Program postuniversitar de conversie profesională pentru cadrele didactice din mediul rural

Specializarea LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ Forma de învăţământ ID - semestrul III




Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural


Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature



© 2006

Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării

ISBN 10 973-0-04576-3; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04576-5.


Introduction 1
1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1

The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background
Unit objectives The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading

9 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 i

2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.2.7. 2.2.8. 2.2.9. 2.2.10. 2.2.11. 2.2.12. 2.3. 2.3.1.

The late Renaissance and the Baroque
Unit objectives The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3.1. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No. 2. 4.5. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 4 4.2.3. 4. 3.2. 3.4.1. 4.1. 3. 2.5.4.Contents 2.3. The Works of John Milton Unit objectives Milton. 4. 3. 4.3.4. The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 3 3.1. 3.2. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan. ii The Restoration and the Augustan Age Unit objectives Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.4.1. 3. 3.3.4. 2.4. 3. 3.7. 3. 4.4.4. 4. 3. 2.6.

2.2.2. 5.4. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.1. 4.3. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1.5. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 117 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 iii 5 5.4. 4.4. 4.1. 4.6. The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Unit objectives Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5.3. 5. 5. 4.5. 5. 5. Gulliver.1. 5.3.4. 4.3. 5. 4. Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.3. 5.3. 5. 5.1. 4. 5. 5.Contents 4.4.4. 5. 4.7. 5.5. 5.6.

6. 6.4. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.2. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6.4.4. 6. 6.3.2. 6.4. English pre-Romantic poetry Unit objectives Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.1.4. 6.Contents Gallery of personalities SAA No. 3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading Reader in seventeenth and eighteenth century literature Selected bibliography iv Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 144 145 146 148 149 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 177 216 6 6.3.3. 6.2. The Seasons William Cowper. 6. 6.1.1. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.4.1.3. 6.3. 6.1. 6.

Defoe. and to the enrichment of your grasp of the English language. such as was presented in your Cultural Studies course. 2. Before starting your study. but also to examine more closely particular texts by the most important authors (Shakespeare. by encouraging your response to particular texts. Blake. The double focus of the course – on general aspects of a particular period or doctrine. this course will give you a minimum of contextual detail. What this course is about This course is a brief introduction to English literature in the 17th and 18th centuries. It also aims at developing your “reading competence. You must bear in mind that the teaching of a foreign language does not presuppose only a good command of its grammatical structures and vocabulary. Fielding. You are expected and urged to bring to the understanding of this extended literary period the knowledge acquired in your previous study. It will thus contribute to the consolidation of your knowledge and understanding of British culture and civilisation. How this course can help you The study of this course will widen your perspective on English literature and its evolution. Literature is always an important testimony to the evolution of this spirit. In this way. it would be helpful if you refreshed your acquaintance with the basic historical and cultural framework of the 17th and 18th centuries. this course aims at enlarging your understanding of British culture and civilisation. Course objectives As already mentioned. but also an intimate acquaintance with the spirit of that culture and civilisation. You will be able to build a general picture of the main literary achievements of this period. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 1 . among others). Swift. It will familiarise you with the defining features of the literary trends and doctrines of these two centuries. 3. and an “agent” in the cultural dynamics in a country. a carrier of values. and will highlight the contributions of their most representative literary personalities. Being concerned with aspects of literary history.Introduction INTRODUCTION 1. Milton.” at helping you refine your perception of literary phenomena and categories. and on certain texts – will hopefully help you to overcome the relatively great temporal and cultural distance separating us from those centuries. the study of the present course will more efficiently contribute to your professional becoming.

• 4.g. or establish what links Fielding’s novels to literary Neoclassicism. a Glossary. Some of the units also contain an assignment that you have to do and send to your tutor. the Baroque. Each unit. By the end of your study of this course. a unit contains a series of “auxiliary” sections: a Summary. Besides them. 2 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . identify the features of the baroque sensibility in Shakespeare’s tragedies. is structured around a series of tasks that you must accomplish – the self-assessing questions (the SAQs). Neoclassicism. in its turn. the values of a particular culturalhistorical or literary age • distinguish the proportion of originality and conformity to a tradition in a particular work or a given text • specify the contribution of the studied authors and their works to the evolution of literary forms and styles • describe and compare particularities of style. the Restoration. you should therefore be able to: define the distinctive features. the Enlightenment • identify elements of continuity and discontinuity between these periods and movements • define the main features of an aesthetic-literary doctrine or type of literary sensibility (e. The solutions and suggestions for SAQs are provided in a separate section. preRomanticism) • identify such features in the work of a particular author or in a particular text (e.g. or what makes Blake a Romantic poet) • identify. Course content and structure This course is structured in six units of study. characterisation. the Augustan Age. thematic and formal structure in the works of various authors. forming a chronological survey of the major literary developments in the 17th and 18th centuries. the characteristic attitudes and concerns of such cultural-historical-literary movements or periods as the Renaissance.lIntroduction This complex aim presupposes your development of certain specific competences. as part of your overall assessment. and a Gallery of personalities. in a given text. a list of key words.

Sterne –. as well as major representatives. engage you actively and in diverse ways in the process of study. • Unit 5 (The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel) presents the main concerns and the typology of the novel as a dominant genre in the 18th century. • Unit 6 (English pre-Romantic poetry) introduces you to the poetry of sensibility of the 18th century as the illustration of an important literary tendency. The self-assessment questions (SAQs) The self-assessment questions in each unit have the role of helping you to structure and organise your study.2. • Unit 3 (The works of John Milton) emphasises Milton’s Christian humanism. The main focus in this unit is on the imaginative structure and thematic interest of Milton’s masterpiece. with main focus on Jonathan Swift. The SAQs encourage you to see your course work as more than a simple effort of memory (although the importance of memory in the process of learning must not be underrated). • Unit 4 (The Restoration and the Augustan Age) deals with four major aspects: the comedy of manners during the age of the Restoration. These tasks will guide you in the process of ordering your knowledge. with an emphasis on the evolution of genres and styles and their main representatives.Introduction 4. H. the periodical essay of the 18th century as an important contribution to Augustan literature. The unit surveys characteristic preRomantic themes and motifs. The variety of these learning tasks will. Richardson. • 4.1. The most common SAQs in this course will require you to: Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 3 . and with the evolution of this genre. S. hopefully. The units of learning Unit 1 (The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background) offers a general picture of the literary scene and its intellectual-cultural context. You will get acquainted with the contributions of four major novelists – D. Fielding and L. the epic poem Paradise Lost. and they will enable you to work with it in a specific context. and Augustan satire. but also to your independent thinking and to your imagination. • Unit 2 (The late Renaissance and the Baroque) deals with the emergence of the baroque sensibility in English late Renaissance literature. and to draw your own conclusions. the literary doctrine of Neoclassicism. The major authors considered in this unit are Shakespeare and the poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell. and insists on William Blake as both a pre-Romantic and Romantic poet. They appeal not only to your memory. Defoe.

an author’s work. You are required to solve these SAQs in the blank spaces provided for each of them in textboxes. with the typological definition of a work. narrative technique. the independent intellectual effort that you are encouraged to put into your learning. state its theme • comment on / interpret a given fragment. the title of a work. in the literary text you were asked to work on.lIntroduction answer questions about the theme. • A self-assessed question (SAQ) is signalled in the course text by this icon accompanying a textbox. at the end of the unit. etc. Do not get discouraged if some of your answers should not come near the suggestions offered at the end. after you have identified them in/after a provided short description • match a given literary fragment with a given paraphrase. You are strongly advised to resist the temptation of consulting this section before you have actually tried to do the exercises yourself. Try to analyse your errors and to become aware of everything you have missed in the instructions of the SAQ. summarise its argument. characterisation. Remember that what counts most is the process of thinking that leads you to a particular answer. The estimated length of your answers will be indicated as number of words / number of lines. match incomplete statements so as to reconstruct an idea or a description • identify true/false sentences. and. Solutions and suggestions for SAQs You can check your answers to each SAQ by going to this section. 4 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . so as to re-describe certain important aspects about a literary period or a particular writer’s work • fill in blanks with the features of a certain literary movement or style.3. You are given detailed instructions about what is expected from you. etc. line. of a certain work or a provided fragment • explain the relevance or significance of a certain item (phrase. A line in your textboxes is estimated to contain ten words on the average. stylistic features.. so as to obtain synthetic reformulations or rephrasings of relevant details about a literary period. if the case may be. • paraphrase a given fragment from a studied literary work. etc. fragment) • complete sentences. symbolic elements. and you are advised to read those instructions carefully and to follow them. 4. You are also given instructions about how to proceed if your answers differ significantly from the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs (see below).

will also appear in Units 5 and 6. The terms included in the Glossary are marked by an asterisk (*) in the text of the unit.1. which contains titles that should not be very hard to find in libraries. You may ask your tutor to help you with the access to those sources. other instruments meant to assist your study. For example. which indicates a minimal bibliography for each unit. You may also be directed back to a certain subchapter in a previous unit. • the Selective bibliography at the end of the course. in which terms or phrases that have been considered difficult or unfamiliar to you are explained. • Further reading. The materials indicated in the Further reading section and in the Selective bibliography (see below) offer you supplementary information.3. in order to make sure you remember exactly what a term refers to. with the pages where you may find relevant information. to organise it around the most important issues • the Glossary (in alphabetical order). which includes basic information about the life and work of the mentioned personalities. not just Being. for the Great Chain of Being*. whose Glossaries will send you back to the Glossary in Unit 1. which is explained in the Glossary in Unit 1. at the end.1. the Glossaries will send you back to 1. when this notion is used again in Units 4 or 6.4. an asterisk must be understood to mark not just the word it is attached to. Most of the books included there are available in any University library. if necessary or desired. These auxiliary sections are: the Summary and a list of key words. but the phrase of which that word is part.Introduction 4.3. the term Enlightenment. in Unit 1. which will enable you to review and focus your knowledge. Thus. For instance. if you wish to supplement or clarify your knowledge • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 5 . you will look up the whole phrase in the Glossary. Auxiliary sections Each unit contains. the notion of heroic couplet is explained in subchapter 1. Some terms may recur in several units. • the Gallery of personalities (in the alphabetical order of the last names). you will be sometimes returned to the Glossary of a previous unit to reinforce or refresh your understanding of them. Sometimes.

The Reader The course is accompanied by a Reader.2 will cover units 4 and 5. which will enable your tutor to assess your performance in the course work. or one word may be given an explanation/translation different from the one you might be familiar with. A send-away assignment (SAA) is signalled in the text by the icon accompanying this textbox. The three SAAs are placed at the end of units 3. If you should find these lexical notes insufficient for your understanding of a particular text. As we are dealing with 17th and 18th century literature. This is why the same word may appear with different explanations/translations in several glossaries. SAA no. The cumulated weight of these SAAs in your final grade is 40%. before you start solving the task. don’t hesitate to use a good dictionary. especially the poetry texts. Assessment and evaluation Besides the self-assessment questions included in each unit. These first two SAAs will therefore consist in more than one task. and make sure you understand its general meaning or basic ideas. which contains the selection of texts you need in order to accomplish some of the course tasks. and 6. The Reader provides you with little glossaries for each text. and the weight of each assignment: 6 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . As the texts are not very long. in which the words and phrases supposed to be unknown. or misleadingly familiar to you are explained either in English or in Romanian. 5.5. while SAA no. some of these texts might seem difficult to you. 1 will assess your knowledge of units 2 and 3. 5. difficult. the course contains three send-away assignments (SAAs). In any case. the number of tasks. try to read each fragment more than once. The table below represents the place. this should not take you too much time. The given explanation or translation into Romanian applies only to the respective context. The written test that you will sit at the end of the semester will add the other 60%.lIntroduction 4.

6 hours are allotted to your tutorial meetings. 3. As in the case of the SAQs. 2. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Each assignment must be completed and sent to the tutor in the allotted study week (see Your study schedule below). however. Plan your study by taking into account that a semester has 14 weeks. 1. Your ability to identify and use the knowledge required by a particular situation is part of what is assessed in any test. to go through each unit in approximately 4 hours. 28 are meant for individual study of the course material (the solving of the SAQs included). and 8 hours to the completion of your SAAs. theoretically. You may. Of these hours.Introduction Unit Number of tasks and their weight in each SAA Weight of each SAA in the final assessment SAA no. 2. at least take care that your handwriting should be fully legible. clarity. make sure you understand what is being asked of you in each assignment. find your own rhythm and divide your study time into several sessions.3 3 5 6 2 3 1 1. 6. so pay special attention to the instructions for each task (30%). the tutor will take into account: • the degree to which your answer respects the formulated requirement. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 7 . If your level of proficiency is lower. If you have no possibility to type your assignment.2 SAA no. You can reserve two weeks for each unit of learning – which means that you are expected. your course work may take you more time. Your study schedule This course is devised for 42 hours of study. half of the answer is already contained in the question.1 SAA no. Note that a typewritten paper is likely to ease your tutor’s work. • the coherence. This is more likely to happen when you are required to work on literary texts. 50% 50% 50% 30% 20% 100% 10% 20% 10% 40% In the assessment of each assignment. whose reading may take you some extra time. 1. Most of the time.

and gallery of personalities). there are SAAs. whose content follows a chronological line. At the end of Units 3. You have the possibility to monitor your work by verifying your answers. Each unit includes a series of self-assessing tasks (SAQs). while the final written test will represent 60 % in your overall evaluation. The course contains several auxiliary sections (summary.2 SAA no. forms and styles. A provisional study schedule may look like this: Week Unit Number of study hours Assignment Number of hours for the SAAs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Revision 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 28 SAA no. The three assignments will count. a revision of the course material. along the 17th and 18th centuries in England. 8 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . list of key words. of the evolution of literary genres. which you will find in the Reader accompanying the coursebook. as well as a list of suggested further reading. together.1 2 Planning your course work is important as it will enable you to send your assignments to the tutor in due time.3 3 3 8 SAA no. as the course provides you with the solutions and suggestions for SAQs at the end of each unit. and 6.lIntroduction The first and the last week should be reserved for the Introduction and. glossary. but which also focus on dominant genres and on outstanding. More information about the subjects in each unit is available in the selective bibliography which concludes the coursebook. according to a pre-established schedule. which will help you to organise and focus your knowledge. as 40% of the final grade. Many of these SAQs require your response to a literary text. which you must write and send to your tutor. Summary This course offers you an overview of the literary periods and trends. It is structured in six units of study. representative authors. respectively. 5.

1.3. 1. 1.1.1. 1. 1. 1.2.1. 1. 1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background UNIT 1 THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: INTELLECTUAL AND LITERARY BACKGROUND Unit Outline 1 1.1.4. 1. Unit objectives The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The intellectual scene in the 17th and 18th centuries Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling The Enlightenment: an age of progress An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries The evolution of poetic forms Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries Jacobean tragedy Comedy in the early 17th century Drama during the Restoration period Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The evolution of prose style Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 21 23 24 24 28 30 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 9 . 1.4.

obscurantism and intolerance. science. nature and divinity during the Age of Reason. The gradual achievement of political stability. a powerful flourishing nation. The completion of this transition was to take place during the next age. as well as the faith in progress. in which the progress of England to modernity was steady in all fields. the arts – all fields of human endeavour went through crucial transformations during the 17th century. The victory of Reason over dogmatism.1. in the latter part of the 17th century. The end of “high Renaissance” (the flourishing of the Elizabethan* Age) and the “late Renaissance”.1. of philosophical empiricism* determined to a great extent the attitudes to man in his relationship to society.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the most important tendencies in the evolution of intellectual attitudes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ♦ establish connections between the historical and intellectual context and the literary scene ♦ describe the major divisions of this long period according to historical. mentalities. literature. attitudes and practices. marked the entrance into modernity. seen as extending up to the Restoration* (1660) were periods of gradual but irreversible changes in modes of thought. dramatic and prose genres and their main representatives in their proper literary-historical context within the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Unit objectives 1. colonial expansion and an extraordinary economic development made England. as the Enlightenment is often described. The intellectual scene Along the two centuries. at the end of this period. the year of the Glorious Revolution*. religion. The Renaissance and the Enlightenment The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a complex period. cultural and literary aspects ♦ establish elements of continuity and discontinuity along the two centuries ♦ explain the process of literary “modernisation” along these two centuries through the evolution of styles and the dynamic of genres ♦ place various poetic. radical changes occurred in intellectual habits and preoccupations. of the Enlightenment. The rise. 10 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which in England is in fact considered to have started in 1688.1. philosophy. 1. Culturally the two centuries correspond to two movements whose basic tendency was the emancipation of man: the Renaissance* and the Enlightenment*. Political. social and economic life. The growing critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture.

to reconcile Reason and Faith. a religious movement which aimed at reviving the Evangelical spirit and the ideal of Christian life. the “universal Architect. Reason and faith in the Age of the Enlightenment The rationalism of the Renaissance and Enlightenment thought determined a reconsideration of the relation between Nature and Divinity and a new vision of the universe. the capacity of distinguishing right from wrong. It was a rational alternative to religious dogmatism. which was left to develop by itself on the basis of these perfect laws. working according to impersonal laws which testified to the supreme intelligence of the Creator.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Francis Bacon It is also during these two centuries that modern science was born. and it was essentially optimistic. The optimism of the Deists extended to human nature. in particular. The Royal Society endeavoured. Deism attempted to give a rational foundation to religious thought. manifest in its rationally and experimentally discernible laws. that human life be enriched by new discoveries and powers. Engaging in a variety of original scientific experiments.2. endowed with a sixth sense: the moral sense. in 1662. or Natural Religion –. Deists believed that the admirable order of the universe.” This idea will be echoed several decades later. in a systematic effort. and which encouraged emotional effusion as a way of achieving communion with God. under the patronage of Charles II. combined the traditional confidence in the divine infinite wisdom with the intellectual spirit of the age. This new faith – Deism. had important philosophical and theological implications: the universe was now conceived as a perfect mechanism. One of the most ardent promoters of the new scientific spirit was Francis Bacon* (1561-1626). The scientific discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton*. It was to be counter-balanced by the Evangelical Revival*.” God was seen as the prime cause of a harmonious universe. His well-known maxim “Knowledge is Power” points to the utilitarian conception of the role of science. which could not offer spiritual comfort to the large masses of the poor and uneducated. It was a highly intellectualised religious approach. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 11 . In his work Novum Organum (1620) he explicitly states that “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is simply this. was an evidence of the creator’s good will. initiated by Isaac Newton and John Locke*. to “overcome the mysteries of all the works of Nature” and to apply that knowledge “for the benefit of human life. when The Royal Society “for the improving of Natural Knowledge” was founded. The moral philosophy of the Deists argued that man was innately good.1.” 1. a reaction against mysticism and obscurantism.

The interest in the constitution and workings of the human mind awakened the awareness that man’s response to reality was not only rational. It was a general dedication to the cause of progress. The development of modern science and the rise of philosophical empiricism are major aspects of the process of intellectual modernisation in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. T F 4. the Enlightenment. The poet Alexander Pope indicated. in the latter part of the Age of the Enlightenment. The growing spirit of individualism. The Enlightenment continued the Renaissance faith in man’s perfectibility and sought for man’s emancipation both as an individual and as a social being. which may be defined as the Age of Sensibility. T F 3. continued the project of the Renaissance. to superstition and obscurantism. Read the statements below and identify the true ones. appropriately. for each sentence.4. The cult of Reason thus gave way to the cult of Feeling. which made Enlightenment England a model of civilisation for the Western world. The Enlightenment: an age of progress On the whole. T F 12 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. the central concern of the Enlightenment. The Deist notion of innate virtue came to be connected with man’s capacity for feeling. T F 2.1.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. 1. in his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). The Royal Society was an institution concerned with the spreading of Neoclassical principles in art and literature. when he declared: ”The proper study of mankind is Man. but also affective and instinctual. T F 5. SAQ 1 The following exercise will help you revise some of the more important aspects concerning the intellectual and cultural background of the 17th and 18th centuries.3. Circle T (true) or F (false). the awareness of the complex interdependencies in a modern civilisation made it necessary to reconcile the individual pursuit of happiness and freedom with the general wellbeing. with its belief in the perfectibility of man. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling This infusion of emotionalism in spiritual life may be seen as the sign of a certain evolution in the temper of the 18th century. The Deist image of God as the “Universal Architect” reveals a rationalist-mechanicist conception of the universe. Individual and social good was the object of all endeavours in this age.” The whole century was preoccupied with the idea of man’s happiness and of the improvement of man’s condition on earth. The emergence of Deism was a reaction to religious dogmatism. 1. and which prepared the way for the Romantic Age*.

After 1688. The absolute authority of the monarch made the Court the Influence of Court centre of intellectual and literary life. The abundance of classical Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 13 . with their Literature in the Age of Common Man cultivated taste. There was a general care for discipline and refinement in composition.1. The study and imitation of the great Latin and Greek authors and the concern with literary tradition as a reliable source of models made literature highly conventional. and the accepted patterns and conventions were touchstones for literary virtuosity and originality. You may also need to revise some of the terms explained in the Glossary. The Evangelical Revival shared with Deism the attempt to give a rational foundation to religious faith.” T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.4. The 18th century is called sometimes The Age of Common Man. Numerous treatises on literary art established norms and precepts. in one way or another. Alexander Pope pointed out the humanistic orientation of the Enlightenment in his maxim “The proper study of mankind is man. It is significant. The division into Elizabethan. read again subchapters. the decrease in the power of the Crown. symmetry.1. It was the main focus of literary attention. to 1. A new interest in rhetoric animated authors to pursue eloquence by a lavish use of figures of speech and the display of wit*. regularity.1. but also the ultimate arbiter life on literature in matters of literary and artistic fashions.2. with little or no classical knowledge. T F 8. Jacobean* and Caroline* of the “high” and late Renaissance literature points not only to a temporal delimitation. The Age of the Enlightenment excluded completely the interest in human feeling and emotion. for instance. for proportion. when the literary audience becomes more diversified. and both writers and audiences were. the great ages of the Renaissance and of the Enlightenment may be further divided according to various criteria. The literature of the Renaissance was under the sign of the classical revival*. that the notion of reading public emerges now. at the end of the unit. but also to the close connection between the dominant literary values of those ages and Court life. and the literary field was no longer confined to the learned. and exalted Reason as the only defining human faculty. This is mainly connected with the rise of the middle classes and the growth of their cultural importance. the social diversification and the “unfixing” of the strictly hierarchical order of the Renaissance led gradually towards a “democratisation” of literature.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 6. T F 7. 1. including readers of more modest education. The Court was not only the catalyst of the emerging national feeling. If you have failed to identify any of the sentences correctly as true or false. in the orbit of the crown. An overview of the literary scene in the 17th and 18th centuries From a literary point of view.

Complete each sentence in the provided space. so as to obtain complete sentences describing aspects of the general literary picture of the 17th and 18th centuries. during the Augustan Age*. Racine. The mid-seventeenth century was an age of transition. Molière)…… d. on the model of the French controversy known as the “Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. but they were resumed during the Restoration*. English Neoclassicism must be linked not only to the survival of the Renaissance humanism. SAQ 2 Read the partial statements below and match them. in which the declining phase of the Renaissance was characterised by a return to the classics.” started in the late 17th century. Much of Renaissance literature. The relationship between tradition and modernity became a matter of literary consciousness during…… 1. Corneille. above all. 14 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Molière. A significant aspect of Augustan literature is the development and importance of literary criticism. …the Augustan Age. This led to the emergence Neoclassicism* in England. with its highly conventional forms and rhetorical style. a. The comparative merit of ancient and modern standards of literary excellence and learning became a central issue of critical debate. This reflects.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background The Augustan Age: literary Neoclassicism allusions demonstrated the author’s erudition and required from the readers familiarity with classical learning. The great French classical authors of the 17th century (Boileau. …… c. when the merits of the “Ancients” and the “Moderns” became the object of comparison. England’s intellectual and literary exchanges with Catholic France had been suspended during the Civil War*. a new consciousness of the relationship between literary tradition and modernity. 2. …on literary taste and fashions during the Renaissance. Jean Racine. but also to the influence of the French authors of the great classical century – the age of Louis XIV. The Court was the main source of influence…… b. the “Sun King” –: Nicolas Boileau. Pierre Corneille.

Thomas Gray and William Collins (in the latter). which departed from the artificiality and poetry conventionalism of most Elizabethan poetry. They approached other themes besides love: e. by the Romantic poets. The most Renaissance lyric enduring poetic achievements of the early 17th century is the forms sequence of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609). concentration. The heroic couplet was the perfect verse couplet structure of the Age of Reason. In parallel. 1. or meditative-descriptive poems like James Thomson’s The Seasons (1726-1730) or William Cowper’s The Task (1785). The chief model for The sonnet sequence Renaissance soneteers was Petrarch* and his love sonnets to Laura. Thomas Carew. conveyed by means of a rich variety of rhetorical effects. It appealed both to the intellect and to the emotions. in a variety of poetical forms: philosophical poems. religious faith – John Donne. Its perfect mastery is illustrated by works like Pope’s didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711). Apart from the classical poetic forms that survived into the Restoration and the Augustan Age. but English poets varied the highly conventional form of this kind of poem. The common vehicle for it was the heroic couplet – two rhyming The Augustan heroic lines containing a complete statement. George Herbert. It favoured conciseness. combining classical restraint with force of argument and expressive clarity. John Dryden (in the former). The sonnet fell into disuse during the late Renaissance and it was revived only towards the end of the 18th century. James Thomson. original or translated epics. Other lyric forms endured: the ode. Robert Herrick). A remarkable poetic development in the first half of the 17th century was the metaphysical poetry (John Donne. the ode*. continued to be used throughout the 17th and 18th centuries: John Milton. for instance. you need to revise subchapter 1. or religion and politics – John Milton.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 3. If you have failed to make the right match. Its name refers to a certain Metaphysical expressive strategy.2. which are illustrative of a pre-Romantic* cross-current. and it made extensive use of wit. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the blank verse* – on the model of Milton in his great Blank verse epic* Paradise Lost (1667) – was extensively used in the 18th century. acquainted with the great classical authors and works. at the end of the unit. …influenced English literary Neoclassicism. the verse satire emerged as a novelty at the end of the 17th century and flourished during the next – John Dryden and Alexander Pope being its unequalled masters. tight logical coherence and striking imagery. Alexander Pope.g. A “metaphysical” strain exists in Shakespeare’s final period of creation. Andrew Marvell. The evolution of poetic forms The lyric. 4. or his philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733).3. the pastoral* lyric. and the Puritan Andrew Marvell must also be included here. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 15 . …addressed itself to learned readers. in its various forms – the song*. the sonnet* – dominated Renaissance poetry.

Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Towards the end of the century. It was the only form of literature which. 1. the verse satires of Dryden and Pope (Unit 4). comparable perhaps only with the rise of the novel in the next century. In little more than half a century (1580-1642). 16 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .3. and the “poetry of sensibility” which announced the coming of the Romantic Age (Unit 6). at the end of the unit. the ballad) and the increasing hostility to the artificiality and conventionalism of Augustan poetic diction* heralded the shift in taste which marked the beginning of Romanticism. some of them of popular origin (the song. in the space left below. If there should be major differences between them. together with their most outstanding representatives. revise subchapter 1. enjoyed a widely popular appeal. SAQ 3 Which are the most popular kinds of poems in the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least six of them. The flourishing of English drama during the Renaissance is a unique phenomenon. Drama in the 17th and 18th centuries The Renaissance was the Golden Age of English drama. a brilliant constellation of playwrights founded a dramatic tradition which represents the best and most original expression of the nation’s creative genius. we shall look more closely at some of the most representative poetic works of these two centuries: the metaphysical poetry of Donne and Marvell (Unit 2). a new appreciation of older poetic forms. In the following units of this course. through its representation on stage.4.

1607). treachery. The great age of English drama ended abruptly in 1642. From Senecan tragedy. was a miniature of the English society. and in the 18th century it was replaced by the novel in popularity. when the Puritans* closed the theatres. The type of the villain is the descendant of the Devil in the mediaeval Mystery plays* and a forerunner of the arch-villain in English literature. Shakespeare’s protagonist in Richard III (1592-3) and Lady Macbeth (Macbeth. Of the Caroline playwrights. while others changed. with the restoration of monarchy. the sensational plot. Jacobean and Caroline plays usually represented atrocities on stage. 1612) and especially John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi. sometimes he rights the wrong done to another. sensational and macabre. play-houses were reopened. and this “unholy alliance” between crown and stage increased the intransigence of the Puritans. with his exploration of the darkness of strange passions. or Vittoria Corombona (1612) are among the most accomplished portrayals of the villain in drama. Unlike Senecan plays. drama witnessed a decline. as well as John Webster’s heroine in The White Devil. etc. They saw the theatre as a source of moral corruption through the “idle” pleasure that it offered. but the spirit of the great tradition was never recaptured. The great acting companies were under the patronage of the king. who usually appears as a ghost on the stage. to accommodate the tastes of a new public. Masters of this genre were the Jacobean dramatists Cyril Tourneur (The Revenger’s Tragedy. is the most gifted. 1614). The dramatic genres popular during the Renaissance were extremely diverse: tragedy and comedy with their varieties. A particular type of protagonist became fashionable in revenge tragedies: the villain. 1.4. 1605-6). historical drama. the wronged hero plans revenge. John Ford (‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore. Milton’s Satan. pastoral drama. exploiting excessively morbid ingredients like incest. In such plays. each variety of spectator responding to the performance according to his/her education and imagination. rape. Renaissance playwrights borrowed the five-act structure. daring and wit. inspired by the plays of the Roman Stoic Seneca*. Thomas Middleton (Women Beware Women. They were generally. Some dramatic forms went out of fashion.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Contemporary reconstruction of a Jacobean playhouse The play-house. In 1660. 1633). in Paradise Lost. tragi-comedy. On the whole. insanity. fascinating through unbounded ambition. and the rhetorical manner. Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1601) is the finest illustration of this kind of tragedy. but destroys himself along with his enemies.1. 17 Revenge tragedy The villain in revenge tragedy Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . masque*. Jacobean tragedy One of the most widespread forms of tragedy was the revenge tragedy. where bloody deeds were only evoked through an efficient rhetoric of the dramatic discourse. with its audience arranged according to rank. murder. built around the theme of revenge. the fundamentally evil hero/heroine.

If you have failed to identify the true statements. with its noble characters. at the end of the unit. 18 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. Shakespeare’s Elizabethan phase included a number of exquisite romantic comedies. or at least tinged with bitterness. Renaissance tragedy had four acts – a structure borrowed from Seneca. centred on the theme of love. as in All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-3) or Measure for Measure (1604-5). Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a classic example of domestic tragedy.4. Epicoene. whose fall from eminence marks the destruction of an order. though each in a different way.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background A distinct type in late Renaissance drama is domestic tragedy. T F 3. T F Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and 1. reflecting.1. The English play-house during the Renaissance accommodated a diverse audience. The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) are social comedies of city life. read the following statements. a genre which will survive into the 18th century. circle the appropriate letter: T (true) or F (false). Seneca’s tragedies inspired Jacobean and Caroline authors in the representation of atrocities on stage. Comedy in the early 17th century In the field of comedy. dealing with middle or lower class life and concentrating on personal and domestic maters – unlike “grand” tragedy. The mixture of serious and comic elements results in tragicomedy. Volpone (1606). 1. read again subchapters 1. 1. identifying the four true ones. T F 7. in miniature. reminds of the fascinating villain-heroes of the Renaissance revenge tragedies by his extraordinary ambition and boldness. Milton’s Satan. Shakespeare and Ben Jonson are the great masters. His best plays. Ben Jonson* illustrates another form. The hero of revenge tragedy often destroys himself in his desire to right a wrong done to him or to another.2. as in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1601-2) or The Winter’s Tale (1610-11). the satirical comedy. the hierarchy of English society. intended to correct vices and follies by denouncing them. or in Philaster (1609) by John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont. T F 4. but. or The Silent Woman (1609). T F 5. T F 6. SAQ 4 For a revision of some important features of Renaissance English drama. in the last period of creation. his comedies become darker. in Paradise Lost. The Jacobean and Caroline authors of revenge tragedies had Seneca as their model. For each sentence.4. T F 2.

and it denounced puritanical virtue as hypocrisy. too. She Stoops to Conquer. 1769). of pleasure-seeking and relaxation after the strict moral code imposed to the nation by the Puritans. The main representatives – the Restoration Wits* – were courtiers and aristocrats who assumed the role of leaders of fashion and taste. The School for Scandal. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 19 . John Gay. 1777). were a passing extravagance. which ridiculed them through exaggerated imitation. 1669-70). in his satirical play The Beggar’s Opera (1728).The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. In The Rehearsal (1671). and Richard Brinsely Sheridan (The Rivals.g. 1722). but whose aim was not so much to correct manners as to entertain. 1773). Under the influence of French tragedies. with their grandiose declamations and artificial conception of heroism. 1665. Heroic plays. This parodic spirit was not confined to drama: the mockheroic style* was also used in poetry (e. The best achievement in this genre belongs to John Dryden (The Indian Emperor. Henry Fielding). or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great (1731). The Conquest of Granada. 1768. George Villiers. Sentimental drama and burlesque comedy in the 18th century The drama of sensibility – with sentimental comedy as its dominant type – emerged as a reaction to the Restoration comedy. A more representative achievement of the Restoration is the comedy of manners. for instance.3. Drama during the Restoration period Restoration drama developed in an age of scepticism and cynicism.4. 1775. There were a few attempts to revive classical tragedy or domestic tragedy. The feeling that some dramatic forms were out of their time and were maintained artificially led to the emergence of a burlesque* kind of comedy. Oliver Goldsmith (The GoodNatured Man. satirises heroic tragedy and so does Henry Fielding in his successful parody The Tragedy of Tragedies. Alexander Pope) and in the novel (e. with idealised heroes and heroines divided between love and honour or duty. these plays built a world of high passion and incredible bravery. Richard Cumberland (The Brothers. Tragedy was replaced in popular taste by a form that stood in sharp contrast with the unheroic spirit of the age: heroic drama. a stylish and sophisticated world. The painful intensity of Renaissance tragedy did no longer move the hearts of audiences that either were too frivolous or whose mind had been subtly influenced by Puritan morality.g. The most representative works of this kind belong to Richard Steele (The Conscious Lovers. or The Mistakes of a Night. but serious drama declined during the 18th century.4. which continued the realistic spirit of the earlier satirical plays. Duke of Buckingham. but it appealed to a wide middle class public. It lacked the latter’s liveliness and brilliance. Heroic drama The comedy of manners 1.4. mocks at certain theatrical conventions. who demanded models of virtue and decency. but also of French and Spanish romantic novels of adventure. Restoration comedy presented an elegant society.

at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If there should be major differences between them. 20 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. to 1. and in Unit 4 you will be acquainted with more features of Restoration comedy.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 5 What are the main varieties of comedy during the 17th and 18th centuries? Mention at least five of them in the space below.2. Two moments in the evolution of English drama will be further detailed in this course: in Unit 2. we shall focus on William Shakespeare’s later plays. revise subchapters 1.4. together with their most outstanding representatives.4.

Sermons were a widely popular form of prose-writing. The English translation of the Bible – the “Authorised Version” of 1611. weaknesses. gave way to an ideal of prose style more suited to the Age of Common Man. another Latin influence began to mould English prose style: that of Seneca and Tacitus*. wealth and freshness greatly influenced the language of prose. a precious and highly ornate language. Varieties of prose writing in the 17th and 18th centuries Of the literary forms that contributed significantly to the development of English prose.5. Journalism as a form of prose writing emerged during the Civil War and flourished during the 18th century. with its illustration to simplicity and natural flow of common speech. suitable for conveying “the knowledge of things” and intelligible to the average Englishman. in political tracts and pamphlets. prose works written in English displayed a highly rhetorical style. the essay* proved the most flexible. Here. Francis Bacon was the first notable writer to plead for – and to illustrate – a prose style more suited for intellectual argument. the universal language of the Renaissance. he describes the Christian soul’s search for salvation in the form of an allegorical journey along the path of life. 1625) are prose classics in English literature. prepared the English language for a variety of uses: in scientific. accomplished under the patronage of James I – established a model of English whose beauty. the virtues of common speech permeated the language of all kinds of writings. John Locke Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 21 . in which rhetorical figures were subordinated to rational lucidity. on clarity and rationality. blending concision with wit. with its trials. deliberately artificial and intricate. 1612. The Pilgrim’s Progress Among the prose forms widely used for intellectual argument. Gradually. This allegorical expression of Puritan faith. struggles and William Blake: aspirations. Francis Bacon’s Essays (1597. as the growing complexity of life increased the need for social and intellectual communication.5. Influence of Latin on prose style The prose of intellectual argument 1. Thomas Hobbes* and John Locke also insisted on the necessity of a language at once flexible and precise. The language of prose tended to become plain and transparent. More and more. contributing essentially to the forging of a more straightforward and simple style. religious writings are particularly important. Under the influence of Latin – especially of Cicero* –. The development of an aphoristic style*. Later in the century. temptations. influenced immensely Bunyan’s the language of prose. philosophical and theological writings. The rhetorical extravagance and ingenuity which had still dominated the early 17th century (not only in prose).1. displaying a variety of styles. English as an instrument of literary and intellectual communication still competed with classical Latin. The evolution of prose style At the beginning of the 17th century.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background 1. A different vein in religious writing is illustrated by the Puritan John Bunyan (1628-1688) and his extremely popular book The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678).

unadorned style.g. diaries (John Evelyn. “The Religion of a Doctor. with his Life of John Donne among other works of this kind – 1670). Like drama. Human character as portrayed in their essays was at the same time typical and individualised. “Characters” were miniature portraits of human types. of remarkable precision and force. 1632 – the most virulent Puritan attack on the theatre. the spiritual autobiography and the “character” were literary expressions of the growing interest in human individuality. 22 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . another form of prose writing which displayed divergent tendencies in style was the anatomy. which anticipates the prose of the Neoclassical period. pamphlets* (e. In the 17th century. 1621) and Sir Thomas Browne (Religio Medici. spiritual biographies (John Bunyan. but its impressive intellectual architecture is achieved in a simple. whose purpose was didactic or satirical. with its explorations of the complexities of human mind and character. 1666). with Characters of Virtue and Vices (1608). Milton’s Areopagitica. the biography as an emerging prose genre. This kind of approach had a considerable influence on the realistic novel. The same encyclopaedic. etc. letters. which analyses the constitution of human society. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. inclusive character is displayed by Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651). William Prynne’s Histriomastix. To these must be added the character. Robert Burton (The Anatomy of Melancholy. A variety of other prose genres developed during the 17th century: historical and geographical accounts (Walter Raleigh. Anatomies were monuments of learning. biographies (Izaak Walton.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Frontispiece to Leviathan provides another example of this prose form – this time in booklength – as a vehicle for analysis of ideas and intellectual demonstration. in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). The character as a prose genre influenced Richard Steele and Joseph Addison in their periodical essays. Samuel Pepys). executed in a witty. exhausting the subjects they dealt with. 1644 – a famous defense of the freedom of the press). delighting in speculation and building the knowledge they explored into an elaborate structure. Samuel Purchas). Joseph Hall inaugurated the English tradition of this genre. the great literary achievement of the 18th century. aphoristic style. a prose genre whose model was provided by the Greek writer Theophrastus*.” 1642) are the most outstanding representatives of this genre.

intellectual habits and preoccupations changed radically: philosophic thought became secular. Summary This unit has offered you a brief introduction to the intellectual and literary developments of the 17th and 18th centuries. The victory of Reason over dogmatism. roughly. and 1. Within these two centuries.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background SAQ 6 In what direction did English prose style tend to develop along the 17th and 18th centuries? Answer in the space below. more carefully. since both place Man and the improvement of his condition at the centre of their concerns. the growing scepticism and critical spirit enthroned a rationalistic attitude in all spheres of culture. the progress from the old order of the feudal world to the modern age was completed. This was a period of great changes at all levels of life in England. to the great movements of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. between which there is continuity. as well as the faith in progress. The following units will detail some aspects concerning the development of prose in the two centuries: in Unit 4. the image of the universe was changed.1. read again subchapters 1. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.5. If there should be major differences between them. Culturally. in a paragraph of no more than 7 lines / 70 words. you will learn more about the periodical essay. Within these two centuries. marked the entrance into Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 23 . A steady process of economic development and imperial expansion made England the world’s greatest power. obscurantism and intolerance. these two centuries correspond.5. modern science was born. at the end of the unit.. while Unit 5 will deal entirely with the novel in the 18th century.

-14 A. The birth of the novel is the most significant literary development of this “Age of Common Man. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 24 . used to express observations of general truth.D. of the time of emperor Caesar Augustus (27 B. however.). Virgil – were revered models for the English Augustan writers. elevated style. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Renaissance The Enlightenment The Restoration The Age of Reason The Age of Common Man The Age of Feeling The Augustan Age Neoclassicism modernity tradition change emancipation progress poetry drama prose Glossary • • aphoristic style: (from Greek aphorismos: definition) a style characterised by condensation and precision. predominantly middle-class. noble and heroic characters. which are reduced to the comically trivial. and the emergence of the Age of Feeling prepared the way to the Romantic sensibility. often by means of paradox.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background modernity. with new genres accessible to a more inclusive reading public.C. part of the process of modernisation that the Age of Reason came to acknowledge its own limits. in a caricatural spirit. Ovid. drama and prose in the 17th and 18th centuries has been meant to offer you a general idea of the literary background of this extremely diverse and dynamic period.” The short review of the dominant forms of poetry. The Great Latin writers of that age – Horace. Augustan Age: a phrase designating the period of English Neoclassicism (extending from the Restoration to the latter half of the 18th century) by analogy with the golden age of Latin literature. from a system of genres and styles dominated by classical influences to a more “democratic” tendency. of serious action. blank verse: unrhymed verse. and a major influence on their aesthetic ideal. It is. burlesque: the exaggerated imitation. From a literary point of view. a slow transition took place.

Thomas Jefferson. The founder of the revival of classical learning was Petrarch (see note below). • Elizabethan: related to the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603). artistic and literary life of the Renaissance was defined by a revived interest in the classical culture and its ideals. In a broader sense.e. the folk tradition. it evokes an attitude to life which stresses the individual’s dignity.): “Man is the measure of all things”. state church) as a reaction against the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 25 • . which began as an educational programme (the humanities – humaniora) propagating those values in Greek and Latin culture which could be harmonised with Christian values. social and moral thought. natural law. John Locke. David Hume (Britain). characterised by anti-dogmatism and the cult of reason as the supreme guiding principle in human action. • Evangelical Revival: a trend which started within the Anglican Church (the official. anti-fanaticism. reconciling a materialist account of reality with a rationalist attitude (i. Rousseau. • essay: a prose composition of varying length. pragmatism. Thomas Paine (the United States) are among the great representatives of this movement. • epic: long narrative poem celebrating the achievements of heroic personages. until 1660. social contract. Voltaire. The open conflict between king and Parliament set the whole nation to war. by the promotion of intellectual emancipation and the belief in social and moral progress. legend. widely used in all ages. the conviction that reality is ordered according to laws that are accessible to human reason). humanism. worth and capacity for self-accomplishment. and contributed to the intellectual preparation of the French Revolution (1789). • empiricism: a philosophical orientation which established the primacy of experience in the process of knowledge. and by the search for a model of society in which man’s rights and duties should be exercised in freedom.C. This return to the Ancients is the foundation of Renaissance humanism. The subjects and heroes are taken either from myth. • Enlightenment: ideological and cultural movement in the 18th century in Europe and America. the humanism of the Renaissance refers to a view of life which we find summarised in the maxim of the Greek philosopher Protagoras (480-410 B. individual liberty. • classical revival: the intellectual. or from history. Tolerance.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Caroline: (from Latin Carolus) related to the reign of Charles I Stuart (1625-1642) • Civil War (1642-1649): the pivotal event of the 17th century. civil rights. rejection of arbitrary authority and of absolutism are some of the characteristic attitudes of this age. Thinkers like Thomas Hobbes. in which personal opinions and observations are presented in a formal or informal manner. It is one of the most flexible and adaptable prose forms. The victory of the Parliamentary forces led to the abolition of monarchy in 1649. anti-obscurantism. separation of powers were central to Enlightenment political. Concepts like human rights. The founders of English empiricism were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704). Montesquieu. Diderot (France). illustrating the close link between religion and politics in English history. when it was restored.

encouraging a personal experience of conversion. sumptuous costumes and settings. It addressed itself to the poor. The origins of pastoral are in the work of the Greek poet Theocritus (316-260 B. in harmony with nature. expressing lofty sentiments and thoughts regarding an event. mock-heroic style: a style mocking the serious grandeur of the epic. solemn style.). decorative art. In English literature. and soon developed into a distinct religious orientation. and harmony of classical art. The Greek poet Pindar (522-442 B. to its need for clarity and its aspiration to universality. masque: courtly entertainment in dramatic form. who was a Catholic. from the Creation to the Ascension. The basis of this kind of faith was the Gospel (the New Testament) and its revealed truth. The actors used masks and personified pastoral or mythological figures. restraint. idealising shepherd life and creating a nostalgic image of a peaceful. pamphlet: a short prose work on a subject (often political or religious) that the author defends polemically. who collaborated with the equally famous architect and stage designer Inigo Jones. a person or an object.C. Neoclassicism flourished in the latter half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. ode: an extended lyric poem. was forced to leave the throne and fled to France.) are the great ancient models for English writers.C. founded by John Wesley in the 1740s. Its conventions may be found not only in lyric poetry. involving elaborate dialogue. spectacular scenic effects. and corresponded to the rationalistic spirit of the 18th century. and it was often a device of parody and of burlesque. mystery plays: early popular forms of English drama (13th to 16th century) developed out of the Liturgy of the Church and enacting biblical events. often of an allegorical nature. singing and dancing. This religious orientation developed into a church: the Methodist Church. the marginal sections of society.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • • • excessive rationalism in matters of faith. simple. pastoral: a literary composition on a rural theme. whose authors were deeply revered and were recommended as models. an idea. Neoclassicism meant a return to the purity.) and the Latin poet Horace (658 B. In architecture.C. but also in Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 26 . Jacobean: (from Latin Jacobus) related to the reign of James I Stuart (1603-1625). The accession of William III (of Orange) and his wife Mary (James’s Protestant daughter) marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in England (monarchic power was limited and the Parliament’s prerogatives increased). uncorrupted life. Glorious Revolution: in 1688. James II Stuart. The most famous author of masques in the 17th century (when the genre flourished) was Ben Jonson. It was used in order to make a trivial subject seem dignified and impressive. Neoclassicism: an aesthetic doctrine inspired from classical Antiquity (especially Latin). of spiritual regeneration by grace. The term also refers to the form in which such a work was published: a booklet with paper covers. with an elaborate stanza structure and a dignified. the Neoclassic period is taken to cover almost a century (16601780). painting and sculpture.

