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Electronics Index Page

CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE

V. Ryan © 2002-2007

The section is aimed at introducing pupils to basic concepts of electronics. You will find that a range of basic electronics is covered including; component symbols, power sources, diodes, capacitors, transistors, LEDs and many more. Click on the aspect of electronics outlined below to view the information sheets.

COMPONENTS / SYMBOLS
1. Electronic Components and Symbols - 1 2. Electronic Components and Symbols - 2 3.Electronic Components and Symbols - 3 4. Symbols Summary Sheet 5. Lesson Starter - Electronic Components 6. Lesson Starter - Electronic Tools and Equipment 7. Basic Electronics - Wordsearch Exercise

COMPONENT AND CIRCUIT DETAILS
1. Batteries and LEDs 2. Button Batteries / Coin Cells - Simple Circuits 3. Switches -1 4. Switches - 2 5. Switches - 3 6. Incandescent Lamps (Bulbs) 1 7. Incandescent Lamps (Bulbs) 2 8. Series Circuits 9. Circuits in Parallel

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Electronics Index Page

10. A Series / Parallel Circuit 11. Basic Circuit using Crocodile Technology® Circuit Simulation Software 12. The Diode 13. Capacitors 14. Resistors 15. Using Crocodile Technology® to Test the Relationship between Resistors and Capacitors 16. Test Instruments 17. Light Dependent Resistors 18. The Preset Resistor 19.Making a Light / Dark Sensor 20. Sequence Drawing - Light/Dark Sensor 21. LDR Examination Question - 1 22. LDR Examination Question - 2 23 LDR Examination Question - 3 24. Sensor Question - LDR 25. Switches, Diode, Transistor and General Circuit Questions 26. The Thermistor 27. Information Regarding Thermistor Circuits and Darlington Pairs 28. A Typical Temperature Sensor 29. Potential Dividers 30. SI Units and OHM's Law 31. Resistors - Questions 32. Relays and Practical Circuits 33. The Basics on Transistors 34. Transistors - Darlington Pairs 35. Transistor Exam Question 36. Transistor Breadboard Project 37. Transistor Darlington Pair Breadboard Project 38. Transistor Formulas and Calculations 39. Dual Transistor Multivibrator Circuit 40. Lesson Starter - Astable Transistor Circuit (Multivibrator) 41. Examination Questions : Dual Transistor Multivibrator Circuits 42. The Thyristor 43. Steady Hand Game - Thyristor Circuit 44. Breadboards 45. Examination Questions - Jigs

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Electronics Index Page

CONTROL SYSTEMS
1. Analogue / Digital Systems 2. Control Systems 3. Control Systems - An Example

MODULAR ELECTRONICS
1. Modular Electronics 2. Modular Electronics - Control Studio® -1 3. Modular Electronics - Control Studio® -2 4. Modular Electronics - Control Studio® -3

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND LOGIC GATES
1. Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits - 1 2. Digital Electronics and Logic Gates - 2 (Role of Transistors) 3. Basic Logic Gates and Logic Tables 4. Alternative representations of Logic Tables 5. Example Logic Circuit - 1 6. Example Logic Circuit - 2 7. The 4081B Integrated Circuit (AND gate) - a Practical Example. 8. The 4081B - Circuit Design 9. Digital Logic Circuit Exam Question 1 10. Digital Logic Circuit Exam Question 2 11. Digital Logic Circuit Exam Question 3 12. AND Gate Sample Question 13. AND Gate Sample Answer 12. The Binary System 13. Integrated Circuits - 1 14. Integrated Circuits - 2
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Electronics Index Page

15. Integrated Circuits - 3

THE 555 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
1. The 555 Integrated Circuit (Timer) - a Simple Explanation 2. The 555 IC as an ASTABLE Circuit 3. The 555 IC as a MONOSTABLE Circuit 4. 555 MONOSTABLE Examples 5. The MONOSTABLE Circuit in more detail 6. Animation 1 - 555 Timer Circuit - Frames Created by Crocodile Technology 3D 7. Animation 2 - 555 Timer Circuit - Frames Created by Crocodile Technology 3D 8. Monostable Timer Examination Questions - 1 9. Monostable Timer Examination Questions - 2 10. ASTABLE 555 Breadboard Project 11. 555 ASTABLE Examples 12. The ASTABLE Circuit in more detail

THE 741 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
1. The Operation Amplifier used as an Amplifier - a Simple Explanation 2. The 741 Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier with Sensors 3. The 741 Operational Amplifier - an introduction 4. Inverting and Non-inverting 741 Amplifiers 5. The 741 Operational Amplifier as a Comparator 6. 741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

THE 4017B DECADE COUNTER
1. How the 4017B decade Counter Works 2. Adding a Motor and a Solenoid to the 4017B Decade Counter

(UNDER CONSTRUCTION)

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Electronics Index Page

1. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS THEME: RAILWAY TRANSPORT CONTEXT: OPERATING SYSTEMS Pupils research the theme as they work through the resources/questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the Systems and Control course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions*

1. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 1 2.Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 2 3. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3 4. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4 5. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 5 6. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6 7. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 7 8. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 8 9. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 9 10. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 10 11. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 11 12. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 12 13. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 13 14. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 14 15. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 15 16. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 16 17. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 17 18. Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 18

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Electronics Index Page

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A Design and Technology Site

A DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY SITE This website contains numerous information sheets and exercises to enhance the study, understanding and teaching of DESIGN and TECHNOLOGY. ( CLICK HERE FOR THE WORLD ASSOCIATION OF TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS)

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A Design and Technology Site

TECHNOLOGYSTUDENT.COM - SITE SEARCH

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The information sheets cover a wide range and include, the design process, gear systems, electronics, cams, printed circuit boards, PIC microcontrollers / computer control, key words/phrases, structures, vocational work, technology and cultures, basic CNC work. They are intended to provide a valuable resource for teachers and pupils AND they are free. By using this website you are agreeing to abide by the copyright outlined below.

V. Ryan © 2002-2005 CONTACT THE AUTHOR ? - techteacher@teacher.com

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A Design and Technology Site

JOIN W.A.T.T - CLICK ABOVE This work is protected by copyright law and international copyright treaties as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties. Copyright law and other intellectual property laws in many countries protect the rights of the owner/author by granting to the owner/author a number of exclusive rights. Copying, changing, editing or publishing software/ printouts without the permission of the owner is "copyright infringement," and the law imposes penalties on infringers. These information sheets can be used by teachers and pupils. They can be printed and used for educational purposes but must not be edited in any form or placed on other Websites. COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 1

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ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND SYMBOLS - 1
V. Ryan © 2005

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There are a large number of symbols which represent an equally large range of electronic components. It is important that you can recognise the more common components and understand what they actually do. A number of these components are drawn below and it is interesting to note that often there is more than one symbol representing the same type of component. (Check all your information sheets in the electronics section for more symbols).

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 1

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 1

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 1

CLICK HERE FOR MORE COMPONENTS AND SYMBOLS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 2

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ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND SYMBOLS - 2
V. Ryan © 2005

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There are a large number of symbols which represent an equally large range of electronic components. It is important that you can recognise the more common components and understand what they actually do. A number of these components are drawn below and it is interesting to note that often there is more than one symbol representing the same type of component. (Check all your information sheets in the electronics section for more symbols).

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 2

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 2

CLICK HERE FOR MORE COMPONENTS AND SYMBOLS

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 2

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 3

CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND SYMBOLS - 3
V. Ryan © 2005

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There are a large number of symbols which represent an equally large range of electronic components. It is important that you can recognise the more common components and understand what they actually do. A number of these components are drawn below and it is interesting to note that often there is more than one symbol representing the same type of component. (Check all your information sheets in the electronics section for more symbols).

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 3

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Electronic Components and Symbols - 3

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Electronic Components

CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE

COMPONENT SYMBOLS
V. Ryan © 2002

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There are a large number of symbols which represent an equally large range of electronic components. It is important that you can recognise the more common components and understand what they actually do. A number of these components are drawn below and it is interesting to note that often there is more than one symbol representing the same type of component. (Check all your information sheets in the electronics section for more symbols).

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Electronic Components

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Electronic Components

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Lesson Starter - Electronics

CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE

LESSON STARTER - ELECTRONICS
V. Ryan © 2005

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IDENTIFYING ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS Below are a number of common electronic components you are likely to use when making circuits. Underneath each component write the correct name.

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Lesson Starter - Electronics

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Lesson Starter - Electronics

CLICK HERE FOR ANSWERS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Lesson starter - Equipment and Components

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LESSON STARTER EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS FOR CIRCUIT WORK
V. Ryan © 2005

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Some basic tools / equipment / components you may use when working with circuits are shown below. Name each tool / piece of equipment / component and explain what they are for.

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Lesson starter - Equipment and Components

CLICK HERE FOR ANSWERS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Basic Electronics - Word Exercise

CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE

BASIC ELECTRONICS - WORD EXERCISE
V. Ryan © 2006

Create your own wordsearch to help promote a basic understanding of electronics - using the following words or your own ‘relevant’ words. WIRE SOLDER PCB PLIERS GOGGLES BATTERY BUZZER APRON ELECTRICITY COMPONENTS THYRISTOR CUTTERS POSITIVE DIODE FAULT SAFETY NEGATIVE TRANSISTOR CELL SAFETY SWITCH CIRCUIT

You will need two colours for this exercise. Write the words seen above in one colour and add extra letters in another.

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Basic Electronics - Word Exercise

SAMPLE ANSWER Below is the start of a sample answer to the wordsearch. As a word placed in the grid is crossed off the list below.

WIRE SOLDER PCB PLIERS GOGGLES BATTERY

BUZZER APRON ELECTRICITY COMPONENTS THYRISTOR CUTTERS

POSITIVE DIODE FAULT SAFETY NEGATIVE RESISTOR

TRANSISTOR CELL SAFETY SWITCH CIRCUIT

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Basic Electronics - Word Exercise

Try completing the word search started above. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Basic Electronics - Word Exercise

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Batteries and LEDs

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CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE
V. Ryan © 2002-05

BATTERIES and LEDs

Many pupils are scared of electronics as they look at the books in the library. These are often very complex as very few have been written for beginners. This can put off people from learning about electronics and circuits. Everywhere we look there are examples of electronics, ranging from a simple radio to a hi-tech digital television. However complex looking an electronic device may be, they are all based on simple components gathered together in circuits.

Batteries come in all shapes and sizes. They store electrical charge and as we all know when they are put into an electronic device such as a portable radio, they provide the power. The usual battery sizes are seen opposite. These are the type used in school projects and range from 1.5 volts to 9 volts. School projects are powered by batteries because they are safe, easily bought and safe.

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Batteries and LEDs

QUESTION This shows one of the most simple circuits. When the switch is pressed, the LED (further information below) lights. Resistors are used in circuits because LEDs can be destroyed by voltages over 3 volts. Why do you think the circuit opposite does not have a resistor to protect the LED ? ANSWER Each battery is 1.5 volts. The two batteries are connected in ‘series’, they are both linked positive to negative and this gives us a total of 3 volts. Therefore, the LED is safe from damage.

THE LED

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are very rugged, they last a very long time and they are an optical source. (A LIGHT SOURCE) LEDs produce red, green, yellow, or orange light. They are used in a range of products. Can you name any ? Infrared LEDs are also available although light from this type cannot be seen by the human eye. These are used in security devices. LEDs are part of the diode family, consequently they must be connected the right way round or current will not pass through. They are usually protected by a resistor. (See DIODE information sheet).
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Batteries and LEDs

A SELECTION OF THE MOST POPULAR COLOURS

ENLARGED LED - NOTICE THE LONG AND SHORT LEG

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Button Batteries/ Coin Cells and Simple Circuits

CLICK HERE FOR INDEX PAGE

BUTTON BATTERIES /COIN CELLS AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS
V. Ryan © 2008

A button cell is a very small battery. A good example is the type found in most modern watches. This type of battery is often used in camcorders as backup batteries. They ensure that the date and time are held in memory even when the rechargeable batteries are removed. Button batteries are usually rated at 1.5 volts or 3 volts and consequently they are used in devices that need very little power. Watches are ideal for this type of battery as well as low power calculators and hearing aids. Large button batteries are used as backup batteries for the CMOS of computer systems and ensure that the basic settings in the setup of the computer are held in memory, even when the computer is switched off. TYPICAL BUTTON CELL

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Button Batteries/ Coin Cells and Simple Circuits

The diagram opposite shows an LED and two button batteries. When the legs of the LED are pressed against the positive and negative sides of the batteries the LED lights. If an ultra bright LED is used the light is quite intense. The two coin cells shown are each 1.5 volts. A typical LED needs 3 volts to emit light effectively. The circuit diagram is shown below. The battery, switch and LED symbols have been included. Although no switch is used in reality, the switch mimics the two fingers pressing the legs of the LED together against the batteries.

If each button battery is rated as 1.5 volts, when two are arranged in series as shown in the diagram below, together they are rated as 3 volts. Putting batteries together in series simply means adding the voltages together. In this way button batteries can be used to provide higher voltage outputs.

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Button Batteries/ Coin Cells and Simple Circuits

A simple LED torch can be made by using two sides of compressed polystyrene (high density polystyrene), two button batteries, an LED and a piece of foam. The polystyrene sides are held together by double sided tape. The foam keeps the legs of the LED from touching the terminals of the button batteries. When the torch is pressed the legs of the LED make contact with the batteries and the LED lights.

The small hand held torch seen below has 4 button batteries each rated at 1.5 volts. This means that the sum of the batteries is equal to 6 volts. This is enough to allow the bulb to light. Bulbs were once common in torches but they have been replaced by ultra bright LEDs. LEDs are more efficient than bulbs, requiring less power and they can last for thousands of hours when in use. Bulbs on the other hand tend to blow/fail after a relatively short time.

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Button Batteries/ Coin Cells and Simple Circuits

SIMPLE DESIGN SHEET LAYOUT

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Button Batteries/ Coin Cells and Simple Circuits

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Switches

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SWITCHES - 1
V. Ryan © 2002-04

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Some common switches are shown on this information sheet. Basically switches bring contacts together in different ways but they do the same switching job. Typical Switch Symbols

KEY SWITCH

This switch is available in different forms. They provide limited security as a key is required to ‘switch’ them on and off.

PUSH SWITCH

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Switches

These can be ‘push to make’ (push the switch to allow the circuit to work) or ‘push to break’ (push the switch to turn off the circuit).

ROCKER SWITCH

This switch is common on many electrical devices. For example they are found on computer units for turning them on and off.

CLICK HERE FOR NEXT SWITCHES PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Switches

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SWITCHES - 2
V. Ryan © 2002-04

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Some common switches are shown on this information sheet. Basically switches bring contacts together in different ways but they do the same switching job. Typical Switch Symbols

TOGGLE SWITCH

These are available in miniature and standard sizes. The advantage of the toggle switch is that they can be extended and operated by a lever.

SLIDE SWITCH

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Switches

Can be stiff to operate and does not operate smoothly. Available in a range of sizes.

REED / MAGNETIC SWITCH This is a thin glass tube that contains two thin strips of metal (the reeds). When a magnet is brought close to the glass tube, the reeds move together and make contact and the switch is turned on. The reeds open again when the magnet is removed. Reed switches are common in alarm systems, for example, in door frames. When the door is closed the magnet keeps the switch on. When the door is opened the alarm system senses the broken contact and goes off. The top animation shows the reed switch with its glass 'surrounding' tube. The animation below shows the reed switch with the glass removed so that the two metal strips can be seen. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT SWITCHES PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Switches

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Switches

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SWITCHES - 3
V. Ryan © 2002

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Some common switches are shown on this information sheet. Basically switches bring contacts together in different ways but they do the same switching job. Typical Switch Symbols

MICRO-SWITCH Micro-switches can be very small. Usually they include a small arm which when pressed clicks. They are very useful and can be found on many machines - used a safety switches. For example, if the 'lid' of a drilling machine is opened to change the pulley speeds, a micro-switch is released ensuring that all power is turned off. These switches can be very useful in school projects TILT SWITCH

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Switches

One of the most common types of tilt switch uses a ‘blob’ of mercury in a small tube. When the tube is tilted the mercury runs down and forms a bridge across the two contacts turning the switch on. This type of switch is used in warning systems that alert people to an excessive angle of tilt, e. g. for drivers of farm vehicles.

PRESSURE PAD / SWITCH This is a soft flexible switch available in many sizes. It consists of two flexible conductive foil sheets separated by a thin felt, paper or foam layer. If pressure is applied the conductive surfaces touch and the switch is ‘on’

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Incandescent Lamps (Bulbs) - 1

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INCANDESCENT LAMPS (BULBS) - 1
V. Ryan © 2005

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Bulbs have been used in electronics for along time and they are used in a wide range of circuits. Almost everyone has used a torch and if you look closely at the light source, it is more than likely that it is a bulb. In more recent years bulbs have been slowly replaced by LEDs as these are brighter, much more reliable, cheaper, energy efficient and have a much longer working life. They are also available in a range of colours. However, bulbs are still popular. Look closely at a typical torch bulb. It basically consists of glass ‘bulb’, inside which is a filament made from a metal called tungsten. The glass bulb holds a gas called Argon or Nitrogen or Krypton, which increases the working life of the filament. When current passes through the filament it illuminates brightly, giving out bright light. Some bulbs such as the example opposite have a screw thread which means the bulb can be unscrewed from its holder and replaced, once the filament fails.

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Incandescent Lamps (Bulbs) - 1

The ‘conductor’ at the bottom of this example bulb carries the current, allowing it to pass through the filament. A number of symbols can be used to represent a bulb. Three typical symbols are shown opposite. These are often seen in examinations and consequently it is important to know them.

Two versions of the same circuit are shown below. The conventional circuit diagram (on the left) shows the filament bulb lighting brightly when the switch is turned on. The current flows through the filament, causing light to be emitted. In the pictorial circuit diagram on the right the components are shown as pictures rather than symbols.

This basic circuit has a battery as the electrical ‘source’ and a filament bulb. The bulb is called the ‘load’ as it does all the work in the circuit (ie. it lights). Crocodile Technology © software is very useful when simulating this type of circuit diagram.

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Incandescent Lamps (Bulbs) - 1

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Incandescent Lamps (bulbs) 2

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INCANDESCENT LAMPS (BULBS) - 2
V. Ryan © 2005

Filament bulbs are used in many applications in and around the home. Name and sketch four examples that you have seen. Add a description of each example. EXAMPLE ANSWER

SKETCH

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Incandescent Lamps (bulbs) 2

SKETCH

SKETCH

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Incandescent Lamps (bulbs) 2

SKETCH

The two bulbs below look very different. However, they are both composed of a filament, placed inside an envelope of glass. The glass envelope of each bulb contains a gas. However, one of the bulbs is used in the house for producing standard light and the other is used in a car head light and is very bright.

