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Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III
SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH LITERATURE
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature
Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării
ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading
9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i
2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
4.2.4. 3. 3. 18.104.22.168.3.5. 22.214.171.124.5. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton.3. 2. 3.2. 2.3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4. 126.96.36.199.8.2.2. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3.3. 4. 2. 188.8.131.52.4.1. 4.Contents 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11. 2.1. 18.104.22.168. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.3. 4.2.1. 3.5.6. 3. 3.1. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.2. 3.2.4. 3. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 3.1. 22.214.171.124.2. 3. 4. 2.1.1. 3. 3.1. 4.1. 4.3.2. 3. 126.96.36.199.
2.2.2. 5.3. 5.3. 4. 188.8.131.52. 4.4.3. 5.1. 5. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.3. 5. 184.108.40.206.2. 4.4.4. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168.2.6.2. 5.4. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.4. 4. 5. 4.1. 5. 4. 22.214.171.124.4.4. 5. 5. 126.96.36.199.1. 5.1. 4. 5.5.2. 5. 188.8.131.52.4.4. 4. 5.1. 5.3. Gulliver. 184.108.40.206.Contents 4.2. 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 4. 126.96.36.199.6.3.3. 5. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.2.3.3. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5.
6. 6. 6.3.1. 188.8.131.52.4. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake. 6.4. 6.2.4. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.1.4.4. 184.108.40.206. 6. 6.3. 6. 220.127.116.11.3.7.3.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No.2. 6.1.2. 6.4. 6. 6.2. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.6. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 6. 18.104.22.168.2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 6. The Seasons William Cowper.2.4. 6.2.2. 6.
and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. Milton. Blake. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. 3. by encouraging your response to particular texts. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. In this way. Course objectives As already mentioned. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . a carrier of values. among others). Being concerned with aspects of literary history. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. 2. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. Fielding. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. Defoe.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. Swift. Before starting your study. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories.
a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. in its turn. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs).lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. and a Gallery of personalities. Neoclassicism. Besides them. a Glossary. as part of your overall assessment. the Augustan Age. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors. the Restoration. in a given text. identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. characterisation. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. • 4.g. By the end of your study of this course. a list of key words. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style.g. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. Each unit. the Baroque.
H. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. Defoe. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. the epic poem Paradise Lost. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism.1. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. as well as major representatives. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. Richardson. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. S. The variety of these learning tasks will. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives. They appeal not only to your memory. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. and Augustan satire.Introduction 4. Fielding and L. hopefully. and with the evolution of this genre. and to draw your own conclusions. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). Sterne –. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. with main focus on Jonathan Swift. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. • 4.2.
4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. in the literary text you were asked to work on. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. with the typological definition of a work. etc. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. characterisation. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself.3. stylistic features.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. if the case may be. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. and. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. symbolic elements. narrative technique. etc. the title of a work. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. etc. line. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. 4.. an author’s work. at the end of the unit. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below). summarise its argument. fragment) • complete sentences.
which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). will also appear in Units 5 and 6. • Further reading. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. at the end. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. for the Great Chain of Being*. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6. in Unit 1. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. but the phrase of which that word is part.3. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains. not just Being. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. with the pages where you may find relevant information. other instruments meant to assist your study. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources.4.Introduction 4. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit. you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained.3. Some terms may recur in several units. if necessary or desired. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. Thus. the term Enlightenment.1. For example. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit. For instance. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information.1. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 . Sometimes. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order).
SAA no. and 6. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks.5. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. this should not take you too much time. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. In any case. 5. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. try to read each fragment more than once.lIntroduction 4. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. As the texts are not very long.2 will cover units 4 and 5. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. The table below represents the place. difficult. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. before you start solving the task. 5. while SAA no. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. especially the poetry texts. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. the number of tasks.
50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. however. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions. 6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings.2 SAA no. and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. half of the answer is already contained in the question. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. If your level of proficiency is lower.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. clarity. Most of the time. whose reading may take you some extra time. • the coherence. the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. 2. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). 2. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. 1. your course work may take you more time. You may. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. 3. Of these hours. theoretically. As in the case of the SAQs. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included).1 SAA no. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below).Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. 6. 1. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. If you have no possibility to type your assignment.
as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. 5.2 SAA no. At the end of Units 3.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time. Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. together. which you must write and send to your tutor. as 40% of the final grade.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. The three assignments will count. there are SAAs. whose content follows a chronological line. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. respectively. as well as a list of suggested further reading. list of key words. and gallery of personalities). along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. representative authors. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. according to a pre-established schedule. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). a revision of the course material. glossary. It is structured in six units of study.3 3 3 8 SAA no. of the evolution of literary genres. and 6. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. forms and styles. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text.
2.3. 1.1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 . 22.214.171.124. 1.1. 1. 1.1. 1.4.1. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52.5.2.1. 1.1.5. 1. 1. 1. 1.4.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.4.
seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. The rise. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1.1. obscurantism and intolerance. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. attitudes and practices. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. as well as the faith in progress. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. in the latter part of the 17th century. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries.1.1. 10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . mentalities. 1. literature. marked the entrance into modernity. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”. philosophy. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. as the Enlightenment is often described. which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688. The gradual achievement of political stability. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. of the Enlightenment. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. a powerful flourishing nation. religion. at the end of this period. science.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society. social and economic life. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. Political. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason.
a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. in a systematic effort. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought.” 1. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age. and it was essentially optimistic. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. under the patronage of Charles II. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. the “universal Architect. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. in 1662. This new faith – Deism.1. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*. The Royal Society endeavoured. in particular. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. to reconcile Reason and Faith. which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. or Natural Religion –. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe. The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science.2. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach.
in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. Read the statements below and identify the true ones.4.1. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. the central concern of the Enlightenment. to superstition and obscurantism. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. the Enlightenment. The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature. the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth.3. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries. but also affective and instinctual.1. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. T F 3. The growing spirit of individualism. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. The poet Alexander Pope indicated. Circle T (true) or F (false). T F 2. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. T F 5. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. T F 4. 1. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*. 1. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. continued the project of the Renaissance. for each sentence. appropriately.
that the notion of reading public emerges now. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts.2. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. in the orbit of the crown. It is significant. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance.1. with little or no classical knowledge.4. After 1688. It was the main focus of literary attention. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. and both writers and audiences were. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. T F 8. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. at the end of the unit. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. for proportion.1. to 1. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. in one way or another. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view.1. symmetry.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. for instance. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. regularity. the decrease in the power of the Crown. read again subchapters. 1. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition. including readers of more modest education. The division into Elizabethan. T F 7. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false.
” started in the late 17th century. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. …… c. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. 2. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics. Complete each sentence in the provided space. Molière)…… d.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. Jean Racine. above all. …the Augustan Age. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. The Court was the main source of influence…… b. Racine. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. Much of Renaissance literature. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. a. Molière. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. Corneille. Pierre Corneille. This reflects. during the Augustan Age*. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them.
In parallel. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). tight logical coherence and striking imagery. Alexander Pope. Andrew Marvell. It favoured conciseness. you need to revise subchapter 1. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. concentration. in its various forms – the song*. which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. the pastoral* lyric. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). 4. at the end of the unit. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. If you have failed to make the right match. The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. original or translated epics. George Herbert. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . Other lyric forms endured: the ode. A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. …addressed itself to learned readers. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. for instance. Robert Herrick). or religion and politics – John Milton. The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. the ode*. …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. John Dryden (in the former). by the Romantic poets. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. Thomas Carew.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. 1.2. James Thomson. and it made extensive use of wit. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century.g. They approached other themes besides love: e. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. religious faith – John Donne. acquainted with the great classical authors and works.3. Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. 1. a new appreciation of older poetic forms. If there should be major differences between them. comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century.3. revise subchapter 1. 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In little more than half a century (1580-1642).4. at the end of the unit. It was the only form of literature which. some of them of popular origin (the song. the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). together with their most outstanding representatives. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). In the following units of this course. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. through its representation on stage. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. in the space left below.
Of the Caroline playwrights. built around the theme of revenge. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. tragi-comedy. and the rhetorical manner. pastoral drama. The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. In such plays. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. murder. etc. On the whole. in Paradise Lost. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. 1. with the restoration of monarchy. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642.1. 1614). 1605-6). with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. was a miniature of the English society. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse.4. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. Unlike Senecan plays. masque*. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. historical drama. while others changed. They were generally. with its audience arranged according to rank. is the most gifted.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. In 1660. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. 1607). rape. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. the sensational plot. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. 1633). drama witnessed a decline. fascinating through unbounded ambition. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. sensational and macabre. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. play-houses were reopened. but destroys himself along with his enemies. Milton’s Satan. daring and wit. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. the wronged hero plans revenge. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. treachery. From Senecan tragedy. insanity.
Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. in the last period of creation. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). and 1.2. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. or The Silent Woman (1609). but. If you have failed to identify the true statements. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. T F 7. identifying the four true ones. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. Epicoene. Volpone (1606).4.4. the satirical comedy. the hierarchy of English society. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy.4. T F 3. or at least tinged with bitterness. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . though each in a different way. His best plays. T F 4. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. T F 2. in miniature. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. 1. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. T F 6. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. Milton’s Satan. read the following statements. centred on the theme of love. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). T F 5. at the end of the unit. 1. read again subchapters 1.1. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. For each sentence. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy. reflecting. with its noble characters. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. in Paradise Lost. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. his comedies become darker.
but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. a stylish and sophisticated world. The School for Scandal.g. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. John Gay. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies.4. The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality. and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). Heroic plays.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. In The Rehearsal (1671). Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism. 1722). for instance. George Villiers. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance.4. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. Henry Fielding). 1773). There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. She Stoops to Conquer. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . 1769). Restoration comedy presented an elegant society. and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals. Under the influence of French tragedies. or The Mistakes of a Night. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. were a passing extravagance. but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain.g. 1777). Duke of Buckingham. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. too. 1665. with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. 1768. in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728). The Conquest of Granada. but serious drama declined during the 18th century. who demanded models of virtue and decency. 1775.4. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. 1669-70). Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man.3. of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1.
4. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2. to 1. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.4. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below. revise subchapters 1. together with their most outstanding representatives.4. If there should be major differences between them. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.
5. 1612. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose). prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. The development of an aphoristic style*. in political tracts and pamphlets. displaying a variety of styles.1. the universal language of the Renaissance. deliberately artificial and intricate. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . a precious and highly ornate language. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. blending concision with wit. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity.5. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678). another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. on clarity and rationality. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. More and more. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. religious writings are particularly important. Later in the century. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. weaknesses. with its trials. Here. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. philosophical and theological writings. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. the essay* proved the most flexible. temptations. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose. Gradually.
To these must be added the character. Milton’s Areopagitica. biographies (Izaak Walton. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). The same encyclopaedic. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. letters. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. which analyses the constitution of human society. another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. “The Religion of a Doctor.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). pamphlets* (e. William Prynne’s Histriomastix. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. of remarkable precision and force. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period.g. a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*. unadorned style. diaries (John Evelyn.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. executed in a witty. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). Like drama. Anatomies were monuments of learning. the biography as an emerging prose genre. Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. 1666). aphoristic style. etc. In the 17th century. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. Samuel Purchas). This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. Samuel Pepys). with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality.
obscurantism and intolerance. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. between which there is continuity. If there should be major differences between them. modern science was born. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . you will learn more about the periodical essay. read again subchapters 1.1. Within these two centuries. A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. these two centuries correspond.5. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. as well as the faith in progress.5. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. Culturally. Within these two centuries. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century. more carefully. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4.. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. at the end of the unit. and 1. roughly. the image of the universe was changed. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words.
burlesque: the exaggerated imitation.-14 A. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. used to express observations of general truth. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. however. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public. predominantly middle-class. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. It is.D. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. Ovid. a slow transition took place. noble and heroic characters. blank verse: unrhymed verse. which are reduced to the comically trivial.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry.). drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period. elevated style. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. of serious action. From a literary point of view. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . in a caricatural spirit.C. often by means of paradox.
which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. anti-fanaticism.C. social and moral thought. the folk tradition. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. • classical revival: the intellectual. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). individual liberty. Thomas Jefferson. social contract. artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. widely used in all ages. legend. Montesquieu. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. John Locke. David Hume (Britain). and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. civil rights. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. or from history. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age.): “Man is the measure of all things”. Tolerance. Diderot (France). Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. natural law. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). until 1660. pragmatism. illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history.e. In a broader sense. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity. • essay: a prose composition of varying length.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom. Concepts like human rights. anti-obscurantism. Rousseau. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Voltaire. when it was restored. humanism.
involving elaborate dialogue. the marginal sections of society. ode: an extended lyric poem. an idea.) are the great ancient models for English writers.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. in harmony with nature. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. often of an allegorical nature. solemn style. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . encouraging a personal experience of conversion. Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. decorative art. and harmony of classical art. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. restraint. from the Creation to the Ascension.). painting and sculpture.C. a person or an object. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B.C. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful.C. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. spectacular scenic effects. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. It addressed itself to the poor. In English literature. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). of spiritual regeneration by grace. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. uncorrupted life. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. James II Stuart. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. who was a Catholic. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France. simple. sumptuous costumes and settings. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. singing and dancing. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. In architecture. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event.