27 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . for the Neoclassic writers. Romantic: the Romantic Age in England is usually considered to extend from the end of the 18th century to the 1830s. pre-Romantic: the term is sometimes used to refer to the literary tendencies which accompanied the rise of the cult of Feeling in the 18th century. Philip Sidney. Puritans: members of a Protestant religious group. of the expansion of education. Restoration: historically. selected according to genre and subject. style – used by a poet. Cervantes (Spain). of America. Sir George Etherege. They propagated a doctrine of spiritual equality and cultivated a stern morality. It placed emphasis on the individual’s spiritual autonomy and creative potential. Sir Charles Sedley. Lope de Vega. romance or the novel. Edmund Spenser. It is sometimes seen as extending to the end of the 17th century. Shakespeare. It refers to the particular kind of language – vocabulary. Their beliefs and convictions. of the rebirth of learning. poetic diction: a term that. From a literary point of view. which opened the modern era. implied the idea that the language of poetry is different in quality from ordinary language. Raphael. Duke of Buckingham. who rejected the authority of the English Church because. effort. by Columbus. it had not fully reformed itself. Ariosto. The Puritans insisted on man’s duty of actively serving God and on his responsibility towards his own conscience. its limits are less well defined. especially their work ethics. Francis Bacon (England). which was the ultimate authority in the interpretation of God’s word in the Holy Scriptures. it overlaps with the Augustan Age. it was the period of Charles II’s reign (1660-1685). Prominent figures of the Renaissance are Petrarch. Desiderius Erasmus (Holland). consisting in a tremendous development and transformation in all spheres. and of the awakening of the reformist spirit. Pico della Mirandola. centred on integrity. in their view. Boccaccio. and they continued to be used in the 18th century. Machiavelli. on the enlargement of his knowledge of himself and of nature. It was characterised by a remarkable flourishing of arts and literature. Leonardo da Vinci. industry. Tasso (Italy). The Renaissance was the age of the great geographical discoveries (e. William Wycherley. Thomas More. in the 16th and 17th centuries. John Vanbrugh. tone. Renaissance: cultural movement which started in Italy in the 14th century and spread to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. when monarchy was re-established in England after the Puritan rule (1649-1660). It is the period of transition from the Middle Ages and the feudal order to early capitalism. The most outstanding of the Restoration Wits (or Court Wits) were George Villiers. 1492). Restoration Wits: the generic name for the Restoration dramatists. thus. which was to play an essential role in the rise of capitalism. favoured the growth of individualism.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • drama. “Wit” designates here the person who displays liveliness and brilliance of spirit. and brilliant accomplishments in scholarship and science.g. “The poetry of sensibility” is another generic term for these pre-Romantic tendencies. the sense of purpose.

according to a dominating inclination or passion. He started his literary career as a playwright. the emphasis on the spontaneity of poetic inspiration are also among distinctive features of Romanticism. The assertion of the self.e. The New Atlantis (published in 1627). with various rhyme patterns. During the Renaissance. 1591. In mediaeval and Renaissance physiology and pathology. and black bile – or melancholy) were believed to determine a person’s disposition and character. the four “humours” (i. which emerged in Britain in the context of the sympathy with the struggle of the American colonies for independence from British domination (1775-1781). and a firm believer in man’s creative potential. phlegm. wit: intellectual brilliance and ingenuity. one of the most influential literary voices of his age. Renaissance dramatists used songs in their plays to create a particular atmosphere. Edmund Spenser. the capacity or talent of making unexpected. Astrophil and Stella. Francis (1561-1626): the most influential thinker of the English Renaissance. Marcus Tullius (106-43 B. and a writer. The four traditional temperaments – sanguine. song: a poem composed for singing. Sometimes. Amoretti. He was also an eminent statesman.C. fluids) of the body (blood. the promoter of the new scientific spirit. yellow bile – or choler. poet and scholar. the quality of a writing that displays this capacity. philosopher and writer. The sonnet sequence/cycle was frequently used during the Renaissance (Sir Philip Sidney. The tradition survived into the 18th century. in which he anticipates many of the later conquests of modern science. phlegmatic. Cicero. with Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Every Man Out of His Humour (1599). Romanticism reacted against the rationalist empiricism of the Enlightenment by an intense idealism and the cult of Imagination as man’s supreme faculty of the mind. This theory had a great influence on the conception of character in the 16th and 17th century comedy. as well as an unfinished utopia.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • Romanticism is a European cultural and literary movement. 1591-1595). The Romantic spirit is usually associated with the championship of progressive social and political causes. two fine examples of comedy of humours. surprising associations. the founder of modern rationalist materialism. orator. His literary work includes a series of essays on a wide variety of subjects.): Roman statesman. it meant intelligence or wisdom. Gallery of personalities • Bacon. sonnet: a poem consisting of 14 lines. choleric and melancholic – were seen as the result of the dominance of one of these humours. the belief in the spiritual correspondence between man and nature. with or without musical accompaniment. His famous political speeches and writings Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 28 . independently of circumstances. Jonson. in the 17th century it came to mean fancy or liveliness of thought and imagination. in which the characters act. and with the French Revolution (1789). Ben (1572-1637): dramatist.

whose conceptions were profoundly influenced by the development of physics and mathematics. Locke studied medicine.C. whose concise and trenchant style inspired 17th century English prose writers. Theophrastus (372-287 B. John (1632-1704): considered the “father” of English empiricism. the “body politic” created in perfect analogy with the “body natural” of “that rational and most excellent work of nature. of the first treatise of ancient philosophy. politics. made important discoveries in the field of optics. According to him. Hobbes applies rationalist-materialist principles to the explanation of human nature and society. Thomas (1588-1679): materialist philosopher. insists on man’s perfect freedom in the state of nature. For Hobbes.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background • • • • • • • on rhetoric and style provided a model of eloquence in prose. and his political doctrine inspired the American constitution. His political philosophy.D. Both Hobbes and Locke can be seen as the initiators of the “social contract” theory. Tacitus. and man’s agreement to submit to a governing authority is an expression of that freedom. must guarantee man’s natural right to liberty and life. Publius Cornelius (55-120 A. Lucius Annaeus (4 B. Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). writer and statesman.): Roman historian and statesman. in a kind of social contract. religion. author. Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374). Man. Italian poet and humanist. Isaac (1642-1727): English physicist. which was central to Enlightenment thought. but he was interested in a variety of intellectual fields: philosophy.-65 A. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 29 .): Roman philosopher. or the Matter. ethics. Locke. and Hobbes describes this generalised state of war by the famous formula “homo homini lupus” (“man is wolf to man”). Newton. Seneca. Locke was a firm supporter of the Glorious Revolution and of constitutional monarchy.C. economics. chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. that determines man to surrender part of his natural rights to the authority of a civil government. the laws and regulations of human society imitate the laws of nature: the “great Leviathan” is the State. Hobbes. the instinct of self-preservation. studied the mechanics of planetary motion and formulated the law of gravitation. He laid the foundations of the differential calculus.” A fundamental problem for Hobbes is that of the foundation of the social and political order. unlike that of Hobbes. besides the Characters. In his work of moral and political philosophy Leviathan. Locke insists on the mutual obligations of the individual and the instituted authority. greatly influenced by Hobbes.D. mathematician. astronomer and philosopher.): Greek philosopher and naturalist. for instance. It is fear of death. the initiator of the revival of the study of ancient Greek and Latin literature. the latter. Form and Power of a Commonwealth. humanity in the state of nature is driven by aggressive competition.

c.The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: intellectual and literary background Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. 2. The English Eighteenth Century. precision.F SAQ 5 • • • • • • • SAQ 6 In general. Fielding.T. 3.T. even extravagant style of the Renaissance to the simple elegance. Dryden.T. Fletcher and Beaumont satirical comedy: Ben Jonson. Dryden. 2003 (pp. William Wycherley. from a highly rhetorical style to forms of expression which aspired to the plainness of common speech. Milton. 4.T.F. Sir George Sedley. Editura Universităţii Suceava. the sonnet: Shakespeare. d. Carew. 6. Milton the pastoral: Milton.T. Cowley. 8. 2. 9-32) 2.F. 6. Marvell. Luminiţa Elena. 115-141) 30 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Thomson. Cowper romantic comedy: Shakespeare dark comedy: Shakespeare tragi-comedy: Shakespeare. b.F. artificial. Goldsmith comedy of manners: the “Restoration Wits” (George Villiers.2.3.T. 7. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. Goldsmith. 1983 (pp. Preda. Blake the ode: Marvell. Gray the epic: Milton metaphysical poetry: Donne. English Literature and Civilisation. Collins. The Literature of the Beginnings. Herrick. Editura Universităţii Suceava. 3. Sheridan sentimental comedy: Steele. The Novel in Its Beginnings. Herbert. .4. Duke of Buckingham.T. John Vanbrugh). Macsiniuc.).1 SAQ 3 • • • • • • • • • SAQ 4 1.F. Pope didactic poems: Pope philosophical poems: Pope descriptive-meditative poems: Thomson. Turcu. Pope. there was a tendency towards simplicity. Marvell satire: Dryden. Cumberland burlesque comedy: George Villiers. Pope.T SAQ 2 a. Cornelia. John Gay Further reading 1. Ioan-Aurel (ed. clarity and straightforwardness of the Augustan style. 5. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 5. Donne.T. 7-49) 3. 4. concision and plainness: from the highly ornate. Sir George Etherege. 2003 (pp. Goldsmith. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.

7.3. 2. 2.3. 2.5. 2.8. 2.7.2. 2.8. 2. Unit objectives The late Renaissance and the Baroque The emergence of the baroque sensibility The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry Shakespeare’s genius. 2. 2. 2.2.9. 2.2. His later plays The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s great tragedies Hamlet: a revenge play Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility in Hamlet Hamlet: the philosopher vs. 2.12. 2.3. 2. the man of action King Lear: the madness of tragic grief To be or to seem: Othello Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience Shakespeare’s last plays The plot of The Tempest Major themes Symbols in The Tempest The play-metaphor The metaphysical poets Characteristics of metaphysical poetry The metaphysical conceit Themes in John Donne’s poetry Donne’s love poems Donne’s religious poems Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode Nature as “mystic book” in Marvell’s poetry The theme of love in Marvell’s poems Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 43 43 44 46 46 47 48 48 49 50 52 53 54 54 56 56 57 58 59 61 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 31 .1.2.4. 2. 2.3. late Renaissance and the Baroque UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE Unit Outline 2 2. 2. 2.1.

Philip Sydney*. this spirit declined under the pressure of certain historical events* and cultural tendencies. Renaissance England reached the climax in its flourishing.The late Renaissance and the Baroque By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ define the characteristic aspects of the baroque sensibility ♦ compare the Renaissance and the baroque visions on man and the universe ♦ compare aspects of Renaissance and baroque literary taste in the 17th century ♦ explain the baroque character of the main themes and motifs in Shakespeare’s tragedies ♦ identify patterns of symbolism and imagery in the studied plays by Shakespeare ♦ describe the main features of metaphysical poetry ♦ explain what a metaphysical conceit is ♦ analyse the use of conceits in poems by John Donne and Andrew Marvell ♦ point out the elements of baroque sensibility in the poetry of Donne and Marvell Unit objectives 2. the enormous vitality nourished by the trust in man’s powers – these are general features of the high Renaissance spirit that found their expression in literature as well. The Elizabethan age: the English high Renaissance Features of the high Renaissance spirit 32 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to the perception of man as a bundle of contradictions and the view of the universe as threatened by instability. Elizabethan England also witnessed an explosion of creative energies in the field of letters and arts. The former expansiveness. High Renaissance English literature has its most accomplished expression in Shakespeare’s work. In the late Renaissance. idealism and confidence gave way to a growing sense of disorder and violence. Increasingly prosperous and powerful owing to colonial expansion and economic progress. but the outstanding achievements of writers like Thomas Kyd*. Christopher Marlowe*. well-ordered universe. with its sense of confidence and optimism. The emergence of the baroque sensibility The early and high Renaissance* in England developed under the Tudor monarchs*. The vision of a harmonious. The spirit that dominated this age was typical of the Renaissance. to scepticism. Under Queen Elizabeth I. stable and modern state. and Edmund Spenser* complete the literary picture of the glorious Elizabethan Age. during whose reign England developed into a strong. anxiety and even pessimism.1. the sense of tradition as a guarantee for order.

both in its themes and motifs. The best examples are Thomas Kyd’s revenge tragedy. the difficult – often irregular – rhythms. contrasts with the baroque taste for the extravagant. The Jacobean and Caroline drama* is essentially baroque. its sense of form. on which the “show” of life must end. The late Renaissance: characteristics of the baroque sensibility The baroque* sensibility that emerged during the late Renaissance registered with particular acuteness the conflicts and turbulences in man’s existence. St. for excess. with the tendency of breaking proportions. and in its dramatic conception. and. they are the supreme dramatic achievement of late Renaissance. Baroque features of late Renaissance drama and poetry The essence of the baroque sensibility is conflict and tension. and Christopher Marlowe’s characters. splendour. irony and ambiguity. destroyed by the monstrous excess of their ambition. striking imagery.1. Even the Elizabethan dramatists cultivated elements which announced the Baroque. of man’s limitations and the inevitability of death. the tragic divisions in man’s soul. Although very diverse. grandeur. ornamental rhetoric and preference for convention and artifice. the Baroque displayed a sharp consciousness of life’s ephemerality. nothing reflects better its emergence than drama. but his great tragedies belong not only chronologically to the Jacobean age: as embodiments of the baroque spirit.1. The baroque vision of experience of the Metaphysical Poets required a new kind of poetic language. The unexpected. In lyric poetry. refinement and cruelty. the paradoxes and contrasts which make up man’s mixed nature. wisdom and madness. reason and superstition. Characteristic of the baroque spirit are the sense of ethical relativism and the exploration of the borderline between truth and illusion. Shakespeare’s early comedies and history plays* are Elizabethan in spirit.1. the concentration of expression in their poems stand in contrast with the Elizabethan smooth and orderly patterns of versification. sensualism and mysticism. capable of rendering its 33 Revenge tragedy Metaphysical poetry Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . of confusing or transgressing limits. proportion and symmetry. but also to pomp. or the world as stage.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. with its abundance of bloody deaths. Paul’s Cathedral in London (16751708): an example of baroque architecture 2.2. the spectacular and the sumptuous. in literature. The Renaissance cult of rational order. life and death. The Baroque displays attraction to obscurity and melancholy. the extensive use of paradox. and not properly forming a “school. to the macabre. Characteristic baroque themes were those of life as dream and life as theatre. The Renaissance celebrated Nature and life with its joys.” these poets distinguish themselves by the ingenuity with which they force the limits of language. a tendency commonly associated with the baroque is represented by the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century.

Othello and Macbeth) and his last romance play. as well as some of the metaphysical poems of John Donne and Andrew Marvell. In the following two subchapters. and it is appealing simultaneously to the sensibility and the intellect of the reader. at the end of this unit. with the two most relevant accomplishments of the late Renaissance English literature: William Shakespeare’s great tragedies (Hamlet. respectively. classical balance. SAQ 1 Fill in the spaces left below with those features of the Baroque (B) which contrast with the following features of the high Renaissance (R): 1. 34 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read again the preceding subchapters. King Lear. R: cult for order and symmetry. optimism.The late Renaissance and the Baroque complexities. complicated feeling and analytical detachment. as expressions of the baroque spirit of the age. If there should be major differences. The Tempest. you will be acquainted. Metaphysical poetry blends passion and reason. R: vision of the world as harmonious and well-ordered B: 2. sense of form B: 4. R: celebration of life’s joys B: 3. exuberance B: Compare your answers to those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. R: confidence.

His characters emerge from the dramatic situation with an unsurpassed force of conviction. In his last period of creation (1608-1611). aspirations and interests. where the lyrical and dramatic elements are in perfect fusion. A whole human universe inhabits Shakespeare’s plays. Shakespeare had a natural instinct for the stage. It ranges from the sublime accents of pure poetry. Othello (1604). loyalty and betrayal. his deep understanding of humanity. medieval and contemporary sources – English. transcending the artistic hierarchy of his age and consecrating him as always “our contemporary. etc. sometimes even trivial. in which every character – major or minor – has a consistent individuality and is animated by passions. from the variety of his work. all mastered with supreme art. His inventiveness and imagination were invested not in the intrigues. to the prose speech of simple folk.” Shakespeare’s work is conventionally divided into several phases. and French. but his enduring preeminence has been insured by his extraordinary insight into human nature. so that it displays a similar variety. as well as in the tragic grandeur of the inner conflicts that they portray. jealousy. craftsmen or servants. Shakespeare seems to propose an alternative to the stormy and bloody worlds of his great 35 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Language in Shakespeare’s plays The second period of creation: the great tragedies Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . moral attitudes. struggle for power. states of mind. hate. friendship. devotion. He was a master of every contemporary dramatic form. He was not original in the use of his subjects: with a few exceptions. and the range of his subjects is extremely diverse. Shakespeare modulates the language in each play. language.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. romantic or trivial. when his artistic maturity and depth of vision produced his four monumental tragedies: Hamlet (1601). King Lear and Macbeth (1605). conflicts. envy. search for truth.2. all of them are re-workings and adaptations of subjects taken from a variety of ancient. which brought him enormous success during his lifetime. in plain. or periods of creation. among other features. and experiences are given dramatic shape in his plays: love. there is an astonishing variety of styles and registers. A wide range of feelings. irrespective of the register in which they are conceived – tragic or comic. in the great blank verse* soliloquies*. but in the creation of characters and the exploration of their mind and heart. sublime or burlesque. The richness and profundity of his comprehensive creation establish him as a universal genius. motifs and imagery. and a perfect adequacy of the language to the character’s moral nature and to the dramatised experience or emotion. In Shakespeare’s whole work. Shakespeare’s genius. According to the dramatic necessity. These plays may be seen as strongly influenced by the emerging baroque sensibility in their themes. They are always credible. The beginning of the 17th century is also the beginning of his second phase (1600-1608). rendered accurately in their poetic truth. His later plays Shakespeare’s greatness as a dramatist comes. Italian. gratitude and ingratitude. Shakespeare’s whole work is a synthesis of the concerns and convictions of the Renaissance. and a culmination of its literary art.

as far as his approach to character is concerned? 2. of which The Tempest (1611) is the crowning achievement. 2. The baroque spirit of Shakespeare’s tragedies Shakespeare’s tragedies preserve the pattern of the “fall of princes”*. In these plays. are also tributary to the spirit of the Baroque. but they deal.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The last period: the romance plays tragedies. SAQ 2 Answer the following questions. but he adds to it philosophical and ethical implications of the deepest significance. at the end of the unit. basically. How does Shakespeare’s dramatic vision in his last plays differ from that of the tragedies of his second period of creation? Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. His romance plays. the downfall of the tragic hero is accompanied by the destruction of a natural order. with innocence and vitality triumphing over evil and death. by the chaos arising from the corruption and collapse of values. He is concerned here with the paradoxes in the relationship between reality and appearance. in no more than 4 lines / 40 words each: 1. What does Shakespeare’s greatness consist in.1.2. with the effects of evil on innocence. with the restoration of order. with the sense of hope overcoming spiritual desolation. between truth and falsehood. The issues that are explored dramatically in Shakespeare’s later tragedies reflect the spirit of uncertainty and increasing scepticism of a baroque age. common in the Renaissance. If they should differ significantly. with the human endeavour to understand if suffering is part of the 36 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . read again the preceding subchapter. with the consequences of imperfect knowledge and self-blindness.

that he had actually been poisoned by his brother. 2. generous and brilliantly intelligent. The enlargement of meaning through consistent patterns of imagery running throughout each play. with a poisoned sword. as he now sees in her only another embodiment of woman’s frailty. In another scene. when Fortinbras. Hamlet escapes a criminal plot set up by Claudius. absorbed more and more by his consciousness of the paradoxes of his difficult task of exposing the truth. who had really gone mad.The late Renaissance and the Baroque natural order of things or if it betrays the indifference of Nature – or God – towards man.2. Laertes. mistaking him for Claudius. takes over the rule of Denmark. In spite of this bloody outcome. all the main protagonists find their death. bringing in the prospect of renewal and of the restoration of order. and with the immense burden of revenge. required by his dead father. Polonius is the father of beautiful Ophelia. the widow queen. the intensity of poetic expression – especially in the soliloquies – are features that rank these plays highest in the whole history of the genre. Shakespeare deals with his great tragic themes in the frame of a revenge tragedy. Hamlet feels all his certainties destroyed. but refrains from doing it as the latter was in prayer.2.3. the first in this series of masterpieces. a courtier. which represents a similar scene of murder. Back to the castle. the masterful treatment of highly complex characters. Hamlet learns that Ophelia. Claudius’s guilty conscience betrays him. he has the occasion to kill Claudius. Renaissance man and the baroque sensibility Hamlet has been seen as the embodiment of the ideal Renaissance prince – refined and cultivated. Confronted with the moral corruption around him. old king Hamlet. In order to find confirmation for the ghost’s story. the Norwegian prince and glorious military hero. who was now the new king and who had married Gertrude. Her brother. Hamlet hides his terrible grief behind the mask of madness. and continually delays the act of revenge. During the play. he kills Polonius. sensitive and idealistic. has drowned herself. Claudius. His Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 37 . the play ends on a note of hope. who suspects him of aspiring to take his throne. It is in these four great tragedies that Shakespeare gives the full proof of his artistic genius. rejected by Hamlet in spite of their mutual affection. Sir Laurence Olivier in Hamlet (1948) 2. Hamlet arranges a play to be performed at court. but the plot escapes their control and. Young Hamlet is thus confronted with the horrors of fratricide and incest.2. in the confusions of the final scene. At one point. Hamlet: a revenge play In Hamlet. Upon his return to Denmark from his university studies. young prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his recently dead father. accepts Claudius’s treacherous plan of killing Hamlet during a duel. brave. Sent on a diplomatic mission to England.

revealing Hamlet’s dualistic vision. Compare your answer with the suggestions offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. the man of action Hamlet’s penetrating spirit has discerned a reality of human nature that he had not suspected. If they should differ significantly. Madness becomes the refuge of the sensitive conscience from moral chaos.2. The sign of this confusion is the typically baroque motif of Hamlet’s madness. his obsessive quest for truth and certainty.1. SAQ 3 Text 2.4. and this may explain his indefinite postponing of the revenge. His effort to see beyond the veil of illusion. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. at the end of the unit. read again the preceding subchapter. in which all the values on which he had relied have lost their meaning. What is the essence of this divided view? Formulate your answer in the space left below. the balance and confidence of the Renaissance man have been replaced by scepticism and mistrust. Hamlet: the philosopher vs. In Hamlet’s tormented soul. as well as the indicated fragment. is eminently a philosopher’s effort.The late Renaissance and the Baroque new consciousness that “something’s rotten in Denmark” plunges him into a nightmare. 2. from the Reader contains a short meditation on man and the universe. It allows the hero to take distance from the corrupt order of the “prison” that Denmark has become for him. and this makes him now aware of the ironies and ambiguities inherent in the discrepancy between what is and what seems. 38 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which is only partly dissimulated.

Edgar. another “fall of princes” tragedy. Lear strives to understand the roots of evil.5. through paradox. which hide much wisdom under the appearance of playful nonsense. on the other hand. of truth and illusion. to believe him a traitor and usurper. and he is thus reunited with his son without knowing it. the quest for higher meanings. and the Fool’s comments. are skilfully brought together and create a new ironic dimension in the play. an outburst of violence which evokes to Lear the cruelty of his daughters. starts with a folk tale motif: old Lear plans to leave his kingdom to his three daughters if he is pleased with their declarations of love. He is also accompanied by the faithful Earl of Kent in disguise and by the Court Fool. Cordelia. as his father has been deceived by his other son Edmund. in reality. The motif of madness. marks in fact a growth in his moral understanding. His intellectual energies are now concentrated in his search for the meaning of the ultimate questions of life and death. of setting right again the “time” which is “out of joint. These explorations become more important than the technical matter of revenge. Edgar. there is madness in nature itself.The late Renaissance and the Baroque The delay of Hamlet’s revenge his incapacity to act. to the themes of knowledge and self-knowledge. is also an exile from his own family. he is wondering: “Is there a cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?” Edgar’s disguised madness. and. King Lear: the madness of tragic grief King Lear. Disappointed by the reticence of his youngest daughter. which is that of restoring a lost order. questioning side is exacerbated by the irruption of evil in a universe that he had thought well-ordered. like Lear’s daughter Cordelia. if there is a purpose for its existence in the world of man. unconditionally loving ones. Shakespeare develops the theme of evil by contrasting the natural order of the moral universe with the chaos produced by the 39 Storm and madness Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The earl of Gloucester joins them. Maddened with grief. The storm scenes in the play contain the highest symbolic concentration. as in Hamlet. both of them prove to be the loyal. Lear’s own madness. is closely linked. whom he disinherits. The storm outside matches the storm in Lear’s hurt soul. Tragically. Goneril and Reagan. a bastard. son of Lear’s loyal supporter. Hamlet’s introspective. Lear becomes the victim of the ingratitude of his two elder daughters. of human suffering. after his eyes have been put out for having helped Lear. exiled Lear wanders in a terrible storm in the company of Edgar. which has been interpreted in innumerable ways. which would not undo the past. Hamlet feels overwhelmed by the real task that he is called to fulfil.” 2. the Earl of Gloucester. who deprive him of all prerogatives and turn him out of their castles. who is disguised as a lunatic beggar. which helps him endure his suffering. like that of blindness.2. is the victim of a staged play of appearances.

In Othello. acting against it. With his mind poisoned by a false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity. Shakespeare gives a special intensity to this theme by dealing with evil in the context of the most natural of human relationships: kinship (relations by blood or by marriage). Claudius’s fratricide and the cruelty of Lear’s daughters are transgressions which turn the tragic hero’s world upside down. Othello kills her and takes his own life when her innocence is proved to him. To be or to seem: Othello Evil coming from those who are naturally closest to us is intolerable. As a result of Iago’s manipulations. essence. Scene from Othello. painted by James Graham (early 17th century) 40 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The noble protagonist. evil succeeds precisely because of the perfection of Desdemona’s purity and Othello’s trusting nature. and the tragic disaster shows how the play of appearances can dissolve firm moral opposites like truth/lie.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Evil as destruction of the “natural” order unnatural acts which violate this order.2. Othello is thrown into the terrible agony of suspecting that beauty and innocence might disguise corruption. innocence/guilt. and this destroys his confidence in a moral order. and its outburst is always accompanied by the awakening of the tragic hero’s consciousness of the divorce between seeming and being. is led by Iago to believe his wife. unfaithful. the bond of a love marriage is the frame in which Shakespeare explores the theme of evil in connection with that of appearance vs. In Othello. 2. faithfulness/betrayal. Othello.6. Desdemona. Evil is that which destroys Nature. a brave and honest general of the Venetian republic.

The protagonist. a brave and worthy general in Duncan’s army. If any of your solutions should not correspond. paradoxically.2. 2. There is “no sweet oblivious antidote” to cure Lady Macbeth’s “diseased” mind either.2. it bleeds. at the end of the unit. disorder. / It weeps. to 2. at the instigation of his wife. but. and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds. since it accompanies the hero’s revelation of the discrepancy between appearance and reality. Macbeth. is manipulated into confusion about truth and falsehood.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 Each of the following sentences refers to one or several of the three tragedies mentioned so far. The effects of this sacrilege against Nature are devastating.2. ____________________ 4.” The imagery* of disease is extended to the protagonist’s conscience. 1.7. Macbeth’s conscience soon starts accusing him. The storm scenes intensify symbolically the hero’s tragic sense of confusion. and unmotivated violence and cruelty. innocence and corruption. the horror of evil is amplified by the fact that the protagonist’s crime is committed against Duncan as his king. The hero’s exacerbated introspective tendency makes him postpone action. invaded by “horrible imaginings” and hallucinations. you need to revise subchapters 2. underlining the theme of knowledge. ____________________ Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. The theme of evil is dramatised as a crime against the bonds of blood. illusion and truth. kills the sleeping king and takes the throne. Macbeth: the tragedy of “diseased” conscience In Macbeth. Macbeth’s ambitions are inflamed by the prediction of three witches that he shall be king of Scotland.2. who has a trusting nature. one of Duncan’s sons. Read them carefully and fill in the indicated space with the right title(s). “Our country sinks beneath the yoke. he multiples his crimes. The baroque motif of madness is. ____________________ 5. which constitutes a violation of the natural (therefore moral) order. ____________________ 3. Persuaded by his wife to hasten the fulfillment. kinsman and guest. ____________________ 2. The evil reverberates in the whole land: in the words of Malcolm.6. and she is destroyed by the unbearable Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 41 . arranging the murder of all those who might threaten his power.

read the fragment once more. from the Reader. and he meets his punishment in the final battle. His words to Lady Macbeth render his first thoughts after the murder. who ends up by losing the belief in any meaning of life. How can we interpret Macbeth’s hallucination about the voice crying “Sleep no more. reveals how soon the abominable crime has begun to work on his spirit. Shakespeare’s shortest and most poetic tragedy reveals the incalculable effects of the darkness with which destiny may cloud the moral conscience of a noble hero. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If there should be significant differences. Text 2. Macbeth’s heroic strength of will enables him to survive the terrible inner torments.” heard immediately after he has committed the murder? What does sleep represent for Macbeth here? Answer in the space left below. Macbeth joins his wife after he has killed Duncan. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. in no more than 120 words / 12 lines. SAQ 5 In Act II. extracted from this scene. scene 2.The late Renaissance and the Baroque burden of sin. in which he fights to the end with the same determination that had brought him the glory of a hero at the beginning of the play. from which the ultimate relief is suicide. / Macbeth does murder sleep.2. 42 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .

who. a storm wrecks the ship carrying Antonio. and The Tempest – are described either as tragi-comedies or as romance plays. the last expression of Shakespeare’s mature genius.8.9. is considered the finest. marvelous. the jester.g.2. king of Naples. The Winter’s Tale. He had long studied the arts of magic. separated from each other in various parts of the island and all believing the others dead. The Tempest (1611). Another sub-plot brings together Ferdinand and Miranda. who instantly fall in love with each other. In a plot-line that parallels and parodies the latter. the shipwreck. these plays offer patterns of reconciliation and positive solutions to life’s contradictions. Miranda. We soon find out that the storm and shipwreck have been magically provoked by Prospero. or tension and suspense followed by happy reversals – features that make them tragi-comedies. a creature whose beastly nature is beyond Prospero’s attempt of educating him. to take his throne. They may also be described as romance plays. involving the shipwrecked characters. usurped by his brother Antonio and forced into exile twelve years before. respectively –. the master of an island. Trinculo. but his plan is prevented by Ariel’s music. His acts of magic are fulfilled through Ariel. myth. while for physical labour he uses Caliban. the pronounced elements of the supernatural. the choice of a remote setting. In its opening scene. It is also in these last plays that Shakespeare’s dramatic imagination relies to a greater extent on symbolism. on which he lives alone with his daughter. his faithful spiritservant. Cymbeline. After the tragedies. and certain themes and motifs (e. of exile and return). has turned him into a slave. Sebastian and Ferdinand – Alonzo’s brother and son. are encouraged by Caliban to kill Prospero and take over the rule of the island. Three lines of action develop. and Sebastian. and his supernatural powers have given him control over both the natural elements and the spirits. Caliban hates and fears Prospero. the fairy-tale atmosphere. the long journey. Shakespeare’s last plays Shakespeare’s four plays belonging to his last period of creation (1608-1611) – Pericles. One of these sub-plots involves the courtiers: Antonio persuades Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother. by his powers. Alonzo. Alonzo. duke of Milan. They mix serious and comic action. a drunken servant. their plots contain characteristic ingredients like dangers which are finally avoided.2. the theme of loss and recovery. 2. Prospero is the former and legitimate duke of Milan. 43 John William Waterhouse: Miranda –The Tempest (1916) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the sense of a benevolent providential design. The plot of The Tempest Of these four plays. as well as other passengers.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. owing to the improbability of the action. magic.

whose youth and innocence are the premises for the undoing of the wrongs of the past.2. for the emergence of a regenerated world. influenced by Ariel. represents pure spirit. The theme of power Ariel vs. a “thing of darkness. one of Shakespeare’s most fascinating creations. and then to Milan.” “on whose nature / Nurture [i. Major themes An important theme in The Tempest is that of the nature of power. at the end.10. the scholar-magician. he learns.” claiming his throne. the control of intelligence over nature. evil Elizabeth Green – Ariel: The Tempest (1922) 44 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . education] can never stick. and to return to the world in his full humanity. “neglecting worldly ends.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Prospero’s initial plan had been revenge. he regains his authority and learns again the arts of power. Prospero’s project acquires a wider dimension through the union of Ferdinand and Miranda. who now repent. Ariel. In the final act. Caliban Innocence vs. Evil is not absent in The Tempest: there are echoes of Shakespeare’s previous plays in the motif of the usurping brother planning murder.” he had also failed to see his brother’s true character. to break his staff (symbol of supernatural power) and to drown his book (symbol of supernatural knowledge). and it is significant that this act is accompanied by his decision to abandon his magic. or of the wickedness of the servant turning against his master. to master himself. At the opposite pole. 2. now. Ariel is commanded to bring all the characters before Prospero. but. The power of innocence to redeem evil and restore order and the values of humanity is another important theme. he has a change of heart and sees in the union of the lovers a possibility of reconciliation and of a new beginning. in Ferdinand and Miranda civilisation and nature are united in their most innocent forms. Prospero. the personification of Prospero’s imagination. While Caliban and the plotting courtiers and servants demonstrate that both nature and society are capable of corruption. The grossest instincts of human nature and a fundamental viciousness are symbolically embodied in the grotesque figure of Caliban. more importantly. Prospero plans a safe return to Naples for the wedding of Miranda and Ferdinand. On the island. assumes a certain responsibility for his own dethronement: absorbed in his studies.” who can be controlled only by the art of magic. His act of forgiveness is the highest demonstration of princely power. who reveals himself to them as “the wronged duke of Milan. He forgives his treacherous brother and those involved in his usurpation.e.

more carefully. Prospero reminds Caliban that he did his best to raise him from his animal condition. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Full of resentment. extracted from The Tempest. Caliban answers that the only benefit of being able to speak is that he can now curse Prospero. read the fragment again.. What implications can you find in their exchange of replies? You may think. for instance. Compare your answer with the one offered at the end of the unit. Act I. of the role of language in acquiring knowledge. Here.4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 45 . by teaching him to speak. or in developing self-identity.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 6 Read Text 2. If there should be major differences. Formulate your answer in 150 words / 15 lines. scene 2.

Music is not only a necessary element in the spectacular quality of The Tempest.2. The miraculous survival of the ship’s passengers.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. Symbols in The Tempest Several symbolic elements contribute to the treatment of the themes in The Tempest. and prevents the wicked plots of both the courtiers and the drunken servants. then at least man should strive to discern in it. Another pervading symbol is that of music. a profound spiritual transformation and growth. The sea-journey and shipwreck are the symbols of a “sea change”*. In opposition with the convulsions and dangers of the tempest. of performance. The whole play insists on the idea of spectacle.11. the association of life with the insubstantiality and briefness of a theatre show. which “delight and hurt not. comforts Ferdinand’s despair when he thinks his father dead. manipulates the characters and prescribes the ending. It is through music that he calms down the fury of the waters. Even Caliban seems to be responsive to the “sounds and sweet airs” of the island. is frequent in Shakespeare’s plays.2. order and harmony. Shakespeare’s last masterpiece seems to suggest that if life is transient like a theatre performance. This emphasis on spectacle and its power to reveal truths by its illusion constitutes a baroque element in The Tempest. music suggests harmony and the power of the spirit to purify human nature. The playmetaphor. or to impose upon it. Prospero also needs “some heavenly music” to accomplish the final act of his plan. suggests the victory of life over death and of spirit over the elemental power of nature. It is through the perfection of Ariel’s art that Prospero re-establishes the moral law in the world to which he can now return. and it even contains (like Hamlet) a play within the play: a masque* performed as a celebration of Ferdinand and Miranda’s engagement.” The sea-journey Music 2. the same features as those of the Renaissance aesthetic ideal: beauty. and it is constantly associated with the magic actions of Ariel. but an important symbolic ingredient in its major events. Ariel – illustration to the 1873 edition of The Works of Shakespeare 46 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . sublimating its primitive energies. The title itself points to the importance of the symbolism of the sea-journey. The play-metaphor The action in The Tempest is practically managed by Prospero. whose magic art controls every incident.12.

but each of them. at the end of the unit. and this makes them both masters of metaphysical wit. T F 3.9 to 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 47 . in his own way.2. T F 2. You must find them among the following statements. John Donne and Andrew Marvell illustrate best the baroque sensibility of the 17th century in their themes and expressive strategies. Their styles are different. Ferdinand and Miranda represent the innocent young generation capable of renewing Prospero’s former world.” and many disliked its cultivated difficulty. The betrayal of his brother and the plotting of the courtiers on the island were severely punished by Prospero. The power of music has no effect on Caliban. staged and managed by Prospero through his magic art.12. of which three are false.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 7 Let us remember a few things about The Tempest. T F 5. If any of your choices should be wrong. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false) for each sentence. T F 7. applied to certain poets of the early and mid-seventeenth century. The contemporaries referred to their poetry as “strong lines. The metaphysical poets The term metaphysical. was first intended to bring discredit on them. A baroque feature of The Tempest is the emphasis on the theatrical quality of the action. except that of terrifying him. Prospero intends to use his magic power and supernatural knowledge in his regained authority as duke of Milan. combines an outstanding intellectual brilliance with lyric grace. Prospero had lost his power as the duke of Milan because his studies distanced him from the immediate world which he was supposed to rule.3. 1. T F 6. 2. T F 4. revise subchapters2.2. T F Make sure your answers are right by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Two essential symbolic elements contribute to the development of the theme of regeneration: the sea-journey and music.

A poem in this tradition is usually focused on an idea or line of argument. linked.3. Samuel Johnson* was to describe (in 1779) the kind of wit which characterised a metaphysical conceit as discordia concors*. The thought goes hand in hand with the feeling. which was in fact the expression of a new spiritual context. a metaphor or an analogy. which helps the poet to develop his subject. Dr. This is an elaborate figurative device. By means of conceits. a demand for “more matter and less words. There is always a connection between the abstract and the concrete. is contemplated from a certain distance. a metaphysical poem is not a piece of abstract thinking. which is developed through the exploitation of an image in all its possible implications. hidden. and almost always such a poem starts from a very personal situation. often extended by the use of hyperbole* or oxymoron*. As extended comparisons. and which blended expressive conciseness with density of meaning.” A new kind of poetry emerged. writers had to face a new exigency. and the emotions involved. as well as in ordering and mastering intense emotion. which starts from a comparison. from a most ordinary circumstance.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2.” Conceits were effective instruments in developing an argument and in rendering complication and subtlety of thought. but metaphysical conceits were far-fetched* comparisons. Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Metaphysical poetry displayed a new quality of writing.” as “the most heterogeneous ideas yoked [i.e. with patterns of rhythms closer to those of spoken language than to the requirements of literary tradition. In spite of its logical. Starting with the last decade of the 16th century. regardless of the subject of the poem. and a blend of the commonplace and the sublime. a cold intellectual exercise. The main features of metaphysical poetry are concentration and logical coherence. the poet was able to reconcile contradictory states of mind and feeling. The reader is expected to approach such a poem with an active mind. and to unify diverse and even discordant aspects of inner and outer reality into a single experience. The impression is that this experience. secret] resemblances in things apparently unlike.e.3. or discovery of occult [i. by the ingenuity with which they forced the perception of similarity in the most unexpected elements. united] by violence together. as “a combination of dissimilar images. conceits were abundant in Elizabethan dramatic and lyrical poetry.2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Discordia concors 48 . Irrespective of the kind of experience they endeavour to render. that the poet detaches himself from his own feelings in order to better understand and analyse them.1. all metaphysical poets are self-conscious and analytic. to bring not only his imagination and emotion into play. but also his reason. The metaphysical conceit The poetic device by which such opposites are brought together and reconciled is the conceit. “More matter and less words” 2. argumentative quality. meant to surprise and delight the reader by their wit*.

the two most outstanding representatives of this poetic trend in the 17th century. and created a style which had the vigour and liveliness of colloquial speech. and allegory. 2. Use the space left below. In the following subchapters.3. and which confers dramatic realism to his poems. pastoral* conventions.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 8 Order the main aspects describing metaphysical poetry into four essential features. If they should differ considerably. Donne displays the same sophisticated wit.1.3. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 49 . ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.3. and a highly original one. and the same realistic force. revise subchapters 2.2. and both are explored in the whole richness and variety of their possible experiences. and 2. He rejected the regular versification of Elizabethan poetry . in poems belonging to John Donne and Andrew Marvell. at the end of the unit.3. the same blend of ingenious reasoning and intense passion. Themes in John Donne’s poetry John Donne is one of the most influential poets of the 17th century. you will look at some famous examples of metaphysical conceits. In the treatment of both themes. Each answer should not exceed 2 lines / 20 words. Two important themes in his poetic work are love and faith. its decorative use of classical mythology.

Donne is highly playful in this poem. His approach of the theme of love is more “realistic”: he often glorifies sexuality and the body as important aspects in the experience of love. their love being so great and “refined. and he seems to amuse himself.3. which. and often emphasising the need for mutual love. His love poetry is revolutionary in its rejection of the Petrarchan* conventions of courtly love*.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. in which the speaker brings all his argumentative skill in support of his attempt to convince the woman to accept physical intimacy. Crying over their separation would bring to mind an analogy with earthly disasters (“sigh-tempests. Their superior love is founded on spiritual union and is not dependent on physical presence for its survival. beautiful. he resorts to the extravagant identification of a flea that has bitten both of them with their “marriage bed” and a “marriage temple. dealing with profound personal feeling and emotion from the distance of intellectual argument. unattainable lady and enjoy the pleasures of sensuality. from cynicism and playfulness to passionate sincerity and the celebration of both physical love and spiritual union. Another powerful example of Donne’s use of logical argument in a poem about love is The Flea.” He tries to persuade his mistress not to kill the flea.4. sometimes presenting woman as inconstant and unfaithful.” their separation must be seen in analogy with cosmic disturbances (“the trepidation of the spheres”). Mingling the trivial with the mystical sublime. Donne’s love poems In his love poems. but. The various comparisons and analogies by which he describes their love function as arguments in his plea.” In fact. shocking the reader by the unexpected analogy developed in the central conceit (the flea as symbolic marriage bed). in which the lover tries to persuade his mistress not to cry at his imminent departure. carrying the lover’s witty arguments to their logical extremes. Chaste. Donne changes this conventional vision of love. may afford an experience of the transcendental. are however harmless to man. sometimes speaking frankly of his erotic desire. These are conceits which illustrate the preference of the metaphysical poets for analogies between the macrocosm and the (human) microcosm. Donne’s rejection of the Petrarchan tradition A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning The Flea: seduction and wit 50 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The poem celebrates the stability and comfort of a secure relationship. he pleads that she should abandon the intransigence of the chaste. and all that the faithful lover could hope for were symbolic rewards and favours for his constancy and humble submission. A famous poem celebrating shared love is A Valediction*: Forbidding Mourning. in which their blood is now mixed. according to which woman was always an unattainable ideal. as this would be a triple “sin. when accompanied by genuine feeling. This is a seduction poem. though greater. superior – woman was an object of never fulfilled desire. Donne adopts a wide range of tones and attitudes.” “tear-floods”). He also suggests sometimes that physical union.

you need to revise subchapter 2.3.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 9 Read Donne’s poem (Text 2. Read the poem again. paying special attention to the last three stanzas. which explains what a metaphysical conceit is.. in the Reader). as well. he develops one of his most famous conceits. at the end of the unit. Explain the surprising analogy that he makes in order to speak about mutual love. If they should differ significantly. Formulate your answer in the space left below. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.2. Here. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 51 .6. in no more than 18 lines / 180 words.

The insistence on violence and struggle. which parallel those in his love poetry. in his religious poems the mystery of faith is often explored in erotic terms. of loyalty and betrayal. resurrection and salvation.3. Donne’s religious poems often develop an analogy between sexual love and divine love. as if suggesting that the experience of erotic union is the only way of understanding our relationship with God. If love is often a holy mystery for Donne. He fights against his own sense of sin and guilt. gives this sonnet a particular dramatic intensity. Donne’s religious poems Donne’s baroque sensibility is evident in his love poems in the tension between conflicting. divine judgement. on death. in which the poet expresses his deep need for a close relationship with God.The late Renaissance and the Baroque 2. comparable to that of Shakespeare. In Batter My Heart. Batter My Heart Portrait of John Donne (1572-1631) (author unknown) 52 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . In his religious meditations in verse. The most eloquent example is the sonnet Batter My Heart. Actually. this need is expressed by means of several conceits. in which the poet’s desire to abandon himself to God’s love is rendered through paradoxical images. clashes with the poet’s scepticism that the mystery of faith can be penetrated intellectually. between the need for permanence and the need for variety. Satan. These poems usually display contrary impulses. for the divine saving grace. between idealised passion and erotic desire. Donne’s focus is on his deep sense of sin. in which the delight in witty logical argumentation.5. one of Donne’s nineteen Holy Sonnets. Tension and paradox are also explored in his religious poems. paradoxical aspects of the experience of love. on the paradoxes of freedom and captivity. which makes him a prisoner of God’s enemy. in the exercise of reason.

revise subchapter 2. Donne suggests his contradictory.3.7. nature. from the Reader. and read the poem again. according to some critics. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. and love of country. representing Donne’s sonnet Batter My Heart.3. As a Puritan* patriot.6. paradoxical feelings by means of a conceit which exploits metaphorically the contrast between marriage and rape. Andrew Marvell: the patriotic theme in the Horatian Ode The last of the metaphysical poets. the greatest of political poems in English literature: An Horatian Ode* upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland (written in 1650).5. How does he use this contrast in order to speak about his religious experience? Analyse this conceit in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. 2. Andrew Marvell combines in his poetic work the sophistication of metaphysical wit with the elegance and grace of classical forms and attitudes. Three major themes can be detached from his poetry: love. In the last six lines. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 53 . If there should be significant differences. This meditation on political conflict and national history is impressive by its clarity and controlled variations of tone.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 10 Read Text 2. at the end of the unit. living through the turbulent years of the Civil War*. Marvell left.

reveals thus its symbolic dimension to the poet’s contemplative mind. and thus he can find reason to praise both of them. The carpe diem* motif was popular in Renaissance poetry. behaving with royal grace in his last minute. His nature poems have usually a mystical tendency.e. Victorious Cromwell is admirable for his fiery spirit and the courage with which he assumed the task to “cast the kingdoms old / Into another mould” (i. On the other hand. On a Drop of Dew 2. which begins with a most accurate description of a dew-drop on a rose petal. The most illustrative poem. The speaker’s argument opposes the “deserts of vast eternity.” associated with his mistress’s preference for a prolonged courtship. Marvell does not portray Oliver Cromwell and his opponent.” so the Christian Soul denies the earth and its “impure” pleasures. developed then into a complex analogy with the pure Christian soul and its relation with earth and with heaven.3. Gifted with a sharp sense of observation of natural detail. pictured with remarkable precision. in which the speaker develops an ingenious argument in order to persuade his mistress to give up her coyness [i.e.The late Renaissance and the Baroque Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) Its classical perfection manages to hold in balance the ambivalence of attitude and the complication of thought characteristic of the metaphysical trend.8. is On a Drop of Dew. Just as the dew-drop is “trembling.” whose visible beauties are the key to spiritual truths. which illustrates the poet’s skill in combining the playful and the serious. lest it grow [i.e.3. in which both of them act according to a divine order. but Marvell’s poem extends it into a meditation on time. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Carpe diem 54 . and many of his poems reveal his delight in the contemplation of rural nature. in contrasting colours. King Charles I Stuart. for fear that it might grow] impure. aspiring to union with almighty God. the most accomplished is To His Coy Mistress. these details as emblems of a transcendent reality. as if Nature itself were a “mystic book. What begins as a nature poem is extended into a religious poem by means of a metaphysical conceit.” and finally dissolves itself “into the glories of the almighty Sun. The theme of love in Marvell’s poetry Of Marvell’s love poems. He showed a deep love for the countryside. a masterpiece of metaphysical wit. anticipating the early Romantic attitude to nature. shyness] and accept his passionate love. on the scaffold. He rather sees the events and the fate of the two rulers in the context of a providential history. Marvell often sees. 2. It is a seduction poem. A natural detail. to change the form of ruling power). Marvell emphasises the dignity with which the defeated king met his fate. Nature as “mystic book” Another side of Marvell’s poetic personality is illustrated by his nature poetry. Although loyal to the Puritan cause. however.7. in this respect.

paying attention to the logic of the argument. at the end of the unit. it can arrest the inevitable course towards physical extinction by a moment of ecstatic pleasure.8. Love. Love can suspend the inexorable laws of nature. If the difference is considerable. in the Reader). but…. after revising subchapter 2. SAQ 11 Read Marvell’s poem To His Coy Mistress (Text 2. then (therefore)…. more carefully.3. read the poem again. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 55 .8. which has the structure If…. is presented as the only way of transcending our mortality. What are the main ideas corresponding to these three steps? Formulate them succinctly in the space left below. in its sexual fulfillment.The late Renaissance and the Baroque to the imperative of conquering time by the intensity of sensual enjoyment. Do not exceed 12 lines / 120 words in all. If… But… Therefore… Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.