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Incandescent Lamps (bulbs) 2

1. The household bulb is:______________ 2. The car headlight bulb is:____________ Explain the differences between bulb ‘A’ and bulb ‘B’. You may wish to search the internet for scientific / technical information on both bulbs

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Series Circuits

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SERIES CIRCUITS
V. Ryan © 2005

The circuit opposite shows three bulbs placed in series. This is a called a series circuit. Current flows through each of the bulbs in sequence. Current flows through bulb A, then bulb B and finally bulb C. The more bulbs that are added, the less bright they shine. It is possible to added so many bulbs that they do not light at all. This is due to the resistance in each bulb. If any of the bulbs fail, current cannot flow through the circuit and the other components will not work. ANOTHER SERIES CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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Series Circuits

The circuit (right and left) is another example of a series circuit. When the switch is turned on current flows through the bulb first, then the solenoid and last the motor. This causes the bulb to light, the solenoid to be activated and the motor’s spindle to rotate. However, the more components that are added in series means the less current is available for all. Eventually, each component will fail to work as too much current is being drained from the circuit. Crocodile Technology © software is very useful when simulating this type of circuit diagram.

QUESTIONS: 1. Draw a simple series circuit and explain how it works. 2. Draw the same components but this time arranged as a ‘parallel’ circuit. How do the two circuits differ? 3. Is it possible to have a circuit that has some components arranged in parallel whilst others are arranged in series? If your answer is ‘yes’ draw a circuit that has two bulbs and two motors. Place the two bulbs in series and the two motors in parallel. 4. What will happen if one of the components fails in a series circuit? CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Series Circuits

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Parallel Circuits

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PARALLEL CIRCUITS
V. Ryan © 2005

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The circuit below shows three bulbs placed in parallel. This is a parallel circuit. Current can flow through each of the bulbs without first having to flow through any others. If any of the bulbs fail the others will still work as current can still flow through the rest of the circuit.

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Parallel Circuits

ANOTHER PARALLEL CIRCUIT The circuit below is another example of a parallel circuit. When the switch is turned on current flows through the bulb, solenoid and motor simultaneously. This causes the bulb to light, the solenoid to the activated and the motors spindle to rotate, all at the same time.

PICTORIAL DRAWING OF THE SAME PARALLEL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Crocodile Technology © software is very useful when simulating this type of circuit diagram. QUESTIONS: 1. Draw a simple parallel circuit and explain how it works. 2. Draw the same components but this time arranged as a ‘series’ circuit. How do the two circuits differ? 3. What will happen if one of the components fails in a parallel circuit?

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Parallel Circuits

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Series and Parallel Circuit

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A SERIES / PARALLEL CIRCUIT
V. Ryan © 2005

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The circuit below is both series and parallel. If you look closely you will see that the two bulbs are in series with each other whilst the motors are an parallel. All the components provide a clear path for the current.

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Series and Parallel Circuit

QUESTIONS: 1. What will happen if one of the motors fails to function? Will the entire circuit fail? 2. Draw another example of a circuit that is both series and parallel. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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SIMPLE CIRCUIT EXERCISE USING CROCODILE TECHNOLOGY SIMULATION SOFTWARE - BATTERY, LED AND SWITCH
V. Ryan © 2004

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The circuit seen below can be built using Crocodile Technology® electronics simulation software. The software allows the circuit designer to build a circuit on the screen of a computer rather than building a real circuit out of expensive components. It can then be tested on screen. Furthermore, the software allows ‘pictorial’ representations of the components to be used rather than circuit symbols. This makes the circuit look more realistic.

By now you should have a good understanding of LEDs and a limited knowledge of resistors. Build the circuit seen opposite using simulation software. When the switch is closed the LED lights.

1. If the battery is 9 volts, what role has the resistor?

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A Design and Technology Site

2. Using simulation software, build the circuit seen opposite. This time do not use the pictorial setting, use actual electronic symbols. When the switch is closed the LED should light.

3. Build the same circuit but this time remove the resistor. When the switch is closed the LED and the switch will explode. Why is the LED destroyed?

FURTHER EXERCISES: 1. Build a circuit using simulation software - composed of a 9 volt supply, a switch, a 380 ohm resistor and two LEDs, arrange in series (one after the other). What do you notice about the brightness of the LEDS, compared to the same circuit with only one LED? explain your answer.

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The Diode

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THE DIODE
V. Ryan © 2002-04

A diode allows electricity to flow in one direction only and blocks the flow in the opposite direction. They may be regarded as one-way valves and they are used in various circuits, usually as a form of protection. There are different types of diode but their basic functions are the same. These are noted below along with examples of diodes in use. The most common type of diode is a ‘silicon diode.’ It is enclosed in a glass cylinder with the dark band marking the cathode terminal. This line points towards the positive of a circuit. The opposite terminal is called the anode. Generally, diodes do not conduct until the voltage reaches approximately .6 volts, this is called the ‘threshold point’. If the current becomes too high the diode may crack or melt.

TYPICAL USES OF DIODES REVERSE POLARITY PROTECTOR

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The Diode

The diode in this circuit protects a radio or a recorder etc... In the event that the battery or power source is connected the wrong way round, the diode does not allow current to flow. Electronic devices can be damaged or even destroyed if the polarity is reversed (positive and negative are connected to the wrong terminals).

TRANSIENT PROTECTOR When an ‘inductor’ device such as a relay is turned off a high voltage can be generated for a short time (Dia 1). This voltage ‘spike’ can damage the relay and other components. However, the diode does not allow current to pass through it in the wrong direction and short circuits this spike. The diode can also be used to protect a ‘meter’ from a reverse current (Dia 2). ZENER DIODES Normally a current does not flow through a diode in the reverse direction. The Zener Diode is specifically designed to begin conducting in the opposite direction when the reverse voltage reaches a voltage threshold. Zener diodes are sometimes used as a voltage sensitive switch. Can you think of any other devices that may benefit from the use of diodes ? What about solenoids ? CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Capacitors

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CAPACITORS
V. Ryan © 2002-05

Capacitors are components that are used to store an electrical charge and are used in timer circuits. A capacitor may be used with a resistor to produce a timer. Sometimes capacitors are used to smooth a current in a circuit as they can prevent false triggering of other components such as relays.

A capacitor is composed of two conductors separated by an insulating material called a DIELECTRIC. The dielectric can be paper, plastic film, ceramic, air or a vacuum. The plates can be aluminium discs, aluminium foil or a thin film of metal applied to opposite sides of a solid dielectric. The CONDUCTOR - DIELECTRIC CONDUCTOR sandwich can be rolled into a cylinder or left flat

HOW A CAPACITOR WORKS

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Capacitors

When the circuit is switched on, the light dependent resistor emits light and the capacitor charges up. When the switch is turned off the LED stills emits a light for a few seconds because the electricity stored in the capacitor is slowly discharged. When it has fully discharged it's electricity the LED no longer emits light. If a resistor is introduced to the circuit the capacitor charges up more slowly but also discharges more slowly. What will happen to the light ? Electrolytic capacitors are ‘polarised’ which means they have a positive and negative lead and must be positioned in a circuit the right way round (the positive lead must go to the positive side of the circuit). They also have a much higher capacitance than non-electrolytic capacitors. Non-electrolytic capacitors usually have a lower capacitance. They are not polarised (do not have a positive and negative lead) and can be placed anyway round in a circuit. They are normally used to smooth a current in a circuit. CAPACITANCE - means the value of a capacitor.

Notice the electrolytic capacitors above. They all have two polarised leads, in other words they have a positive and negative leg. This type of capacitor is used with ICs such as the 555 timer chip and it is the capacitors and resistors that determine the timing sequence.

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Capacitors

Look carefully at the photographs of the two types of capacitors. Can you work out which one is electrolytic and which is nonelectrolytic ?

REMEMBER - there are polarised and nonpolarised capacitors. Look for a positive and negative sign.

The simple circuit below is basically a switch which is connected to a computer. When the switch is pressed the computer detects that the relay is closed and then turns on a motor. However, there is a problem. When the switch is pressed it only closes the relay for a split second and this is not enough time for the computer program to detect that it has been pressed in the first place. A time delay is the obvious answer and this can be achieved by adding a capacitor in parallel to the switch. If the relay is held closed for 3/4 seconds then the computer program will have time to detect it - A capacitor provides the time delay.

CLICK HERE FOR EXAMPLES - HOW CAPACITORS CAN BE USED

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Resistors

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RESISTORS
V. Ryan © 2002 - 04

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Resistors determine the flow of current in an electrical circuit. Where there is high resistance then the flow of current is small, where the resistance is low the flow of current is large. Resistance, voltage and current are connected in an electrical circuit by Ohm’s Law.

Resistors are used for regulating current and they resist the current flow and the extent to which they do this is measured in ohms (Ω). Resistors are found in almost every electronic circuit. The most common type of resistor consists of a small ceramic (clay) tube covered partially by a conducting carbon film. The composition of the carbon determines how much current can pass through.

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Resistors

Resistors are too small to have numbers printed on them and so they are marked with a number of coloured bands. Each colour stands for a number. Three colour bands shows the resistors value in ohms and the fourth shows tolerance. Resistors can never be made to a precise value and the tolerance band (the fourth band) tells us, using a percentage, how close the resistor is to its coded value. The resistor on the left is 4700 ohms.

The value of a resistor can be written in a variety of ways. Some examples are given below: 47R means 47 ohms 5R6 means 5.6 ohms 6k8 means 6800 ohms 1M2 means 1 200 000 ohms A common value is 'K' which means one thousand ohms. So if a resistor has a value of 7000 ohms it can also be said to have a value of 7K.

RESISTORS IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL Resistors can be connected together in two ways to give different overall values. This is especially useful if you do not have a resistor of the correct value and need to make it up from other available ones.

1. Resistors in SERIES - When resistors are connected in series, their values are added together:

R total=R1+R2

For example: 1K+1K+3K9=5K9 (total value)

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Resistors

2. Resistors in PARALLEL -When resistors are connected in parallel, their total resistance is given as:

1/Rtotal = 1/R1 + 1/R2

For example: 1/Rtotal = 1/1K + 1/1K = 0.5K or 500 ohms

OR= R1 x R2 R1 +R2 =1x1=1 1 +1 = 2 = 0.5k
Click here for more resistors in parallel questions
VARIABLE RESISTORS Variable resistors have adjustable values. Adjustment is normally made by turning a spindle (e.g. the volume control on a radio) or moving a slider.
SYMBOL

The rotary variable resistor is the cheapest type of variable resistor. A smaller version of this variable resistor is the pre-set resistor. The pre-set resistor is the type usually used in small electronic projects (you will probably use this type in school based projects).
PRESET RESISTOR

CLICK HERE FOR POTENTIAL DIVIDERS SHEET (RESISTORS CONTINUED) CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Resistors

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The Relationship Between Capacitors and Resistors

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAPACITORS AND RESISTORS - USING CROCODILE TECHNOLOGY ELECTRONICS SIMULATION SOFTWARE
V. Ryan © 2004

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Electronics software such as Crocodile Technology® is perfect for testing circuits without actually building them from real components. Both capacitors and resistors are important components in circuits, especially delay or timer circuits. Combining resistors and capacitors in a circuit will increase / decrease a timing sequence. A simple circuit is shown shows four capacitors and resistors in parallel. On the left hand side of the circuit an LED is seen, this is protected by a 300 ohm resistor. As the switch is closed the capacitors can be seen to charge up and the LED lights immediately. When the switch is opened the LED stays on for a short time and then fades slowly. This happens because the each capacitor has a charge of ‘electricity’. This is released slowly when the +9 volts is switched off.

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The Relationship Between Capacitors and Resistors

The total capacitance is calculated by simply adding the values of the capacitors together.

Using electronics software such as Crocodile Technology®, change the resistor values to 1K. When the switch is closed the LED lights almost immediately. When the switch is opened the LED stays alight for a longer time and fades more slowly until final it emits no more light. Increasing the value of the resistor causes the capacitors to charge up more slowly. Most important of all, when the switch is opened the capacitors discharge their electricity more slowly. The LED stays alight for a longer time

QUESTIONS: 1. Using simulation software such as Crocodile Technology®, build a capacitor and resistor circuit incorporating a relay. The relay should remain energised for a short time after the circuit switch is opened. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The Relationship Between Capacitors and Resistors

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Test Instruments

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TEST INSTRUMENTS
V. Ryan © 2002

An Analogue Multimeter

Voltage, current and resistance can easily be measured by using a multimeter. There are two types, analogue and digital. The multimeter is the most important electronic test instrument. Two wires are normally used along with the multimeter (called probes) and they are colour coded - black and red.
DIGITAL METER ANALOGUE METER

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Test Instruments

A DIGITAL Multimeter is highly accurate and easier to read than an analogue type. It is best used for finding the precise value of a voltage, current or resistance. An ANALOGUE Multimeter is less expensive and less precise than a digital type. Often it will be used for measuring a slowly changing voltage, current or resistance.
The probes (seen with the digital metre) are connected to the meter. They can be disconnected and so it is important to ensure that they are attached to the correct sockets when in use. Also, some meters have four possible sockets which means you must follow the manufacturers instructions carefully when attaching the two probes.

Either meter has a variety of settings depending on whether you need to measure resistance, current or voltage. Normally the function selector has a setting for each of these and there is also a setting for the range that you are trying to read. For example you may need to measure the value of a resistor in ohms when a colour chart is not be available.

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Test Instruments

In order to do this you would follow these steps: 1. Set the function selector to ohms and to the range where you expect to find a reading. There may be a range for zero to 1K OR 1K and over etc.... 2. Ensure that the probes are attached correctly and touch them across the component you are measuring, in this case a resistor. 3. The results can be read on the scale. If there is no reading, try another range setting. To measure DC voltage follow these steps: 1. Set the function selector to one of the DCV positions. 2. Connect the test probes to the circuit and read the voltage on the scale.

EXAMPLE OF DIGITAL METER

EXAMPLE OF ANALOGUE METER

QUESTIONS: 1. Draw simplified diagrams of both types of meters. 2. Explain how digital and analogue meters differ. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Light Dependent Resistors

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LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTORS
V. Ryan © 2002 - 04

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LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically.

The animation opposite shows that when the torch is turned on, the resistance of the LDR falls, allowing current to pass through it.

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Light Dependent Resistors

This is an example of a light sensor circuit : When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing to the base of the transistors. Consequently the LED does not light. However, when light shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the base of the first transistor and then the second transistor. The LED lights. The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive.

1. The circuit above is a light sensor. That means light must shine into the LDR for the circuit to be activated. Draw a circuit composed of the same components that activates when it is DARK (when the LDR is covered). This is a typical examination question. HINT: Simply swap the preset resistor and the LDR. 2. What is the role of the preset resistor ? CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Light Dependent Resistors

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Preset Resistors

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THE PRESET RESISTOR
V. Ryan © 2002-05

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Preset resistors are used in circuits when it is necessary to alter the resistance. Dark/ light and temperature sensors usually have these components as the preset resistor allows the circuit to be made more or less sensitive (they can be turned up or down reducing or increasing resistance).

A small screwdriver can be used to turn the centre part of the preset resistor, altering the value of the resistance. The range of resistance varies, for example: 0 to 100 ohms 0 to 1M ohms

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Preset Resistors

The two circuits below are sensor circuits. The one of the left is a temperature sensor and the one on the right is a light sensitive circuit. Increasing the value of the preset resistor by turning the centre with a small screwdriver makes the circuit less sensitive. For instance, the temperature sensor would require a higher temperature and the light sensitive circuit would need more intense light before they activated.

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Preset Resistors

TEMPERATURE SENSOR

LIGHT SENSOR

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MakingaLight / Dark Sensor

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MAKING A LIGHT / DARK SENSOR
V. Ryan © 2005

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Opposite is a simple light/ dark sensor. This can be connected as an input or switch to another circuit. The sensors has three green wires (1, 2 and 3). Wire 2 should always be connected to one of the inputs. If wire 1 is also connected then the sensor acts as a dark sensor. If wires 2 and 3 are connected to the inputs then sensor operates as a light sensor. The preset resistor allows the person using the circuit to alter its sensitivity to light/dark. 1. When are light sensors used?

CONSTRUCTING A CIRCUIT USING SIMULATION SOFTWARE
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MakingaLight / Dark Sensor

All circuits are drawn on software such as Crocodile Clips. Using this software the individual components can be joined together on the screen. Once the circuit is drawn its operation can be simulated to see if it works. If it fails it can be corrected on the computer screen and tested again. Using software to test circuit designs saves time as there is no need to physically solder together components. It also saves money as components and materials are not wasted on failed circuits The circuit is then made into a PCB (Printed Circuit Board). Components are added and soldered in position (See PCB Section of this website). Two views of the same circuit are shown below. How do they differ?

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MakingaLight / Dark Sensor

3. Complete the table below by writing some details about the components used in the light/dark sensor circuit.

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MakingaLight / Dark Sensor

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MakingaLight / Dark Sensor

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Sequence Drawing - Light/Dark Sensor

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SEQUENCE DRAWING - LIGHT/DARK SENSOR
V. Ryan © 2006

A typical light/dark sensor is shown below. It consists of a number of components and is known to be a reliable circuit. Study the circuit carefully and list any improvements you think would make the circuit even more reliable, easier to make, more robust etc.....

Arrange the stages of making a light / dark sensor shown below into the correct sequence. Draw your version of the sequence drawing.

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Sequence Drawing - Light/Dark Sensor

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Sequence Drawing - Light/Dark Sensor

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Sequence Drawing - Light/Dark Sensor

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Sequence Drawing - Light/Dark Sensor

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LDR Examination Question

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LDR EXAMINATION QUESTION
V. Ryan © 2005

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A pupil has designed and manufactured a model based on the automatic control of street lights. When the light level drops the street light comes on automatically .The systems diagram below shows how the pupil’s circuit works. The sensor detects when the day light fades and a relay circuit turns on the street lights.

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LDR Examination Question

The circuit below has been manufactured as a sensor. It has been developed to sense a drop in the light level. 1. Name of component A:_________________ 2. Name of component B:_________________ 3. Which component is the one that behaves as a sensor. _____________________________________________ 4. How does the resistance of this component change when the light fades. _____________________________________________ 5. Which component is used to adjust the sensitivity of the circuit. _____________________________________________

6. The dark sensing circuit shown above can be altered to detect light. Complete the next circuit by adding the light sensor.

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LDR Examination Question

7. What is the name of component C shown in the sensing circuit above? Name of component C:_______________________ 8. What is its function ?

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Light / Dark Sensor - Animal Feeder Circuit

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LIGHT / DARK SENSOR - ANIMAL FEEDER CIRCUIT
V. Ryan © 2006

The sensor below is a light/dark sensor. This is part of an automatic animal feeder. As it becomes dark the sensor activates a relay that in turn turns on a motor, rotating a fly wheel. The fly wheel operates a mechanical system that releases food to a small animal, such as a hamster. Food is release during the night. The circuit shown below is drawn using 'Crocodile Technology 3D' software. This is electronics simulation software which allows the designer to draw a circuit in 3D and test it for faults.

