2003 (pp.T. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Goldsmith. The Literature of the Beginnings. Milton.2. Marvell satire: Dryden. 3.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1.F. Luminiţa Elena.T. Sir George Sedley. Cornelia. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson. Macsiniuc. Duke of Buckingham. Blake the ode: Marvell. artificial. 3.F. 2. Editura Universităţii Suceava. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period.T. 7.T. Dryden. Dryden. Goldsmith. Ioan-Aurel (ed.T.T SAQ 2 a. Milton the pastoral: Milton. Thomson.4. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate. Collins. John Gay Further reading 1.T.T. 7-49) 3. The English Eighteenth Century. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. Fielding.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. 5. John Vanbrugh). 1983 (pp. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance. Herbert. b.
2. 2. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. 2. 2.1. 2. 2. 2.3. 2.1. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. 184.108.40.206.1.11.3. 2.2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.8.3. 2.2.4. 2. 220.127.116.11.1.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2.3. 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.7. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .12.10. 2. 2.3. 2.7.1. 2.2.2.
but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. to scepticism. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work.1. with its sense of confidence and optimism. anxiety and even pessimism.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. In the late Renaissance. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. Philip Sydney*. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . well-ordered universe. to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. The former expansiveness. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. Christopher Marlowe*. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. The vision of a harmonious. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. stable and modern state. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. Under Queen Elizabeth I. during whose reign England developed into a strong.
a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. and in its dramatic conception. and not properly forming a “school. splendour. sensualism and mysticism. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. but also to pomp. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2.1. for excess. to the macabre. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. the extensive use of paradox. with the tendency of breaking proportions. wisdom and madness. the spectacular and the sumptuous. The Renaissance cult of rational order. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. with its abundance of bloody deaths.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters.1. refinement and cruelty. its sense of form. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. of confusing or transgressing limits. irony and ambiguity. in literature. on which the “show” of life must end.1. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. In lyric poetry. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. both in its themes and motifs. striking imagery. proportion and symmetry. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. grandeur.2. and. life and death. or the world as stage. reason and superstition. The unexpected. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. St. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. Although very diverse.
and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. respectively. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. optimism. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. If there should be major differences. In the following two subchapters. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. R: cult for order and symmetry. R: confidence. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of this unit. read again the preceding subchapters. The Tempest.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. you will be acquainted. King Lear. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. classical balance. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. sense of form B: 4. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1.
In Shakespeare’s whole work. medieval and contemporary sources – English. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. to the prose speech of simple folk. hate. among other features. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. struggle for power. in plain. They are always credible. aspirations and interests. and French. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. so that it displays a similar variety. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). from the variety of his work. friendship. Italian. romantic or trivial. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse.2. Shakespeare’s genius. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A wide range of feelings. devotion. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. etc. and a culmination of its literary art. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. Othello (1604). conflicts. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). According to the dramatic necessity. envy. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. language. states of mind. search for truth. He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. jealousy. King Lear and Macbeth (1605).” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. craftsmen or servants. loyalty and betrayal. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. his deep understanding of humanity. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. motifs and imagery. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. sublime or burlesque. or periods of creation. moral attitudes. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). all mastered with supreme art. gratitude and ingratitude. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. sometimes even trivial. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction.
His romance plays. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. In these plays. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. with the restoration of order. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness.2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but they deal. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. basically. between truth and falsehood. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1.1. common in the Renaissance. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. read again the preceding subchapter. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. with the effects of evil on innocence. If they should differ significantly. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. at the end of the unit. 2.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man. Claudius. Her brother. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. and with the immense burden of revenge. and continually delays the act of revenge. sensitive and idealistic. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. 2. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. which represents a similar scene of murder. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. Laertes. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. a courtier. but the plot escapes their control and. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. generous and brilliantly intelligent. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. the widow queen. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him.2. in the confusions of the final scene. he kills Polonius. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude.3. Back to the castle. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. with a poisoned sword. mistaking him for Claudius. required by his dead father. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. has drowned herself. when Fortinbras. he has the occasion to kill Claudius. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. the play ends on a note of hope. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. all the main protagonists find their death. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. brave. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. In another scene. old king Hamlet. In spite of this bloody outcome.2. who had really gone mad. takes over the rule of Denmark. During the play. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. At one point. the first in this series of masterpieces. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. Confronted with the moral corruption around him.2.
In Hamlet’s tormented soul.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare.4. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. at the end of the unit.1. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. read again the preceding subchapter. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty. as well as the indicated fragment. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. which is only partly dissimulated. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. SAQ 3 Text 2. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . is eminently a philosopher’s effort. If they should differ significantly. 2. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision.2.
in reality. as in Hamlet.2. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. like that of blindness. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. on the other hand. which is that of restoring a lost order. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. Maddened with grief. The motif of madness. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. unconditionally loving ones. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. Edgar. whom he disinherits. The earl of Gloucester joins them.5. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. the quest for higher meanings. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. a bastard. through paradox. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear.” 2. and. is closely linked. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. which would not undo the past. the Earl of Gloucester. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. Tragically. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. Hamlet’s introspective. another “fall of princes” tragedy. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. and the Fool’s comments. which helps him endure his suffering. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. to believe him a traitor and usurper. of truth and illusion. Cordelia. there is madness in nature itself. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. Edgar. Lear’s own madness. is also an exile from his own family. of human suffering. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. both of them prove to be the loyal. Goneril and Reagan.
In Othello. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. Evil is that which destroys Nature. Desdemona. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. Scene from Othello. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. innocence/guilt. As a result of Iago’s manipulations.6. unfaithful. is led by Iago to believe his wife. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. acting against it. faithfulness/betrayal. The noble protagonist. Othello. In Othello. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. 2. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity.2. essence.
disorder. The protagonist. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. it bleeds. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. kinsman and guest. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king. 2.2. Macbeth. 1. paradoxically. ____________________ 3. he multiples his crimes. one of Duncan’s sons. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. underlining the theme of knowledge.6. at the end of the unit. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. illusion and truth. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army. you need to revise subchapters 2. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. If any of your solutions should not correspond. ____________________ 5.2. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment.2. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. but. / It weeps. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. at the instigation of his wife. ____________________ 4. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). ____________________ 2.7. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. The baroque motif of madness is.2. to 2. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth. who has a trusting nature. innocence and corruption. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds.
SAQ 5 In Act II.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. If there should be significant differences. / Macbeth does murder sleep.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. from the Reader.2. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . scene 2. Text 2. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. extracted from this scene. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments. read the fragment once more. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines.
the fairy-tale atmosphere. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles.8. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. duke of Milan. the theme of loss and recovery. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. a drunken servant.g. marvelous. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. respectively –. the sense of a benevolent providential design. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. the shipwreck. Alonzo. owing to the improbability of the action. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. Miranda. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda.2. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. has turned him into a slave. his faithful spiritservant. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. Trinculo. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. the choice of a remote setting.9. involving the shipwrecked characters.2. king of Naples. The Tempest (1611). and certain themes and motifs (e. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. In its opening scene. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. the jester. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . They mix serious and comic action. the master of an island. 2. The Winter’s Tale. of exile and return). Alonzo.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. the long journey. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. Cymbeline. and Sebastian. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. to take his throne. is considered the finest. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. After the tragedies. on which he lives alone with his daughter. magic. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. They may also be described as romance plays. as well as other passengers. by his powers. who instantly fall in love with each other. He had long studied the arts of magic. Three lines of action develop. myth. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. who. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio.
he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power.10.” claiming his throne. 2. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. but. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. the control of intelligence over nature. On the island. the scholar-magician. At the opposite pole. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban.2. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies. at the end. for the emergence of a regenerated world. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. he learns. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. Ariel. “neglecting worldly ends. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. Prospero. who now repent. The theme of power Ariel vs. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. influenced by Ariel. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i.e. more importantly. and then to Milan. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. a “thing of darkness. In the final act. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. now. represents pure spirit. to master himself. Caliban Innocence vs. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. education] can never stick. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. and to return to the world in his full humanity. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power.
What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. If there should be major differences. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. read the fragment again. extracted from The Tempest. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge.. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. or in developing self-identity. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . Here. Act I. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. by teaching him to speak. more carefully.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. for instance. scene 2.4. Full of resentment.
a profound spiritual transformation and growth. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest. sublimating its primitive energies. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. whose magic art controls every incident. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest. Another pervading symbol is that of music. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers.2. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters.” The sea-journey Music 2. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead. or to impose upon it. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .11. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. which “delight and hurt not. The playmetaphor. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. order and harmony. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. of performance.12.2. then at least man should strive to discern in it.
T F 2.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world. was first intended to bring discredit on them. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines.9 to 2. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero.2. 1. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music. at the end of the unit. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century.12.2. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. T F 4. of which three are false. You must find them among the following statements. Their styles are different.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. in his own way. T F 3. T F 7. revise subchapters2. 2. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan. but each of them. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. except that of terrifying him. If any of your choices should be wrong. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule. T F 5.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. T F 6. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence.
linked. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. and the emotions involved. The impression is that this experience. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them. which starts from a comparison. In spite of its logical.” A new kind of poetry emerged. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. “More matter and less words” 2. a metaphor or an analogy. is contemplated from a certain distance. or discovery of occult [i.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. which helps the poet to develop his subject. regardless of the subject of the poem.3. a demand for “more matter and less words. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . a cold intellectual exercise. united] by violence together.3. argumentative quality. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*. writers had to face a new exigency. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. as “a combination of dissimilar images. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. This is an elaborate figurative device. Dr.e. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. from a most ordinary circumstance.2. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling.e. but also his reason. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. hidden. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike.1. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. By means of conceits. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. As extended comparisons. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry.
pastoral* conventions.3. If they should differ considerably. and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century.3. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. In the treatment of both themes. revise subchapters 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 . and 2. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century.3.3. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. and a highly original one. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. its decorative use of classical mythology. at the end of the unit.1. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits. and allegory. 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. Use the space left below. In the following subchapters. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. and the same realistic force. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech.
Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy. beautiful. as this would be a triple “sin. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Donne is highly playful in this poem.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed).” “tear-floods”). may afford an experience of the transcendental. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. when accompanied by genuine feeling. in which their blood is now mixed. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. He also suggests sometimes that physical union. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. though greater.3. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument. Donne’s love poems In his love poems.4. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. are however harmless to man. and he seems to amuse himself. but. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love.” In fact.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). their love being so great and “refined. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. Chaste.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. This is a seduction poem. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. which. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm.
Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. you need to revise subchapter 2. Read the poem again.3. at the end of the unit. Here. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 .2. as well. If they should differ significantly. in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. paying special attention to the last three stanzas.. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. in the Reader).The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. Formulate your answer in the space left below. he develops one of his most famous conceits.
resurrection and salvation. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. in the exercise of reason. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. comparable to that of Shakespeare. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. for the divine saving grace.5. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. which parallel those in his love poetry. of loyalty and betrayal. Satan. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . on death. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. Actually. divine judgement. In Batter My Heart. The insistence on violence and struggle. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. In his religious meditations in verse. These poems usually display contrary impulses. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God.3. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. between idealised passion and erotic desire. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin.
representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart.3. according to some critics. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. Donne suggests his contradictory. and love of country.6. Marvell left.3.5. In the last six lines. nature. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. 2. If there should be significant differences. at the end of the unit.7. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650). As a Puritan* patriot. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. and read the poem again. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. revise subchapter 2. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . from the Reader.
3. The most illustrative poem. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. pictured with remarkable precision. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun. on the scaffold. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. Marvell often sees. and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. is On a Drop of Dew. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. He showed a deep love for the countryside. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity.3. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time. A natural detail.7. King Charles I Stuart. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 .e. to change the form of ruling power). aspiring to union with almighty God. It is a seduction poem. in this respect. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. for fear that it might grow] impure. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit. in contrasting colours.e.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend.8. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate. 2. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent. lest it grow [i. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. On a Drop of Dew 2. shyness] and accept his passionate love. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. however. On the other hand. in which both of them act according to a divine order.e. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind.
Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below.3. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. paying attention to the logic of the argument. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.8. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 . more carefully. which has the structure If…. Love. read the poem again. but…. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2. at the end of the unit. then (therefore)…. after revising subchapter 2.8. If the difference is considerable. in its sexual fulfillment. in the Reader).
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
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• • •
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• • • • • • • • • •
figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. 7. Hamlet. which he resents. endowed with speech. guided by rational will. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. to blend contraries (e. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. the abstract and the concrete. SAQ 7 1. From Caliban’s point of view.” sleep (i. This instrument. the development of conscience. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. unexpected. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. complicated line of argument. 6. is a suitable emblem for their souls. analytical detachment from emotion 4. surprising associations) 3. usually between highly dissimilar elements. 5. passion and reason. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. T. use of conceits (extended comparisons. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. concise expression and density of meaning 2. 2. make his purposes known through words). Othello. King Lear. 4. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. T. 5. etc.e. however. of a clean mind. T. Hamlet. even if physically the lovers must be apart. 4.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. F. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. As a truly superior being. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. T SAQ 8 1. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. He is not a cold-blooded killer. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. From Prospero’s point of view. of his own sense of self. King Lear. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. F. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). through language (knowing his “own meaning”). Othello. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. 3.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Hamlet. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. which remain perfectly united.g. 2.g. F. 3.
). the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. 1983 (pp. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. consent and legality. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 . Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. 267-283. because your charms deserve such praise. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 1991 (pp. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. Daiches. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin.. Further reading 1. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. He loves God. 1969 (pp. vol. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”).. Paradoxically. 97-105. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. your virginity will then be worth nothing. will long for him.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. in fact. Ford. Ioan-Aurel (coord. 246-249. just as the mistress. 3. however. Penguin Books Ltd. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. in the absence of joy.” which only God can effect. But I know time is merciless. David. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin.). English Literature and Civilisation. vol. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body. Boris (ed. and which would resemble rape. 273-287) 2. 34-40. since only worms will “enjoy” it.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. A Critical History of English Literature. 302-305) 3. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). But. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. waiting for her departed lover. instead of letting it devour us slowly. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. Preda. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love.
1. 3.1.4. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3. 3.3. 3.1.2. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.3. 3. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton.2. 3. 3. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.126.96.36.199.4. 188.8.131.52.5.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3.3. 3. 3. 3.1.5. 3.4. 184.108.40.206.2. 3.6.4. 3.2.4.
g. he continued to read intensively.1. After that. theology. such as education. written in English and in Latin. music. politics. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation.). mathematics. the greatest epic poem in English literature. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century. etc. as well as his moral inflexibility. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In 1638. etc. as a publicist. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. family. religious and civil debates of his age. His enormous learning. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. Paradise Lost. the freedom of the press. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. religion.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. baroque* vision. he studied Latin. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. At Cambridge (1625-1629). In his prose essays and pamphlets*. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. he went on a trip to Italy. geography. Milton. he approached a diversity of subjects. Greek and Hebrew. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*.
Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. is in touch with divine secrets. As in other poems. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. In some of them. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3.). with its pastoral delights. but Milton did not complete his plan.2. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems.1. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. 3. However. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. his political hopes ended. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. who.2. In the Sixth elegy. As a poet. With the Restoration*. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. Virgil*. Ovid*. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. like a priest. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. etc. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. On the other hand. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. for instance. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. However.
b. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In each poem. revise subchapters 3.1. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere.2. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. in L’Allegro. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. and 3. 1. The secular* pleasures of common life. in his poetic work.e. 3. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. 2. b. and on the happiness of rural life. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. in Il Penseroso. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. with its simple pleasures. to master a variety of styles. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. polyphonic sounds of the organ. at the end of the unit. there is a strong emphasis on music. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. In both poems.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. b. the integration. If your choices should be wrong.” contemplative mood. In Il Penseroso. Milton’s literary ambition was a. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. c. the crowing of the cock.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. of classical erudition with biblical themes. c. In the latter. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. c. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods.
He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. or occasional and complimentary compositions. The elegy Lycidas. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. personal manner. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long.2. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. The death of the dedicated young man. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. Milton composed another poem in which.3. in a heavenly pastoral world. to fresh woods and pastures new. again. not on earth. uses again the pastoral frame.2. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form.The works of John Milton 3. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. Irrespective of their nature. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices.
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . who carry out the divine his daughters will. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. light denied?”). Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity.e. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). patiently. As a Christian poet. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. When he wrote Sonet XVII. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. He has reached the age of twenty four. written in 1631. he must admit. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised.1. but also by Christian humility.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. angels). In the first part of the sonnet. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour.3. that. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”).” By this time. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work.” that they are “timely happy spirits”.The works of John Milton 3. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring. Milton meditates on his loss of sight. as King of Heaven. In Sonnet XVII. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). he admits. i.3. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. confessing his temptation to ask. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. in 1652.” “mean or high” as it may be. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. at his age. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. To prevent such a complaint. since. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness.2. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. with a certain sadness. but of God’s eternal will. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years.
Dante* –. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation.2. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. and of leaving to posterity an undying work. If there should be significant differences.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). Virgil. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. in the Reader). and he worked at it over several years.2. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. read again subchapter 3.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. Read these sonnets (Texts 3. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. and 3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.1. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with.4. 3.3. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. when he was already blind. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same. respectively. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667. and the two sonnets.
Finally. are gathered to listen to Satan. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow.1. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. “to justify the ways of God to men.” full of the bitterness of defeat. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. He interprets poetically the biblical events. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme.4. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. brought about by his disobedience. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action. predestination*. Starting from the dualism good/evil. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. obedience and rebellion. Milton’s ambition was. The “lost Archangel. in fact. 3. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. as he stated in the opening Invocation. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. in which man’s fall. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. man’s temptation and fall into sin. Milton had thought. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven.e. accumulated throughout his life. but his erudition. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. which is never ornamental. etc. original epic scenario. and his loss of Paradise. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain.” forever deprived of the glory. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. His work is encyclopaedic. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. in theme a daring. the creation of the world and of man. of Lucifer* from Heaven.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. over the years.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso.
God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father.2. death and resurrection. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. Chaos and Chance. by virtue of his leading position.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. i. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden.e. to seek the newly created Earth.” Meanwhile. cunning].The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. 3. and their discussions are rendered in Book II. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. Satan. surpass] hellish hate. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem.e. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world. God. Pandemonium*. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem.e. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. whose setting is in Heaven. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. set him free from sin. and he flies away. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party.4.
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4.The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. in the Reader. at the end of the unit. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 . What is God’s argument. read again the text. more carefully. If there should be major differences.
the angel Raphael. not before repeating his warning. instigated by Lucifer.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. and fear to transgress!” 3. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. space]” left by the fallen angels. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. It is interesting that.” for the evocation of the making of the world.4. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. after the defeat of the rebel angels. and. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. Satan. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision.The works of John Milton 3. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. in Milton’s poem. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. the “divine historian. innocence and “virgin modesty. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions.e. in Book VII. In Milton’s interpretation. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding. not immutable [i.3. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace. Adam is grateful to Raphael. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember.4. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos.” to fill in the “vacant room [i.4. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. King Anointed*”. sweetness. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. sent by God. in order to prolong his guest’s visit.e. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. as this diminished W. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect.” Raphael leaves them. Adam admits that. so that he may know more about his enemy. that cannot change]. In Book VIII.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence.” Man himself was created as a “better race.
Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. W. A Prophecy. in no more than 10 lines/100 words. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. more carefully. in the Reader presents. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. read the fragment again. through Raphael’s words. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 .7. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies.
At last. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent. Meanwhile. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. W. the “subtlest [i. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. discord” – which make reason and will helpless.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. most subtle*] beast of all the field. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace.e.5. the thundering skies weep. suspicion.The works of John Milton 3.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. and. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her. their inward the fall on Nature peace. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations.4. hate / Mistrust. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The “calm region” of their state of mind. for a moment.
the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. but. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction. at the end of the unit. at last. as God himself predicts: His Son. He denigrates God. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. hoping to arouse her pride. Satan’s victory seems complete. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. or fragments. they taste its fruit. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. in which these moves are illustrated.” _______ g.4.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3. _______ c. _______ f. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space.6. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. on a separate sheet. but he also adds symbolic episodes. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. annihilate Sin and Death. The world after the Fall In the next books.” is the one who will. Match these sentences with the fragment.8. _______ e. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. If any of your matches should be wrong. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. which will bring her close to the condition of God. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. at the end of each sentence. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. _______ d. _______ b. He flatters Eve. in the middle of this speech. 3. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. a.
The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII.” founded on love. In Book X. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. death. The certainty that. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. pride. intemperance. faith and good deeds. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. redemption*: Jesus. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. combining thus justice with mercy. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. God consents. from man’s own vices – violence. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. etc. but of sadness. – to the hostility of Nature. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. but Michael comforts him. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. his suffering. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . through Christ. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. In Book XI.
while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin.5. at the end of the unit. however. more carefully. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. which they fully assume. It may be argued.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . read the fragment again. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 3. If they should differ in major points.9. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost.
” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power.1. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical.The works of John Milton 3. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. he had been the first Archangel. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers.5. From the beginning of the poem. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. Before his fall. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. and his great ambition is “to reign. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation.e. where there is “neither joy nor love. which is itself a paradise. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. Over a century after the poem’s publication. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. In Hell. made happy in their innocent love. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost.
Satan. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness. As God’s absolute antagonist.The works of John Milton 3. the destroyer of faith. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. Awakening in man the impulse to question. and “out of good still to find means of evil. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. It is also with “persuasive* words. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction.” He is “the author of all ill.5.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil.2.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. Satan is The Tempter. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 .” and the “Enemy of Mankind. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions.” seeming reasonable and true. It is with “high words.
at the end of the unit. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words. “and “The mind is its own place.) B. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. and 3. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell.1. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A..The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. revise subchapters 3. in Hell.5. If there are significant differences. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero.3. Read the whole fragment carefully. and read the indicated fragment again. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. “A mind not to be changed by time or place.5.
” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. In his last conversation with Michael.” “Our great Progenitor [i. but who can hope for redemption*. the titanic dimension of his suffering.” but also “our credulous mother.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification.” “our general mother. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them. As a Christian. deprived of worth. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan. but W.” “Patriarch of Mankind. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them.” “mother of human race. As a humanist. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great.The works of John Milton 3. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. ancestor. Satan’s torments in Hell. precursor]. Adam is called Sire* of Men. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.” “Our Author. Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically.3. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. Created in God’s image. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal.5. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. in Book XII. of understanding and accepting his limits. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose.e. but as a consequence of their wrong choices. but armed with the wisdom of faith. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith.
one of the greatest English poets. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. he prepared himself for it during long years. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet. Subchapter 3. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. in the Reader. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. the Nativity Ode. a necessary part of His design. you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. If there should be major differences. at the end of the unit.5.2. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. Read this fragment and summarise its argument.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. Summary In this unit.
In Milton’s vision of the original sin. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. his love of freedom. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. at any time. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men.4. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. however. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology.3. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. Undoubtedly. his courage and majesty. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. put in the service of evil. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. Subchapter 3. Subchapter 3.5. the creation of the world and of man. but also in which man may. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. which are. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . presented in subchapter 3.
Homer: Greek poet (c. The word may refer. to convince. the “great and good redeemer” (i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 .C.C.” After the fall from Heaven.D. suffering and death of Christ. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday.). secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred). Purgatory and Paradise. formerly used when speaking to a king. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. difficult to detect (or analyse). to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. In classical literature. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. Roman poet. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. subtle: not immediately evident. It may also mean cunning. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. every. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. noise and chaos. the one who sets man free from sin).-17 A. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. clever in using tricks. or some tragic event. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321).e. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all. 800 B. pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.e. to a place of wild confusion. It means “the carrier of light. Providence: God’s kindness. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Sire: a respectful term of address. not concerned with or related to religion. by extension. to cause to believe). ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. author of La Divina Commedia. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. he is called Satan.). pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. predestination: from a theological point of view. Italian poet.
A revision of subchapter 3. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan.4.2. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death.1. and the last paragraph of 2. in Milton’s Paradise Lost. It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit. and thus of destroying man. with special attention to the indicated subchapters. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition. At the beginning of Book IV. In both of them. before the final battle. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. 1. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero. romantic in The Tempest –. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 .The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. at the end of the play. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. Text 3. and 2.). 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3.3.2. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. Texts 2. one of the greatest Roman poets. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words.6.. • Read attentively this fragment.. God’s creation.2. in which he explores his inner hell. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition.5.C.1. Send-away assignment no. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. 2. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve.
his blindness. in grading your paper.c. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave).e. responsible for his choices. The implication is that God gave man conscience.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands.b..a. Remember that. SAA no. 2. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. The fall of man. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” In the case of man. not God. Created “just and right.. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. and reason makes man. 3. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. clarity. The paradox of freedom. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. is that one may choose right or wrong. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. Milton emphasises the geometrical. or reason. • the coherence. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come. like that of the angels. is thus not attributable to God. but the consequence of evil influence. The poet places his trust in Providence. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. however. i. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality.
2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Further reading 1. The Literature of the Beginnings. 435-449) 2. 2. e. 2003 (pp. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 1983 (pp. 1969 (pp. 1. 1. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. vol. g. b. SAQ 7 1. c. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice.4. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. Luminiţa Elena.. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . SAQ 5 a. If Hell is a space of freedom. d. Incapable of obedience to God. 2. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). under the guidance of Providence. Paradise is now a forbidden place. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). i. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. with passive virtue. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell.e.4. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love. 153-163) 3. Ioan-Aurel (coord. to be dictated by Reason. Turcu. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos).).The works of John Milton Architect”). It is his will and desire that give value to things around. as God has made him. Preda. i. 3. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. Daiches. David.e. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. 2. faith and love untested. This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. f. and the image of the terrible gates. A Critical History of English Literature. English Literature and Civilisation. Man is not a free creature. If God leaves man’s loyalty. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. Forced to look ahead.3. unless he exercises his will and reason. of human solidarity. Editura Universităţii Suceava. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. 2. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”).
3.2. 4.4.4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 4. 4. 4.2. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4.2. 220.127.116.11. 4. 4.4.2 4. 18.104.22.168.7.3. 22.214.171.124. 4. 4.1.1. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage. 4. 4.2. 4.4.1. 4.2. 4. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.1.3.1. 126.96.36.199. 4. 4.1. 188.8.131.52.1. 4.1. 4.2.5. Gulliver.
From a literary point of view. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden.1. 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. under the patronage of king Charles II. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. Unit objectives 4.1. Human nature. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642.1. Nature. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . it was a period of transition as well. the cast of actors included women. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. and Jonathan Swift. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. clarity and elegant restraint. drama holds a place apart. and. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. Alexander Pope. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. addressing itself to an inclusive public. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. of increasing rationalism and secularisation. and of considerable diversity. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. and their re-opening in 1660. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. under the influence of French theatres.
both of them highly conventional forms. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. Gallantry. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. 4. sumptuous costumes. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. on the one hand. Conquest and seduction.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. magnificent settings. or Court Wits. Sensational turns of situation. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. the cynicism. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*. and. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. adultery. fashionable manners. The action was usually set in remote. although each in its own way and for different reasons. jealousy. and absolute villains. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. exotic places. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation.3. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated.1. above all. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. A certain coarseness of feeling. an artificial. were essential for the true man of the world. lust. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. wit*. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*.2. refinement and sophistication.1. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). on the other. It made fun of the people from the countryside. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines.
the lusty widow. If characters were usually static. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. and the trusting husband as dupe. deliberately superficial in construction. cynical. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. the scheming valet. selfish and manipulative. etc. Another frequent type was the fop*. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated. aspiring to the perfect adventure.” without scruples. the country squire*. despising marriage. the ingénue. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. or fool. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. lacking complexity.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. pleasure-seeking. young or old. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. Contrasting types were the coquette.
simple action. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. Restoration comedy praised wit. T F 6. 1.1. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. at the end of the unit. refinement and sophistication. T F 9. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. If any of them should turn out to be wrong. to 4. read again subchapters 4. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). William Congreve. 4. T F 3. T F 7.1. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*.4.1. hedonism and amorality at Court.3. frivolity. It displays typical Restoration characters. elegance. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. T F 8. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. such as the impoverished gallant. T F 2. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. by doing the exercise that follows. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. T F 4. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language. T F 5.
the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. Towards the end of the 17 th century. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. The new audience in the theatres. admiration.5. affection. psychologically subtle and complex. and friendship to jealousy. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. consistent characters. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. etc. half-sad. bringing it to perfection. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). the witty and resourceful servant. The situation. as these were remote from their experience. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. the pair of witty lovers. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. involving a multitude of characters. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences.1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. half-amused. increasingly middle class. the awkward country-girl. is extremely complex. 4. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. and the shifting relationships and alliances. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 .
Millamant is also in love. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. Mirabell is a reformed rake. read again subchapter 4. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions. which presents Millamant's demands.. Read Text 4. If there should be significant differences. as well as the indicated fragment. their agreement has serious implications. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words. in Act IV. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World.4.. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. However.1. they seem to be playing a game. In a witty dialogue. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. under the appearance of frivolity.
Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). and harmony extended beyond literature. 4. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation.1. balance. In both cases. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. Joseph Addison*. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 . in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art.2. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. Besides Dryden and Pope. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*.2.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. In it. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. elegance. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns.
and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. i. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience.2.e. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety].The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. yet achieve great beauty. required an elevated style. comedy. on the other hand. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature.3. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. was Shakespeare. skilful transgression. a dignified diction. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. Epic and tragedy. for the Augustans. The most eloquent example. A poet’s innate talent needed training. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre.2.2.e. the emphasis on discipline in art. and the poet might disregard them. The rule of decorum 4. skill. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. of infinite variety. This was the case of the genius. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. for instance. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. lacking ornament. was expected to use a common. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 . Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift. to make form and substance adequate to each other.. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet. humble style. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors. and to those patterns of behaviour. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. in satirical or burlesque* works. the most valuable store of literary experience. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. i.
and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill. SAQ 3 Text 4. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines). to those of Nicolas Boileau*. in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. If there should be significant differences. but also to imported French ideas – e. at the end of the unit. read again subchapter 4.3.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . or art*.3. and the indicated fragment. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. a combination achieved through reason. What are the main ideas in this fragment. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.g.2.
yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). The writer's art was a form of social communication. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. “grace and strength united. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements. 4. of quick accumulation of information.4. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. manners and taste.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. of critical debate in every field. but to be a functional part of the community. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. too. unnecessary ornament. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it. eloquence with restraint. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. where nothing seems to be studied. refinement with wisdom. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason.5.2. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. precision and clarity.3. In the context of general progress.” Augustan wit 4. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. its effects were considerable on prose. Ostentation. or.2. affectation were rejected. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*.
the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism. the middle class readers. In order to counterbalance this tendency. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip.” that ignorance is a source of evil. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. The reflections on both modern and ancient works.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. They believed. some of them being issued daily. with Alexander Pope. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . contributing significantly to the “polite” education. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. and they were published with varying regularity. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. dominantly middle class. opened in 1688. At the same time. or to the discussion of literary matters. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. for a clientele of ships' captains. at cultivating their minds. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication.
were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711). Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). think again and try to do the exercise once more. and by far the most popular ones. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. Think of present relevance of this remark. on a separate sheet. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. collected in book form. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. Like other writers. If they are significantly different.3.e. Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Tatler and The Spectator. whose essays were published several times in the century.1. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. at the end of the unit.
e. He believes.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. an expert in fashion and gossip. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. • A clergyman. hard work and skill. a model of honesty. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. • Sir Andrew Freeport. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. generous and cheerful. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. for instance. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer. in which they collaborated.e. wit and understanding. “a person of indefatigable industry*. Now. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation.e. laziness. a gallant. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. skills] and industry.e. “a very philosophic man. in his county.” of wide learning. • Will Honeycomb. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. and sloth [i. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. strong reason. manners. and great experience. a middle-aged squire. and the reflections of “Mr.” or that “diligence [i.” and “his familiarity with the customs. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. bravery in battle]. for true power is to be got by arts [i. a courageous. a competent justice of the peace*. for The Spectator. rather than a merit. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. He is a man of “great probity. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. a rich London merchant. modest and commonsensical person.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. as his father had intended for him. • A gentleman who.” • Captain Sentry. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. a man of the world. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. turned to the study of literature.