The late Renaissance and the Baroque

This unit has introduced you to an important aspect of the English Renaissance: the development, in the early 17th century, of the Baroque as a structure of sensibility different from that of the Elizabethan age (corresponding to the high Renaissance). Subchapter 2.1 focuses on the contrast between the optimism, confidence, exuberance, sense of order, harmony and balance characterising the high Renaissance spirit, and the baroque vision with its emphasis on disorder, conflict, tension and confusion, scepticism and anxiety. Paradox and irony are favourite devices for the exploration of the relationship between contraries, such as truth and illusion, wisdom and madness, life and death, body and spirit, action and contemplation, etc. A taste for the obscure, for melancholy, for the macabre often defines the Baroque, but it may also display an attraction to the spectacular, to extravagance and excess. Subchapters 2.2 and 2.3 focus, respectively, on Shakespeare and on two great metaphysical poets, John Donne and Andrew Marvell, who best illustrate this spirit of the late Renaissance. Subchapter 2.2 deals with Shakespeare’s four great plays of his second period of creation – Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth. The themes they explore (the nature of evil, the meaning of human suffering, the paradoxes of innocence and knowledge, truth and falsehood, etc.(reflect the baroque sensibility of the age). This subchapter includes also a discussion of Shakespeare’s last major dramatic creation, The Tempest, a romance play in which his tone changes into a more affirmative one and the central thematic concern is the possibility of moral regeneration, of the restoration of order. Subchapter 2.3 aims to acquaint you with some of the basic features of metaphysical poetry, insisting on its use of conceits, on its argumentative structure, on its mixture of intense feeling and intellectual detachment. Both John Donne and Andrew Marvell display a baroque sensibility in their attraction to paradox and ambiguity, and they are both great masters of metaphysical wit, skillfully controlling lyrical effusion by subtle and precise logical argument.

Key words
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Renaissance Baroque paradox scepticism tragedy romance play play-metaphor metaphysical poetry conceit discordia concors


Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

The late Renaissance and the Baroque

• Baroque: the term comes from the Portuguese barroco and the Spanish barrueco, meaning a rough or imperfectly shaped pearl. It describes a style in architecture and the visual arts, music and literature, which dominated the 17th century, and which was characterised by sumptuous ornamentation and by the search for effect. Its meaning is often extended to a certain type of sensibility, not necessarily restricted to the historical period in which the baroque style flourished. In art, the Baroque is opposed to Classicism and Neoclassicism. blank verse: see the Glossary in Unit 1. carpe diem: literally, “seize the day” in Latin; a phrase from one of Horace’s Odes, meaning “enjoy yourself while you can.” The carpe diem motif is associated with the theme of the brevity of life and the inevitability of death. Civil War: see the Glossary in Unit 1. courtly love: a concept developed during the Middle Ages, in literary and aristocratic/courtly circles, which was closely linked to the feudal concept of vassalage and the cult of the Virgin Mary. discordia concors: (Latin) literally: harmonious discord; combination of apparently discordant images or ideas, the joining of opposites in such a way that a paradoxical sense of harmony is created. fall of princes: the traditional theme of a tragedy, as established by Aristotle (see the Gallery of personalities below), in his treatise on Poetics. According to him, tragedy was supposed to deal with the downfall of a noble character, enjoying “reputation and prosperity.” The disaster is brought on him not by vice and depravity, but by “some error of judgement,” and its representation is meant to arouse pity and fear. far-fetched: literally: carried too far; improbable, unlikely. history plays (or chronicle plays): a form of drama invented by the Elizabethans, which dramatises a certain historical period, starting from historical record rather than from myth and legend. Shakespeare’s chronicle plays include a sequence of four plays on the War of the Roses (the three parts of Henry VI, and Richard III – 1590-1592), and another series, consisting in Richard II, King John, the two parts of Henry IV, and Henry V, written between 1595-1599. These plays are mainly inspired from the 16th century chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, and they were highly influential in the shaping of a national consciousness. They scrutinise the national past, underlining the importance of a centralised authority which should put an end to the dangers of anarchy, inherent in the feudal struggles for power. Horatian Ode: an ode (see the Glossary in Unit 1) written in a highly formal, regular pattern, on the model of the ancient Latin poet Horace (65-8 B.C.). hyperbole: a rhetorical figure consisting in deliberate exaggeration, for the purpose of emphasis. imagery: basically, language appealing to the senses. Imagery represents the coherent system of mental images evoked by 57

• •

• • • •

• •

• • •

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

The late Renaissance and the Baroque

• • • • • • • • • •

• •

figurative language, to which certain patterns of feeling are associated, and which direct the reader’s reaction. For instance, in Macbeth, the recurrent imagery of clothes sitting ill on their owner intensifies our perception of the protagonist as a usurper, and the dominant imagery of darkness contributes to the suggestion of the proportions of the moral evil. In King Lear, frequent images connected with bodily pain and torture and with animals of prey strengthen our sense of the extraordinary power of evil, of a humanity that has become a toy in the hands of indifferent gods. Jacobean and Caroline drama: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. masque: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Metaphysical Poets: see again subchapter 1.3 in Unit 1. oxymoron: a rhetorical figure in which apparently contradictory terms are used in conjunction (as in “beautiful tyrant”). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Petrarchan: related to or modelled on Petrarch (see again the Gallery of personalities in Unit 1). Puritan: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Renaissance: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. revenge tragedy: see again subchapter 1.4.1 in Unit 1. sea-change: this phrase from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, used by Ariel in one of his songs, is used to refer to a complete change in the nature or character of something, a change which seems almost magical. soliloquy: from Latin solus, i.e. alone, and loqui, i.e. to speak; a widely accepted dramatic convention, by which a character, speaking alone on the stage, reveals to the audience his thoughts, feelings, motives and intentions. In Shakespeare’s plays, the soliloquies mark the moments of the characters’ most profound insight, in which some important revelation is reached, or in which the character discloses the full complexity of his motives and reveals the depths of his consciousness. valediction: a farewell speech (from Latin vale: farewell, and dicere: to say). wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.

Gallery of personalities
• • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Greek philosopher, author of works on logic, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, metaphysics. Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784): the most influential critic of the 18th century, author of the impressive critical-biographical work Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), editor of Shakespeare’s work (1765). He compiled the first important Dictionary of the English Language (1755). Kyd, Thomas (1557-1595): one of the most popular Elizabethan dramatists, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, the prototype of the Renaissance revenge tragedy, modelled on the plays of Seneca (se again subchapter 1.3.2 in Unit 1). Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593): Elizabethan dramatist, the
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

• 58

The late Renaissance and the Baroque

most important and influential of Shakespeare’s precursors. His tragedies (Tamburlane the Great, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta) depict titanic heroes, whose extraordinary will power and ambition set them on a risky quest (for absolute power, knowledge and wealth, respectively). Sidney, Philip (1554-1586): important poet of the Elizabethan age, best known through his sequence of love sonnets Astrophil and Stella. He is also the author of a prose romance, Arcadia, and of a critical prose essay, An Apology [i.e. defense] of Poetry, which played a major role in the definition of English Renaissance literary aesthetics. Spenser, Edmund (1552-1599): one of the greatest English poets, whose influence on later poets is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Milton. Like Sidney (see below), Spenser wrote a sonnet sequence, Amoretti, which enjoyed great popularity. His masterpiece is the allegorical poem The Fairie Queen, a culmination of Renaissance poetic art, which glorifies Queen Elizabeth. Tudor monarchs: Henry VII (1485-1509), who established national order and unity after a long period of feudal war; Henry VIII (1509-1547), Elizabeth I (1558-1603).

Solutions and suggestions for SAQs
SAQ 1 1. emphasis on disorder, violence, conflict, instability 2. emphasis on life’s shortness and insubstantiality (life as dream), on the macabre and the morbid, on melancholy 3. taste for extravagance, excess, breaking of limits and proportions, ambiguity 4. scepticism, anxiety, tension SAQ 2 1. Shakespeare shows a deep understanding of human nature in its extraordinary variety; he portrays a wide range of feelings, emotions, attitudes and moral features; he achieves perfectly convincing characters, in a variety of dramatic registers. 2. The last plays are characterised by a vision of hope and of order restored; here, innocence is victorious over evil, by contrast with the former tragic vision of the universe and of man as torn by inner conflicts. SAQ 3 The fragment contrasts the confidence and exuberance of the Renaissance with the scepticism and melancholy characteristic of the baroque spirit. Hamlet as a Renaissance man glorifies the beauty and majesty of the universe, and praises man as the masterpiece of creation, close to angels and God in his power of understanding and the infinity of his creative potential. On the other hand, to his tragic consciousness the world appears as irremediably corrupt and infested with evil, and man as a creature limited by his mortal condition (“quintessence of dust”).
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural


Perfect circles (symbolising perfect love) may be traced by means of the compasses. King Lear. Hamlet. 2. use of conceits (extended comparisons. 3. King Lear SAQ 5 In the first place. As a truly superior being. he failed in his effort to enlighten Caliban.g. make his purposes known through words). is a suitable emblem for their souls. Hamlet.The late Renaissance and the Baroque SAQ 4 1. “Sleep no more” anticipates the torments of Macbeth’s conscience. unexpected. passion and reason. usually between highly dissimilar elements. concise expression and density of meaning 2. 6. Prospero seemed also to think that Caliban could be socialised through speech. SAQ 7 1. 5.e. this hallucination proves Macbeth’s strong imagination. As “chief nourisher in life’s feast. of a clean mind. the abstract and the concrete. 7. led to his awareness of his condition as a slave. by keeping one foot fixed and moving the other round this centre. From Caliban’s point of view. T. This instrument. He thus expected Caliban to overcome his primitive impulses and to develop more civilised tendencies (“purposes”). Othello. through language (knowing his “own meaning”). T SAQ 8 1. unable to find peace once it has been corrupted by evil. King Lear. he chose to raise Caliban to the condition of a rational creature. however. attempt to reconcile contradictory or discordant experiences. Hamlet. T. etc. 4. Othello. analytical detachment from emotion 4. which organises and “manages” intense feeling and emotion. even if physically the lovers must be apart. Macbeth’s feeling that he has lost this privilege of nature reflects his awareness that his “unnatural” deed is a violation of moral law (which is “natural”). “The innocent sleep” is the symbol of moral integrity. of his own sense of self. to blend contraries (e. F. which remain perfectly united. because the latter’s nature was hopelessly evil. F. and the horrible crime has immediate effects on his conscience. 3. innocent conscience) is part of the natural order of man’s existence.” sleep (i. T. He is not a cold-blooded killer. endowed with speech. 5. 4. SAQ 6 Prospero might have better controlled Caliban in his “brutish” state. complicated line of argument. guided by rational will. By 60 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which would have enabled him to communicate (e. F. From Prospero’s point of view.) SAQ 9 The poet associates mutual love with the way in which a pair of compasses works. surprising associations) 3. 2. which he resents.g. the development of conscience. made of two moving legs articulated at one end.

your virginity will then be worth nothing. your beauty will fade and my songs of praise will have no object when you lie in your grave. 97-105. instead of letting it devour us slowly. SAQ 10 Marriage is associated with love. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. the inclination of the fixed leg may vary – it seems to “lean after” the moving leg. The only way out of his loveless “marriage” to sin is a “divorce. since only worms will “enjoy” it. 34-40. Preda. 273-287) 2. God would set him free for a complete experience of religious devotion. the metaphor of the speaker’s “marriage” to God’s enemy suggests his sense of sin. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. and which would resemble rape. Ford. in the absence of joy. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. vol. just as the mistress. Therefore let us enjoy each other while we are still young and you are beautiful. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. however. Daiches.” which only God can effect. but the implication is that his will and reason are too weak to defend his faith. 130-140) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 61 . I would spend ages in praising every part of your body. because your charms deserve such praise. But I know time is merciless. 1983 (pp. 1991 (pp. vol. Your own passion “transpires” in the blush of your skin.” Depending on the distance from the centre to the circumference. But. 3. Taking him by force – by the force of the divine grace –. 246-249. the poet’s love depends on the certainty of his mistress’s faithfulness and constancy: “Thy firmness makes my circle just. Penguin Books Ltd. will long for him. as the moving leg will “come home” and join its “twin. which would restore the purity of his faith (being “chaste”).). so let us devour Time with the intensity of our desire. in fact. 1969 (pp. 302-305) 3.” so there is always the certainty of reunion for the lovers. Boris (ed.The late Renaissance and the Baroque analogy. English Literature and Civilisation. waiting for her departed lover. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). A Critical History of English Literature.). Further reading 1. He loves God. Ioan-Aurel (coord. Paradoxically. The speaker tries thus to persuade his mistress of his own constancy of feeling.. 267-283. David. SAQ 11 If we had time enough and the world were all ours. while rape presupposes the violation of one’s will. consent and legality.. 3. 3.5. Unit objectives The Works of John Milton Milton. the Christian humanist Milton’s early poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso Lycidas – a pastoral elegy Milton’s sonnets Sonnet VII Sonnet XVII Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Raphael’s warning to Adam The creation of the world The seduction of Eve The world after the Fall The heroes of Paradise Lost Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell Satan.4.3.1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.4. 1 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 63 63 63 64 64 66 66 67 67 68 69 70 72 72 74 75 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 87 62 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 3.1. the “author of all ill” Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.The works of John Milton UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON Unit Outline 3.5. 3. 3. 3.2. 3.3.2.

and his acquaintance with the great artistic achievements of that country and with prominent personalities enriched his education and contributed to his erudition. baroque* vision. religion. theology. and he dedicated long years of study and preparation to his accomplishment as a creator. 63 John Milton (1608-1674) A man of impressive learning The Puritan patriot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . rhetoric and the great works of the classics. and for almost twenty years he served their ideal of a truly reformed England. He lived and created in an age of historical turbulence and profound change. Paradise Lost. mathematics. politics. etc. His education was eminently that of a Christian humanist. written in English and in Latin. etc.). the author of a work which represents a highly original synthesis of Renaissance humanism*.1. motifs and concerns in Milton’s earlier poems ♦ describe the kind of sonnet structure used by Milton ♦ analyse the way in which Milton develops imaginatively and interprets biblical events in Paradise Lost ♦ state and explain the theme of Paradise Lost ♦ summarise the argument that enables Milton to “justify the ways of God to men” in his epic poem ♦ define the main features of the character of Milton’s Satan ♦ describe Milton’s treatment of the characters of Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost Unit objectives 3. and he made up his mind about his own position in the conflicts that agitated his country. geography.g. he continued to read intensively. In 1638.The works of John Milton By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ situate Milton’s literary activity in the historical context ♦ explain what features of Milton’s work define him as a Christian humanist ♦ identify themes. he approached a diversity of subjects. In his prose essays and pamphlets*. Milton had from an early age the conviction of his poetic vocation. Milton’s enduring reputation is ensured by his masterpiece. After that. Milton. as well as his moral inflexibility. family. and the course of his literary career was consistently marked by his involvement in the political. He devoted himself heart and soul to the cause defended by the Puritans*. Christian faith and classical formal perfection. religious and civil debates of his age. such as education. recommended him for the office of Latin Secretary to the Council of State. he studied Latin. He returned to England when the troubles which were to lead to the Civil War* started. as a publicist. Greek and Hebrew. which exerted a huge influence on many generations of poets. the freedom of the press. accumulating an impressive knowledge in a diversity of fields (e. At Cambridge (1625-1629). the Christian humanist Milton is one of the most prominent figures of the 17th century. music. he went on a trip to Italy. His enormous learning. the greatest epic poem in English literature.

However. the pastoral* image of the shepherd becomes a metaphor for the poet-priest engaged in the exploration of high Christian themes. 3. these two sides are usually kept apart in these poems. in the treatment of the theme of love and the use of Greek mythology. his political hopes ended. or the two sides of the poet’s soul. Ovid*. In some of them. Milton’s first important poem in English on a religious theme was written in 1629: On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. Milton’s early poems Milton started writing poetry very early. celebrating the birth (the “nativity”) of Christ and its inauguration of a new order for humanity. is in touch with divine secrets. who. This poem was intended as the first in a series about the significant moments of the Christian year. he started to move away from themes and concerns which were defining for the classicist spirit of the Renaissance.2. and he was perfect master of a variety of styles. As in other poems. in the optimism and exuberance accompanying the contemplation of reviving nature. which already displayed the ambivalence in Milton’s poetic identity as both Christian poet and classicist humanist. etc.The works of John Milton The Christian humanist poet a position that he occupied from 1649 until 1660. the Nativity Ode* is a landmark in his creation. as it is also an ambitious assertion of Milton’s own literary birth as a “poet-priest. in these poems Milton appears highly preoccupied by his poetic vocation. like a priest. Virgil*. His models were the great Greek and Latin poets (Homer*. in the perfect integration of classical allusion and pagan mythology with Christian spirituality. As his poetic personality gained in self-confidence. to whose excellence he aspired to rise. for instance. However. approaching the great religious themes that enabled him to assert his genius. Milton’s Christian humanism consists in this fusion of classical form and Christian themes. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso To Milton’s long years of preparation for the fulfilment of his vocation belong also two poems. Milton wrote with the same ease and grace both in English and in Latin. which are in fact complementary: L’Allegro [“the cheerful man”] and Il Penseroso [“the pensive/melancholy man”]. As a poet. but Milton did not complete his plan. He sought inspiration in biblical mythology. with its pastoral delights.2.1. Milton follows Ovid in the emphasis on sensuous enjoyment.).” The Latin elegies The Nativity Ode 3. L’Allegro describes a day – from morning till sunset – in the life of the cheerful man. They deal with contrasting moods of poetic inspiration. and his first notable poems were seven Latin elegies*. Milton places emphasis on the dignity of agricultural labour and the 64 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . With the Restoration*. On the other hand. In the Sixth elegy. by his aspiration to be a Christian epic* poet. but his maturity and experience enabled him to bring to fulfilment the most important part of his poetic work.

in L’Allegro. are complementary poems about poetic inspiration and creative moods. you will thus review some aspects of Milton’s literary personality. in Il Penseroso. If your choices should be wrong. there is a strong emphasis on music.” in which the studious poet finds the gratification of intellectual experience. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. c. In both poems. In each poem. the poet hopes to hear “more than is meant to meet the ear” – i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 65 . c. at the end of the unit. SAQ 1 Make the right choice to continue each of the three beginning statements. The final part of Il Penseroso expresses the poet’s aspiration of attaining visionary power. to become a great epic poet of the Christian age. In the latter. In Il Penseroso. The secular* pleasures of common life. 3. b. Are Milton’s first poems in English which deal with a Christian theme. the integration. of classical erudition with biblical themes. to master a variety of styles. There is both parallelism and contrast between the two poems.The works of John Milton satisfactions that it offers. the diversity of subjects in his prose essays and pamphlets. the song of the milkmaid) contrasts with the deep. the poet emphasises the blessings of the “pensive. 2.” contemplative mood. gives way to the mystic exaltation of the poet-student listening to religious music.1.e. celebrate the diurnal pleasures of pastoral life and its activities. and on the happiness of rural life. in his poetic work.2. his constant preoccupation with his own poetic becoming. but the “natural” music of L’Allegro (the song of the lark. b. 1. Milton’s literary ambition was a. polyphonic sounds of the organ. appropriate mythological allusions contribute to the creation of the atmosphere. with its simple pleasures. Milton’s Christian humanism is reflected in a. the crowing of the cock. L’Allegro and Il Penseroso a. he expects to discern in the heavenly notes a spiritual truth. The diurnal activities and the cheerfulness of L’Allegro are replaced here by the nocturnal peace and quiet of the “lonely tower. c. b. and 3. to rival the classics in his perfect mastery of Latin. revise subchapters 3.

preparing himself seriously for becoming a priest. he defines his poetic ambition in terms which are both Christian and classical-humanist. Milton composed another poem in which.2. in a heavenly pastoral world. personal manner. Confronted with the tragic inevitability of death. The early death of his Cambridge mate was an occasion for meditating on the possibility of his own death before having accomplished the great work for which he had been preparing himself for so long. Milton adds a contemporary Christian relevance to the classical pastoral convention when he reflects on the corruption of the church. Milton’s concern with his poetic fulfilment 3. This fear was accompanied by the paradoxical feeling that his genius was not ripe enough for the poetic task for which he felt he was destined. which had known a period of decline since the Elizabethan age*. representing both himself and his dead mate as shepherds. and they were either testimonies of personal experience and feeling. variety and originality in the use of this poetic form. Lycidas – a pastoral elegy In the same year with L’Allegro and Il Penseroso (1637). The lamenting poet finds comfort in the thought that the soul of the dead friend is now with God. in his determination to carry on with his task and do each day’s work: “Tomorrow. The death of a promising young man makes the poet meditate on existential problems. Milton’s sonnets Milton revived the tradition of the sonnet*. The death of the dedicated young man. or occasional and complimentary compositions. uses again the pastoral frame. the shepherdpoet’s consolation is in his own sense of purpose.The works of John Milton 3. not on earth. Irrespective of their nature.2. He wrote sonnets intermittently throughout his life. Milton’s sonnets demonstrate a remarkable flexibility. in two of his sonnets he reveals these anxieties in a direct. may appear unjust in a world in which corrupt priests prosper and accede to high offices. written at the death of a fellow-student at Cambridge. 66 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to fresh woods and pastures new. If in other poems of Milton’s early career this thought is expressed more obliquely. He asks himself if there is any sense in preparing oneself for poetic fame and giving up the pleasures of life when death may so unexpectedly put an end to all endeavour.3.” Lycidas shows Milton again preoccupied by his own becoming a poet. The answer to such questions enlarges the frame of the pastoral elegy: the true reward for both merit and vice is in heaven. and the end of the elegy brings in a note of personal confidence. again. The elegy Lycidas.

he Paradise Lost to commands “thousands” (of spirits.The works of John Milton 3.e. in which the accumulation of knowledge was meant to create a solid foundation for his future great work. other young men have demonstrated “inward ripeness. foolishly: how can God expect him to fulfill his task if He has decided to make him blind? (“Doth God exact daylabour. God: the poet’s “great taskmaster” 3. and that the passing of the time will eventually confirm if he is destined for glory. Milton was still invoking Patience to avoid the anxiety caused by his feeling of “unripeness. Milton meditates on his loss of sight.3.” that they are “timely happy spirits”. The final six lines of the sonnet change this tone of lamentation to one of self-comfort at the thought that heaven has already decided his “lot. in another poem of this kind (Sonnet XVII). he admits.3. at his age. Lamenting the loss making his political and religious views known in a series of influential of his eyesight essays.” “mean or high” as it may be. Milton has the strong sense that his poetic accomplishment is a task imposed by God (his “great task-master”).” with no “bud or blossom” to promise ripe fruit. In Sonnet XVII. Sonnet VII In Sonnet VII (“How soon hath time”). but he had not fulfilled his great poetic promise. by the acceptance of one’s fortune – of God’s “mild yoke. The life of study and leisure that the poet had been leading was a period of prolonged apprenticeship*. In the first part of the sonnet. as King of Heaven. The only thing that matters is that he should have “grace to use it so. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 67 . but of God’s eternal will. it does not matter if this task is fulfilled soon or late. Patience – a Christian virtue – teaches him that God is served not only by actions. angels). Sonnet XVII After almost twenty years. with a certain sadness. but also by Christian humility. and confronts the evidence of a “late spring. Milton’s eye-sight was definitively compromised. he had asserted himself as a successful publicist. He has reached the age of twenty four. confessing his temptation to ask. they have been fortunately able to prove their maturity at the right time. Milton laments the passing of his youth without any sign of poetic ripeness. that the unfolding of his poetic destiny is not only a matter of time. When he wrote Sonet XVII. and the theme of blindness was to accompany the great themes of his coming masterpieces. Patient and dignified waiting for God’s will to be fulfilled is also a way of serving Him. If he is to transcend time by literary fame. Since for God time is in fact eternity (“All is…as ever” in God’s eye). that.” It would be arrogance to think that God needs “either man’s Milton dictating work or gift” to assert His greatness.” By this time. patiently.2. light denied?”).” to carry out the task in such a way as to make his achievement count in eternity. in 1652. since. To prevent such a complaint. A sad biographical circumstance increased Milton’s anxiety in this respect: he was going blind. written in 1631. but finds consolation in his faith in Providence.1. i. who carry out the divine his daughters will. he must admit. As a Christian poet.

2.The works of John Milton SAQ 2 Milton adopted the form of the Italian sonnet. Dante* –. This formal pattern usually corresponds to a certain thematic structure.4. and it represented the fulfillment of his ambition to write an epic which would be “doctrinal to a nation. His blindness was no obstacle – as he advanced in the composition of the poem. Read these sonnets (Texts 3. and he worked at it over several years.1. What is the common thematic development in these two sonnets? Your answer should not exceed 8 lines/80 words. Paradise Lost – the Christian epic Milton began the composition of his masterpiece in 1657. completing it in 1665 and publishing it in 1667.2. respectively. 3. paying attention to what their octave and sestet deal with. made up of two sections: an octave (an eight-line stanza) and a sestet (a six-line stanza). in the Reader). Virgil. when he was already blind. As the several Invocations in the poem suggest. the passages stored in his mind were transcribed after his dictation. at the end of the unit. read again subchapter 3. Paradise Lost was the fruit of long years of preparation and meditation. he expected the inspiring Muse to compensate for his physical blindness with a 68 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.3. If there should be significant differences. and the two sonnets. which in Sonnets VII and XVII is the same.” He had always dreamed of reaching the stature of the great epic poets that were his models – Homer. and 3. and of leaving to posterity an undying work.

he decided on the subject of the Fall – the theme of Paradise double fall. and thus to enable him to attain indeed to a “prophetic strain. (divine) love and (Satanic) hatred.1. Satan and the fallen angels in Hell The poem begins in conventional epic manner.” and the central theme of his poem is that of felix culpa* – the fortunate mistake. to “illumine” what is “dark” in him. the poem develops an implicit debate on such contraries as freedom and tyranny. The The belief in poem’s doctrinal foundation is the idea that God’s infinite knowledge free will and power do not exclude man’s freedom of action and choice. Milton had thought. Starting from the dualism good/evil. man’s temptation and fall into sin.e. in theme a daring. accumulated throughout his life. obedience and rebellion. Incapable of accepting the thought of submission and of his imprisonment in Hell. with the poet’s invocation of the Muse. but by Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 69 . the fault with The Felix culpa happy consequences. predestination*. burning in the “darkness visible” of those “regions of sorrow. “to justify the ways of God to men.” forever deprived of the glory. enemy]” who “holds the tyranny of Heaven. knowledge and ignorance/innocence. The “lost Archangel. Milton’s ambition was.” as he anticipated in Il Penseroso. an evil which is turned to good in God’s overall plan for the history of creation.4. which is never ornamental. in which man’s fall. original epic scenario. the creation of the world and of man.” He suggests to his followers that their “work” should no longer be done by force – since that is the attribute of the Almighty –. as he stated in the opening Invocation. Its Christian frame absorbs and integrates Milton’s astonishing learning. Satan is determined to wage “eternal war” to his “grand Foe [i. brought about by his disobedience. but his erudition. and of Adam and Eve Lost from Paradise. Milton approached in his grandiose epic problems which provoked heated polemics in his time. whose main moments are the fall of the rebel angels. of Lucifer* from Heaven. is subordinated to the poetic intensification or clarification of the main theme. etc. are gathered to listen to Satan. Finally. These problems may be summarised by the alternative freedom vs. His work is encyclopaedic. is presented as a necessary moment in the “Eternal Providence*”. The twelve books which make up Paradise Lost unfold an impressive epic action. and his loss of Paradise. happiness and peace they had enjoyed in Heaven. He interprets poetically the biblical events. in fact. Then the reader is plunged into the middle of the action: the fallen angels in Hell. the greatest synthesis of the Western literary tradition.” full of the bitterness of defeat.The works of John Milton more penetrating understanding of spiritual truths. of many possible subjects for his capital work – subjects inspired either from British or from The subject and biblical history. Paradise Lost defines Milton best as a Christian humanist. declares his hatred against God and his intention to regain Heaven. over the years. 3.

cunning]. death and resurrection. and plans to “excite their minds / With more desire to know. and their discussions are rendered in Book II.4.The works of John Milton The council of the fallen angels “fraud or guile [i. The fallen angels are all called to a council in Satan’s infernal palace. the “wild abyss” governed by Night. i. knowing in advance that Satan will be successful in his attempt to “pervert” man. surpass] hellish hate. to find the weakness of man and to seduce him to join their party. God’s Son offers to pay this price for the reconciliation of man to his heavenly Father. His voyage through the great gulf separating Hell from Heaven. He contemplates with envy the beauty and the innocent happiness of Adam and Eve. whose splendour is described more effectively through Satan’s jealous eyes. is rendered in one of the most highly poetic passages in the poem. the overwhelming discord of the elements of a yet uncreated world. in which his success was due to deceit and dissimulation. to seek the newly created Earth. 3. Satan has reached the Garden of Eden. and the only way to satisfy divine justice is a sacrificial death that would redeem man. The divine foreknowledge of the Fall Book III. by virtue of his leading position. Satan is prevented from carrying out his design by the angels guarding Paradise. and he flies away.2. whose setting is in Heaven. Pandemonium*. set him free from sin. Chaos and Chance.e. the ascension from darkness to the light of his “native seat” – now forbidden to him –. Divine justice and mercy Book IV: Satan’s arrival in the Garden of Eden 70 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and He commands His angels to adore and celebrate man’s Saviour and “universal king. The corruption of God’s creation was thought better than any kind of revenge. explains to His Son the reason for his allowing this to happen. concentrates the doctrinal argument of the poem. Satan.” He thus anticipates the moment of the Temptation. Man’s sin of disobedience must be punished justly. The accepted solution is to reach the new world created by God. God. assumes the danger of trying to break free from the formidable prison of Hell.” Meanwhile.e.” God anticipates the event of His Son’s incarnation. and so “Heavenly love shall outdo [i.” and to make them transgress God’s interdiction of tasting the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. Milton displays here at his best his gift of evoking vast spaces and general chaos. Satan also tells his companions of a prophecy according to which a new world and a new kind of creature were to be brought into being by God.e.

The works of John Milton SAQ 3 Read Text 3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. If there should be major differences. more carefully. in the Reader. What is God’s argument. at the end of the unit. read again the text. and what are its implications? Answer in no more than 15 lines/150 words. which contains God’s justification for allowing man to fall.4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 71 .

” for the evocation of the making of the world. Blake: The downfall of the his own power and pre-eminence. the “divine historian. Raphael once again advises him against trying to penetrate the secrets of the “great Architect. The story of the “deep fall / Of those too high aspiring who rebel angels (1808) rebelled / With Satan” is given by Raphael as a “terrible example” of the reward for disobedience. as this diminished W. God entrusted His Son with the act of Creation and the latter’s “powerful Word / And Spirit” gave life and order to “unformed” matter and turned chaos into cosmos. both in the large-scale description of the making of celestial bodies or in the sublime picture of the primal waters. Milton displays an extraordinary evocative power.” to fill in the “vacant room [i. sweetness. space]” left by the fallen angels.e.3. The creation of the world Raphael also tells Adam the story of the creation of the world and of man. Raphael tries to restrain Adam’s curiosity about “things above this world. and its impulse was God’s desire to create “good out of evil. In Milton’s interpretation. not before repeating his warning. Satan. in Milton’s poem. He draws Adam’s attention that God has made him “perfect. King Anointed*”. and most evident in the treatment of the fall of Adam and Eve. sent by God.” Raphael leaves them. without aspiring to know things above his power of understanding. not immutable [i. The six days of the biblical Genesis are developed by Milton into an impressive poetic vision. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural The divine creation: Good coming out of Evil 72 . with her “absolute” loveliness and grace.” and that this happiness depends on his free will. and fear to transgress!” 3. and in the description of more familiar details of earthly Nature. he tells him about his own experiences after he was created. in Book VII. Adam is grateful to Raphael. The idea of Good coming out of Evil is central to Paradise Lost. In Book VIII.The works of John Milton 3. the angel Raphael. the divine creation took place after the fall of Lucifer. The rest of Book V and Book VI are a retrospective account of the war in Heaven. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of the fallen angels. after the defeat of the rebel angels.4.4. that cannot change]. so that he may know more about his enemy. and wishes to know more about the celestial motions. whose pride had been hurt when God proclaimed His Son the “Messiah. visits Adam in Paradise to warn him about the danger from Satan.” He explains to Adam that true wisdom lies in the desire to know those things which directly concern one’s own being.” Man himself was created as a “better race. and. and he explicitly warns Adam: “remember. It is interesting that.e. and about his perfect happiness in the company of “divinely fair” Eve. in the multitude of its phenomena and living forms.” and reminds him that obedience to his Maker means enjoying the present happy state. Raphael’s warning to Adam In Book V. Adam admits that.4. in order to prolong his guest’s visit. instigated by Lucifer. innocence and “virgin modesty.

W. through Raphael’s words.The works of John Milton SAQ 4 Text 3. more carefully. If your answer should differ significantly from the offered suggestions. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in no more than 10 lines/100 words. What does Milton suggest by the image of God using his “golden compasses”? Answer in the space below.7. in the Reader presents. Blake: Urizen as the creator of the material world (from the poem Europe. read the fragment again. 1794) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 73 . and the “Spirit of God” infusing life into the primal ocean. at the end of the unit. the first moments in the creation of the world: the making of heavens and skies. A Prophecy.

is now troubled by the “higher winds” of negative passions – “anger. the “subtlest [i. whose spirit has entered the body of a serpent. Adam is chilled with horror at Eve’s irresponsible mistake but decides to share her fate. The seduction of Eve Book IX presents the great scene of Eve’s seduction by Satan. Eve is amazed at the miracle of a beast capable of speech and.The works of John Milton 3. and all harmony between them is destroyed by bitter reciprocal accusations. hate / Mistrust. her argument wins: she is willing to put her innocence to trial. and all The effects of Nature is in pain. The disaster of the original sin shakes the foundations of the natural order: Earth trembles. flattered by his praise of her “celestial beauty. At last. since the “link of nature” is so strong between them that he cannot imagine living without her. while Adam tries to convince her that together they would be more safe from harm. The “calm region” of their state of mind. and. Their former innocent sensuality is now replaced by guilty lust and the feeling of shame. but he regains the strength of his hate and appears to Eve (1808) her in the splendid shape of the Serpent.4. he is disarmed by her Satan with Adam and angelic grace.5.e. Adam and Eve have a difference of opinion: Eve insists that they should divide their daily labour and work in different places. Credulous Eve tastes from the forbidden fruit and tries to convince Adam that its effect is not to open the way to “evil unknown.” but to “open eyes” and bring those who taste closer to the condition of a god. Satan gives voice again to his torments and to his ambition of destroying God’s creation. 1827) 74 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the thundering skies weep. most subtle*] beast of all the field.” she is finally seduced by his promise of higher knowledge and by his assurance that there is no sin in such aspiration. for a moment. their inward the fall on Nature peace. certain that the proud tempter will not be successful. Book IX: Eve and the Serpent (illustration by John Martin. suspicion. Meanwhile. W.” Back to guarded Paradise in this disguise. Blake: Satan finds Eve alone. discord” – which make reason and will helpless.

He tempts Eve with the promise of absolute knowledge. He flatters Eve. which will bring her close to the condition of God. _______ f. hoping to arouse her pride. a. at the end of each sentence. He tries to introduce into Eve’s mind the doubt about God’s being “the author of all things. The world after the Fall In the next books. at last. read once more the indicated text and do the exercise again. in which these moves are illustrated. in the middle of this speech. _______ b. _______ c. _______ d. He tries to dispel Eve’s fear of death. the consequences of man’s original sin are unfolded in episodes of great poetic and emotional intensity. such as the building of a huge bridge across chaos by Sin and Death. the whole assembly of fallen angels are temporarily turned into monstrous hissing snakes and dragons. they taste its fruit. but he also adds symbolic episodes. Write the number(s) of the corresponding fragment(s) in the indicated space.” is the one who will. _______ e. the destined “restorer of Mankind*. 75 Book X: the world open to Sin and Death Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He tries to arouse Eve’s suspicion that God’s reason for His interdiction may not be man’s own good. He denigrates God. He tries to awaken in Eve the spirit of defiance and insubordination. or fragments. on a separate sheet. The sentences below describe various moves in Satan’s strategy of seduction.8. accusing Him of keeping Adam and Eve ignorant so that He may hold them in a state of servitude. by inciting her to disbelieve God’s threat. and he proudly boasts of it in the Pandemonium. at the end of the unit. Milton continues to expand moments of the biblical Genesis.6. _______ Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. from the speech by which Satan tempts Eve into disobeying God and eating the forbidden fruit. 3. annihilate Sin and Death.” _______ g. as God himself predicts: His Son. Seduced by the illusion of the Tree of Knowledge. but are terribly humiliated to find that they are tasting only dust and ashes. Match these sentences with the fragment.The works of John Milton SAQ 5 Text 3.4. which marks the conquest of the world by Satan. If any of your matches should be wrong. in the Reader contains four fragments from Book IX. but. Satan’s victory seems complete. This emphasises the idea that Satan’s victory is not final. but His fear that His power might be weakened if His creatures equalled him in knowledge.

and He sends the archangel Michael to God decides Adam and Eve’s expulsion show them out. the Son of God acts as a mediator between the sinful humans and His Father. through Christ. The promise of where the central episode is the promised birth of God’s Son. – to the hostility of Nature.The works of John Milton After the story of man’s fall. combining thus justice with mercy. redemption*: Jesus. from man’s own vices – violence. God sends Him to communicate the divine punishment to Adam and Eve. The certainty that. In Book X. faith and good deeds. God consents. Moments of the biblical history are unfolded before Adam’s eyes. Adam suffers deeply for the loss of his native place and of God’s proximity. pride. but of sadness. but He decides that Adam and Eve may no longer live in Paradise. Book XII: Adam and Eve leaving Paradise (illustration by John Martin. asking God to accept their prayers and sincere repentance. but Michael comforts him. the emphasis on the presence and role of the Son of God increases. In Book XI. and the poem closes not on a note of despair. changed drastically after Adam’s fall. intemperance. death. 1827) 76 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . evil will finally be turned to good makes Adam and Eve’s exile from Paradise more tolerable. who can see the “many shapes of Death” and the many ways that lead to it. Michael shows Adam a vision of the future.” founded on love. etc. resurrection and ascension to the coming of Heaven. his suffering. The vision is replaced by Michael’s narrative in Book XII. This comforting story gives Adam peace of mind and Christ the hope that man is able to build – in Michael’s words – “a paradise within. from Heaven Before they leave Paradise. and offering to pay the price of His own death for the peace between God and mankind. an anticipation of the effects of the original sin on the following generations.

that both Satan and the human couple are heroic – each in a different way in their endurance of the bitter consequences of their sin. which they fully assume.9. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.The works of John Milton SAQ 6 Text 3. at the end of the unit. read the fragment again. If they should differ in major points. It may be argued. The heroes of Paradise Lost Many critics have remarked the paradox that the heroic spirit of Milton’s epic is embodied in Satan. in the Reader represents the ending of Paradise Lost. 3. more carefully.5. How do these lines present Adam and Eve at the moment of their exile into the world? Your answer should not exceed 12 lines /120 words. however. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 77 . while Adam has more in common with a tragic hero.

Satan appears indeed as a champion of freedom. but for him freedom does not mean equality: among the rebel angels. Pride is one of Satan’s most prominent features in Pride and ambition Paradise Lost. Over a century after the poem’s publication. “Imparadised in one another’s arms” – i. he naturally assumes the role of a leader.5. In Hell. In moments when the fallen angels feel despair at having lost Heaven. and his longing for the delights of his former existence torments him like an inner hell. William Blake remarked that Satan is Milton’s most accomplished creation. he had been the first Archangel. in whom they saw an embodiment of the spirit of freedom and of resistance to tyrannical oppression. He displays majesty and grandeur even in his fallen condition. but he also knows that this freedom is a form of punishment. the Romantic poets were to establish the view that Satan is actually the main hero.” He instigates the other angels to rebellion in the name of freedom from servitude. From the beginning of the poem. and his great ambition is “to reign. Before his fall. 78 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He is envious Envy and hate of God’s Son and His title as King of Heaven. This sight is for him “hateful” and “tormenting. Satan seems to comfort himself with the thought that at least he is free.” Envy accompanies Satan’s thirst for power. and his extraordinary courage “never to submit or yield” inspires his followers. made happy in their innocent love.” only the pain of longing and unfulfilled desire. One of the most powerful illustrations of this feeling which consumes Satan is the scene in which he sees Adam and Eve for the first time. he is envious of God’s omnipotence. which is itself a paradise. since it is accompanied by suffering and torment.” as he cannot help comparing their bliss with his own condition in Hell.1. and he finds inner strength only in the intensity of his hatred. “great in power / In favour and pre-eminence.e. and that Milton gave the full measure of his literary genius in the character of Satan because he instinctively supported the idea of freedom. where there is “neither joy nor love. Milton’s Satan: the rebel’s inner hell The most fascinating of Milton’s heroes is undoubtedly Satan.The works of John Milton 3. This is why he is in a continual state of frustration and anger. unwilling to serve a power that he considered tyrannical. Satan knows how to inflame again their ambition of re-ascending and their thirst for revenge.

The negative power of rhetoric: Satan the Tempter Gustave Doré: Satan (1870) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 79 . The temptation of Eve is in fact the repetition of the earlier act of persuading the angels to join him in his rebellion. the destroyer of faith. Awakening in man the impulse to question. It is also with “persuasive* words. but the epic poet insistently underlines their manipulative intentions.The works of John Milton 3. Satan can assert his freedom of action only in the sphere of evil.” He is “the author of all ill. and his power of seduction comes from the mastery of a very efficient rhetoric. that he determines Eve to break the divine interdiction.” seeming reasonable and true. he is the promoter of suspicion and doubt. Satan’s greatness as a character comes from the sublime intensity of his negative passions. and he invests all his titanic energies in his destructive plan. Satan is The Tempter.” and the “Enemy of Mankind. It is with “high words.2. Satan’s speeches have an impressive convincing force. and “out of good still to find means of evil. Satan represents the negation of the creative power of the divine Word: his revenge is accomplished not by force. the “author of all ill” The only way in which Satan can define himself as an equal to the power that he refuses to serve is to become its irreconcilable opponent.5. As God’s absolute antagonist. Satan. He is determined “to do ill” – which is “the contrary to his high will” – or to pervert the good done by God. but by the evil subtlety of his mind and the corrupting power of his word. His “immortal hate” makes revenge his only aim.” which actually lacked substance that he manages to revive the courage of the depressed fallen angels. Milton insists on the fact that they abandoned “the eternal splendours of Heaven” and followed Satan seduced by his promises of freedom and greatness.” in whose destruction he finds complete satisfaction for his hurt pride.