1. A list of component names are seen below the diagram. Write each of the component names in the correct place on the diagram.

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Light / Dark Sensor - Animal Feeder Circuit

SNAP LDR CONNECTOR

TRANSISTOR RELAY FLY WHEEL

BATTERY PCB RESISTOR

DIODE MOTOR

2. Only one transistor is used in this circuit. The electronics simulation software 'Crocodile Technology 3D' has identified a possible fault - sometimes it is wise to include two transistors called a ‘darlington pair’ rather than the one transistor shown in the diagram above. Draw below a circuit diagram representing a darlington pair.

3. Why is it wise to use a darlington pair (two transistors) rather than a single transistor?

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Light / Dark Sensor - Animal Feeder Circuit

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

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LIGHT / DARK SENSOR QUESTION
V. Ryan © 2006

Below is a typical chocolate bar dispenser. It includes a light sensor that detects when the dispenser needs filling.

1. The circuit diagram below is incomplete. Add all the missing components and explain how the circuit works. Include the following components: 1 LDR, 2 fixed resistors, 1 npn transistor and a relay that is energised when light is sensed.

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

POSSIBLE ANSWER BELOW

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

2. The circuit/dispenser designer has recently improved the design of the dispenser and wants to use to LDRs. LDR 1 = LOW This will sense when there are five products left in the dispenser LDR 2 = EMPTY This will sense when the dispenser is empty. Indicate on the diagram below where LDR 1 and LDR 2 will be located.

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

3. A mechanism has been added to the drawer. This moves the drawer forwards and backwards to allow chocolate to be removed from the drawer. Add a suitable mechanism to the incomplete drawing below. Label your diagram

POSSIBLE ANSWER BELOW

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

4. Add notes explaining how the mechanism works.

5. When there are only five chocolate bars left in the dispenser the low warning light should light. This allows staff in the shop to fill up the machine. When the dispenser is empty the empty warning light is turned on and an alarm sounds. Complete the flowchart below with appropriate missing statements.

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

POSSIBLE ANSWER BELOW

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Light / Dark Sensor Question

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Sensor Questiuon - LDR

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SENSOR QUESTION - LDR
V. Ryan © 2006

1. Many production lines are automated. What is an automated production line?

2. An automated production line is shown below. Parts / components move along the production line where they are sensed, clamped down, drilled and then released, moving down the production line again.

The whole process is controlled by a PIC Microcontroller. The conveyor belts rotates continually until the sensor detects a component. Write the sequence of instructions for the entire process on the following instruction sheet. Basic instructions you are to use are described below.

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Sensor Questiuon - LDR

You are to write your answer as a set of instructions and as a flowchart.

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Sensor Questiuon - LDR

CLICK HERE FOR POSSIBLE ANSWER 3. The sensor being used on the production line is shown below. Complete the circuit diagram of the same circuit. Label the components.

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Sensor Questiuon - LDR

CLICK HERE FOR POSSIBLE ANSWER 4. Each component being drilled is identical. Each has a central hole and is rectangular in shape. It has been decided that each component must be checked for the presence of the hole after drilling. This is part of quality control. 4a. What is the meaning of quality control?

4b. Using sketches and notes explain how the circuit shown at the top of the page could be used to check for the presence of the hole in each component.

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Sensor Questiuon - LDR

SKETCH(S)

NOTES

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

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CIRCUIT QUESTION - SWITCHES AND OTHER COMPONENTS
V. Ryan © 2007

The circuit below has a motor that can only be operated when both of the push to make switches are pressed. 1. The component names are listed below. Clearly label each of the components in the circuit.

ANSWER

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

2. The component symbols that make up the circuit are shown below. Arrange them to form the circuit diagram.

ANSWER

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

3. What is the function of the toggle switch?

POSSIBLE ANSWER The toggle switch is the main switch to the circuit. It must be in the ‘on’ position for the circuit to work. It isolates the circuit if it is in the off position. 4. What is the function of the relay?

POSSIBLE ANSWER The relay is a type of switch. It is the physical link between two circuits. The first circuit on the left hand side is the one with the two push to make switches. The second circuit is on the right and has the motor.

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

5. The component shown opposite is to be added to the circuit. What is it called?

NAME: ANSWER DIODE 6. What is the function of the new component?

ANSWER The diode will be placed in parallel to the relay and the opposite way round. When the circuit is turned off the diode will protect the other components from back emf.

7. Draw the symbol for this new component in the box .

ANSWER

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

8. The npn transistor shown opposite is also to be added to the circuit. Draw its symbol in the space below

ANSWER

9. In the space below complete the new circuit that incorporates the new and original components plus a resistor to protect the transistor.

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

POSSIBLE ANSWER

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Circuit Question - Switches and Other Components

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Thermistors

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THE THERMISTOR
V. Ryan © 2002

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An example of a thermistor is seen to the left. They are made up of a mixture of sulphides or oxides or sometimes metals such as copper, iron or cobalt. They tend to be formed into a disc or a bead sealed with plastic or glass. They have great resistance at low temperatures but when they warm up their resistance decreases rapidly. Current can then flow through them. This makes them ideal as one of the components for a temperature sensor. Build the simple thermistor circuit below. When the thermistor is cool or cold the LED should not light because of the high resistance. However, warm up the thermistor by blowing warm air from a hair drier across it. This should warm it sufficiently that in a few seconds the resistance will drop and the LED will light.

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Thermistors

WHEN THE THERMISTOR IS COLD RESISTANCE IS HIGH AND CURRENT CANNOT PASS THROUGH. WHEN WARMED, RESISTANCE FALLS AND CURRENT PASSES THROUGH.

Circuit explanation in detail: When the thermistor is warmed up by the hair drier its resistance drops, this will take a few seconds. As its resistance drops current begins to flow from positive 9 volts to negative 0 volts. Current flows into the base of the transistors allowing the LED to light. The preset resistor can be turned up or down to increase or decrease resistance, in this way it can make the circuit more or less sensitive. 1. Explain how this circuit could be used in the home. 2. What is the role of the preset resistor ? CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Information Regarding Thermistor Circuits and Darlington Pairs

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INFORMATION REGARDING THERMISTOR CIRCUITS AND DARLINGTON PAIRS
V. Ryan © 2007

Sensors such as the thermistor based circuit shown below are not always reliable. This is usually due to the circuit relying on one transistor. The circuit below has two transistors, called a ‘Darlington Pair’. This arrangement of transistors amplifies current flowing from the thermistor and ensures that the LED lights.

When the temperature is LOW. Resistance of thermistor high and current flows through the transistors allowing the LED to light

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Information Regarding Thermistor Circuits and Darlington Pairs

High temperature. Resistance of thermistor reduces significantly and current flows from positive straight to negative. The LED does not light.

QUESTION: 1. The LED in the circuit above lights when the temperature is low (icy). However, it would be useful if the LED would light when it is warm/hot. This circuit could be used for a warning device when temperatures are too high.. Draw an updated version of the circuit that would allow this to happen. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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A Temperature Sensor

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A TYPICAL TEMPERATURE SENSOR
V. Ryan © 2005

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Opposite is a simple temperature sensor. It operates in exactly the same way as a light/dark sensor except that it has a component called a thermistor rather than a LDR (Light Dependent Resistor). The thermistor's resistance value changes when the temperature rises or falls. This ‘triggers’ the relay. The preset resistor allows the person using the circuit to alter its sensitivity to changes in temperature.. When are temperature sensors used?

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A Temperature Sensor

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Potential Dividers

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POTENTIAL DIVIDERS
V. Ryan © 2002

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What are they - they can be used to split the voltage of a circuit. They are widely used in electronic circuits for setting and adjusting voltages - e.g. in radios, games and toys. You may find that you need a supply of 6 volts and you have a 9 volt battery, your only option may be to make a potential divider.

When two resistors of equal value (e.g. 1K) are connected across a supply, current will flow through them. If a meter is placed across the supply shown in the diagram it will register 9v. If the meter is then placed between the 0v and the middle of the two resistors it will read 4.5v. The battery voltage has been divided in half.

If the resistor values are changed to 2K and 1K the voltage will be 6v. The voltage at the centre is determined by the ratio of the two resistor values and is given by the formula:

V = supply voltage x R2/R1+R

2

V= 9v x 2000

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Potential Dividers

1000+2000
v = 9v x (2000/3000 ohms) V = 9v x 0.6666666 ohms V = 6v
An alternative way to work out the answer is to:

1K + 2K = 3K
1. Add both resistors together. 2. Divide the voltage by the sum of both resistors. 3. Take the largest resistor and multiply it by the answer found in stage two.

9v/3k (is the same as 9/3) = 3 2k x 3 = 6v

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SI Units and OHMs Law

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SI UNITS and OHM's LAW
V. Ryan © 2002

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SI UNITS
The system of units used in Technology and Science is the Systeme Internationale d’unites (International system of units). Usually abbreviated to SI units and is based on the metric system. This was introduced in 1960 and is now adopted by the majority of countries as the official system of measurement. The basic units in the SI system are listed in the table to the right with their symbols.

PREFIX T

NAME tera

MEANING
multiply by 1 000 000 000 000 (i.e. X 1012)

G

giga

multiply by 1 000 000 000 (i.e. X 109)

M k m µ n

mega kilo milli micro nano

multiply by 1000 000 (i.e. X 106) multiply by 1 000 (i.e. X 103) divide by 1000 (i.e. X 10-3) divide by 1 000 000 (i.e. X 10-6) divide by 1 000 000 000 (i.e. X10-9)

p

pico

divide by 1 000 000 000 000 (i.e. X 10-12)

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SI Units and OHMs Law

Ohm’s Law
Provides us with a very important formula for working out current, resistance and voltage (Potential Difference). In order to use this formula properly you must understand SI Units.

Voltage = V

Resistance = R

Current = I

Problem 1. If the current
through a resistor is 0.8A and the voltage is 20v - what is the resistance ?

Resistance R = 2kΩ= 2X 103 = 2000 Ω. Problem 2. Determine the p.
d. (voltage) which must be applied to a 2kW resistor in order that a current of 10mA may flow.

Current I = 10mA = 10 X 10-3 A or 0.01 A. From Ohm’s law, potential difference, V = IR = (0.01)(2000) = 20V

Problem 3. A coil has a
current of 50 mA flowing through it when the voltage is 12 V. What is the resistance of the coil?

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SI Units and OHMs Law

Have a go at answering the following questions:

Problem 4. A 100 V battery
is connected across a resistor and causes a current of 5mA to flow. Determine the resistance of the resistor. If the voltage is reduced to 25 V, what will be the new value of the current flowing?

Problem 5. What is the
resistance of a coil which draws a current of (a) 50 mA and (b) 200mA from a 120 V supply.

What is an INSULATOR ?
An insulator is a material that does not allow current to flow through it. Materials such as rubber and plastic are good insulators and this is why they are used in the electrical industry to insulate parts. Consider electric drills. Why do they have a plastic case ? The plastic insulates the person using the drill from all the electrical parts so that they are protected from electrocution. CLICK HERE ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Resistors - Questions

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RESISTORS - QUESTIONS
V. Ryan © 2005

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Resistors determine the flow of current in an electrical circuit. Where there is high resistance then the flow of current is small, where the resistance is low the flow of current is large. Resistance, voltage and current are connected in an electrical circuit by Ohm’s Law. Read the passage regarding resistors. Fill the gaps using correct the words listed below. Resistors _____________ the flow of current through a ____________. Resistance is measured in ____ When resistance is high the flow of current is _______ . When resistance is low the flow of current is _______Resistance, voltage and current are connected in an electrical circuit by ______________.

TYPES OF RESISTOR A number of resistors are shown below. They include a VARIABLE RESISTOR, PRESET RESISTOR, FIXED RESISTOR, LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR and a THERMISTOR. Using the guidelines above each drawing, print each correct name in BLOCK CAPITALS.

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Resistors - Questions

Draw an arrow from each resistor to its symbol. Please note, one of the resistors has two symbols. Explain / describe the use of each of resistors listed below: FIXED RESISTOR:

VARIABLE RESISTOR:

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR:

THERMISTOR:

PRESET RESISTOR:

The circuit diagram and 3D drawing below show the same light / dark sensor circuit. Add labels to both drawings, clearly identifying each component.

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Resistors - Questions

Why do you think a preset resistor is used on this sensor circuit?

How could a light / dark sensor be used to control a street lighting system?

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Relays and Practical Circuits

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THE RELAY
V. Ryan © 2002

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A relay is an electromagnetic switch. In other words it is activated when a current is applied to it. Normally a relay is used in a circuit as a type of switch (as you will see below). There are different types of relays and they operate at different voltages. When you build your circuit you need to consider the voltage that will trigger it. RELAY SYMBOLS

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Relays and Practical Circuits

The main part of a relay is the coil at the centre. A small current flowing through the coil in the relay creates a magnetic field that pulls one switch contact against or away from another. Putting it simply, when current is applied to the contacts at one side of the relay the coil allows the contacts at the other side to work. Usually relays are used to turn on a second circuit. The first circuit activates the relay which then ‘turns on’ the second circuit.

EXAMPLE CIRCUIT
This simple circuit activates the relay only when the LDR is dark (covered). This could be used as part of an automatic animal feeder. For instance, if the animal was fed at night the circuit above would activate the relay. A second circuit, connected to the other side of the relay releases food into a dish.

CLICK HERE FOR PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF RELAYS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Relays and Practical Circuits

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Transistor Basics

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TRANSISTORS
V. Ryan © 2002 - 04

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Transistors can be regarded as a type of switch, as can many electronic components. They are used in a variety of circuits and you will find that it is rare that a circuit built in a school Technology Department does not contain at least one transistor. They are central to electronics and there are two main types; NPN and PNP. Most circuits tend to use NPN. There are hundreds of transistors which work at different voltages but all of them fall into these two categories.
TWO EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT SHAPES OF TRANSISTOR

Transistors are manufactured in different shapes but they have three leads (legs). The BASE - which is the lead responsible for activating the transistor. The COLLECTOR - which is the positive lead. The EMITTER - which is the negative lead. The diagram below shows the symbol of an NPN transistor. They are not always set out as shown in the diagrams to the left and right, although the ‘tab’ on the type shown to the left is usually next to the ‘emitter’.

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Transistor Basics

The leads on a transistor may not always be in this arrangement. When buying a transistor, directions will normally state clearly which lead is the BASE, EMITTER or COLLECTOR.

SIMPLE USE OF A TRANSISTOR

DIAGRAM 'A'

DIAGRAM 'B'

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Transistor Basics

Diagram 'A' shows an NPN transistor which is often used as a type of switch. A small current or voltage at the base allows a larger voltage to flow through the other two leads (from the collector to the emitter). The circuit shown in diagram B is based on an NPN transistor. When the switch is pressed a current passes through the resistor into the base of the transistor. The transistor then allows current to flow from the +9 volts to the 0vs, and the lamp comes on. The transistor has to receive a voltage at its ‘base’ and until this happens the lamp does not light. The resistor is present to protect the transistor as they can be damaged easily by too high a voltage / current. Transistors are an essential component in many circuits and are sometimes used to amplify a signal. CLICK HERE FOR MORE ON TRANSISTORS (DARLINGTON PAIRS) CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Darlington Pairs

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THE DARLINGTON PAIR
V. Ryan © 2002

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Transistors are an essential component in a sensor circuit. Usually transistors are arranged as a pair, known as a ‘DARLINGTON PAIR’. It is very important that you can identify this arrangement of transistors and state clearly why they are used. A darlington pair is used to amplify weak signals so that they can be clearly detected by another circuit or a computer/microprocessor.

The circuit opposite is a ‘Darlington Pair’ driver. The first transistor’s emitter feeds into the second transistor’s base and as a result the input signal is amplified by the time it reaches the output. The important point to remember is that the Darlington Pair is made up of two transistors and when they are arranged as shown in the circuit they are used to amplify weak signals.

The circuit to the right shows a single transistor. When the switch is pressed current flows from the 9v to the 0v and also to the base of the transistor. This allows the transistor to switch and in turn, current / voltage flows

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Darlington Pairs

through the bulb, which lights. However, there is a potential problem with this circuit. The signal / current at the base of the transistor may be too weak to switch the transistor and allow the bulb to light or it may flicker on and off.

A possible solution is seen to the right. A second transistor is added to the circuit, the circuit is now likely to work as the original signal / current is amplified. The amount by which the weak signal is amplified is called the ‘GAIN’.

Below is a system designed to monitor the temperature of a car radiator. When the radiator temperature becomes too high the voltage from the temperature sensor and sensor unit changes. The comparator detects this change in voltage and activates the darlington pair. The darlington pair driver provides enough amplified current for the motor to operate, cooling the car radiator. .

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Darlington Pairs

If the darlington pair is replaced with a transistor module (composed of one transistor) - what would you expect to happen?

The single transistor does not amplify the current to the motor. As a result the motor does not ‘spin’. Control Studio software allows experimentation, without the need to build a real circuit using actual components. It saves time and money as components are not wasted.

CLICK HERE FOR EXAMINATION QUESTION CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Transistor Exam Question

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TRANSISTOR EXAM QUESTION
V. Ryan © 2002

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Above is a temperature sensor made up of different circuits called modules. When the thermistor is warmed its resistance falls, allowing current to flow from positive 9 volts to 0 volts. In turn, current flows from the temperature module to the transistor module triggering the transistor. The bulb module then lights. However, there is a problem - the bulb flickers on and off. Redesign the transistor module to ensure that the bulb is constantly alight. Explain how the three modules work together.

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Transistor Exam Question

THE ANSWER IS SEEN BELOW:

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Transistor Breadboard Project

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TRANSISTOR BREADBOARD PROJECT
V. Ryan © 2002

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Components:

680 ohm resistor to protect the LED. 1K resistor from LDR to the base of the NPN transistor. One BFY50 npn transistor (try any alternative). One 10K preset resistor. One LDR.

PIN LAYOUT OF NPN TRANSISTOR

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Transistor Breadboard Project

1. Build the breadboard circuit shown above. This is a dark sensor and relies on several components, in particular the transistor. When the LDR is covered the LED will light, although there may be a need to alter the setting of the preset resistor. How it works: When light shines into the LDR its resistance is high and consequently current cannot flow from positive 9 volts to negative 0 volts. If the LDR is completely covered its resistance falls dramatically. Current then flows into the base of the transistor switching it on. Consequently current can flow through the collector and emitter - therefore, the LED lights. 2. Try building a light sensor, that is a circuit in which the LED lights if light shines into the LDR. HINT; try swapping round the LDR and the preset resistor. 3. Try building a similar circuit but this time add an arrangement of transistors called a Darlington Pair. Do you find any difference in the operation of the circuit ? 4. Try building a similar dark sensor but this time with a relay rather than an LED. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX

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Darlington Pair Transistor Breadboard Project

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TRANSISTOR BREADBOARD PROJECT
V. Ryan © 2002

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DARLINGTON PAIR PROJECT

Components: 680 ohm resistor to protect the LED. 1K resistor from LDR to the base of the NPN transistor. TWO BFY50 npn transistor (try any alternative). One 10K preset resistor. One LDR. Black and red wire.