3.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read again subchapter 4. 1. 5. If there should be major discrepancies. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. cheerful disposition. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. and write them in the indicated spaces below. 2. 8. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. 3. at the end of the unit. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. Identify at least eight such features. 6. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. 4. more carefully. 7. common sense.1. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage.
Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. Samuel. king David. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. to religious debates and literary practices. folly. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation.4. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles.2. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. a passionate. selfishness. 1743). Political and religious dissensions. greed.4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets. genuinely gifted for leadership. 15-18). often touched by ironic humour. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. are mingled: the evil conspirator. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. from political and social life. Pope. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. 4. the Duke of Monmouth. hypocrisy. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. its cult of reason and common sense.4. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion.1. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). 4. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. appears also as a stormy spirit. contradictions and dark aspects. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. intrigues. Bayes*. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. and satire became their formidable weapon. brave and fearless man. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. disloyal and excessively ambitious. struggle for power and profit. admiration and condemnation.
imagination). and revise subchapter 4. Religion. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. and Morality. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. however. imaginative inventiveness. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. SAQ 6 Text 4. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit. Its implications. Here. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays.4. Science. Explain this analogy. concerning satire. Art. Philosophy.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. If it should be significantly different. are more disturbing than entertaining. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. read the fragment again. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos.e. he reflects on the art of the satirist. more attentively. Truth. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire.2. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. From this last country. with a sharp sense of observation. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend.4. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. he learns about the Struldbruggs. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. Gulliver is finally expelled. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. or softening marble to make pincushions.A Voyage to Lilliput II. and literary.4. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. Like many of his contemporaries. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason. the Yahoos. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. curious and resourceful.4. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. in his potential as a rational creature. In it. respectively. religious. building houses starting from the roof. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. In his last voyage. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. bigger than himself. social and intellectual realities. justice and freedom. intelligent speaking horses. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. and where human creatures. In Balnibarbi.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a hater of pedantry and pretence. economic. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. Balnibarbi. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. Luggnagg and Japan IV. In Luggnagg. Laputa. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society).3. Jonathan Swift. the flying island. Glubbdubdrib. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries.A Voyage to Laputa. philosophical. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. an uncompromising defender of truth. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. In his third voyage he visits several strange places. Back in England.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political.
Find. 3. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. in Text 4. four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one). His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. from the Reader.The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. read the fragment carefully once more. at the end of the unit. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. 4. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he prefers now the company of horses. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 1. 2. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words.5. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind.
forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. etc. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. In the Yahoos. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. his vulnerability increases. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. In Brobdingnag. jumping over or creeping under a stick. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation. in his last adventure. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason.5.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. Gulliver. Dissenters and Catholics. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. etc. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. cruel and hypocritical. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. by dancing on a rope. governed only by reason. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. he sees ideal creatures.4. The fourth voyage. from which he chooses to leave.4. In the Houyhnhnms. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. However. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. Gulliver is confronted. vain. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man.). and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. of the capacity for affection.6. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. issues or figures. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. ambitious. means de-humanisation. ruled by an enlightened monarch.
The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. unteachable and ungovernable. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo .The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . filthy. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. For many readers. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. makes him a frustrated idealist. In a “theological” perspective. the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope.
from the Reader. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. however. If there should be major differences. The careful reader will. more carefully.4. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. For Gulliver.6. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect. and to revise subchapter 4.6. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 .The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. you need to read the fragment again. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. find anti-utopian elements in it.
One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. For Swift. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients.7.4. parody. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. caricature. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. placing wit above virtue. including that of Reason itself. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. Dryden.). He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. Steele). Steele. Satire. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason. and by means of it. Pope. Gradually. his learning and sense of literary tradition. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. on the rule of decorum. generally. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. Swift. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit.g. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. etc. Dryden). comedy was licentious and cynical. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. Pope) and in prose (Swift). a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. and. narrow-sightedness. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. both in verse (Dryden. It is an age of transition. Congreve. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. Addison. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. was another characteristic genre. Dryden. Like heroic tragedy (e. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. dominantly middle class. therefore also capable of error. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. Goldsmith. a wide public. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. when literary Neoclassicism developed. grotesque.
dress or behaviour which is not natural. admirer. greatly concerned with appearances. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. coffee houses: since the 1650s. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. the acquired competence of the writer. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. or escort. which designated a fashionable. but is intended to impress others. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature). Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos. For instance. “Will’s Coffee House. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.” where Dryden would come regularly. and the Glossary in Unit 2. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. In her empire of darkness and confusion. baroque: see again subchapter 2. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. In Pope’s satire. well-dressed man.1. profession or interest. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18). acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. achieved by training and practice. Art may generally refer to the work of man. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. affectation: a manner of speech. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French). gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. his craftsmanship.1. political or religious orientation.
but to the whole of created reality.” Nature: an inclusive concept. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad.” another word for “laurel”. In this kind of comedy. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 .e. and distinction. stupidity. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. In Pope’s satire. Bayes. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). inclination. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. or “humour. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things.” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. unexciting.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. from dunce. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. to deceive).The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1.3 in Unit 1. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad. dulness: in a strict sense. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. slowness in thinking and learning. i. It derives from “bay. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. “Dull” also means uninteresting. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. Mr.4. landscape. trait . fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. boring. a strictly ordered hierarchical system. referring not only to external nature. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. honour. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. “Mr.
Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. author of poems. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration.4 in Unit 1. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards. or literature in general. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age. especially the main landowner in a village. essays and dramatic works. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. founder of literary journalism. squire: a country gentleman. Among the latter. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. Dryden. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn.1. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516). Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. or who chats or talks idly. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. elegant. of taste or skill.4.” from Greek u = not. polished). sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. Boileau. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .e. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire.4. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips.3 in Unit 5. for the notion of sentimentalism. i. he translated from ancient authors. perfect society (literally: “no place. of imagination and originality. making literature “dull. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. and topos = place).
an unequalled master of irony and wit.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. Virgil. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). Among various other works. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). Goldsmith. Together with Addison. political and moral vices. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. Like his friend. Johnson. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. and A Modest Proposal (1729). He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. Hogarth. Wycherley. William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. who called him a “comic history-painter. satires and epistles. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). concise and flexible. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). and a major representative of English sentimentalism.C. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). member of the Royal Society. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. Sprat. clear. a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. and The Man of Mode. Pope. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). of Irish origin. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .). extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. Swift. Steele. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. author of odes.
each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. by the standards of her social environment.T. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. furnished with ideas.T. reasonableness. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. 3. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. integrity. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. in an analogous sense.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. good breeding. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. for sophisticated Millamant.e. SAQ 5 honesty. is. modesty. or judgment. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. 4. Civilised reserve in society.F. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. In marriage.F. 5.T. good sense. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. good judgment.T. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. benevolence. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. 6. of those features which are universal.T. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i.e. 8. 9. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. diligence. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. of Human nature. and.F. abdicating from reason.” Just as weeds (i. industry. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. 7. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. 2. open-mindedness.e. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature. regardless of their particular condition. sense of responsibility. opinions and tastes. common sense.
which makes social progress inconceivable. 180-187) 3. English Literature and Civilisation. Daiches. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 4. They practice population control. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. Editura Universităţii Suceava.).. Further reading 1. David.” SAQ 7 1. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. 2. A Critical History of English Literature. 537-550) 2. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants).” the subtlety of his accusations. The tendency to idleness. the “fineness. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. In the absence of affective attachment. 3. vol. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). only the species counts. The English Eighteenth Century. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. 1969 (pp.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 5. The irrational greed and avarice. ultimately of imagination. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. The spirit of competition. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. 1983 (pp. Preda. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. the exclusion of opinion. Ioan-Aurel (coord. conflict and self-interest. which breeds imaginary ills. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. The individual is of no importance. 2003 (pp. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. Macsiniuc. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. The Novel in Its Beginnings. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. which is meant only for procreation. Cornelia.
3.2. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.3. 184.108.40.206.3. 5. 220.127.116.11. 5. 5. 5.3. 18.104.22.168.2. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5. 22.214.171.124.1.5. 5.1. 126.96.36.199.1. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.188.8.131.52. 5.2. 5. 5.2. 5.6.4. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 . 5.6.1. 5. 5.8. 5. 5.4. 5.2.4. 184.108.40.206.2. 5. 5.4.1. 220.127.116.11.
mostly imitations of French models. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. natural rights.1. and there is a connection between. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. exotic settings. whose action was often set in remote. the rise of the middle classes. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. tolerance. and the development of the novel. 5. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. and generally about women. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion.1. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. whose vast majority was middle-class. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. more inclusive reading public. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. in the early years of the 18 th century. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance.1.
a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. 5. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). legend. The novel reflects. in its concerns.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. Thus. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. the province of the novel was the familiar. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. but from contemporary life. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. romances were therefore literature of escape. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. by common people. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. On the one hand. or previous literature. vague and abstract figures. but distinct individualities. history. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. Characters are no longer idealised. moral or psychological detail. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. in the novel. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. On the other hand. socially and materially dependent on men. The ordinary aspects of life. By contrast. its normality. Realism – or. in Augustan terms. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes.2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 .1. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. For most women. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. the novel’s didactic vocation.
read again subchapters 5. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. and 5. Women were … 3. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion.1. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below.2. … 4. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. and public/social norms and conventions. The rise of the middle classes … 2. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. on the other.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. If there should be major differences. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. on the one hand. 1.1. at the end of the unit.
and the world represented in such novels is open. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. and extremely diverse. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. the romance). from which it borrowed devices. patterns and motifs. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. inclusive. and the hero’s various encounters are. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . romance is trivialised through parody*. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. confusion. loosely structured. forms of expression. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic.g. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion.3. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. repetitious. displayed not only in fiction. therefore an ally to realism. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. on events. Fielding). belonging to several categories at once. a wide variety of influences went into its making.g. On the other hand. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. irony and burlesque*. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. Instead. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding. i. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. classic models to follow. but also in poetry and in drama. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. in which the action is episodic. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. for the author. Richardson). They invariably contain the motif of the journey. The motif of the travel is central. Many novels cut across divisions. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour.e. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. but to literature as well.
trivial subjects. ________________________ 5. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. ________________________ 2.1. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. ________________________ 7. ________________________ 6. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. read again subchapter 5. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. 3.3. 1. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. in their confrontation with moral choice. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being..The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. ________________________ 8. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in an atmosphere of gloom. ________________________ 4. usually with supernatural ingredients. after each sentence. It presents a tale of mystery and horror. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. at the end of the unit.