5. and point out what features of Satan’s nature are illustrated by the following lines: A. and 3. 80 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “A mind not to be changed by time or place. revise subchapters 3. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.. “and “The mind is its own place.2.5. in the Reader contains a part of Satan’s speech before his followers. at the end of the unit. and in itself / Can make a Heaven of Hell. and read the indicated fragment again.The works of John Milton SAQ 7 Text 3. Read the whole fragment carefully. His words reveal some of the defining features of Milton’s hero. If there are significant differences.) B.3. in Hell.1.” (6 lines /60 words) Compare your answers with those offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. a Hell of Heaven”? (Answer in no more than 4 lines/40 words.

e. but as a consequence of their wrong choices.” “Patriarch of Mankind. Adam is called Sire* of Men. of turning all evil into good by the supreme act of divine grace: the acceptance of Christ’s sacrifice for man. but armed with the wisdom of faith. but W. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 81 . Both Adam and Eve display a certain Satanic fascination with the possibility of overcoming their condition through knowledge. Milton’s depiction of Adam and Eve Poetically. He is now more aware of his freedom and his potentiality. The way in which Milton refers to Adam and Eve throughout the poem points out his reverence to the original pair. man has paid a terrible price for the wisdom of not imitating Satan.” “our general mother. are set against Adam and Eve’s lamentations after the fall. of understanding and accepting his limits.3.5. Although Paradise has become a forbidden place for them. Satan’s torments in Hell. The consequences of their fall are great because their virtues – so tragically tested – are great.” “Our great Progenitor [i.” The insistent use of the adjective “our” suggests Milton’s invitation to the reader to join him in his identification.” but also “our credulous mother. Blake: The expulsion from Milton deals with it as one of the central paradoxes of the human condition. In his last conversation with Michael. deprived of worth. in Book XII. precursor].” “Our Author. Milton is the heir of the Renaissance in his glorification of man and his virtues. there is not any doubt left about his fundamental evil. the character of Satan is Milton’s greatest achievement in Paradise Lost. but who can hope for redemption*.” Eve is the “Mother of Mankind.The works of John Milton 3. As a Christian. Fallen man is not a hateful creature. in spite of the fascination and seductive power with which he is invested. as well as his identification with them in their condition of creatures that have fallen. But it is an evidence of Milton’s genius that. There is a tragic combination of greatness and weakness in their portrayal. of their wrong use of the freedom given by God. As a humanist. He has the revelation of the grandeur of God’s plan and of the “goodness infinite” of the Creator. and Milton expresses both admiration and compassion for them.” “mother of human race. He is now able to understand God’s final purpose. Adam’s enlarged understanding emerges in perfect fusion with his strengthened faith. Milton depicts Adam and Eve’s fall not as the result of depravity. Created in God’s image. the titanic dimension of his suffering. he justifies “the ways of God to men” by showing the necessity of the divine grace. the sorrow of the fallen humans at their own weakness and their final recognition of their fault entitles them to God’s mercy. the protagonists of Milton’s ambitious epic leave it not in hopeless disgrace. While Satan’s pain is always accompanied by the proud defiance of God. gifted with reason – a divine Eden 1808) attribute –. ancestor.

you have been acquainted with some aspects of the prominent literary personality of John Milton. Read this fragment and summarise its argument. His work is that of a Christian humanist: his astonishing classical erudition and his aspiration to the formal perfection of his classical models combine with his interest in religious themes.The works of John Milton SAQ 8 Text 3. If there should be major differences. you are recommended a more careful reading of the indicated text. Summary In this unit. he prepared himself for it during long years. in no more than 8 lines/80 words. contains a fragment from God’s speech in Book III. Subchapter 3. Devoted to the Puritan cause during the Civil War. and the twin poems L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. the Nativity Ode. Convinced also of his poetic vocation. Compare your answer with that offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Milton was deeply involved in the religious and political debates of mid-17th century. one of the greatest English poets. at the end of the unit. presents some of his notable early compositions – the Latin elegies. the pastoral elegy Lycidas. a necessary part of His design.5. in which he explains to His Son why the fall of man was inevitable. The same obsession with poetic ripeness may be found 82 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . in the Reader.2. Some of Milton’s earlier works display this obsessive concern with his becoming a great poet.

The declared aim of Milton’s epic is “to justify the ways of God to men. but also in which man may. The central events in Milton’s epic are the fall of Lucifer and of the rebel angels. Milton justifies the fall of man and his exile from Paradise in the context of a providential history. which are. Baroque: see the Glossary in Unit 2. his courage and majesty. as a sign of consecration or sanctification. be tested for the responsibility which must accompany the exercise of his free will. Subchapter 3. Adam and Eve are treated both with the typical Renaissance admiration for man’s potential and virtues.5. the most fascinating and complex creation is Satan – Lucifer in his fallen condition. His destructive energy represents a negation of the creative power of the divine word. apprenticeship: the training for a trade or for any kind of activity. in which divine grace will eventually turn all evil into good. Milton emphasises his fortitude and strength of will. the fall of man and the loss of Paradise. presented in subchapter 3.4. In Milton’s vision of the original sin. Undoubtedly. the creation of the world and of man. concerns itself with Milton’s heroes in Paradise Lost.The works of John Milton in two of his sonnets. Civil War: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. and with the Christian compassion for their unhappy choice.” and its great Christian theme is that of felix culpa. which interprets poetically key moments in biblical history and elements of biblical mythology. at any time. put in the service of evil. and the culmination of his poetic achievement as a Christian humanist. Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Christian humanism elegy sonnet epic the Fall of Man the original sin free will Lucifer / Satan Felix culpa Glossary • • • • anointed: from to anoint: to apply oil on someone in a religious ceremony.3. offers a brief presentation of the subject and structure of the poem. Subchapter 3. Satan is dominated by powerful negative passions which keep him the prisoner of an inner hell. his love of freedom. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 83 . Milton’s impressive epic poem Paradise Lost (1667) is the fruit of his mature vision. and the promise of man’s reconciliation with God through the sacrifice of Christ. however.

subtle: not immediately evident. every. Gallery of personalities • Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). foreknowledge: knowledge of something before it happens. the one who sets man free from sin). pamphlet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. suffering and death of Christ. formerly used when speaking to a king. persuasive: having the power or ability to persuade (i. to cause to believe).C.e. difficult to detect (or analyse). pastoral: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Roman poet.). the range of subjects in an elegy was wider. Purgatory and Paradise. noise and chaos. sonnet: see again the Glossary in Unit 1.D. Italian poet.” After the fall from Heaven. the allegorical account of the poet’s journey through Hell. Homer: Greek poet (c. to whom are attributed the great epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. Man’s sin/fault was “happy” because its reward was Christ. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural • • 84 . It means “the carrier of light. author of La Divina Commedia. benevolent care or protection of his creatures. the “great and good redeemer” (i. predestination: from a theological point of view. 800 B. In classical literature. humanism: see classical revival in the Glossary in Unit 1.-17 A. Puritans: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. redemption: the deliverance (the rescuing) of man from sin through the incarnation. The word may refer. by extension. secular: related to worldly things (as opposed to sacred). ode: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. not concerned with or related to religion. clever in using tricks. to convince.C. or some tragic event. he is called Satan. Providence: God’s kindness.). It may also mean cunning. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. epic: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. whose works include the poem on love Ars Amatoria and the poem on myths Metamorphoses.e. and daimon: demon) – the place where all demons gathered. felix culpa: this phrase comes from a line in the Latin version of the Catholic religious service held on Easter Sunday. Ovid: Publius Ovidius Nasso (43 B. Sire: a respectful term of address. Pandemonium: a word coined by Milton (from Greek pan: all. Lucifer: the name of the archangel who led the rebel angels. Restorer of Mankind: Christ as the one who will return (restore) man to God’s grace and to his original condition. the act by which God determines in advance the events and their course.The works of John Milton • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • elegy: a meditative poem lamenting the death of someone. guided by Virgil and his idealised love Beatrice. to a place of wild confusion.

God’s creation. Prospero’s speech closes the representation given in honour of Ferdinand and Miranda. In both of them. romantic in The Tempest –.2. in Milton’s Paradise Lost.2..1. the paragraphs about Macbeth in 2. in the Reader renders most of his memorable monologue. At the beginning of Book IV.The works of John Milton • Virgil: Publius Ovidius Maro (70-19 B.4. • What characteristic baroque theme do both fragments illustrate? Given the different context – tragic in Macbeth. 1 This assignment covers Unit 2 and Unit 3. the baroque motif of the theatrical illusion is developed. His speech reveals Satan’s tormented mind and the multitude of passions that agitate his soul.3. and the last paragraph of 2.). and 2. in which he explores his inner hell. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%. and thus of destroying man. You will find it helpful to read again subchapter 2. before the final battle. Identify his conflicting feelings and the various thoughts that trouble his conscience. A revision of subchapter 3. Text 3. 1. You will thus be drawing a portrait of Milton’s Satan. either with remarkable lucidity or blinded by his hate and ambition. with special attention to the indicated subchapters.2. It will be therefore advisable to revise the preceding unit.6. You may also consider it useful to pay attention to the following aspects when reading the text: • Satan’s present misery set in opposition with the memories of his former condition. which reveals the complexity of Milton’s hero.C. 40 lines/400 words should be enough for your answer (apart from the lines that you are expected to quote for illustration). Send-away assignment no. 2. in the Reader represent short fragments from Shakespeare’s Macbeth and The Tempest.. Texts 2. before he firmly decides to carry out his evil plan. Macbeth delivers his monologue immediately after he is informed about Lady Macbeth’s death. at the end of the play. whose epic poem The Aeneid relates the experiences of Aeneas after the fall of legendary Troy.5.1. in Heaven • his oscillation between remorse and pride • his oscillation between self-justification and self-blame for his rebellion against God • his consideration and rejection of the possibility of rehabilitating Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 85 . what is the difference in the implications of the two play-metaphors? The answer to these questions should not exceed 25 lines / 250 words. • Read attentively this fragment. Satan prepares himself to enter Paradise and to accomplish his diabolical design of tempting Eve. one of the greatest Roman poets. as well as of SAQ 7 and its solution at the end of the unit might help you to better understand the text and organise your answer.

the “instrument” by which to exercise his free will. SAA no. comforting himself with the faith that his poetic destiny is in God’s hands. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task.” man shared the perfection of the angels (“the Ethereal Powers and Spirits”) and their complete freedom of will and judgment. i.The works of John Milton • • himself before God his determination to turn his suffering into satisfaction his impressive self-knowledge The weight of this task in this SAA is 50%. like that of the angels.. both sonnets deal with the theme of loss (the poet’s sense of the passing of time. Milton emphasises the geometrical. The implication is that God gave man conscience. responsible for his choices. 2. in grading your paper.b. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). since that would mean the “revocation” of His own “high decree” by which man was made free. however. respectively) and with the anxiety that poetic fulfilment is late to come. rational spirit of the Creator (he refers to Him elsewhere as “the great 86 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the divine punishment is compensated by mercy (the sending of Jesus as mankind’s saviour). SAQ 3 God’s whole argument is based on the idea of freedom. is thus not attributable to God. Created “just and right. The latter part of both sonnets (the sestet) changes the mood to one of patient confidence. • the coherence. clarity. or reason. The paradox of freedom.e. and reason makes man.” In the case of man. The poet places his trust in Providence.c. his blindness. is that one may choose right or wrong. Remember that. not God.. God cannot use His infinite power and knowledge to prevent the errors of those who are free to choose. but the consequence of evil influence. as man’s wrong choice was not the pure result of his free will. The fall of man. SAQ 4 The image of God using His divine instrument (the “golden compasses”) to draw the “just circumference” of the world implies the idea of perfection and rationality. 1 will count as 10% in your final assessment. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. Both man and the rebel angels are “authors to themselves in all. SAQ 2 In the first section (the octave). 3.a.

who draws a firm line between the formed and the formless (chaos). vol. 2.4.The works of John Milton Architect”).4. If God leaves man’s loyalty. English Literature and Civilisation. of the responsibility that accompanies freedom. Satan feels God’s absolute power as a limitation to his enormous ambition. Forced to look ahead. with passive virtue. 1. Paradise is now a forbidden place. 2. 1969 (pp. i. d. 2. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. SAQ 7 1. faith and love untested. and for him servitude in Heaven is the real hell. 2003 (pp. unless he exercises his will and reason. 153-163) 3. He wants man’s obedience to be the result of an act of free choice.3. 2 (“Shakespeare to Milton”). The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Editura Universităţii Suceava. SAQ 5 a. Satan is willing to exchange the happiness of Heaven for the torments in Hell. comforting himself that he exchanged submission for sovereignty. b. Their hesitant steps suggest their awareness of the difficulty of all choice. c. Luminiţa Elena. Turcu. If Hell is a space of freedom. is meant to keep alive the memory of their transgression. then it is like Heaven for a spirit that cannot accept constraints. The same rational spirit separates what is vital from what is “adverse to life” (the “infernal dregs”). but at least they have the mutual comfort of their love. g. Preda. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. 1. His gift of Reason to man has no justification (it is “useless and vain”). the intelligible and the unintelligible (the dark void). Daiches. and the image of the terrible gates. they soon master the sadness of their loss and confront the wide world as a place in which they are expected to exercise judiciously their free will.e. e. 1983 (pp. guarded by fear-inspiring armed angels. Man is not a free creature. f. i. These lines suggest Satan’s formidable strength of will and the independence of his indestructible spirit. of human solidarity. Incapable of obedience to God. to be dictated by Reason. 435-449) 2. It is his will and desire that give value to things around. unless he is put in the situation of making choices. as God has made him. 3. 141-152) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 87 . A Critical History of English Literature. under the guidance of Providence.). This line illustrates both his aspiration to complete independence and his ambition. Further reading 1.. Ioan-Aurel (coord.e. SAQ 8 God cannot be pleased with blind submission. 4 SAQ 6 For Adam and Eve. 2. David. The Literature of the Beginnings.

1. 4.1.2. 4.3. the frustrated idealist The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 89 89 89 89 90 90 92 93 95 95 96 96 98 98 98 100 103 103 103 105 105 107 107 110 110 111 111 113 115 116 88 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4.2. Gulliver.2 4.2.5.The Restoration and the Augustan Age UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE Unit Outline 4. 4.4. Unit objectives The Restoration and the Augustan Age Restoration drama Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment Dominant forms in Restoration drama Restoration comedy and its character types William Congreve.4. 4. “The Spectator’s Club” Augustan satire John Dryden Alexander Pope Jonathan Swift The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia The fourth voyage.1. 4.4. 4.1.4. a master of satirical comedy of manners The rise of sentimental comedy English literary Neoclassicism Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics Nature and Reason The Augustan ideal of style “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The periodical essay The Tatler and The Spectator.4. 4.4. 4. 4. 4.1. 4.3. 4. 4. 4.3. 4.2.4. 4.2. 4.6.

central to the Neoclassic poetics of the Augustan Age. Nature. ♦ explain the relevance of concepts like Art. ♦ define the purposes and literary strategies of the periodical essay as an instrument of cultural enlightenment ♦ explain the remarkable development of satire in the Augustan Age. ♦ specify the main targets of satire in Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. Restoration theatre – a form of Court entertainment In the heterogeneous literary picture of the Restoration. under the patronage of king Charles II. Charles II Stuart (reign: 1660-1685) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 89 . the age in which the ideological premises of the Enlightenment were constituted. One of the most important aspects of this literary age is the shift from the baroque* sensibility of the late Renaissance to the Neoclassic ideal of order. From a literary point of view. Alexander Pope. Significant changes took place in the theatre: the stage became closed on three sides. clarity and elegant restraint. was interrupted: Restoration theatre became almost exclusively a form of Court entertainment. Unit objectives 4. under the influence of French theatres. ♦ describe satirical devices used by John Dryden. drama holds a place apart. grandiose and extravagant in tragedies –. Human nature. with spectators no longer allowed to sit on it. and of considerable diversity. 4. addressing itself to an inclusive public. Restoration drama marked a clear split between popular and aristocratic standards of taste. and their re-opening in 1660. the scenery became more elaborate – more “realistic” in comedies. ♦ establish a relation between the spirit of Restoration comedy and the cultural-historical circumstances in which it emerged.1. of increasing rationalism and secularisation. Restoration drama The Restoration* was a period of significant social and institutional change. and. and Jonathan Swift. ♦ identify the main concerns of literary Neoclassicism. was attended by a strong anti-Puritan reaction.1. The Puritans had closed theatres in 1642. it was a period of transition as well. The Renaissance tradition of the theatre as popular entertainment.The Restoration and the Augustan Age By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify the favourite themes and the typical characters of Restoration drama. the cast of actors included women. its audience being restricted to the fashionable circles gravitating around the Crown.1.

1. Restoration comedies dealt primarily with sexual intrigue and the pursuit of pleasure – including the pleasure of cynical manipulation of others. the cynicism. fashionable manners. lust. or Court Wits. the 90 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but they were loveless marriages and love affairs without warmth and affection. reflected the hedonism* and promiscuity encouraged at court by Charles II himself (nicknamed “the Merry Monarch” for his pleasure-loving way of life). betrayal and mockery were recurrent motives in the comic plots of Restoration drama. grandiloquent declamations and sentimental exaltation. ending in Heroic tragedy the death of the hero or heroine or both and the triumph of honour. and. The highest achievement of this kind of baroque theatre was provided by John Dryden’s plays*. Conquest and seduction. with characters conventionally distributed into fabulously valiant heroes and virtuous beautiful heroines. refinement and sophistication. on the one hand. both of them highly conventional forms. magnificent settings.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. and absolute villains. Restoration comedy was a mirror of the Comedy of manners environment in which it developed. wit*. Restoration comedy and its character types Restoration comedy was “class drama. jealousy. and the characteristic theme was the conflict between love and honour. 4.2. on the other. and satirised the aspiration of social climbing and the ideal of virtue and respectability of the middle classes. and its audience was restricted to the exclusive and fashionable circles in London. exotic places. adultery.3. or in the survival of love over the criminal machinations of the villains. One of the most common types was the rake – the libertine. were essential for the true man of the world. inflated conception of heroism – these were the ingredients of a dramatic genre whose spirit was in sharp contrast with the unheroic age of the Restoration. Heroic tragedy* was a dramatic development from the epic poem. although each in its own way and for different reasons.1. ridiculing their crude manners and lack of sophistication. Gallantry. The range of character types in Restoration comedy was very diverse. Sensational turns of situation. the licentiousness* and frivolity characterising Restoration comedy were accompanied by a cult for elegance.” reflecting the aristocratic ethos of the time. Dominant forms in Restoration drama The main kinds of drama were heroic tragedy and comedy of manners. A certain coarseness of feeling. The conception of character in Restoration comedy was indebted to the Renaissance comedy of humours*. The Puritan rigidity and austerity of the former period were repudiated. of incredible cruelty and perfidy. and the plays of the Restoration Wits*. Another dominant dramatic form during the Restoration was the comedy of manners. It made fun of the people from the countryside. Marriage and the games of love were a prevailing theme. above all. an artificial. The action was usually set in remote. sumptuous costumes.

” without scruples. whose generosity and kindness are satirised as weaknesses. who tried to imitate fashionable manners. and the trusting husband as dupe. but whose affectation* became the object of irony and satire. more concerned for his reputation as a wit than for honour. the country squire*. young or old. the lusty widow. whose simplicity and ingenuousness made her a perfect prey to the sophisticated seducer. or fool. etc. Nell Gwynn (1650-1687). If characters were usually static. cynical. the ingénue. deliberately superficial in construction. aspiring to the perfect adventure. selfish and manipulative. the scheming valet. Other common character types in Restoration comedy were the country girl. Contrasting types were the coquette. pleasure-seeking.The Restoration and the Augustan Age “young-man-about-town. usually an unprincipled and heartless married woman. one of the first actresses and the mistress of Charles II William Hogarth* Detail from The Rake’s Progresss (1735) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 91 . despising marriage. lacking complexity. Another frequent type was the fop*. with several subplots and with action developing at a fast pace. the plot of Restoration comedy was usually highly complicated.

Restoration comedy praised wit. The true master of Restoration comedy of manners was William Congreve (1679-1723). and satirised clumsy manners and dull simplicity. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). 4. It displays typical Restoration characters. T F 2. such as the impoverished gallant. by doing the exercise that follows. T F 5. hedonism and amorality at Court. read again subchapters 4. simple action. T F 6. who resorts to all kinds of devices to avoid 92 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . His satirical play Love for Love (1695) deals with the contrast between public reputation and private behaviour.1. frivolity. refinement and sophistication. Read the statements below and identify five true ones. T F 8. T F 7.3. The main themes of heroic tragedy were seduction and the games of love. If any of them should turn out to be wrong. Restoration theatre introduced professional women actors in performances.4. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. a master of satirical comedy of manners Among the most representative authors of comedies during the Restoration period there were George Etherege*. William Congreve. T F 9.1. The Restoration rake as a typical character in comedy was representative for the atmosphere of licentiousness. extravagant stage settings and highly rhetorical language. to 4.1. T F 3.1.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 1 Let us revise some aspects concerning the Restoration drama. William Wycherley* and John Dryden*. 1. Restoration comedy built its plot on a single. at the end of the unit. T F 4. Heroic tragedy reflected the realities and spirit of the Restoration Age. The Renaissance comedy of humours inspired Restoration dramatists in their construction of dramatic character. elegance. The middle classes and their moral code found a mirror in the comedy of the Restoration. The baroque character of Restoration heroic tragedy resided in its sensational plot.

involving a multitude of characters. 4. half-amused. half-sad. The new audience in the theatres. increasingly middle class. and the shifting relationships and alliances. mixed marriages between aristocracy and the newly rich. Drama was changing under the pressure of middle class taste. the pair of witty lovers. the awkward country-girl. and it had to take into account the general concern for the improvement of manners that developed in the late 17th century. bringing it to perfection. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 93 . He gave grace to the conventions of a highly artificial form of drama.5. The indecencies and blasphemous spirit of earlier Restoration comedy became the object of severe condemnation by public opinion. Congreve’s finest comedy is The Way of the World (1700). hate and disgust) give this play an equivocal tone. when Augustan* England was seeking for social stability and cohesion. the witty and resourceful servant. The situation. and were not interested in the rituals and games of fashionable life or in the sparkling wit duels. psychologically subtle and complex. A shift in taste was taking place in the context of social change – the rise of a prosperous class of merchants. disapproved of the licentiousness of Restoration comedy. The rise of sentimental comedy* Congreve belongs to a period of transition in the evolution of comedy. perfectly aware of each other’s faults and playing various games which keep them on the border between independence and surrender. as these were remote from their experience. but they were now clearly intended for a middle class audience.The Restoration and the Augustan Age William Congreve (1679-1723) his creditors. the dramatic productions still preserved characteristic farcical elements and something of the brilliant artificiality of Restoration comedy. and friendship to jealousy. which reminds of some of Shakespeare’s comedies. adopting a moralising tone and recommending virtue and sensibility above refinement and wit. restore his fortunes and win the love of his mistress. admiration. etc. He is the most gifted of the Restoration dramatists. affection. the ambivalent motivations and feelings (ranging from love. is extremely complex. It has a sophisticated plot containing several strands of action and centering on the relation between Mirabell and beautiful Millamant. Congreve’s merit is to have turned stereotypical characters into credible. Towards the end of the 17 th century.1. with a rare concern for the accuracy and elegance of expression and for the balance of sentences. consistent characters.

they seem to be playing a game. Millamant is also in love. What is the idea of marriage that her conditions suggest? Answer in the space below. their agreement has serious implications. as well as the indicated fragment. in no more than 15 lines / 150 words. who is sincerely in love with Millamant and wishes to marry her. However. Mirabell is a reformed rake. at the end of the unit. under the appearance of frivolity.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 2 In Congreve's play The Way of the World.4." Presenting their expectations from each other in a half-joking way. they establish and agree on the terms of a "contract. If there should be significant differences.1. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Read Text 4. in Act IV. which presents Millamant's demands.. In a witty dialogue. but she accepts Mirabell's marriage proposal on certain conditions. read again subchapter 4.. 94 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1.

Joseph Addison*.2. His didactic poem An Essay on Criticism (1711) is the most outstanding literary manifesto of English Neoclassicism. Oliver Goldsmith* and Samuel Johnson*. 4. Besides Dryden and Pope. Alexander Pope brought to perfection Dryden’s achievements in poetic style and technique. and Alexander Pope* in the 18 th . Augustan England believed that a cultural idea of balance. in a series of essays and prefaces where he discussed matters of literary composition and taste and defended his own literary practice. The return to the ancient models of the classical era was accompanied by the sense of an analogy between the present of England and the Roman times of Caesar Augustus*. elegance. but it represents the quintessence of the Augustan literary ideal. and propriety would favour the spirit of social unity and order and would contribute to the protection of the achievements of civilisation. The dialogue form of this essay allows Dryden to avoid being dogmatic and to look with healthy scepticism at a wide range of critical issues. His work doesn’t equal in variety that of his predecessor and master. of the elegant French classical drama over English Renaissance drama. English literary Neoclassicism* The Neoclassic aspiration for order. In it. balance. His main critical work is An Essay on Dramatic Poesy (1668). In both cases. or of the heroic couplet* over blank verse*.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. a society exhausted by civil wars was expressing its need for stability and moderation. and harmony extended beyond literature. and he laid the foundations of modern literary criticism. The excellence of their literary work and the elegance and force of their critical arguments made them central figures of the Augustan Age.2. in which he systematises his Neoclassic view on literary art. Pope presents the basic concepts and theses of this literary orientation in a poetic form of remarkable elegance and clarity. John Dryden (1631-1700) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 95 . John Dryden illustrated with masterpieces all contemporary literary genres.1. such as the superiority of the Ancients over the Moderns. other great writers who were influenced by Neoclassicism or defended its doctrine were Jonathan Swift*. Great Augustan writers: John Dryden and Alexander Pope Two great writers constituted the main influence in the development of the Neoclassic literary doctrine in England: John Dryden in the 17 th century.

and in order to do that accurately he was supposed to follow Reason as the main guide. required an elevated style. comedy. since it dealt with noble characters and actions. the most valuable store of literary experience.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. for instance. The rule of decorum 4. but a general intellectual tendency in the age. was expected to use a common.e. A poet’s innate talent needed training. to make form and substance adequate to each other. The study of human nature in its individual aspects. by which the Augustans meant most frequently Human Nature. humble style. Principles of Neoclassic literary poetics One of the most important features of literary Neoclassicism was the concern with rules and norms. This was the case of the genius. and whose creative power was a matter of intuitive genius and not of acquired art. The concept of Human Nature referred to those features of human character and experience. a dignified diction. The most eloquent example. which were seen as common to all humanity and as permanent and unchanging. The belief in order and correctness was reflected in the neoclassic principle of decorum [from Latin: propriety]. It was the existence of this rule of decorum that enabled Neoclassic authors to derive great effects from its deliberate. Nature and Reason According to the Neoclassic doctrine. lacking ornament. skilful transgression. Epic and tragedy. the emphasis on discipline in art.2. on the other hand. for the Augustans. that it was an inborn gift that made a poet.e.. and to those patterns of behaviour. which referred to the writer’s obligation to use those elements of diction* and composition which were considered proper for each genre.2. yet achieve great beauty. of infinite variety. skill. which in turn required good judgment and common sense. and he could master the secrets of poetic art by the study and imitation of the works of ancient authors. which usually presented ordinary people and actions. and the poet might disregard them. To follow / copy Nature was the writer’s main endeavour. the main source of inspiration for the writer was Nature*. would lead to the revelation of the typical and universal features. who respected no particular rules and followed no particular models. Sometimes rules might be too constraining for this natural gift.3. Following Nature presupposed first of all its understanding. in satirical or burlesque* works. The Augustans were aware that the heights of literary achievement couldn’t be reached by simply learning the trade. whose imagination had nothing to do with training or learning. i. The Neoclassic emphasis on the principles and rules that guided successful creation did not mean blind adherence to them. was Shakespeare. The quest for patterns of general significance through the study of particulars was not only a literary precept. i.2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Human Nature 96 .

SAQ 3 Text 4. but also to imported French ideas – e. What are the main ideas in this fragment. to those of Nicolas Boileau*. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 97 .3. and the indicated fragment. at the end of the unit. Emotion was supposed to be filtered and controlled by reason. and beauty was the result of the balanced combination of talent and inspiration with skill.3.g. a combination achieved through reason. in a paragraph of no more than 4 complex sentences (80-100 words / 8-10 lines). in the Reader represents a fragment from Samuel Johnson’s Preface to his 1765 edition of Shakespeare’s works. If there should be significant differences. read again subchapter 4. and what Neoclassic conviction do they imply? Answer in the space below. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. or art*.2.The Restoration and the Augustan Age A rationalist poetics All the faculties involved in the process of creation were seen as subordinated to Reason. The rationalist poetics* of Neoclassicism owed greatly to Horace*.

It must not be forgotten that this was the age of the Enlightenment*.2. where nothing seems to be studied. its effects were considerable on prose. and the measure of the writer’s skill was his ability to convey an impression of “natural easiness and unaffected grace. yet everything is extraordinary” (Thomas Sprat*). of the belief in progress an in man’s perfectibility.” Augustan wit 4. and he was not supposed to withdraw in an ivory tower. A more straightforward style in prose was an imperative in an age so much concerned with education of mentalities. with the cultivation of men’s best virtues through polite learning*.4. unnecessary ornament. affectation were rejected. of quick accumulation of information. It displayed flexibility skilfully controlled. The Augustan ideal of style The suitable doctrine for the Age of Reason. too.3. “grace and strength united. Neoclassicism cultivated an ideal of style characterised in the first place by intellectual clarity and expressive restraint. of critical debate in every field. This ideal of style is best summed up by the Augustan notion of wit. 4. precision and clarity. and of the increase and diversification of the reading public. The writer's art was a form of social communication. and which illustrated most eloquently the didactic impulse of all Augustan literature. The periodical essay Although the normative poetics of Neoclassicism had in view mainly poetry and drama. The marked didactic tendency of much of the literature of this period reflects the Augustans’ pride in the conquests of their civilisation and their determination to assume responsibility for the defence of its achievements.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4.5. “To divert and instruct” – the imperative of Augustan literature The Neoclassic concern with standards of good writing must be seen in connection with an important feature of Augustan literature: its integration with social life.2. 98 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . refinement with wisdom. the language of prose aimed more and more at simplicity. but also moral edification and standards of good judgment and behaviour. eloquence with restraint. The periodical essay is the Augustan prose genre which contributed immensely to the forging of a modern prose style. as Oliver Goldsmith defined it. In the context of general progress. Wit described a style which combined elegance with profundity. Ostentation. but to be a functional part of the community. manners and taste. Literature was supposed to delight but also to instruct – to offer not only aesthetic pleasure. or.

Some writers felt that this popular avidity for political news might inflame partisanship and favour a spirit of social discord. at cultivating their minds. contributing significantly to the “polite” education. they created an alternative kind of periodical publication. th Edward Lloyd’s coffee house. as a reaction to the ever greater demand for political news and gossip. for a clientele of ships' captains. with Alexander Pope. consisting in essays on a variety of topics. They believed. dominantly middle class. and they were published with varying regularity. opened in 1688. the middle class readers.” that ignorance is a source of evil. Essay periodicals were usually the work of a single author. merchants and ship owners 17th century coffee house in Covent Garden Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 99 . In order to counterbalance this tendency.The Restoration and the Augustan Age It developed in the late 17 and early 18th centuries. At the same time. Journalism and coffee houses* were the main instruments by which people’s curiosity was satisfied. the debate on a variety of critical and aesthetic issues made the latter familiar to the public. that “a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Many periodical essays were dedicated to the dissemination of philosophical and scientific notions. the enlightenment and the improvement of taste of its widest section. at a time when political tension in the country and the events of war on the Continent engaged public attention to a high degree. The reflections on both modern and ancient works. and to offer intellectual enlightenment to a wide audience. the periodical essayists aimed at broadening the intellectual horizon of their readers. or to the discussion of literary matters. some of them being issued daily. meant to provide guidance in matters of manners and morals. The periodical essay constituted a chronicle of contemporary manners and an effective instrument of moral and social criticism.

“The Spectator’s Club” Among the most important periodical essayists. at the end of the unit. they tried to make their essays not only instructive but also attractive and amusing. and by far the most popular ones.1. only] a single day sprouts up* in follies that are only to be killed by an assiduous culture. Explain the analogy that his observation invites us to develop. Like other writers. 4. Joseph Addison wrote: The mind that lies fallow* but [i.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 4 In one of his periodical essays.e. Think of present relevance of this remark. were Richard Steele*’s The Tatler* (1709-1711). collected in book form. whose essays were published several times in the century.3. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. To increase the efficiency of their undertaking. in no more than 12 lines / 120 words. The Tatler and The Spectator. think again and try to do the exercise once more. 100 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . If they are significantly different. on a separate sheet. Steele and Addison assumed the mission of public educators and proceeded to rescue their audience from what they perceived as “that desperate state of vice and folly into which the age is fallen” (Steele). and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1711-1714).

for instance. manners. hard work and skill. a man of the world. that “it is stupid and barbarous way to extend dominion by arms.e. an expert in fashion and gossip. skills] and industry.” He thus embodies the Augustan humanist view that true knowledge of human nature comes from a combination of first hand experience and learning. 101 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . He is a man of “great probity. His wisdom and gravity are set against the frivolous interests of Will Honeycombe. strong reason. and the reflections of “Mr. who had spent a turbulent youth in the company of the Restoration Wits.” and “his familiarity with the customs. a group of six fictional characters “engaged in different ways of life” and representing various social and human types. for true power is to be got by arts [i. Steele and Addison invented The Spectator’s Club.” but whose life constitutes an eloquent example of moral integrity. bravery in battle]. Spectator” on their opinions and behaviour in a variety of circumstances constituted real lessons in manners and morals. who had to quit the military profession because his strict honesty proved to be an obstacle to the advancement of his career. in which they collaborated.” • Captain Sentry. steady effort] makes more lasting acquisitions than valour [i. actions and writings of the ancients makes him a very delicate observer of what occurs to him in the world. ready to take responsibility for the progress of the nation. interested in his appearance and displaying a certain affectation in behaviour. otherwise harmless and a well-bred gentleman. in his county. no longer as repulsively materialistic and greedy.” of wide learning.e. a competent justice of the peace*.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Joseph Addison (1672-1719) For example. Now. He is the prototype for the character of the country squire in many 18th century novels. “a person of indefatigable industry*. laziness. Sir Andrew Freeport’s convictions are those of an enlightened middle class.” or that “diligence [i. an embodiment of its energies and enterprising spirit.e. The six members of The Spectator’s Club were: • Sir Roger de Coverley. he is a somewhat old-fashioned gentleman. a model of honesty. taciturn and with “no interest in this world. generous and cheerful. but their good breeding qualifies them both for the same society of gentlemen. as his father had intended for him. a middle-aged squire. and his harmless eccentricities are accompanied by a natural benevolence that endears him to everybody. rather than a merit. wit and understanding. • Will Honeycomb. turned to the study of literature. Many essays presented little stories about incidents in their daily lives. and sloth [i. His character is the first notable literary representation of the merchant class in a serious and dignified way. for The Spectator. and great experience. a courageous. He is a pleasant company for his acquaintances in town. a gallant. instead of pursuing the career of a lawyer. He believes.” He is a worthy representative of the middle class. • A gentleman who. idleness] has ruined more nations than the sword. “a very philosophic man. • Sir Andrew Freeport. • A clergyman. modest and commonsensical person. a rich London merchant.e.

SAQ 5 From the description of the members of the Spectator’s Club. read again subchapter 4. If there should be major discrepancies. at the end of the unit. combining the external marks of social decency (pleasant conversation. Identify at least eight such features. 4. 7. a cultivated mind and superior understanding. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.1. 8. Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) 102 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which are important for the Enlightenment ideal of social integration.3.The Restoration and the Augustan Age The gentleman represented an ideal of social behaviour. 6. and write them in the indicated spaces below. 2. more carefully. common sense. 5. the talent of never offending the others) with such qualities as moral and physical courage. it is clear that Addison promotes certain virtues. cheerful disposition. 3. 1.

to religious debates and literary practices. a passionate. and Achitophel is the first Earl of Shaftesbury. 1743). Samuel. and satire became their formidable weapon. 4. Augustan satire The refinement and elegant surface of the Augustan Age.4.4. the Duke of Monmouth. its cult of reason and common sense. stability and order of a remarkable civilisation. contradictions and dark aspects. and its most outstanding representatives – Dryden. appears also as a stormy spirit.1. intrigues. Bayes*. Pope. brave and fearless man. struggle for power and profit. The Augustan Age is the great age of satire in English literature. a merciless attack on literary pedantry and dulness. hypocrisy. admiration and condemnation. The writers’ sense of mission turned them into guardians of the enlightened values of their time. The best achieved portrait is that of Achitophel / the Earl of Shaftesbury. king David. made king by the Goddess Dulness* in a realm turned to complete confusion by the vain ambitions of the Dunces – the multitude of bad writers and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 103 . from political and social life. are mingled: the evil conspirator. Augustan satire defended the values of civilisation in a civilised way: elegance. Charles’s brother and heir to the throne. genuinely gifted for leadership. and affectation were felt as diseases which threatened to weaken the force. Political and religious dissensions. The hero of this mock-heroic epic* is Mr. greed. The perfection of Dryden’s diction and his masterful use of the sketches heroic couplet* combine with his brilliant of character. disloyal and excessively ambitious. turning it into an allegory of contemporary political struggles. The biblical characters represent English political figures: King David is Charles II. often touched by ironic humour. Absalom is the latter’s illegitimate son. Alexander Pope Satirical attacks on literary mediocrity and incompetence were frequent in an age so preoccupied with standards of correctness and excellence. could not entirely remove or hide its tensions.2. folly. in which Dryden’s praise and criticism. selfishness. the instigator of the opposition to Catholic James Stuart. urbanity and refinement made it a sophisticated instrument of correction. 15-18).4. at the advice of Achitophel* (cf. It tells the biblical story of Absalom’s rebellion against his father. John Dryden A remarkable example of political satire is John Dryden’s Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682). with implications concerning the whole of Augustan civilisation. Perhaps the greatest Augustan satire on the world of letters is Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad* (1728.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Swift – aimed it at a variety of targets. 4. whose claim to the throne was justified by his Protestant religion.

concerning satire. Explain this analogy. imaginative inventiveness. and the satire ends with the apocalyptic extinction of the enemies of Dulness: Fancy (i. in a paragraph not exceeding 12 lines / 120 words. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Here. in the Reader represents a fragment from one of John Dryden’s essays. Religion. are more disturbing than entertaining. he reflects on the art of the satirist. pointing out the Augustan conception of satire.4. and Morality. Compare your answer with the suggestions provided at the end of the unit. Science. Art. Philosophy. that the corruption of the spirit (which follows from the corruption of the word) leads to the crumbling of all order. Truth. 104 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2. imagination). however. If it should be significantly different. Pope’s satirical allegory displays unequalled comic virtuosity and wit. SAQ 6 Text 4. and skill in the use of parody and the burlesque. as it betrays Pope’s fear that civilisation and its conquests are vulnerable to unreason. The empire of Dulness finally extends to the whole universe of the spirit.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Alexander Pope (1688-1744) critics who aspire to undeserved fame. read the fragment again. The final triumph of this “great Anarch*” is rendered by a parodic allusion to the biblical Genesis: the “uncreated word*” of Dulness restores the primordial chaos. and revise subchapter 4.e. more attentively. drawing an analogy between satire and a public execution. Its implications.

whose admirable society is built entirely on rational principles. like extracting sunshine from cucumbers. but the significance of his work may be extended to the philosophical question of the human condition itself. economic.4. with a sharp sense of observation. building houses starting from the roof. respectively. and literary. In his third voyage he visits several strange places. a race of immortal people whose eternal life is in fact a curse of endless decay. a hater of pedantry and pretence. the flying island. In his last voyage.3.” therefore a potential threat to that civilisation. bigger than himself. is inhabited by impractical intellectuals. Gulliver’s Travels pretends to be the record of the most astonishing experiences of an average man.A Voyage to Brodingnag III. Like many of his contemporaries. Laputa. Gulliver is cast on the shore of a country inhabited by the Houyhnhnms. with elements of the marvelous or fantastic fable. justice and freedom. Glubbdubdrib. philosophical. Jonathan Swift Pope’s friend. The structure of Gulliver’s Travels Consisting of four books. because he is perceived as a Yahoo endowed with “a rudiment of reason. in his potential as a rational creature. intelligent speaking horses. Gulliver finds himself among people who are twelve times smaller and. or softening marble to make pincushions. appear in the utmost state of degeneracy. Balnibarbi.4. Swift alludes satirically to a multitude of aspects from the contemporary political. From this last country. the Yahoos.4. Gulliver is finally expelled. combining the conventions of utopia* and of the imaginary voyage. Back in England. as well as an unequalled master of satirical wit and irony. he learns about the Struldbruggs. and his nostalgia for the perfect world of the 105 I. social and intellectual realities. curious and resourceful. and the disappointment and anger at seeing reason so often abused. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) 4. popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. an uncompromising defender of truth. These satires have established his reputation as a champion of moral virtue.” a work which Swift published anonymously in 1726. where mad scientists are engaged in phantasmagoric projects. In Balnibarbi. Gulliver can’t help seeing his fellow humans as disgusting Yahoos.A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . absorbed in mathematical speculations and music. Jonathan Swift. religious. Swift was divided between the idealist confidence in man’s capacity of selfimprovement.A Voyage to Lilliput II. and where human creatures. In it. is one of the greatest satirists in world literature.A Voyage to Laputa.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. In Luggnagg. It is an allegorical satirical travel book. Luggnagg and Japan IV. The most powerful expression of Swift’s satirical genius is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World “by Lemuel Gulliver. In Lilliput and Brobdingnag. he is shown the Academy of Lagado (a burlesque of the Royal Society). whose adventures as a surgeon and then the captain of several ships take him through the most unusual places. His hurt sensitivity and disillusionment are conveyed in a series of prose satires which cover a wide range of issues – political.

SAQ 7 Gulliver’s Houyhnhnm master tries to understand human nature by analysing the behaviour of the Yahoos (since he perceives Gulliver to be one). at the end of the unit. His initial curiosity and openness to the diversity of human nature turns into madness and misanthropy. 1. Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. incapable of suffering the proximity of humans. who is thus forced to examine itself in a distorting mirror. 3.5. 4. and he prefers now the company of horses. If none of the features mentioned there corresponds with your answers. Find. 106 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . four features which humans and Yahoos are found to share. 2. in Text 4. Each answer should be limited to 3 lines / 30 words. and he also re-interprets attitudes observed in the Yahoos in the light of the information received from Gulliver about human customs and institutions. The parallel results in a grotesque image of humankind.The Restoration and the Augustan Age rational horses alienates him completely from his own kind. read the fragment carefully once more. from the Reader.

Gulliver’s failure to accept the mixed essence of man. his vulnerability increases. or between those who break a boiled egg at the round end – the "Big Endians" – and those who break it at the pointed end). The fourth voyage.6. of the capacity for affection. he sees ideal creatures. its thirst for war – the endless conflict with France. Gulliver in Brobdingnag 4. Lilliput and Brobdingnag: satire and utopia In the first two books of Gulliver’s Travels. cruel and hypocritical. jumping over or creeping under a stick. The Yahoos and the Houyhnhnms are a double mirror for Gulliver. and he realises how far man is from moral perfection. means de-humanisation. forgetting that man holds a middle place in the Great Chain of Being*.4. Dissenters and Catholics. but their universe is completely deprived of emotion and feeling. his real humiliation is caused by the unflattering contrast between his own race and civilisation. In the Houyhnhnms. and the utopian commonwealth of Brobdingnag. and they constitute a miniature picture of England. Political corruption is institutionalised (for example.). he contemplates with shame and despair all the imperfections of the human race. its political parties – Whigs and Tories –. from which he chooses to leave.5. issues or figures. to integrate Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 107 . with the hardest dilemma and the deepest humiliation. Gulliver is confronted. he is actually physically vulnerable in this world. ambitious. Their non-human shape suggests that the absence of passion. and his position in that strange land is highly ambiguous. These comic details are satirical allusions to contemporary or recent events. The Lilliputians’ physical smallness is accompanied by moral flaws – they prove to be mean. in his last adventure. The Houyhnhnms may be an allegorical embodiment of moral perfection attained through the exercise of pure reason. between those who wear shoes with high heels and with low heels.The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Their society is deeply divided by absurd dissensions: for example. In Brobdingnag. ruled by an enlightened monarch. In the Yahoos. governed only by reason. The latter is shocked at the moral abjection and contempt for reason that he discerns under the gilded surface of Gulliver’s patriotic description of his country. the frustrated idealist After the comic-disturbing examples of unreason witnessed in his third voyage. In spite of Gulliver’s dimensions (an allegorical representation of his complex of superiority). the highest offices in the state are obtained by those who know how to entertain the king best. by dancing on a rope. However. with its religious controversies among Anglicans. etc. The error of Gulliver* is that he adopts an impossible deal of perfection. etc. vain. as he is in permanent danger from creatures so much larger than him.4. physical size indicates allegorically features of human nature. He is no longer certain of the essence of his own nature. Gulliver.

the Yahoos would stand for the essentially corrupt nature of man. Illustration from an early nineteenth century abridged editions (for children): Gulliver entertaining and being entertained by the tiny Lilliputians.The Restoration and the Augustan Age reason with feeling and instinct. In a “theological” perspective. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels has been given a multitude of interpretations. filthy. For many readers. unteachable and ungovernable. and he ultimately becomes the target of Swift’s irony. the Yahoos embodied Swift’s own vision of mankind as hopelessly degraded. makes him a frustrated idealist. while the Houyhnhms would represent man who has escaped the consequences of the original sin. or as opposite caricatural views of man in the state of nature. The Houyhnhms and the Yahoos have also been seen as allegorical representations of Reason and Instinct. Houyhnhnm and Yahoo .illustration from a 1947 edition of Gulliver’s Travels 108 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . an image which earned Swift the reputation of a misanthrope.