LAYOUT OF FIRST TRANSISTOR:

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Darlington Pair Transistor Breadboard Project

LAYOUT OF SECOND TRANSISTOR The legs/pins on the second transistor have been twisted slightly to allow them to be pushed into the breadboard in the correct positions:

When a single transistor is used in the circuit, as seen earlier, the LDR has to be completely covered before the LED lights. This is because the circuit lacks sensitivity as the current into the base of the transistor is quite weak. A darlington pair is needed to amplify the current and this is achieved by the first transistors emitter feeding into the base of the second transistor. The current is amplified to a greater level and the LDR has only to be covered partially before the LED lights. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX

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Transistor Formulas

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TRANSISTOR FORMULAS
V. Ryan © 2002

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Transistors are used to amplify current and so in an examination you could be asked to find the BASE current or COLLECTOR current or the GAIN. The GAIN is simply the amount of amplification. The formulas and example questions are set out below:

A simple way of remembering the formula is seen in the diagram opposite OR you can learn each of the formulas below.

Another very important point to remember is that collector current is always greater than base current, sometimes by many times.

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Transistor Formulas

TRY THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. If the collector current of a transistor is 0.12 amps and the gain is 40, what is the base current?

2. If the collector current of a transistor is 0.4 amps and the base current is 0.002 amps, what is the current gain?

3. If the collector current of a transistor is 0.5 amps and the gain is 100, what is the base current?

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Dual Transistor Multivibrator Circuit

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DUAL TRANSISTOR MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUIT
V. Ryan © 2004

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A multivibrator circuit is a circuit that has identical components arranged on the left and right hand sides. In the case of the example below, the two PNP transistors, the capacitors and the LEDs are the key components. This circuit will trigger itself repeatedly and in this way the LEDs flash alternately. Increasing the value of the two electrolytic capacitors increases the time each LED remains on/off. The transistors are general PNP type. It is important to protect the LEDs and this is achieved by adding the 680R (or lower if necessary) fixed resistors.

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Dual Transistor Multivibrator Circuit

As the switch is pressed, the capacitors charge up and then discharge. As one capacitor charges the other discharges. As the capacitors discharge, each triggers the base of the transistor it is connected to. This allows current to pass from the collector to the emitter and the LEDs light, alternately.

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Dual Transistor Multivibrator Circuit

PCB VERSION OF THE MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUIT, WITH ALL COMPONENTS IN POSITION

PCB VERSION OF THE MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUIT, WITH THE OUTLINE OF ALL THE COMPONENTS

QUESTIONS: 1. Name the two most important components in the multivibrator circuit shown above. 2. What would be the effect of increasing the values of both capacitors? CLICK HERE FOR NEXT SHEET ON MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Lesson Starter - Astable Transistor Circuit

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LESSON STARTER ASTABLE TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT
V. Ryan © 2005

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1. You are going to use the components shown below to build an astable transistor circuit. Complete the table by: A. Writing the correct name of each component. B. Indicating if the function of the component is TRUE or FALSE. If FALSE, write the correct function of the component below.

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Lesson Starter - Astable Transistor Circuit

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Lesson Starter - Astable Transistor Circuit

BATTERY SNAP - FIXED RESISTOR - CAPACITOR - TRANSISTOR - LIGHT EMITTING - DIODE - MINIATURE SLIDE SWITCH - TOGGLE SWITCH - VARIABLE RESISTOR - BULB - DIODE

2. An astable transistor circuit is shown below. Label each of the components

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Lesson Starter - Astable Transistor Circuit

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Multivibrator Circuit Exam Question

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DUAL TRANSISTOR MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUIT EXAM QUESTION
V. Ryan © 2004

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A local garage has started selling a small electronic device. The device has two LEDs that flash alternately and the entire circuit is housed in a small moulded case. It is to be placed on the ‘dashboard of a car so that it looks as if an expensive alarm has been fitted. The circuit diagram is shown below.

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Multivibrator Circuit Exam Question

Three of the important components have been labelled A, B and C. Name each component and explain the function of each in the circuit. COMPONENT A: FUNCTION IN CIRCUIT:

COMPONENT B: FUNCTION IN CIRCUIT:

COMPONENT C: FUNCTION IN CIRCUIT:

Ring the names of two components that work together to produce the flashing of the LEDs. TRANSISTOR CAPACITOR RESISTOR

The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for the dual transistor, multivibrator circuit is shown below. All the components and their position on the PCB can be seen. The garage owners have decided to manufacture a small moulded case for the circuit to fit inside. The LEDs and the switch must protrude through the moulded box so that they can be seen.

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Multivibrator Circuit Exam Question

Name a suitable material for producing the moulded case. Name a suitable manufacturing process for producing the moulded case.

Sketch a suitable design for the moulded case, include detailed notes.

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Multivibrator Circuit Exam Question

Using the boxes below, draw a sketch in each that represents a stage of manufacturing the moulded case, using the process you have named. You do not need to use all the boxes below.
STAGE ONE STAGE TWO

STAGE THREE

STAGE FOUR

STAGE FIVE

STAGE SIX

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Multivibrator Circuit Exam Question

CLICK HERE FOR INFORMATION ON MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The Thyristor

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THE THYRISTOR
V. Ryan © 2002

A Thyristor (silicon controlled rectifier or SCR) is a little like a transistor. When a small current flows into the GATE (G), this allows a larger current to flow from the ANODE (A) to the CATHODE (C). Even when the current into the gate stops the thyristor continues to allow current to flow from anode to cathode. It latches on. The circuit opposite represents a steady hand game which consists of a wire loop that has to be moved around a wire course without touching it. If the wire course is touched by the loop, current flows into the 'gate' of the thyristor and the buzzer sounds. The buzzer will continue to sound after the loop has touched the wire course. This is due to the thyristor which once activated cannot be deactivated until all power is turned off. This type of circuit is also known as a ‘latching circuit’

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The Thyristor

ALARM CIRCUIT
The circuit below is an alarm circuit and it incorporates a thyristor. When the house holder leaves he/she turns on the master power switch and the exit switch. If an intruder steps on the pressure pad the alarm sounds and ‘latches’ on (stays on) because of the thyristor.

1. Draw the symbol for a thyristor. 2. Explain how a thyristor works. 3. Draw a circuit which includes a thyristor and explain how the circuit works. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The Thyristor

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The Thyristor - Breadboard Circuit

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THE THYRISTOR - BREADBOARD CIRCUIT
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A Steady Hand Game is shown below. The aim is to move the handle around the wire shape without touching it. If the handle touches the wire a buzzer sounds. This is the type of game that contains a thyristor circuit. When the handle touches the wire the buzzer will sound until the reset push switch is pressed, even if the handle is moved away from the wire.

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The Thyristor - Breadboard Circuit

The circuit for this type of game is shown below. The main component is called a thyristor. This is a special type of switch. When it is activated it cannot be turned off unless electrical power is removed from the whole circuit. The symbol that represents the thyristor is shown opposite. It has three pins. The ANODE, CATHODE and GATE.

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The Thyristor - Breadboard Circuit

1. Using circuit simulation software draw the thyristor circuit. 2. Close switch ‘A’ to supply power to the whole circuit. 3. Close switch ‘B’ to allow current flow into the thyristor’s gate. The buzzer should sound. 4. Open switch ‘B’ - the buzzer should still sound because the thyristor cannot be deactivated until all power to the circuit is removed. 5. Construct the thyristor circuit using a breadboard and the components listed below. Be careful to line up the components accurately. The black dots show the position of wires and components.

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The Thyristor - Breadboard Circuit

COMPONENTS Three 1K resistors. One thyristor. One 6 volt buzzer. One battery snap. One 9 volt battery. Red and Black wire.

When the battery is connected power is supplied to the circuit. Touching the red and black wires for a split second activates the thyristor which allows the buzzer to sound. The buzzer will continue to sound even though the red and black wires are not touching. The ‘buzzing’ can only be stopped if the battery is removed. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Breadboards the Basics

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BREADBOARDS
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Breadboards are used to test circuits. Wires and components are simply pushed into the holes to form a completed circuit and power can be applied. One of the main advantages of using a breadboard is that the components are not soldered and if they are positioned incorrectly they can be moved easily to a new position on the board. On the breadboard (diagram 1) seen opposite, letters are used to identify vertical columns and numbers to identify horizontal rows.

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Breadboards the Basics

The red lines on diagram 2 show how some vertical columns and horizontal rows are internally connected. When power is applied to the breadboard current flows along these internal connections.

Diagram 3 shows how a 380 ohm resistor and an LED are setup on a breadboard. When a 9 volt battery is attached the LED lights. Try replacing the resistor with a higher value such as a 680 ohm resistor. The resistance will be greater and the LED should shine less bright.

CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Examination Questions - Jigs

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EXAMINATION QUESTION - JIGS
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1. The diagram below shows a jig used on a production line to check the length of a component (the steel cylinder). When the steel cylinder is inserted into the test jig, the green LED lights. This shows that the steel cylinder is the correct length.

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Examination Questions - Jigs

The push to make switches control the LEDs. If switch ‘C’ is not pressed none of the LEDs should light. The red and green LEDs indicate whether the cylinder is the correct length, too short or too long. If the cylinder is too long it will press switches A, B and C. The RED and GREEN LEDs will light. If the cylinder is too short it will not press switches A and B. If the cylinder is the correct length both switches B and C should be pressed.

1a. In the space below draw a circuit that shows how switches A, B and C can be connected to make the jig and its LEDs work correctly. include all three switches, the green and red LEDs and appropriate resistors (include values)

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Examination Questions - Jigs

POSSIBLE ANSWER

1b. Explain the purpose of the resistors.
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Examination Questions - Jigs

POSSIBLE ANSWER The resistors protect the LEDs. They reduce the flow of electricity allowing the LEDs to light rather than be damaged. Without the resistors the LEDs would ‘blow’ 1c. What is the advantage of using a 9 volt power source for the jig?

POSSIBLE ANSWER A 9 volt power source means that the jig is electrically safe as electrocution of the operator cannot take place even if there is s fault. The 9 volt supply can be from a battery making the jig mobile and not requiring a mains electric connection. 1d. In the space below draw a ‘push to make switch’ and describe how it works.

POSSIBLE ANSWER As the switch is pressed a connection is made across the two terminals allowing electricity to flow around the circuit. 1e. Draw and label two other types electro mechanical switch.

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Examination Questions - Jigs

POSSIBLE ANSWER

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Analogue and Digital Systems

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ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL SYSTEMS
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Electrical signals are in two forms; Analogue signals Digital signals
This graph is typical of analogue signals.

Analogue signals: These are usually older electronic gadgets (introduced before the mid 1990’s). A good example of an analogue signal is the loud-speaker of a stereo system. When the volume is turned up the sound increases slowly and constantly. Examples of analogue systems include; Old radios, megaphones and the volume control on old telephone hand sets.

This graph is typical of digital signals

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Analogue and Digital Systems

Digital signals: Modern electronic products such as computers and mobile phones depend on digital signals. However, a good example of a digital signal is Morse Code. The signal is sent as a series of ‘on’ and ‘off’ pulses. The signal is either present or it is not. Morse code was introduced in 1837 by Samuel Morse, as a method of communication.

For further information on digital computers - see Bits and BYTES.

Both analogue and digital systems can be used as sensors. A thermistor is analogue as resistance slowly changes, a micro-switch is digital, as it is ‘on’ or ‘off’. Computers are digital devices and the various electronic parts communicate using 1’s and 0’s. 1 = ON 0 = OFF

LIST EXAMPLES OF ANALOGUE SYSTEMS

LIST EXAMPLES OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS

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Analogue and Digital Systems

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Control Systems

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CONTROL SYSTEMS
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CLOSED SYSTEMS: When designing a control system it is good practice to consider it as a number of stages. For example; A simple weather station can be looked upon as the following;

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Control Systems

INPUT: The heat from the sun causes the temperature sensor to produce data and this is sent to the computer.

PROCESS: Data is received by the computer and it is processed. The processed data is displayed on the monitor as a graph.

OUTPUT: The temperature levels are printed out. This is one form of output.

The temperature is constantly monitored and this is called feedback. As long as the sensor works, the computer processes and the printer prints out - feed back is taking place.

CONTROL SYSTEMS - OPEN SYSTEMS A system that does not have feedback is an open system. An open system normally works once and then stops. A good example is seen below. A digital camera is used to take a photograph, it is transferred to the computer where processing of the picture takes place and finally a printout is produced. This is a closed system because there is no feedback and no attempt is made to improve the picture. The person taking the picture decides to improve the final printout, using graphics software. He prints out the photograph several times and alters the photo with the software. Is the system still an open system or has it now changed to a closed system with feedback?

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Control Systems

When drawing a systems diagram the boxes are labelled and there is no need to draw pictures representing each stage. However, when attempting course work, adding drawings helps present the diagram in a more graphical way. The open systems diagram shown below represents use of a digital camera which is shown graphically above.

QUESTION: Draw a systems diagrams to represent a closed system of your choice and an open system.

CLICK HERE FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS - MORE ANOTHER EXAMPLE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Control Systems - Sprinkler System

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CONTROL SYSTEMS - AN EXAMPLE
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An Automatic Sprinkler System An automatic water sprinkler system has been ordered by a farmer. The system must have sensors that detect dry weather and turn on water sprinklers to water valuable crops. The company manufacturing the system have decided that a starting point is to think in terms of INPUT - PROCESS - OUTPUT and also include FEEDBACK. The basic plan is set out below. INPUT How will the dryness of the soil be sensed? Perhaps an electrode can be used. PROCESS What device(s) will be needed to control the output? A computer could monitor incoming data and control the output, a simple program will be required. FEEDBACK Feedback is constant as the computer continually checks the moisture level of the soil. This is the layout to the systems diagram for the automatic sprinkler system. OUTPUT This may be a sprinkler device which is turned on when the computer detects the need for water.

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Control Systems - Sprinkler System

One Possible Answer:

The moisture sensor detects when the soil is dry. The darlington pair is a simple electronic device that amplifies the signal sent by the sensors so that the computer can read it. Without the darlington pair it is possible that the signal from the sensor could be too weak to be read by the computer. This would mean that the sprinkler system would not be turned on. When the sensor determines that the soil is moist/damp the signal to the computer ends and the computer turns off the sprinkler. This is called FEED BACK.

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Control Systems - Sprinkler System

QUESTION: Draw a systems diagram for a domestic alarm system. Show clearly input, process and output. Explain the need for feedback. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION REGARDING CONTROL SYSTEMS CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Modular Electronics

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MODULAR ELECTRONICS
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When building a circuit it is a good idea to treat it as being made up of modules or parts. For example you may want a circuit to be composed of a switch and a bulb. To make it easier to design the circuit it is better if it is treated as two separate parts, a switch circuit and a bulb circuit. These are then joined together - to produce one completed circuit. Two simple modules are seen opposite and they are clearly labelled. They can be rearranged to produce a complete circuit. When the switch is pressed the bulb lights (see below). Each module has a top rail which is positive and a lower rail which is 0 volts or negative.

The modules are linked together by electrical wires and they fit into the positive or negative connections on the electronic boards/modules. Different makes of electronic kits are available and each allows pupils to build up circuits, test them or experiment and finally to dismantle the modules so that another pupil can use them in the future. In this way circuits can be built without the need to solder and without wasting time linking each individual component
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Modular Electronics

using traditional methods.

Below is a temperature sensor circuit. When the temperature falls the resistance of the thermistor falls and a bulb lights. Notice how the modules are put together to form the completed circuit.

The temperature sensor is connected to a transistor which is then connected to a bulb. The transistor allows sharp switching of the bulb so that when the temperature falls the bulb comes on immediately and when it rises it goes off just as quickly. Can you draw the circuit as a circuit diagram ?

QUESTIONS
Below are some modules that can be put together to form completed circuits. Cut them out with a scissors and join them to complete the circuit questions on Sheet 3. If you require any modules that are not on this sheet, design them yourself and add them to the ones below.

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Modular Electronics

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Modular Electronics

1. This question refers to the example ‘temperature sensor circuit’ near the top of this section.
A. Redesign the transistor module and bulb module so that they form one module. B. Draw the completed temperature sensor and transistor/bulb modules connected together. Explain how the completed circuit works. C. Draw a new temperature module, this time one that ‘triggers’ the transistor module when the temperature rises.

2. A. It is found that the bulb in the completed temperature circuit does not light because the output of the
single transistor is too weak. Design a new module that will provide a stronger output. B. What is this new module called ? C. Explain how this circuit works.

3. Design a ‘potential divider’ module. The module is for a nine volt supply and should allow six volts to be
drawn from it.

4. Design a simple game or toy for a very young child. It can involve sound, lights, a motor etc... Produce a
simple, clear diagram and an explanation.

5. Design the circuit(s) for the toy using modules and then draw the completed circuit as a ‘circuit diagram’.
You may need to design your own individual modules. Look at the photocopied sheets that have been given out in previous weeks. (Suggestion - show your knowledge by using relays, LEDs, motors etc... alter sensors so that they can be incorporated). Note, it is possible to set up components in ‘parallel’ so that they work together. (example seen below).

Remember to show your understanding of components such as relays and circuits that include ‘Darlington Pairs’ etc.... The examiner cannot give you marks for your understanding of electronics if you do not show it on paper. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Modular Electronics

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Modular Electronics Software - 1

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MODULAR ELECTRONICS SOFTWARE - 1
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A range of software exists that allows the user to produce complex circuits by building up ‘modules’ into an overall circuit. Software such as Control Studio® is relatively simple to use and once a circuit is built up it can be exported to software such as PCB Wizard® for production as a PCB. The completed circuit can also be converted to an ordinary circuit diagram by exporting it to software such as Livewire®. In both Control Studio and Live Wire the circuit can be simulated to see if it works and how effective it is. Modular electronics software allows the user to select the type of Inputs, Processes and outputs for a particular circuit. Examples of some inputs, processes and outputs are shown below.

Control Studio® is based on a SYSTEMS approach. Most circuits have Inputs, a Process and Outputs. When loading the software a menu appears that allows the user to choose either an input, process, amplifier, driver, output or measure. This type of software allows the designer to build a complex circuit without the complex knowledge of all components or how they are built into circuits. A basic understanding of modular electronics is all that is needed.
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Modular Electronics Software - 1

The software also allows the designer to add a range of amplifiers and drivers to circuits. This means a comprehensive range of circuits can be developed, by simply ‘clicking’ on the appropriate electronics modules and joining them together with connectors.