Shakespeare. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. Philip Sidney. Tasso (Italy). and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Machiavelli. Boccaccio. in the 16th and 17th centuries. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. John Vanbrugh. of America. its limits are less well defined. thus. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. Restoration: historically. The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). selected according to genre and subject. It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. Sir Charles Sedley. Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. favoured the growth of individualism. “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. Francis Bacon (England). which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. William Wycherley. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. romance or the novel. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. in their view. Edmund Spenser. From a literary point of view. Lope de Vega.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. effort. especially their work ethics. Duke of Buckingham. Thomas More. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. centred on integrity. it had not fully reformed itself. Pico della Mirandola. tone. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. of the rebirth of learning. Ariosto. Sir George Etherege. the sense of purpose. industry. which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). Leonardo da Vinci. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. which opened the modern era. Cervantes (Spain). poetic diction: a term that. 1492). on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. style – used by a poet. by Columbus. 27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Raphael. of the expansion of education. Their beliefs and convictions. for the Neoclassic writers. Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. it overlaps with the Augustan Age.g.
The assertion of the self. fluids) of the body (blood. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. Amoretti. Edmund Spenser. Ben (1572-1637): dramatist. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. Astrophil and Stella. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. the founder of modern rationalist materialism.C. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. and with the French Revolution (1789). surprising associations. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. The tradition survived into the 18th century. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. phlegmatic. orator. with or without musical accompaniment. He started his literary career as a playwright. as well as an unfinished utopia. The New Atlantis (published in 1627). it meant intelligence or wisdom. and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. according to a dominating inclination or passion. 1591. Sometimes.e. The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. in which the characters act. During the Renaissance.): Roman statesman. Cicero. poet and scholar. Jonson. with various rhyme patterns. the four “humours” (i. 1591-1595). yellow bile – or choler. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. two fine examples of comedy of humours. and a writer. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. song: a poem composed for singing. phlegm. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. He was also an eminent statesman. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. independently of circumstances. philosopher and writer. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects.
writer and statesman.C.D. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). For Hobbes. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition. It is fear of death. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. greatly influenced by Hobbes.D. religion. or the Matter. for instance. unlike that of Hobbes. the latter. the instinct of self-preservation. Italian poet and humanist. Hobbes. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. According to him. Newton. besides the Characters. Locke studied medicine. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. His political philosophy. mathematician. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 . the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. economics. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. Locke. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. ethics.): Roman historian and statesman. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). in a kind of social contract. Man. politics.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. author. Tacitus.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. Seneca. made important discoveries in the field of optics. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist.): Roman philosopher. which was central to Enlightenment thought.-65 A. whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. Theophrastus (372-287 B. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. astronomer and philosopher. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher.C. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. Lucius Annaeus (4 B.
6. John Gay Further reading 1. 6. 7-49) 3. Milton. d. Marvell satire: Dryden. Donne. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Herbert. The English Eighteenth Century.T.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance. Luminiţa Elena. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.2. Collins.3. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Sir George Etherege. Carew.F. artificial.). Blake the ode: Marvell. 7. Herrick. Pope.F. Ioan-Aurel (ed. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. Sir George Sedley.T.T. William Wycherley. the sonnet: Shakespeare. . Turcu.T.T. 8. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. b.T.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. Goldsmith. Duke of Buckingham. Fielding.1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1. 2. Cowley. Marvell.F. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. 3. 4.T SAQ 2 a. Thomson. 3.T. 2003 (pp.F. c. The Literature of the Beginnings. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers. 2003 (pp. Preda. 1983 (pp. 5. Milton the pastoral: Milton. 5. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. Dryden. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. Macsiniuc. 9-32) 2. Cornelia. 4. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Editura Universităţii Suceava. English Literature and Civilisation. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson.4. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. there was a tendency towards simplicity. Pope. Dryden. John Vanbrugh). Goldsmith. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate.T. precision. 2. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele.
184.108.40.206. 2.1. 2. 220.127.116.11.3.2.2. 2. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .2.2. 2.1.8. 2.2. 2. 2. 2.10.3. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius.1.2. 2. 18.104.22.168.2.2.6. 2. 2.5. 2.3. 22.214.171.124.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2.2.1. 2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs.3.3.7. 2.1.4. 2. 2.12. 126.96.36.199. 2.3.
The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. In the late Renaissance. Christopher Marlowe*. during whose reign England developed into a strong. Philip Sydney*.1. stable and modern state. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. The former expansiveness. with its sense of confidence and optimism. Under Queen Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order. to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. anxiety and even pessimism. well-ordered universe. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. to scepticism. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. The vision of a harmonious.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2. wisdom and madness. In lyric poetry. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. the spectacular and the sumptuous. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. reason and superstition. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys. irony and ambiguity. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit. to the macabre. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. but also to pomp. on which the “show” of life must end. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. with its abundance of bloody deaths. Although very diverse. both in its themes and motifs.1. life and death. The unexpected. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. and in its dramatic conception. St. splendour. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. of confusing or transgressing limits. striking imagery. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. with the tendency of breaking proportions. grandeur.1. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. and. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. refinement and cruelty. for excess.2. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. proportion and symmetry. its sense of form. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. in literature. The Renaissance cult of rational order. and not properly forming a “school.1. sensualism and mysticism. or the world as stage. the extensive use of paradox.
at the end of this unit. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. R: confidence. sense of form B: 4. read again the preceding subchapters. classical balance. King Lear. Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. optimism. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. The Tempest. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. you will be acquainted. R: cult for order and symmetry. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. In the following two subchapters. If there should be major differences. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. respectively.
gratitude and ingratitude. Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. Shakespeare’s genius. They are always credible. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. search for truth. his deep understanding of humanity. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. aspirations and interests. rendered accurately in their poetic truth. friendship. moral attitudes. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. According to the dramatic necessity. among other features. A wide range of feelings. devotion. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. sometimes even trivial. craftsmen or servants. In Shakespeare’s whole work. loyalty and betrayal. Italian. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. to the prose speech of simple folk. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. in plain. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. medieval and contemporary sources – English. from the variety of his work. His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. all mastered with supreme art. jealousy. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. and a culmination of its literary art. In his last period of creation (1608-1611).” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. so that it displays a similar variety. which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. Othello (1604). sublime or burlesque. hate. King Lear and Macbeth (1605). there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). conflicts. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. motifs and imagery.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. romantic or trivial. language. states of mind.2. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). envy. or periods of creation. etc. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. and French. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. struggle for power.
SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness. as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. basically. If they should differ significantly. In these plays. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . common in the Renaissance.2. 2. His romance plays. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. with the restoration of order. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. between truth and falsehood. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order.1. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. read again the preceding subchapter. with the effects of evil on innocence.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. but they deal.
that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. and with the immense burden of revenge. In another scene. with a poisoned sword. he kills Polonius. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England. when Fortinbras. During the play. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. all the main protagonists find their death. he has the occasion to kill Claudius. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. has drowned herself. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story.2. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. old king Hamlet.2. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. Claudius. mistaking him for Claudius. Laertes. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . 2. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. brave. the widow queen. In spite of this bloody outcome. required by his dead father. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. generous and brilliantly intelligent. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection.3. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. takes over the rule of Denmark. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. and continually delays the act of revenge. At one point. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man.2. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. the play ends on a note of hope. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. in the confusions of the final scene. who had really gone mad. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. sensitive and idealistic. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest. Her brother. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. which represents a similar scene of murder. but the plot escapes their control and. Back to the castle. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. the first in this series of masterpieces. a courtier.
4. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. If they should differ significantly. 2. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. is eminently a philosopher’s effort. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. at the end of the unit. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning.2.1. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. SAQ 3 Text 2. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. as well as the indicated fragment. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos. read again the preceding subchapter. In Hamlet’s tormented soul.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which is only partly dissimulated.
5.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. in reality. Edgar. Lear’s own madness. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense.2. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. Goneril and Reagan. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil. which is that of restoring a lost order. unconditionally loving ones. a bastard. the Earl of Gloucester. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. whom he disinherits. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. Maddened with grief.” 2. through paradox. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. both of them prove to be the loyal. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. to believe him a traitor and usurper. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. Cordelia. is also an exile from his own family. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. The earl of Gloucester joins them. is the victim of a staged play of appearances. there is madness in nature itself. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . is closely linked. and. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. the quest for higher meanings. and the Fool’s comments. which helps him endure his suffering. Tragically. on the other hand. like that of blindness. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. as in Hamlet. another “fall of princes” tragedy. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. Hamlet’s introspective. of truth and illusion. which would not undo the past. Edgar. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. of human suffering. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. The motif of madness.
In Othello. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. faithfulness/betrayal. innocence/guilt. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. The noble protagonist. is led by Iago to believe his wife. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). Desdemona.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order. Scene from Othello. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie. In Othello.2. acting against it. unfaithful. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. Evil is that which destroys Nature.6. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity. Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. Othello. essence.
” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action. 1. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland. illusion and truth.2. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. kinsman and guest.2. you need to revise subchapters 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army.2. ____________________ 4. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment.2. The protagonist. arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power. one of Duncan’s sons. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds. “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. underlining the theme of knowledge. ____________________ 2. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. he multiples his crimes. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm. but.6.7. 2. paradoxically. disorder. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth. If any of your solutions should not correspond. The baroque motif of madness is. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. to 2. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. ____________________ 5. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). innocence and corruption. / It weeps. at the instigation of his wife. at the end of the unit. ____________________ 3. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either. who has a trusting nature. it bleeds. Macbeth.
2. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines. extracted from this scene. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. scene 2. read the fragment once more. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. from the Reader. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. Text 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. If there should be significant differences. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. SAQ 5 In Act II. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. / Macbeth does murder sleep. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments.
8. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. Alonzo. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. respectively –. and Sebastian. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. In its opening scene. the choice of a remote setting. After the tragedies. to take his throne. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. the master of an island. is considered the finest. Alonzo. on which he lives alone with his daughter.2. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. owing to the improbability of the action. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. king of Naples.9. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. duke of Milan. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. Three lines of action develop. Miranda. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. the jester. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. as well as other passengers.2. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. the fairy-tale atmosphere. and certain themes and motifs (e. the theme of loss and recovery. The Tempest (1611). and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. The Winter’s Tale. by his powers. They mix serious and comic action. Trinculo. Cymbeline. his faithful spiritservant. involving the shipwrecked characters. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. marvelous. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. of exile and return). the sense of a benevolent providential design. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. who instantly fall in love with each other. 2. who.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. the long journey. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. has turned him into a slave. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius. They may also be described as romance plays. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . myth. the shipwreck.g. a drunken servant. magic. He had long studied the arts of magic. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio.
The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban. influenced by Ariel. 2.e. Caliban Innocence vs. the personification of Prospero’s imagination.10. and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. the scholar-magician. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. Prospero. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation. for the emergence of a regenerated world. and then to Milan. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme.” claiming his throne. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. The theme of power Ariel vs. a “thing of darkness. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. education] can never stick. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. At the opposite pole. the control of intelligence over nature. represents pure spirit. In the final act. On the island. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. more importantly. Ariel. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. but. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. he learns. to master himself. who now repent. and to return to the world in his full humanity. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. now.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). at the end. “neglecting worldly ends.2.
Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit.. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . If there should be major differences. read the fragment again. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. for instance. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. extracted from The Tempest. Here.4. or in developing self-identity. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. scene 2. Act I. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. Full of resentment. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. by teaching him to speak. more carefully.
Another pervading symbol is that of music. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. whose magic art controls every incident. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays. or to impose upon it.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.11. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants.2. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. The playmetaphor. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest. which “delight and hurt not. order and harmony.” The sea-journey Music 2.12. then at least man should strive to discern in it. Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest.2. sublimating its primitive energies. of performance. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
revise subchapters2. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule. in his own way.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. T F 6. If any of your choices should be wrong. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines. except that of terrifying him. of which three are false.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. was first intended to bring discredit on them. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world. You must find them among the following statements. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action.2. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. 2. T F 4. but each of them. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . T F 3.12.2. 1. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. T F 7. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century.9 to 2. Their styles are different. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. T F 5. at the end of the unit. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. T F 2.3. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan.
that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them. as “a combination of dissimilar images. In spite of its logical. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning.1. Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. argumentative quality.e. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i. which starts from a comparison. which helps the poet to develop his subject. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling. but also his reason. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. writers had to face a new exigency. hidden. linked. This is an elaborate figurative device. “More matter and less words” 2. a demand for “more matter and less words. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*. a metaphor or an analogy.3.” A new kind of poetry emerged. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry. By means of conceits. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. a cold intellectual exercise. As extended comparisons. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. and the emotions involved. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. regardless of the subject of the poem. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. The impression is that this experience. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing.e. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. united] by violence together. is contemplated from a certain distance.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. Dr. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence.3. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking.2. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. from a most ordinary circumstance. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. or discovery of occult [i. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime.
and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. and the same realistic force. its decorative use of classical mythology. If they should differ considerably. In the following subchapters.3. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century. pastoral* conventions. Use the space left below. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit. the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 .3. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. and 2. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. and allegory.3.3. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. and a highly original one.1.2. revise subchapters 2. at the end of the unit. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In the treatment of both themes. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits.
and he seems to amuse himself. Donne is highly playful in this poem. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. their love being so great and “refined. in which their blood is now mixed. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. He also suggests sometimes that physical union. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy. which. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. are however harmless to man. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful. Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure.” In fact.4. may afford an experience of the transcendental. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. though greater. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*. The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. but. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. when accompanied by genuine feeling. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal.3.” “tear-floods”). beautiful.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). Chaste. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. as this would be a triple “sin.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes. This is a seduction poem.
in no more than 18 lines / 180 words. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. If they should differ significantly. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader). as well.3. Here. Formulate your answer in the space left below.6. you need to revise subchapter 2. Read the poem again.. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is. paying special attention to the last three stanzas. at the end of the unit. he develops one of his most famous conceits. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 .2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2.
between the need for permanence and the need for variety.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. divine judgement. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. Actually. resurrection and salvation. in the exercise of reason. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. for the divine saving grace. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. In Batter My Heart. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. between idealised passion and erotic desire. Satan. which parallel those in his love poetry. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation.5.3. The insistence on violence and struggle. In his religious meditations in verse. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. These poems usually display contrary impulses. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. of loyalty and betrayal. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. on death. comparable to that of Shakespeare. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy.
representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. As a Puritan* patriot.3. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love.5. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and love of country. and read the poem again. This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone. 2.7. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650).3. nature. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. according to some critics. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words.6. Marvell left. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . from the Reader. In the last six lines. at the end of the unit. Donne suggests his contradictory. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. revise subchapter 2. If there should be significant differences.