Formulate your answer in no more than 10 lines / 100 words for each aspect.6. The careful reader will. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 109 . If there should be major differences. the Houyhnhnms’ society is perfect – a true utopia. and to revise subchapter 4. more carefully.6. from the Reader. For Gulliver. Point out both kinds of aspects in the description contained in Text 4.The Restoration and the Augustan Age SAQ 8 Swift’s ironic method is to mislead the reader by giving the appearance of rationality to the absurd. you need to read the fragment again. and by mixing the desirable with the unacceptable.4. Utopian aspects: Anti-utopian aspects Compare your answer with the one provided at the end of the unit. find anti-utopian elements in it. however. in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.

comedy was licentious and cynical. Steele. The latter’s eminently rationalist poetics placed emphasis on clarity and elegance in style and composition. on expressive restraint and skilfully controlled wit. While heroic drama sustained an impossible. narrow-sightedness. this highly artificial and conventional form was an expression of the taste of the Court aristocracy. was enlightened in matters of literary taste and intellectual achievements. Like heroic tragedy (e. both in verse (Dryden. Steele). accommodating a diversity of literary forms and traditions – old and new. Pope) and in prose (Swift).The Restoration and the Augustan Age 4. Its flourishing in the Augustan Age reflects the integration of literature with social life. A representative literary genre for this age is the comedy of manners (Etherege. placing wit above virtue. Dryden. The importance of Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver’s Travels is the expression of Swift’s indignation and anger at man’s foolishness. a wide public. generally. was another characteristic genre. which contributed greatly to the development of a modern prose style. Gradually. Congreve. therefore also capable of error. dominantly middle class. the writers’ sense of responsibility towards the values of their civilisation.g. Goldsmith. Pope. parody. Swift’s extraordinary inventiveness and narrative gift. Dryden. caricature. the pressure of the taste of the rising middle class replaced it with sentimental comedy. including that of Reason itself. but also an enduring achievement of the enlightened spirit. Swift. Satire. and his brilliant wit make Gulliver’s Travels not only a landmark in Augustan literature. He intended to “vex the world” in order to “mend” it. reason was not to be taken for granted: man was only a creature capable of reason.7. and recommended as a model the literary wisdom of the Ancients. a masterpiece of irony which places under scrutiny many of the myths of the Enlightenment. grotesque. and. Johnson are central figures of the Augustan Age. It was a chronicle of manners and an instrument of social and moral criticism. Summary The Restoration is a historical and a literary period. etc. For Swift. Dryden). and by means of it.4. 110 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . his learning and sense of literary tradition. the belief in progress and improvement in an age which was also that of the Enlightenment. inflated ideal of heroism and virtue. Swift’s allegorical satire Gulliver’s Travels is the most accomplished exploration of the contradictions of the Age of Reason. One of the literary forms that developed during this period was the periodical essay (Addison. Addison. It cultivated the idea of the “marriage” of Art and Nature. The period of the Restoration overlaps with the emerging Augustan Age.). It is an age of transition. when literary Neoclassicism developed. and he used every weapon in the satirist’s arsenal to awaken man from his selfcomplacency: biting irony. on Reason and common sense in aesthetic choice. on the rule of decorum. arrogant ignorance and unfounded pride in his reason.

his craftsmanship. “Will’s Coffee House. gathered people of the literary profession or interested in literary matters. or human skill (as contrasted to the work of Nature).1. they were convenient places for socialising and for the dissemination of news. baroque: see again subchapter 2. admirer. the acquired competence of the writer. burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. In her empire of darkness and confusion. greatly concerned with appearances. In Pope’s satire. beaux: plural of beau (“handsome” in French). For instance. but is intended to impress others. Dulness as “Great Anarch” is the ruler of spiritual chaos. dress or behaviour which is not natural. in the 2nd Book of Kings (verses 15-18).The Restoration and the Augustan Age Key words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Restoration The Augustan Age heroic tragedy comedy of manners Neoclassicism rationalist poetics Nature/Human Nature art wit to delight and instruct periodical essay The Spectator’s Club satire allegory utopia irony Glossary • • • Achitophel: the story of Absalom and Achitophel is told in The Old Testament. profession or interest. Augustan: see Augustan Age in the Glossary in Unit 1. acquiring quickly the status of real “institutions” of opinion. art: in the Neoclassic doctrine. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. They were usually frequented by people of the same social rank. all the acquisitions of the human spirit become meaningless. 111 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which designated a fashionable.” where Dryden would come regularly. or escort. coffee houses: since the 1650s. political or religious orientation. affectation: a manner of speech. Anarch: a personification of anarchy. it may also refer to a woman’s lover. achieved by training and practice. and the Glossary in Unit 2.1. Art may generally refer to the work of man. well-dressed man.

” diction : see poetic diction in the Glossary in Unit 1. which conceived of every being in nature as having its well-established place in an uninterrupted chain of increasing degrees of complexity. landscape. a strictly ordered hierarchical system.” which means easy to fool or persuade to believe something (from “to gull”: to cheat. Pope replaced Theobald by Colley Cibber. fallow: (about land) left unplanted or unseeded. stupidity. slowness in thinking and learning. unexciting. mock-heroic epic: see mock-heroic style and epic in the Glossary in Unit 1.3 in Unit 1. who had criticised Pope for his edition of Shakespeare (1725).4. or “humour. Great Chain of Being: an ancient world-picture. referring not only to external nature. Dryden himself had been attacked several times as “Mr. but to the whole of created reality. Gulliver: the name sounds very similar to the adjective “gullible. from dunce.3 in Unit 1 (heroic drama). a word designating a person who is stupid or slow to learn. surviving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance into the 18th century. fop: a man who is excessively concerned with fashion and elegance. i.” Nature: an inclusive concept.” another word for “laurel”. Mr.e. figuratively: undeveloped or inactive. It derives from “bay. Pope uses the word in the enlarged sense of “all slowness of apprehension. to deceive). Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. industry: the quality of being hard-working or of being always employed usefully. Dunciad: the title is coined after The Iliad. trait . Bayes” refers to Lewis Theobald. who in 1730 had become Poet Laureate.” a “force inertly strong” which corrupts understanding and confuses the mind. Bayes. the bay-leaf crown was the ancient emblem of fame. heroic tragedy: see again subchapter 1. In Pope’s satire. and distinction. the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 112 . “Dull” also means uninteresting. characters were constructed on the basis of a particular disposition. “Mr. hedonism: a lifestyle devoted to the seeking of sensual pleasure. licentiousness: uncontrolled sexual behaviour. shortness of sight or imperfect sense of things. in which the destruction of one “link” would bring chaos. dulness: in a strict sense.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • comedy of humours: see Jonson in the Glossary in Unit 1. In the 1743 version of The Dunciad. honour. inclination. Bayes: a name which was frequently applied satirically to a writer. In this kind of comedy. boring. justice of the peace: a person appointed by the crown to judge less serious cases in small courts of law. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1.

Boileau. squire: a country gentleman. 113 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • • • cosmic harmony and order manifested in the appearances of this world.3 in Unit 1) and of comedies of manners. he translated from ancient authors. especially the main landowner in a village. i. Marriage à la Mode (1672) distinguishes itself by its brilliant wit combats and effective social satire.4. whose poem L’art poétique (1674) established the canons of taste and the standards of literary judgement for European Neoclassicism. of imagination and originality. Tatler: a “tattler” is a person who gossips. Dryden. and he was the pioneer of modern English literary criticism. elegant. uncreated word: with reference to the literary world. making literature “dull. the conception about literature and the creative act of a certain literary school or writer. and topos = place). polite learning: the knowledge acquired through classical education (polite: refined. He was equally successful as an author of heroic dramas (see again subchapter 1.” from Greek u = not. or literature in general. sentimental comedy see again subchapter 1. Restoration: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Joseph (1672-1719): representative of English literary Neoclassicisn. John (1637-1700): one of the most outstanding figures of the Restoration and the Augustan Age. founder of literary journalism. Pope’s satire warns thus about the dangers of lowering literary standards.” utopia: a genre in fiction whose name comes from Sir Thomas More’s work Utopia (1516).3 in Unit 5. Gallery of personalities • • • Addison. He excelled in all literary genres of his time. He established the periodical essay as a literary genre. for the notion of sentimentalism. sprout up: to begin to grow or develop. essays and dramatic works. polished). Among the latter.4. Restoration Wits: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. perfect society (literally: “no place. this phrase suggests the lack of inspiration. wit: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. or who chats or talks idly.e.4 in Unit 1. author of poems. poetics: the system of principles and conventions which govern a certain literary form. and he contributed significantly to the dissemination of the values of the Enlightenment in England.1. in which he outlines the features of an ideal. Nicolas (1636-1711): outstanding French poet and critic. Neoclassicism: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. of taste or skill. and sentimental novel in subchapter 5.

a masterpiece of 18th century fiction. Thomas (1635-1713): mathematician and writer. who called him a “comic history-painter. political and moral vices. which contains an allegorical satire on the division of the Christian Church. His works include the philosophical poem An Essay on Man (1733). his works include A Tale of a Tub (1704). satires and epistles. an unequalled master of irony and wit. and A Modest Proposal (1729). Latin poet of the time of Caesar Augustus. His best comedies are She Would If She Could (1668). His comedies The Country Wife (1675) and The Plain Dealer (1676) satirise the discrepancies between the social surface of respectability and the unscrupulous selfishness that may hide behind it. Like his friend.” Horace: Quintus Horatius Flavius (65-8 B. Goldsmith. as well as to the forging of a polished literary prose style. or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676). William (1640-1716): one of the Restoration Wits. Pope. Sprat.The Restoration and the Augustan Age • • • • • • • • • • Etherege.C. and The Man of Mode. Jonathan (1667-1745): the greatest English satirist. clear. he contributed to the spreading of Enlightenment ideas. Alexander (1688-1744): the most illustrious representative of English literary Neoclassicism. 114 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Among various other works. Richard (1672-1725): Augustan essayist and dramatist (he established sentimental comedy on the English stage). He was a friend of the novelist Henry Fielding. he is the author of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). William (1697-1764): painter and engraver. and a major representative of English sentimentalism. Johnson. member of the Royal Society. he endeavoured to lift Latin literature to the level of Greek literature. and of the influential critical work Ars Poetica. Besides his famous Gulliver’s Travels. George (1634-1691): a member of the group of Restoration Wits. of Irish origin. extremely popular owing to his “modern moral subjects” – a series of paintings or engravings which tell a story and constitute a comment on social. a bitter satire in defense of the Irish people. Steele. he argues for the superiority of the Ancients over modern authors. in which he is the optimistic spokesman of the Age of Reason. In the mock-heroic allegory The Battle of the Books (1704). Oliver (1728-1774): upholder of the Neoclassic standards of style and composition. Samuel: see the Gallery of personalities in Unit 2. Swift.). concise and flexible. Together with Addison. author of odes. Hogarth. as well as the mock-heroic poem The Rape of the Lock (1712). Virgil. Wycherley. preoccupied by the cultivation of an English style that should be simple.

and she rejects the idea of the wife’s subordination. wild plants growing where they are not wanted) will invade an uncultivated field.e. Johnson implies that an author’s greatness depend on his insight into Human Nature. so the mind which is not assiduously and constantly cultivated – i. and she proposes to reject the social rituals and fashions that would require them to wear masks. and. common sense. good sense. Addison’s observation reflects the faith in man’s intellectual and moral perfectibility through responsible education – an attitude characteristic of the Enlightenment.e. SAQ 4 Addison builds an analogy between the human mind and a field.T. open-mindedness. 2.” Just as weeds (i. reasonableness.F. common to all humanity – is greater than the pleasure of “sudden wonder” procured by the depiction of “particular manners” and by “fanciful invention. which may be cultivated or left to “lie fallow.F. SAQ 6 Satire is the art of pointing at people’s faults without resorting to insult or calumny. 4. 7. and should not try to impose his/her habits on the other. 3. of those features which are universal. Dryden makes an analogy between the sharp blade of the executioner’s sword and the sharp irony and wit of the satirist. She wishes for a sincere and authentic relationship. modesty.F SAQ 2 Millamant has an unconventional view of marriage. diligence. educated to think – will employ itself with trifles. regardless of their particular condition. by the standards of her social environment. 8. She also refuses to see marriage as a limitation of the woman’s freedom. of Human nature.e. in an analogous sense. SAQ 5 honesty.T. industry. good judgment. In marriage.T.T. integrity.T. is. 5. abdicating from reason. each partner should accept and respect the other’s wishes.F. or judgment. because he succeeded in rendering the general “truths” of human nature. Her desire to preserve an area of privacy in her domestic life reflects the fact that she does not conceive love and marriage as incompatible with one’s independence. opinions and tastes. for sophisticated Millamant.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1.” Shakespeare will appeal to readers across the ages. Culture is thus seen as an improvement of nature. a way of protecting their intimacy and their feelings. SAQ 3 The pleasure of contemplating representations of “general nature” – i. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 115 . 6. good breeding. furnished with ideas. His characters embody the fundamental human passions which will always move mankind. benevolence. the refusal to make a public show of their affection. 9. sense of responsibility. Civilised reserve in society.

” the subtlety of his accusations. only the species counts. Anti-utopian aspects: the absolutisation of reason. The Houyhnhms are not divided by quarrels. 4. deprives their thinking of flexibility and nuance. The spirit of competition. 537-550) 2. 3. SAQ 8 Utopian aspects: The cultivation and exercise of reason. 1983 (pp. civility and friendship become a cold and superficial form of social relationship. 2.. decency and civility are certainly desiderata of any civilisation. Editura Universităţii Suceava. which is meant only for procreation. The Novel in Its Beginnings. They practice population control. A Critical History of English Literature. 180-187) 3. and no personal choice in the matter of marriage. and the hierarchy of their society is based on racial discrimination (“inferior” Houyhnhnms will fatally be servants). the education in the spirit of moderation and industry. The irrational greed and avarice. conflict and self-interest. Both of them need skill – or “art” – to do this in a satisfactory way. so the satirist is merciless in his denouncing human flaws. David. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. The tendency to idleness. The civilised art of satire is opposed to the coarseness and brutality of personal attack and insult. which breeds imaginary ills. The tyranny of reason also rules out affection and emotion: they have no particular feelings for their own offspring. Preda. 2003 (pp. the generalises extension of friendship and benevolence.). the exclusion of opinion. and the equal education of males and females was a progressive Enlightenment ideal.” SAQ 7 1. English Literature and Civilisation. Macsiniuc. 1969 (pp.The Restoration and the Augustan Age Just as the executioner will implacably carry out the capital punishment. Womankind’s lustfulness and inclination to coquetry. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. The art of the accomplished satirist consists in the elegance. 5. the ability of the worst to set themselves as leaders. In the absence of affective attachment. Cornelia. vol. the “fineness. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. ultimately of imagination. Further reading 1. The English Eighteenth Century. the silly behaviour of women determined to draw attention to themselves. The incapacity of choosing a ruler according to real merit. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). The individual is of no importance. which are the literary equivalent of a man’s “slovenly butchering. the jealousy (envy) and the aggressiveness towards one’s fellows. Ioan-Aurel (coord. the “unnatural appetite” for things whose value doesn’t justify the effort and energy spent in their acquisition and preservation.33-66) 116 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . which makes social progress inconceivable. Daiches. the rulers’ habit of surrounding themselves by favourites whose role is to flatter and to encourage them in their abuses.

5. 5. 5.3. 2 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 118 118 118 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 127 128 128 129 130 132 132 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 139 139 140 142 142 143 144 145 146 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 117 . Unit objectives The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Background and main concerns Novel and romance in the 18th century Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Typology of the novel in the 18th century Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s style Samuel Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel The plot of Pamela. 5. 5.2.4. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel UNIT 5 THE AGE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT: THE RISE OF THE NOVEL Unit Outline 5 5. 5.4. 5.1. 5.2. 5. or Virtue Rewarded Social hierarchy and the individual self Psychological realism and the epistolary technique Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The novel as comic romance The character of parson Adams Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews Fielding’s Augustanism Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The “Shandean” view of writing The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions Tristram Shandy as metafiction Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.4.4. 5.3. 5. 5.3. 5.5. 5.2. 5.4. 5.1.

the rise of the middle classes.1. but there was a considerable amount of novels written by women. The general growth of literacy* in the 18 th century led to the rise of a new. Not only were women the most numerous “consumers” of novels. exotic settings. confined to the 118 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Novel and romance in the 18th century The dominance of female readership explains the enduring popularity. a certain tendency to women’s emancipation.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ identify. and there is a connection between. The late 17 th century had seen a flourishing of this kind of fiction. emancipation and progress received unprecedented prominence and were vital for the self-assertion of the new class. more inclusive reading public. Women’s education was beginning to be encouraged. This new literary form embodied the democratic and revolutionary impulse of a century in which the issues of individual liberty. tolerance. Background and main concerns The novel’s emergence is commonly associated with the aspiration of the middle classes to overcome cultural marginality. A significant part of this new reading public consisted in women. and their involvement with literary life was increasing. whose action was often set in remote. values and attitudes characteristic of the Age of the Enlightenment ♦ describe typological features of the studied novels ♦ compare the studied novelists from the point of view of their approach to character and plot ♦ delineate a character from one of the novels under discussion. of a genre which became the main rival of the novel: the romance. in the early years of the 18 th century. mostly imitations of French models. natural rights. Such tales gratified the fantasies of a class of readers who were still barred from public self-assertion.1. and whose protagonists were of noble stock. in various aspects of the novels discussed in this unit. and the development of the novel. whose vast majority was middle-class. Romances were long narratives combining heroic adventure and passionate love. 5. and generally about women. in the light of the author’s aesthetic principles ♦ describe the peculiarities of the narrative technique and style used by the studied authors ♦ define the concept of metafiction and describe metafictional strategies in Sterne’s novel Unit objectives 5.1.

its normality. In spite of the great diversity of novels in the 18th century. On the other hand. The novelist no longer drew his plots from mythology. socially and materially dependent on men. The represented experience was meant to engage the reader’s interest both because it was familiar and because of its uniqueness. The novel reflects. Thus. The knights and princesses of romances were replaced. The popularity of the novel and the success of its didactic mission owed greatly to its endeavour of convincing the reader of the lifelikeness* of the represented characters and actions. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 119 . with entertainment frequently subordinated to the instructive aim. a double tendency of the Age of the Enlightenment. its determination to participate in the general Augustan quest for an ideal of social harmony.2. the novel reflected the general critical spirit of the Age of the Enlightenment and participated in its project of emancipation through education.1. The ordinary aspects of life. it recommended patterns of behaviour and models of success that were relevant to the condition of middle class readers. in the novel. It attempted to correct morals and educate manners by censuring vice and folly. in Augustan terms. because the depicted experience and universe were more or less familiar to them. a reality that was close to the average reader’s experience became a source of imaginative interest. their common denominator was the attempt to convey an impression of authentic experience. Realism – or. romances were therefore literature of escape. its endeavour to propagate a certain moral and social code. the novel’s didactic vocation. For most women. history. By contrast. truth to Nature – is what primarily distinguished the novel from romance. Characters are no longer idealised. On the one hand. to their relevance for the reader’s aspirations and possibilities. Didacticism and realism in the 18th century novel Whereas the basic aim of romance was to entertain. by common people. vague and abstract figures. shows its assumed responsibility towards contemporary civilisation. The novel proposed norms of moral conduct and standards of social integration. or previous literature. the novel’s aspiration was to fulfil the double mission of all Augustan literature: to entertain (to divert) and to instruct (to edify). The readers of novels could identify themselves with the characters. its emphasis on individual experience is the literary expression of the spirit of individualism associated with the growing importance of the middle classes. whose province was the spectacular and the extraordinary. but from contemporary life. but distinct individualities. realised with an unprecedented wealth of social. moral or psychological detail. in its concerns. legend. 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel domestic universe. the province of the novel was the familiar.

and 5. Each full statement should describe a general aspect concerning the rise of the novel as a genre in the 18th century. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. on the other. 1. Two or three lines (20-30 words) should be enough for each completion.2. The rise of the middle classes … 2.1. … 4. on the one hand. SAQ 1 Complete the sentences below. Women were … 3. The tensions and conflicts between private/individual convictions and inclinations.1. by centering its interest on the relationship between the individual and his/her social environment. and public/social norms and conventions. at the end of the unit. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … 5. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … Compare your answers with those given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. read again subchapters 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel offers imaginative versions of the reconciliation of these two tendencies. If there should be major differences. 120 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .1. constitute the foundation of all novelistic plots in the 18 th century.

in which the action is episodic. an opportunity for comprehensive social criticism. displayed not only in fiction. On the other hand.3. and extremely diverse. romance is trivialised through parody*. and which emphasised the importance of feeling and its close connection with moral virtue. or explore personal conflicts which involve different sets of values (e.e. confusion. • • The novel of manners submits to the reader’s judgements various types of social behaviour. classic models to follow. and the world represented in such novels is open. the romance). It may either offer a comprehensive mirror of the social diversity of the age (e. Instead. and its beginnings are defined by a tendency to “sponge” on other literary forms. and the hero’s various encounters are. The motif of the travel is central. in imitation of the descriptive accuracy of travel literature. The characteristic comic plot presupposes the passage from disorder. repetitious. a wide variety of influences went into its making. but also in poetry and in drama. The sentimental hero/heroine unites a remarkably acute sensibility with spotless virtue and a deep sense of honour.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. • Picaresque* novels may be considered a special case of adventure novels. The comic novel in the 18th century is inscribed in a long tradition of deflation of romance. which claim the reader’s attention more than the characters do. exposing their irrelevance and unreality. The comic novel is an opportunity for writers to display a critical attitude not only to reality. Richardson). Sentimentalism became a literary fashion. since this kind of fiction subverts the prestige of older genres (the epic. Typology of the novel in the 18th century The novel as a genre had no authoritative. therefore an ally to realism. This makes the 18th century novel rather difficult to classify. from which it borrowed devices. popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. i. The analysis of sentimental response was meant to elicit from the reader an empathic understanding. but to literature as well. forms of expression.g. the comic vision is always in the service of social and moral criticism. They invariably contain the motif of the journey.1. on events. misfortune to the solution of all conflicts and the integration of the protagonist in a social structure. Many novels cut across divisions. The most popular kinds of novels in the 18th century were: Adventure novels share with romances an emphasis on action. Fielding).g. loosely structured. irony and burlesque*. for the author. belonging to several categories at once. their distance from the every day experience of common readers. but they differ from romances in their attention to realistic detail. inclusive. • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 121 . examining the conflicts between private morality and public expectation. patterns and motifs. • The sentimental novel is the literary manifestation of that cross-current within the Age of the Enlightenment which placed value in emotional response rather than in reason.

deliberately reducing the importance of plot or emotional conflict. ________________________ 7. usually with supernatural ingredients. ________________________ 2. at the end of the unit. trivial subjects. and his/her experiences provide a satirical survey of the contemporary society. It is concerned with the individual’s full assertion as a social being. It explores the labyrinth of emotion and feeling. It offers more delight in ________________________ action than in character. It defines itself in contrast with the “serious” narrative genres. after each sentence. ________________________ Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Two of these descriptions do not match any of the types of novels described in the subchapter above. read again subchapter 5. It centres on intellectual debate and confrontation of ideas. ________________________ 8. If you have failed to match any of the descriptions with the right type of novel.1. ________________________ 6. in their confrontation with moral choice. It presents a tale of mystery and horror.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The novel of education (the Bildungsroman*) is concerned with the formation of character through the accumulation of experience. in an atmosphere of gloom. It explores the diversity of social manners and their articulation with moral values. 3. 1. Its hero is a marginal figure who aspires to social success. • SAQ 2 What kinds of novels do the following sentences describe? Write the answer in the space indicated by the continuous line. 122 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . at the end of a process in which he/she learns to accord private impulse with social expectation..3. mocking their elevated style by applying it to common. this illustrates the concern of the Enlightenment with the development of the individual as a social being. ________________________ 5. ________________________ 4. The achievement of maturity leads to the hero’s satisfactory social integration.

in circumstantial details.2.2. but also on the Continent.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.1. resourcefulness and capacity for adjustment and survival. the constant striving towards accuracy of description. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. of such non-fictional kinds of writing as the spiritual autobiography or didactic religious treatises. and their adventures show the individual victorious over circumstances and environment (physical or social). Richardson focuses on the inner world of thought and feeling. several adventure novels. His heroes are remarkable in their vitality. They were all stories of success. They are pragmatic. when the writer was almost sixty. on his fiction. This aspect in Defoe’s novels points to his Puritan background. Both Defoe and Richardson display in their narratives a remarkable faithfulness to detail. They share a middle class. They differ in the objects of their “realistic” approach: whereas Defoe’s interest is invested in the external world of fact. Puritan* background. Both of them enjoyed enormous popularity not only in England. to the influence. This confers vividness to their narratives. Its tremendous success encouraged Defoe to produce. in the next years. dynamic and versatile. and both of them focus on the individual in his/her struggle of securing a legitimate position in the social structure. their social insertion. and tracing the protagonists’ struggles to achieve material prosperity as a condition of a stable social position. establishing it as the most popular literary genre in the 18th century. Defoe and Richardson: from circumstantial realism to sentimental truth Each of these two novelists had an essential contribution to the rise of the novel. in actions. Mariner. 5. Their rise to social respectability and wealth. published in 1719. on the individual’s striving towards some form of personal achievement. is invariably accompanied by moral reformation. Daniel Defoe and the novel of adventure Defoe’s career as a novelist started with his masterpiece. cast in a picaresque form. on the movements of consciousness and the emotional response to moral problems. Features of Defoe’s heroes Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 123 . the power to hold attention and keep curiosity awake. Their novels are the literary reflection of the spirit of individualism that characterised the age.

After 26 years. he rescues a savage from his fellow cannibals. he starts a voyage to Africa.” without “any appearance of fiction in it. but during a terrible storm he is shipwrecked on a desert island. After several misadventures at sea. Son of a successful German merchant settled in England. such an experience became an archetypal one. has three children. he learns that his prospering business in Brazil has made him a rich man. C. The subject is inspired by 17th century stories of castaways on desert islands. In the 28 years of solitary life. he turns from a reckless. in fact. Under Defoe’s pen. prudent and calculating mature man. where he has established a colony. He marries. to buy slaves. the desire for adventure and for “seeing the world.” It is. not only physical but also spiritual. Providence helps him finally leave the island. Robinson becomes engaged in a heroic struggle for survival.2. Robinson settles in Brazil where he becomes a relatively prosperous plantation owner. a celebration of man’s power of spiritual endurance in adversity. Wyeth . one of Defoe’s “honest cheats.” as he came to call his novels – the attempt to inculcate religion and morality through a gripping story which has the appearance of authenticity. The only survivor. names him Friday and turns him into his loyal servant and receptive pupil.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. of his moral strength to carry on against all obstacles. as well by the more recent case of a sailor who had lived in complete solitude for five years on an uninhabited island. and the book ends with his promise of further accounts of his island. In the hope of increasing his wealth. romantic youth into a realistic. Robinson Crusoe: theme and plot Robinson Crusoe is recommended as “a just history of fact.1920) 124 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .2.” and leaves home on board a ship.” He disregards his father’s advice of continuing the family trade and keeping within the limits of his “middle station in life. Illustration to the first edition (1719) Robinson on the beach (illustration by N. On his return to England. Robinson displays from a young age the romantic inclination of wandering. struggling to impose on an alien space his middle class idea of order. in soon left a widower.

embodying elements of contemporary social philosophy and economic theory. and finally to his conviction of God’s benevolent design. If it should differ considerably.. In his initial struggle with despair. making sure you understand the meaning of the phrase “honest cheat. the motif of the island acquires symbolic Robinson’s island dimensions. It corresponds to the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 125 . It may also be read as a spiritual autobiography in the Puritan tradition. Robinson perceives his exile from the world as a terrible punishment for his transgression of his father’s word. and 5.2. to the awakening of religious conscience.2. the awareness of his sinfulness and the sincere desire for repentance.” 5.1. as his life becomes more secure and his trust in Providence increases.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 3 How does the description “honest cheat” apply to Robinson Crusoe? Answer in no more than 8 lines / 80 words. Interpretations of Robinson Crusoe Defoe’s novel lends itself to a variety of interpretations: as an allegory of man’s evolution from the state of nature to civilisation and its institutions. Robinson comes to see his solitude rather as a spiritual and moral shelter.2. In this light.2.3. as a political or economic utopia. at the end of the unit. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. but the proper condition for the examination of consciousness. read again subchapters 5. as one of the great myths of individualism of Western civilisation. Gradually. as an allegory of the ecological development of history. Isolation is no longer a misfortune. tracing Robinson’s progress from sin (his disobedience of his father).

the protagonist’s experience evokes the theme of the fortunate fall. The enormous effort by which he secures shelter.. In this connection. 126 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Robinson finds in it a “therapeutic” value. Robinson Crusoe also celebrates those human features which enable man to master circumstances: pragmatism. subchapter 5. or by a sentence (e. It has its spiritual rewards. 1. perspicacity. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. SAQ 4 Read Text 5. where his daily bread is earned with “infinite labour. Changed in his “notion of things. Robinson is cast out from the “edenic” safety and happiness of his father’s home into an uncertain world of toil.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The celebration of homo faber characteristic Puritan tendency to self-scrutiny and introspection. He takes pleasure in his work). g. Enumerate.” desires and “delights. which will serve his instinct for independence. you must read again the last two paragraphs of subchapter 5. morally autonomous. and is thus a way of restoring a lost Paradise.2. 2. or the felix culpa*.” However. food and the basic commodities of life turns into a source of satisfaction. as well as the fragment in the Reader. Like Adam.. 3. its essential role in man’s material and spiritual progress.2. perseverance.. at the end of the unit. as a self-reliant individual. inventiveness.2. and it is also symbolic of the Puritan sense of an intense personal relationship with God. You may render these features either by a single noun (e. at least four features of the hero’s character as they are illustrated by this description. Defoe’s novel is thus a celebration of the dignity of work.g. describing in minute detail Robinson’s attempt to make an earthenware pot. with a well-defined utilitarian view of life. ingenuity). if the biblical curse of work is meant to remind Adam permanently of his original disobedience.3.” Robinson perceives the island as the equivalent of a regained Paradise. 4. If you should fail to find any of the features mentioned there. Crusoe’s years of solitude trained him for social insertion. in the space below.

His simple. 127 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whose reality is difficult to doubt. In his aspiration to create an effect of reality in his narrative.2. Defoe is the first major fiction writer whose narrative realism conveyed such a powerful impression of authenticity and completeness in the representation of the interaction of the individual with the environment.4 once more and do the exercise again. of familiar detail. SAQ 5 Analyse Text 5. at the end of the unit. rendered in a simple. 4. the promise of symbolic meanings. The richness of concrete detail. Identify in it at least four features of Defoe’s characteristic narrative style and write them in the space provided below. he paid little attention to matters of form. The “journalistic” style of Defoe’s fiction is consonant with an ideal of prose style characterised by plainness. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It was with Richardson that “the sense of life” conveyed by the narrative was completed by a sense of form. 1. lack of unnecessary ornamentation. easy and eminently factual style made his writings accessible to a large audience. containing. but on the complexity of character and human relationship. the frequent enumerations and inventories. read the fragment and subchapter 5. solid world. Robinson Crusoe is a gripping narrative. clear language. in the Reader from the point of view of its style.2. on a separate sheet. clarity.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. The latter owes greatly to Defoe’s experience as a journalist. Defoe’s novels imposed a model of style that contributed considerably to the “democratisation” of literature. with unmatched vividness. 2.2. His fiction has the remarkable power to evoke a tangible reality. which draws much of its force from Defoe’s peculiar narrative manner and style. the accumulation of circumstantial detail create a strong sense of a palpable. which.4. the most common objects and actions in their particularity. If your list contains none of the features mentioned there. His linear. arising from the complication of a plot centering not on episodic adventure. in turn benefited from his innate gift for telling stories. at the same time. He convinced readers of the truthfulness of his narrative by evoking. Defoe’s style The world of Defoe’s novels is the world of common fact and action. 3. episodic plots imitate the episodic quality of life itself. concreteness.

B_. who is now convinced of the purity of her motives and of her innocence. There.5. Mr. whose affection she finally gains. Her disarming combination of graceful modesty and pride helps her come victorious in an encounter with haughty Lady Davers. B_’s sister. Richardson focuses on the relation between feeling and virtue. At the same time. Mr. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) and Clarissa. Back to Bedfordshire as mistress of the house. Pamela has one more test to pass: winning the approval of Mr. but also the agitation of her heart and its conflicting impulses. He acknowledges his love and proposes marriage to her. or Virtue Rewarded Pamela is a simple countryside girl who works as a maidservant in the house of Lady B_. or the History of a Young Lady (1748). Pamela continues a diary. B_’s hands.2. In Pamela. recording the details of her ordeal.6. In Clarissa. unanimously loved and admired. cruel and greedy relatives. Both novels concentrate on the microcosm of the family and develop the themes of the trial of innocence. B’s relatives and friends. sensibility and morality. 128 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . tries to seduce her and make her his mistress. Richardson’s prominent place in the history of the English novel is ensured by two novels: Pamela. the double victim of the libertine aristocrat who raped her and of her narrow-minded. His influence was considerable. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) 5. as well as for his didactic purpose. In her new state. The plot of Pamela. hoping that she will give in. the latter’s son. His focus on the inner life of feeling and emotion prefigures the Romantic* sensibility.2. of individual freedom threatened by arbitrary power. in Bedfordshire. Faced with her resistance. As the first great sentimental novelist. impressed by Pamela’s unusual beauty and grace. Richardson’s contribution to the development of the novel Richardson is the first to combine a sense of social reality with the interest in individual psychology.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. of the struggle between virtue and vice. Pamela decides to thank Providence by doing as much good as she can to those around her. Mr. his exploration of unconscious motivation makes him a forerunner in the great tradition of the novel of psychological analysis. not only in England but also on the Continent. which Richardson found best suited for the realistic rendering of psychological and moral complexity. B_ abducts her and keeps her a prisoner for a while in his Lincolnshire house. the tone is rather that of a comedy of manners and the ending is in the spirit of the Cinderella* tale. Upon the death of her mistress. the death of the heroine turns her into a tragic figure. Both are written in the epistolary manner*. Her diary – intended for her parents – falls into Mr. Pamela differs from Clarissa in tone and ending.

is consistent with the spirit of individual freedom which defines the Enlightenment. the rights of the individual. a complete novelty in fiction. the freedoms that he takes with her. as he embodies perfect virtue in a lower middle-class girl. He thus questions the exclusive right of aristocracy.7. Through its subject and theme. Gravelot to the 1742 edition) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 129 . as a traditionally dominant class.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Social hierarchy and the individual self Pamela’s problem is not only the defense of her chastity.2. The moral conflict in the novel is accompanied by social issues. B_ intercepting Pamela’s first letter to her parents (Engraving by H. The cover engraving and title page of the 1741 edition Mr. Pamela’s position of moral superiority reflects Richardson’s confidence that the values of the middle class entitled them to claim moral leadership. She sees social hierarchy as “natural. but the education she received in Lady B_’s house is far above that of a servant.” but she defends her dignity as an individual. B_. This ambiguity in her condition makes her remarkably class-conscious. She perceives her imprisonment by Mr. Pamela is brought up by her modest parents in the spirit of the strictest religious principles. to set moral standards to the nation. F. Richardson’s creation of Pamela is revolutionary. Richardson’s novel participates in the larger illuminist debate on the issue of authority and absolute power vs. that no one has the right to control the ideas and feelings of another. his violation of her privacy (including the private space of her correspondence) as abusive attempts to reduce her to the condition of an object. Richardson’s implicit radical message.

to obey Mr. Psychological realism and the epistolary technique What makes Richardson a real innovator is the credibility with which he renders the heroine’s inner conflicts. social standing] I am but upon a foot with the meanest slave. If there should be significant differences. her contradictory impulses and unconscious motivations. what are the implications of her exclamation: “My soul is of equal importance with the soul of a princess. it is easier for her to stand his abuses. Pamela struggles from the start between fright and fascination. Richardson’s mastery consists in the subtlety with which he suggests the gradual surfacing of unconscious feeling and with which he traces the heroine’s slow process of self-knowledge.2. between hate and admiration. though in quality [i.2.e. B_ When the latter acts openly as her oppressor.8.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 6 Considering the heroine’s dilemma in the novel. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. but his moments of kindness confuse her and make her feel vulnerable. in no more than 10 lines / 100 words. 5. 130 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Her initial innocent regard for her master’s benevolence turns gradually into the apprehension of danger.7. Her conscience is divided between her loyalty to the moral principles inculcated by her parents and her social duty.”? Answer in the space left below. at the end of the unit. and 5.2. read again attentively subchapters 5.6. as a servant. but her letters betray her growing affection for her master.

B_ follows a similar evolution. If they should correspond to none of the offered suggestions. on the one hand. read again subchapter 5. find two main advantages of the epistolary technique.. He proves as unaware of his feelings as Pamela is.9. and that human actions may have their true motivation hidden from consciousness. 2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 131 . her sentimental response to them.4. 1. which are captured in the process of their emergence. on the other.. however. He found the epistolary narrative to be best suited for his sentimental focus. What counts. The exploration of the complexities of emotional response to pressing moral issues defines Richardson as a sentimental novelist. at the end of the unit.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel The character of Mr. Compare your answers with the ones given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. SAQ 7 Starting from Richardson’s own description of his epistolary manner (Text 5. The use of the epistolary technique afforded direct access to the character’s thoughts and feelings. What Richardson manages to convey most convincingly is the psychological truth that feeling and emotion may sometimes run counter to our rational will. excerpted from Pamela. In Pamela’s letters and diary. events are recorded with the same care for detail as in Defoe’s narratives. and his developing love. and considering also Text 5. in the Reader). There is a struggle in him between the “pride of birth” and “pride of fortune”. is the impact of these incidents and encounters on her mind and heart. Your answers should not exceed 4 lines / 40 words each. as well as the indicated fragments in the Reader.2. She has a remarkable gift for rendering an incident vividly or delineating another character.3. The spectacular change in him is his overcoming of class prejudice under the influence of feeling.

1790) 132 . and. Fielding abandons parody. At this point. including Pamela and her husband. A somber discovery marks the climax of confusion: it appears that Joseph and Fanny are brother and sister. started as a parody. The careful narrative architecture of his novels. and the long central section of the novel – its picaresque part – describes Joseph’s adventures on the road. The multitude of incidents during their journey acquaints the reader with the most diverse aspects of English countryside life and with an impressive variety of human types.3. His acknowledged literary models were Swift.1. B_’s aunt. He is also the first novelist who displayed a remarkable sense of form.3. Fielding considered the Puritan morality preached by Rhichardson’s Pamela as narrow and ungenerous. Parodic accents are revived: Pamela is not Richardson’s humble. but a snobbish. The result was the first comic novel of manners in England. Mr. The hero’s companions are Parson Abraham Adams and Fanny Goodwill. Fielding uses the technique of reversal as a parodic device. performed by means of comic satiric devices. Lady Booby’s estate in Somersetshire is the scene for the novel’s last series of adventures. whose servant he was. Abraham Adams. Fielding’s combination of realism and comedy inaugurated a lasting tradition of realistic fiction as an instrument of criticism of manners. His rejection of both leads to his dismissal. relationships and actions. but also by the maid. in London. who opposes her brother’s marriage to a simple country-girl. More unexpected Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Lady Booby and Joseph Andrews (engraving by James Heath. so that he sets out for home. above all. Slipslop. He is the object of seduction of “Lady Booby*. Henry Fielding and the novel of manners Fielding is the creator of the novels of manners. Henry Fielding (1707-1754) 5. and the first comprehensive literary picture of the manners and mentalities of the age. All important characters meet here. Omniscient narration afforded a comic vision of life. they mirror a wide range of human types. controlling the narrative and imposing his own values explicitly. priggish* upstart. Fielding was a master of parody. Joseph’s sweetheart. the author asserts himself. as well as their inclusiveness. Treating seriously of male virtue results in comic effect. required a narrator who should be no longer a character. His works are panoramic reflections of the age.” Mr. Mr.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. and he thought to propose his own version of morality. Comedy and parody in Joseph Andrews The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of His Friend. Booby. burlesque and comic satire. Through the omniscient* narrator. to his native village. modest and gentle creature. author of Don Quixote” (1742). Joseph Andrews is presented as Pamela’s brother. Pope. but a voice external to the story. “written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes*. Cervantes. emulating his sister in the exemplarity of his virtue. irony. which is doubled by the fact that Joseph is pursued not only by the mistress. Mrs.

Both comedy and comic romance introduce characters of low social rank and inferior manners. SAQ 8 In the Preface to Joseph Andrews. to be both serious and ironic about their conventions. alluding thus to the older genre. T F 7. whom they had met during their journey. which turns out to be gentle*. very carefully and identify which of the statements below are true and which are false. T F 5. T F 3. Affectation arising from hypocrisy is more efficiently comic. Natural imperfections are a source of the Ridiculous for the comic writer. T F 2. at the end of the unit. The novel as comic romance Like his invoked literary master. Wilson. like the motif of love fulfilled against all obstacles. carefully. indeed “in imitation of the manner of Cervantes.3. while Fanny and Pamela are revealed to be sisters. which closes the plot.5. If you should fail to identify the sentences correctly as true or false. The burlesque in writing and the caricatura in painting presuppose distortion and exaggeration. for true or false) for each of them. This removes all obstacles in the way of Joseph and Fanny’s marriage. or the pattern of the adventurous journey.2. the spectacular reversal of Joseph’s status.” Fielding himself speaks of his work as a comic romance. Fielding gives his definition of a comic romance and discusses the nature and the source of the comic (“the Ridiculous”). The comic writer gives pleasure by strictly imitating nature. Affectation arising from vanity presupposes the concealment of vice under an appearance of virtue. in the spirit of comedy. is an ingredient of romantic plots. 1. Read Text 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel disclosures bring about the final clarification and the great reversal of the plot: Joseph turns out to be the son of a gentleman. For instance. T F 6. but rooting his action in contemporaneity and the ordinary. Fielding likes to play with genres. 5. T F Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Fielding resorts to the burlesque both in the creation of his characters and in diction. The action of a comic romance is more extended and comprehensive than that of a comedy. Circle the appropriate letter (T or F. Fielding exploits such motifs in a comic or burlesque key. Cervantes. Mr. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 133 . read the text once more. T F 4. T F 8.

fulfilling thus the novel’s double aim of entertaining and instructing. not an individual. hypocrisy and intolerance he is confronted with. masters. Fielding’s conception of character in Joseph Andrews The way in which Fielding conceives his characters in his novels is of great importance for his didactic purpose. etc. in various nuances of behaviour and in its moral diversity. in spite of the many instances of greed. his virtues always outshine his occasional foolishness. Fielding involves him in a multitude of comic situations. one of the most successfully accomplished quixotic* characters. but a species” (Joseph Andrews). but good deeds and charity. Joseph emerges as morally mature. By means of techniques of contrast. and the reader is invited to judge all the other characters against the moral standard that he embodies. quickly assimilating his mentor’s lesson and convinced that true Christianity means. cruelty. both honest and hypocrite priests. In order to make the extraordinary variety of human types easier to deal with. but manners. which often create comic effects. Parson Adams as a quixotic character 5. Adams’s unsuspecting nature often gets him in trouble. but they placed their main interest in the individual. Fielding resorts to the principle of contrast in characterisation. as for Richardson. In the beginning. At the same time. Along the novel. but also moral instruction. because “beauty and excellence” are always best demonstrated by their reverse. Fielding’s fiction displays an immense gallery of characters.3. For the author. lawyers. Virtue and vice are not the “privilege” of a certain class or profession. Fielding makes a synthesis between the comic and the morally serious. the essence of Christian morality is not prudence. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Character as type The principle of contrast in characterisation 134 . He represents what Fielding considers the highest Christian value: goodness. in Fielding. doctors. Like his literary ancestor. there are both good and bad innkeepers. etc. active goodness. Joseph appears to follow his sister in his restriction of virtue to the question of chastity. Parson Adams’s character remains the moral center of the novel. profession and temperament is represented in his novels. His fund of Christian idealism is inexhaustible. above all.3. Fielding’s panoramic approach led him to find uniform patterns in human behaviour. In other words. The character of Parson Adams The influence of Cervantes is clear in Fielding’s delineation of Parson* Adams. he describes “not men. Every social class. which must give substance to faith. In the combination of foolishness and idealism that characterises the parson. Fielding offers aesthetic delight. often making him appear ridiculous. the parson combines innocence and simplicity with dignity and learning.4. and he never seems to learn from disappointing experiences. Defoe and Richardson were also concerned with the relation individual-society.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.3. both loyal and treacherous servants or friends. The presence of Parson Adams is essential for the evolution of the main character. as he himself says.

incorporated in the substance of his works.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5.2. SAQ 9 Mention at least three features of Fielding’s art of the novel which distinguish him from Defoe and Richardson. in the superior corrective efficiency of comedy and its devices.3.4. through its moral and temperamental types. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs..” His exploration of the diversity of Human Nature. 1. defining it in relation with the respectable genres of the epic and drama. 5. If they should differ substantially. Fielding’s Augustanism* Of all 18th century novelists. His narrative style is eminently Augustan: articulate and refined. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 135 . He had a solid classical education and a strong sense of literary tradition. Explain them. he had the exceptional gift of individualizing his characters through speech.. of evoking his characters’ social position and moral nature through their language.2. provide the first theory of the novel. He is a moralist. 2. preoccupied with the reformation of manners. at the end of the unit. and he tried to give full legitimacy to the novel.5. reveals his Augustan view of the writer’s province. and he believes.3. like many Augustan writers. combining elegant seriousness with wit and irony. At the same time. His commentaries and reflections on his own art. of no more than 3 lines / 30 words each. 5.4. unaffected. Fielding is the most “Augustan. drawing short comparisons.3. 3.. read again subchapters 5. Such reflections show his Neoclassic emphasis on discipline and craftsmanship as essential for successful creation.. and 5.2.8. 5.

4.” when a window sash fell over him owing to the maid’s carelessness.4. who has read “the oddest books in the universe” and consequently has “the oddest way of thinking.e. Eccentric characters in Tristram Shandy Tristram’s family is a collection of “originals. The ultimate question that Sterne raises in his novel is the nature of fictional representation. christened Tristram (a name which evokes the French word “triste”) instead of Trismegistus* as his father had intended. He digresses continually. Much more of the narrative is dedicated to the unforgettable figures of his father. moulds reality into a literary pattern. that his father decided to write a “system of education” (Tristrapaedia).1. 136 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Toby and the latter’s devoted servant. which isolates each of them in his mental universe. Tristram Shandy: an unconventional autobiographical novel The title of the novel raises in the reader the expectation of an autobiographical narrative. However. Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) 5. This makes his novel a work of metafiction*. Tristram suffered a new misfortune: an accidental “circumcision. and his long. is an erudite philosopher. other interesting things to relate. that. 5. We learn few things about his life: that his nose was crushed at birth by the doctor’s forceps. we are drawn into an extremely irregular. at the age of five. the priest who baptised Tristram. unpredictable narrative. With Sterne. Tristram. In spite of his promises.” individuals dominated by some private obsession. His Tristram Shandy has been seen as an anti-novel. of those procedures by which an author “transcribes“ life. His father. the narrator.4. that he was.” He is fond of building strange theories and hypotheses about the smallest things. that parody was a factor of innovation in the development of the novel as a literary genre. a sceptical examination of the conventions of realistic fiction. the testing of the possibilities and limits of fiction took the novel into a radical direction. as well as of Parson Yorick. the history of a private life. does not manage to give a shape to his story. that his brother Bobby died suddenly. These few tragi-comic episodes from Tristram’s early life make him a “small HERO. Walter. He tells us about his birth only in Volume III. he seems to have. instead of a linear narration of a life's story and the rational coherence of an autobiographical retrospective account.” in every sense. at every point. in Joseph Andrews. which progressed at a slower pace than the growth of his son. corporal Trim. the relation between life and literature. by accident. Walter Shandy.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. Laurence Sterne and the “anti-novel” Sterne’s only novel was published in instalments: its nine volumes appeared between 1760 and 1768. i. Fielding had demonstrated.2. of his uncle. pedantic discourses are completely incomprehensible to those around him.

