DSC 2010 INFERENCES FROM SMALL SAMPLES

When sampling from a normally distributed population with an unknown variance and a small sample (n < 30), the sampling distribution of the sample statistic is a t-Distribution, where t=

x-Q s n

Characteristics of t-Distribution 1. It has a mean of zero. 2. It is symmetrical about its mean. 3. In general, the variance > 1, but approaches 1 as the sample size (n)approachesg. 4. The t-distribution approaches the normal distribution as n increases. 5. The t-distribution has a lower peak at the center and higher tails than the normal distribution. 6. -ge

t eg

7. The t-distribution is a family, with a different distribution for each degree of freedom value. (d.f.is the denominator of the sample variance s2)

Small Sample Confidence Interval For :

x

± (tw/2, d.f.)

s n

d.f. = (n-1)

Small Sample Test of Hypothesis for : 1. Statement of the hypotheses. Two-Tailed Test Ho: = oHa: { One-Tailed Test Ho: = o Ha:

o

< oorHa:

>

o

df wheresp = 2 s +s n n p 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 p 2 ( n .2< Do or Ha: 1.1) s d. df t u t for Ha: Do or t e -t for Ha: 1.2): X 1í X 2 ± t /2.2): Two-Tailed TestOne-Tailed Test Ho: 1 . df . df or tut /2. Test Statistic 2 = Do Ha: 1. Rejection Region Two-Tailed Test: One-Tailed Test: t e -t /2. Test Statistic t =x- Q o s n 3. Statement of the Hypotheses 1.2) Small Sample test of Hypothesis( 1. df for Ha: > oor tet .2.2< Do .2 = Do Ha: 1 . Rejection Region Two-Tailed Test: t e -t One-Tailed Test: t u t /2.X 2).2> /2. dfor tut 1.2{ DoHo: 12.Do t =------------------- s n 2 p 1 s n 2 p 2 3.2 > Do ( X 1. dffor Ha: < o Small Sample Confidence Interval ( 1. n +n -2 2 2 1 2 = (n1 + n2 .f.1) s + ( n .