Just as the dew-drop is “trembling.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. for fear that it might grow] impure. to change the form of ruling power). is On a Drop of Dew. 2. however. in contrasting colours. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. A natural detail.8.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend. and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature.e. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. shyness] and accept his passionate love. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate. On the other hand.e. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent.e. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. The most illustrative poem. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems. King Charles I Stuart. pictured with remarkable precision. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 . Marvell often sees. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. on the scaffold.3. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history. lest it grow [i. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven. in which both of them act according to a divine order. aspiring to union with almighty God.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun. On a Drop of Dew 2.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. in this respect.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. It is a seduction poem. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry.3. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. He showed a deep love for the countryside. reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind.7.
after revising subchapter 2. If the difference is considerable. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. but…. at the end of the unit. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. more carefully. then (therefore)….8. in its sexual fulfillment. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2.8. read the poem again. Love. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 .3. in the Reader). Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature. which has the structure If…. paying attention to the logic of the argument.
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57
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The late Renaissance and the Baroque
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figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
The late Renaissance and the Baroque
most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural
This instrument. to blend contraries (e. T. 5. the development of conscience.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. 4. of a clean mind. As a truly superior being. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech.e. of his own sense of self. T. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. T. 5. From Caliban’s point of view. Hamlet. King Lear. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban. Othello. 6. 2.g. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. F. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. analytical detachment from emotion 4. Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. concise expression and density of meaning 2. which he resents. passion and reason. 4. King Lear. F. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . even if physically the lovers must be apart. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. endowed with speech. use of conceits (extended comparisons. is a suitable emblem for their souls. the abstract and the concrete. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. He is not a cold-blooded killer. made of two moving legs articulated at one end. 3. 2. etc. surprising associations) 3. unexpected. usually between highly dissimilar elements. 7. F. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. SAQ 7 1.” sleep (i. Hamlet.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. which remain perfectly united. however. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). Hamlet. From Prospero’s point of view. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience.g. Othello. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. which would have enabled him to communicate (e. complicated line of argument. make his purposes known through words). T SAQ 8 1. guided by rational will. 3. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination.
). instead of letting it devour us slowly.). vol. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. 1983 (pp. Ford. 267-283. Further reading 1. Ioan-Aurel (coord. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling. consent and legality. Boris (ed. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. Paradoxically. He loves God. 97-105. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. 34-40. because your charms deserve such praise. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. But I know time is merciless. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. English Literature and Civilisation. Preda. vol. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”). Penguin Books Ltd. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 .” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. 302-305) 3. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin.. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. your virginity will then be worth nothing. 273-287) 2. waiting for her departed lover. since only worms will “enjoy” it. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. 246-249. But. 1969 (pp.. and which would resemble rape. in fact. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 1991 (pp. will long for him. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. I would spend ages in praising every part of your body. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. in the absence of joy. Daiches. however. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. 3. just as the mistress. David. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). A Critical History of English Literature.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy.” which only God can effect.
3.2. 3. 188.8.131.52.3. 3. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11.1.2. 3. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3. 3. 3. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton. 3. 3.4. 3. 3. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. 18.104.22.168. 3.5. 3.5. 3.1. 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3.3.4.
theology. the greatest epic poem in English literature. the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. written in English and in Latin. etc. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. After that. Paradise Lost. religious and civil debates of his age. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country.). mathematics. Milton. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. In 1638. such as education. he studied Latin. music. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. At Cambridge (1625-1629). as a publicist. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. etc. he continued to read intensively. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. he went on a trip to Italy. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. the freedom of the press. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State.g. baroque* vision. politics. His enormous learning. religion. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. as well as his moral inflexibility. rhetoric and the great works of the classics. geography. he approached a diversity of subjects. family. the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. Greek and Hebrew.
which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist.2. However. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. his political hopes ended. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. On the other hand. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. As a poet. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance. 3. with its pastoral delights. for instance. In the Sixth elegy. like a priest. However. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes.1. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. In some of them. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. As in other poems.” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. etc. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. is in touch with divine secrets. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. but Milton did not complete his plan.2. Ovid*. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. Virgil*. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature.). With the Restoration*. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology.
and on the happiness of rural life. revise subchapters 3. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. c. with its simple pleasures. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. In Il Penseroso. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. In both poems. in his poetic work. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. in Il Penseroso.2. b. c. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. If your choices should be wrong. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music. of classical erudition with biblical themes. the integration. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. the crowing of the cock. 2. The secular* pleasures of common life. there is a strong emphasis on music. polyphonic sounds of the organ. and 3. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. to master a variety of styles.” contemplative mood. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. c. b. in L’Allegro. 1.e. 3. b.1. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. Milton’s literary ambition was a. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. at the end of the unit. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. In each poem. In the latter.
2. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. or occasional and complimentary compositions. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose. uses again the pastoral frame. again. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. Irrespective of their nature. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. Milton composed another poem in which. to fresh woods and pastures new. in a heavenly pastoral world. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. The death of the dedicated young man.3. preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3.The works of John Milton 3. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. personal manner.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. The elegy Lycidas.2. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long. not on earth. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist.
The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . In Sonnet XVII. light denied?”). that.” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. who carry out the divine his daughters will. in 1652. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. he must admit. as King of Heaven. but of God’s eternal will.” By this time. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness.3. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. When he wrote Sonet XVII. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. To prevent such a complaint. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). he admits.3. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). since. but also by Christian humility. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. In the first part of the sonnet. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised.” “mean or high” as it may be.” that they are “timely happy spirits”. written in 1631. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness. Milton meditates on his loss of sight. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. patiently. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays. i.1.e. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. angels). Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”).2. but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise.The works of John Milton 3. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”). confessing his temptation to ask. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. He has reached the age of twenty four. As a Christian poet. with a certain sadness. Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work.” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*. he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. at his age. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour.
If there should be significant differences. at the end of the unit. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). respectively. in the Reader). What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure. when he was already blind. and 3. Read these sonnets (Texts 3. Dante* –.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer.4. and of leaving to posterity an undying work. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation. 3. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with.3.1. Virgil. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2.2. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. and the two sonnets. read again subchapter 3. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and he worked at it over several years.
” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . in fact. the creation of the world and of man. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. and his loss of Paradise. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. in theme a daring. etc. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. accumulated throughout his life. man’s temptation and fall into sin.e. he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. of Lucifer* from Heaven. He interprets poetically the biblical events. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels. Starting from the dualism good/evil. His work is encyclopaedic.4. brought about by his disobedience. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning.1. predestination*. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time.” full of the bitterness of defeat. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner. over the years.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition. Finally. Milton’s ambition was. which is never ornamental. “to justify the ways of God to men. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. but his erudition.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. are gathered to listen to Satan. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven. obedience and rebellion. Milton had thought. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist.” forever deprived of the glory. 3. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. in which man’s fall. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. knowledge and ignorance/innocence.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. original epic scenario. The “lost Archangel. as he stated in the opening Invocation. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven.
explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. surpass] hellish hate.The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i.e. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. death and resurrection. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. God. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. Pandemonium*. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God. i. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party. and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king.” Meanwhile.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. and their discussions are rendered in Book II.4. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i. to seek the newly created Earth. 3. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. Satan. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. cunning]. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. set him free from sin. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace.2. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world.e. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. by virtue of his leading position.e. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. whose setting is in Heaven. Chaos and Chance. and he flies away.
The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall. What is God’s argument. at the end of the unit. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 . Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. more carefully. in the Reader. If there should be major differences.4. read again the text. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words.
the angel Raphael. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world.4. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V.3. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels. space]” left by the fallen angels. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . that cannot change]. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. so that he may know more about his enemy. In Book VIII.The works of John Milton 3.4.e. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan. Adam admits that. instigated by Lucifer. sweetness. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. in Milton’s poem. with her “absolute” loveliness and grace. not immutable [i.” Raphael leaves them. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. Satan.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. not before repeating his warning. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. King Anointed*”. innocence and “virgin modesty. in order to prolong his guest’s visit. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember. and. sent by God.4. in Book VII. and fear to transgress!” 3. as this diminished W. It is interesting that. the “divine historian. Adam is grateful to Raphael. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created.e. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. In Milton’s interpretation.” Man himself was created as a “better race.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being. after the defeat of the rebel angels.” to fill in the “vacant room [i. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions.” for the evocation of the making of the world. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence.
7.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. in the Reader presents. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. at the end of the unit. W. and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. through Raphael’s words. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . more carefully. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below. in no more than 10 lines/100 words. A Prophecy. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. read the fragment again. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe.
her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. W. suspicion. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown.5. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. and. At last. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her.4. discord” – which make reason and will helpless. for a moment. the “subtlest [i. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise. most subtle*] beast of all the field. Meanwhile. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. The “calm region” of their state of mind. is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . their inward the fall on Nature peace.The works of John Milton 3. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. hate / Mistrust. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. the thundering skies weep.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent.e.
_______ b. but. The world after the Fall In the next books. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. in the middle of this speech. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space. which will bring her close to the condition of God. as God himself predicts: His Son. hoping to arouse her pride. they taste its fruit. _______ d. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death.4. annihilate Sin and Death. Match these sentences with the fragment. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude.6. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. _______ c. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan. at the end of the unit.” is the one who will. in which these moves are illustrated. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. at the end of each sentence. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . on a separate sheet. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. at last. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis. 3. _______ e. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes.” _______ g. If any of your matches should be wrong. but he also adds symbolic episodes. He flatters Eve. He denigrates God. or fragments.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge. Satan’s victory seems complete. He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. a. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. _______ f.8.
who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. his suffering. God consents. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. death. from man’s own vices – violence. In Book X. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. redemption*: Jesus. pride. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. but of sadness. through Christ. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future. combining thus justice with mercy. – to the hostility of Nature. faith and good deeds. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. intemperance. etc. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The certainty that. and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations. evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. In Book XI.” founded on love. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. but Michael comforts him.
at the end of the unit. read the fragment again. more carefully. If they should differ in major points. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin. however. It may be argued.9.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero. 3.5. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. which they fully assume. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 .
One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. and his great ambition is “to reign. made happy in their innocent love. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power.The works of John Milton 3. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell.5. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. he naturally assumes the role of a leader. which is itself a paradise. Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. he had been the first Archangel. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting.e. where there is “neither joy nor love. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. From the beginning of the poem. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell.1. Over a century after the poem’s publication. In Hell. Before his fall.
5. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness.2.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. and “out of good still to find means of evil.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word.” seeming reasonable and true. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction. It is with “high words.The works of John Milton 3. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent. As God’s absolute antagonist. the destroyer of faith. Awakening in man the impulse to question. The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 . but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions. It is also with “persuasive* words. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil. Satan is The Tempter.” He is “the author of all ill. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. Satan.
“A mind not to be changed by time or place. “and “The mind is its own place. in Hell.3. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell.) B.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. and read the indicated fragment again. and 3. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero.5.2.. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. Read the whole fragment carefully. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words.1. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. If there are significant differences.5.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. revise subchapters 3. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 .” “our general mother. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. As a humanist. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. Created in God’s image. in Book XII.” “mother of human race. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. In his last conversation with Michael.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind.” but also “our credulous mother. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. deprived of worth. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. but armed with the wisdom of faith. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity.e.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification. precursor]. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge.” “Our Author. the titanic dimension of his suffering. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that.5. of understanding and accepting his limits. but W. Satan’s torments in Hell.” “Patriarch of Mankind. Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically.The works of John Milton 3. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them. Adam is called Sire* of Men. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. but as a consequence of their wrong choices. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan.” “Our great Progenitor [i. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. As a Christian. but who can hope for redemption*. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. ancestor.3. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair.
you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. Subchapter 3. the Nativity Ode. he prepared himself for it during long years. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the pastoral elegy Lycidas. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes. in no more than 8 lines/80 words.2. one of the greatest English poets. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. If there should be major differences. Summary In this unit. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War.5. in the Reader. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. a necessary part of His design. Read this fragment and summarise its argument. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies.
Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues. Subchapter 3. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition.3. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision. put in the service of evil.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost. the creation of the world and of man. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. Subchapter 3. however. at any time. his courage and majesty. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. Undoubtedly. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. but also in which man may. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. presented in subchapter 3. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. which are. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell.5. his love of freedom. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 .4. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology.
difficult to detect (or analyse). clever in using tricks. to a place of wild confusion. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday.-17 A. foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). Sire: a respectful term of address.C. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. to cause to believe). Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. The word may refer. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses. predestination: from a theological point of view. It may also mean cunning. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all.C. It means “the carrier of light. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. the “great and good redeemer” (i. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. In classical literature. 800 B. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. he is called Satan. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.e. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. noise and chaos. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. suffering and death of Christ. Italian poet. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. subtle: not immediately evident. not concerned with or related to religion. formerly used when speaking to a king. or some tragic event. every. Homer: Greek poet (c. pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. by extension. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. to convince. Roman poet.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone.e. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1. Providence: God’s kindness. ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. author of La Divina Commedia. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation.). Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. the one who sets man free from sin).D. Purgatory and Paradise.” After the fall from Heaven.). secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred).
one of the greatest Roman poets.1. A revision of subchapter 3. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). Texts 2.C. At the beginning of Book IV. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer.2. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2.2.5. Text 3. It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit. what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition.3. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3.4. before the final battle. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul. and the last paragraph of 2. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death..).The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B. with special attention to the indicated subchapters. in which he explores his inner hell.. at the end of the play. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest. 2.6.1. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition. 1. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. and thus of destroying man. God’s creation. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. In both of them. and 2. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve. in Milton’s Paradise Lost. • Read attentively this fragment. romantic in The Tempest –. Send-away assignment no.2. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda.
rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3. Milton emphasises the geometrical.. like that of the angels. is thus not attributable to God. the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). SAA no. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). not God.a. or reason. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come.c. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. responsible for his choices.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. The paradox of freedom. is that one may choose right or wrong. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment.e. but the consequence of evil influence. and reason makes man.. 2. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. The implication is that God gave man conscience. The fall of man. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. Created “just and right. • the coherence. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. however. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all.b. Remember that. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose.” In the case of man. clarity. his blindness.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality. The poet places his trust in Providence. i. the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. in grading your paper. since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave).
e. to be dictated by Reason. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). Ioan-Aurel (coord. This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. as God has made him. g. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will. SAQ 5 a. Daiches. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. 2003 (pp. unless he is put in the situation of making choices.e. Paradise is now a forbidden place. faith and love untested. 2. 1. Further reading 1. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints.The works of John Milton Architect”). 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). unless he exercises his will and reason. SAQ 7 1. Incapable of obedience to God.3. 1. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). e. Preda. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . A Critical History of English Literature. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. vol. the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void).4. If God leaves man’s loyalty. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 1969 (pp. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. 435-449) 2. If Hell is a space of freedom. d. b. David. and the image of the terrible gates. Luminiţa Elena. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice. with passive virtue. but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love.). 3. English Literature and Civilisation. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 2. Man is not a free creature. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. i. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission.4. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). c. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. 153-163) 3. The Literature of the Beginnings. 1983 (pp. Turcu. i. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. 2. Editura Universităţii Suceava. f.. 2. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. of human solidarity. under the guidance of Providence. Forced to look ahead.
1.4. Gulliver.2.5. 4.1.4. 4. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.1.2 188.8.131.52. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator. 4.2. 4. 4. 4.2.4. 4.5. 4.7. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.184.108.40.206. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. 4.4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 4. 220.127.116.11. 4. 4.3.3. 4. 4.3. 18.104.22.168.3.2.1. 22.214.171.124.6.1. 4. 4.1. 4. 4. 4.
The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment. addressing itself to an inclusive public. Nature. From a literary point of view.1. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment.1. drama holds a place apart. and their re-opening in 1660. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . Alexander Pope. of increasing rationalism and secularisation. Human nature. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. and. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown. the cast of actors included women. under the influence of French theatres. and Jonathan Swift. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. Unit objectives 4. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. under the patronage of king Charles II. it was a period of transition as well.1. and of considerable diversity. 4. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. clarity and elegant restraint. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art.
lust. adultery. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*. and absolute villains. fashionable manners. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). refinement and sophistication. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. above all. although each in its own way and for different reasons.2. Gallantry. on the other. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. on the one hand. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. or Court Wits. sumptuous costumes.1. The action was usually set in remote. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. jealousy. were essential for the true man of the world. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. both of them highly conventional forms. A certain coarseness of feeling. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. It made fun of the people from the countryside. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. exotic places. and. an artificial. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance. betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama.1. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines.3. the cynicism. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Conquest and seduction. 4. magnificent settings. wit*. Sensational turns of situation.
lacking complexity. who tried to imitate fashionable manners.” without scruples. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. young or old. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . aspiring to the perfect adventure. Contrasting types were the coquette. the scheming valet. the country squire*. or fool. the lusty widow. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. cynical. Another frequent type was the fop*. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. etc. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. the ingénue. despising marriage. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). and the trusting husband as dupe. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. selfish and manipulative. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. pleasure-seeking. If characters were usually static. deliberately superficial in construction.
at the end of the unit.1. T F 3. to 4. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. hedonism and amorality at Court. by doing the exercise that follows.1. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. simple action. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. frivolity. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. T F 9. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single. T F 6. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. 1.1. T F 5. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language. T F 7.4. T F 8. It displays typical Restoration characters. Restoration comedy praised wit. T F 4. 4. elegance. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. such as the impoverished gallant. William Congreve. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances. His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot. If any of them should turn out to be wrong.1. refinement and sophistication.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. read again subchapters 4. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. T F 2.3.
It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. psychologically subtle and complex. increasingly middle class. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. the awkward country-girl. as these were remote from their experience. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. Towards the end of the 17 th century. is extremely complex. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. and friendship to jealousy. admiration. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). bringing it to perfection.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. the witty and resourceful servant.1. He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama. hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. half-amused. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love.5. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. half-sad. consistent characters. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. affection. the pair of witty lovers. involving a multitude of characters. etc. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. and the shifting relationships and alliances. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. The new audience in the theatres. The situation. 4. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy.
In a witty dialogue. Mirabell is a reformed rake. their agreement has serious implications. Read Text 4. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. If there should be significant differences. read again subchapter 4. Millamant is also in love. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. at the end of the unit.. in Act IV." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her.. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions.1. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. However.4. which presents Millamant's demands. under the appearance of frivolity. they seem to be playing a game.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World. as well as the indicated fragment. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. In it.2.2. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 . elegance. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). Besides Dryden and Pope. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age. 4. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. and harmony extended beyond literature. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. balance.1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. In both cases. Joseph Addison*. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art.
The rule of decorum 4. in satirical or burlesque* works.2. This was the case of the genius. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. for instance. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. Epic and tragedy.3. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade.e.. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. a dignified diction. The most eloquent example.e. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. required an elevated style. the most valuable store of literary experience. to make form and substance adequate to each other. skilful transgression. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. yet achieve great beauty. was expected to use a common. and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. A poet’s innate talent needed training. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre. the emphasis on discipline in art. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. i. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. i. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. skill. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. on the other hand. and to those patterns of behaviour. humble style. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. lacking ornament.2. for the Augustans. and the poet might disregard them. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. was Shakespeare. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 .2. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet. comedy. of infinite variety.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour.
or art*. If there should be significant differences. at the end of the unit. What are the main ideas in this fragment. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. a combination achieved through reason.2.3.3. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines). in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 . and the indicated fragment. read again subchapter 4. and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*. SAQ 3 Text 4. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. but also to imported French ideas – e.g.
as Oliver Goldsmith defined it.2.3.2. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. too. of quick accumulation of information.” Augustan wit 4. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. “grace and strength united. 4. refinement with wisdom. or. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). manners and taste. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*.4.5. The writer's art was a form of social communication. Ostentation. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. its effects were considerable on prose. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. In the context of general progress. affectation were rejected. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. unnecessary ornament. where nothing seems to be studied. precision and clarity. of critical debate in every field. eloquence with restraint. but to be a functional part of the community. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public.
and they were published with varying regularity. some of them being issued daily. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. At the same time. for a clientele of ships' captains. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. They believed. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. contributing significantly to the “polite” education.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. at cultivating their minds. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism.” that ignorance is a source of evil. or to the discussion of literary matters. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. opened in 1688. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. In order to counterbalance this tendency. the middle class readers. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. with Alexander Pope. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. dominantly middle class. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714). at the end of the unit. whose essays were published several times in the century.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays. The Tatler and The Spectator. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. “The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists.e. think again and try to do the exercise once more. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in no more than 12 lines / 120 words.3.1. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711). only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. Like other writers. Think of present relevance of this remark. and by far the most popular ones. Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If they are significantly different. Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. on a separate sheet. 4. collected in book form.
” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .e. and the reflections of “Mr. Now. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club. a competent justice of the peace*. He believes.e. for true power is to be got by arts [i. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. for The Spectator.” • Captain Sentry. a model of honesty. rather than a merit. generous and cheerful. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. • A clergyman. • A gentleman who. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy. laziness. an expert in fashion and gossip. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. a rich London merchant. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. and sloth [i.” or that “diligence [i. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. for instance. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms. “a very philosophic man. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. strong reason. and great experience. in which they collaborated.e. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity.” and “his familiarity with the customs. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. bravery in battle]. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. skills] and industry. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. hard work and skill.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example. a courageous. He is a man of “great probity. in his county. “a person of indefatigable industry*.e. wit and understanding. a man of the world. turned to the study of literature. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. a middle-aged squire. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman.” of wide learning. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. • Will Honeycomb. modest and commonsensical person. a gallant. as his father had intended for him. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class. • Sir Andrew Freeport. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. manners.
read again subchapter 4. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. 7. 2.1. more carefully. 5. Identify at least eight such features. 3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. common sense. 6.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. 1. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. and write them in the indicated spaces below. If there should be major discrepancies. 4. 8. which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration. SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. cheerful disposition.3.
the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. from political and social life. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. king David. and satire became their formidable weapon. genuinely gifted for leadership. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. the Duke of Monmouth. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. disloyal and excessively ambitious. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. 4. selfishness. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728. Bayes*. 15-18). Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682).4. admiration and condemnation. its cult of reason and common sense. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. brave and fearless man. greed. appears also as a stormy spirit. Samuel.2. to religious debates and literary practices.4. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . intrigues.4. 4. struggle for power and profit. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. are mingled: the evil conspirator. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. hypocrisy. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age. often touched by ironic humour. Pope. contradictions and dark aspects. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character.1. 1743). Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. folly. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Political and religious dissensions. a passionate. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury.
as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. read the fragment again. he reflects on the art of the satirist. imagination).4. are more disturbing than entertaining. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Art. however. more attentively. If it should be significantly different. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words.2. Science. imaginative inventiveness. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and Morality. Here.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. Truth. Its implications. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire.e. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. Philosophy. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. Explain this analogy. SAQ 6 Text 4. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. Religion. concerning satire. and revise subchapter 4.
curious and resourceful. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason.4. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. Luggnagg and Japan IV.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. In his last voyage. From this last country. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. the flying island. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. economic. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend.4. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. Glubbdubdrib. a hater of pedantry and pretence. he learns about the Struldbruggs. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue. absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man. In Luggnagg. Back in England. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. Balnibarbi. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. and where human creatures. social and intellectual realities. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. intelligent speaking horses.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. In his third voyage he visits several strange places.4.A Voyage to Laputa. Like many of his contemporaries. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos. Jonathan Swift.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. In it. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in his potential as a rational creature. religious. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. In Balnibarbi.3. respectively. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement. or softening marble to make pincushions. and literary. with a sharp sense of observation. an uncompromising defender of truth. Laputa. philosophical. whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. building houses starting from the roof. justice and freedom.A Voyage to Lilliput II. Gulliver is finally expelled. bigger than himself. the Yahoos.
Find. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. 4. 2. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit. from the Reader. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. read the fragment carefully once more. SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one).The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. and he prefers now the company of horses. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. 1. 3. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. in Text 4.
Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . issues or figures. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events.4. ambitious. Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority).4. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. In the Houyhnhnms. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. However. governed only by reason. etc. The fourth voyage. Gulliver. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation.). etc. by dancing on a rope. In Brobdingnag. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. vain. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. ruled by an enlightened monarch.6. the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. he sees ideal creatures. his vulnerability increases. cruel and hypocritical. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). In the Yahoos. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. in his last adventure.5. Dissenters and Catholics. means de-humanisation. jumping over or creeping under a stick. of the capacity for affection. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. Gulliver is confronted. he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. from which he chooses to leave.