They cannot share their thoughts. There are many eccentric characters in 18th century fiction. pitiful creature. doomed to pass from sorrow to sorrow. The “nonsensical. However. Its approach to the frustrations of life is called by Tristram “true Shandeism. during the War of the Spanish Succession*. gathering “almost as many books on military frontispiece to vol. to preserve good humour in the middle of trouble.1 architecture as Don Quixote was found to have of chivalry. and this is made obvious in their endless conversations recorded in the novel. good-humoured. His narrative emphasises a tragi-comic vision of life. modesty and. absorbed in this activity. The narrator sees laughter as the ultimate defense of the sensitive soul against life’s miseries and limitations. amiability. and it is either dealt with sentimentally or revealed in its comic absurdity. were being fought on the continent. moral or psychological) that interests Sterne. but the uniqueness of each individual mind. a quixotic figure forming an eccentric couple with corporal Trim. but they can enter a dialogue of the hearts.” Toby Shandy is Sterne’s best accomplished sentimental character – the narrator continually praises his uncle’s good nature. generosity. Tristram Shandy displays a unique combination of sentimentalism and comedy. gentleness.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Among his most eccentric theories. therefore. which becomes almost a parody of human individuality. where compassion and empathy bridge the gap created by their singularity. Sterne places emphasis on the sentimental nature of his heroes as an aspect of their “moral character. It is not type (social. and discharged from the army.3. as comic eccentricity. Shandean* book” that Tristram is trying to write is meant to do good to the reader’s both heart and head.” defined as the capacity to mock at the blows of fate. “My uncle Toby” is the most memorable character in the book. there are his “system of noses” – his conviction that the quality of a person’s nose determines his character – and the hypothesis concerning Christian names.” forgetting (1760) everything in pursuit of his obsession. Sentimentalism and tragi-comic vision The characters’ obsessions and idiosyncrasies are an intellectual barrier in their communication. the early accidents in his son’s life cause him great distress. representing there the main battles as they William Hogarth. with man as a vulnerable. Understandably. Characterisation by hobby-horse is a negation of conventional means of realistic character delineation. 5. He transforms his bowling green into a miniature military field. which were expected to influence a man’s conduct. above all.4. character and destiny. Tristram calls such obsessions hobby-horses. but in Sterne’s novel all characters are eccentrics. which influences all his thoughts and actions. uniqueness is achieved in extreme. Suffering is a permanence in Tristram’s world. On the other hand. ironic terms. He becomes completely Tristram Shandy. uncle Toby continues to live the reality of war through a substitute. to 137 The Shandean view of life Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Wounded in Flanders. the members of the Shandy family reach mutual understanding on the affective level.

I. Read this short chapter (Text 5. in the Glossary to Unit 2. To remember the features of the tragic hero. restricting it to 12 lines / 120 words. read again subchapter 5. at the end of the unit. 138 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4.. which enables man to keep a healthy spirit and to get around the evils of life by joking about them. as well as the fragment from the Reader. V. Ch. It is a combination of wisdom and mirth*.6. If the difference is considerable. SAQ 10 In Vol. Write the answer in the space left below. in the Reader) attentively and explain why Tristram’s selfdescription as a “small HERO” suggests a tragi-comic vision of life. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Sterne introduces the theme of Fortune – a theme which he will develop with a characteristic mixture of sentimental pathos and comic wit.3. see again the fall of princes.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel take a lightly ironic distance from suffering.

and he takes great delight in digressions. points of suspension. which he calls “the sunshine of reading. It is. Tristram is earnestly trying to tell the story of his life and his opinions as accurately as possible. 5. there are numberless digressions and interpolated stories.” The confused chronology and the digressive excesses frustrate also our expectation of a plot. the “imperfections of words. Digressive narrative Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 139 . For example. The narrator explicitly refuses to keep the story straight. He delights in minute descriptions of postures and small gestures. Tristram constantly oscillates between the comic despair at his incapacity to master his narrative and the delight he takes in complete narrative freedom. frustrates our expectation of chronological linearity commonly associated with an autobiographical account. its unpredictable returns to various moments in the past. even a black sheet introduced at the death of Yorick.4.4. so different from Fielding’s tight. coherent plots. Tristram has the consciousness of his tragi-comic predicament. The same “Shandean” view applies to writing: Tristram counteracts the frustrations of the author who aims at perfect communication by putting on the mask of the literary jester* and mocking at the conventions of the genre. there are several dedications scattered through the book. Sterne’s rambling narrative. with its multitude of dashes. the restriction of the hero’s “life” to a few episodes breaks the convention of autobiographical focus. makes the reader aware of them. with its blank pages for the reader to fill in. drawings and graphs. the book is a comic oddity. watched as if by a slow motion camera. by exploiting them in a parodic way. and to involve the reader both imaginatively and sentimentally. He thus exaggerates parodically the realistic pursuit of accuracy and immediacy. The defamiliarisation of realistic conventions By taking extreme freedoms with narrative and compositional conventions. Faced with the problems of accurate representation through words. asterisks. but also as an author. to a certain view of writing. The structure of the book is equally odd.5. for instance. but also to how it is told. Tristram resorts to other means of communication. only in the middle of Volume III that we find the author’s Preface. i. This impression is increased by Tristram’s effort to be exhaustive in his presentation. The “Shandean” view of writing This ambivalent view of life corresponds. Sterne defamiliarises them. The difficulty he experiences as a writer is due to the limits of language. and gives the impression of stagnation. by drawing his attention not only to what is told. The zigzagging narrative. marking a moment of affectionate recollection. Typographically.e.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. in Sterne’s novel. etc. does not seem to move towards any climax.” Not only as a man.4.

Sterne’s literary treatment of the notion of duration makes him a precursor of 20th century modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf.e. the narrated time and the time of reading.4.e. metafiction is fiction about fiction. Another prominent theme with a metafictional relevance is that The theme of time of time and its relation with the imagination. 140 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the permanent inquiry into what a novel can do and cannot do. Tristram draws the narrative “lines. the process of its own writing. on the author’s vision of life. experimental character affords the reader a glimpse into the novelist’s dilemmas and arsenal of choices. half-comically – the distinction between subjective and objective time. which is connected. ultimately. Basically. however. on the possibilities of fiction to render in an intelligible pattern the elusive. of life as pure chance. with the narrator’s desperate effort to be allinclusive and his incapacity of managing his narrative. In volume VI. The meaning of metafiction depends. works which call attention to their own devices. in the first four volumes. Tristram Shandy as metafiction The constant reference to the devices and conventions operating in fiction. at the structural level. makes Tristram Shandy a work of metafiction. random course of the narrative has a correspondent in the theme of Fortune. making the reader aware that “literary time” is arbitrary and conventional. Tristram Shandy questions the mimetic illusion that realistic fiction endeavours to create. The main subject of Sterne’s novel is. The randomness of the narrative is a mirror of the narrator’s sense of his own life as tragi-comically governed by accident. formless reality. i. As metafiction. they may be related to themes the problem of fictional representation and its limits. Tristram Shandy may be called the first philosophical novel in English. also concerned with the way in which consciousness refracts external reality. There are themes in Sterne’s Metafictional novel which may be called “metafictional”. the theme of time corresponds to the narrator’s concern with the distinction between the time of writing. halfsceptical meditation on the condition of literature and its relation with reality. Sterne’s particular approach to narrative correponds to a certain vision of human experience. Its extravagant. into the “laboratory” of his literary consciousness. The unpredictable. i. Tristram constantly draws attention to the way in which he manipulates fictional time. Metafictionally. as it explores – halfseriously.” with their digressions.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel 5. It is a half-amused.6. One such theme in Tristram Shandy is that of human communication – or rather incommunication –.

Compare your answers with those provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. In this way. 2. go again through subchapters 5. 1. Write them in the spaces indicated below.4. the author reveals to the reader one aspect of his conception of writing. If they differ significantly.5. Instead of continuing the story. Read the text and find three reasons for Tristram’s praise of digressions. The fragment is practically about the writing of the novel. which he discusses in the very text of the work. 3. Henry William Bunbury: Uncle Toby and Trim reviving a scene of war on the bowling green (1773) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 141 .4. the narrator stops and considers his eccentric way of telling it.6. and 5.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel SAQ 11 Text 5.. using no more than 3 lines / 30 words for each of them.7. in the Reader illustrates the metafictional dimension of Sterne’s novel. at the end of the unit. and read the fragment attentively once more.

readers along the ages have been able to find a wealth of symbolic meanings and a story of archetypal significance. this genre has enjoyed unrivalled popularity. which has dealt with four major novelists of this age: Daniel Defoe. to the palpable reality of common objects and actions. This is reflected in the wide diversity of directions in which the novel developed in the 18th century. Since its settlement on the literary scene. Samuel Richardson.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Summary The birth of the novel is a literary phenomenon that must be seen as part of the process of modernisation defining the Age of the Enlightenment in England. tests the possibilities and limitations of the newly-born literary genre in an experimental. and Laurence Sterne. The absence of norms and models made it an exceptionally flexible and inclusive form. selected as an illustration of the most characteristic features of his art. on the other hand. in his novels of manners. Defoe illustrates best the new narrative realism that emerged in fiction. and with Robinson Crusoe the middle class hero is imposed on the literary scene. self-conscious novel that makes him highly modern. Fielding. in a work so committed to the matterof-fact. Key words • • • • • • • • • • • realism romance character to divert and instruct parody comic novel of manners sentimental novel narrative technique metafiction convention 142 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Their works illustrate various aspects and tendencies in the evolution of the genre. However. Lastly. Sterne. At the beginning of the 18th century. who shares with Fielding the attraction to comedy and parody. Henry Fielding. but his interest in the psychological complexity of the individual is completed by a remarkable sensitivity to social aspects. Richardson takes the novel in the direction of the minute analysis of emotion and feeling. You have formed an idea of this diversity from the chapters of this unit. looks for the permanences in human nature and investigates the border area in which the individual’s aspirations and pursuits are submitted to the pressure of social demand. We have only concentrated on one novel for each writer. the novel was a minor form. completely ignored by Augustan poetics.

The letter (epistle) as a literary species was widely used in the 18th century. Bildungsroman: German term. picaresque: the origin of English picaresque novels is in the Spanish picaresque fiction of the 16th century. gaiety. played like a piano. rogue) – belongs. literally: novel of formation. persecuted by her stepmother and ugly stepsisters. hobby horse: a favourite topic or an obsessive. mimetic: the adjective derived from mimesis (Greek: imitation). happiness. metafiction: literally. consisting of a stick with a figure of a horse’s head at one end.3 and the Glossary in Unit 3. or “narcissistic” – i. Concretely. booby: silly or stupid person. in which the poor heroine. the way of telling the story through a character’s letters or through an exchange of letters. to the lower ranks of society. epistolary manner: in a novel. felix culpa: see subchapter 3. see again the Glossary in Unit 1). burlesque: see the Glossary in Unit 1. a hobbyhorse is a toy. It was Aristotle who articulated this theory. exact representation of life. omniscient: describes the perspective of a narrator who appears to know all about the characters and their action. a Fool. Cinderella is the prototype of the obscure and neglected young person. ends up by marrying Prince Charming. minuteness: exactness in the rendering of small detail.e. attitude and subject are deliberately distorted so as to make them appear ridiculous. harpsichord: an old musical instrument. and he seeks social integration. characteristically. a term associated with the aesthetic view according to which the work of art is an imitation – a representation – of reality. but producing a different sound. parson: an Anglican priest in charge of a local church. parody: the satirical imitation of a serious work. tone. whose style. in which its form becomes explicitly its subject. fixed idea. “beyond fiction”. mirth: laughter. who achieves success owing to beauty and virtue. gentle: of good breeding. which became popular in England through translation and imitation. He is forced to 143 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . a term designating the contemporary mode of fiction – postmodern fiction – which is essentially self-reflexive.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Glossary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Augustanism: the features of style and the aesthetic views of a writer belonging to the Augustan Age (for the latter. lifelikeness: closeness to life. or education. fun. Cinderella: an old fairy story. literacy: the ability to read and write. belonging to a high social class (as in gentleman). jester: a professional clown employed by a king or nobleman.e. which dominated Western aesthetics until the end of the 18th century. The hero – the picaro (i.

squire) appear as madness in a world whose reality is obscured to him by the idealism of the old romances. Gallery of personalities • Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra): Spanish writer (1547-1616). Romantic: see Romanticism in the Glossary in Unit 1. which stands in an ironic contrast with the successive triumphs of the noble hero of romance). author of Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605. like a knight-errant of former times. The high aspirations of this generous. having often to go through the experience of humiliation and frustration. Don Quixote starts.e. Britain joined Austria. Prussia and the Netherlands against France. on a quest that is both admirable and ridiculous. honest and brave hidalgo (i. Spain and Bavaria in this war fought over the disputed succession to the Spanish throne. Puritan: see the Glossary in Unit 1. Shandean: the adjective that Tristram derives from his family name. • 144 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . “quixotic” indicates an unrealistically optimistic and impractically idealistic approach to life. Trismegistus: Hermes Trismegistos (thrice-greatest) is the Greek name given to the Egyptian god Thoth as supposed author of various works of mysticism and magic. Don Quixote is an implicit debate on the relation between fiction and reality. quixotic: the word describes a character moulded after Cervantes’s Don Quixote. Stimulated by the numberless stories of romantic heroism that he has read. priggish: describes a person who is strict about rules and correct behaviour and thinks him/herself morally superior to others. War of the Spanish Succession: 1702-1713. 1615).The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel • • • • • • find his way in a hostile world by means of his resourcefulness and ingenuity. the famous satirical romance in which the hero’s sense of reality is altered by his obsession with the romantic chivalric ideal.

and Gulliver’s new humiliation will make him partial in the subsequent description of the king’s rule. In order to win the good graces of the king. • the coherence. who had just pronounced a severe judgement on his civilisation. 2 will count as 20% in your final assessment.1. Text 5. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 145 . You might find it helpful to revise subchapters 5. and 5. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 30%. Remember that. What is the double symbolic significance of Robinson’s island. 1. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 50%.4. Horrified.4. Limit your answer to 25 lines / 250 words. to revise the preceding unit. therefore. • the features that make the kingdom of Brobdingnag a utopia of reasonable government. 3. Limit your answer to 35 lines/350 words. Read the fragment carefully and analyse: • the ironic-satirical treatment of Gulliver himself. Text 4.. as well as the presentation of the novel you choose to discuss. 2..2. with special attention to subchapter 4. clarity. as illustrated by this fragment. your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%). in grading your paper. in the Reader presents an incident at the court of Brobdingnag. and to the illustration of those values and attitudes in a particular novel. Mention at least four aspects in support of this idea. SAA no. and its contrast with European civilisation as Gulliver presents it.1. Gulliver offers him the secret of the recipe for gunpowder. the king rejects this tribute. Pay special attention to the instructions for each task. revealing candidly to him the “benefits” of this invention. in Book II of Gulliver’s Travels. 2 This assignment includes tasks concerning both Unit 4 and Unit 5. You may refer both to the general circumstances of the novel’s emergence and its concerns. which presents Swift as a master of allegorical satire. in the context of the novel’s pattern of Puritan autobiography? Your answer should be no longer than 10 lines /100 words.1.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Send-away assignment no. You will have. The novel as a literary genre both reflects and helps consolidate values and attitudes which define the Age of the Enlightenment. The weight of this task in the assessment of this SAA is 20%. in the Reader represents a fragment from Robinson Crusoe in which the motif of the island is particularly prominent.

and by the form of autobiographical record. sharp sense of observation. all souls are equal. 6. but this is a way of accomplishing more efficiently his honest intention of conveying a moral message. 2. … novels focused on the ordinary and the familiar aspects of life. but she denies any human being the right to control her moral 146 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural the novel of adventure the sentimental novel the picaresque novel the Bildungsroman the novel of manners the comic novel . SAQ 2 1. SAQ 3 Defoe’s own phrase refers to the purpose of his novels: to entertain and to instruct. He delights the reader with an extraordinary adventure and a story of success. The didactic mission of the novel in the 18th century consisted in … offering the middle class readers models of moral and ethical conduct and of social success. the capacity for learning from mistakes. which is given an air of authenticity by the meticulous. The rise of the middle classes … coincides with the emergence of the novel as a literary genre. pragmatism. rationality. By contrast with the escapist spirit of romances. plainness. Women were … a consistent part of the novel’s reading public. resilience. optimism. 4. vividness. 4. inventiveness. 3. SAQ 4 Tenacity. on contemporary social reality and on the experience of the common individual. In the social order. The novel’s interest in the tensions between the public and the private reflected … the attempt to reconcile the growing spirit of individualism with the aspiration to social harmony. realistic account. 2. patience. industriousness. she may be deprived of the privilege of class and fortune. minuteness SAQ 6 Pamela’s assertion points to her conviction that the right to defend the moral integrity of one’s self is independent of social status.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. immediacy. SAQ 5 factuality. concreteness. She will accept humbly her social inferiority. He thus “cheats” the reader with the illusion of truth. 3. 5. and also authors of novels. but she lives with the deep conviction that in the spiritual order of a Christian world. 5.

3.” but in “pitiful misadventures. Fielding finds the omniscient point of view more suitable to his intentions. SAQ 7 1. It creates a greater sense of suspense and anticipation. which makes her sensitive to any form of power abuse. Fielding displays the elegance and refinement of the Augustan ideal of style. living and the act of writing overlap each other. 3F. 7.T. It prevents the writing from ending – it allows the writer to go on indefinitely. 3. as well as a paradoxical combination of social conformity and rebelliousness. you should think first of the features of a tragic hero. and this impression of unmediaded communication strengthens his belief in the character’s sincerity. 2.e unfavourable] accidents” is in comic contrast with the ideas of tragic disaster and the fall of the great.T. SAQ 10 In formulating your answer. The reader is made witness to the most private thoughts of the character. who write in the first person. wealth and power. He is always a prominent figure. 2. 6.F SAQ 9 1. The narrative manner: unlike Defoe and Richardson. it enables the author to give greater psychological complexity to the characters. 8. 2. 4. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 147 . Digressions keep the reader’s curiosity awake. 3.T. but in the way in which the individual embodies general traits of human nature. 2. his gifts and virtues set him above common people. The conception of character: he is interested not in the uniqueness of individuals. they create a sort of suspense. 5. forbidding the reading “appetite” to fail and bringing in variety.T. This technique may thus give a dramatic quality to the narrative. SAQ 11 1. This is not Tristram’s case.” The image of the “ungracious Duchess” – Fortune – pelting him with a series of “cross [i. His style: while the style of Defoe and Richardson is closer to the plainness of common speech. that is. SAQ 8 1. It allows a more profound insight into the character’s mind. The use of digressions is meant to show Tristram’s narrative skill and constitutes a mark of his originality. he is concerned with human types.F.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel will. Her statement reflects the strength of her sense of individual worth.T. In this way. since the letters usually record moments of crisis in the character’s experience. enjoying title. He is a “small HERO” because the misfortunes of his life do not consist in some “great or signal evil.

vol. Daiches.The Age of the Enlightenment: the rise of the novel Further reading 1. 234-238) 148 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . A Critical History of English Literature. 53-59. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Allen. Macsiniuc. 116127. 2003 (pp. 731-736) 3. 1991 (pp. Walter. Cornelia. 179-195.3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). 1969 (pp. 37-42. 43-46. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. Penguin Books Limited. The English Eighteenth Century: The Novel in Its Beginnings. David. The English Novel. 76-80) 2. 712-718. 598-602. 701-704. 143-163. 217-231.

3 Solutions and suggestions for SAQs Further reading 150 150 150 151 151 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 158 159 161 161 162 163 166 166 167 168 170 171 171 173 173 174 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 149 . The Seasons William Cowper.3. Unit objectives English pre-Romantic poetry Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The poetry of melancholy meditation The interest in early poetry The pre-Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The rural universe in 18thcentury poetry The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith Character sketch in The Deserted Village The realistic approach: George Crabbe Robert Burns and the popular tradition Pre-Romantic nature poetry James Thomson.2. 6. the Romantic visionary The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Knowledge in the world of Experience The double vision in Blake’s Songs Summary Key words Glossary Gallery of personalities SAA No.1.3.4. 6.4. 6. 6. 6.1. 6.3.4. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. pre-Romantic poetry UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY Unit Outline 6 6.3. 6. 6.2.4. The Task William Blake – the visionary artist Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake.

This new poetic trend ran counter to the optimistic confidence of the Age of Reason. which became the vehicle for the expression of private feeling and assumed a personal voice. From the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling 150 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .g. discipline. harmony. led to an increasing attention to emotional response. and Fielding). the century of the Enlightenment was not without paradoxes and contradictions. and for night as a setting. Samuel Richardson) is one manifestation of this tendency. as well as the preoccupation of 18th century analytic thought with the workings of the human mind. The concern with personal. The sentimental novel* (e. One trend in the 18th century poetry of meditation was the preference for the expression of melancholy and dark thoughts. For instance. with its emphasis on order. which in turn favoured the emergence of the cult of Feeling. elegance and decorum*. was eminently the Age of Reason. Pre-Romantic tendencies in 18th century poetry The eighteenth century.1. Addison. Neoclassicism*. regarded art as the product of civilisation. and cultivated its public relevance. Literature was called to deal with matters of public interest. The interest in individual psychology. and the sensibility that it cultivated favoured the rise of the Gothic novel. the cult of Reason favoured an attitude of humanitarianism and social benevolence. The optimism and pragmatism of a rational age which believed in progress were reflected in literature as well.English pre-Romantic poetry By the end of this unit you should be able to: ♦ explain the shift in literary taste that occurred in the latter half of the 18th century ♦ define the main interests and tendencies in pre-Romantic poetry ♦ point out elements of continuity and discontinuity between pre-Romantic poetry and Augustan literature ♦ compare the representation of the rural universe in the works of 18th century poets ♦ describe the pre-Romantic approach to the theme of nature ♦ specify pre-Romantic and Romantic features of William Blake’s work ♦ analyse Blake’s notions of Innocence and Experience in the context of particular poems ♦ describe the contrasting visions in poems by Blake Unit objectives 6. subjective experience is displayed not only in fiction. whose literary-artistic expression was the Neoclassical doctrine. the century of the Enlightenment*. Like any modern age. to bring the significant aspects of human life and behaviour into the light of public attention. Swift. but also in a new kind of meditative poetry. as is proved by the works of the great Augustan writers (Steele. however. Pope.

known as the Graveyard School of poetry. but its influence on the birth of Romanticism* in England and on the Continent was huge.1. supposed to have lived in the 3rd century A. Night Thoughts (1742-1745). The fascination with the Middle Ages is another feature which illustrated the rise of the Romantic sensibility. The poetry of melancholy meditation Edward Young is one of the most important representatives of this new kind of reflective poetry. imitating partly the cadence of biblical verses and of Milton’s blank verse. which leads the poet to a sad meditation on “the short and simple annals* of the poor” – the joys and sorrows of the country-folk. Thomas Percy published a collection of mediaeval ballads. This new interest was reflected in the curiosity about “primitive* poetry” – biblical poetry. which contrasts with the Augustan focus on contemporary civilisation. It begins with the contemplation of the landscape. death and immortality.1. and folk literature in general. with tombstones lit by the pale moon – contributed to the birth of the taste for Gothic. The interest in early poetry Another tendency which announced a change in literary sensibility was a new sense of the past. Edward Young (1683-1765) 6. and the dominant tone is that of nostalgia and regret.2.1. He also claimed that their author was the (painted by Nicolai Abildgaard. Celtic* and Norse* legend and mythology. whose life had passed in complete anonymity. and misty. whose basic motifs were the shortness and sorrows of life and the inexorable passage of time. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 151 .English pre-Romantic poetry 6. by Thomas Gray (1716-1771). It is in this tradition that one of the most popular poems in English must be placed: Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. and it exerted an immense influence both in England and on the Continent. The most spectacular manifestation of this interest is the volume Poems of Ossian. The perfect form of Gray’s poem shows his classical training. but its subject and mood are preRomantic. legendary Irish bard and hero Ossian. In 1765.D. 1782) What Macpherson presented as a great primitive Celtic epic turned out to be entirely his own imaginary creation. The lamentations of the blind bard evoke an ancient world of heroic virtue. published in 1765 by James Macpherson (17361796). is the most outstanding expression of this new spirit in poetry. Macpherson claimed to have translated these poems from “the Gaelic or Erse* language. Its gloomy setting – the churchyard.” and to have collected them in the Ossian Highlands of Scotland*. It consisted in long blank verse* meditations on such things as earthly vanity. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. His long poem in nine books. Macpherson’s “Ossianic poems” are pieces of highly rhetorical poetic prose. sublime landscapes. wild. Young and other poets formed a distinct trend in the mideighteenth century. which awakened a steady interest in older poetic styles.

published a volume of poems presented as belonging to the mediaeval poet-monk Thomas Rowley. who claimed to have translated an ancient Celtic epic poem by the legendary Ossian.English pre-Romantic poetry In 1770. … Chatterton is also the author of a literary “fraud. regarding him as a martyr. Like James Macpherson. 1. young Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770). Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. c. reflected… 4. When his literary fraud was exposed. read again the previous subchapters. imagination. d. of Thomas Percy’s collection of ballads. with its gloomy atmosphere. These poems displayed lyric grace and the promise of talent.” presenting his own poems as authentic mediaeval verse. Write the correct sequel in the space provided for each sentence. at the end of the unit. … the pre-Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and popular poetry. … a. is a pre-Romantic reaction against Neoclassic literary decorum. SAQ 1 Read the partial statements below and match them. … for the pre-Romantic poetry of melancholy meditation. The publication. the victim of an (1856) insensitive and hostile world. Chatterton committed suicide. The churchyard was a favourite setting … 2. The melancholy poetry of the Graveyard School. If you have failed to make the right match for every sentence. … as well as Gothic fiction. Check your answers by looking in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. 152 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but they proved to be (like the Ossianic poems) entirely the product of Chatterton’s inflamed Death of Chatterton. … 3. The coming generation of Romantic poets turned by Henry Wallis him into a legend. aspiring to poetic fame. with its taste for the macabre and the supernatural. b. The completed sentences will describe aspects of the emergence of a pre-Romantic current in 18th century poetry. in 1765.

and indeed the tendency along the century was to abandon it for poetic forms that allowed more freedom. The return to blank verse 6. Samuel Taylor Coleridge). towards the highest achievement of man’s Reason: civilisation itself.3. In the latter part of the century.g. the interest in the local and national past. we shall look more closely at two important pre-Romantic aspects of 18 th century poetry: the development of a sentimental interest in rural life. Elements of a pre-Romantic sensibility can be found all along the century. William Blake would call the heroic couplet* the “great cage” of Augustan poetry. busy life of the city with moral confusion. A return to blank verse – for which Shakespeare and Milton were the great models – allowed greater flexibility of expression. There was a growing suspicion that civilisation may have a corrupting effect on man’s innate goodness. The great novelists (e. valued for their simplicity and directness by the first Romantics (William Wordsworth. such as the song and the ballad. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 153 . the state of nature began to be idealised. but also literary forms.Romantic sensibility and the interest in new poetic forms The transition from the Augustan to the Romantic age was slow and long. In the following subchapters. and the 18 th century abounded in optimistic utopias about an idyllic. The sentimental opposition between town and country was to become a convention in 18 th century literature. The emphasis on sentimental response.1. characteristic of the Enlightenment. and the simplicity of country life with moral virtue. the interest in rural life and its contrast with civilisation. The rural universe in 18th century poetry The emerging Age of Sensibility oriented the critical spirit. an interest developed in popular forms of poetry. This change in taste concerned not only themes and subjects. The pre. Towards the end of the century. patriarchal society in which men could enjoy fully their natural right to freedom. Under the influence of Jean Jacques Rousseau*. Henry Fielding) would often associate the turbulent.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. and the emergence of a distinct poetic attitude towards nature. sometimes within the context of Augustan conventions. the new feeling for nature – these were features indicating that literary taste was changing.2. the inspiration from folk myths and legends.

English pre-Romantic poetry

6.2.1. The sentimental approach: Oliver Goldsmith
An idyllic view of the countryside is present in the poem The Deserted Village (1770), by Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774). Goldsmith’s literary preferences were Neoclassic, but his remarkable achievement is to have combined a sentimental theme with the elegant, balanced form of the Augustan couplet. The poem is Goldsmith’s reaction to a social and economic reality: the enclosure* of land, a capitalist process which changed radically the life of the traditional village. Goldsmith sets in contrast the former happiness of Auburn (an idealised version of his native village, in Ireland) with the desolation of the present, when the land is concentrated in the hand of “one only The Deserted Village master.” He remembers the days gone by, with their “humble illustration by happiness” spent in the middle of a hard-working but cheerful and W. Lee Hankey warm-hearted community. Their life was measured then by the cycles (1900 edition) of agricultural labour, alternating with the simple “sports” (i.e. amusements) and pleasures of the moments of well-deserved leisure. Goldsmith gives an idyllic picture of a rural paradise, in which man lives in harmony with nature and enjoys “health and plenty,” “innocence and ease,” and in which toil becomes a pleasure. This sentimental image of the “loveliest village of the plain” is only a memory, and the poet constantly moves between the happy past and the sorrowful present. His evocation of the past charms of “sweet Auburn” has an elegiac tone, and he laments the disintegration of the traditional, stable rural civilisation. Goldsmith blames the decay of the former way of country life on the increasing greed of man, on the excessive concern with accumulation of wealth, and on the vice of “luxury.” His village was an idyllic microcosm, a small but organic universe sustained by temperance and virtue, but incapable to resist the pressure of the new economic tendencies.

6.2.2. Character sketch in The Deserted Village
The Deserted Village illustrates not only Goldsmith’s sharp sense of observation in the description of natural beauty and of the human scene, but also his art of character sketch. His remembrance of the old days in Auburn focuses now and then on some member of the community, whom he evokes in short, precise and vivid features. Among his notable miniature portraits is that of the village schoolmaster, whose small eccentricities are captured with affectionate humour. A memorable sentimental description is that of the village preacher. Goldsmith emphasises the decency, moderation and humility of his simple life, “remote from towns,” his complete lack of ambition and vanity, and his strong attachment to the place and community which he serves. Firm in his moral guidance and a severe judge of human “wanderings,” Goldsmith’s parson is, however, a truly charitable soul, “to all the country dear.”


Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

English pre-Romantic poetry

SAQ 2 The portrait of the preacher in The Deserted Village completes the idyllic picture of Auburn in the old days. Below, there are several features of this character. Read Text 6.1., containing a fragment from Goldsmith’s poem, and identify those lines which illustrate or suggest these features. Write these lines down in the provided spaces, after each mentioned feature. 1. moderation (1 line): 2. strong attachment to the humble community that he served (2 lines):

3. complete lack of worldly ambition or vanity ( 2 lines):

4. selflessness and sincere concern for the fate and spirit of those in pitiful circumstances (1 line): 5. hospitality to the poor (2 lines):

6. severity in his judgement of human error, but unconditional charity (1 line):

Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Goldsmith again.

6.2.3. The realistic approach: George Crabbe
Goldsmith’s idealisation of rural life received a sharply realistic reply from a poet who also continues the Augustan tradition: George Crabbe (1754-1832). His poem in rhymed couplets The Village (1783) is an attack on those poetic conventions which created the illusion of the innocence and happiness of country life. Crabbe’s medical practice afforded him a first hand observation of the rural world, and the sentimental cult of its idyllic charm had little to do with the realities that he encountered. His poem aims to paint village life “as Truth will paint it and as bards will not”. Instead of the cheerful ease, the innocent pleasures and the rewarding toil described in Goldsmith’s Deserted Village,
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural


English pre-Romantic poetry

Illustration to (1905 edition)

The Village

Crabbe presents a sordid reality. For him, the sad truth of village life is the people’s hopeless poverty, their many vices, their struggle with an unfriendly nature for the daily bread. Despised and neglected by the rich, they lead a bitter existence, whose miseries never end. Crabbe denounces the unreality and artificiality of pastoral poetry, whose Muse knows nothing of the real pains and cares of the peasants. The moralist in him could not accept to disguise their deplorable fortune “in tinsel trappings [i.e. glittering ornaments] of poetic pride.” The classical image of the happy shepherd playing his pipe in the fields is out of place in the contemporary world, only a “mechanic echo” of other literary times. To prolong this convention, painting everything in “fair colours,” means to deviate from “Truth and Nature.” Crabbe pleads for a change in the poets’ attitude towards the subject of country life, in the belief that its realistic reflection will at least awaken curiosity and sympathy in the reader. The superficial praise of an idealised, conventional world serves only the poet’s vanity. The peasant, “overcome by labour” and consumed with many cares, would not get any comfort from such praise. Crabbe’s poem is completely unromantic, removing the veil of poetic illusion from a subject that was already a conventional one. However, his realism and critical spirit did not exclude genuine compassion. His sympathetic interest in the life of humble people anticipates the radical attitude of the first great English Romantic poet, William Wordsworth.

6.2.4. Robert Burns and the popular tradition
At about the same time, the Scottish peasant-poet Robert Burns (1759-1796) was opening a path towards the Romantic revolution in poetry. Written in his native tongue, the collected poems he published in 1786 were the authentic expression of a passionate nature, whose experiences were fundamentally linked to the universe of rural life. These poems are greatly indebted to the popular tradition of poetic forms (songs, ballads, etc.) and they display either delicate sentimental lyricism or vigorous realism, spirit and humour. Their intensely personal tone and their vividness and warmth in the description of the natural scene contrasted sharply with the formal rigidity and didacticism of much late 18th century poetry. Burns’s success as a poet confirmed the early Romantic belief in the close connection between nature, spontaneity of feeling, and poetic imagination. It was Burns who provided the lyrics for the song Auld Lang Syne, whose title means “old times” or “times past”. They were partly Burns’s composition, partly his transcription, as he said, “from an old man’s singing.”


Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

English pre-Romantic poetry

SAQ 3 Text 6.2. in the Reader contains a fragment from The Village, in which Crabbe invites those who idealise the countryside in “smooth” verse to take a closer look at its realities. Read the fragment and point out that the image he offers is an antithesis to the idyllic picture of “rural ease.” How does Crabbe’s description contradict the nostalgic image in Goldsmith’s poem? You might find it helpful to read again subchapter 6.2.1. for a better perception of the contrast. Answer in the space below, in no more than 15 lines / 150 words.

Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs, at the end of the unit. If they should differ significantly, read the fragment from Crabbe again, making sure you have understood it correctly. Read again the paragraphs referring to Goldsmith in the preceding subchapter, as well.

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural


than the works of Nature. an expression of national pride.” Thomson’s ambitious poem in blank verse is remarkably inclusive: its descriptions of nature occasion indeed frequent meditations on a variety of contemporary ideas and interests. James Thomson. It contains reflections on the natural and social condition of man and on Nature as the manifestation of the divine ordering mind. political comments. The Seasons has a unity ensured by the recurrent themes and motifs related to the observable natural universe.3. Thomson practically inaugurated the trend of descriptive-meditative poetry. Britannia. With James Thomson (1700-1748) and his long poem The Seasons (1726-1730). manifest as early as the 1730s. His praise of nature and of the countryside. It appealed both to the Augustans and to the Romantics.” The Seasons marked an important moment in 18th century poetry. Samuel Johnson said. As Dr. and the moral sentiment. the splendour of summer.” Thomson confesses that he knows “of no other subject more elevating. Thomson evokes the glory and joy of reviving nature in spring. nature. James Thomson (1700-1748) 158 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the philosophical reflection. patriotic enthusiasm. but also the feeling for it. The Augustans were interested in nature only to the extent that it helped them emphasise the conquests of civilization. praise of friends. exerting a considerable influence on both of them.” inspired many other poets along the 18th century. His poem educated. In spite of its eclectic nature. the peace of autumn – bringer of “Philosophic Melancholy” –. poetic renderings of current notions of natural history. more amusing. and the apparent cruelty of winter. and that he never yet has felt what Thomson impresses. Thomson is also famous for the patriotic lyrics that he wrote for the song Rule. “The reader of The Seasons wonders that he never saw before what Thomson shows him. 6. Pre-Romantic nature poetry One of the most significant shifts in poetic sensibility was the new attitude to nature.1.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. in many generations of readers. The conventional Augustan “local” poem (or “topographical” poem*) looked at nature from the perspective of historical or classical mythological associations. becomes an object of interest in itself. as well as his glorification of “retirement in solitude” as the best state in which to “sing the works of nature. in which the descriptive detail was often used in order to create a certain mood. more ready to awake the poetical enthusiasm. not only the perception of nature. “Winter. etc. with a remarkable attention to detail and precision of notation.3. in its magnificence and diversity. The Seasons In the Preface to the fourth part of The Seasons. Each of the four parts of the poem describes seasonal aspects of nature and rural life.

religious meditations and character sketches accompany Cowper’s celebration of rural domestic happiness and communion with nature. which actually inspired Thomson).2. which the poet calls “Philosophic Melancholy” (remember Milton’s Il Penseroso*. If there should be major differences. unrhymed stanzas.3. which represents a fragment from Thomson’s The Seasons – more exactly. at the end of the unit. One of Thomson’s great admirers was William Collins (17211759). Cowper displays an Augustan concern for elegance and refinement in expression. Compare your answer with the one given in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in which a sensitive and thoughtful Christian. the poem The Task (1785) by William Cowper (1731-1800) reflects a similar attraction to the theme of nature. He was interested in the mediaeval past. from the third part. Like Thomson and Collins. The Task Much closer in time to the beginning of the Romantic Age.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 4 Read Text 6. William Collins 6.3.. Passages of moral and political commentary.” Autumnal nature favours a contemplative-meditative mood. in which he captures with precision and delicacy the crepuscular atmosphere. in a paragraph of no more than 6 lines / 60 words. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 159 . but his subjects anticipate the Romantic sensibility. with its short. living in retirement from the city. and he displayed the Augustan taste for stylistic refinement. He preferred the classical form of the ode*. “Autumn. He reaches perfection in his famous Ode to Evening (1746). The Task has actually been described as a spiritual autobiography. in popular superstitions and the supernatural. records his observations and reflections. whose work brings into harmony the various tendencies in 18th century poetry. social satire. and his feeling for Nature is that of a pre-Romantic. but his blank verse poem has a much more personal tone. more carefully. read text C again. William Cowper. How does the Philosophic Melancholy influence the poet? Answer below.

but the joy of communion with friends.” Sometimes.English pre-Romantic poetry illustration by Birket Foster. like gardening. T. and his expressions of gratitude for the spiritual comfort and superior joys that it offers anticipated the first generation of English Romantics (W. he becomes aware of the instability of this last retreat from the confusions and corruption of modern urban civilisation. Retirement to the countryside does not mean for him idle solitude – it is not isolation that he seeks in rural nature. indicate an affectionate observer. in the 18th century. in the Reader. The contemplation of nature has a healing effect on Cowper. Rural “domestic happiness” seems to him “the only bliss. domestic activities. Read this fragment and explain why Cowper finds the countryside superior to the urban world. represents one of the most memorable statements. 1856 The Task. Your answer should not exceed 10 lines / 100 words. fearing that “The town has tinged [i. and of simple. Coleridge). however.4. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. affected] the country. Read again the fragment if you answer is significantly different. 160 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . / Paradise that has survived the fall. As a poet of nature. His meticulous descriptions of countryside scenery and animal life. concerning the opposition country/town. which he opposes to the civilisation of the city. at the end of the unit. with its vices and follies. SAQ 5 Text 6. S. in which he can find shelter against depression and anxiety. of the seasonal diversity of natural aspects. the peace and quiet of village life.e. Cowper displays a remarkable eye for detail and a landscape-painter’s sense of perspective. Wordsworth. He praises the simple pleasures. extracted from Cowper’s The Task. Cowper’s love of nature is closely linked to his love of the countryside.

A heart that is insensitive to nature is a hard heart. and recognised as one of the most original creators. Blake did not publish his poems in conventional printed form. Each copy was then coloured by hand. Blake’s late fame is due. and he rejected the classical standards of style. These beliefs – in Nature as a moral teacher and as a guide for imagination – were central to the creed of the first Romantics. and this laborious process restricted the number of copies that Blake could produce. Milton. In his first great illuminated work. He was an admirer of Shakespeare. but also a gifted painter and engraver. He used a special method for engraving and printing the handwritten text. Gray. these various dimensions of his works shed light on each other. Apart from a volume of early verse. The combination of calligraphic text. The theme of childhood in this work enables Blake to explore the opposition nature . exerting influence only on a small circle of friends and admirers. widening the range of meanings. picture and decoration reminds of the painful. rendered in its pastoral simplicity. and Macpherson. minute work of mediaeval miniaturists and their illuminated* manuscripts. and displays the same humanitarian spirit as his contemporaries. He associates nature with the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 161 . He was not only a poet. he turns his attention to the rural world. and being regarded as an eccentric artist. William Blake. finding literary inspiration in the simplicity and directness of popular poetry. represents symbolically the uncorrupt order of nature. William Blake (1757-1827) 6.civilisation. Nature “nurses” the sympathy for our fellow beings. the rural setting. in the tone and rhythms of Biblical psalms and religious hymns.4. our sense of a common fate for all humanity.1. He was a relatively marginal figure during his lifetime.4. the visionary artist William Blake holds a unique place in the history of English literature. and his creative personality manifested itself in combined and complementary modes of expression. 6. Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1794). whose attitudes and concerns define him sharply as an anti-Augustan.English pre-Romantic poetry Both Thomson and Cowper see a strong connection between love of nature and a humanitarian spirit. Thomson. “unfit for human fellowship” and “dead” to “love and friendship both” (Cowper). all Blake’s major poems were composed in this way. to a large extent. It was in the latter half of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a group of poets and painters. Blake as a pre-Romantic poet Blake is often regarded as a pre-Romantic poet. In Blake. which was accompanied by drawings and decorations. The charms of nature have also an almost magic influence on human creativity and depth of thought. to the special way in which he produced his work. Like other pre-Romantic poets.

Blake. and he denounces the evils of civilisation. in which Blake creates a mythology of his own.” asserting that ”Imagination has nothing to do with Memory. for instance: “I copy Imagination. Los*. One of Blake’s mythological creatures in these poems. He insisted on the visionary and inspired quality of his writings – he asserted. is one of the most powerful assertions of Romantic creativity. or be enslaved by another man’s. He distrusted all systems of thought and institutions that restrained man’s freedom and imagination.” He is a true Romantic in his belief that poetic creation is a spontaneous. says. and he opposed to them the “Daughters of Inspiration. a prophet. They are. original and strange. Jerusalem: “I must create a system. Like the other English Romantics.2.” or “I write when commanded by spirits. a tribute to Milton.” This is Blake’s own creed. Blake was a rebel. and his whole work.” Blake worshipped Imagination as the only true way to spiritual freedom.4. by William Blake 162 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . The classical Muses were for him the “Daughters of Memory”*. Plate from the poem Jerusalem (1805-1820). in a way. / I will not reason and compare: my business is to create. 6. unpremeditated act. His rebellion against the “systems” which limit the energies of the Imagination takes a literary form in his Prophetic Books*. whom Blake (like the other Romantics) venerated. which oppresses man in the name of Reason and Progress. the Romantic visionary Blake is also frequently assimilated to the first generation of Romantic poets.English pre-Romantic poetry innocence of man in his condition before the Fall – the “childhood” of humanity –. in Blake’s last poem. owing to the intensity with which he proclaimed the primacy of the Imagination over Reason and his deep conviction that the poet was a seer. and whom he saw as the embodiment of the revolutionary impulse.

of the world seen through the eyes of the child. T F 4. As the poet emphasises in the Introduction. these are “happy songs / Every child may joy [i. The theme of childhood in Songs of Innocence In 1789 – the year of the French Revolution –. The main influence in Blake’s work were the ancient Greek and Latin poets admired by the Augustans. Blake enjoyed a great popularity during his lifetime. Spring.” They build a charming picture of the universe of childhood. T F 3.3. revise the whole subchapter. The Echoing Green. that is.e. 163 Songs of Innocence (1789) Title page of Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 6. enjoy] to hear. T F Check your answers in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. It was the year of a revolution in poetry as well. their clarity of expression and their musicality. innocent delights. or Cradle Song offer a glimpse into a world filled with simple. What chiefly impressed Blake in Milton’s Paradise Lost was its astonishing display of classical-humanistic erudition. Blake composed his first significant work: Songs of Innocence. poetic creation was the spontaneous fruit of inspiration. Laughing Song. T F 2. As a poet. T F 7. and the three statements that are false. T F 5. Circle appropriately T (true) or F (false). which echoed the rhythms of popular verse. The subchapter that follows will acquaint you with some of the poems illustrating Blake’s “double vision” in Songs of Innocence and of Experience. The Shepherd. at the end of the unit. If you have made mistaken choices. and its origin was visionary experience. which are the expression of his Romantic rebellion against all forms of constraint.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 Read the following sentences and identify the four true statements which describe features of Blake’s work.4. The extreme formal simplicity and the apparent lack of sophistication of these short poems anticipated the Romantic rejection of poetic diction*. echoing with laughter and sustained by love and by the belief in the goodness of nature. by their remarkable lyrical delicacy. Blake is a creator of myths in his Prophetic Books. with its repertoire of rhetorical conventions. For Blake. In Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Songs of Innocence marked a new departure in English poetry. T F 6. Blake’s works combine the handwritten text with picture and decoration – a technique that reminds of mediaeval manuscripts. the association of childhood with edenic nature is opposed to civilisation as the fallen condition of man. The Blossom. 1. Poems like Infant Joy.

gratified desire. who express their candid feelings of piety and uninhibited joy. the Songs of Innocence display protective figures like the caring mother or nurse. because she has the empathic understanding of the children’s need for freedom. associated with childhood. suggesting the child’s closeness to a protective divinity. with which Blake was acquainted. taking care of his flock of innocent lambs. or even Jesus. allows the children more time to play “on the green [i. For Blake.English pre-Romantic poetry Nurse’s Song (in Songs of Innocence) The theme of childhood emerged in late 18th century poetry in the context of the rising cult of Feeling. love.” Throughout his work. Besides the children themselves. The good shepherd. meadow]”. Innocence. which a proper education should develop. The adult figures represented in these poems share the child’s freshness of perception and capacity for joy. with white hair. in Nurse’s Song. although the sun has set. Blake identifies Jesus with the Imagination. The pastoral figure of the shepherd receives in Blake a Christian connotation. In The Echoing Green.” can “laugh away care. and every child is a manifestation of the Divine Imagination in the world. is a biblical allusion. and the perception of childhood was greatly influenced by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s ideas. the pressure of civilisation and an education which cultivates the intellect at the expense of the soul are likely to destroy in man the natural state of grace. The child has a kind of wisdom which comes from the freshness and freedom of his imagination.e. The world of Innocence is the paradise of freedom. and absence of frustration or inhibition. the shepherd. Blake filtered these ideas through his own intense idealism and his unconventional religious beliefs. Infant Joy (Songs of Innocence) 164 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Blake rejected the praise of Reason as man’s supreme faculty and proclaimed instead the importance of man’s “Poetic Genius. in his natural tendency to virtue. According to him.” as the happiness of the children playing around him and the animation of nature in Spring enable him to recreate his own joys of childhood. The pastoral setting symbolises the closeness of man to a benevolent nature and the bliss enjoyed by man in Paradise. In these poems. It is a world in which evil has not penetrated and in which there is no suffering. the guardian angel. does not mean ignorance. The nurse. “Old John. The innocence associated with childhood is for him the equivalent of the original state of paradisal innocence. childhood represents the unfallen state of man. Rousseau believed in the original innocence of man.

5. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. Focus on the way in which the child imagines the creator of the lamb. in the Reader. in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. What makes this poem a Song of Innocence? Start from the idea that The Lamb may be read as the vision of Innocence on the act of Creation. and in which he represents to himself its “making.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 7 Read Text 6. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 165 . which reproduces Blake’s poem The Lamb. If there should be a significant difference between them. at the end of the unit.” Answer in the space below.

in the poems that he added in 1794: the Songs of Experience. the reader cannot miss the implicit reference to the social reality of children’s exploitation and cruel treatment. The fall from Innocence: Songs of Experience Blake developed such implications into open statements. the reader cannot help noticing paradoxes and contradictions.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. The source of corruption in the world of Experience and the impediments to happiness are as much in the systems regulating social life as in the individual heart and mind. standing equal before God. for instance. i. Blake’s speakers in these poems are often bitter and ironic. the little black boy is “protected” by his imagination and finds the same comfort for the present sorrows in the Christian promise of a happy afterlife. The complete work offered now a set of contrary symbolic visions of man. Beyond the children’s innocent visions of happiness and harmony. The poet attacks the tyranny exercised on the individual by the church and state. for instance. but. it is suggested that human suffering and oppression is the result of “mind-forged manacles*”. disease. the thirst for war.5. which deny man his freedom. Like the chimney sweeper. In Songs of Experience. when this life ends. 166 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .4. but the child in the poem is comforted by the vision of the Angel. The serene and peaceful pastoral setting of the world of Innocence is set in opposition with the sombre world of Experience. poverty and oppression. In the fallen state of Experience.4. in which man’s lot is hard work. of “stony laws*”. In The Chimney Sweeper*. which is a promise of divine mercy. even sarcastic.e. A poem like A Poison Tree points out Title page of the murderous effects of secret hate. protesting against the evils of his time. The world is seen through the eyes of an angry observer. society and divinity. nature. The fall from the paradise of Innocence to Experience is the entrance in a world of rules and constraints. a gloomy reality makes itself felt sometimes. often. the child has a wonderful vision of all souls freed from their “clouds” of flesh – black or white –. the ethical and social implications are more obvious. In The Little Black Boy – an anti-slavery poem –. hate. and Nurse’s Song shows the (1794) jealousy consuming an adult who has lost the vision of Innocence. 6. the greed of the powerful and their indifference to the sufferings caused by social injustice. love and joy have been replaced by fear. However. Ironic implications in Songs of Innocence Blake’s graceful Songs of Innocence may appear to be simple and transparent. In London. the ironic implication in the poem is that the English colonisers “taught” Christianity to the natives only to be able to exert better control over them.4. The Clod and the Pebble Songs of Experience contrasts selfless with selfish love. of the prejudices and constraints with which man “enchains” his own mind. full of indignation and anger. envy and deceit. or the mind of others.

The speaker in the latter poem wonders not only who created the “fearful symmetry” of the powerful. SAQ 8 In Blake’s poem Infant Sorrow. who made thee [i. and the rhythms of the poems are also more difficult. you]?) and his own answer. Quote the respective words or line(s) and give your comment in the space below. in a paragraph of 10 lines / 100 words at the most. dangerous tiger. Knowledge in the world of Experience The clarity and directness of Songs of Innocence is replaced. at the end of the unit. This suggests that the world of Experience is more opaque and uncertain. The counterpart of The Lamb in Songs of Experience is The Tyger* and this pair of poems illustrates very well the contrastive vision in Blake’s work. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 167 . If it should differ in major respects. The implication is that knowledge in the state of Experience is always incomplete and fragmentary. by ambiguity and even obscurity. the event of a child’s birth becomes the symbol of the fall into the world of Experience.4. Compare your answer with the one provided in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs.6. in Songs of Experience. while The Tyger consists only in an accumulation of questions. but also if this creator is also that of the gentle lamb.e. with no explicit answer. revise this subchapter and read the poem more attentively. Read this poem – Text 6. innocent question (“Little Lamb.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. The two stanzas of The Lamb contain the child’s simple. in the Reader – and find out in its lines suggestions for at least one aspect which defines this “dangerous” world. provoking more anxiety than certainty.6.

was seen by Blake as an instrument by which the church kept men in a state of obedience. He displays. Blake hated nevertheless the church as an institution. a double awareness of his own innocence and of the hypocritical and cruel world around him. and King” “make up a Heaven of our misery. The Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience is bitterly ironic about the way in which “God. The double vision in Blake’s Songs Several other poems in Songs of Experience have a counterpart in Songs of Experience. in Blake’s view. in fact. Contraries are essential to progression. Reason and Energy*. He sees nothing “holy” in the beautiful picture.” The idea of Heaven as a reward of happiness for earthly misery. with its “mysteries”*. Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. but with ways of seeing and feeling.” in a country that is “rich and fruitful. 168 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .” which lead to contrary visions. The two poems entitled Holy Thursday* deal with the hypocrisy of the church. this sad reality is shadowed by the speaker’s idyllic description of the poor children of London.English pre-Romantic poetry 6. in Songs of Experience. tyrannical figure.” Such corresponding poems illustrate the fact that Innocence and Experience are not necessarily to be associated with ages in man’s life. a stern. This is the God of the world of Experience.” The angry speaker protests against the duplicity of a society that feeds its poor “with cold and usurous* hand. which allows the rich and powerful of this world to ease their conscience and “buy” Heaven by occasional and festive acts of charity. There is a Chimney Sweeper in Songs of Experience as well.7. compared with “flowers” and “Thames’ waters. seeing it as an instrument of oppression and a source of corruption. Blake made in fact a distinction between the God of the Old Testament and God of the New Testament. like that of Hell as a punishment for sin. In the poem of Innocence.” or with a “multitude of lambs. indeed. since those are “babes reduced to misery.4. bearing even the same titles. served by the institutionalised churches. but also complementary aspects of man’s imagination. One of the targets of Blake’s critical attacks is the Church. in Blake’s view: “Attraction and Repulsion. imposing constraints and inflicting punishment.” In the counterpart poem. A deeply religious person. as Blake indicated in the subtitle. for keeping man at a distance from God. was responsible. the spectator to the same scene has a quite different vision. and he is also a child. The church. The former is represented in Blake’s work (the Prophetic Books included) as an “angry” God.” Blake’s Songs suggest that Innocence and Experience are not only inevitable stages in human growth. “contrary states of the human soul. but he seems to be fully aware of his condition in an unjust world. and His Priest. which are thus strengthening their own power. They reveal.

but he is no longer able to do that.7.2. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 169 . Read the poem carefully and identify the symbols by means of which the two states are contrasted. Compare your answer with the one offered in the section Solutions and suggestions for SAQs. in the Reader – tells the story of the loss of Innocence and the entrance in the state of Experience. The speaker’s “journey” to the garden of Love is an attempt to revive the former state.1.4.. at the end of the unit. The two “states of the human soul” are here set in contrast. to 6.4.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 9 The poem The Garden of Love – Text 6. Explain them in no more than 20 lines / 200 words. and read the poem again more carefully. to regain the vision of Innocence. revise subchapters 6. If there should be major differences between them. except as an act of remembering.

Another feature of 18th century pre-Romantic poetry is the perception of rural life in its close connection with Nature. 6. One of them is the emergence of a kind of meditative poetry fond of melancholy themes and gloomy settings.. George Crabbe adopts a more realistic and critical view. g. Edward Young and Thomas Gray) illustrate this new trend. The “Graveyard” poets (e.. Their poetry displays an unprecedented attention to natural detail. you have been acquainted with two poets who turned their attention to the rural universe. The same theme and situation acquires contrary implications. now threatened by the march of Progress. in its relation with “the two contrary states of the human soul”: Innocence and Experience.2. The latter may be also seen as complementary aspects of poetic imagination. The fascination of James Macpherson with Britain’s Celtic past.English pre-Romantic poetry Summary This unit aims at enlarging your picture of the literary diversity of the 18th century. The first subchapter of this unit deals with two prominent features announcing the Romantic sensibility. presents the outstanding figure of William Blake. He condemns the literary habit of idealising the countryside. and they acknowledge Nature’s subtle influence on man’s thoughts. who sees the opposition nature-civilisation in the light of the myth of Paradise and of the Fall.3. Subchapter 6. The last subchapter. In subchapter 6. and seeks to arouse compassion for the life of labour and poverty of the English peasant.4. The transition from the Age of Reason to the Age of Feeling in the 18th century was accompanied by changes in literary taste. as Blake’s “double” poems suggest. the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience completing each other. and of Thomas Chatterton with the Middle Ages anticipates the Romantic spirit. The other feature is primitivism. imagination and feelings. William Collins and William Cowper approach the theme of Nature. The theme of childhood is examined in several Songs. nature-civilisation. 170 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the interest in early poetry. deals with the way in which poets like James Thomson. by focusing on those tendencies in poetry which prefigure the Romantic Age. His Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the testimony of the visionary artist. Oliver Goldsmith emphasises the idyllic happiness of the traditional rural civilisation. The theme of Nature in pre-Romantic poetry is sometimes closely associated with the opposition country-town. in whose work pre-Romantic and Romantic elements meet.

For the small farmers. The Celtic variety spoken in Ireland and Scotland is called Gaelic. children were often employed for the cleaning of chimneys. goddess of Memory. favour melancholy or morbid themes. for instance. putting fences round) common land.English pre-Romantic poetry Key words ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● pre-Romantic nature vs. Energy: for Blake. the nine Muses were indeed the daughters of Mnemosyne. passion. The Neoclassic principle of decorum did not. Imagination was free Energy. which has survived in parts of Scotland. decorum: see subchapter 4. and horror. The first Gothic novel was Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto (1764). Daughters of Memory: in Greek mythology. Sometimes. or Erse. Gothic novel: a type of fiction that emerged in opposition with the realistic novel in the 18th century. ruins. for the sake of more profitable farming. chimney sweeper: in the 18th century. and they were forced to find work in towns or to emigrate to America. while Reason was concerned with setting limits. the term “Gothic” referred to the mediaeval inspiration of such tales of mystery. Ireland and Wales. as the next subchapter will show.2. Enlightenment: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Initially. enclosed portions of land were turned into private parks and gardens. A tendency in 18th century poetry went precisely against this rule. 171 • • • • • • • Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . the members of an Indo-European people who inhabited Britain before the arrival of the Romans. the changes in agriculture led to the enclosing (i. Celtic refers also to the language spoken by the Celts. which they could climb more easily. Celtic: related to the Celts. the enclosures meant ruin. because the life of the poor was not actually reflected in such official records. Haunted castles. enclosure: in the latter half of the 18th century. It was a kind of work that contributed to the child mortality rate. graveyards.e. Their father was Zeus. in Unit 4. blank verse: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Gray is sadly ironic.2. civilisation rural universe primitivism melancholy sentimentalism humanitarianism childhood imagination Innocence and Experience double vision Glossary • • • annals: yearly record of events.

The feeling of nostalgia for a supposed Golden Age and the praise of the “state of Nature” are also features of primitivism. the 39th day after Easter. It is associated with the reaction against Neoclassicism. The Four Zoas.3. illuminated (about a piece of writing): decorated by the application of colour. Primitivism in literature refers to the admiration for and revival of early forms. Paul’s Cathedral. and he rejected the pretense of the Church to intermediate between man and God. wild landscapes. See also subchapter 4.1. The Book of Urizen. in Unit 1. A Prophecy. in Unit 3. philosophical and political convictions. Highlands of Scotland: the mountainous area in northern Scotland. Neoclassicism: see the Glossary in Unit 1. orphaned children from the charity schools to St. Pity. used to secure the hands of a prisoner. or of gold or silver paint. Prophetic Books: the generic name for Blake’s longer (and often obscure) epics. Jerusalem. especially to the Vikings (or Norsemen). manacles: a pair of iron rings linked by a chain.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • secret chambers and corridors. etc.2. concerning the typology of the novel in the 18th century. ode: see the Glossary in Unit 1. were typical settings in Gothic fiction.3. sentimental novel: see subchapter 5. primitive: original. Holy Thursday: another name for Ascension Day. and in which he gives an allegorical shape to his religious.) poetic diction: see again the Glossary in Unit 1. Blake distinguished between the prohibitive divinity of the Old Testament. the Passions. on which the Ten Commandments were written. Among the most important of them are America. who attacked and sometimes settled in parts of Britain between the 8th and 11th centuries. when the ascension of Christ is celebrated. belonging to the beginnings. etc. The custom in London was to bring the poor. Il Penseroso: see again subchapter 3. in Unit 5. 2 in Unit 4. The Book of Los.1. as well as against the sophistication. which have a complex structure of symbolism and analogies. luxury and materialism of urban civilisation. mysteries: the system of sacramental rites affording access to divinely revealed truths. Los: Blake’s mythological character represents human Imagination in his epics. Blake associated “mystery” with secrecy and deceit. heroic couplet: see again subchapter 1. Romanticism: see again Romantic in the Glossary in Unit 1. Norse: related to the ancient Scandinavian people. to attend the religious service. Most of Collins’s odes are addressed to personified abstractions (Fear. stony laws: the figurative meaning of “stony” – heartless. unfeeling – is intensified by Blake’s allusion to Moses and the Tables of the Law.. which still preserves elements of the ancient Gaelic culture. with His laws formulated as interdictions. and Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 172 . Milton.

The Chimney Sweeper. He is the precursor of Romanticism by his belief in the primacy of feeling over reason and in the necessity of the return to nature – a principle which he defended in his treatise on education Émile (1762).10. 3 The Reader includes some of the “pair poems” from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience: Nurse’s Song. Many topographical poems were praises of particular parks. 6.9. Your commentary should not exceed 50 lines / 500 words. in grading your paper. Pay special attention to the images in these poems and to their symbolic significance.” usurous: from usury.12.. Send-away assignment no. and 6.). your tutor will take into account: • the closeness of your answer to the formulated requirement (30%)..11. whose radicalism strongly influenced the ideology of the French Revolution. 6. • Read them and show that Blake’s treatment of the theme of childhood depends on the contrast between the vision of Innocence and the vision of Experience on the same reality. 6. Remember that. 3 will count as 10% in your final assessment.8. with his law of love. 6. Tyger: Blake’s spelling of “tiger. Jean Jacques: (1712-1778): French writer and philosopher. • the coherence. the unlawful practice of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest. clarity. Point out the pre-Romantic themes and attitudes that these poems illustrate. Gallery of personalities • Rousseau. topographical poem: a poem in which the description of a landscape is accompanied by meditation and historical retrospection. meant to win a patron’s favour.. Pay special attention to the instructions for the task. and consistence of your ideas (40%) • the accuracy of your grammar (20%) • the accuracy of your spelling (10%) Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 173 . and Holy Thursday (Texts 6. He condemned social inequality and regarded the sovereignty of the people as the only legitimate form of political power.English pre-Romantic poetry • • • Jesus. gardens or estates.13. SAA no..

e. a. Crabbe presents a desolate picture. in which everything seems to be in decline. In the city. to enable him to bear more easily the burden of life. the place where “health and virtue” can be found abounding. disease and poverty. By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour” 5. the mind can see beyond the “dim” surface of things. he focuses sharply on the withered tree. love of nature. the “feeble. all intensified. broken branches are a “sad emblem” of the unrewarding existence of the poor in the countryside. “His house was known to all the vagrant train” “The long-remembered beggar was his guest” 2. and on his thoughts. SAQ 4 The personified Philosophic Melancholy exerts “his” influence on man’s imagination. the vagants’] wanderings. 2. For Cowper. Crabbe also gives a reply to those who idealise rural nature: instead of the pleasing “smooth stream” sung in such poetry. The country is thus a substitute for Eden. 4. on his soul. d. Their hard life has no room for illusions about the comforts of old age. “He chid their [i.” vitality and cheerfulness of the idyllic village life.English pre-Romantic poetry Solutions and suggestions for SAQs SAQ 1 1. these gifts are “threatened” – the life of pleasure and luxury with which the city tempts man may corrupt his moral fiber. the “drooping weary” father. “Unpractised he to fawn. Health and virtue are God’s “gifts” to man. There is a general sense of decay and exhaustion in the humble scene in the cottage: the “pale” mother. whereas what man makes is inevitably deficient. c SAQ 2 1.” “expiring” fire suggest overwork. b. This heightened understanding is accompanied by “correspondent passions”: love of God. and love of man. “More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise” 4. Nor e’er had changed. 174 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . but relieved their pain” 6. “passing rich with forty pounds a year” SAQ 3 In contrast with Goldsmith’s idealised image of rural happiness and ease. the country is therefore morally superior to the city. 3. Meditation leads to illumination. “Remote from towns he ran his godly race. Crabbe’s descriptin of the old man’s weakness and of the pains of old age is meant to contradict the pastoral emphasis on the “health and plenty. SAQ 5 The first line of the fragment contains the implication that everything made by God is perfect. or seek for power. nor wished to change his place” 3. Its bare.

3. If the child’s play suggests the freedom and pleasure enjoyed in the state of Innocence. The shut gates of the chapel symbolise the estrangement of man from God. F. but are symbols of limitation. T. 5. F. and his “tender voice” fills all nature with joy. The vision of Experience reveals to him the perspective of death: the garden turns out to be a graveyard. meadow. vales) emphasise the close connection between Innocence and Nature. “My mother groaned. and. the few elements of the natural setting (stream. incarnated in a child and having the Lamb as a symbol. In a vision of Innocence. T. His swaddling bands and his father’s arms do not suggest care and protection. it controls man’s relationship with Divinity. and the beauty of the “sweet flowers” – symbols of life – is replaced by the grim image of the tombstones. Experience brings about inhibition and constraint. no longer able – or permitted – to relate to God “naturally” and directly. This is also suggested by the gloomy figure of the priests. The mother “groans” with the pains of delivery. against which man. the lamb is God’s gift to the child: it is a “delight” to look at and to touch. the child identifies himself and the lamb with Jesus. being thus a source of oppression. 2. 7. in Blake’s vision. The church as an institution belongs to the world of Experience. and the father weeps perhaps because his new baby comes into a world of trouble and cares.English pre-Romantic poetry SAQ 6 1. and is itself one more care in the family. a child’s birth is no cause for joy. T. T. SAQ 8 Examples: 1. 6. in the state of Experience. my father wept” – In the vision of Experience. In the simple economy of the poem. It is the intuition of Innocence that dictates the confident answer to the child: the Creator is Jesus. the God of Love. The interdiction “Thou shall not” on the door of the chapel suggests repression and limitation. In the second stanza. gentle and humble like the lamb itself.” that is. Man. which he has lost. struggles in vain. SAQ 9 The “garden” where he “used to play” – the Eden of childhood – is the symbol of the state of Innocence.” The child imagines the making of the lamb as the act of love of a generous and protective creator – “making” and “giving” are made somehow equivalent in the first stanza. “Struggling in my father’s hands / Striving against my swaddling bands” – The new born infant is practically a “prisoner” from his first moments in the world. At the same time. The pain and sorrow accompanying birth are symbolic anticipations of the suffering. “walking their rounds” like soldiers guarding a Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 175 . 2. F SAQ 7 The child cannot imagine the Creator of the lovely and tender creature otherwise than “meek and mild. the “Lamb of God. confinement and oppressive authority. 4. Nature and Divinity form a harmonious whole. disappointments and frustrations that await man in the world of Experience. therefore.

). David. 3 (“The Restoration to 1800”). Ford. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. Boris (ed.English pre-Romantic poetry restricted area. Daiches. vol. Further reading 1. Boris (ed. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 6987) 176 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural .. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature. 1969 (pp. 692-699) 2.).4 (“From Dryden to Johnson”). vol. 652-658. Penguin Books Ltd. Ford. and conditioning man’s access to the mystery of Divinity on the suppression of his desire. A Critical History of English Literature.. 671-684.5 (“From Blake to Byron”).. 1991 (pp. 1991 (pp. 84-94) 3. Penguin Books Ltd. vol.

Reader READER in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British Literature Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 177 .

această boltă falnică împodobită cu scântei de aur. look you. William Shakespeare. cât de asemenea unui înger în puterea sa de înţelegere. Scene II) Hamlet: (…) I have of late*. şi.Reader UNIT 2 THE LATE RENAISSANCE AND THE BAROQUE TEXT 2. pildă a vieţuitoarelor. nu ştiu – mi-am pierdut toată voioşia. vedeţi. Hamlet (Act II. it appears no other thing to me but a foul* and pestilent congregation of vapours. in moving. cât de chibzuit şi de admirabil e în faptele sale. for what reason mirth happiness and laughter foregone to forego. acest preaminunat baldachin. îmi pare un promontoriu sterp. cât de nobilă îi este inteligenţa. cât de asemenea unui zeu: frumuseţea lumii. sufletul îmi este atât de apăsat. foregone* all custom of exercises. 178 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . într-adevăr. the air. how express and admirable! In action how like an angel. pentru mine. What a piece of work is man! How noble in Reason! How infinite in faculty! In form.excelent. încât acest frumos tărâm. alcătuirile şi mişcările. m-am lăsat de toate obişnuitele exerciţii. foregone: to give up goodly pleasant or satisfying in appearance frame form. văzduhul. pământul. shape canopy a large or wide covering (e. seems to me a sterile promontory. cum să spun. – lost all my mirth*. of late recently wherefore why. this brave* overhanging* firmament*. this majestical roof fretted* with golden fire. acest mândru firmament ce senalţă deasupra noastră. Ce minunată lucrare e omul.g. and indeed it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly* frame*. ability to understand paragon a model of excellence Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi and Dan Duţescu) Hamlet: În ultima vreme – de ce. literary) the sky fretted decorated foul very bad or unpleasant apprehension understanding. the earth. forewent. what is this quintessence of dust? Man delights me not (…). the sky) brave minunat. nu-mi pare alta decât un vălmăşag odios şi infect de miasme. ce fără de număr îi sunt facultăţile. şi totuşi. in apprehension* how like a god!! The beauty of the world! The paragon* of animals! And yet. strălucitor overhanging hanging over firmament (archaic. – but wherefore* I know not.1. to me. this most excellent canopy*. ce înseamnă această chintesenţă a ţărânii? Omul nu mă desfată (…).

live or stay healthy feast ospăţ Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Mi s-a părut c-aud un glas strigând: “Nu mai dormi! Macbeth ucide somnul” Nevinovatul somn. Macbeth (Act V. to creep.” the innocent sleep. to be in a state of anxiety and agitation (a se agita. it is a tale Told by an idiot. Sleep that knits up* the ravelled* sleeve* of care. The death of each day’s life.Reader TEXT 2. Balm of hurt minds. desfăcut sleeve mânecă sore causing grief or sorrow (dureros. William Shakespeare. and tomorrow. isprăveşte (stinge-te) brief short in duration candle lumânare to strut a umbla/păşi/călca mândru. William Shakespeare. To the last syllable of recorded time.3. şi-a doua mană A marii firi. a poor player. scene V) Macbeth: Tomorrow. trivial. out. Chief* nourisher* in life’s feast* (…). moartea vieţii fiecărei zile. full of sound* and fury. cu un aer important to fret to be distressed. crept to move quiety and slowly (a se târî. Creeps* in this petty* pace from day to day. Signifying nothing. Macbeth (Act II. trifling (mărunt. sore* labour’s bath. and tomorrow. a se furişa) petty inessential. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. TEXT 2. ţanţoş. scalda grelei trude şi balsamul Durerii sufleteşti. a se frământa) sound zgomot Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 179 . chinuitor) course fel de mâncare chief most important. El.2. principal nourisher that which gives (someone) what is needed to grow. methought past tense from methinks (archaic): it seems to me to knit up a împleti. brief* candle*! Life’s but a walking shadow. That struts* and frets* his hour upon the stage. iar la ospăţul vieţii Cel mai de seamă fel. great nature’s second course*. neînsemnat) out (interjection) termină. semeţ. And then is heard no more. cel ce desface Fuiorul încâlcit al grijii – somnul: El. scene II) Macbeth: Methought* I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep. desfirat. a înnoda ravelled destrămat. Out*.

a bâigui) brutish coarse. taught thee each hour One thing or other: when thou didst not*. therefore* wast thou* Deservedly* confined* into this rock Who hadst deserved more than a prison. stupid (necioplit. Which any print* of goodness will not take. for that reason wast thou were you deservedly rightly learning teaching vile 180 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . savage. Spre cel din urmă semn din cartea vremii. Şi fiecare “ieri” a luminat Nebunilor pe-al morţii drum de colb.4. lumânare de o clipă! Ni-e viaţa doar o umbră călătoare. For learning* me your language! abhorred detested vehemently print mark made on a surface thee you thou didst not you did not thine / thy your wouldst would gabble to utter words rapidly and indistinctly (a bolborosi.Reader Romanian translation (by Ion Vinea) Macbeth: Dar mâine şi iar mâine. abject. ce-n ceasul lui pe scenă Se grozăveşte şi se tot frământă Şi-n urmă nu mai este auzit. cruel. tot mereu. but wouldst* gabble* like A thing most brutish*. netrebnic. mărginit) shameful and evil. Cu pas mărunt se-alungă zi de zi. Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee*. Te stinge. TEXT 2. Caliban: You taught me language. sălbatic. mârşav. scene II) Prospero: Abhorred* slave. had that in it which good natures Could not abide* to be with. and my profit on it Is I know how to curse: the red plague rid you. Took pains to make thee speak. a suporta therefore as a result. William Shakespeare. Un biet actor. Though thou didst learn*. E o poveste spusă de-un nătâng. I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile* race*. Din vorbe-alcătuită şi din zbucium Şi nensemnând nimic. ticălos) race neam. The Tempest (Act I. redus. nasty (josnic. tagmă thou didst learn you did learn to abide a răbda. Know thine* own meaning.

M-am străduit sa te deprind cu graiul. ca-nchipuită scena-aceasta. consistency. The cloud-capped towers*. cu singurul folos Că ştiu acum să-njur – dea ciuma-n tine Şi-n limba ce m-ai învăţat. and our little life Is rounded with a sleep. dar. Yea*. temelie) fabric building. Actorii Ţi-am spus. foretold: a anunţa. These our actors. palate mândre. were all spirits and Are melted* into air. all which it inherit. duşi. Deşi-ai fost dăscălit. TEXT 2. a se dizolva baseless unfounded (fără bază. toţi. Biserici maiestoase. când meritai Mai mult decât o temniţă. afară doar De-un dram de bunătate! Mi-a fost milă. avea ceva Ce bunul simţ nu rabdă. În stare de orice. like this insubstantial pageant* faded*. the great globe itself. Caliban: M-ai învăţat vorbi. scene I) Prospero: Our revels* are now ended. structure. into thin air: And. literary) truly. Leave not a rack* behind. Şi întocmai Ca funigeii viziunii. şi-n văzduh S-au destrămat cu toţii. duhuri. We are such stuff As dreams are made on. dar proasta-ţi fire. când tu. Scoteai doar mugete. like the baseless* fabric* of this vision. etc. Te-am învăţat de toate. rack a floating cloud Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Serbarea noastră s-a sfârşit. se vor topi Şi.5. framework (clădire. ţi-am arătat Al vorbei meşteşug. Plămadă suntem precum cea din care Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 181 . a spune dinainte melted to melt: a se topi. fiară. indeed pageant splendid public show or ceremony faded to fade: to lose brightness. revels festivitate teatrală pentru curteni foretold to foretell. alcătuire) cloud-capped towers towers whose tops are capped (covered) by clouds yea (archaic. The Tempest (Act IV. nepricepând Nici tu ce bălmăjeşti. turnuri Cu turlele în nori. Nici spulber n-au să lase-n urma lor. Te-am surghiunit aici.Reader Romanian translation (by Leon Leviţchi) Prospero: Slugoi scârbavnic. pe drept. colour. the gorgeous palaces. Cu tot ce-a moştenit. chiar pământul. shall dissolve And. William Shakespeare. The solemn temples. au fost. As I foretold* you.

Thy* soul the fixed foot. and some say. endure* not yet A breach*. Moving of the earth* brings harms and fears. lips. to go. John Donne. But trepidation of the spheres. şi scurta viaţă Împrejmuită ni-e de somn. is innocent. Such wilt* thou* be to me. Thy firmness makes my circle just*. Like the other foot. It leans*.6. because it doth* remove* Those things which elemented* it. Whilst* some of their sad friends do say. And makes me end. Inter-assured of the mind*. makes no show To move.Reader Făcute-s visele. ‘Twere* profanation of our joys To tell the laity* our love. TEXT 2. but doth. If they be two. Men reckon* what it did and meant. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning As virtuous men pass mildly* away*. and hearkens* after it. where I begun. who must. which are one. 182 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . they are two so As stiff* twin* compasses are two. The breath goes now. And grows erect*. but an expansion. And whisper* to their souls. if the other do. No tear-floods. as that comes home. Care less eyes. Like gold to aery thinness beat. That our selves know not what it is. Though I must go. obliquely run. and hands to miss. nor sigh-tempests* move. no: So let us melt*. Our two souls therefore. and make no noise. And though it in centre sit. Dull* sublunary* lovers’ love (Whose soul is sense*) cannot admit Absence. Yet when the other far doth roam*. But we by a love so much refined. Though greater far.

Reason your viceroy* in me. Batter My Heart Batter* my heart. Nor ever chaste. with no result viceroy governor of a territory who acts for and rules in the name of his sovereign (Reason is the viceroy of God in man) untrue disloyal fain (archaic) willingly. but oh. therefore subject to change whose soul is sense in which physical presence is essential doth does to remove to take away. never shall be free. a fi atent la (here: to seek to join. or break that knot again. a lua cu sila. batter to hit or beat someone heavily three-personed God the Trinity as yet până acum that I may in order that I may o’erthrow to overthrow.: inflexibil. and bend Your force*. blow. a rătăci to lean. shine. a înfrânge bend your force concentrate. for I Except your enthrall* me. a se înclina to hearken a asculta. Labour* to admit you. a înrobi. furtuni de suspine) these are Petrarchan conceits – see the Glossary) ‘twere it were (it would be) the laity those who do not know how strong their love is (from lay: profan. hotărât twin îngemănat thy your to roam a hoinări. untie*. a silui Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 183 . to long for) to grow erect a se îndrepta. like an usurped town. Yet dearly I love you. a subjuga to ravish a răpi. mirean) moving of the earth earthquake to reckon a gândi. precis. imprison me. gladly betrothed unto logodit cu to untie a dezlega. a elibera to enthrall a supune. sigh-tempests şuvoaie/potop de lacrimi. and stand. John Donne. a presupune dull not intense sublunary: beneath the moon. to make disappear which elemented it which constituted/founded it inter-assured of the mind we are both assured that our love is primarily the union of our minds to endure to suffer. fig. datorat to labour to work hard. a fi supus (the speaker urges his beloved to face the separation calmly and quietly) tear-floods. Take me to you. That I may* rise. ferm. and proves weak or untrue*. leant a se apleca. you As yet* but knock. for. burn. o’erthrow me*. and seek to mend. three-personed God*. But is captived. overthrown: a nimici. to no end*. rupture stiff rigid. to another due*. apply your force due cuvenit. I. except you ravish* me. overthrew. to break. breathe.Reader pass away to die mildly gently. me should defend. and make me new. softly to whisper a şopti whilst while to melt a-şi înmuia firea. to struggle to no end vainly. a ajunge în poziţie verticală wilt will thou you just corect. exact Text 2. and would be loved fain*.7. Divorce me. to undergo breach break. But am betrothed* unto your enemy.

while the youthful* hue* Sits on thy skin like morning dew*. Now let us sport* while we may. And while thy willing* soul transpires At every pore with instant fires*. And you should. shall sound My echoing song. And your quaint* honor turn to dust. An age at least to every part. Lady. Nor would I love at lower rate. and on thy* forehead gaze. were no crime. I would Love you ten years before the Flood*. But at my back I always hear Time’s winged* chariot* hurrying near. Thus. Thy beauty shall no more be found. Rather at once our devour Than languish* in his slow-chapt power*. An hundred years should go to praise Thine* eyes. then worms shall try That long-preserved virginity. I think. To His Coy Mistress Had we but* world enough. And the last age should show your heart.Reader TEXT 2. and think which way To talk. Thou* by the Indian Ganges’ side Shouldst* rubies* find. But thirty thousand to the rest. We would sit down.8. And tear* our pleasure with rough strife* Thorough* the iron gates of life. and time. Two hundred to adore each breast. And now. My vegetable* love should grow Vaster than empires and more slow. like amorous birds of prey. do there embrace. This coyness*. But none. Let us roll all our strength and all Our sweetness up into one ball. And into ashes all my lust*: The grave*’s a fine and private place. and pass our long love’s day. For. Now therefore. though we cannot make our sun Stand still. 184 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . I by the tide Of Humber* would complain. if you please. refuse Till the conversion of the Jews*. yet we will make him run. Lady. Andrew Marvell. in thy marble vault*. you deserve this state*. Nor. And yonder* all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity.

indicates her “willing soul” to sport a petrece. in spite of her coyness.: swift. a lâncezi. which. tineresc hue culoare. modestie thou you shouldst should ruby rubin Humber an estuary in the north-east of England the Flood Potopul the conversion of the Jews considered to be one of the events at the end of history vegetable growing slowly as a plant thine. groapă youthful de tinereţe. fast chariot ceremonial carriage (car) yonder (poetic) over there vault burial chamber (cavou) quaint odd. thy your state ceremonial treatment winged having wings. nuanţă. sfială. inappropriate (nefiresc) ashes cenuşă lust strong sexual desire (dorinţă. patimă) grave mormânt.Reader had we but… if only we had coyness timiditate. a lua cu de-a sila strife violent struggle thorough through Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 185 . a se plictisi slow-chapt power the power of its slowly devouring jaws to tear (tore. peculiar. torn) a smulge. a se veseli to languish a se ofili. tentă dew rouă willing favourably disposed. inclined instant fires the flush in her face. fig.

That I to manhood* am arrived so near. if I have grace to use it so. and present My true account. and the will of heaven. they serve him best.1. however mean* or high. Sonnet XVII When I consider how my light* is spent*. As ever* in my great task-master's* eye. returning. But my late spring no bud* or blossom showeth*. opportune happy fortunate. Perhaps my semblance* might deceive* the truth. destiny mean humble. soon replies: “God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. It shall be still* in strictest measure even To that same lot*.Reader UNIT 3 THE WORKS OF JOHN MILTON TEXT 3. John Milton. And that one talent* which is death to hide Lodged with me useless*. who best Bear his mild yoke*. boboc showeth shows (My late spring shows no bud or blossom) semblance outward appearance to deceive to mislead (a înşela) manhood bărbăţie. That some more timely*-happy* spirits endueth*. All is. though my soul more bent* To serve therewith* my maker. hath has subtle difficult to perceive or describe because fine or delicate my three and twentieth year my twenty-third year career swift movement ahead. Stolen on his wing my three and twentieth year*! My hasting days fly on with full career*. insignificant ever eternity task-master the one who imposes tasks. John Milton. rush bud mugur. speed. Yet be it less or more.2. or soon or slow. which endues some more timely-happy spirits. And inward ripeness* doth* much less appear. but Patience.e to a lesser extent) still always lot fortune. chide*. vârstă adultă ripeness maturitate doth does timely occuring atjust the right moment. the subtle* thief of youth. Sonnet VII How soon hath* time. to endue: a înzestra (Inward ripeness. appears [in me] much less – i. lest he. a strict overseer TEXT 3. his state Is kingly – thousands at his bidding* speed* And post* o'er land and ocean without rest*: They also serve who only stand and wait. in this dark world and wide. light denied*?” I fondly* ask. '”Doth God exact* day-labour. to prevent That murmur*.” 186 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . obscure. Ere* half my days. Toward which time leads me. lucky endueth endues.

light eyesight spent used up, exhausted (When I think that my eyesight is gone, before I have even reached the middle of my lifetime… I fondly ask…) ere (poetic) before talent an allusion to the biblical parable of the talents in Matthew (25: 14-30 – parabola talanţilor). Its moral is that a gift from God must not be stored and left unused, but must be multiplied. Milton felt that his “talent” – his gift for poetry – lay useless in darkness, as he had not begun the great epic poem he intended to write. lodged with me useless [talantul/talentul] mi-a fost încredinţat în zadar bent to bend, bent: to incline therewith with that lest he… chide să nu mă dojenească to exact to demand as a right light denied if he denies me (deprives me of) eyesight fondly foolishly (cu naivitate) murmur complaint who…bear his mild yoke cei care-I îndură jugul blând (allusion to Matthew, 11: 30) at his bidding la porunca sa to speed (sped) to hurry, to hasten to post to travel with speed o’er over rest odihnă, repaus

TEXT 3.3. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book I)
Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail*, horrors! hail, Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy* new possessor – one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less than he Whom thunder hath* made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty* hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive* us hence*; Here we may reign* secure*, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.
hail an exclamation of greeting thy your hath has the Almighty Atotputernicul hence (archaic) from here; away (will not drive us hence: nu ne va alunga de aici) to reign a domni, a stăpâni secure liniştit, în siguranţă

TEXT 3.4. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
[God is speaking to His Son, foreseeing man’s fall] Whose fault? Whose but his own? Ingrate, he [i.e. man] had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood*, though free to fall. Such I created all the Ethereal* Powers And Spirits, both them who stood and them who failed; Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. …. I formed them free, and free they must remain Till* they enthrall* themselves: I else* must change Their nature, and revoke the high decree
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural



Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained* Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall. The first sort* by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved; Man falls, deceived By the other first: Man, therefore, shall find grace, The other none; in mercy and justice both, Through Heaven and Earth, so shall my glory excel*, But mercy, first and last, shall brightest shine.
stood to stand, stood: a rămâne, a rezista, a se menţine într-o anumită poziţie ethereal celestial, spiritual til until to enthrall to enslave else altfel, altminteri ordained to ordain: to order, to establish, to predestine irrevocably the first sort the angels who had fallen to excel to increase

TEXT 3.5. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book III)
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance*, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must* do appeared, Not what they would*? What praise could they receive, What pleasure I, from such obedience paid, When Will and Reason (Reason is also Choice), Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled, Made passive both, had served Necessity, Not me?
allegiance loyalty needs must trebuie neapărat not what they would nu ceea ce ar vrea / ar voi despoiled (of freedom) lipsit (de libertate)

TEXT 3.6. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book IV)
Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view Lay pleasant, his grieved* look he fixes sad, Sometimes towards heaven and the full-blazing* sun, Which now sat high in his meridian* tower. Then much revolving*, thus in sighs* began: 'O thou that with surpassing glory crowned Look'st* from thy sole dominion like the god Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, O sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams* That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere; Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring* in heaven against heaven's matchless* king. Ah wherefore*? He deserved no such return* 188
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural


From me, whom he created what I was In that bright eminence*, and with his good Upbraided* none; nor was his service* hard. What could be less than to afford him praise*, The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks, How due*! Yet all his good proved ill in me, And wrought but malice*; lifted up so high I ‘sdained subjection*, and thought one step higher Would set me highest, and in a moment quit* The debt immense of endless gratitude. ………. O had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferior angel, I had stood* Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised Ambition. Yet why not? Some other power As great might have aspired, and me though mean Drawn to his part; but other powers as great Fell not, but stand unshaken*, from within Or from without, to all temptations armed. ………. Me miserable*! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath, and infinite despair? Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell; And in the lowest deep a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide, To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. O then at last relent*: is there no place Left for repentance*, none for pardon* left? None left but by submission*; and that word Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts* Than to submit, boasting* I could subdue* The omnipotent*. Ay me*, they little know How dearly I abide* that boast so vain, Under what torments inwardly I groan*; While they adore* me on the throne of hell, With diadem and scepter high advanced, The lower still I fall, only supreme In misery; such joy ambition finds. But say* I could repent and could obtain By act of grace my former state; how soon Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay What feigned* submission swore: ease would recant* Vows* made in pain, as violent and void*. For never can true reconcilement grow Where sounds of deadly hate have pierced* so deep; Which would but lead me to a worse relapse* And heavier fall: ………. So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse! All good to me is lost; Evil, be thou* my good; by thee* at least
Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural



Divided empire* with heaven's king I hold By thee, and more than half perhaps will govern; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.
grieved mâhnit, întristat full-blazing în plină strălucire/splendoare meridian the peak, zenith; noon much revolving with many thoughts revolving in his mind sighs suspine nd look’st look (2 person sg.) beams rays of light warring…against războindu-se/purtând război cu…, matchless unequalled, incomparable wherefore why return recompensă, răsplată eminence position of superiority, distinction, high rank upbraided to upbraid: a mustra, a dojeni his service serving him (i.e. God) to afford him praise a-i aduce/oferi laudă due cuvenit, datorat wrought but malice worked/produced only evil intent, the desire to do harm I ‘sdained [disdained] subjection: am dispreţuit supunerea to quit a părăsi, a abandona I had stood I would have stood unshaken neclintit miserable unhappy, depressed (nenorocit, nefericit) to relent to show pity, to become less severe or cruel repentance căinţă, părere de rău pardon iertare sumbission supunere (to submit: a se supune) vaunt laudă, preamărire de sine boasting to boast: a se lăuda to subdue to defeat and gain control (a supune, a subjuga) ay me (archaic) an expression of unhappiness (vai mie!) to abide a suporta (consecinţele) to groan a geme, a se văita, a suspina, a ofta to adore to worship (a preamări, a se închina la) say să zicem; închipuindu-mi că feigned prefăcut, simulat to recant a retracta, a se dezice de, a se lepăda de vow jurământ, legământ, făgăduială void empty pierced to pierce: a pătrunde relapse recădere thou you by thee by you empire stăpânire, putere

TEXT 3.7. John Milton, Paradise Lost (Book VII)
In his hand He took his golden compasses, prepared In God’s eternal store, to circumscribe This Universe, and all created things. One foot he centred and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure, And said, “Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds*; This be thy just circumference, O World.” Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earth, Matter unformed and void. Darkness profound Covered the abyss, but on the watery calm His brooding* wings the Spirit of God outspread*, And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth, Throughout the fluid mass, but downward purged* The black, tartareous*, cold, infernal dregs*, Adverse to life; then founded, then conglobed* Like* things to like, the rest to several* place Disparted*, and between spun* out the air, And Earth, self-balanced, on her centre hung.
bounds limits, margins brooding covering perfectly to outspread a întinde, a desfăşura to purge a curăţi, a limpezi, a spăla, a purifica tartareous of the underworld, infernal (from Tartarus: Hades) dregs impurităţi, drojdii, rămăşiţe conglobed formed into a ball or a globe like asemănător; de aceeaşi natură several mai mulţi/multe; diferiţi, diferite to dispart a distribui spun to spin, spun: a ţese, a urzi


Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

What can your knowledge hurt him.8. yet both live And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. ye* shall not die. these and many more Causes import* your need of this fair fruit. Why. Goddess humane. and freely taste. John Milton.) venturing to venture: a îndrăzni. reach* then. in the day Ye eat thereof*. that all from them proceeds*. Them nothing. Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast Is open? 2. Queen of the Universe.Reader TEXT 3. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. I question it. His worshippers? He knows that. that seem so clear Yet are but dim*. Me who have touched and tasted. to emerge fair beautiful to import a însemna to reach a întinde mâna. by the Threatener? look on me. or this tree Impart against his will. ye you (pl. for this fair* Earth I see. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. then. modest thereof din ace(a)sta. Knowing both good and evil. producing every kind. do not believe Those rigid threats of death. And what are Gods. 3. din el/ea (eat from the Tree of Knowledge) dim having weak or indistinct vision participating sharing godlike divine to proceed (from) to originate. was this forbid*? Why but to awe? Why but to keep ye low* and ignorant. your eyes. Warmed by the Sun. Paradise Lost (Book IX) 1. and ye shall be like Gods. by venturing* higher than my lot. and that advantage use On our belief. a apuca Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 191 . a se încumeta forbid forbidden low humble. 4. participating* godlike* food? The Gods are first. How should ye? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. that Man may not become As they. as they know.

beheld (archaic. sălaş flaming brand sabia de foc/flăcări thronged (with dreadful faces) plină (de chipuri de temut) fiery în flăcări. hand in hand. where to choose Their place of rest. but wiped them soon. Waved over by that flaming brand*. beheld to behold. looking back. with wandering steps and slow.Reader TEXT 3.9. and Providence their guide. care arde natural firesc 192 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . Paradise Lost (Book XII) They. so late* their happy seat*. They. The world was all before them. the gate With dreadful faces thronged* and fiery* arms: Some natural* tears they dropped. literary): to look at so late până nu demult seat locaş. John Milton. all the eastern side beheld* Of Paradise. Through Eden took their solitary way.

let us be as strange as if we had been married a great while*. but let us be very strange* and well bred*. Mirabell: Have you any more conditions to offer? Hitherto* your demands are pretty reasonable. abătut closet a small private room inviolate in which nobody intrudes sole only. Let us never visit together. William Congreve. And lastly. Come to dinner when I please. to be sole* empress of my tea table. politicos a great while a long time hitherto until this time. and ashamed of one another ever after. so far trifle fleac. to provoke eyes and whispers*.1. which you must never presume* to approach without first asking leave*. as if we were proud of one another the first week.Reader UNIT 4 THE RESTORATION AND THE AUGUSTAN AGE TEXT 4. you shall always knock at the door before you come in. and choose conversation with regard only to my own taste. and then never be seen there together again. manierat. or to be intimate with fools. the only oneto presume to dare (a îndrăzni) to ask leave to ask permission Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 193 . to have no obligation upon me to converse with wits* that I don’t like. because they are your acquaintance. to wear what I please. The Way of the World Millamant: (…) Good Mirabell. without interrogatories or wry faces* on your part. and as well bred as if we were not married at all. don’t let us be familiar or fond*. because they may be your relations*. nor go to a play together. tender folks people chariot trăsură to provoke eyes and whispers to attract attention and provoke gossip (bârfă) strange distant. Millamant: Trifles* – as liberty to pay and receive visits* to and from whom I please. bagatelă to pay…visits a face vizite wry faces grimase (to make wry faces: a strâmba din nas) wit a person who has the ability to say things that are both clever and amusing relation relative (rudă) out of humour prost dispus. without giving a reason. nor kiss before folks*. reserved well-bred binecrescut. to write and receive letters. (…) fond affectionate. dine in my dressing room when I’m out of humour*. nor go to Hyde Park together the first Sunday in a new chariot*. To have my closet* inviolate*. like my Lady Faddler and Sir Francis. wherever I am.

by the peculiarities* of studies or professions. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual: in those of Shakespeare it is commonly a species. cap sec knave escroc. escroc. at least above all modern writers. and therefore few only can judge how nearly* they are copied. the poet of nature. but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted. and that wittily*! But how hard to make a man appear a fool. unpractised by the rest of the world. perfecţiune stroke lovitură TEXT 4. but just representations of general nature. lichea wittily in a witty manner (cu mult spirit) blockhead nătâng.Reader TEXT 4. The irregular* combinations of fanciful* invention may delight awhile* by that novelty of which the common satiety* of life sends us all in quest. măcelărire fineness eleganţă. John Dryden. potlogar villain nemernic. nemernic opprobrious insulting betwixt between slovenly neglijent butchering căsăpire. the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of life. successfully irregular neuniform. or a knave* without using any of those opprobrious* terms! (…) There is (…) a vast difference betwixt* the slovenly* butchering* of a man. or by the accidents of transient* fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny* of common humanity.2. transitory (trecător) progeny urmaşi. such as the world will always supply* and observation will always find. pungaş. Particular manners* may be known to few. a furniza 194 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and please long. dobitoc. a blockhead*. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places. manners moravuri nearly faithfully. above all writers. and leaves it standing in its place. a livra. descendenţi to supply a oferi. which can operate but* upon small numbers. variabil fanciful capricios. A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire How easy is it to call rogue* and villain*. secătură. fantezist awhile for a short period satiety the state of being too much filled or satisfied peculiarity particularitate but only transient temporary. Shakespeare is. and the fineness* of a stroke* that separates the head from the body. and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth. Samuel Johnson. ticălos. The Preface to Shakespeare Nothing can please many. His persons act and speak by the influence of those general passions and principles by which all minds are agitated and the whole system of life is continued in motion. rogue pungaş.3.