CLICK HERE FOR NEXT CONTROL STUDIO® PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE CLICK HERE FOR PCB INDEX PAGE

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Modular Electronics Software - 2

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MODULAR ELECTRONICS SOFTWARE - 2
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The circuit below has been built using Control Studio® software. The circuit has two sensors - a light sensor and a push switch. These are connected to an AND gate. Both sensors must be ‘ON’ for the AND gate to operate a motor. The light sensor must be connected to a sensor unit. Also the voltage output from the AND gate must be amplified by a Darlington Pair module before a motor can rotate.

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Modular Electronics Software - 2

The modular circuit is built by selecting an INPUT or PROCESS or OUTPUT etc... The module is then dragged into the design sheet area of the screen. Each module is connected by wires or by connectors. The connectors are found in the Gallery and are simply dragged across into the circuit design sheet area.

Once the circuit is put together, it can be tested by using the software’s simulation option (dia. ‘A’) When this is selected, the animated circuit operates as a real circuit. In the case of the circuit shown above both the input sensors (push switch and light sensor) must be ON / HIGH/ TRUE before the processing AND gate activates the motor. The darlington pair amplifies the current / voltage, providing enough power for the motor to turn. Dia. A CLICK HERE FOR NEXT CONTROL STUDIO PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE CLICK HERE FOR PCB INDEX PAGE

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Modular Electronics Software - 2

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Modular Electronics Software - 3

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MODULAR ELECTRONICS SOFTWARE - 3
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1. The diagram below shows a modular circuit and a conveyor belt system. The circuit has a push switch which, when pressed, causes a solenoid to punch a hole in a piece of card. The card travels across the conveyor belt, is punched and then falls into a basket at the end of the belt.

When the push switch is pressed, the sensor unit outputs current to the comparator. The comparator detects this change and outputs current to the darlington pair. The darlington pair amplifies the current driving the solenoid.

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Modular Electronics Software - 3

2. Below is a system designed to monitor the temperature of a car radiator. When the radiator temperature becomes too high the voltage from the temperature sensor and sensor unit changes. The comparator detects this change in voltage and activates the transducer. The transducer driver provides enough power for the motor to operate, cooling the car radiator.

The modular circuit below is almost the same as the one above. However, this time the transducer driver has been replaced with a darlington pair module. The effect is the same. The darlington pair module amplifies the current so that the motor can be powered..

If the darlington pair is replaced with a transistor module (composed of one transistor) - what would you expect to happen?

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Modular Electronics Software - 3

The single transistor does not amplify the current to the motor. As a result the motor does not ‘spin’. Control Studio software allows experimentation, without the need to build a real circuit using actual components. It saves time and money as components are not wasted. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE CLICK HERE FOR PCB INDEX PAGE

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits - 1

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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS - LOGIC CIRCUITS - 1
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Most modern electronic devices such as mobile telephones and computers depend on digital electronics. In fact, most electronics about the home and in industry depend on digital electronics to work. Digital electronics normally based on ‘logic circuits’. These circuits depend on pulses of electricity to make the circuit work. For instance, if current is present - this is represented as ‘1’. If current is not present, this is represented as ‘0’. Digital electronics is based on a series of 1s and 0s. A good example of a digital electronic system is a mobile phone. As you speak into the phone, the digital electronic circuits it contains converts your voice into a series of electronic pulses (or 1s and 0s). These are transmitted and the receiving mobile phone then converts the digital pulses back into your voice. Digital circuits are used because they are efficient and work well, also, digital signals are easier to transmit than actual sound (for example a persons voice).

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits - 1

The various parts of a computer communicate through the use of electronic pulses (1s and 0s). Consequently digital logic circuits are ideal for the internal electronics. The main part of the computer is the motherboard. This is a complex piece of electronics that processes all the important data. For instance, when word processing, it is very important to display letters and words on the monitor. The motherboard generates the individual letters on the monitor by sending a series of 1s and 0s to the screen. (For more information regarding digital signals see computer control)

When the computer operator presses the letter ‘H’ on the keyboard, the motherboard converts this into a digital signal composed of 1s and 0s. The ‘H’ in the form of 1s and 0s is displayed on the monitor. When you word-process a paragraph of writing all the letters/words are displayed on the monitor in a similar way. In reality the letters are not composed of 1s and 0s but as black or white pixels.

QUESTION: Look closely at a computer monitor. The pixels are very small but you may be able to see them especially if you use a magnifying glass. If you are looking at a colour picture, the pixels will be in different colours, not only black and white. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT LOGIC PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits - 1

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits (Role of Transistors)

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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS - LOGIC CIRCUITS - 2
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LOGIC circuits are normally composed of ‘gates’. A combination of gates make up a circuit and some digital circuits can be extremely complex. It is the logic gates that produce pulses of electrical current (1s and 0s). At school level, digital logic circuits are relatively simple. Below are simple drawings that help explain the two most popular logic gates - the AND gate and the OR gate.

The simplified AND gate shown above has two inputs, switch A and switch B. The bulb Q will only light if both switches are closed. This will allow current to flow through the bulb, illuminating the filament.

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits (Role of Transistors)

The simplified OR gate shown above has two inputs, switch A and switch B. The bulb Q will light if either switch A or B are closed. This will allow current to flow through the bulb, illuminating the filament.

When the bulb lights this represents a ‘1’ as current is running through the filament. If current is not running through the filament the bulb will not light and this represents a ‘0’ (zero).

THE ROLE OF TRANSISTORS Transistors are vital for digital circuits to work. These components are used as very fast switches in digital logic circuits. Transistors are normally so small that hundreds of thousands fit on one processing chip on a computer motherboard. The types of transistors used in school projects are normally large enough to fit on the end of a small finger. However, the way they switched on and off is the same (click here for transistor information sheets) . When a transistor is switched on it produces a ‘1’ and when it is switched off it produces a ‘0’. Transistors in the circuit of a computer microprocessor can switch on and off thousands of times per second. Without the invention of the transistor, computer processing power would be very limited and slow. Two basic examples of simple transistor driven logic (AND / OR) circuits are shown below.

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits (Role of Transistors)

This is an AND gate circuit and it can be made quite easily. The example shown is built from a modular electronics kit. Both switches ‘A’ and ‘B’ must be pressed together for the bulb to light. If you construct this circuit, you may need to alter the value of the resistors. This will depend on the type of transistors used and whether to bulb or an LED is used.

This is an OR gate circuit. Either switch ‘A’ or ‘B’ must be pressed for the bulb to light. The switches do not have to be pressed together.

QUESTIONS: 1. Explain how an AND gate works. Use a circuit diagram to help explain your answer. 2. Explain how an OR gate works. Use a circuit diagram to help explain your answer. 3. Build a simple logic circuit using a breadboard and available components. You may wish to build one of the circuits shown above. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT LOGIC PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Digital Electronics and Logic Circuits (Role of Transistors)

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Digital Electronics - Basic Truth Tables

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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS - BASIC LOGIC TABLES
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A range of logic gates exist and they are represented as symbols, each with its own truth table (sometimes called a logic table). Gates have inputs and produce outputs and these are in the form of 1s and 0s. Remember, a 1 represents an input or output of electrical current. Each truth table clearly shows the ‘state’ of inputs and outputs at any one time. Study the symbols and tables below. You will soon find that they can be combined to design interesting logic circuits.

The AND gate will only output current (produce a 1 at Q) if both logic states at inputs A and B change to 1.

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Digital Electronics - Basic Truth Tables

The NAND gate has the opposite outputs to the AND gate. How does the NAND gate symbol differ to the AND gate?

The OR gate will output current at Q if either of the logic states of inputs A and B change to1.

The NOR gate has the opposite outputs to the OR gate. How does the NOR gate symbol differ to the OR gate?

The INVERTER gate reverses input. For example, if the input is 1 then the output is 0. This is a very useful gate especially when designing logic circuits.
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Digital Electronics - Basic Truth Tables

QUESTIONS: 1. Draw each of the logic gates shown above and explain how each gate works. 2. Learn and remember each of the logic tables. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT LOGIC PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Alternative Representations of Logic Tables

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ALTERNATIVE REPRESENTATIONS OF LOGIC GATES
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A ‘1’ means that current is present. For instance, if current is present at an output of a gate then this is represented as a ‘1’. Instead of placing a ‘1’ at the output other terms can be applied - high, true, on or up - all mean that current is present. A ‘0’ means that current is not present. For instance, if current is not present at an output of a gate then this is represented as a ‘0’. Instead of placing a'0’ at the output other terms can be applied - low, false, off or low - all mean that current is not present. Alternative ways of representing the AND gate are written below.

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Alternative Representations of Logic Tables

QUESTION: Write the OR truth table using alternative terms other than ‘1s’ and ‘0s’. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT LOGIC PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Example Logic Circuit - 1

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EXAMPLE LOGIC CIRCUITS - 1
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Below is the logic circuit for a simple house alarm. The alarm protects the front and back doors and six windows. Once the alarm is set if any of the doors or windows are opened the alarm will sound. OR gates have been used. The TIMER allows the house owner to enter the house by either the front or back door and turn of the alarm system before the alarm sounds. The inputs for each of the gates representing the doors and windows can be connected to a vast range of sensors (eg. movement and magnetic sensors). On the circuit below the input states of each of the sensors are ‘0’ (false, low, off). This means that they have not detected an intruder. As a result the alarm does not sound.

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Example Logic Circuit - 1

The situation changes when local thug, Ed the Handyman forces window 3 open. Notice how the logic state of the input of GATE B changes from false to true. The output state of gate ‘B’ changes to true, followed by the INPUT of gate ‘E’ and its output. The input and output of gate ‘G’ also change to true. This train of events leads to the alarm sounding. Because OR gates have been used, it only takes one input to change to true at the windows or doors to activate the alarm.

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Example Logic Circuit - 2

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EXAMPLE LOGIC CIRCUITS - 2
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In manufacturing industry safe use of machines is very important. All machines should be set up in such a way that it is impossible for the machine operator to have an accident.

Machine ‘A’ is unsafe because it can be turned on and used when the guard is out of position, especially if it is operated by a machinist such as Ed the Handyman (website cartoon character). This means that the operator’s hands could be seriously injured by the dangerous blade as it cuts the material. Alternatively, machine ‘B’ has been fitted with a logic circuit. It is designed to ensure that the guard must be in the correct position and the ‘ON’ switch is pressed simultaneously, before the machine will work. This means that the operator must keep his/her spare hand on the switch or electrical power will be cut, stopping the machine working.

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Example Logic Circuit - 2

The animation below shows what happens when the micro-switch has been switched 'ON' as the guard is in the correct position. This means that the logic states of both inputs are 1 (true, on, high, up), consequently the output logic state is 1 (true, on, high, up) and the machine works. Remember, for the AND gate to output 1 both inputs must be 1.

QUESTION: Draw a series of logic circuits that clearly show the logic states of inputs and outputs as the guard is put in the correct position and the 'ON' switch pressed. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT LOGIC PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The 4081B Logic Circuit

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THE 4081B LOGIC CIRCUIT
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Logic gates are usually electronic circuits (based on an integrated circuit) and they are used to make simple decisions. A good example of this type of circuit is based on the 4081B integrated circuit (IC) which can be used effectively in school projects. For example, a dog owner wants to build an automatic animal feeder to work at night and when his dog presses a switch (pressure pad). This type of device would automatically feed the dog when the owner is asleep. A diagram of a simple prototype design is shown opposite. The 4081B integrated circuit will detect when the two switches are activated, one by the dog and the other as darkness falls - the motor allows food to be released from a tube. If only one switch is activated, food will not be released.

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The 4081B Logic Circuit

The logic diagram is shown below. A microswitch (pressure pad) is used as one input device and a dark sensing circuit as the other. The AND gate has two inputs. If both are activated - the dark sensor and the micro-switch - the logic state of the output changes to high and the motor releases food to the hungry dog.

The diagram below shows that the micro-switch has not been pressed and that it is daylight, consequently the motor is off.

QUESTION: Draw the diagram of the sensors and logic circuit above but it must clearly show the motor working. Show and explain the logic states of inputs and outputs. CLICK HERE FOR 4081B CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE
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The 4081B Logic Circuit

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The 4081B Circuit Design

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THE 4081B CIRCUIT DESIGN
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A circuit based around the 4081B integrated circuit can be seen below. The integrated circuit (IC) contains a number of AND gates, although for this sample circuit only one of the AND gates has been used.

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The 4081B Circuit Design

The circuit above represents an AND GATE. This means that switch one AND switch two must be pressed before the relay is energised. When logic chips are used in a circuit the inputs of any unused gates should be connected to the positive or negative, it does not matter which. The ‘chip’ diagram opposite shows the gates of the 4081B and its inputs and outputs. In the circuit above only input pins 1 and 2 are used, for the switches, which when pressed produce an output at pin 3. The output at pin 3 energises the relay and starts the motor, releasing the food for the dog. QUESTIONS: 1. How many switches can be connected to the 4081B ? 2. Draw a 4081B circuit diagram with three switches connected. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION REGARDING THE 4081B LOGIC CHIP CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The Design and Technology Site

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DIGITAL LOGIC EXAM QUESTION 1
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An electronics company has developed a baby sitting device which warns parents when their child turns on a lamp next to the bed or when the temperature of the room falls. Sensor A is a temperature sensor which outputs false(0, low, off) when the room temperature falls below a set level. Sensor B is a light sensor and is attached to a lamp. The sensor outputs true (1, high, on) when the lamp is switched on.

1. What is a transducer driver and what is its function? A transducer driver is normally a circuit that amplifies a weak signal (current). In this case current from the OR gate is amplified by the transducer driver which in turn energises a relaying - activating the buzzer. A signal (current) from any gate is usually too weak to directly activate a buzzer. The circuit diagram below shows the type of circuit needed for a typical transducer driver. Transducer drivers can switch on buzzers, LEDs, motors etc....
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The Design and Technology Site

2. The young child awakes and turns on a lamp next to her bed, changing the logic states of the outputs / inputs of the sensors and logic gates. On the logic circuit below, write the logic state of inputs / outputs of the sensors and gates.

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The Design and Technology Site

3. As the child grows older she regularly gets out of bed and moves around during the night. A new sensor needs to be connected to the system to detect this movement. A micro-switch (SENSOR C) has been added to the system so that when the child opens her bedroom door the buzzer is activated. Complete the circuit below by adding the necessary gate.

4. In the space opposite write/draw the logic table for your chosen gate.

5. The electronics company has decided to add a circuit that will pulse the buzzer on and off. Name a circuit that could be used. An ASTABLE 555 timer circuit.

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The Design and Technology Site

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Digital Logic Exam Question 2

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DIGITAL LOGIC EXAMINATION QUESTION - 2
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1A. A metal cutting milling machine has two switches, any one will allow the cutter to run. The first switch is on the side of the machine and the second is a foot operated switch. However, the machine has two micro-switches (used as safety devices) if any of these is released the cutter will stop. The first micro-switch is on a guard, if this is opened the machine will stop. The second micro-switch is on a door which allows access to the moving mechanism of the milling machine. If this is opened the machine will stop. The micro-switches are normally logic ‘1’ (true, high, on) when pressed. Draw the logic diagram for this machine.

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Digital Logic Exam Question 2

1B. What moving parts would you expect to see behind the door leading to the internal mechanism of the milling machine? Why would access to this area be dangerous if the machine is working at the same time? Behind the door there may be a gear system or pulley system which moves / rotates at high speed. If fingers or hands were trapped in this system, this would be extremely dangerous and could lead to a very serious accident. 1C. Is having an ON and OFF switch on the floor a good idea? How would you improve the design of the switch to make the machine safer to use?

The machine operator could easily switch the machine ON or OFF by mistake as the buttons are too close together. An improvement would be to have only the OFF button on the floor.

1D. The room has two emergency stop buttons at either end of the workshop. If either of these are pressed all machinery in the room will stop. Draw the new logic circuit for this arrangement of buttons and switches.

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Digital Logic Exam Question 2

The NOR gate seen opposite could replace the OR and NOT gates, for the monitoring the emergency stops buttons.

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Digital Logic Circuit Question - 3

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DIGITAL LOGIC EXAMINATION QUESTION - 3
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1. A local systems designer has developed a system to control street lights. The street lights can be turned on manually, or by the use of a timer, so long as a light sensing unit indicates that it is dark.

1A. Below is an incomplete logic circuit for the control system. Redraw the logic circuit using the correct logic gates. Note the output of the dark/light sensor is ‘1’ (true, high, on) when it is light. The lights must be turned during the dark of night.

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Digital Logic Circuit Question - 3

1B. Name the logic gates you have used: GATE X ................. GATE Y ................. GATE Z .................. Below is the logic circuit showing the logic states of inputs and outputs of all the gates when the street lights are ON.

Below is the logic circuit showing the logic states of inputs and outputs of all the gates when the street lights are OFF.

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Digital Logic Circuit Question - 3

1C. On the logic circuit below, write the logic states of all inputs and outputs for the following: It is night time, the manual switch is off and the timer is ‘on’. Will the street lights be on or off ?

1D. Complete the truth table for the logic circuit that controls the street lighting system.

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Digital Logic Circuit Question - 3

1E. Normally a logic circuit such as the one used to control the street lights cannot power lights. In the space below name the subsystem that could be used.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Question

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AND GATE LOGIC CIRCUIT
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Below is a simple AND gate logic circuit designed for a dog. The dog’s owner is very concerned that when he is at work he can gain entrance to the kennel he has made. The kennel is situated outside. However, recently a cat has been entering the kennel and eating the dogs food. The owner has fitted an electronic device that is activated when the dog passes close to a light / dark sensor and presses a hidden pressure pad. Once this has been completed successfully, a motor opens the kennel door. 1. The prototype circuit is built from a kit of modules eg. a light/dark sensor module, an AND gate etc... However, the circuit has failed. Clearly identify the module that is likely to be the cause of the failure.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Question

2. Why is it likely that this part of the circuit will fail?

In the space below, draw the circuit built from modules, with a replacement module which makes it much more likely that the circuit will work successfully. Label the new module.

