CONTENTS:  Acknowledgement  Overview: swarm intelligence  The Boid Model  Origin of swarm intelligence  Swarm intelligence to combat marine oil pollution  Application in disaster control  Future of swarm robotics  Latest developments in the field  Bibliography .

SWARM ROBOTICS “Swarm intelligence works best when all parts are equally stupid!!!!”  What if computers could make decisions for themselves?  What if you dropped a batch of computer parts onto a deserted island and they built a civilized communications network all by themselves. Sounds scary? Well. there's no need for getting scared. .  What if your doctor injected a swarm of microchips to attack a hard-to-reach tumor? A few years ago. To find the effective solutions for the everyday problems. these animals can together hit upon a solution for complicated tasks. birds and insects. those were very big ifs. We're not talking artificial intelligence -. researchers are now increasingly concentrating on swarm intelligence based on the collective strength of fish.just swarm intelligence. We are introducing a new concept that is still at its initial level of development but is one of the most promising field in the coming future. As a single system.

algorithms. OVERVIEW: SWARM INTELLIGENCE As the name implies. Animation studios in Hollywood are using this principle to create collective groups of animals tat remarkably behave like their real counterparts. fly as fast as the neighbor and third. to simulate on a computer the motion of a flock of birds . . Application of the swarm principles to a large number of robots is known as ‘SWARM ROBOTICS’. Reynolds created a boid" model. and principles from the engineering and basic science communities.that follow simple rules. In 1987.Each boid is implemented as an independent actor that navigates according to its own perception of the dynamic environment. For instance. SI is continuously incorporating new ideas.As well we introduce some fields where this concept is been already employed or can be employed successfully as more and more advances are made in the practical aspect. the flight of a flock of birds can be described in three patterns: First claws out before the collision. second. bees and other insects.whether they're bugs or computer nodes -. fly in the direction perceived by other birds. THE BOID MODEL: A collective group manages well even with a few rules. which is a distributed behavioral model. A boid must observe the following rules. swarm intelligence is a scientific theory based on the actions of ants. In computer simulation. these simple rules are adequate to replicate realistic group behavior. It asserts complex behavior can emerge from a group of individuals -.

The center rule plays a role in both attraction and repulsion. that of it acting according to attraction and repulsion between neighbors in a flock. the “center rule” says that a boid should minimize exposure to the flock's exterior by moving toward the perceived center of the flock. Roboticists have attempted to model this cooperative transport.First. fourth rule “view rule” that indicates that a boid should move laterally away from any boid the blocks its view. the “avoidance rule” says that a boid must move away from boids that are too close. i.. so as to reduce the chance of in-air collisions. This boid model seems reasonable if we consider it from another point of view. Although this scenario seems to be well under-stood in biology. The repulsion relationship results in the avoidance of collisions and attraction makes the flock keep shape. copying movements of neighbors can be seen as a kind of attraction. For instance.e. Second. The swarm behavior of the simulated flock is the result of the dense interaction of the relatively simple behaviors of the individual boids. Third. the mechanisms underlying cooperative transport remain unclear. the “copy rule”says a boid must fly in the general direction that the flock is moving by averaging the other boids' velocities and directions. Cube and Zhang [2] introduce a simulation model including stagnation recovery with the method of task modeling .

Algorithms based on animal behavioral patterns: The manner in which the ants use pheromone. Thanks to their predecessors. then all take the one round first. The software that is based on swarm of ants replicates the behavioral pattern of its role model by gradually establishing the variables of a solution that is sought afterresembling ants searching their way. If the routes are similar. a scent marking to track the shortest way between the source of food and dwelling serves as a model for finding solutions to problems based on logistics and optimization Such as in case of routing in telecommunication networks. .SWARM INTELLIGENCE : INTRODUCTION & ORIGIN The ants find the shortest route. Computer scientists are already applying this tactic in many cases.

” Swarm intelligence works best when all parts are equally stupid”. using the available data to find out the state in which an individual or object is and how an intelligent environment can react. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for the Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (IPA). . According to him it is not possible to have a central planning system since the prediction of the nature of an oil spill is unreliable. Thus. find oil and then absorb it. SWARM TO COMBAT MARINE OIL POLLUTION!!!!!!!! A project for swarm robotics is already taking a shape in the sea. Dr Cornel Klein from the Siemens Research Department of Corporate Technology said.e. The robots in this case are the small ships resembling catamarans with an exhaust device between the vats.” A common software architecture serves as a universal link for the solutions of various problems. Explaining the principle behind this technology. Siemens is already applying this technology in the fields of home networking and building engineering services. 100 robots after taking their respective positions. robot expert at IPA is of the opinion that a swarm with distributed intelligence is perfectly suited in the field of oil. Dennis Fritsch. communicate with one another.A pressing task of the software is to record the so called context awareness i. Moreover failures can be better compensated if all ‘employees’ are identical. Specialization within the swarm has only negative implications on the overall result. Germany are geared toward using this technology to control oil spill.