In a “theological” perspective. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature.illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. unteachable and ungovernable. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo .The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. filthy. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. For many readers. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. makes him a frustrated idealist. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians. the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man.
The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd.6. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4. If there should be major differences.6. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable. and to revise subchapter 4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 . For Gulliver. however. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. more carefully. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. you need to read the fragment again. The careful reader will. from the Reader. find anti-utopian elements in it. Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect.4.
caricature. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. Like heroic tragedy (e. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style.4. accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . For Swift. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. Pope) and in prose (Swift). The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason.7. etc. narrow-sightedness. generally. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. including that of Reason itself. and. dominantly middle class. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. Congreve. Steele). Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. on the rule of decorum. Dryden. when literary Neoclassicism developed. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. Goldsmith.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Dryden). was another characteristic genre. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. a wide public. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation. Steele. therefore also capable of error. comedy was licentious and cynical. It is an age of transition. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. and by means of it. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason. Dryden. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. parody. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. grotesque.). Swift. Gradually. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. Satire. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. Pope. his learning and sense of literary tradition. placing wit above virtue. both in verse (Dryden. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism.g. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. Addison.
political or religious orientation. “Will’s Coffee House. Art may generally refer to the work of man. well-dressed man. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18).1. In Pope’s satire. which designated a fashionable. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos.1. the acquired competence of the writer. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. dress or behaviour which is not natural. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature). burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. coffee houses: since the 1650s. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. admirer. In her empire of darkness and confusion. but is intended to impress others. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French).” where Dryden would come regularly. his craftsmanship. For instance. affectation: a manner of speech. baroque: see again subchapter 2. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . achieved by training and practice. or escort. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. and the Glossary in Unit 2. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. greatly concerned with appearances. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. profession or interest.
3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. slowness in thinking and learning. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. stupidity. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. but to the whole of created reality.” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. In Pope’s satire. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. from dunce. boring. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 . i. landscape. dulness: in a strict sense. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad.e. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. inclination. or “humour. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. “Dull” also means uninteresting. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. honour. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. unexciting. a strictly ordered hierarchical system. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure.” another word for “laurel”. It derives from “bay.” Nature: an inclusive concept. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. Mr. to deceive). characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. “Mr.4. trait . referring not only to external nature. a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. and distinction.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725). Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber.” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. In this kind of comedy.3 in Unit 1. Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. Bayes.
and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. author of poems. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. Dryden. Among the latter. perfect society (literally: “no place. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards.1. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. of taste or skill. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. for the notion of sentimentalism. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516). polished). founder of literary journalism. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire. squire: a country gentleman. Boileau.” from Greek u = not. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age.4 in Unit 1. elegant. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. and topos = place). essays and dramatic works.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world. making literature “dull. or literature in general. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. or who chats or talks idly.e. of imagination and originality. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5.4. i. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. especially the main landowner in a village.4. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 5. he translated from ancient authors. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.
Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege. and The Man of Mode. His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. of Irish origin. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer. Swift. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. concise and flexible. Wycherley. political and moral vices.C. author of odes. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple. Like his friend. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. Sprat. Goldsmith. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. Johnson.). and a major representative of English sentimentalism. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. member of the Royal Society. Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. Virgil.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. clear. Pope. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. an unequalled master of irony and wit. his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). Hogarth. He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. Together with Addison. a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). Steele. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. Among various other works. who called him a “comic history-painter. Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). and A Modest Proposal (1729). or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. satires and epistles. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). William (1697-1764): painter and engraver.
a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. abdicating from reason. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. Civilised reserve in society. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . for sophisticated Millamant.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. 6. 8.T.e.T. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom.T.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1.F. 4. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes. good judgment.” Just as weeds (i. opinions and tastes.e. diligence.F.T. industry. 9. integrity. is. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow.T. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. reasonableness. and.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. common sense. open-mindedness. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature.e. 2. and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. 3. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. sense of responsibility. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. by the standards of her social environment. furnished with ideas. of those features which are universal. good breeding. or judgment. modesty. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. good sense. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. 5.F. In marriage. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field. of Human nature. 7. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. in an analogous sense. benevolence. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. SAQ 5 honesty. regardless of their particular condition. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i.
vol. conflict and self-interest.. The irrational greed and avarice. The Novel in Its Beginnings. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. 5. 3. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. English Literature and Civilisation. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). only the species counts. Macsiniuc. The tendency to idleness. the “fineness. The individual is of no importance. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal. ultimately of imagination. Preda. the education in the spirit of moderation and industry.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. 537-550) 2. which breeds imaginary ills. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. The spirit of competition.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment.). 2. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Cornelia. which is meant only for procreation. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. 1969 (pp. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. 4. 1983 (pp.” SAQ 7 1. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. The English Eighteenth Century. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. A Critical History of English Literature. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses. the exclusion of opinion.” the subtlety of his accusations. In the absence of affective attachment. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. Ioan-Aurel (coord. Further reading 1. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. 2003 (pp. Daiches. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 180-187) 3. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence. David. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. They practice population control. which makes social progress inconceivable. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit.
5.2. 126.96.36.199. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5.3.3. 5.4. Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela.4. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 5.6. 5.2.2. 5.1. 5.2. 5.4.2. 5. 5.3.6. 220.127.116.11.1.2. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.18.104.22.168.3.8.2. 22.214.171.124.2.1.4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5.2. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 .126.96.36.199. 5. 5.5. 5. 5.4. 5. 5.
The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. tolerance. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. in the early years of the 18 th century. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. and the development of the novel.1. more inclusive reading public. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels.1. and generally about women.1. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. whose action was often set in remote. 5. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion. mostly imitations of French models. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. exotic settings. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance. the rise of the middle classes. whose vast majority was middle-class. natural rights. and there is a connection between.
romances were therefore literature of escape. By contrast. in its concerns.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. vague and abstract figures. by common people. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. Characters are no longer idealised. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. legend. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. but from contemporary life. or previous literature. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. in Augustan terms. On the one hand. the novel’s didactic vocation. Thus. Realism – or. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). the province of the novel was the familiar. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . 5. The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers.2. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. On the other hand. For most women. The ordinary aspects of life. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. The novel reflects. socially and materially dependent on men. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. moral or psychological detail.1. but distinct individualities. history. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education. its normality. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. in the novel.
… 4. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. at the end of the unit.1. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below. on the one hand. The rise of the middle classes … 2.2. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. on the other.1. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Women were … 3. 1. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. and 5. If there should be major differences. read again subchapters 5. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations. and public/social norms and conventions. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.1.
confusion. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour.g. inclusive. It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. a wide variety of influences went into its making. therefore an ally to realism. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. On the other hand. displayed not only in fiction. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do.1. for the author. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. forms of expression. repetitious. They invariably contain the motif of the journey. i. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. romance is trivialised through parody*. and extremely diverse.g. Fielding). but to literature as well. examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. classic models to follow. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. in which the action is episodic. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism.3. Richardson). belonging to several categories at once. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. but also in poetry and in drama. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. and the hero’s various encounters are.e. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. loosely structured. The motif of the travel is central. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. on events. patterns and motifs. the romance). and the world represented in such novels is open. Instead. from which it borrowed devices. Many novels cut across divisions. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason. irony and burlesque*. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail.
read again subchapter 5.3. in an atmosphere of gloom. at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation. 3. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. trivial subjects. ________________________ 5. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. after each sentence..The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. in their confrontation with moral choice. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. ________________________ 8. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel. ________________________ 6. 1. deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict. ________________________ 4. ________________________ 2. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. It presents a tale of mystery and horror.1. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . usually with supernatural ingredients. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. at the end of the unit. ________________________ 7.
This confers vividness to their narratives. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . several adventure novels. They are pragmatic.2. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. They share a middle class. Puritan* background. in actions. on his fiction. the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. published in 1719. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. their social insertion. cast in a picaresque form. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. but also on the Continent. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. when the writer was almost sixty. to the influence.2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. in circumstantial details. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. They were all stories of success.1. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. Mariner. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. in the next years. dynamic and versatile. 5. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England.
2. in fact. He marries. prudent and calculating mature man. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. After 26 years. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. where he has established a colony. to buy slaves. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world. in soon left a widower. romantic youth into a realistic. he turns from a reckless.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . he starts a voyage to Africa. such an experience became an archetypal one. one of Defoe’s “honest cheats.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. On his return to England. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. Under Defoe’s pen. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. has three children. Wyeth . Providence helps him finally leave the island. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil. The only survivor. In the 28 years of solitary life.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival.” and leaves home on board a ship. not only physical but also spiritual.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. C.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. After several misadventures at sea.2. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. In the hope of increasing his wealth. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner.” It is.
tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father).2.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words.3. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. to the awakening of religious conscience. Isolation is no longer a misfortune.2..1. Gradually. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 . as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. In his initial struggle with despair. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases. as a political or economic utopia. It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. and 5.2. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance. at the end of the unit. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness. embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. In this light. If it should differ considerably. read again subchapters 5. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter.” 5.
2. 1. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. Enumerate. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. perseverance. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. as a self-reliant individual.. Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise.” desires and “delights. or by a sentence (e.2. He takes pleasure in his work). you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. or the felix culpa*. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise. if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience. 2. It has its spiritual rewards. perspicacity. Changed in his “notion of things. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description. You may render these features either by a single noun (e. at the end of the unit. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot. morally autonomous. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress. as well as the fragment in the Reader. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life. inventiveness. In this connection. 3. the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall.3.g.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection... in the space below. subchapter 5. 4. Like Adam. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil.” However. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God. g. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. which will serve his instinct for independence. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. ingenuity).
easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience.2. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. the frequent enumerations and inventories. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. clarity. at the same time.4 once more and do the exercise again. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. concreteness. with unmatched vividness. 3. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. 4. which. 2. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. in the Reader from the point of view of its style.2. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure. clear language. His simple.2. whose reality is difficult to doubt. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below.4. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. rendered in a simple. solid world. the promise of symbolic meanings. containing. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. of familiar detail. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. he paid little attention to matters of form. The richness of concrete detail. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. His linear. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative. 1. read the fragment and subchapter 5. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. on a separate sheet.
who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. In Clarissa. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology. not only in England but also on the Continent. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr.2. Mr. unanimously loved and admired. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. Mr. whose affection she finally gains. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. sensibility and morality. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. In Pamela. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Upon the death of her mistress. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. the latter’s son. as well as for his didactic purpose. The plot of Pamela. In her new state. B_. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending. Mr.2. There. in Bedfordshire. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. B’s relatives and friends. of the struggle between virtue and vice. tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. His influence was considerable. hoping that she will give in. As the first great sentimental novelist. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence.6. Pamela continues a diary. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. B_’s sister. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. B_’s hands. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. Faced with her resistance. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity.5. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. At the same time. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. recording the details of her ordeal. cruel and greedy relatives. Both are written in the epistolary manner*.
Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. Richardson’s implicit radical message. B_. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues.2. the rights of the individual. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object.7. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant. as a traditionally dominant class. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. F. the freedoms that he takes with her. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. a complete novelty in fiction.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. Through its subject and theme. to set moral standards to the nation.
Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger. to obey Mr. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge. If there should be significant differences. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations.7.6. though in quality [i. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts. 5. as a servant.8. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. between hate and admiration.”? Answer in the space left below. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel.2. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination.2. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor. and 5.e. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read again attentively subchapters 5.2. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave.
He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is. on the other. B_ follows a similar evolution. on the one hand. which are captured in the process of their emergence.9. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 .2. 1. excerpted from Pamela. In Pamela’s letters and diary. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings.3. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus. in the Reader). If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions.4. There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. at the end of the unit.. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. however. read again subchapter 5. What counts. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. her sentimental response to them. 2. and considering also Text 5. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling. and his developing love.. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character.
but a voice external to the story. but also by the maid. B_’s aunt.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. but a snobbish. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. Abraham Adams. to his native village. whose servant he was. burlesque and comic satire. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. 1790) 132 . Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. above all. priggish* upstart. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. Fielding abandons parody. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. Fielding was a master of parody. they mirror a wide range of human types. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. including Pamela and her husband. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect.3. the author asserts himself. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. Mrs. Slipslop. so that he sets out for home. Joseph’s sweetheart. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. Booby. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. Mr. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. Through the omniscient* narrator. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England.1. At this point. in London. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. relationships and actions. Cervantes. irony. Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister.3. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. All important characters meet here. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. performed by means of comic satiric devices. modest and gentle creature. and. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. His works are panoramic reflections of the age. Mr. author of Don Quixote” (1742). Pope. started as a parody. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form. as well as their inclusiveness.” Mr. His acknowledged literary models were Swift.
Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. at the end of the unit. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status.5. whom they had met during their journey. T F 4. T F 6. alluding thus to the older genre. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. read the text once more. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. or the pattern of the adventurous journey. Cervantes. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”).3. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. T F 5. carefully. 1. for true or false) for each of them.2. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. which closes the plot. T F 2. For instance. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes. Fielding likes to play with genres. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. T F 3. Read Text 5. T F 7. The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. 5. T F 8. is an ingredient of romantic plots. Wilson. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. which turns out to be gentle*. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. Mr. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. in the spirit of comedy.