3. Why is the new module likely to be successful?

4. The prototype circuit made from modules such as a light/dark sensor and AND gate module etc... has be converted into a circuit diagram. This is shown below. However, four key components are missing. Complete the diagram by adding the four correct symbols.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Question

5. The complete circuit diagram has been converted to a PCB layout, shown below. However, two key components are missing. They are still to be soldered into position. Draw the missing components in position. Label the components.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Question

6. Explain why it may be advisable to use a low voltage (transformer) to operate the circuit and motor.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Answer

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AND GATE LOGIC CIRCUIT - SAMPLE ANSWER
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Below is a simple AND gate logic circuit designed for a dog. The dog’s owner is very concerned that when he is at work he can gain entrance to the kennel he has made. The kennel is situated outside. However, recently a cat has been entering the kennel and eating the dogs food. The owner has fitted an electronic device that is activated when the dog passes close to a light / dark sensor and presses a hidden pressure pad. Once this has been completed successfully, a motor opens the kennel door. 1. The prototype circuit is built from a kit of modules eg. a light/dark sensor module, an AND gate etc... However, the circuit has failed. Clearly identify the module that is likely to be the cause of the failure.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Answer

2. Why is it likely that this part of the circuit will fail? The single transistor does not produce enough current to activate the motor. It does not amplify the weak current produced by the AND gate module. In the space below, draw the circuit built from modules, with a replacement module which makes it much more likely that the circuit will work successfully. Label the new module.

3. Why is the new module likely to be successful? The darlington pair module is composed of two transistors. This module amplifies the current to a level that can drive the motor. 4. The prototype circuit made from modules such as a light/dark sensor and AND gate module etc... has be converted into a circuit diagram. This is shown below. However, four key components are missing. Complete the diagram by adding the four correct symbols.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Answer

5. The complete circuit diagram has been converted to a PCB layout, shown below. However, two key components are missing. They are still to be soldered into position. Draw the missing components in position. Label the components.

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AND Gate Logic Circuit Answer

6. Explain why it may be advisable to use a low voltage (transformer) to operate the circuit and motor. Using mains voltage is potentially very dangerous. if the circuit fails or the dog ‘gnaws’ through a cable, it could easily be electrocuted. A low voltage supply, such as 12 volts, avoids this problem. CLICK HERE FOR ORIGINAL QUESTION CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The Binary System

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THE BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM
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Binary numbers are closely related to digital electronics. With digital electronics a ‘1’ means that current / electricity is present and a ‘0’ means it is not present. The different parts of a computer communicate through pulses of current (1s and 0s). As we all know, computers can calculate complex equations and perform complex mathematics at lightening speed. Calculating using only 1s and 0s is called the BINARY SYSTEM. Although a computer will only process 1s and 0s there comes a point when the 1s and 0s have to be converted into our usual decimal numbers - that we are familiar with. We tend to use the DECIMAL SYSTEM when attempting maths. This system deals with numbers that we are using on a daily basis: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10s, 100s, 1000s etc..... As the BINARY system is composed of only two numbers (1s and 0s) you may be wandering how it is possible to count beyond one. The table below will help you understand how this is done.

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The Binary System

Look at the row that represents the decimal number 10 (diagram below). The table can be used to convert this decimal number to a binary number. The table shows that DECIMAL 10 is composed of one number 8 and one number 2. Zeros are used to fill the blank spaces which gives 1010 as the binary equivalent of decimal 10.

Next look at the way decimal 60 is converted to its binary equivalent. 60 is composed of one 32, one 16, one 8, and one 4. The blanks are filled with zeros giving 111100 as the binary equivalent of decimal 60.

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The Binary System

The important point to remember is that when converting from decimal to binary OR from binary to decimal, you must write down the top section of the table (seen in yellow above) and underneath enter the binary number. QUESTIONS: 1. What do you notice about the way the numbers along the top section of the table increase from right to left (yellow section of table)? 2. Complete the table by writing the binary equivalent of decimal numbers 44, 19, 27 and 7, in the spaces available. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Integrated Circuits

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INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
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Integrated circuits (ICs) are very important components found in many circuits. They are also called silicon chips or microchips. Basic 555 timer circuits ranging to complex PIC Microcontroller circuits and computer processors (CPUs) are based on the use of integrated circuits.

555 TIMER

PIC MICROCONTROLLER

A typical integrated circuit package is very small. The diagram opposite gives some idea of the small scale of a typical 555 timer IC. It would easily fit on the end of a finger. A 555 timer only has 8 pins, four on each side. However, even the larger 19 pin ICs are small enough to fit very easily in the palm of the hand, if not on the end of a finger tip.

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Integrated Circuits

People often get confused with the term integrated circuit. The diagrams below clearly show the integrated circuit package with its 8 pins. However, the integrated circuit is found inside the package. The package is the outer casing, usually made from non-conducting ceramic material. The 555 integrated circuit is found inside a ceramic package. The IC is connected to the pins by fine wires. Diagram ‘A’ shows part of the package cut away revealing the IC inside. Diagram ‘B’ shows the package as transparent. This means that the connecting wires from the IC to the pins can be seen.

DIAGRAM 'A'

DIAGRAM 'B'

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Integrated Circuits - 2

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INTEGRATED CIRCUITS - 2
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Integrated circuits are composed hundreds, thousands and even hundreds of thousands of electronic components. These are formed on interlocking layers / wafers of silicon making it possible to create small individual electronic components. An example of the an integrated circuit with its many layers can be seen opposite.

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Integrated Circuits - 2

If an area of an integrated circuit is magnified thousands of times its various layers can be seen. The drawing opposite shows three layers, each layer is shown as a specific colour. Although transistors and resistors do not look like typically sized components, the interlocking layers form miniature versions and they work in the same way.

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Integrated Circuits - 2

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Integrated Circuits - 3

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INTEGRATED CIRCUITS - 3
V. Ryan © 2006

The packages of popular integrated circuits used in schools and colleges are sometimes called a Dual In-Line Packages. They are also called either DIP packages or DIL packages and two examples are shown opposite. The PICAXE 18 is a DIL package with 18 pins and its smaller relation is the PICAXE 08 with 8 pins. The pins of integrated circuits can be delicate and trying to solder each pin to a PCB can be very difficult. It is often a good idea to solder a cheap chip holder to a PCB and then press the integrated circuit package into it.

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Integrated Circuits - 3

The circuit below is based on the PICAXE-18 integrated circuit. Two 19 pin chip holders have been soldered to the PCB and the 18 pin integrated circuits pressed into them. Soldering integrated circuit packages directly to a PCB can be awkward because the heat from the soldering iron can damaged the integrated circuit, if it reaches it. Therefore, holders are normally used. Another advantage of using the holders is that the integrated circuits can be removed at anytime.

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Integrated Circuits - 3

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The 555 Integrated Circuit

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THE 555 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
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This integrated circuit is used for timing. Many circuits are composed of timers and the most common of them all is the 555 Integrated Circuit. It is used in many commercially manufactured items such as video recorders and timers. You must understand the basic workings of this important IC. The 555 has eight pins (legs) but the function of two are very important. These are pin two and three. This chip is used in timing circuits.

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The 555 Integrated Circuit

The circuit below is a simplified version of a 555 circuit. It is a timer. When the switch is pressed a current / voltage goes into the IC through pin two (the input pin). The chip starts counting and when it has finished counting it ‘pulses’ a current or voltage from pin three (the output pin). This voltage from pin three switches a transistor and allows the LED to light.

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The 555 Integrated Circuit

The time from pressing the switch to the LED lighting could be anything from 1 second to twenty minutes. A 555 will switch on a range of components not only LEDs. For example, it can switch on a relay which then allows a second circuit to work. The circuit shown opposite is a simple version of a real 555 circuit. The real circuit includes resistors and capacitors. (See following sheets).

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The 555 Integrated Circuit

The 555 integrated circuit acts as a counter. When activated by current entering in through pin 2, it starts to count for a certain amount of time. When it has finished counting it emits current from pin 3. This usually activates other components such as LEDs or relays.

When the push switch is pressed it allows current to flow into pin 2, starting the timing sequence.

The combination of the resistor and capacitor determines the length of the timing sequence. In general terms, if the resistor and capacitor values are high the timing sequence is long. If the values are low the timing sequence is short.

The transistor acts as a very sensitive switch. When current enters the base electricity can flow from the collector to the emitter. this allows the LED to light.

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The 555 Integrated Circuit

The LED lights when current flows through it. In this circuit it indicates when pin three is emitting current.

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The 555 Asatble Circuit

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THE 555 ASTABLE CIRCUIT
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When the 555 IC is used to produce an ASTABLE circuit - it will continually pulse until power is removed. Astable circuits can be used to flash lights/LEDs on and off or to turn a buzzer on and off repeatedly. They are also used in many more school based circuits. Look at the circuit drawn below. Pins 6 and 2 are connected and go to the negative (0 volts). This is the easiest way of recognising that a 555 IC has been set up as astable. An astable circuit such as the one seen below is sometimes called an oscillator as it resets itself, continually turning the LED on and off.

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The 555 Asatble Circuit

In an astable 555 circuit pins 2 and 6 are connected which means that the circuit will trigger itself continually until power is removed. The larger the value of the capacitor the longer the LED stays on and off.

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The 555 Asatble Circuit

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The 555 Monostable Circuit

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THE 555 MONOSTABLE CIRCUIT
V. Ryan © 2007

When the 555 IC is used to produce an MONOSTABLE circuit - it will only pulse once. Monostable circuits can be used to turn lights/LEDs on or off just once. They are also used in many more school based circuits. Look at the circuit drawn below. Pins 6 and 7 are connected and go to the positive (+9 volts). This is the easiest way of recognising that a 555 IC has been set up as monostable.

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The 555 Monostable Circuit

When the switch is pressed current flows into pin 2. Current then flows out of pin 3 switching the transistor. Current can now flow from +9 volts to -0 volts and the LED lights. In this monostable circuit when the switch is pressed the LED only lights once. The switch has to be pressed each time for the LED to light. This example shows the LED staying on for approximately 8 seconds. If the value of the capacitor is increased the length the LED stays on increases.

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The 555 Monostable Circuit

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555 Monostable Examples

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555 MONOSTABLE EXAMPLES
V. Ryan © 2006

A number of 555 monostable example circuits are seen below. They are all based on the same circuit (DIA. A). The switch must be presses each time to light the LED as the timing cycle only works once. DIA 'A'

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555 Monostable Examples

FURTHER EXAMPLES The bulb only illuminates when the push switch is pressed. It works once and then stops. The switch must be pressed again for the bulb to light. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the bulb is illuminated.

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555 Monostable Examples

The LED only lights when the push switch is pressed. It works once and then stops. The switch must be pressed again for the LED to light. A 330 ohm resistor has been added to protect the LED. Without it the LED would ‘blow’. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time LED stays illuminated. The motor spindle only turns when the push switch is pressed. It works once and then stops. The switch must be pressed again for the spindle to rotate. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the spindle turns. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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555 Monostable Examples

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The 555 Monostable Circuit - More Detail

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THE 555 MONOSTABLE CIRCUIT IN DETAIL
V. Ryan © 2002

Electronic timers are central to school projects. You will find as you develop your circuits that the timer circuit can be adapted to suit many purposes. There are several reliable timers but the 555 timer is the most common. Whether you are putting together an alarm or a circuit to activate a computer, a timer is the common component. The 555 timer IC (integrated circuit) is very stable, relatively cheap and reliable. It may be used as monostable or astable. MONOSTABLE Monostable means that once the circuit is switched on it will time once and then stop. In order to start it again it must be switched on manually a second time.

In the circuit drawn opposite, the 555 timer is set to turn on the buzzer when the push switch is pressed; the buzzer sounds for approximately 8 seconds. This is a monostable circuit as it works only once. The switch must be pressed again for the buzzer to sound again.

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The 555 Monostable Circuit - More Detail

On the diagram above if the components 'boxed in' by the dotted line are removed and the alternative components (shown on the right) are added - the 555 timer circuit can be used to energise a relay.

The timer can now be used to trigger a relay which then allows another circuit to work. In this case the timer holds the relay closed for a preset amount of time allowing the second circuit to work and then switches the relay open, which stops the secondary circuit.

WHAT THE 'PINS' OF THE 555 ACTUALLY DO

The pin (leg) that triggers the 555 IC is leg two. In other words leg two starts the timing sequence once a voltage is applied to it and after the 555 timer has ended it’s timing sequence a signal (output) is sent down leg three. In the circuit at the top of this page, the signal down leg three starts the buzzer. The variable resistor VR1 can be used to increase or decrease the timing cycle.

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The 555 Monostable Circuit - More Detail

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555 Monostable Examples

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3D 555 MONOSTABLE EXAMPLE - 1
V. Ryan © 2006

A circuit shown below is a 555 monostable circuit. Normally a 9 volt battery would be connected but this circuit is powered by a transformer. The circuit has be drawn on 'Crocodile Technology 3D' software and then animated (using graphics/animation software). A circuit can be drawn with this software and tested on screen. Furthermore, it can be seen in three dimensions and rotated into almost any position. The bulb only illuminates when the push switch is pressed. It works once and then stops. The switch must be pressed again for the bulb to light. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the bulb is illuminated.

Below are some of the main components used in a 555 monostable circuit. Name all the components and explain the role they play.

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555 Monostable Examples

1. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

2. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

3. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

4. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

5. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

6. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

7. In your opinion, which of the components shown above is the most important in the 555 monostable circuit? Explain your answer.

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555 Monostable Examples

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555 Monostable Examples

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3D 555 MONOSTABLE EXAMPLE - 2
V. Ryan © 2006

A circuit shown below is a 555 monostable circuit, powered by a 9 volt battery. The circuit has be drawn on 'Crocodile Technology 3D' software and then animated (using graphics/ animation software). A circuit can be constructed with this software and tested on screen. Faults can then be corrected before the circuit is manufactured with real components. This saves time and money. Furthermore, Crocodile Technology 3D allows the circuit to be seen and tested in three dimensions and rotated into almost any position. This makes it much easier to understand the layout of the components and how the circuit works. The motor only illuminates when the push switch is pressed. It works once and then stops. The switch must be pressed again for the bulb to light. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the motor's shaft rotates.

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555 Monostable Examples

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555 Timer examination Questions - 1

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555 TIMER EXAMINATION QUESTIONS - 1
V. Ryan © 2006

1. Below are some of the main components used in a 555 monostable circuit. Name all the components and explain the role they play.

1. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

2. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

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555 Timer examination Questions - 1

3. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

4. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

5. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

6. EXPLANATION OF ROLE:

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

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555 TIMER EXAMINATION QUESTIONS - 2
V. Ryan © 2006

1. The following question is based on the 555 monostable circuit. The circuit shown is part of a production line and controls the timing sequence. The automated production line is shown below. Parts / components move along the production line where they are sensed, clamped down, drilled and then released, moving down the production line again. The 555 monostable circuit controls the timing of the entire production line.

The timer circuit is found inside the control circuit box. The incomplete circuit diagram is found below. Add the following components to complete the timer circuit: A. 0v and 9v supply B. A variable resistor for altering the length timing sequence. C. A buzzer that sounds during the timing sequence.

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

POSSIBLE ANSWER

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

D. Explain how your completed circuit works.

POSSIBLE ANSWER When SW2 is pressed current flows into pin 2 of the 555 timer starting the timing sequence. Current flows from pin 3 into the transistor, allowing current to flow from positive to negative, sounding the buzzer. The buzzer sounds for the entire timing sequence. 2. What is the role of the variable resistor and capacitor?

POSSIBLE ANSWER Both components are key to the length of time of the timing sequence. If a resistor and capacitor of higher values are used then the timing sequence is longer.

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

3. The 555 timer is an IC. What does IC mean? POSSIBLE ANSWER AND FURTHER INFORMATION IC means ‘Integrated Circuit’ - click here for further information 4. The 555 timer has a DIL layout. What does DIL mean? POSSIBLE ANSWER AND FURTHER INFORMATION DIL means ‘Dual In-line. This means that there are two parallel lines of pins - click here for further information 5. It has been found that the sound emitted by the buzzer is too low. A circuit designer has suggested that a relay be added. The circuit also needs protecting by the addition of another component placed in parallel with the relay. (See layout below) Complete the circuit diagram by adding the relay and a suitable additional ‘protecting’ component.

POSSIBLE ANSWER

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

6. Name the component that protects the circuit and explain how it does this. NAME:_____________________________ How the component protects the circuit.

POSSIBLE ANSWER NAME : DIODE How the component protects the circuit. The diode is placed in parallel with the relay, placed the opposite way round to its normal direction. When the relay is switched off it can cause back E.M.F. This is current that is sent round the circuit in the wrong direction. This ‘spike’ can damage sensitive components such as transistors. The diode stops current flowing round the circuit in the wrong direction. It acts like a one way valve. click here for more on diodes

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

7. What is back EMF ?

POSSIBLE ANSWER E.M.F is Electro Motive Force. Back E.M.F is current that is sent round a circuit in the wrong direction. This can damage sensitive components such as transistors and integrated circuits. 8. The incomplete timer circuit is shown below. Some components are missing. Draw the missing components in the correct positions, adding suitable labels. The missing components are shown below the circuit diagram.

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

POSSIBLE ANSWER

9. In the space below explain how the entire circuit works. Include an explanation of the key components and their role in the circuit.

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555 Timer Examination Questions - 2

POSSIBLE ANSWER When switch 1 is closed current is available for the circuit. When switch 2 is pressed current flows into pin 2 of the 555 timer, starting the timing sequence. Current flows from pin 3 of the timer into the base of the transistor allowing the relay to become energised. The relay switches on the remaining part of the circuit by allowing current to flow through the buzzer which sounds. The diode protects sensitive components by preventing back E.M.F. The combination of the variable resistor and the capacitor determines the length of time the 555 timer counts. When the timer has finished counting, current no longer flows from pin 3 and the buzzer stops sounding. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The 555 Astable Breadboard Circuit

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555 ASTABLE CIRCUIT - BREAD BOARD
V. Ryan © 2002

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Components: One 555 IC 270 ohm resistor from +9v to the collector of the NPN transistor. Two 1K resistors One NPN transistor (try any alternative). One 100K preset resistor. One 47uf capacitor Black and red wire. One LED

Using a breadboard and components listed above, put together the astable 555 timer circuit. Test the circuit to check that it works. Usually any faults are due to wires, components or pins/legs of components in the wrong slots. The information below explains in detail how the timer works.

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The 555 Astable Breadboard Circuit

Astable means that the 555 can operate repeatedly, it will switch on, then off, then on, then off, continually. The 555 is sometimes called an oscillator. This is a typical 555 astable circuit that drives an LED. It is known as a LED flasher as the LED flashes on and off. The number of flashes per minute can be altered by turning the preset resistor. Remember the 555 is activated by current at pin two and the output is through pin three. Altering the preset resistor alters the time between ‘pulses’ at pin three. The pulse at pin three switches the transistor which allows the LED to come on. The LED flashes on and off because with this astable circuit the pulses from pin three are repeated until the power is switched off completely. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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555 Astable Examples

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555 ASTABLE EXAMPLES
V. Ryan © 2006

A number of 555 astable example circuits are seen below. They are all based on the same circuit (DIA. A). The circuit continually resets itself and the LED flashes on and off until all power is removed. The circuit diagram shows that pins 6 and 2 are connected, this means that the circuit resets and triggers itself. DIA 'A'

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555 Astable Examples

FURTHER EXAMPLES The bulb is turned on and off repeatedly. This cycle stops when the toggle switch is turned off. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the bulb is illuminated and the time it is off.