Mariner. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. in the next years. on his fiction. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. They are pragmatic.2. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. cast in a picaresque form. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. Puritan* background. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. They share a middle class. when the writer was almost sixty. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival.2. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement. several adventure novels. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. in circumstantial details. They were all stories of success. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. but also on the Continent. to the influence. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. in actions. dynamic and versatile. their social insertion. 5. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. This confers vividness to their narratives. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. published in 1719.
one of Defoe’s “honest cheats. In the hope of increasing his wealth.” It is. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. Under Defoe’s pen. in fact. After several misadventures at sea. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. he starts a voyage to Africa. He marries. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. In the 28 years of solitary life. where he has established a colony. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival. not only physical but also spiritual.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . such an experience became an archetypal one. The only survivor.2. C. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. prudent and calculating mature man. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. Wyeth . romantic youth into a realistic. has three children.” and leaves home on board a ship. in soon left a widower. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil. he turns from a reckless.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.2. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. Providence helps him finally leave the island. On his return to England. After 26 years. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. to buy slaves.
and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design. to the awakening of religious conscience. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 . making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word. In this light. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. read again subchapters 5.3. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation.2.2. Isolation is no longer a misfortune.” 5. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. as a political or economic utopia. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father). as an allegory of the ecological development of history. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness.. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words.2.1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In his initial struggle with despair. Gradually.2. If it should differ considerably. and 5. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance.
subchapter 5. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter. as a self-reliant individual. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. in the space below. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. g. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description.2.” However.. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 4. He takes pleasure in his work). It has its spiritual rewards.2. 1. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress. ingenuity). Like Adam. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot.. Changed in his “notion of things. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. 3. as well as the fragment in the Reader. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. morally autonomous.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. perseverance. which will serve his instinct for independence. perspicacity. inventiveness. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience. In this connection. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work.3.. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value. Enumerate.” desires and “delights. or the felix culpa*. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise.g. 2. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. You may render these features either by a single noun (e. or by a sentence (e.2.
of familiar detail. at the same time. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. he paid little attention to matters of form. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. 3. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. on a separate sheet. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. the promise of symbolic meanings. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. His linear. containing.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. rendered in a simple. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure.2. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. 2.4 once more and do the exercise again. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 4. clarity. read the fragment and subchapter 5. The richness of concrete detail. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. in the Reader from the point of view of its style. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. with unmatched vividness. clear language. concreteness.4. His simple. whose reality is difficult to doubt. at the end of the unit. solid world. 1. the frequent enumerations and inventories.2. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. which.2.
unanimously loved and admired. In Pamela. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence.2. Upon the death of her mistress. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure.6. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. Mr. The plot of Pamela.2. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. B’s relatives and friends. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. At the same time. in Bedfordshire. B_. Mr.5. Faced with her resistance. As the first great sentimental novelist. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. In her new state. whose affection she finally gains. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. recording the details of her ordeal. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. the latter’s son. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. not only in England but also on the Continent. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. of the struggle between virtue and vice.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. as well as for his didactic purpose. In Clarissa. Mr. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. B_’s hands. There. Pamela continues a diary. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. sensibility and morality. His influence was considerable. B_’s sister. hoping that she will give in. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. cruel and greedy relatives.
Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. as a traditionally dominant class.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. Through its subject and theme. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. the rights of the individual. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. the freedoms that he takes with her. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. a complete novelty in fiction.2. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. Richardson’s implicit radical message. F. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy. B_. to set moral standards to the nation.7. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment.
”? Answer in the space left below.7.6. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger. read again attentively subchapters 5.8. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination. If there should be significant differences. between hate and admiration.e. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge. 5.2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. and 5.2. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. as a servant. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. though in quality [i.2. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts. at the end of the unit. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. to obey Mr.
4. however. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which are captured in the process of their emergence. and his developing love. and considering also Text 5. read again subchapter 5. excerpted from Pamela.2. her sentimental response to them. on the other. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. on the one hand.. B_ follows a similar evolution. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader. in the Reader).9. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. at the end of the unit. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings.3. What counts. 2. 1. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. In Pamela’s letters and diary.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus.. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character.
performed by means of comic satiric devices. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. as well as their inclusiveness. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. whose servant he was. the author asserts himself. Joseph’s sweetheart. His acknowledged literary models were Swift. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. Cervantes. Mr. author of Don Quixote” (1742). 1790) 132 . priggish* upstart. All important characters meet here. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. At this point. Booby. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl.” Mr. Through the omniscient* narrator. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. so that he sets out for home.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age.3. Abraham Adams. in London. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. but a snobbish. relationships and actions. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. Fielding was a master of parody. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. B_’s aunt. modest and gentle creature. above all. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. irony. Mrs. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures.3. including Pamela and her husband. Pope. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. to his native village. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. burlesque and comic satire. started as a parody. Slipslop. Fielding abandons parody. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. Mr. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. and. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. they mirror a wide range of human types. but also by the maid. but a voice external to the story. and he thought to propose his own version of morality.1. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*.
Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. is an ingredient of romantic plots.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. in the spirit of comedy. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue.5. at the end of the unit.2. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. T F 4. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. T F 7. read the text once more. T F 6. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. Wilson. T F 2. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. alluding thus to the older genre. Cervantes. For instance. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. Fielding likes to play with genres. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). T F 8. 5. T F 5. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status. Mr. T F 3. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. carefully. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. or the pattern of the adventurous journey. Read Text 5. which turns out to be gentle*. which closes the plot. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. 1. whom they had met during their journey. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles.3. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. for true or false) for each of them.
Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). For the author. cruelty. in spite of the many instances of greed. he describes “not men. both honest and hypocrite priests. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. which often create comic effects. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. as for Richardson. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. as he himself says. Joseph emerges as morally mature. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness.3. etc. fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. At the same time. masters. In the beginning. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. Along the novel. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. By means of techniques of contrast. etc. In other words. but good deeds and charity. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. in Fielding. but also moral instruction. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. doctors. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence.3. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. Like his literary ancestor. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. active goodness. Every social class. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. there are both good and bad innkeepers. but they placed their main interest in the individual.3. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. often making him appear ridiculous. not an individual. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. but manners. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. lawyers. above all. which must give substance to faith.4.
like many Augustan writers. 5. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices. If they should differ substantially. provide the first theory of the novel. 2.2.4. at the end of the unit. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 .3.2. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition.3. Explain them. 1. He is a moralist. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. through its moral and temperamental types.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. 5. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel. At the same time.. incorporated in the substance of his works. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. and he believes.2. and 5.. drawing short comparisons.. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation.4. unaffected.8. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. read again subchapters 5. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each..5. 3. Fielding is the most “Augustan.3. His commentaries and reflections on his own art.
” in every sense. the priest who baptised Tristram. at every point. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. in Joseph Andrews. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative.4.4. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. as well as of Parson Yorick. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life. Tristram. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia).1. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. 5.4. Walter Shandy. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. by accident. He digresses continually. However. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. is an erudite philosopher.2. and his long. moulds reality into a literary pattern. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” individuals dominated by some private obsession. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. With Sterne. i. does not manage to give a shape to his story. at the age of five. the relation between life and literature.e. Walter. His father. corporal Trim. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. of his uncle. the narrator. In spite of his promises. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. he seems to have. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. the history of a private life. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction. unpredictable narrative.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. that he was. other interesting things to relate. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. Fielding had demonstrated.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. that.
There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. and discharged from the army. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. with man as a vulnerable. gentleness. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. above all. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. Understandably. However.4. as comic eccentricity. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. Wounded in Flanders. but the uniqueness of each individual mind.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry.3. good-humoured. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. modesty and. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. On the other hand. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. It is not type (social. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. They cannot share their thoughts. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. were being fought on the continent. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. therefore. The “nonsensical. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. generosity. amiability. ironic terms. 5. character and destiny.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. pitiful creature. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. which influences all his thoughts and actions. absorbed in this activity.
as well as the fragment from the Reader. Ch.4. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*.3. in the Glossary to Unit 2. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. Write the answer in the space left below. V. If the difference is considerable. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words. I.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering. see again the fall of princes.6. SAQ 10 In Vol. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. at the end of the unit.. Read this short chapter (Text 5. To remember the features of the tragic hero. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read again subchapter 5.
the “imperfections of words.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions.4. so different from Fielding’s tight. Tristram resorts to other means of communication. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. Typographically. does not seem to move towards any climax. etc.e. by drawing his attention not only to what is told.5. i. makes the reader aware of them. for instance. Sterne defamiliarises them. to a certain view of writing.4. watched as if by a slow motion camera. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in. It is.” Not only as a man. For example. with its multitude of dashes. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. by exploiting them in a parodic way.4.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. points of suspension. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . which he calls “the sunshine of reading. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. drawings and graphs. in Sterne’s novel. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. asterisks. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. coherent plots. and gives the impression of stagnation. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. Sterne’s rambling narrative. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight. the book is a comic oddity. but also to how it is told. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories. but also as an author. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. The structure of the book is equally odd. 5. there are several dedications scattered through the book. and he takes great delight in digressions. The zigzagging narrative. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures.
however. Basically. ultimately. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. The unpredictable. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. metafiction is fiction about fiction. As metafiction. of life as pure chance.4. Metafictionally. It is a half-amused. Its extravagant.” with their digressions. which is connected. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices.6. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive.e. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. the narrated time and the time of reading. works which call attention to their own devices. The meaning of metafiction depends.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. in the first four volumes. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. i. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. i. as it explores – halfseriously. formless reality. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the structural level. on the author’s vision of life. In volume VI. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time.e. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. the process of its own writing. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time.
which he discusses in the very text of the work. If they differ significantly. go again through subchapters 5. and read the fragment attentively once more.4.7. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. In this way. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel.. Instead of continuing the story. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it.4. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 . and 5. 2. 1. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. Write them in the spaces indicated below. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5. 3.6. at the end of the unit.
self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. Samuel Richardson. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. on the other hand. Henry Fielding. Fielding. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. However. the novel was a minor form. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. Sterne. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. completely ignored by Augustan poetics. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. At the beginning of the 18th century. in his novels of manners. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. Since its settlement on the literary scene.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and Laurence Sterne. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. Lastly.
see again the Glossary in Unit 1). a hobbyhorse is a toy. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which became popular in England through translation and imitation.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. lifelikeness: closeness to life. metafiction: literally.e. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. happiness. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. gentle: of good breeding. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. Cinderella: an old fairy story. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). to the lower ranks of society. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. in which the poor heroine. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. or education. or “narcissistic” – i. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. whose style. gaiety. mirth: laughter. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. played like a piano. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. Concretely. fixed idea. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. but producing a different sound. “beyond fiction”. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. exact representation of life. booby: silly or stupid person. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. harpsichord: an old musical instrument.e. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. literacy: the ability to read and write.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. literally: novel of formation. The hero – the picaro (i. epistolary manner: in a novel. fun. characteristically. and he seeks social integration. rogue) – belongs. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. a Fool. tone. Bildungsroman: German term. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end.
Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Britain joined Austria. Don Quixote starts. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. The high aspirations of this generous. like a knight-errant of former times. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605.e. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). 1615).The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. honest and brave hidalgo (i. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne.