Like his literary ancestor. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). but good deeds and charity. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. In other words. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. but they placed their main interest in the individual. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. but also moral instruction. In the beginning. often making him appear ridiculous. but manners. which must give substance to faith. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. as for Richardson.3. which often create comic effects. above all. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. as he himself says. active goodness. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. doctors.3. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. By means of techniques of contrast. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. Joseph emerges as morally mature. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. in Fielding. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. At the same time. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. not an individual. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. Along the novel. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character.3. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society. there are both good and bad innkeepers. both honest and hypocrite priests. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. For the author. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. etc. in spite of the many instances of greed. lawyers. cruelty. etc. Every social class. masters.4. he describes “not men. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.
drawing short comparisons. unaffected.3. provide the first theory of the novel. If they should differ substantially. 1. 5. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech.. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province. 5.2. 5. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 . at the end of the unit. and he believes.4. read again subchapters 5. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony. He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation.2. 2. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined.. incorporated in the substance of his works. He is a moralist. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.8.3. Explain them. His commentaries and reflections on his own art.. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel.5.3.4. through its moral and temperamental types. 3. Fielding is the most “Augustan. like many Augustan writers. At the same time. and 5.2. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists.” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature.
His father. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. at the age of five.1. Walter. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5.2. Tristram. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia). Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative. of his uncle. corporal Trim.” in every sense. he seems to have. by accident. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account. does not manage to give a shape to his story. Fielding had demonstrated. 5. is an erudite philosopher. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. unpredictable narrative.e. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. the narrator. the priest who baptised Tristram. at every point. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. Walter Shandy. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. He digresses continually.4. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him. that. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. i. moulds reality into a literary pattern. In spite of his promises. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. However. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. With Sterne. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking. the history of a private life.4.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness. in Joseph Andrews. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*.4. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. as well as of Parson Yorick.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. and his long. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation. Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. that he was. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. other interesting things to relate. the relation between life and literature. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction.
good-humoured. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. above all. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. were being fought on the continent. Understandably. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. ironic terms. during the War of the Spanish Succession*.4. which influences all his thoughts and actions.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. Wounded in Flanders. It is not type (social. They cannot share their thoughts. pitiful creature. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. 5. character and destiny. However. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. gentleness. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. modesty and. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. therefore. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. with man as a vulnerable. as comic eccentricity. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. amiability. and discharged from the army. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. absorbed in this activity. The “nonsensical. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts.3. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. On the other hand. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. generosity.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy.
To remember the features of the tragic hero. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Glossary to Unit 2. see again the fall of princes. Write the answer in the space left below. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*.4. I. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. SAQ 10 In Vol. Read this short chapter (Text 5. Ch.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering.. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit.3. read again subchapter 5. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. V. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words. If the difference is considerable. as well as the fragment from the Reader. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of the unit.6.
The zigzagging narrative. coherent plots. Sterne defamiliarises them. asterisks. which he calls “the sunshine of reading.” Not only as a man. etc. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories. the “imperfections of words.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. for instance. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. there are several dedications scattered through the book. the book is a comic oddity. watched as if by a slow motion camera. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. It is.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot.4.4. but also to how it is told. Sterne’s rambling narrative. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. Tristram resorts to other means of communication.4. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. drawings and graphs. so different from Fielding’s tight. in Sterne’s novel. Typographically. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. by exploiting them in a parodic way. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface.e. i. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. does not seem to move towards any climax. with its multitude of dashes. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. but also as an author. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. 5. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. to a certain view of writing.5. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. points of suspension. The structure of the book is equally odd. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . and gives the impression of stagnation. makes the reader aware of them. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. and he takes great delight in digressions. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. For example. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight.
random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. The unpredictable. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. In volume VI. as it explores – halfseriously. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. Basically. on the author’s vision of life. ultimately. of life as pure chance. metafiction is fiction about fiction. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time.” with their digressions.e. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –. i. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. in the first four volumes. at the structural level. Its extravagant. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. i.6. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. the process of its own writing. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. the narrated time and the time of reading. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. formless reality. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. Metafictionally. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices. the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. however. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. The meaning of metafiction depends. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. works which call attention to their own devices.4. It is a half-amused. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. As metafiction. which is connected. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality.e.
2. In this way.4.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5.6. at the end of the unit. Write them in the spaces indicated below. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 . Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Instead of continuing the story. and 5. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing.. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel.7. 3. 1.4. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. and read the fragment attentively once more. If they differ significantly. go again through subchapters 5. which he discusses in the very text of the work. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them.5.
and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. on the other hand. and Laurence Sterne. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. Lastly. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. the novel was a minor form. Samuel Richardson. Since its settlement on the literary scene. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. completely ignored by Augustan poetics.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. Fielding. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. Sterne. readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. Henry Fielding. At the beginning of the 18th century. in his novels of manners. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. However.
minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail. a Fool. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. whose style. characteristically.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. literacy: the ability to read and write. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. Cinderella: an old fairy story. gaiety.e. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The hero – the picaro (i. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. exact representation of life. gentle: of good breeding.e. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end. played like a piano. metafiction: literally. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). fixed idea. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. to the lower ranks of society. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. or education. lifelikeness: closeness to life. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. or “narcissistic” – i. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). tone. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. happiness. fun. in which the poor heroine. rogue) – belongs. booby: silly or stupid person. mirth: laughter. but producing a different sound. epistolary manner: in a novel. a hobbyhorse is a toy. see again the Glossary in Unit 1).The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. Bildungsroman: German term. a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive. and he seeks social integration. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. Concretely. “beyond fiction”. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. literally: novel of formation. jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century.
which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). Don Quixote starts. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. honest and brave hidalgo (i. squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. like a knight-errant of former times. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. Britain joined Austria. The high aspirations of this generous. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605.e. Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. 1615). • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote.
in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 .The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment. You will have. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. SAA no..4. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. with special attention to subchapter 4. In order to win the good graces of the king.4. Text 5. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. Remember that. in grading your paper. the king rejects this tribute.1. 3. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. therefore. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. • the coherence. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island. 1. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. 2. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent.1. Text 4. Horrified. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels.2. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment. as illustrated by this fragment. to revise the preceding unit.. and 5. clarity. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task.1. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns.
but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. immediacy. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. all souls are equal. optimism. plainness. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . 5. inventiveness. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. SAQ 4 Tenacity. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. pragmatism. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. SAQ 5 factuality. In the social order. concreteness.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. 3. the capacity for learning from mistakes. 3. 6. resilience. realistic account. industriousness. 2. 4. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. patience. sharp sense of observation. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. 5. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. 2. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. and by the form of autobiographical record. vividness. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. 4. rationality. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. and also authors of novels. SAQ 2 1.
Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. SAQ 7 1. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. 3. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters.T. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. 3. wealth and power. who write in the first person. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. 5. SAQ 11 1. 7. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. 2. This is not Tristram’s case.T. 2. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative.” but in “pitiful misadventures. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. 2.T. they create a sort of suspense.F SAQ 9 1. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. he is concerned with human types. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. 3. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity.T. living and the act of writing overlap each other. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. SAQ 8 1. 2. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind.F. that is. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. enjoying title. 3F.T. 8. 6. He is always a prominent figure. In this way. 4.
1991 (pp. 1969 (pp. 598-602. 116127. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 43-46. 143-163. Editura Universităţii Suceava.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 179-195. 701-704. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. Daiches. 731-736) 3. The English Novel.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). Cornelia. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 53-59. Macsiniuc. A Critical History of English Literature. 2003 (pp. 712-718. 76-80) 2. 37-42. 217-231. Allen. David. Penguin Books Limited. Walter. vol.
The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake. 6.1. 6. 6. 6. 6.2. 6.1. 6. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 . 6.4.1. 188.8.131.52.2.3.4. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.1.English pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6. 6.4.2. 6.1.5. 6.2. 184.108.40.206.2.6.4. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.1. 6.3.2. 220.127.116.11. 6.3.4. 6. 6. 6. The Seasons William Cowper.18.104.22.168.4.
The interest in individual psychology. with its emphasis on order. This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. For instance. the century of the Enlightenment*. the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. Pope. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence.1. harmony. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. Addison. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. and Fielding).g. The concern with personal. discipline. elegance and decorum*. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Like any modern age. however. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. Swift. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well. The sentimental novel* (e. and for night as a setting.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. regarded art as the product of civilisation. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. Neoclassicism*. was eminently the Age of Reason. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. and cultivated its public relevance.
Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. In 1765. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. and misty. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). Night Thoughts (1742-1745). supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. His long poem in nine books. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 . which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard.1. known as the Graveyard School of poetry. The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. and folk literature in general.D. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. wild. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. sublime landscapes.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*.2. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time.1.1. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. death and immortality. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret.
” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. When his literary fraud was exposed. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. aspiring to poetic fame. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. … a. published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. Chatterton committed suicide. b. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. with its gloomy atmosphere. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. at the end of the unit. 1. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. The publication. regarding him as a martyr. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. imagination. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. … 3. Like James Macpherson. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. in 1765. … as well as Gothic fiction. c. d. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. read again the previous subchapters. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. reflected… 4. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian.
2. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. The pre. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness.3. Samuel Taylor Coleridge). William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent. The return to blank verse 6. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. the inspiration from folk myths and legends. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. such as the song and the ballad. the state of nature began to be idealised. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. the interest in the local and national past. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. but also literary forms. In the following subchapters. characteristic of the Enlightenment.1. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. Towards the end of the century. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. The emphasis on sentimental response. In the latter part of the century. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit.g. and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. busy life of the city with moral confusion. The great novelists (e.
English pre-Romantic poetry
6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.
6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”
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English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):
3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):
4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):
6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):
Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.
6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
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English pre-Romantic poetry
Illustration to (1905 edition)
Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.
6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”
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English pre-Romantic poetry
SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.
Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.
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The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. an expression of national pride. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. not only the perception of nature. His poem educated. 6. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm. and the moral sentiment. patriotic enthusiasm. manifest as early as the 1730s. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe. in its magnificence and diversity. the philosophical reflection. Britannia. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics. nature. In spite of its eclectic nature. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. becomes an object of interest in itself.3. exerting a considerable influence on both of them. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. but also the feeling for it. “Winter.1. praise of friends. the splendour of summer. His praise of nature and of the countryside. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. etc. Samuel Johnson said. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. in many generations of readers. more amusing. James Thomson. and the apparent cruelty of winter. political comments. As Dr.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. than the works of Nature.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry.
the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. If there should be major differences. which actually inspired Thomson). unrhymed stanzas. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. social satire. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. William Cowper. but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 .” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). He was interested in the mediaeval past. The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. records his observations and reflections. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. more carefully. from the third part. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. “Autumn.3. at the end of the unit. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*. living in retirement from the city. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic.. Passages of moral and political commentary. read text C again. Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. in popular superstitions and the supernatural.2. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. William Collins 6. with its short.3. Like Thomson and Collins. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below.
1856 The Task. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. at the end of the unit. affected] the country. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. like gardening.e. domestic activities. SAQ 5 Text 6. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature.” Sometimes. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. Coleridge). represents one of the most memorable statements. He praises the simple pleasures. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. with its vices and follies.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. T. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . / Paradise that has survived the fall. the peace and quiet of village life. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper.4. Wordsworth. in the Reader. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. in the 18th century. S. As a poet of nature. and of simple. however. concerning the opposition country/town. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. indicate an affectionate observer. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. but the joy of communion with friends.
The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. In his first great illuminated work. widening the range of meanings. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns. our sense of a common fate for all humanity. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. William Blake.1. but also a gifted painter and engraver. exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. Blake’s late fame is due. to the special way in which he produced his work. He was not only a poet. he turns his attention to the rural world. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. William Blake (1757-1827) 6. Like other pre-Romantic poets.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. Apart from a volume of early verse. The combination of calligraphic text. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. and he rejected the classical standards of style. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). Each copy was then coloured by hand. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. Thomson.4. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime.civilisation. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. Milton. and being regarded as an eccentric artist.4. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. to a large extent. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. the rural setting. and Macpherson. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. and recognised as one of the most original creators. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. 6. In Blake. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. Gray. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form.
He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination.” or “I write when commanded by spirits.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom. Los*.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. Like the other English Romantics. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. or be enslaved by another man’s. original and strange. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. for instance: “I copy Imagination. Blake was a rebel. Blake.2. unpremeditated act.” This is Blake’s own creed. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own. and his whole work. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. says.4. The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. They are. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets. Jerusalem: “I must create a system. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 6. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. in Blake’s last poem. a prophet. in a way. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. and he denounces the evils of civilisation. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse. a tribute to Milton.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory.
of the world seen through the eyes of the child. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. The Echoing Green. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. T F 5. their clarity of expression and their musicality. revise the whole subchapter. T F 6. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*.4. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. innocent delights. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i.e. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. 6. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. Poems like Infant Joy. T F 4. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. and the three statements that are false. T F 2. 1. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry. at the end of the unit. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint. which echoed the rhythms of popular verse. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. The Shepherd. The Blossom. T F 3. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. that is. T F 7.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work. enjoy] to hear.3. If you have made mistaken choices. and its origin was visionary experience. As a poet. Spring. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). For Blake. Laughing Song. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience.
childhood represents the unfallen state of man. In these poems. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. associated with childhood. in his natural tendency to virtue. In The Echoing Green. Innocence. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. in Nurse’s Song. meadow]”. love. does not mean ignorance. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination. although the sun has set.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. and absence of frustration or inhibition. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. the guardian angel. The nurse. is a biblical allusion. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i.” can “laugh away care. which a proper education should develop. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The good shepherd. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. gratified desire.e. “Old John. the shepherd. with white hair. or even Jesus. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. According to him.” Throughout his work. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. For Blake. with which Blake was acquainted. Besides the children themselves.
5. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 . If there should be a significant difference between them. and in which he represents to himself its “making. which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb. in the Reader. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb.” Answer in the space below. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words.
In the fallen state of Experience. of “stony laws*”. i. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions. which is a promise of divine mercy. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. society and divinity. hate. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. Like the chimney sweeper. In Songs of Experience. standing equal before God. in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. 6. often. poverty and oppression. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. for instance. disease. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. love and joy have been replaced by fear. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind.4.4. In London. even sarcastic. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them. the thirst for war. in which man’s lot is hard work. or the mind of others. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state.e. but. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. However. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. protesting against the evils of his time.4. full of indignation and anger. for instance. when this life ends. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. nature. which deny man his freedom. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. envy and deceit. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. In The Chimney Sweeper*.5.
but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb. you]?) and his own answer. in Songs of Experience. at the end of the unit. innocent question (“Little Lamb.4. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience.6. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow.6. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. with no explicit answer. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. who made thee [i. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. provoking more anxiety than certainty. dangerous tiger. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below.e. by ambiguity and even obscurity. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. Read this poem – Text 6. If it should differ in major respects.
There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well. tyrannical figure. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. This is the God of the world of Experience. He displays. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. was responsible. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination.7. and His Priest. Reason and Energy*.” which lead to contrary visions.4. since those are “babes reduced to misery.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. a stern.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth. bearing even the same titles. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In the poem of Innocence. served by the institutionalised churches. was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. The church. indeed. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. which are thus strengthening their own power. in fact. A deeply religious person. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment. for keeping man at a distance from God. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. and he is also a child.” In the counterpart poem. with its “mysteries”*. but with ways of seeing and feeling. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. “contrary states of the human soul. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery.English pre-Romantic poetry 6.” or with a “multitude of lambs. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters. in Songs of Experience. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. Contraries are essential to progression. They reveal. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity. in Blake’s view.
Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. except as an act of remembering.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience.7. at the end of the unit.. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state. and read the poem again more carefully. If there should be major differences between them. to regain the vision of Innocence. revise subchapters 6. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 .1. Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted.2. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast.4. to 6. but he is no longer able to do that.4.
He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. 6. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past.. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. imagination and feelings. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson..4. the interest in early poetry. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. The “Graveyard” poets (e. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. Subchapter 6. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. In subchapter 6. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. The last subchapter. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. nature-civilisation. now threatened by the march of Progress.3. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall.2. The other feature is primitivism. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings. The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. g.
ruins. Celtic: related to the Celts. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. which they could climb more easily. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. goddess of Memory. graveyards. Haunted castles. Initially. the enclosures meant ruin. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. Their father was Zeus. or Erse. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys.2. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. For the small farmers. favour melancholy or morbid themes.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. in Unit 4. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. and horror. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). putting fences round) common land. decorum: see subchapter 4.e. Sometimes. for instance. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. as the next subchapter will show. the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i.2. Gray is sadly ironic. passion. which has survived in parts of Scotland. Ireland and Wales. Imagination was free Energy. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. for the sake of more profitable farming. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. Energy: for Blake.
It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. wild landscapes. Milton. etc.3. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation.. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. Jerusalem. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. the Passions. A Prophecy. as well as against the sophistication. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. See also subchapter 4. The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear.3. The Book of Los. to attend the religious service. in Unit 5. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. with His laws formulated as interdictions. in Unit 1. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. the 39th day after Easter.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. primitive: original. The custom in London was to bring the poor. etc. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God.1. Among the most important of them are America. 2 in Unit 4. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . Pity. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. The Book of Urizen. Paul’s Cathedral. philosophical and political convictions. were typical settings in Gothic fiction. sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.1. or of gold or silver paint. belonging to the beginnings. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law. in Unit 3. The Four Zoas.2. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. on which the Ten Commandments were written. used to secure the hands of a prisoner.
• the coherence. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau.8. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words. The Chimney Sweeper.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. SAA no. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate. clarity. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance. and 6. meant to win a patron’s favour. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection. Remember that.9.11. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. 6. Send-away assignment no... 6.” usurous: from usury. gardens or estates. and Holy Thursday (Texts 6.10.. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762). and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 .13.. 6. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power. 6. in grading your paper. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.12.). with his law of love.
the country is therefore morally superior to the city. c SAQ 2 1. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. “He chid their [i. and love of man. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. 4. b. Meditation leads to illumination. 2. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. and on his thoughts. love of nature. “Unpractised he to fawn. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. 3.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. disease and poverty. the vagants’] wanderings. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. or seek for power. the “feeble. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. nor wished to change his place” 3. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect.e. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. all intensified. For Cowper. Nor e’er had changed. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. the “drooping weary” father. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. d. but relieved their pain” 6. a. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. in which everything seems to be in decline. Its bare. In the city. on his soul. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty.
2. 6. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. the God of Love. against which man. being thus a source of oppression. T. 4. In the simple economy of the poem. The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. T. T. “My mother groaned. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. At the same time. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence. which he has lost. in Blake’s vision. and is itself one more care in the family. but are symbols of limitation. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. in the state of Experience. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. therefore. and. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. meadow. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. F. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. confinement and oppressive authority. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. T. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. gentle and humble like the lamb itself. In a vision of Innocence. 2. 5. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience.” that is. Man. 3. 7. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. the “Lamb of God. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. In the second stanza. struggles in vain. F.
Penguin Books Ltd. Ford.). London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature.. 1969 (pp. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Boris (ed.). 692-699) 2.5 (“From Blake to Byron”). vol. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”)..4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). Further reading 1. Boris (ed. 1991 (pp. A Critical History of English Literature. 652-658. Daiches. 1991 (pp. 671-684.English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area.. Ford. vol. 84-94) 3. Penguin Books Ltd. David. vol.
Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .
this most excellent canopy*. văzduhul.g. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). acest preaminunat baldachin. seems to me a sterile promontory. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. pământul. William Shakespeare. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. cum să spun.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. încât acest frumos tărâm. alcătuirile şi mişcările. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. in moving. the earth. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. look you. to me.excelent.1. this brave* overhanging* firmament*. foregone* all custom of exercises. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. the air. această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. forewent. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. – but wherefore* I know not. într-adevăr. of late recently wherefore why. the sky) brave minunat. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. – lost all my mirth*. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. vedeţi. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. pentru mine. Hamlet (Act II. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…). nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. şi totuşi. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. Ce minunată lucrare e omul. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. şi.
great nature’s second course*. ţanţoş.3. Macbeth (Act II. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. To the last syllable of recorded time. William Shakespeare. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). desfirat. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. a poor player. chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. The death of each day’s life. to creep. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. Signifying nothing. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. and tomorrow. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. Out*.2. and tomorrow. El. William Shakespeare. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care.Reader TEXT 2. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. a se furişa) petty inessential. Macbeth (Act V. Balm of hurt minds. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. full of sound* and fury. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. trifling (mărunt. it is a tale Told by an idiot. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. And then is heard no more. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. TEXT 2. sore* labour’s bath. out. trivial.” the innocent sleep. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. semeţ. moartea vieţii fiecărei zile.
Took pains to make thee speak. Know thine* own meaning. a suporta therefore as a result. mărginit) shameful and evil. stupid (necioplit. savage. Te stinge. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. redus. Caliban: You taught me language. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. The Tempest (Act I. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. Which any print* of goodness will not take. netrebnic. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. sălbatic. abject. TEXT 2. a bâigui) brutish coarse. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*.4. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. ticălos) race neam. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. tot mereu. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb. nasty (josnic. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. mârşav. William Shakespeare. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. Though thou didst learn*. cruel. Un biet actor.
consistency. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. Actorii Ţi-am spus. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. all which it inherit. the great globe itself. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. William Shakespeare. când tu. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. These our actors. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . duşi. etc. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. chiar pământul. Yea*. TEXT 2. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. The Tempest (Act IV. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. Te-am surghiunit aici. toţi. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. The cloud-capped towers*. duhuri. Biserici maiestoase. the gorgeous palaces. dar. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. The solemn temples. a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. În stare de orice. Te-am învăţat de toate. au fost. temelie) fabric building. pe drept. foretold: a anunţa. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. shall dissolve And. fiară. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. framework (clădire. Leave not a rack* behind. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. se vor topi Şi. Scoteai doar mugete. colour. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. palate mândre. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. structure. M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. As I foretold* you. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. dar proasta-ţi fire.5. into thin air: And. literary) truly.
Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. as that comes home. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. where I begun. nor sigh-tempests* move. It leans*. and hearkens* after it. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. And grows erect*. endure* not yet A breach*. lips. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. no: So let us melt*. But trepidation of the spheres. Care less eyes. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. and make no noise. and some say. they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. That our selves know not what it is. And makes me end. And whisper* to their souls. The breath goes now. And though it in centre sit. Like gold to aery thinness beat. Men reckon* what it did and meant. If they be two. Inter-assured of the mind*. if the other do. but an expansion.Reader Făcute-s visele. Though I must go. TEXT 2. Yet when the other far doth roam*. But we by a love so much refined. Thy* soul the fixed foot. and hands to miss. John Donne. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. to go. No tear-floods. Our two souls therefore. but doth. Like the other foot. is innocent.6. Though greater far. Such wilt* thou* be to me. obliquely run. makes no show To move. which are one. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. who must.
you As yet* but knock. a lua cu sila. I. for I Except your enthrall* me. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. apply your force due cuvenit. and stand. like an usurped town. Yet dearly I love you. a elibera to enthrall a supune. ferm. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. a rătăci to lean. That I may* rise. except you ravish* me. o’erthrow me*. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . to struggle to no end vainly. to break. never shall be free. Nor ever chaste. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. and would be loved fain*. Labour* to admit you. or break that knot again. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. blow. a înrobi. breathe. But am betrothed* unto your enemy. overthrown: a nimici. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. exact Text 2. leant a se apleca. Reason your viceroy* in me.: inflexibil. John Donne. fig. and seek to mend. rupture stiff rigid. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. to another due*. precis.7. shine. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. me should defend. but oh.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. But is captived. imprison me. datorat to labour to work hard. untie*. Divorce me. for. and make me new. overthrew. three-personed God*. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. to no end*. and bend Your force*. burn. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. Take me to you. and proves weak or untrue*. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. to undergo breach break.
This coyness*. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Lady. Two hundred to adore each breast. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. For. But thirty thousand to the rest. But none. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. do there embrace. and think which way To talk. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. yet we will make him run. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. if you please. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. Thy beauty shall no more be found. and pass our long love’s day. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. Nor. and time. like amorous birds of prey.8. Andrew Marvell. you deserve this state*. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. I think. Nor would I love at lower rate. And you should. were no crime. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. shall sound My echoing song. An age at least to every part.Reader TEXT 2. We would sit down. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. and on thy* forehead gaze. while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. Lady. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. Thus. Now let us sport* while we may. And now. in thy marble vault*. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. Now therefore. And the last age should show your heart.
groapă youthful de tinereţe. peculiar. a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. a lâncezi. in spite of her coyness. nuanţă. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. fig. tineresc hue culoare. which. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. patimă) grave mormânt. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine.: swift. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . torn) a smulge. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. sfială.
or soon or slow.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. Ere* half my days. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. John Milton. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. John Milton. the subtle* thief of youth. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. and the will of heaven. to prevent That murmur*. they serve him best. a strict overseer TEXT 3.2. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. who best Bear his mild yoke*. and present My true account. rush bud mugur. Toward which time leads me. chide*. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. All is. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. obscure.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. lucky endueth endues. Yet be it less or more.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3.1. however mean* or high. speed. returning. appears [in me] much less – i. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. That I to manhood* am arrived so near. in this dark world and wide. lest he. destiny mean humble. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. but Patience. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. if I have grace to use it so. opportune happy fortunate.
light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus
TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă
TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
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Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase
TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)
TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
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From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
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Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere
TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi
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Me who have touched and tasted. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna.Reader TEXT 3. and ye shall be like Gods. or this tree Impart against his will. ye* shall not die. by the Threatener? look on me. Them nothing. reach* then. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. His worshippers? He knows that. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. ye you (pl. Why. Goddess humane. John Milton. Warmed by the Sun. 3. and that advantage use On our belief. in the day Ye eat thereof*. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. What can your knowledge hurt him. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. producing every kind. I question it. for this fair* Earth I see. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. that all from them proceeds*. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared.8. And what are Gods. by venturing* higher than my lot. as they know. that Man may not become As they. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. Knowing both good and evil. then. and freely taste. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. 4. Queen of the Universe. your eyes. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. modest thereof din ace(a)sta.