Fritsch says that as long as sensor communicates its presence in the oil spill to the robot. the robots simply continue going ahead. If the robots come out of the oil spill. The number of the robots is directly proportionate to how well the waste can be eliminated. As long as the sensors measure the oil. . The robot rotates coils until it discovers the oil. Currently this method is being used in the simulation with small mobile robots. If the decision is positive then the first robotic fleets will be deployed in the next five years. As a part of the EU project. Lets see the concept in sensor network: A sensor network displays the temperature. A beamer at the base indicates an expanding oil spill. The robots go back to the ship carrying the oil waste. it will be decided whether the entire plan can be actually put into practice. the process is smooth. they rotate coils until the sensors detect the oil again. the centre of smoke and pollutants in its environment to fire fighters and guides them to the source of fire. As can be seen in the figure on the left: 1 2 3 4 A swarm of robots are set from the ship into the water in the direction of the oil spill.

researchers are working on using swarm computing for the disaster control. then this information is immediately forwarded Presently. GPS. Away from the sand bags at the dike. Researchers of the European Galileo project are working on a way to make it possible to receive stronger signals in the coming years. various sensors and a small radio interface. a major hurdle of this project is the exact location of the swarm. If the sensors record a water inrush. thousands of rotors set up in several rows are arranged at a stretch.APPLICATION IN DISASTER CONTROL: DIKES AND WINDMILLS DO THE THINKING!!!!!!!!!! At the German coast of the Baltic Sea. A sand sack situated deep in the seawaters has no visibility and thus will hardly be able to receive a GPS signal. . Siemens has connected these windmills in such a way that they mutually monitor one another The windmills in the front rows send updated measured wind data to the mills arranged at the back. a swarm with modules will be set up after every meter. Project swarm developed by the institute for Telematics of Lubeck University of communication Systems at Kiel involves wireless networking of sensors systems that can protect dikes and coasts. Offshore wind parks would be able to provide more energy and would be less sensitive had they been able to communicate with one another. While sensors in the dike ring the alarm bell in case of danger and allow the emergency measures to kick off. other sensor networks are directly linked with a control system. These mills can then immediately adapt to the blowing wind if change the alignment of the rotor blades in case of dangerous gusts. and will be provided with a small computer. In big windmills such as those already seen on the Danish coasts.

army ants organize impressive foraging raids. says Professor Martin Greiner from Siemens. Such coordination capabilities are still beyond the reach of current multi-robot systems. ants can collectively carry large preys. These machines are installed with GPS cameras. wind and sun. In this way blackouts can be prevented . in a planned European integrated network. A collective group manages well even with a few rules. Networks resembling a swarm could play a more important role for energy supply in future. Social insects are known to coordinate their actions to accomplish tasks that are beyond the capabilities of a single individual: Termites build large and complex mounds. and image recognition systems for the orientation. The Professor’s vision is to distribute the intelligence within the power supply network in order to immediately pick up as many fluctuations as possible in the nodal points and not later in already overloaded control center. they are programmed to work in a swarm.What makes these ‘futuristic creature’ so fascinating? It is a fact that although these creatures exchange information.” “We need to think of how the power supply can controls itself”. an individual creature need not be super bright. If in future. which in turn results in intelligence. then these gigantic networks can no longer be regulated from a control center. more power supply is supplied from renewable energy sources such as water.

at bridges or poles. traffic lights automatically switch to red and the smoke outlet is activated.The latest developments:  Distributed intelligence is already being used in the road traffic. The entire set up as can be seen in the figure on left can not only detect fire with help of smoke emission at an early stage but also identify stagnated vehicles or even a traffic jam. researchers at Siemens.  We have seen it in movies like Minority Report where a throng of digitally controlled artificial ants track the movements of the central character played by Tom Cruise.  Having drawn inspiration from ants. these sensors collect information through traffic density as well as the direction and speed of the vehicles. Germany have envisioned small mobile machines that will replicate the behavior of giant ants. the system triggers an alarm and sets off a chain reaction of the security measures. A good example is that of the Swiss Giswil tunnel that has an intelligent video monitoring system. In case of the persistent change. for instance. For this purpose. Pilot projects in congested urban areas combine central traffic management system with end devices such as navigation system and cell phones. the evaluation algorithm compares the current picture with the reference pictures already archived. Experts are hopeful that such autonomous network systems could one day inspect and carry out maintenance work in case of dangerous situations or even take over mobile monitoring tasks . it is very important to have an automatic analysis of data available on the site. Thousands of sensors collect data for this purpose.  At a skyscraper in New York. these machines pick up information from the environment. Hidden in paving. communicate with one another and together solve a problem assigned to them.  In accident prone areas like a tunnel.

We introduced some areas where in this concept is been already employed or can be employed successfully as imagination meets technology.CONCLUSION We have introduced a new concept that is still at its initial level of development but is one of the most promising field in the coming future. .

BIBLIOGRAPHY   Intelligent computing chip-february 2007 Minority report movie. .