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555 Astable Examples

The LED is turned on and off repeatedly. This cycle stops when the toggle switch is turned off. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the LED is illuminated and the time it is off.

The motor is turned on and off repeatedly. This cycle stops when the toggle switch is turned off. Increasing the value of the resistors and capacitor extends the time the motor is on and the time it is off.

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555 Astable Examples

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The 555 Astable Circuit - More Detail

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THE 555 ASTABLE CIRCUIT IN DETAIL
V. Ryan © 2002

Electronic timers are central to school projects. You will find as you develop your circuits that the timer circuit can be adapted to suit many purposes. There are several reliable timers but the 555 timer is the most common. Whether you are putting together an alarm or a circuit to activate a computer, a timer is the common component. The 555 timer IC (integrated circuit) is very stable, relatively cheap and reliable. It may be used as monostable or astable. Astable means that the 555 can operate repeatedly, it will switch on, then off, then on, then off, continually. The 555 is sometimes called an oscillator. This is a typical 555 astable circuit that drives an LED. It is known as a LED flasher as the LED flashes on and off. The number of flashes per minute can be altered by turning the variable resistor. Remember the 555 is activated by current at pin two and the output is through pin three. Altering the variable resistor alters the time between ‘pulses’ at pin three. The pulse at pin three switches the transistor which allows the LED to come on.
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The 555 Astable Circuit - More Detail

The LED flashes on and off because with this astable circuit the pulses from pin three are repeated until the power is switched off completely.

This 555 circuit is very similar to the one above and it is called a ‘pulse generator’. Circuits like this are often used to produce a pulse or signal that will start a second circuit. This can be seen in a simple alarm. Our alarm consists of two circuits, one is a 555 pulse generator and the other detects the pulse. If the pulse is removed a buzzer on the second circuit sounds. This type of circuit could be useful on a door. When the door is shut the alarm is turned on. The first 555 circuit generates a pulse (positioned on the door frame) and the second
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The 555 Astable Circuit - More Detail

circuit detects the pulse and is positioned on the door itself. If the door is opened the connection between the two circuits is broken. The second circuit can not detect a pulse and so the buzzer sounds.

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The 555 Astable Circuit - More Detail

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The Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier - A Simple Explanation

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THE 741 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER USED AS AN AMPLIFIER - A SIMPLE EXPLANATION
V. Ryan © 2007

741 Operational Amplifiers (also known as Op Amps) are used in a range of circuits. They are generally used to amplify weak electrical current in a circuit. Radios, stereo systems, headphones, TVs and many other electrical products include an operational amplifier as a component in many of their circuits. Circuits such as moisture sensors, light / dark sensors, movement sensors, sound sensors etc.. often need operational amplifiers in order for them to work properly. The circuit below is part of a larger alarm circuit. When it detects movement (ie. an intruder) it sends a signal to the main alarm system which sounds the siren. Without the Operational Amplifier Integrated Circuit the signal would be too weak for the main alarm system to detect. The Operational Amplifier increases the signal so that it is strong enough and the main alarm circuit sounds the siren.

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The Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier - A Simple Explanation

Make a list of other electrical products that you think have operational amplifiers as a component (s) in their circuits.

Ed often plays his electric guitar without it being plugged into a speaker/amplifier system. This is good for the general public as he is often plays out of tune. His music cannot be heard next door which means his next door neighbour gets a good nights sleep.

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The Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier - A Simple Explanation

However, recently he has bought a powerful speaker with his pocket money. Inside the speaker is a circuit that amplifies the sound of the guitar. This circuit includes a 741 Operational Amplifier which ‘amplifies’ every sound the guitar makes by a factor of 100. The volume of the music is now extremely loud and consequently his neighbour cannot sleep

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The Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier - A Simple Explanation

QUESTION: Explain the main reasons for including an operational amplifier in a circuit for a product such as an alarm sensor or a radio. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier with Sensors

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THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER USED AS AN AMPLIFIER WITH SENSORS
V. Ryan © 2007

Sometimes it is necessary to increase the current in a circuit. This is especially important if a sensor is being used as an input. Sensors are often used to switch on other devices. For example, a temperature sensor may to used to detect fire and then to turn on a water sprinkler system to put the fire out. Look at the example below. When the rise in temperature (caused by the fire) is detected the sensor circuit (including an operational amplifier) allows a small amount of current to flow through it. However, the current is too small to activate the sprinkler system. The current must be increased for this to happen. An operational amplifier is used to increase the current (called GAIN). Then the sprinkler system is turned on putting out the fire.

The diagram below clearly shows how a small current (sometimes called a signal) is amplified by the Operational Amplifier to produce a larger current (signal)

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The Operational Amplifier used as an Amplifier with Sensors

QUESTION: 1. Name five different sensors and explain how each one could be used. For example, a temperature sensor could be used to detect a fire in a fire prevention system.

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The 741 Operational Amplifier

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THE 741 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
V. Ryan © 2002-05

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The Operational Amplifier is probably the most versatile Integrated Circuit available. It is very cheap especially keeping in mind the fact that it contains several hundred components. The most common Op-Amp is the 741 and it is used in many circuits. The OP AMP is a ‘Linear Amplifier’ with an amazing variety of uses. Its main purpose is to amplify (increase) a weak signal - a little like a Darlington Pair. The OP-AMP has two inputs, INVERTING ( - ) and NON-INVERTING (+), and one output at pin 6.

The chip can be used in a circuit in two ways. If the voltage goes into pin two then it is known as an INVERTING AMPLIFIER. If the voltage goes into pin three then the circuit becomes a NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER.

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The 741 Operational Amplifier

The 741 integrated circuit looks like any other ‘chip’. However, it is a general purpose OP-AMP. You need only to know basic information about its operation and use. The diagram opposite shows the pins of the 741 OP-AMP. The important pins are 2, 3 and 6 because these represent inverting, noninverting and voltage out. Notice the triangular diagram that represents an OpAmp integrated circuit.

THE 741 IS USED IN TWO WAYS

1. An inverting amplifier. Leg two is the input and the output is always reversed.
In an inverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg two and comes out of the 741 chip at leg six. If the polarity is positive going into the chip, it negative by the time it comes out through leg six. The polarity has been ‘inverted’.

2. A non-inverting amplifier. Leg three is the input and the output is not reversed.
In a non-inverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg three and leaves the 741 chip through leg six. This time if it is positive going into the 741 then it is still positive coming out. Polarity remains the same. CLICK HERE FOR NEXT OPAMP PAGE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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The 741 Operational Amplifier

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Non-inverting and Inverting Operational Amplifiers

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NON-INVERTING AND INVERTING 741 AMPLIFIERS
V. Ryan © 2002-05

1. An inverting amplifier - Leg two is the input and the output is always reversed or inverted. 2. A Non-inverting amplifier - Leg three is the input and the output is not reversed.
Opposite is a diagram of an INVERTING AMPLIFIER. This means that if the voltage going into the 741 chip is positive, it is negative when it comes out of the 741. In other words it reverses polarity (inverts polarity). Two resistors are needed to make the 741 work as an amplifier, R1 and R2. In most text books diagrams like this are used to represent the 741.

HOW TO CALCULATE THE 'GAIN'
An operational amplifiers purpose is to amplify a weak signal and this is called the GAIN. INVERTING AMPLIFIER GAIN (AV) = -R2 / R1 NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER GAIN (AV) = 1+(R2 / R1)

Example : if R2 is 100 kilo- Example : if R2 is 1000 kilo-ohm and R1 is 100 kilo-ohm the gain would ohm and R1 is 10 kilo-ohm be : the gain would be : 1+ (1000/100) = 1 + 10 -100 / 10 = -10 (Gain AV) OR GAIN (AV) = 11 If the input voltage is 0.5v the output voltage would be : If the input voltage is 0.5v the output voltage would be :

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Non-inverting and Inverting Operational Amplifiers

0.5v X -10 = -5v

0.5 X 11 = 5.5v

The polarity of a signal is reversed at the output, pin six. A negative input becomes a positive output.

A signal applied keeps its polarity at the output, pin six. A positive input remains a positive output.

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The 741 as a Comparator

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OP-AMPS AS COMPARATORS
V. Ryan © 2002-05

Below are some examples of 741 I.C. based circuits. However, this time the 741 is used as a comparator and not an amplifier. The difference between the two is small but significant. Even if used as a comparator the 741 still detects weak signals so that they can be recognised more easily. It is important to understand these circuits as they very regularly appear in examinations. A ‘comparator’ is an circuit that compares two input voltages. One voltage is called the reference voltage (Vref) and the other is called the input voltage (Vin). When Vin rises above or falls below Vref the output changes polarity (+ becomes -). Positive is sometimes called HIGH. Negative is sometimes called LOW. EXAMPLE CIRCUIT - LIGHT ACTIVATED ALERTER

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The 741 as a Comparator

The buzzer emits a tone when light falls on the light dependent resistor. Resistor 2 controls the sensitivity of the circuit. The 741 is working as a comparator and the piezo buzzer sounds when the output form the 741 goes ‘low’ or in other words, changes from a positive to a negative.

EXAMPLE CIRCUIT - DARK ACTIVATED ALERTER

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The 741 as a Comparator

This is a dark activated circuit, the reverse of the circuit above. Do you notice the difference ? If you look carefully you will notice that resistor 1 and the LDR have changed positions. Also, the inputs to the 741 are reversed. Replace the LDR with a thermistor for a temperature circuit. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

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741 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER COMPARATOR EXAMINATION QUESTION AND INFORMATION
V. Ryan © 2007

A home-made anemometer can be seen below. It is part of a system that calculates the wind speed. It is composed of four cups that rotate on a central shaft. As it rotates a light / dark sensor, housed in the ‘sensor bracket’ detects light from the light bulb found inside the sensor bracket. The sensor is connected to a circuit that counts each time the disk rotates (light from the bulb is detected).

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

NOTES

SAMPLE ANSWER NOTES As the disk spins the light from the bulb shines through the two holes in the disk as it rotates. The sensor detects the light. The circuit it is connected to counts each time light is detected.

2. Below is a 3D version of the sensor / counter circuit.

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

The circuit diagram of the 3d circuit is seen below. When the light from the bulb shines on the light / dark sensor the resistance of the LDR decreases. This allows current to flow into pin 2. The 741 compares the current of pin 2 and pin 3. When a change in current occurs in either pin 2 or 3 the 741 outputs current at pins 6. This energises the relay. The energised relay activates the counter circuit. Each time the counter circuit is activated it adds a number.

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

However, there is a fault with the circuit due to the position of the light bulb and LDR. Sometimes the LDR does not detect the light from the bulb. Explain why this may happen and how it could be corrected. 3. WHY THE LIGHT IS NOT ALWAYS DETECTED:

POSSIBLE ANSWER The bulb is not directly above the LDR. This means that much of the light from the bulb shines away from it. 4. HOW THE CIRCUIT COULD BE CORRECTED SO THAT LIGHT IS ALWAYS DETECTED: POSSIBLE ANSWER The LDR could be moved so that the light shines directly into it. This will reduce the resistance of the LDR so that current flows through the circuit energising the relay.

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

5. A 741 Operational Amplifier is represented by a distinctive symbol. Draw the symbol in the space opposite

POSSIBLE ANSWER

The sensor circuit has been altered slightly and it is now suitable for use in the sensor bracket. The LDR is not soldered directly to the PCB as it is fixed in position with a electrical connector. This means that the LDR is directly above the bulb. As the bulb lights the LDR detects the light immediately.

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

6. How does the position the LDR in relation to the bulb make the circuit more efficient ?

POSSIBLE ANSWER The circuit is more efficient because light from the bulb shines directly into the LDR. Light is either present or not present. The circuit is now an accurate light / dark sensor. 7. Identify the components listed below (label the components on the circuit diagram) : Preset Resistor - Op Amp - Diode - LDR - Bulb - Relay

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

POSSIBLE ANSWER

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741 Operational Amplifier Comparator Examination Questions and Information

8. Label the 741 Op Amp shown in the circuit above according to the Pin Table shown opposite.

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The 4017B Decade Counter

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THE 4017B DECADE COUNTER
V. Ryan © 2005

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The 4017B is an integrated circuit which has been designed to count pulses. It has 16 pins and looks like any other 16 pin integrated circuit.

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The 4017B Decade Counter

They can be used in timing circuits and are often used to switch on and off LEDs or motors or other circuits. They are versatile and relatively simple to put together. Counters such as the 4017B are cheap and yet surprisingly useful. The 4017B is most useful when combined with a timer such as a 555 based circuit. The pulse from the 555 timer can be used to activate the 4017B circuit. A good example is seen below. A 555 astable circuit is used to pulse the 4017B at regular intervals. The pulse from the 555 IC is generated from pin 3. In the circuit seen below, pin 3 of the 555 IC feeds into pin 14 of the 4017B (called ‘clock in’). When this occurs pin ‘A’ of the 4017B emits current, lighting its LED. The next pulse from the 555 IC results in pin ‘B’ of the 4018B IC emitting current and lighting its LED. Continuous pulsing by the 555 IC results the LEDs of the 4017B turning on and off in sequence, creating a ripple effect. In this circuit a reset switch has been added. When pressed, counting will start again at pin ‘A’ of the 4017B IC.

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The 4017B Decade Counter

The wires from the battery snap and also the ones from the toggle switch are fed through small holes in the PCB. This ensures that they cannot be accidentally pulled off the circuit easily. A number of 4017B IC circuits can be connected together by connecting pin 10 (divide by 10 pin) to the input on the next 4017B IC. The outputs will change at one tenth the speed of the first 4017B IC. Linking the 4017B ICs together in this way allows for long interval timers to be made.

QUESTIONS: 1. Build a 4017B Decade Counter using either a breadboard and components OR simulation software such as Crocodile Technology. Add a 555 timer to pulse the decade counter. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Adding Motors and Solenoids to the 4017B decade Counter

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ADDING MOTORS AND SOLENOIDS TO THE 4017B
V. Ryan © 2005

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Outputs such as motors and solenoids can be added to the 4017B circuit quite easily. LEDs are simply replaced with a low power motor (quality solar motor recommended). The motor must be capable of working with a maximum of 3v. However, if a more powerful motor or a solenoid is required a transducer module can be used. Watch outputs 'A' and 'D', these have a solar motor and solenoid attached.

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Adding Motors and Solenoids to the 4017B decade Counter

The high power transistor TIP 31A is ideal for this circuit. The connections are shown above. A motor, solenoid or other output device can be connected. Normally a 9 volts secondary power source is used, especially for school projects. Alternatively, if the output rail of the 4017B is connected to the gate of a FET or the base of a transistor such as a BFY51, every time any output is switched on, the transistor will be switched and the motor will revolve. A separate transistor circuit is shown below.

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Adding Motors and Solenoids to the 4017B decade Counter

QUESTIONS: 1. Build a 4017B circuit using a breadboard and components OR simulation software such as Crocodile Technology. Add a solar motor and solenoid as shown in the animation above. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 1

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION 2007 - QUESTIONS - 1
V. Ryan © 2007

1. Diesel trains are used throughout the country. They use diesel as a fuel for engines which drive the train forwards at high speed, creating movement. Complete the systems diagram below to show the main energy changes.

ANSWER

2. What is Kinetic Energy ?

ANSWER The energy a body possesses because it is moving.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 1

3. The train seen below is at the top of an incline. At any point it could roll downwards, gathering speed. What is potential energy?

Potential energy is:

ANSWER The energy which a body has because of its position, eg. a coiled spring or a train at the top of a hill. 4. The train at the bottom of the steep incline has a special gear system. On the diagram the gear system is marked A and B. What are the correct names for parts A and B ?

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 1

PART A:_______________________________________ PART B:_______________________________________ ANSWERS PART A: Pinion PART B: Rack

5. Explain why the gear system shown above is used where there are speed inclines.

ANSWER Trains cannot travel up steep inclines as their wheels have no grip. The rack and pinion allows the train to grip the track. The pinion is a special gear. Its teeth ‘mesh’ with the teeth on the rack, pulling the train up the incline. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 1

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Systems Preparation Questions - 2007 - 2

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION 2007 - QUESTIONS - 2
V. Ryan © 2007

6. Motion involves movement of some kind. Four types of movement are listed below. Label the diagrams that represent motion with the correct name.

ANSWER

7. The items listed below all involve movement. Label each diagram with the correct type of movement

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Systems Preparation Questions - 2007 - 2

ANSWER

8. The sensor circuit seen below is used to sense the movement of model trains. It is normally positioned before a model railway station. When a train is arriving the sensor detects a drop in the light level and a motor changes the signal and sounds a buzzer

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Systems Preparation Questions - 2007 - 2

8a. Why has the circuits designer used a relay ?

ANSWER The relay separates the two circuits. The sensor operates using 9 volts whilst the secondary circuit operates using 24 volts. The relay separates the two sources of power as well as the two sets of components. 8b. Name the component labelled ‘A’ and explain why its function. NAME:_______________________________ FUNCTION:

ANSWER
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Systems Preparation Questions - 2007 - 2

NAME: DIODE FUNCTION: To protect the circuits components form back EMF. When current to a relay is removed the relay can emit current, sending it round the circuit in the opposite direction. This can damage sensitive components such as transistors. The diode prevents this happening.

8c. What happens to reading on the voltmeter when a train passes the sensor ?

ANSWER When the train passes the sensor circuit the light level drops. This increases the resistance of the LDR. Current no longer flows through the LDR and consequently flows to the base of the transistor. The voltmeter will show an increase as a result. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 3
V. Ryan © 2007

The railway barrier shown below has been designed and manufactured for a model railway system. The motor inside the post drives the barrier up and down. The motor is the output to a 555 timer circuit.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3

1. There are two types of 555 timer. What is the name of the 555 circuit shown below? CIRCUIT NAME: ___________________________ ANSWER CIRCUIT NAME: 555 ASTABLE 2. Label the components on the circuit diagram below (A TO G).

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3

3. The relay is causing major problems because an important component is missing. Name the component and draw its symbol in the correct position on the circuit diagram above. COMPONENT NAME: ___________________________ ANSWER COMPONENT NAME: DIODE

4. What is the function of the component ?

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3

The diode protects sensitive components such as the transistors from back E.M.F. When a current to a relay is removed the relay can emit current stored in its coils. This can be sent the wrong way round the circuit damaging components. The diode operates like a one way valve preventing this from happening.

A second version of the railway barrier has been manufactured. This is mechanically operated by a rotating device.

5. What is the function of the pivot ?

ANSWER The pivot allows the barrier to rotate at a specific point. In this case the barrier rotates upwards and downwards about the pivot. 6. Draw the mechanical device on the diagram above. ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3

7. Name the device and explain how it works. NAME:____________________________ HOW IT WORKS:

ANSWERS NAME: ECCENTRIC CAM HOW IT WORKS: As the eccentric cam rotates in a clockwise direction the barrier is pushed upwards at a constant rate. It then descends at a constant rate back to its original position. 8. What is the function of the barrier stop ?