The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. to revise the preceding unit. • the coherence. therefore. 2. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). You will have. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5.. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. clarity. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words.. the king rejects this tribute. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. Horrified. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns.4. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. as illustrated by this fragment.1. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . 1. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. and 5. Text 4. SAA no. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels. with special attention to subchapter 4. Text 5. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island.1. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment.1.2. Remember that.4. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. 3. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. In order to win the good graces of the king. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. in grading your paper. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government.
The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. resilience. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. the capacity for learning from mistakes. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. industriousness. 3. immediacy. rationality. and by the form of autobiographical record. 2. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . SAQ 4 Tenacity. 5. patience. all souls are equal. 6. plainness. 5. inventiveness. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. realistic account. concreteness. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. 4. SAQ 2 1. SAQ 5 factuality. 4. vividness. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. 3. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. optimism. sharp sense of observation. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. pragmatism. 2. In the social order. and also authors of novels. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct.
T. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely.T. who write in the first person. He is always a prominent figure. 3. they create a sort of suspense. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character. 2. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature.F. SAQ 8 1. 7. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. 4. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer.T. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. 2. living and the act of writing overlap each other.F SAQ 9 1. enjoying title.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation.T. 8. SAQ 11 1. 3F. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. wealth and power. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters. 3.” but in “pitiful misadventures. 2. This is not Tristram’s case. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. that is. 2. SAQ 7 1. 3.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. 6. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 .T. In this way. 5. he is concerned with human types.
Walter. 2003 (pp. 179-195. A Critical History of English Literature. 731-736) 3. 1991 (pp. Penguin Books Limited.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 76-80) 2. Cornelia. The English Novel. Daiches. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 217-231. 143-163. 1969 (pp. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 43-46. 116127. 53-59. Macsiniuc. vol.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). David. Allen. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 712-718. 598-602. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. 701-704. 37-42.
6. 6.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 18.104.22.168.2.3.2. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.2.3.1. 6.4.3. 6.1.1. 6. 22.214.171.124.4. 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.4. 6.5. 6. 6.2.2. 6. 6.2. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 .2. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake. 6. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2.4.3. 6. 6. 6. 6.1.4. The Seasons William Cowper. 6.2. 6.
the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. elegance and decorum*. however. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. with its emphasis on order. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. For instance. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. The sentimental novel* (e. The concern with personal. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The interest in individual psychology. harmony. and Fielding).1. Swift. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. discipline. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. and cultivated its public relevance.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. Like any modern age. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. and for night as a setting. was eminently the Age of Reason. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. Neoclassicism*. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. Pope. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. the century of the Enlightenment*. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. Addison.g. regarded art as the product of civilisation.
English pre-Romantic poetry 6. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. Night Thoughts (1742-1745). which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry.1. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. sublime landscapes. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 .2. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A.1. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. death and immortality. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. and misty. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). wild. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue. and folk literature in general. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic.D. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796).1. His long poem in nine books. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. In 1765.
… a. regarding him as a martyr. reflected… 4. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. The publication. with its gloomy atmosphere. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Like James Macpherson. aspiring to poetic fame. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. When his literary fraud was exposed. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. … 3. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. read again the previous subchapters.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. d. imagination. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. b. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. c.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. 1. in 1765. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . … as well as Gothic fiction. at the end of the unit. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. Chatterton committed suicide. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation.
William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life.2. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. Samuel Taylor Coleridge).English pre-Romantic poetry 6. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. but also literary forms. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit.1. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. The pre. Towards the end of the century. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. In the following subchapters.3. characteristic of the Enlightenment. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. The great novelists (e. busy life of the city with moral confusion.g. The return to blank verse 6. In the latter part of the century. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. the interest in the local and national past. such as the song and the ballad. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. The emphasis on sentimental response. the state of nature began to be idealised. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
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English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
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than the works of Nature. political comments. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. Britannia. manifest as early as the 1730s.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. the philosophical reflection. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. exerting a considerable influence on both of them. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry.3. an expression of national pride. and the apparent cruelty of winter. not only the perception of nature.3. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. and the moral sentiment. James Thomson. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm. the splendour of summer. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. praise of friends. “Winter.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe. but also the feeling for it. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. His poem educated. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). patriotic enthusiasm. Samuel Johnson said. in its magnificence and diversity. 6. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. nature. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. His praise of nature and of the countryside. As Dr. in many generations of readers. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. etc. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. more amusing.1. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. becomes an object of interest in itself. In spite of its eclectic nature.
which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below. which actually inspired Thomson). Passages of moral and political commentary.. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. in popular superstitions and the supernatural. the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. more carefully. read text C again. unrhymed stanzas. He was interested in the mediaeval past. If there should be major differences. and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*. records his observations and reflections. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. William Cowper. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. from the third part. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. Like Thomson and Collins. social satire. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. “Autumn. William Collins 6.3. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). with its short. living in retirement from the city. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 .2. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility.3.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood.
Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. domestic activities. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. but the joy of communion with friends. and of simple. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. Wordsworth.e. with its vices and follies.” Sometimes. the peace and quiet of village life. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. affected] the country. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . T. in the Reader. 1856 The Task. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. in the 18th century. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. at the end of the unit. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. however. S. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. / Paradise that has survived the fall. As a poet of nature. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. concerning the opposition country/town. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. Coleridge). represents one of the most memorable statements. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. like gardening. He praises the simple pleasures. SAQ 5 Text 6. indicate an affectionate observer. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster.4.
English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. Thomson. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text.1. and recognised as one of the most original creators. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. to the special way in which he produced his work. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime. William Blake. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. to a large extent. but also a gifted painter and engraver. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). he turns his attention to the rural world. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. In Blake. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . Blake’s late fame is due. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. Gray. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. The combination of calligraphic text. Apart from a volume of early verse. He was not only a poet. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. Each copy was then coloured by hand. In his first great illuminated work. widening the range of meanings. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. and he rejected the classical standards of style. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. and Macpherson. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. 6. the rural setting. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. our sense of a common fate for all humanity.civilisation.4. Like other pre-Romantic poets. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. Milton.4.
” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. and his whole work. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. in Blake’s last poem. unpremeditated act.” This is Blake’s own creed. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. Like the other English Romantics. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination. They are. original and strange. for instance: “I copy Imagination. Jerusalem: “I must create a system. Blake was a rebel. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. or be enslaved by another man’s. and he denounces the evils of civilisation.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. Blake. Los*.2. a prophet.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. 6. says. a tribute to Milton. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. in a way.” or “I write when commanded by spirits.4.
innocent delights. and its origin was visionary experience. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Echoing Green. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Laughing Song. For Blake. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. As a poet. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. The Blossom. 6. Poems like Infant Joy. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. of the world seen through the eyes of the child. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple.e. Spring. that is. at the end of the unit. their clarity of expression and their musicality. T F 4.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. and the three statements that are false. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. 1. The Shepherd.3. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. T F 7. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false).4. revise the whole subchapter. T F 3. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. T F 2. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. If you have made mistaken choices. enjoy] to hear. T F 6. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. T F 5.
The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. For Blake. Besides the children themselves. in Nurse’s Song. Innocence. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. with which Blake was acquainted. is a biblical allusion. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius.e. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. does not mean ignorance. The nurse. or even Jesus. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. although the sun has set. “Old John. The good shepherd. meadow]”. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. In these poems. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation.” Throughout his work. the shepherd. love. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. the guardian angel.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and absence of frustration or inhibition. with white hair. In The Echoing Green. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination. which a proper education should develop. gratified desire. According to him. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. in his natural tendency to virtue. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas.” can “laugh away care. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. associated with childhood. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination.
in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. If there should be a significant difference between them. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 .” Answer in the space below. and in which he represents to himself its “making. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. in the Reader. at the end of the unit.
Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. or the mind of others. but. of “stony laws*”. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. Like the chimney sweeper. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. society and divinity.4. poverty and oppression. In the fallen state of Experience. In London. for instance. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. i. However. which is a promise of divine mercy. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. protesting against the evils of his time.4. In Songs of Experience. in which man’s lot is hard work. love and joy have been replaced by fear. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –.5. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. full of indignation and anger. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. envy and deceit. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. hate. the thirst for war. 6.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. In The Chimney Sweeper*. disease. standing equal before God. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. nature. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. even sarcastic.4. when this life ends. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind.e. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. which deny man his freedom. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. often. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. for instance. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them.
provoking more anxiety than certainty. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience. who made thee [i. If it should differ in major respects. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. innocent question (“Little Lamb. with no explicit answer.6. in Songs of Experience. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. at the end of the unit. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below. Read this poem – Text 6.4. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. by ambiguity and even obscurity. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. dangerous tiger.English pre-Romantic poetry 6.6. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. you]?) and his own answer.e.
There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters.” which lead to contrary visions. This is the God of the world of Experience. Reason and Energy*. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery.7. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a stern. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. which are thus strengthening their own power. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity. with its “mysteries”*. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church.” In the counterpart poem. A deeply religious person. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. bearing even the same titles. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church. for keeping man at a distance from God. In the poem of Innocence. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. He displays. was responsible. “contrary states of the human soul. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament.4. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. The church. indeed.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. and he is also a child. They reveal. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. in Songs of Experience.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. but with ways of seeing and feeling. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. since those are “babes reduced to misery.” or with a “multitude of lambs.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. in fact. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. in Blake’s view. Contraries are essential to progression. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. and His Priest. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. served by the institutionalised churches. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. tyrannical figure. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin.
2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 .English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. revise subchapters 6.7. to regain the vision of Innocence.1. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. but he is no longer able to do that.4. at the end of the unit.4. and read the poem again more carefully.. except as an act of remembering. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience. to 6. If there should be major differences between them.
who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall.3. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. The “Graveyard” poets (e. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. The other feature is primitivism. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. In subchapter 6. The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The last subchapter.2. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. 6.. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. g. the interest in early poetry.. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. imagination and feelings. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination.4. now threatened by the march of Progress. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. nature-civilisation. Subchapter 6. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant.
The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. graveyards. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne.e. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Gray is sadly ironic. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. which has survived in parts of Scotland. in Unit 4. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. for instance. Haunted castles. Energy: for Blake. for the sake of more profitable farming.2. which they could climb more easily. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. and horror. the enclosures meant ruin.2. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. For the small farmers. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. as the next subchapter will show. or Erse. Ireland and Wales. Imagination was free Energy. ruins. decorum: see subchapter 4. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. favour melancholy or morbid themes. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. Initially. Sometimes. passion.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. Their father was Zeus. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. goddess of Memory. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. putting fences round) common land. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. Celtic: related to the Celts.
illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. as well as against the sophistication. or of gold or silver paint. A Prophecy. etc. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless.1.2. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. philosophical and political convictions. 2 in Unit 4. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . primitive: original. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Milton. Paul’s Cathedral. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. The Book of Urizen. Among the most important of them are America. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. to attend the religious service. The custom in London was to bring the poor. on which the Ten Commandments were written. sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. Jerusalem. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. in Unit 5.3. belonging to the beginnings. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. with His laws formulated as interdictions. Pity. The Book of Los. wild landscapes. the Passions. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. See also subchapter 4. The Four Zoas. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. in Unit 1.3. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God.1. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism.. the 39th day after Easter. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. etc. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. used to secure the hands of a prisoner. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. in Unit 3. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms.