A strange effect of narrow principles and short views*! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. to the improvement of agriculture and all mechanical arts*. He confined* the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds*: to common sense and reason. and the fortunes of his people. the liberties. great wisdom. where an enemy or some rival nation were not in case. history. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom than be privy* to such a secret (…). He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling* an insect as I (these were his expressions) could entertain* such inhuman ideas. (…) I take* this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. entities. in a discourse one day with the King. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. chapter VII) The King was struck with horror* at the description I had given of those terrible engines* and the proposal I had made.4. so that among us would be little esteemed. to justice and lenity*. and mathematics. should from a nice*. let slip* an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives. The learning of this people is very defective. wherein* they must be allowed to excel. whereof* in Europe we can have no conception. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 195 . with some other obvious topics* which are not worth considering. He professed both to abominate* and despise all mystery*. abstractions. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. For I remember very well. when I happened to say there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. of strong parts. and almost adored by his subjects. and profound learning. it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion* of our understandings. and transcendentals*. they not having hitherto reduced politics into a science. refinement and intrigue. either in a prince or a minister. as the more acute wits* of Europe have done. poetry. Jonathan Swift. love. unnecessary scruple. he protested* that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. endued* with admirable talents for government. consisting only in morality. And he gave it for his opinion that whoever could make two ears of corn* or two blades of grass* to grow upon a spot of ground* where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. And as to ideas. Gulliver’s Travels (Book II. and esteem. and in so familiar a manner as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines (…) As for himself. I could never drive* the least conception into their heads. to the speedy* determination* of civil and criminal causes.Reader TEXT 4.

a fi iniţiat în. my master confessed he could find little or no resemblance between the Yahoos of that country and those in ours. but not in themselves. excessively particular about details (pretenţios. He said the Yahoos were known to hate one another more than they did any different species of animals. keeps always near the 196 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . speed. they will instead of eating peaceably. That this leader had usually a favorite as like himself as he could get. whose employment was to lick* his masters feet and posteriors. For he only meant to observe what parity* there was in our natures. the shortness of my claws*. and mischievous* in disposition. manufactures*. whereof the Yahoos are violently fond*. except where it was to my real disadvantage in point of* strength. and carry them away. but still looking round with great caution. as sometimes happens. they will dig with their claws for whole days to get them out. For.5. and the reason usually assigned* was the odiousness* of their own shapes. and that the dissensions of those brutes in his country were owing to the same cause with ours. without delay determination rezolvare. and drive the female Yahoos to his kennel. (…) As to learning. if (said he) you throw among five Yahoos as much food as would be sufficient for fifty. each single one impatient* to have all to itself. to restrict bound limit. which all could see in the rest. Jonathan Swift. Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV. a i se încredinţa (e.Reader struck with horror cuprins de groază engines maşini (piese de artilerie) grovelling to grovel: to crawl. This favorite is hated by the whole herd. for fear their comrades should find out their treasure. and the like. there are certain shining stones of several colors. for which he was known and then rewarded with a piece of ass’s flesh*. VII) He observed that I agreed* in every feature of my body with other Yahoos. a încredinţa to be privy to a fi făcut părtaş la. as I had described them. in some fields of his country. Ch.g. boundary (hotar) lenity tolerance (îngăduinţă) speedy quick. (…) That. government. and some other particulars* where Nature had no part*. our manners. a scăpa din mână (o ocazie) I take I think. I suppose acute wits spirite luminate (acute: pătrunzător. and therefore* to protect himself. încheiere (a unei cauze juridice) topic temă. than any of the rest. He had heard indeed some curious Houyhnhnms observe that in most herds* there was a sort of ruling* Yahoo (as among us there is generally some leading or principal stag* in a park*) who was always more deformed in body. a face să priceapă TEXT 4. arts. and our actions. fall together by ears*. so. and when part of these stones are fixed in the earth. and activity. to dislike intensely mystery urzeli tainice to confine to limit. he found as near a resemblance in the disposition* of our minds. perspicace) mean opinion părere nefavorabilă to abominate to detest. as in fear or humility (a se târî) to entertain (an idea) a nutri (o idee) to protest a declara. from the representation I had given him of our lives. subiect ear of corn spic de grâu blade of grass fir de iarbă spot of ground petec de pământ wherein in which mechanical arts meşteşuguri transcendentals categorii metafizice to drive (drove. a asigura. and hide them by heaps* in their kennels*. driven) an idea into one’s head a băga în cap. (…) But he now found he had been mistaken. un secret) short views concepţii înguste endued înzestrat nice fastidious. greu de mulţumit) whereof of which to let slip (an opportunity) a lăsa să-i scape.


person of his leader. (…) But how far this might be applicable to our courts and favorites, and ministers of state, my master said I could best determine. (…) My master likewise* mentioned another quality, which his servants had discovered in several Yahoos, and to him was wholly unaccountable*. He said, a fancy* would sometimes take a Yahoo, to retire into a corner, to lie down and howl*, and groan*, and spurn* away all that came near him, although he were young and fat, and wanted* neither food nor water; nor did the servants imagine what could possibly ail* him. And the only remedy they found was to set* him to hard work*, after which he would infallibly* come to himself*. To this I was silent out of partiality* to my own kind*; yet here I could plainly discover the true seeds* of spleen*, which only seizes on* the lazy, the luxurious, and the rich (…). His Honor had farther observed, that a female Yahoo would often stand behind a bank* or a bush*, to gaze* on the young males passing by, and then appear, and hide, using many antic* gestures and grimaces; at which time it was observed, that she had a most offensive* smell; and when any of the males advanced, would slowly retire, looking back, and with a counterfeit* show of fear, run off into some convenient place where she knew the male would follow her. At other times, if a female stranger came along them, three or four of her own sex would get about her, and stare* and chatter*, and grin*, and smell her all over; and then turn off with gestures that seemed to express contempt and disdain.
I agreed I corresponded in point of în ceea ce priveşte claws gheare particulars details no part no role, no contribution near close disposition predispoziţie, înclinare to assign (a reason) to give, to attribute (a reason) odiousness hidoşenie they will fall together by ears se vor lua la bătaie impatient zorit, grăbit whereof of which to be fond of a fi amator, a-i plăcea mult by heaps în grămezi kennel culcuş, vizuină manufacture meşteşuguri parity corespondenţă, asemănare, analogie herd cireadă ruling dominant, conducător stag cerb park parc cinegetic mischievous răutăcios, rău intenţionat, pus pe rele to lick a linge ass’s flesh carne de măgar therefore that is why likewise also unaccountable inexplicable a fancy would sometimes take a Yahoo din când în când i se năzare câte unui Yahoo to howl a urla to groan a geme to spurn (away) a îndepărta, a refuza, a alunga to want a duce lipsă de to ail a durea, a deranja to set (somebody) to work a pune la muncă infallibly negreşit he would come to himself îşi revenea, îşi venea în fire partiality părtinire, slăbiciune, înclinaţie my own kind cei de-un neam cu mine seeds seminţe (fig.: izvor, cauză) spleen ipohondrie, melancolie seizes on se abate asupra, îi cuprinde pe bank movilă bush tufiş to gaze to look long and fixedly antic grotesque offensive unpleasant, disgusting counterfeit simulated; a counterfeit show of fear: prefăcânduse că îi este teamă to stare a se holba to chatter a flecări to grin a rânji

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural



TEXT 4.6. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (Book IV, chapter VIII)
As these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by Nature with a general disposition to all virtues, and have no conceptions or ideas of what is evil in a rational creature; so their grand* maxim is to cultivate reason, and to be wholly governed by it. (…) Friendship and benevolence are the two principal virtues among the Houyhnhnms; and these not confined to particular objects, but universal to the whole race. For a stranger from the remotest* part is equally treated with the nearest neighbour, and wherever he goes, looks upon himself* as at home. They preserve decency and civility* in the highest degrees, but are altogether ignorant of ceremony*. They have no fondness* for their colts or foals*; but the care they take in educating them proceeds* entirely from the dictates of reason. And I observed my master to show the same affection to his neighbour’s issue* that he had for his own. They will have that* Nature teaches them to love the whole species, and it is reason only that makes a distinction of persons, where there is a superior degree of virtue. When the matron* Houyhnhnms have produced one of each sex, they no longer accompany* with their consorts, except they lose one of their issue by some casualty*, which very seldom* happens; but in such a case they meet again; or when the like accident* befalls* a person whose wife is past bearing*, some other couple bestows* on him one of their own colts, and then go together* a second time, until the mother be pregnant*. This caution* is necessary to prevent the country from being overburdened with numbers*. But the race of inferior Houyhnhnms bred up to be servants is not so strictly limited upon this article*; these are allowed to produce* three of each sex, to be domestics* in the noble families. Courtship, love, presents*, jointures*, settlements*, have no place in their thoughts, or terms whereby* to express them in their language. The young couple meet and are joined, merely because it is the determination* of their parents and friends; it is what they see done every day; and they look upon it as one of necessary actions in a reasonable being. But the violation* of marriage, or any other unchastity* was never heard of; and the married pair pass their lives with the same friendship and mutual benevolence that they bear to all others of the same species who come in their way, without jealousy, fondness, quarreling*, or discontent*. Temperance*, industry*, exercise*, and cleanliness* are the lessons equally enjoined* to the young ones of both sexes; and my master thought it monstrous in us to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestic management (…).


Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

grand principal, capital, supreme remote distant, far away looks upon himself considers himself civility amabilitate, curtenie, politeţe, bună creştere ceremony protocol, etichetă fondness duioşie, afecţiune, dragoste colt, foal mânz to proceed (from) to come from, to originate in (a izvorî) issue odrasle, progenituri, urmaşi they will have that they say that matron mamă de familie to acompany (with) a se împreuna casualty accident, nenorocire, năpastă seldom rarely the like accident o năpastă de felul acesta to befall (befell, befallen) a se abate asupra is past bearing nu mai poate zămisli to bestow to give, to offer they go together se împreunează pregnant grea, însărcinată caution măsură de prevedere overburdened with numbers overpopulated upon this article în această privinţă, la acest capitol to produce a zămisli domestic servitor present dar, cadou jointure averea cuvenită soţiei după moartea soţului settlement contract whereby by which determination decision violation necinstire unchastity infidelitate quarreling ceartă discontent nemulţumire temperance cumpătare industry hărnicie exercise exerciţii fizice cleanliness curăţenie enjoined imposed, prescribed

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural



TEXT 5.1. Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
It was now that I began sensibly* to feel how much more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked*, cursed*, abominable* life I led all the past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered*, my affections changed their gusts*, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the country, the anguish* of my soul at my condition would break out* upon me on a sudden*, and my very heart would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner locked up with the eternal bars* and bolts* of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption*. In the midst* of the greatest composures* of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring* my hands like a child. (…). But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts* of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never leave thee*, nor forsake* thee.” Immediately it occurred* to me that these words were to me. Why else* should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as one forsaken of* God and Man? (…) From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition than it was probable I should have ever been I any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
sensibly în mod apreciabil, destul de mult wicked păcătos cursed nelegiuit, ticălos abominable odios to alter to change gust răbufnire, explozie, izbucnire anguish pain, misery, agony to break out a se dezlănţui, a izbucni on a sudden suddenly, abruptly bars gratii, zăbrele bolt zăvor redemption mântuire, izbăvire, salvare midst middle composure linişte, calm, cumpăt, stăpânire de sine to wring (wrung) a frânge; to wring one’s hands: a-şi frânge mâinile de durere comfort mângâiere, consolare, încurajare thee you to forsake (forsook, forsaken) to abandon to occur (to someone) a-i veni în minte, a-i trece prin gând why else? altfel de ce? forsaken of forsaken by


Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels* in the fire burned as hard as a stone. It happened after some time. one upon another. Robinson Crusoe It would make the reader pity* me. to bring it home and work it. which it did admirably well. ugly things I made. though I had some lead to do it with. being set out too hastily*. so as to make it burn me some pots. dificil paste cocă misshapen diform fell in to fall. which none of these could do. pitchers*. yet I made several smaller things with better success – such as little round pots.. the clay* not being stiff* enough to bear its own weight*. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature* was ever equal to mine when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire. a se desprinde clay lut. fallen) out: a se desface. a prelucra above more than earthen de lut. how many cracked* by the over-violent heat of the sun. fallen) in: a se prăbuşi. to dig* it. with a great heap of embers* under them. and. I could not make above* two large earthen* ugly things – I cannot call them jars* – in about two months’ labour. de pământ jar oală. When I saw them clear red. and how many fell out*. I was agreeably surprised to see it. or glazing* them with lead*. (…) Though I miscarried* so much in my design* for large pots*.Reader TEXT 5. and any things my hand turned to*. I had no notion of a kiln*. to tell how many awkward* ways I took to raise this paste*. what odd. to temper* it. oală Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 201 . and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it to boil me some meat. which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid. (fell. and pipkins*. such as the potters* burn in. to pity a căina awkward incomod. and how many fell in pieces with only removing* as well before as after they were dried. after having laboured hard to find the clay. But all this would not answer my end*. (fell. Daniel Defoe. flat dishes*. I plied the fire* with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through*. argilă stiff tare weight to bear its own weight: să reziste la propria greutate to crack a crăpa set out too hastily expuse prea devreme with only removing doar ce le-am mişcat to dig. and observed that they did not crack at all*. but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile. or rather laugh at me. and placed my firewood* all round it. in a word how. and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. dug a săpa to temper a amesteca. and red as a tile*. and bear* the fire. This set me to studying how to order* my fire. a cădea fell out to fall. when I went to put it out* after I had done with it. I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours(…). misshapen*.2. anevoios. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat. and the heat of the sun baked* them strangely hard*. In the morning I had three very good – I will not say handsome* – pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burned as could be desired (…). vas to miscarry a da greş design intenţie pot vas. a frământa. how many of them fell in*.

a învinge. She seems taken by surprise by her own feelings. born) a rezista. forgive me! but I found. This was a good fortune. arătos a thing of so mean a nature un lucru atât de mărunt TEXT 5. so much affection. than the dry*. like a thief. to my grief*. punct culminant.4. […] Forgive. I must own* to you. I beseech* you. Preface to Clarissa All the letters are written while the hearts of the writers must be supposed to be wholly engaged in their subjects (the events at the time dubious*): so that they abound not only with critical situations. before. forgive your poor daughter! How am I grieved* to find this trial so severe* upon me. nenorocire pangs mâhnire. I had no reason to expect. to find him capable of so much openness. apogeu distress nefericire. and accounts for his rigorous* behaviour to me. nay*. unanimated style of a person relating difficulties and dangers surmounted*. For here plainly* does he confess his great value for me. crept. în întregime at all deloc handsome frumos. neutru to surmount to overcome (a birui. Samuel Richardson. […] O my dear parents.3. durere. in which he confesses his affection for her. that my heart was too partial* in his favour. is not a voluntary thing – Love. did I say! […] I know not how it came. Samuel Richardson. the womb of fate: incertitudinea sorţii dry sec. the mind tortured by the pangs* of uncertainty (the events then hidden in the womb* of fate). chinuri womb pântece. however. Much more lively* and affecting must be the style of those who write in the height* of a present distress*. has greatly affected me.Reader dish blid. upon me. intenţie to bear (bore. farfurie pitcher ulcior ulcea pipkin gavanos to turn to a se apuca de lucru. it looked like love. that I shall never be able to think of any body in the world but him! Presumption*! you will say. and before I knew what was the matter. I am quite overcome*. doubtful lively vivid (însufleţit. placă de ceramică how to order the fire cum să potrivesc focul kiln cuptor potter olar to glaze a smălţui lead plumb firewood lemn de foc embers jăratec I plied the fire am întreţinut focul quite through cu totul. but with what may be called instantaneous descriptions and reflections (…). I imagine. and so it is: but love. and tender years*. a depăşi) TEXT 5. but now. scop. will ye* not in some 202 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . O my unguarded* youth. plin de viaţă) height culme. narrative. Pamela [Pamela receives a letter from Mr. a ţine la to put out (the fire) a stinge (focul) earthenware vessels vase de lut tile ţiglă.] This letter. my dear father. and of so much honour too. can be. B_. when I expected some new plot*. but it has crept*. a se pune pe lucru to bake a coace strangely hard neobişnuit de tare end ţel. nor when it began. But to be sure*. dubious uncertain.

avertizare likewise de asemenea hadst (you) had thou hadst so well maintained thy post you put up resistance successfully avowed făţiş therefore aşadar. and therefore*. perfidious traitor*! deservest* thou to smart. in its sentiments and diction*. that as in the one these are grave and solemn. Joseph Andrews (Preface) Now. for giving up so weakly. I think. of which many instances will occur in these works […]. as I heart] fully deserve to suffer summons chemare. treacherous heart! How couldst thou serve* me thus! And give no notice* to me of the mischiefs* thou wert* about to bring upon me! How couldst thou thus inconsiderately* give thyself* up to the proud invader. It differs from the serious romance in its fable* and action. and to one too. I hope. containing a much larger circle of incidents. of inferior manners. intrigă plainly în mod deschis. will enable me to get over this heavy trial. whereas the grave romance sets the highest* before us: lastly. îndrăzneală crept to creep (crept): a se strecura. a comic romance* is a comic epic poem* in prose. thy whole self. burlesque itself may be sometimes admitted. I must either not show you this confession of my weakness. or tear* it out of my writing.] plot uneltire. as the serious epic from tragedy: its action being more extended and comprehensive*. by preserving the ludicrous* instead of the sublime. and consequently. a se furişa to beseech (besought) a ruga cu stăruinţă. a rupe memorandum notă. în mod clar rigorous aspru. a înştiinţa mischief neajuns.Reader measure excuse me? I never before knew. sever grief durere. in this. a copleşi to be sure cu siguranţă to own a mărturisi presumption cutezanţă. torn) out a smulge. so in the other they are light* and ridiculous: it differs in its characters by introducing persons of inferior rank. mâhnire partial to având o slăbiciune pentru nay (literary) ba mai mult. a implora grieved amărât. and resignation to the Divine Will.5. when I get home. Henry Fielding. and introducing a greater variety of characters. to consider of this. [Memorandum*. But though we have sometimes admitted this in our diction.e. without ever consulting thy poor mistress* in the least*! But thy punishment will be the first and the greatest: and well. and the benefits of your good lesson and examples.) couldst thou could you serve how couldst thou serve me thus? Cum ai putut să te porţi astfel? notice to give notice: a preveni.) treacherous trădător (adj. nechibzuit thyself yourself thy poor mistress biata ta stăpână (not) in the least câtuşi de puţin. for there it is never properly introduced. I could have no notion of what it was to be so affected! But prayer. and when likewise* thou hadst* so well maintained thy post* against the most violent and avowed*. însemnare TEXT 5. necaz wert were inconsiderately (în mod) nesocotit. differing from comedy. we have carefully excluded it from our sentiments and characters. mai mult chiar to overcome a depăşi. before summons* came. O my treacherous*. în consecinţă to tear (tore. întristat. mâhnit severe trial încercare grea unguarded imprudent tender years vârstă fragedă ye you (pl. only dangerous attacks! After all. who had used me so hardly. Yet. In the diction. unless* in writings of the Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 203 . nicidecum traitor trădător (noun) deservest well …deservest thou to smart: you [i.

it be nearly allied to deceit*. From the discovery of this affectation arises the Ridiculous. what Caricatura is in painting. as they proceed* from very different motives. […] Let us examine the works of a comic history painter. vanity or hypocrisy: for as vanity puts us on affecting false characters*. is more surprising. as in appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest*. no two species of writing can differ more widely than the comic and the burlesque. that affectation doth* not imply an absolute negation of those qualities which are affected. which that of the hypocrite hath. so it is in the latter infinitely on the side of the writer. for to discover any one to be the exact reverse of what he affects. it partakes* of the nature of ostentation: for instance. any liberty which the painter hath* taken with the features of that alma mater*. whereas in the Caricatura we allow all licence* – its aim is to exhibit monsters. who is the very reverse of what he would seem to be. that. so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure*. which always strikes* the reader with surprise and pleasure. for the Monstrous is much easier to paint than describe. by concealing* our vices under an appearance of their opposite virtues. Burlesque is in writing. It may be likewise noted. in so much that a judicious eye instantly rejects anything outré*. yet when it comes from vanity only. and that in a higher and stronger degree when the affectation arises from hypocrisy. or e converso*. in order to purchase* applause. than when from vanity. if we examine it. and. the affectation of liberality* in a vain* man differs visibly from the same affectation in the avaricious. and consequently more ridiculous. which this is not intended to be. 204 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . to the degree he would be thought to have it. And though these two causes are often confounded (for there is some difficulty in distinguishing them). And here I shall observe. when it proceeds from hypocrisy. from the just* imitation of which will flow all the pleasure we can this way convey to a sensible* reader. Now. arises from the surprising absurdity. as it hath not that violent repugnancy* of nature to struggle with.Reader burlesque kind. yet it sits less awkwardly* on him than on the avaricious man. and where our delight. so they are as clearly distinct in their operations: for indeed. where we shall find the true excellence of the former to consist in the exactest copying of nature. yet. than to find him a little deficient in the quality he desires the reputation of. and the Ridiculous to describe than paint. affectation proceeds from one of these two causes. with those performances which the Italians call Caricatura. as in the former the painter seems to have the advantage. though. the affectation which arises from vanity is nearer to truth than the other. therefore. […] Now. for as the latter is ever* the exhibition* of what is monstrous and unnatural. or hath not the virtue he affects. so in the former we should ever confine* ourselves strictly to nature. Indeed. and all distortions and exaggerations whatever are within its proper province*. for though the vain man is not what he would appear. not men. and in the same manner the comic writer and painter correlate to each other. […] The only source of the true Ridiculous (as it appears to me) is affectation.

it is then that these unfortunate circumstances. but affectation appears to me the only true source of the Ridiculous. smaller faults.” Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 205 .: the primary source licence liberty province domeniu. which at first moved our compassion. but when ugliness aims at the applause* of beauty. face parte din liberality generosity (mărinimie. şchiopătat to display to show to tend a tinde mirth laughter thought the lines quoted by Fielding are from Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism (1711): “Nimeni nu este vinovat de a fi ceea ce e. it sits less awkwardly on him than: îi şade mai puţin rău decât strikes the reader with surprise and pleasure îi oferă cititorului plăcerea surprizei applause when ugliness aims at the applause of beauty: când urâtul/urâţenia aspiră la aplauzele meritate de frumuseţe lameness şchiopătare. / Ci de-a nu fi ceea ce vrea să pară. But for not being what they would be thought*. exact sensible endowed with common sense (cu judecată. dărnicie) vain vanitos awkwardly stângaci. fig. The poet carries this very far: None are for being what they are in fault. or lameness* endeavours to display* agility. of our pity. sferă affecting false characters pretending to be in a way that one is not. […] Great vices are the proper objects of our detestation. comic romance roman comic comic epic poem poem eroicomic comprehensive cuprinzător fable subiect. intrigă light uşor highest sets the highest before us aduce în faţa ochilor pe cei de rang superior diction stil ludicrous grotesc unless except ever always exhibition display (expunere) appropriating the manners of the highest to the lowest atribuirea obiceiurilor din lumea bună unor oameni din popor e converso (Italian)and viceversa to confine oneself to a se limita la just faithful. putting on a flattering mask to purchase to obtain censure so hypocrisy sets us on an endeavour to avoid censure tot astfel ipocrizia ne îndeamnă/ne face să ne străduim a evita critica to conceal to hide to proceed from to come/to emerge from repugnancy incompatibility. contradiction doth does deceit înşelătorie it partakes of se înrudeşte cu.Reader […] Much less are natural imperfections the objects of derision. tend* only to raise our mirth*. cu bun simţ) outré (French) exaggerated hath has alma mater (Latin) the nourishing mother. cu stângăcie.

my work is digressive. with reverence be it spoken*. that my main business does not stand still in my absence. Laurence Sterne. brought forth born scurvy păcătos. the ungracious* Duchess has pelted* me with a set of as pitiful* misadventures* and cross* accidents as ever small HERO sustained. dirty planet of ours.6. on my conscience. nefericit TEXT 5. I can truly say that from the first hour I drew my breath into it […] I have been the continual sport* of what the world calls Fortune. […] The machinery* of my work is of a species by itself. I wish I had been born in the Moon. as far and as often too as any writer in Great-Britain. yet with all the good temper* in the world I affirm it of her that in every stage of my life. Gentleman. not for want of penetration* in him. provided a man could be born in it to a great title* or to a great estate*. which were thought to be at variance* with each other. and reconciled. abject vile ticălos with reverence be it spoken fie spus cu tot respectul shreds zdrenţe clippings resturi. the merit of which has all along. or could any how contrive* to be called up to public charges* and employments* of dignity or power – but that is not my case […]. Tristram Shandy (Vol I. as in my all digressions (one only excepted) there is a master-stroke* of digressive skill. Chapter V) On the fifth day of November. two contrary motions are introduced into it. been overlooked* by my reader. a reuşi public charges însărcinare. […] 206 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and though I will not wrong her by saying she has ever made me feel the weight* of any great or signal* evil. Laurence Sterne. a izbuti. Tristram Shandy (Vol. or expected indeed. – and it is this: That though my digressions are all fair*. yet I constantly take care to order affairs so. I fear. povară signal însemnat. – and at the same time. 1718 […] was I Tristram Shandy. and that I fly off* from what I am about. In a word. remarcabil good temper voie bună turn cotitură to get at (somebody) to irritate. – not but the planet is well enough*.7. as you observe. and it is progressive too. in a digression. răspundere publică employment slujbă sport jucărie weight greutate. lipsit de cordialitate/amabilitate to pelt a bombarda. a asalta pitiful jalnic misadventure nenorocire cross potrivnic. Chapter XXII) For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into. brought forth* into this scurvy* and disastrous world of ours. but because it is an excellence seldom* looked for. or in any of the planets […] than in this vile*.Reader TEXT 5. which. I take to be made up of the shreds* and clippings* of the rest. rămăşiţe not but the planet is well enough nu că n-ar fi bună planeta provided a man could be born to a great title cu condiţia să te naşti cu un titlu însemnat estate avere to contrive a o brodi. to annoy ungracious răutăcios.I. and at every turn* and corner where she could get* fairly at me.

în contradicţie to reign a domni to step forth a păşi bridegroom mire to bid (bade. – one cold eternal winter would reign* in every page of it. I have constructed the main work and the adventitious* parts of it with such intersections. a încâlci one wheel within another cu rotiţele îmbucându-se una întralta good spirits voie bună Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 207 . if it pleases the fountain of health to bless me so long with life and good spirits*. from that moment. bidden) a ura all hail trăiască!. but also of the author. brings in variety. and forbids the appetite to fail. incontestably. is truly pitiable*: For. master-stroke mişcare măiestrită skill meşteşug to overlook a-i scăpa. you see. that the whole machine. All the dexterity* is in the good cookery* and management of them. you might as well take the book along with them. – and. has been kept agoing. a sta pe loc vile work ticăloasă treabă adventitious întâmplător to involve a încurca. a trece cu vederea for want of penetration din pricina lipsei de pătrundere/înţelegere seldom arareori fair fără cusur. whose distress*. This is vile work*. the soul of reading. restore them to the writer. he steps forth* like a bridegroom*. cum trebuie. so as to be not only for the advantage of the reader. one wheel within another*. – they are the life. in general. from the beginning of this.Reader Digressions. – take them out of this book for instance. it shall be kept a-going these forty years. For which reason. and if he goes on with his main work. in this matter. then there is an end of his digression. slavă! dexterity îndemânare cookery gătit. sadea to fly off a-şi lua zborul machinery mecanism at variance potrivnic. and have so complicated and involved* the digressive and progressive movements. what’s more. his whole work stands stock-still*. are the sunshine. artă culinară distress stare jalnică pitiable vrednic de milă to stand stock-still a încremeni. bids* All hail*. I observe. if he begins a digression.

And passing rich* with forty pounds* a year. or seek for power. nor wished to change his place. whose age Can with no cares except his own engage. propped* on that rude* staff*. hoinar. a mângâia) TEXT 6. Or hers. Remote* from towns he ran his godly* race. The Village Ye* gentle* souls who dream of rural ease*. distant godly pious. croit to prize a preţui. 208 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . look within. Nor e’er* had changed. and ask if peace be there.1. George Crabbe.Reader UNIT 6 ENGLISH PRE-ROMANTIC POETRY TEXT 6.2. that offspring* round their feeble* fire. Whom the smooth* stream and smoother sonnet please. Far other aims his heart had learned to prize*. to all the country dear. a mustra) wandering rătăcire to relieve to bring alleviation (a uşura. Or theirs. cucernic) e’er ever to fawn to seek attention and admiration by flattering (a se ploconi. Who. Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. chid: to rebuke. looks up to see The bare arms* broken from the withering* tree On which. devout (evlavios. he climbed the loftiest bough*. the matron* pale. a alina. Go! if the peaceful cot* your praises share. a linguşi) fashioned potrivit. fiind considerat bogat pound liră remote far away. whose trembling hand Turns on the wretched* hearth* the expiring* brand*! (…) (…) yonder* see that hoary swain*. He chid* their wanderings*. cerşetor train alai. By doctrines fashioned* to the varying hour. to scold (a dojeni. His house was known to all the vagrant* train*. If peace be his – that drooping* weary* sire*. More skilled to raise the wretched* than to rise. passing rich trecând drept bogat. a boy. Oliver Goldsmith. modelat. a aprecia the wretched cei sărmani/nenorociţi vagrant vagabond. Go. Then his first joy. The Deserted Village A man he was. but his sad emblem now. cortegiu şir chid to chide. but relieved* their pain: The long-remembered beggar was his guest. Unpracticed he to fawn*.

sprijinit. jalnic. linişte. Of human race. părinte offspring vlăstar. The love of Nature. Inflames imagination. pace smooth calm. urmaş feeble plăpând. the large ambitious wish To make them blest. The Task (1785) God made the country. should most abound And least be threatened in the fields and groves*? draught înghiţitură. încovoiat weary exhausted (istovit) sire (poetic) tată. cămin expiring dying (care se stinge) brand tăciune yonder (poetic) there hoary swain săteanul cărunt/nins/venerabil propped proptit. generos ease tihnă. simple.) gentle nobil. unconfined*. What wonder then that health and virtue. o’er over to exalt to raise. to excite swelling expanding rapture ecstasy.Reader ye you (pl. (…) The sympathies of love and friendship dear. With all the social offspring of the heart*. coarse. disdain (dispreţ) tyrant pride the arrogance of arbitrary or unjust power the social offspring of the heart the community. losing vitality (care se usucă) loftiest bough ramura cea mai înaltă TEXT 6. dumbravă Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 209 . raised To rapture* and divine astonishment. ales. liniştit cot căsuţă drooping aplecat. gifts That can alone make sweet the bitter draught* That life holds to all. sorbitură grove crâng. and man made the town. to stimulate.4. William Cowper. and far Beyond dim earth exalts* the swelling* thought. to elevate. nenorocit hearth vatră. chief*.3. slab matron mamă de familie wretched biet. (…) As fast the correspondent passions rise. whom the heart feels as a family TEXT 6. through the breast Infuses every tenderness. and. and as high: Devotion. the sigh for suffering worth* Lost in obscurity. As varied. ecstatic joy unconfined unlimited chief most important suffering worth men of merit and virtue who suffer scorn contempt. lacking adornments staff toiag bare arms ramurile/crengile desfrunzite withering decaying. the noble scorn* Of tyrant pride*. rezemat rude rudimentary. James Thomson. The Seasons (from Autumn) He comes! he comes! in every breeze the Power Of Philosophic Melancholy comes! (…) O’er* all the soul his sacred influence breathes.

a fi supărat/îmbufnat 210 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . and bid thee feed*. wooly* bright. I thought best To sulk* upon my mother’s breast. Making all the vales rejoice*! Little Lamb. Little Lamb. exhausted to sulk to be silent and resentful a se bosumfla. piping* loud. Struggling in my father’s hands. leapt: a sări.Reader TEXT 6. We are called by his name. Little Lamb. a înlănţui. He became a little child: I a child and thou a lamb. Infant Sorrow (from Songs of Experience) My mother groaned*. îngăduitor) TEXT 6. a suspina wept to weep (wept): a plânge leapt to leap. William Blake.The Lamb (from Songs of Innocence) Little Lamb who made thee*? Dost thou know* who made thee? Gave thee life. Little Lamb. who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb. bound: a lega strâns. Into the dangerous world I leapt*. and he is mild*. supus) mild gentle. Gave thee clothing of delight. a închide weary tired. For he calls himself a Lamb: He is meek*. God bless thee. Striving against my swaddling bands*. William Blake.5. I’ll tell thee. a se arunca piping to pipe: to utter something in a high and thin voice fiend demon hid hidden swaddling bands scutece bound to bind. naked. Helpless. God bless thee.6. a ţâşni. to groan a geme. I’ll tell thee: He is called by thy* name. gentle and uncomplaining (blând. Softest clothing. my father wept*. By the stream and o’er* the mead*. not violent (blajin. Bound* and weary*. te-a poftit să te hrăneşti o’er over mead meadow (pajişte. cuminte. who made thee who made you dost thou know do you know bid thee feed ţi-a oferit hrană. luncă) wooly made of or feeling like wool (lânos) to rejoice to feel or show great joy thy your meek very quiet. Gave thee such a tender voice. Like a fiend* hid* in a cloud.

That so many sweet flowers bore*. And then go home to bed. And we cannot go to sleep. And Priests in black gowns* were walking their rounds*. Besides. a sălta. iarbă neagră) TEXT 6. let us play. green pajişte verde at rest calm.Reader TEXT 6. And laughing is heard on the hill. tranquil. And the dews* of night arise. So I turned to the Garden of Love. borne: to give birth to grave mormânt tomb-stone piatră funerară gown mantie. And saw what I never had seen: A Chapel was built in the midst*. go and play till the light fades away*. Come. to disappear to leap (leaped/leapt) a sări. bore. William Blake.7. And tomb-stones* where flowers should be. My heart is at rest* within my breast. midst middle ‘Thou shalt not’ ‘You shall not’ (the interdictory formula beginning the ten commandments in the Bible) writ written bore to bear.” “No. a ţopăi to echo a răsuna Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 211 . come leave off play. And ‘Thou shalt not’* writ* over the door. And every thing else is still. and let us away* Till the morning appears in the skies. And the hills are all covered with sheep. The Garden of Love (from Songs of Experience) I went to the Garden of Love. Where I used to play on the green. And binding* with briars* my joys and desires. And I saw it was filled with graves*. bound: to tie briar a wild bush with branches that have thorns (măceş. at ease dew rouă let us away să megrem to fade away to die.” “Well. the sun is gone down. well. no. “Then come home my children. for it is yet day.” The little ones leaped* and shouted and laughed And all the hills echoed*. William Blake. And the gates of the Chapel were shut. robă walking their rounds făcându-şi rondul binding to bind.8. in the sky the little birds fly. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Innocence) When the voices of children are heard on the green*.

Dick. Ned and Jack. was shaved: so I said “Hush*. weep. all their bags left behind. Were all of them locked up in coffins* of black. they run. William Blake. and sport* in the wind. Then naked and white. a irosi TEXT 6. weep!” So your chimneys I sweep. Tom was happy and warm. And my father sold* me while yet my tongue Could scarcely cry “weep*. Though the morning was cold. freamăt dale vale. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. Your spring and your day are wasted* in play. And he opened the coffins and set them all free. my children.” And so he was quiet. Joe. William Blake. And by* came an Angel who had a bright key. foşnet. As Tom was a-sleeping.10. never mind it. Tom. And got with our bags and our brushes to work. they need not fear harm. and that very night. The Chimney Sweeper* (from Songs of Innocence) When my mother died I was very young. Then down a green plain leaping. Nurse’s Song (from Songs of Experience) When the voices of children are heard on the green And whisperings* are in the dale*. who cried when his head That curled* like a lamb’s back. and we rose* in the dark. And the Angel told Tom. weep. And wash in a river. and in soot* I sleep. if he'd be a good boy. There’s little Tom Dacre. and shine in the Sun.9. the sun is gone down. My face turns green* and pale. And so Tom awoke. 212 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . whisperings şoapte. laughing. And your winter and night in disguise.Reader TEXT 6. And the dews of night arise. he had such a sight*!– That thousands of sweepers. The days of my youth rise fresh in my mind. vâlcea my face turns green as in “green with envy” to waste a pierde. for when your head's bare. So if all do their duty. Then come home. He'd have God for his father and never want* joy. They rise upon clouds.

these flowers of London town! Seated* in companies they sit with radiance* all their own*. Crying “weep*.” weep see explanation above woe intense grief/sorrow/unhappiness thy your say? ia spune! heath câmpie stearpă injury rău. Now like a mighty* wind they raise to heaven the voice of song. sold: a vinde (the boy’s father has put him to work to bring money in the family) weep the boy is so young that he could scarcely cry “sweep!” )to advertise his work in the streets). a se deştepta TEXT 6. coşciug by aproape. nedreptate misery intense unhappiness or suffering TEXT 6.11. William Blake. wise guardians of the poor.12.Reader chimney sweeper coşar. Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 213 . Grey-headed beadles* walked before. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Innocence) ‘Twas* on a Holy Thursday*. în preajmă to sport a zburda. weep!” in notes of woe*! “Where are thy* father and mother? say*?” “They are both gone up to church to pray. O what a multitude they seemed. And taught me to sing the notes of woe. They clothed me in the clothes of death. Then cherish* pity. to be lacking something rose to rise (rose. Because I was happy upon the heath*. hornar sold to sell. They think they have done me no injury*. lest* you drive* an angel from your door. but multitudes of lambs. Till into the high dome* of Paul’s* they like Thames’ waters flow. it is ironic that “sweep” becomes “weep” (a plânge) soot funingine to curl a se încreţi/cârlionţa hush taci. their innocent faces clean. And smiled among the winter’s snow. with wands* as white as snow. William Blake. risen): a se scula. Thousands of little boys and girls raising their innocent hands. Or like harmonious thunderings* the seats* of heaven among. The hum* of multitudes was there. Who make up a Heaven of our misery*. a se juca to want to feel the need or longing for something. potoleşte-te. Beneath them sit the aged men. And are gone to praise God and his Priest and King. The children walking two and two in red and blue and green. alături. fii liniştit sight vision coffin sicriu. And because I am happy and dance and sing. The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience) A little black thing among the snow.

the 40 day after Easter. fertil. lugubru bare gol. It is eternal winter there. Holy Thursday (from Songs of Experience) Is this a holy thing to see. who helped the priest in various ways. roditor fed to feed (fed): a hrăni usurous cămătăresc (see again the Glossary) bleak sterp.Reader ‘twas it was th Holy Thursday Ascension Day. ghimpe where-e’er wherever to appal to make someone feel shocked and upset (a îngrozi) 214 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . gentle light (strălucire) all their own coming from inside themselves hum a low continuous murmuring sound mighty very strong and powerful thundering tunet the seats of heaven among among the seats of heaven: in the sky (allusion to judgement seat. when the ascension of Christ to heaven is celebrated beadle an officer in British churches in the past. And where-e’er the rain does fall. William Blake. especially by keeping order wand baghetă dome hemispherical roof St Paul’s Cathedral the largest cathedral in London. For where-e’er* the sun does shine. a iubi) lest ca să nu. re-built th in the late 17 century. Babe can never hunger there. neroditor thorn spin. in the Revelation) to cherish to treasure something (a preţui. sterp. Fed* with cold and usurous* hand? Is that trembling cry a song? Can it be a song of joy? And so many children poor? It is a land of poverty! And their sun does never shine. fruitful fecund. a monument of baroque architecture seated aşezaţi radiance great happiness that shows in someone’s face. and to the Last Judgement. Nor poverty the mind appal*.13. a goni TEXT 6. rece. ca nu cumva to drive (from) a alunga. And their fields are bleak* and bare*. In a rich and fruitful* land Babes reduced to misery. soft. And their ways are filled with thorns*.

The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. with and introduction by Margaret Ann Doody. ediţie îngrijită şi comentată de Leon D. M. The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York. or.. Penguin Books Ltd. Oxford University Press. Leviţchi. Opere complete. Laurence. 1965 Fielding. William. Pamela. Samuel.). W.English pre-Romantic poetry Sources Abrams.. William. Vols. Opere complete. vol. The Complete Works.. XI (Furtuna) Bucureşti: Editura pentru Literatură Universală. by Peter Sabor. edited with an introduction by Arthur Humphreys. 1980 Shakespeare. Penguin Books Ltd. II New York. London: Henry Pordes. Joseph Andrews and Shamela. Gentleman. Craig. Penguin Books. Mariner. Daniel. edited with an introduction by Ian Campbell Ross. Virtue Rewarded. Dent and Sons Ltd. London: W.J. 1996 Richardson. Ltd. 1993 Defoe. or the History of a Young Lady. ediţie îngrijită şi comentată de Leon D. 1985 Richardson. London and Melbourne: J. vol. John. Samuel. William. I. 1988 Shakespeare. 1963 Shakespeare. 1986 Shakespeare. Paradise Lost. Ed. M. Clarissa. Norton & Company. 1983 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 215 . William.. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. H (Gen. ed. with a glossary by W. vol. 7 (Macbeth). edited with an Introduction by Angus Ross. 1984) Sterne. Opere. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. Leviţchi. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. edited with an introduction by Angus Ross. edited. Penguin Books Ltd. 1987 Milton. 5 (Hamlet). Henry..

Los Angeles. A. Garden City: Doubleday & Company. 1979 Cartianu. Ana. Thomas N (ed. The Cambridge Companion to English Poetry.. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 2.. 5). London: University of California Press. London and New York: Routlege.R..). London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. Walter.F. 3). London: Penguin Books. (vols. Norton & Company. David. (ed. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Penguin Books. Macmillan Education Ltd. Penguin Books.).. Romul. Boyson and J. M. 1985 Fairer. Émile. J. The Odyssey to Tom Jones. David. Norton and Company.Bibliography SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams. Partial Magic. Coulson). 1974 Nokes.. 1987 216 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural . 1961 Hammond. London: Penguin Books Ltd. Jacobean Poetry and Prose: Rhetoric.. Margaret (ed. Donne to Marvell¸ Cambridge University Press. 1975 Bloom. The Metaphysical Poets. Novel and Romance. Robert. II New York. Leavis). 1969 Day. Penguin Books Ltd. Twayne Publishers. 3. History of English Literature. David. Vols. Inc.. Martin. Robert.). H (Gen. The Poetry of William Blake. Romanticism. W. 1963 Drabble. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. 4. 1989 Munteanu. Hubert. 1971 Legouis. Inc. An Annotated Text with Critical Essays. Ioan Aurel Preda (eds. V.. W.). I.. 1988 Butt. 2003 McDermott. The English Novel. Aiden. 1970 Corns. 1965 Macsiniuc. Boris (ed.). Jonathan Swift. The Image of Childhood (with an introduction by F. London: W. Peter. Clive (ed. Gulliver’s Travels. Jonathan Swift. The Mid-Eighteenth Century. Bucureşti: Editura Enciclopedică Română. Literatura europeană în epoca luminilor. The New Pelican Guide to English Literature (vols. 1991 Greenberg. Berkeley. A Short History of English Literature (transl.). Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 1993 Coveney. 1989 Ferber. Robert A. 1660-1837. Penguin Books Ltd. Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică. 1996 Day.). New York. Gerald (ed. Ed. 1967 Cuddon. Cornelia. The Novel as a Self-Conscious Genre.. Representation and the Popular Imagination. Dicţionar al Literaturii Engleze. The Macmillan Press Ltd. New York: W.. Oxford University Press. A Critical History of English Literature. Michael. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 1992 Daiches. The Poetry of Alexander Pope. Joseph Andrews. The English Eighteenth Century. John. 1993 Allen. 1991 Ford. London: Secker and Warburg Ltd. 1988 Hunting.). Penguin Books Ltd. 1991 Alter. The Novel in Its Beginnings.

George. Cambridge University Press. 1983 Sampson. George. Ian. Fenomenul englez (vol. Kathleen. studiu introductiv şi note de Dan Grigorescu. Cambridge University Press. 1974 Preda. Marthe. Cambridge University Press. The Rise of the Novel. Chatto & Windus. The Renaissance and the Restoration Period. 1979 Richetti. Four Myths of Individualism. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. 1974 Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural 217 . Blake and the New Age. Ioan-Aurel (ed. Richardson and Fielding. Tudor. The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature. Luminiţa Elena. Bucureşti: Editura Univers. 2003 Volceanov. 1970 Turcu. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică. Romanul începuturilor şi începuturile romanului. Studies in Eighteenth Century Fiction and Romantic Poetry. 1996 Robert. ediţie îngrijită. Ian. Morfologia romanului european în secolul al XVIIIlea. The Cambridge Companion to the EighteenthCentury Novel. 2003 Raine. From Beowulf to Paradise Lost. Bucureşti: Editura “Grai şi suflet – Cultura naţională”. John (ed. Editura Universităţii Suceava. Studies in Defoe. 1991 Watt. Ioan-Aurel. Editura Universităţii Bucureşti.).” 2000 Watt. 1994 Protopopescu. London: George Allen and Unwin. The Literature of the Beginnings. 3). Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei “România de Mâine. A Survey of English Literature from Beowulf to Jane Austen. 1983 Preda.Bibliography Olteanu. English Literature and Civilisation. Dragoş.).