The world was all before them. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise.Reader TEXT 3. looking back. beheld to behold.9. so late* their happy seat*. hand in hand. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . They. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. beheld (archaic. with wandering steps and slow. where to choose Their place of rest. Waved over by that flaming brand*. Through Eden took their solitary way. John Milton. but wiped them soon. Paradise Lost (Book XII) They. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. and Providence their guide.
dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. to write and receive letters. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. without giving a reason. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. or to be intimate with fools. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. as if we were proud of one another the first week. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . Let us never visit together. to provoke eyes and whispers*. William Congreve. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. because they are your acquaintance. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. (…) fond affectionate. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. And lastly. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. and ashamed of one another ever after. to be sole* empress of my tea table. Come to dinner when I please. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus.1. so far trifle fleac. to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. wherever I am. let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. manierat. and then never be seen there together again. nor kiss before folks*. nor go to a play together. because they may be your relations*. To have my closet* inviolate*. reserved well-bred binecrescut. to wear what I please.
the poet of nature. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. but just representations of general nature. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. pungaş. variabil fanciful capricios. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. Samuel Johnson. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. ticălos. and leaves it standing in its place. and please long. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity. above all writers. Shakespeare is. successfully irregular neuniform. escroc. Particular manners* may be known to few. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. descendenţi to supply a oferi. potlogar villain nemernic. at least above all modern writers. unpractised by the rest of the world. secătură. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. by the peculiarities* of studies or professions.2. a blockhead*. John Dryden. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool.3. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. which can operate but* upon small numbers. dobitoc. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng. cap sec knave escroc.Reader TEXT 4. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. a livra. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. rogue pungaş.
history. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . And as to ideas. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. unnecessary scruple. refinement and intrigue. and esteem. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. consisting only in morality. either in a prince or a minister. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. love. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering.4. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. Jonathan Swift. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. should from a nice*. and profound learning. and transcendentals*. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. abstractions. poetry. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. to justice and lenity*. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*.Reader TEXT 4. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. and mathematics. For I remember very well. and almost adored by his subjects. A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. so that among us would be little esteemed. endued* with admirable talents for government. great wisdom. the liberties. in a discourse one day with the King. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made. The learning of this people is very defective. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. entities. of strong parts. and the fortunes of his people.
keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .5. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. a fi iniţiat în. For. and therefore* to protect himself. (…) That. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. as sometimes happens. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. than any of the rest. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. in some fields of his country. manufactures*. they will instead of eating peaceably. from the representation I had given him of our lives. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. there are certain shining stones of several colors. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. fall together by ears*. so. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. and mischievous* in disposition. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. Ch. and carry them away. and the like. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV.g. as I had described them. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. but not in themselves. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. (…) As to learning. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. Jonathan Swift. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. but still looking round with great caution. the shortness of my claws*. without delay determination rezolvare. a asigura. arts. and activity. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. which all could see in the rest. to restrict bound limit. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. government. speed. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. a i se încredinţa (e. our manners. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. and our actions. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove.
person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji
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TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).
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grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed
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UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL
TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by
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a frământa. and placed my firewood* all round it. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. what odd. though I had some lead to do it with. and pipkins*. being set out too hastily*. to dig* it. which none of these could do. which it did admirably well. to pity a căina awkward incomod. and how many fell out*. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. so as to make it burn me some pots. (fell. I was agreeably surprised to see it. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). one upon another. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 .2. or rather laugh at me. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. and. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire.Reader TEXT 5. with a great heap of embers* under them. anevoios. how many of them fell in*. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. a cădea fell out to fall.. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. after having laboured hard to find the clay. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots. such as the potters* burn in. But all this would not answer my end*. in a word how. flat dishes*. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*. misshapen*. and red as a tile*. pitchers*. and bear* the fire. Daniel Defoe. and any things my hand turned to*. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*. It happened after some time. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. and observed that they did not crack at all*. When I saw them clear red. I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. a se desprinde clay lut. ugly things I made. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. or glazing* them with lead*. fallen) out: a se desface. de pământ jar oală. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. I had no notion of a kiln*. to temper* it. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. (fell. to bring it home and work it. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile.
than the dry*.] This letter. before. but now. but it has crept*. dubious uncertain. however. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. born) a rezista. plin de viaţă) height culme. is not a voluntary thing – Love. Samuel Richardson. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. I am quite overcome*. did I say! […] I know not how it came. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. scop. my dear father. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. and tender years*. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. I beseech* you. Samuel Richardson. in which he confesses his affection for her. has greatly affected me. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. and before I knew what was the matter. chinuri womb pântece. nay*. it looked like love. a învinge. This was a good fortune. narrative. I must own* to you. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). […] O my dear parents. I had no reason to expect. a depăşi) TEXT 5. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. punct culminant. I imagine.Reader dish blid. to my grief*. can be. O my unguarded* youth. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. […] Forgive. and so it is: but love. like a thief. to find him capable of so much openness. But to be sure*. crept. upon me. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. so much affection. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. nor when it began. B_. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. when I expected some new plot*. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. apogeu distress nefericire. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. intenţie to bear (bore. durere.3. forgive me! but I found. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. and of so much honour too. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me.4. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .
in its sentiments and diction*. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns. and resignation to the Divine Will. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 .e. intrigă plainly în mod deschis.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew.] plot uneltire. of inferior manners.5. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. sever grief durere. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. and to one too. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. a implora grieved amărât. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction. O my treacherous*. before summons* came.) treacherous trădător (adj. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. Yet. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose.my heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. a rupe memorandum notă. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. în mod clar rigorous aspru. that as in the one these are grave and solemn.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni. when I get home. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. or tear* it out of my writing. containing a much larger circle of incidents. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. [Memorandum*. and consequently. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. întristat. and therefore*. I think. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. însemnare TEXT 5. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. for there it is never properly introduced. torn) out a smulge. only dangerous attacks! After all. în consecinţă to tear (tore. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i. and introducing a greater variety of characters. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. to consider of this. thy whole self. as I thought. in this. differing from comedy. Henry Fielding. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. for giving up so weakly. In the diction. who had used me so hardly. I hope.
not men. and where our delight. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man.Reader burlesque kind. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. arises from the surprising absurdity. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. which that of the hypocrite hath. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. is more surprising. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. It may be likewise noted. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. which this is not intended to be. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). Indeed. in order to purchase* applause. yet when it comes from vanity only. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. Burlesque is in writing. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. or hath not the virtue he affects. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. Now. to the degree he would be thought to have it. yet. And here I shall observe. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. and. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. therefore. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. what Caricatura is in painting. as they proceed* from very different motives. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. though. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. […] Now. or e converso*. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. that. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. if we examine it. and consequently more ridiculous. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. it be nearly allied to deceit*. than when from vanity. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy.
it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. smaller faults. But for not being what they would be thought*. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. which at first moved our compassion.: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 . face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. cu stângăcie. fig. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu. of our pity. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. tend* only to raise our mirth*.
and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me. Laurence Sterne. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. I fear. with reverence be it spoken*. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*. two contrary motions are introduced into it. and reconciled. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. the merit of which has all along. povară signal însemnat. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. Laurence Sterne. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. and that I fly off* from what I am about. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain.Reader TEXT 5. nefericit TEXT 5. Gentleman. as you observe. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. my work is digressive. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. In a word. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. which. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .7. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. been overlooked* by my reader. to annoy ungracious răutăcios. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. on my conscience. not for want of penetration* in him. brought forth born scurvy păcătos.6. and it is progressive too. Tristram Shandy (Vol. I wish I had been born in the Moon. in a digression. – not but the planet is well enough*. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*.I. – and at the same time. dirty planet of ours. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. a izbuti. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. or expected indeed.
incontestably.Reader Digressions. I observe. in this matter. the soul of reading. that the whole machine. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. and if he goes on with his main work. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. one wheel within another*. is truly pitiable*: For. then there is an end of his digression. from the beginning of this. – they are the life. but also of the author. if he begins a digression. from that moment. brings in variety. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. and forbids the appetite to fail. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. This is vile work*. cum trebuie. you might as well take the book along with them. whose distress*. his whole work stands stock-still*. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. what’s more. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. bids* All hail*. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. For which reason. has been kept agoing. în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. – and. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. are the sunshine. in general. restore them to the writer. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. – take them out of this book for instance. you see. if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*.
He chid* their wanderings*. propped* on that rude* staff*. croit to prize a preţui. to scold (a dojeni. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. Oliver Goldsmith. devout (evlavios. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. Who. Or theirs. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. Then his first joy. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. a boy. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. Unpracticed he to fawn*. distant godly pious. George Crabbe. a alina. And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. or seek for power. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. cerşetor train alai. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. The Deserted Village A man he was. nor wished to change his place. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. Go. the matron* pale. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. and ask if peace be there. modelat. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. Nor e’er* had changed. cortegiu şir chid to chide. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. he climbed the loftiest bough*.1. a mângâia) TEXT 6. passing rich trecând drept bogat. Or hers. chid: to rebuke. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. but his sad emblem now. hoinar. to all the country dear. look within.
pace smooth calm. linişte. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. nenorocit hearth vatră. Of human race. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. o’er over to exalt to raise. James Thomson. ales.4. rezemat rude rudimentary. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. unconfined*. coarse. With all the social offspring of the heart*. and as high: Devotion. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. urmaş feeble plăpând. to elevate. to stimulate. părinte offspring vlăstar. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. William Cowper. sorbitură grove crâng.3. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. jalnic. and man made the town.) gentle nobil. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . sprijinit. generos ease tihnă. What wonder then that health and virtue. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. The Task (1785) God made the country. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all.Reader ye you (pl. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt. As varied. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. and. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. simple. The love of Nature. Inflames imagination. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. chief*.
gentle and uncomplaining (blând. William Blake. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. Helpless.Reader TEXT 6. a închide weary tired. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. Gave thee such a tender voice. leapt: a sări. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. piping* loud. William Blake. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. God bless thee. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. a ţâşni.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. and bid thee feed*. Striving against my swaddling bands*. Bound* and weary*. not violent (blajin. to groan a geme. a înlănţui. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. Struggling in my father’s hands. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. Little Lamb. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud. We are called by his name. Gave thee clothing of delight. Little Lamb. supus) mild gentle. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. naked. wooly* bright.5. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. my father wept*. and he is mild*. Little Lamb. cuminte. God bless thee. Softest clothing.6. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. bound: a lega strâns. I’ll tell thee.
a sălta. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be.” “Well. let us play. go and play till the light fades away*. well. tranquil. William Blake. “Then come home my children. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. And every thing else is still. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind. That so many sweet flowers bore*. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. green pajişte verde at rest calm.7. Come.Reader TEXT 6.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. And laughing is heard on the hill. So I turned to the Garden of Love. And the hills are all covered with sheep. And the dews* of night arise. in the sky the little birds fly. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. Besides. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear. no. Where I used to play on the green. William Blake. And then go home to bed. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. bore.8. come leave off play. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. And I saw it was filled with graves*. And we cannot go to sleep. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie.” “No. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . for it is yet day. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. My heart is at rest* within my breast. the sun is gone down.
a irosi TEXT 6. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. And your winter and night in disguise. William Blake. Tom was happy and warm. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. And he opened the coffins and set them all free.Reader TEXT 6. if he'd be a good boy. And so Tom awoke. the sun is gone down. William Blake. and we rose* in the dark. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. and sport* in the wind. Ned and Jack. all their bags left behind. my children. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair.10. Then down a green plain leaping. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. and in soot* I sleep. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. My face turns green* and pale. As Tom was a-sleeping. Joe. And the dews of night arise. Though the morning was cold. and shine in the Sun.” And so he was quiet. Dick. never mind it. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . And wash in a river. They rise upon clouds. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. weep. and that very night. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. Then come home. for when your head's bare. laughing. weep. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. Then naked and white. freamăt dale vale. foşnet. whisperings şoapte. So if all do their duty. they run. And the Angel told Tom. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. There’s little Tom Dacre.9. they need not fear harm. Tom.
The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow. Then cherish* pity. Because I was happy upon the heath*. în preajmă to sport a zburda. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. William Blake. Crying “weep*. risen): a se scula. potoleşte-te. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. And smiled among the winter’s snow. their innocent faces clean. wise guardians of the poor. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. The hum* of multitudes was there. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . lest* you drive* an angel from your door. coşciug by aproape. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). And because I am happy and dance and sing. these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. O what a multitude they seemed. alături. Grey-headed beadles* walked before.12.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. but multitudes of lambs. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. with wands* as white as snow. William Blake. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. hornar sold to sell. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. Beneath them sit the aged men. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. They think they have done me no injury*. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. a se deştepta TEXT 6. They clothed me in the clothes of death.11.
who helped the priest in various ways. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. neroditor thorn spin. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. sterp. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. a iubi) lest ca să nu. soft.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. And where-e’er the rain does fall. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp. fruitful fecund. a goni TEXT 6. Nor poverty the mind appal*. rece. gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. fertil. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. lugubru bare gol. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. Babe can never hunger there. the 40 day after Easter. For where-e’er* the sun does shine.13. re-built th in the late 17 century. William Blake. and to the Last Judgement. It is eternal winter there. And their ways are filled with thorns*. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face.
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