10. Send-away assignment no. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. clarity. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 .. SAA no. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection.8. gardens or estates. 6.9. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762). • the coherence.. in grading your paper.. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words.12. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. meant to win a patron’s favour.” usurous: from usury. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song.. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. 6. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.13. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks.). with his law of love. and 6. Remember that. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task.11. 6. The Chimney Sweeper. 6. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment.
the “drooping weary” father. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. In the city. For Cowper. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. love of nature.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. the vagants’] wanderings. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. 4. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. Nor e’er had changed. 3. and on his thoughts. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. c SAQ 2 1.e. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . all intensified. 2. Its bare. in which everything seems to be in decline. or seek for power. d. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty. disease and poverty. and love of man. on his soul. but relieved their pain” 6. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. b. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. “He chid their [i.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. the “feeble. “Unpractised he to fawn. The country is thus a substitute for Eden.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. Meditation leads to illumination. nor wished to change his place” 3. a.
The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. which he has lost. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. therefore. SAQ 8 Examples: 1.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. 2. 7. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. “My mother groaned. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. In a vision of Innocence. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. and. meadow. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. T. In the second stanza.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. 2. T. and is itself one more care in the family. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. in the state of Experience. At the same time. 3. 5. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. in Blake’s vision. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. being thus a source of oppression.” that is. T. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. against which man. In the simple economy of the poem. Man. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. the “Lamb of God. the God of Love. T. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. 4. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . 6. struggles in vain. confinement and oppressive authority. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. F. but are symbols of limitation. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. F.
Penguin Books Ltd. Boris (ed..4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). 1969 (pp. vol. 671-684. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .). Ford. 1991 (pp. Penguin Books Ltd. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature.5 (“From Blake to Byron”). vol.. 692-699) 2. 84-94) 3. Ford. David. Daiches.). vol. 652-658. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. A Critical History of English Literature.English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. Boris (ed. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). Further reading 1. 1991 (pp.. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. to me. the air. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. the sky) brave minunat. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. of late recently wherefore why. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. şi. forewent. foregone* all custom of exercises. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. – but wherefore* I know not. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. încât acest frumos tărâm. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. văzduhul. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. in moving. vedeţi. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. pământul. cum să spun. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Hamlet (Act II. – lost all my mirth*. într-adevăr.excelent. the earth. this brave* overhanging* firmament*. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. pentru mine. William Shakespeare. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. acest preaminunat baldachin. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. seems to me a sterile promontory. alcătuirile şi mişcările. this most excellent canopy*.1. şi totuşi. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. Ce minunată lucrare e omul.g. look you.
cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. Macbeth (Act V. a se furişa) petty inessential. and tomorrow. Signifying nothing. The death of each day’s life. out.3.” the innocent sleep. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. great nature’s second course*. El. trivial. TEXT 2. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. desfirat. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). And then is heard no more. a poor player. Out*. To the last syllable of recorded time. semeţ. and tomorrow. trifling (mărunt. William Shakespeare. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep.Reader TEXT 2. Balm of hurt minds. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. William Shakespeare. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. Macbeth (Act II. full of sound* and fury. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. ţanţoş. sore* labour’s bath. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. it is a tale Told by an idiot. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. to creep. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 .2. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru.
Which any print* of goodness will not take. a suporta therefore as a result. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. Te stinge. TEXT 2. redus. The Tempest (Act I. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. Though thou didst learn*. stupid (necioplit. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. savage. a bâigui) brutish coarse. William Shakespeare. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. nasty (josnic. tot mereu. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb.4. Know thine* own meaning. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. ticălos) race neam. mărginit) shameful and evil. abject. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. Caliban: You taught me language. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. netrebnic. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. cruel. sălbatic. Un biet actor. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Took pains to make thee speak. mârşav.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine.
Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. În stare de orice. pe drept. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. all which it inherit. literary) truly. când tu. The solemn temples. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. The cloud-capped towers*. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. Actorii Ţi-am spus.5. These our actors. the gorgeous palaces. duşi. foretold: a anunţa. shall dissolve And. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. duhuri. framework (clădire. TEXT 2. dar proasta-ţi fire.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. etc. Yea*. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. au fost. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. the great globe itself. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. fiară. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. temelie) fabric building. dar. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. toţi. consistency. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. The Tempest (Act IV. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. William Shakespeare. into thin air: And. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. Te-am învăţat de toate. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. Biserici maiestoase. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. se vor topi Şi. Leave not a rack* behind. colour. structure. chiar pământul. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. Te-am surghiunit aici. palate mândre. As I foretold* you. Scoteai doar mugete. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. Cu tot ce-a moştenit.
And makes me end. but an expansion. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it.6. and hearkens* after it. and hands to miss. but doth. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. Thy* soul the fixed foot. But we by a love so much refined. The breath goes now. TEXT 2. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. no: So let us melt*. Like gold to aery thinness beat. as that comes home. Inter-assured of the mind*. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. to go. makes no show To move.Reader Făcute-s visele. Yet when the other far doth roam*. And grows erect*. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. Though I must go. Our two souls therefore. they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. obliquely run. where I begun. and make no noise. Though greater far. Like the other foot. nor sigh-tempests* move. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. It leans*. and some say. If they be two. Such wilt* thou* be to me. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. But trepidation of the spheres. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . That our selves know not what it is. No tear-floods. Care less eyes. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. And whisper* to their souls. if the other do. endure* not yet A breach*. who must. lips. which are one. is innocent. And though it in centre sit. Men reckon* what it did and meant. John Donne.
breathe. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. shine. a lua cu sila.7. blow. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. but oh. or break that knot again. exact Text 2. burn. and bend Your force*. a înrobi. to undergo breach break. o’erthrow me*. a elibera to enthrall a supune. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon.: inflexibil. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. precis. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. Take me to you. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. overthrew. leant a se apleca. to another due*. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. fig. and make me new. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. Nor ever chaste. apply your force due cuvenit. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. overthrown: a nimici. Divorce me. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. rupture stiff rigid. Yet dearly I love you. ferm. to break. like an usurped town. and proves weak or untrue*. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. you As yet* but knock. That I may* rise. But is captived. three-personed God*. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. and would be loved fain*. datorat to labour to work hard. for. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. untie*. Labour* to admit you. to no end*. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. to struggle to no end vainly. me should defend. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. except you ravish* me. Reason your viceroy* in me. John Donne. and stand. a rătăci to lean. imprison me. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. for I Except your enthrall* me. and seek to mend. never shall be free. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. I. a se înclina to hearken a asculta.
Nor. if you please. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .8. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. were no crime. And you should. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. shall sound My echoing song. And the last age should show your heart. An age at least to every part. This coyness*. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. in thy marble vault*. Now therefore. Andrew Marvell. I think. do there embrace. Lady. We would sit down. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. and pass our long love’s day. Nor would I love at lower rate. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. and on thy* forehead gaze. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. like amorous birds of prey. and think which way To talk. you deserve this state*. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. And now. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. For. yet we will make him run. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. Two hundred to adore each breast. Now let us sport* while we may. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. Thus. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. But none. and time. Thy beauty shall no more be found. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough.Reader TEXT 2. Lady. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. But thirty thousand to the rest. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*.
peculiar. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. patimă) grave mormânt. a lâncezi. sfială. in spite of her coyness.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. fig. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece.: swift. groapă youthful de tinereţe. tineresc hue culoare. nuanţă. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. torn) a smulge. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. which.
though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. and present My true account. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. a strict overseer TEXT 3. opportune happy fortunate.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who best Bear his mild yoke*. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. obscure. they serve him best. chide*. Ere* half my days. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. destiny mean humble. or soon or slow. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. returning. in this dark world and wide. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. if I have grace to use it so. John Milton. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. speed. however mean* or high. Yet be it less or more. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*.2. All is. lucky endueth endues. appears [in me] much less – i. lest he. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. John Milton. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. rush bud mugur.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. and the will of heaven. to prevent That murmur*.1. but Patience. the subtle* thief of youth. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. Toward which time leads me.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
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Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
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From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
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Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
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Goddess humane. then. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. and ye shall be like Gods. John Milton.8. by the Threatener? look on me. And what are Gods. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. that all from them proceeds*. your eyes. Queen of the Universe. a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. and that advantage use On our belief. as they know. Warmed by the Sun. Knowing both good and evil. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. ye you (pl. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. His worshippers? He knows that. I question it. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. reach* then.Reader TEXT 3. Why. producing every kind. 4. ye* shall not die. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. Me who have touched and tasted. or this tree Impart against his will. and freely taste. by venturing* higher than my lot. 3. for this fair* Earth I see. Them nothing. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. that Man may not become As they. in the day Ye eat thereof*.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. What can your knowledge hurt him.
Reader TEXT 3. Waved over by that flaming brand*. with wandering steps and slow. Through Eden took their solitary way. where to choose Their place of rest. and Providence their guide. hand in hand. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but wiped them soon. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. They. beheld (archaic. beheld to behold. looking back. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. John Milton. The world was all before them. so late* their happy seat*. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They.9. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise.
bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. Come to dinner when I please. to be sole* empress of my tea table. manierat. William Congreve. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. because they are your acquaintance. nor kiss before folks*. And lastly. as if we were proud of one another the first week. reserved well-bred binecrescut. or to be intimate with fools.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. (…) fond affectionate. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. to write and receive letters. and ashamed of one another ever after. and then never be seen there together again. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only.1. to wear what I please. without giving a reason. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. To have my closet* inviolate*. wherever I am. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . but let us be very strange* and well bred*. to provoke eyes and whispers*. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. nor go to a play together. so far trifle fleac. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. Let us never visit together. because they may be your relations*. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please.
and leaves it standing in its place. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. ticălos. but just representations of general nature. successfully irregular neuniform. Samuel Johnson. Shakespeare is. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. rogue pungaş. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. variabil fanciful capricios. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. and please long. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. descendenţi to supply a oferi. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. Particular manners* may be known to few. the poet of nature. which can operate but* upon small numbers.Reader TEXT 4. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. secătură. a blockhead*. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. above all writers. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. pungaş. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. potlogar villain nemernic. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. escroc. cap sec knave escroc. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. at least above all modern writers. a livra. unpractised by the rest of the world. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*.2. dobitoc. John Dryden.
and the fortunes of his people. and transcendentals*. should from a nice*. The learning of this people is very defective. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. history. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. unnecessary scruple. to justice and lenity*. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. entities. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. great wisdom. Jonathan Swift. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. and mathematics. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. of strong parts. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. abstractions. refinement and intrigue. in a discourse one day with the King. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. And as to ideas. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. consisting only in morality. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. poetry. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. and almost adored by his subjects. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. love. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. so that among us would be little esteemed. the liberties. For I remember very well.Reader TEXT 4. and profound learning. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature.4. either in a prince or a minister. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. and esteem. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. endued* with admirable talents for government. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance.
For. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious. Jonathan Swift. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. than any of the rest. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. fall together by ears*. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. the shortness of my claws*. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. in some fields of his country. there are certain shining stones of several colors. as sometimes happens. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. Ch. speed. and our actions.g. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. so. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. from the representation I had given him of our lives. and the like. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. government. and therefore* to protect himself. but still looking round with great caution. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. but not in themselves. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. manufactures*. a fi iniţiat în. as I had described them.5. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. they will instead of eating peaceably. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. which all could see in the rest. and carry them away. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. (…) That. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. our manners. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . (…) As to learning. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. arts. and mischievous* in disposition. a asigura. to restrict bound limit. without delay determination rezolvare. and activity. a i se încredinţa (e. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
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TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
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grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
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UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
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Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. which it did admirably well. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. and bear* the fire. and any things my hand turned to*. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. When I saw them clear red. I had no notion of a kiln*. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. It happened after some time. and placed my firewood* all round it. what odd. and observed that they did not crack at all*. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. to bring it home and work it. to pity a căina awkward incomod. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*. and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. and how many fell out*. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken.Reader TEXT 5.. ugly things I made. with a great heap of embers* under them. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). But all this would not answer my end*. (fell. and red as a tile*. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. (fell. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. de pământ jar oală. though I had some lead to do it with. one upon another. a se desprinde clay lut. Daniel Defoe. such as the potters* burn in. a frământa. fallen) out: a se desface. pitchers*. I was agreeably surprised to see it. being set out too hastily*. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. misshapen*. how many of them fell in*. a cădea fell out to fall. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. in a word how. which none of these could do. and. flat dishes*. or rather laugh at me. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. so as to make it burn me some pots. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. to dig* it. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. after having laboured hard to find the clay. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. to temper* it. and pipkins*. anevoios. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun.2. or glazing* them with lead*.
and so it is: but love. my dear father.] This letter. apogeu distress nefericire. I am quite overcome*. and before I knew what was the matter. like a thief. and tender years*. But to be sure*. when I expected some new plot*.3. however. forgive me! but I found. punct culminant. upon me. This was a good fortune. and of so much honour too. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. crept. narrative. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. but it has crept*. scop. Samuel Richardson. I imagine. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. […] Forgive. I beseech* you. nay*.4. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). has greatly affected me. born) a rezista. chinuri womb pântece. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul.Reader dish blid. O my unguarded* youth. is not a voluntary thing – Love. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. dubious uncertain. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. […] O my dear parents. it looked like love. a învinge. plin de viaţă) height culme. in which he confesses his affection for her. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. before. intenţie to bear (bore. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. to my grief*. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. nor when it began. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. a depăşi) TEXT 5. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. Samuel Richardson. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. I must own* to you. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. to find him capable of so much openness. I had no reason to expect. so much affection. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). can be. did I say! […] I know not how it came. B_. but now. than the dry*. durere.
a rupe memorandum notă. containing a much larger circle of incidents.) treacherous trădător (adj. [Memorandum*. and to one too. as I thought. in its sentiments and diction*. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. Yet. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. In the diction. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. în mod clar rigorous aspru. întristat. of inferior manners.e. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. sever grief durere. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. in this. and resignation to the Divine Will. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. before summons* came. and consequently. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. and therefore*. I hope. when I get home. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. Henry Fielding. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. torn) out a smulge.5.] plot uneltire. însemnare TEXT 5. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. who had used me so hardly. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. for giving up so weakly. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. differing from comedy. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. to consider of this. and introducing a greater variety of characters. I think. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. a implora grieved amărât. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. or tear* it out of my writing. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. for there it is never properly introduced. O my treacherous*. în consecinţă to tear (tore. only dangerous attacks! After all. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. intrigă plainly în mod deschis.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. thy whole self. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*.
as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. arises from the surprising absurdity. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. therefore. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura.Reader burlesque kind. or e converso*. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. what Caricatura is in painting. Burlesque is in writing. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. is more surprising. yet when it comes from vanity only. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. which this is not intended to be. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. to the degree he would be thought to have it. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. Indeed. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. not men. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. though. than when from vanity. as they proceed* from very different motives. Now. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. yet. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. if we examine it. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. and. and consequently more ridiculous. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. […] Now. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. that. which that of the hypocrite hath. and where our delight. or hath not the virtue he affects. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. And here I shall observe. it be nearly allied to deceit*. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. in order to purchase* applause. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. It may be likewise noted.
: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. cu stângăcie. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. fig. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. tend* only to raise our mirth*. But for not being what they would be thought*. of our pity. which at first moved our compassion. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. smaller faults. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e.
and that I fly off* from what I am about. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. I fear. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. I wish I had been born in the Moon.7. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into.Reader TEXT 5. the merit of which has all along. nefericit TEXT 5. Laurence Sterne. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. not for want of penetration* in him. a izbuti. with reverence be it spoken*. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. as you observe. which. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. Tristram Shandy (Vol.6. Gentleman. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain.I. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. two contrary motions are introduced into it. to annoy ungracious răutăcios. on my conscience. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. – not but the planet is well enough*. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. in a digression. and it is progressive too. my work is digressive. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. dirty planet of ours. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. – and at the same time. In a word. Laurence Sterne. povară signal însemnat. or expected indeed. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. been overlooked* by my reader. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. and reconciled. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself.
in general. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. one wheel within another*. the soul of reading. from the beginning of this. bids* All hail*. what’s more. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade.Reader Digressions. you see. – they are the life. restore them to the writer. that the whole machine. has been kept agoing. For which reason. This is vile work*. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. you might as well take the book along with them. then there is an end of his digression. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. his whole work stands stock-still*. brings in variety. – take them out of this book for instance. incontestably. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. and if he goes on with his main work. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. are the sunshine. whose distress*. from that moment. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . but also of the author. in this matter. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. is truly pitiable*: For. and forbids the appetite to fail. I observe. – and. if he begins a digression. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. cum trebuie.
a alina. propped* on that rude* staff*. Or hers. devout (evlavios. chid: to rebuke. a boy. a mângâia) TEXT 6.1. cerşetor train alai. hoinar. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. George Crabbe. cortegiu şir chid to chide. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. to scold (a dojeni. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. Then his first joy. but his sad emblem now. Or theirs. passing rich trecând drept bogat. nor wished to change his place. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Deserted Village A man he was. Who. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. and ask if peace be there. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. Unpracticed he to fawn*. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. modelat. look within. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. Oliver Goldsmith. or seek for power. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. to all the country dear. He chid* their wanderings*. Nor e’er* had changed.2. the matron* pale. croit to prize a preţui. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. distant godly pious. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. he climbed the loftiest bough*. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. Go.
the large ambitious wish To make them blest. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . What wonder then that health and virtue. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt.4. simple. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. With all the social offspring of the heart*. unconfined*.) gentle nobil. Inflames imagination. ales. to elevate. As varied. părinte offspring vlăstar. rezemat rude rudimentary. jalnic. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. o’er over to exalt to raise. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. chief*. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. to stimulate.3. coarse. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. and as high: Devotion. James Thomson. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. The love of Nature. sprijinit. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. linişte. nenorocit hearth vatră. generos ease tihnă. The Task (1785) God made the country. and.Reader ye you (pl. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. urmaş feeble plăpând. and man made the town. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. William Cowper. Of human race. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. pace smooth calm. sorbitură grove crâng. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying.
leapt: a sări.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. a înlănţui. William Blake. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. Softest clothing. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. not violent (blajin. cuminte. a ţâşni. piping* loud. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. bound: a lega strâns.5. and he is mild*. and bid thee feed*. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. a închide weary tired. supus) mild gentle. Little Lamb.Reader TEXT 6. Gave thee such a tender voice. Gave thee clothing of delight. my father wept*. wooly* bright. gentle and uncomplaining (blând. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. Helpless. Striving against my swaddling bands*. Little Lamb. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. Little Lamb. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . God bless thee. I’ll tell thee. to groan a geme. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. Struggling in my father’s hands. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. God bless thee. Bound* and weary*. We are called by his name. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud.6. William Blake. naked. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb.
to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. My heart is at rest* within my breast. And then go home to bed. “Then come home my children. Where I used to play on the green. William Blake. bore. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6.Reader TEXT 6. green pajişte verde at rest calm. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. a sălta. And every thing else is still. for it is yet day. That so many sweet flowers bore*.” “Well. Besides.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie. go and play till the light fades away*.7. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. come leave off play. let us play.” “No. in the sky the little birds fly. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. So I turned to the Garden of Love. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. the sun is gone down. And we cannot go to sleep. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind.8. William Blake. And the hills are all covered with sheep. no. And laughing is heard on the hill. Come. And I saw it was filled with graves*. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. well. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. tranquil. And the dews* of night arise.
And the Angel told Tom. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. Then down a green plain leaping. weep. if he'd be a good boy. and shine in the Sun. they run.Reader TEXT 6. Joe. Then come home. laughing. Then naked and white. Though the morning was cold. They rise upon clouds. William Blake. and in soot* I sleep. and sport* in the wind.9. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. William Blake. And your winter and night in disguise. and that very night. There’s little Tom Dacre. the sun is gone down. freamăt dale vale. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. My face turns green* and pale. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. Tom. So if all do their duty. And the dews of night arise. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. all their bags left behind. And wash in a river. Dick.” And so he was quiet. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. and we rose* in the dark. they need not fear harm. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. Ned and Jack.10. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. whisperings şoapte. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. my children. foşnet. Tom was happy and warm. As Tom was a-sleeping. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. for when your head's bare. never mind it. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. a irosi TEXT 6. weep. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. And so Tom awoke. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. with wands* as white as snow. Then cherish* pity. And because I am happy and dance and sing. a se deştepta TEXT 6. but multitudes of lambs.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. potoleşte-te.12. în preajmă to sport a zburda. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. alături. And smiled among the winter’s snow. Grey-headed beadles* walked before. hornar sold to sell. They think they have done me no injury*. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. The hum* of multitudes was there. And taught me to sing the notes of woe.11. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. Because I was happy upon the heath*. O what a multitude they seemed. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. William Blake. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets).Reader chimney sweeper coşar. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. They clothed me in the clothes of death. their innocent faces clean. William Blake. Beneath them sit the aged men. risen): a se scula. Crying “weep*. coşciug by aproape. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. wise guardians of the poor. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . The children walking two and two in red and blue and green.
ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Babe can never hunger there. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. And their ways are filled with thorns*. It is eternal winter there. a goni TEXT 6.13. soft. rece. a iubi) lest ca să nu. Nor poverty the mind appal*. re-built th in the late 17 century. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. And where-e’er the rain does fall. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. the 40 day after Easter.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. For where-e’er* the sun does shine. fruitful fecund. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. fertil. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. neroditor thorn spin. who helped the priest in various ways. sterp. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. lugubru bare gol. William Blake. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. and to the Last Judgement.
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