ANSWER The stop prevents the barrier from dropping below the horizontal. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 3

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 4
V. Ryan © 2007

As part of a GCSE project a student has designed a barrier system for a crossing. The specification drawn up by the student says - As a train approaches the crossing it breaks a light beam and the barrier is lowered, stopping cars and pedestrians. When the train has passed, the barrier should lift allowing cars and pedestrians to cross the railway line safely.

The student’s prototype control circuit can be seen below.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4

1. Name component ‘A’: ____________________________ ANSWER Name component 'A': Light Dependent Resistor. 2. Give one reason why the circuit shown above will not meet the specification.

ANSWER As the train passes the sensor the barrier will lower. However, the moment the train goes beyond the sensor the barrier will begin to rise. This means that it is possible that a car could cross the track and be hit by the train. There is no time delay holding the barrier in the lowered position. 3. Write a modification that would solve the problem with the specification

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4

ANSWER A timer circuit such as a 555 circuit will hold the barrier in the lowered position until the train has passes the barrier 4. Why is a darlington pair positioned between the sensor and the relay?

ANSWER The darlington pair amplifies the current (signal) from the sensor to the relay ensuring that the current is high enough to energise the relay, turning on the motor that raises and lowers the barrier. 5. The darlington pair circuit has been tested but it regularly fails. Draw a modification on the circuit diagram below that will ensure that the circuit works without problems.

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4

6. Explain how your modification works.

ANSWER The diode protects sensitive components such as the transistors from back E.M.F. When a current to a relay is removed the relay can emit current stored in its coils. This can be sent the wrong way round the circuit damaging components. The diode operates like a one way valve preventing this from happening. 7. The student has decided to use a PIC microcontroller to control the motor that raises and lowers the barrier. The student uses outputs 1 and 2 to control the motor. Output 1 will turn the motor on and off. Output 2 changes the direction of the motor. Complete the circuit below to show how the control of the motor can be achieved.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4

ANSWER

8. The student decides to use one of the inputs to detect when the barrier has completely opened. Name a suitable sensor: ____________________________________ ANSWER
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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 4

Name a suitable sensor: Microswitch 9. Explain how the sensor would be used.

ANSWER The microswitch will be positioned so that when the barrier is fully raised it is pressed. The micrositch will be connected to an input of the microcontroller circuit. The microcontoller will detect when the microswitch is pressed and keep the barrier raised until a train is detected. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 5

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 5
V. Ryan © 2007

A railway track has sets of points that allow trains to transfer from one track to another. This allows them to change direction. However, in winter points can freeze and this is extremely dangerous as a train can be easily derailed. The block / systems diagram shows how a heating system works. This warms up points in freezing weather ensuring that they operate safely.

The ice sensing part of the circuit is shown below.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 5

1. Which component acts as a sensor in this circuit ?

ANSWER Component B - Thermistor 2. What does the component sense ?

ANSWER The component senses a change in temperature 3. Which component is used to adjust sensitivity of the circuit ?

ANSWER Component A - Variable resistor

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 5

4. The ice sensing circuit shown above can be altered to sense heat. In the summer the points can expand due to extreme heat. This can also be dangerous. To counter this problem a cooling unit is to be fitted to the points. Complete the next circuit by adding the heat sensor.

ANSWER

5. What is the name of component C shown in the heat sensing circuit above? ANSWER
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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 5

Component C is a diode 6. What is its function ?

ANSWER To protect the circuits components form back EMF. When current to a relay is removed the relay can emit current, sending it round the circuit in the opposite direction. This can damage sensitive components such as transistors. The diode prevents this happening. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 6
V. Ryan © 2007

The diagrams below shows the plan view and front view of an automatic sorting system. This sorts large, medium and small packages so that they can be collected and placed in the correct carriage of a train, for distribution to customers.

The sensors detect the size of each package and are connected to two control circuits. One circuit controls arm X and the other arm Y. If the output of either of the control circuits is high (logic 1) then the appropriate arm will swing to the position.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6

1. Complete the truth table below to show the logic states of the three sensors that would give the correct outputs. The sensors provide a ‘high’ (logic 1) if they detect a package and a’ low’ (logic 0) if no package is detected.

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6

2. Part of each control circuit is composed of AND gates. In the space below draw a diagram that represents an AND gate. Also, complete the truth table (opposite) for a two input AND gate.

YOUR DIAGRAM OF AND GATE:

ANSWERS

3. Draw a circuit diagram to show how two of these gates could be used to control arm ‘Y’ The inputs from sensors A, B and C are already drawn along with the output - arm ‘Y’

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6

ANSWER

4. The control system has been found to be unreliable. It has been modified by using sensors which give logic 0 when they detect a package and logic 1 for NO package. What type of gate could be added to your circuit (drawn above) to allow for this change?

ANSWER NOT GATE (INVERTER GATE) 5. Draw the modified circuit in the space below

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6

ANSWER

6. Suggest a more cost effective modification to the one shown above.

ANSWER A three input AND gate followed by a NOT gate would by more efficient. Or a three input NAND gate. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 6

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 7

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 -7
V. Ryan © 2007

Trains are often controlled by traffic lights. These tell the train driver when to stop and when it is safe to move the train forwards. The lights are controlled by the outputs of a microcontroller circuit (seen below). The table shows the operating cycle.

Outputs 0 to 5 are used to control the sequence of lights

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 7

What are the logic levels of the outputs when they are switched on by the microcontroller

ANSWER HIGH / ON / TRUE / 1 Complete the table below to show the output bit pattern required to run the traffic lights for one cycle. Begin with light A on GREEN and light B on RED.

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 7

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 8

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 8
V. Ryan © 2007

A technology student has developed an automatic traffic control system for a level crossing. A pressure sensor detects when a car passes over it. The sensor is connected to INPUT 1 of the control system. A light sensor detects the presence of a train close to the crossing. The light sensor is connected to INPUT 2 of the control system. When a car is detected the control system checks if a train has passed the light sensor. Then the traffic lights run through a sequence of changes, eventually changing the lights from red to green, raising the barrier and allowing the car to cross the railway line safely. If a train is present the traffic light s stay on red and the barrier stays lowered / closed.

1. The sequence of events are listed below. However. they are in the wrong order. Write the correct sequence of events in the available space. The first three stages have been completed.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 8

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 8

2. Convert your sequence into a flow chart using the boxes also shown below. The first four stages have been completed for you.

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 8

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 8

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 9

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 9
V. Ryan © 2007

The traffic control system shown below has INPUTS and OUTPUTS. Each input and output has a number - these are listed on the diagram below.

Write the control sequence for the following sequence of events: Please note, when the barrier is raised/open it is ‘ON’. When the barrier is lowered/closed it is ‘OFF’. The first five stages have already been completed.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 9

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 9

Suggest two improvements to the traffic control system shown in the diagram above. IMPROVEMENT 1:

IMPROVEMENT 2:

ANSWER IMPROVEMENT 1: The system should have an audible (sound) warning as well. This would allow the drivers to hear as well as see warnings that the barrier is about to be closed. IMPROVEMENT 2: The system should have two sensors that detect the presence of trains. This would mean that the system would work safely even if one of the sensors failed. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 10

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 10
V. Ryan © 2007

The toy train shown below has been manufactured using a plastic called HDPE High Density Polyethylene. The coupling rod is of great importance as it is linked to both of the main wheels.

The manufacturing process is called injection moulding. In the space below draw a labelled sketch showing this process. Add explanatory notes.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 10

NOTES

ANSWER

NOTES 1. Granules of plastic powder (note the plastics listed above) are poured or fed into a hopper which stores it until it is needed. 2. A heater heats up the tube and when it reaches a high temperature a screw thread starts turning. 3. A motor turns a thread which pushes the granules along the heater section which melts then into a liquid. 4. The liquid is forced into a mould where it cools into the shape (in this case a coupling). 5. The mould then opens and the coupling is removed.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 10

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 11

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 11
V. Ryan © 2007

1. An orthographic drawing of a coupling rod for a toy steam engine is shown below. There is a potential weakness to the design. Alter the design to shown a method of strengthening the coupling. Include a label.

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 11

2. Coupling rods often wear out quickly if bearings are not used to the smooth movement of moving parts. Complete the drawing of the roller bearing shown below.

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 11

3. Underline two of the following materials that are regarding as bearing materials (materials that do not produce much friction when their surfaces ‘rub’ against other materials. STEEL - BRASS - NYLON - PINE - IRON - CONCRETE ANSWER STEEL - BRASS - NYLON - PINE - IRON - CONCRETE CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 12

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 12
V. Ryan © 2007

1. It has been decided that the plastic being used for the coupling wears out too quickly. Aluminium is to be used. Write two advantages of using aluminium: ADVANTAGE ONE:

ADVANTAGE TWO:

ANSWER ADVANTAGE ONE: Aluminium is a light-weight metal. This means the finished coupling will not be heavy and the rotation of the wheels will not affected by adding too much weight. ADVANTAGE TWO: Aluminium is harder wearing than any plastic. This means that the coupling will last longer than the plastic version.

2. A manufacturing process called casting is to be used to make the new coupling. Complete the diagram of casting shown below by adding appropriate labels.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 12

ANSWER

3. When casting it is extremely important to wear the correct safety equipment shown on the diagram below. Name each piece of equipment and explain why each is necessary.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 12

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 12

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 13

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 13
V. Ryan © 2007

At a railway stock yard everyday goods are moved from one train to another by porters driving small electric trains. These are charged up over night and used during the day time. The trains relay on geared systems to propel them along at speeds exceeding fifteen mph.

It has been decided to change the gear system in each of the trains to reduce the speed to ten mph. The old and new replacement gear systems are shown below. Work out the gear ratio and rpm of gear ‘B’ for each system.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 13

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 13

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 14

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 14
V. Ryan © 2007

A new gear system has been designed as part of the power transmission system for a electric train. This will be used to ferry passengers and their baggage from platform to platform.

The gear system is shown below. What is the name of this type of gear system? NAME OF GEAR SYSTEM: __________________________________________

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 14

Gear A rotates in a clockwise direction at 30 revs/min. What is the output in revs/min at D and what is the direction of rotation ?

ANSWERS NAME OF GEAR SYSTEM: COMPOUND GEAR SYSTEM

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 14

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 15

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 15
V. Ryan © 2007

1. A model railway system is remotely controlled using a handheld unit (shown opposite). The unit is manufactured from plastic and inside is an electronic circuit. The unit controls the movement of model trains, barriers, traffic lights etc..... Name a suitable plastic for the casing: ____________________________ 2. What are the properties of the plastic you name in the previous question that make it suitable for the manufacture of the handheld control unit? PROPERTIES:

ANSWERS Name a suitable plastic for the casing: HIGH DENSITY POLYSTYRENE PROPERTIES: High density polystyrene has a relatively low melting point. This material is a thermoplastic - which means when heated and then pressured in a mould it can be formed into different shapes

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 15

3. It has been decided that the casing is to be manufactured through the process of injection moulding. In the space below draw a suitable diagram representing this process. Include labels and notes explaining the process.

NOTES:

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 15

NOTES Granules of plastic powder are poured or fed into a hopper which stores it until it is needed. A heater heats up the tube and when it reaches a high temperature a screw thread starts turning. A motor turns a thread which pushes the granules along the heater section which melts then into a liquid. The liquid is forced into a mould where it cools into the shape of the casing. The mould then opens and the coupling is removed. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 16

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 16
V. Ryan © 2007

The drawing shows one of the passenger doors to a train. The passenger doors will only open when the train is stationary at the platform. A sensor circuit controls the opening and closing of doors which open automatically when a passenger approaches.

1. Name a suitable sensor for this procedure.

2. The incomplete circuit for the operation of the doors is seen below. Complete the circuit by adding the components required to represent your sensor.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 16

ANSWERS Name of suitable sensor: LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR Completed circuit:

3. Describe on safety feature the door control system should have.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 16

ANSWER As the doors close it is possible that a passenger could be trapped. A pressure sensor could be added to each door so that if the door closed on a passenger a circuit would detect this and open the doors immediately. CLICK HERE FOR ELECTRONICS INDEX PAGE

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 17

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 17
V. Ryan © 2007

The sensor circuit (shown in the previous question) has been replaced with a programmable microcontroller circuit. In the space below complete the flow chart that represents the programming for the opening and closing of the doors. Alongside the flow chart, explain each stage.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 17

ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 17

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 17

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 18

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SYSTEMS PREPARATION QUESTIONS 2007 - 18
V. Ryan © 2007

The drawing below shows the sliding doors of a train carriage. However, these trains are rather old and the electric circuits are constantly breaking down. This leaves the doors stuck open or shut. The designers are considering a mechanical backup system that would allow the train guard / porter to open and close the door in the event of an emergency.

The two doors are shown below. Add to the drawing a suitable mechanical system that would allow the doors to be opened and closed in the event of an electronic failure. Add explanatory notes and labels.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 18

POSSIBLE ANSWER

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 18

NOTES: A rack and pinion mechanical system could be used to open and close the doors. A special handle would be placed into the pinion. This would give leverage allowing the pinion to be turned manually. Each door could be opened or closed if the electronic system failed. The handle would be carried by the porter / train guard. A sample handle is seen below.

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Systems Preparation Questions 2007 - 18

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World Association of Technology Teachers

CLICK HERE FOR TECHNOLOGYSTUDENT.COM THE MAIN RESOURCE OF THIS SITE

The World Association of Technology Teachers aims to support teachers/lecturers and educators across the world in the delivery of Design and Technology. Two forms of membership exist; (A) full membership which requires no commitment and (B) W.A.T. T Advisor Membership. The main aim is to set up a list of advisor members throughout the world through which information/advice on a range of technologies can be sought. Many websites only have links to other sites, this association is different in that it allows advisor members to list their email address and details of their technology specialities / interests or technology websites. Anyone can browse the list of advisor members, with the aim of seeking advice regarding a technology specialism. Other pages on the site contain links to recommended design and technology sites, a list of suppliers and information regarding application for a quality mark for projects/
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World Association of Technology Teachers

schemes of work. One of the most important aspects of this site is the partnership page which allows technology departments to form links with other departments across the world or at home. Other sections include sample departmental documentation and schemes of work. Membership is not limited to teachers but is open to schools, departments, company membership and other interested individuals. (Click on the MEMBERS page above for details)

COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

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Product Design Index Page

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Product Design involves a broad approach to the designing and making of innovative / new products. Pupils/students studying Product Design should work closely with other sections of the site including the Resistant Materials and Design Process sections. 1. What is Product Design? (1) 2. What is Product Design? (2) 3. What is Product Design? (3) 4. What is Product Design? (4)

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
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Product Design Index Page

1. The Client /Customer 2. Introduction to Industrial Production Techniques 3. Scales of Production - an Introduction 4. Single Item / Prototype Production - Example 1 5. Single Item / Prototype Production - Example 2 6. Batch Production - Example 1 7. Batch Production - Example 2 8. Batch Production Exercise 9. Continuous Production - Example 1 10. Continuous Production - Example 2 11. Production Methods - Lesson Starter 12. CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacture - 1 13. CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacture - 2 14. Remote Manufacturing 15. Continuous Improvement (CI) - Page 1 16. Continuous Improvement (CI) - Page 2 17. Flexible Manufacturing Systems - FMS - 1 18. Flexible Manufacturing Systems - FMS - 2 19. Detailed Example of Flexible Manufacturing - CD / DVD Manufacture

QUALITY SYSTEMS
1. Quality Assurance 2. Quality Control 3. Quality Control Exercise 4. Tolerances - 1 5. Tolerance - 2

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
1. Factors that Affect Product Development 2. How the Design of a Product Changes Over Time - The Bicycle 3. Bicycle Exercise 4. The Life Cycle of a Product 5. Sustainability - What is a Sustainable Forest? 6. The History of Clocks - 1
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Product Design Index Page

7. The History of Clocks - 2 8. Making Model Sundials

COPYRIGHT - TRADEMARKS AND PATENTS
1. What is Copyright? 2. What is a Patent? 3. What is a Registered Trademark?

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Vocational Work Index Page

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(STILL UNDER CONSTRUCTION) Vocational work is very important in schools as it provides pupils and students with a way of learning that is based the pupils' own study through detailed coursework. Below are vocational projects whereby pupils build a portfolio of work based on their own research and investigation. This section has close links with the design process section so it is advisable to use both together. THE CD-ROM STORAGE PROBLEM
This unit takes pupils through the stages involved in the design of a storage unit and involves working as part of a team

COMPANY ORGANISATION
This unit looks at the way departments are organised and the way they function within a company. The work roles of people in departments are investigated. All work in the classroom should be linked to a visit to a company.

SCALES OF PRODUCTION
In this unit pupils will study 'scales of production', including single item, batch and continuous production. Industrial visits or video examples of each scale are essential for this section of the course

1. Setting the Scene 2. Key Needs (1) 3. Key Needs(2) 4. Design Brief 5. Client Needs 6. Product Constraints 7. Functional Details 8. Basic Designs 9. Design Team Meeting 10. Presentation to the Group 11. Design Requirements

1. Organisational Structure 2. Company Work Roles 3. Departmental Functions 4. Work Role Responsibilities 5. Interaction of Departments

QUALITY ASSURANCE
In this small project pupils put together a report on quality assurance with regards to the manufacture of the CD-ROM storage unit.

1. Scales of Production ? 2. Continuous Production 3. Batch Production 4. Single Item Production 5. Examples - Continuous Prod. 6. Examples - Batch Prod. 7. Examples - Single Item 8. Single Item Materials/Components 9. Single Item - Sequence drawing 10. Single Item - Health and

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Vocational Work Index Page

12. Ideas and Features 13. Stages of Production 14. The Specification 15. Team Discussion 16. Selected Solution 17. Sequence Drawing 18. Product Feasibility 19. Proposal Feasibility 20. Planning for Mass Production 21. Quality Control 1. Introduction 2. Quality Checks 3. Identifying Defects 4. Defective Products 5. Industrial Quality Checks

Safety 11. Batch Prod. Conditions in the Workplace 12. Continuous Prod. Conditions in the Workplace 13. Continuous Prod Materials/Components 14. Continuous ProdSequence Drawing 15. Continuous Prod - Health and Safety 16. The Report 17. Quality Control 18. Quality Control - Block Diagram

SCALES OF PRODUCTION - CASE STUDIES When designing a product you will have to decide how it will be manufactured (made) in industry. Your final design could be manufactured by continuous production, batch production or single item production Your choice will depend on a number of factors, the most important being the customer or number of customers. Below is a simple Case Study of each scale of production. When you are working on a project you will need to explain how your design could be manufactured through each scale. SINGLE ITEM The manufacture of an individually designed and hand-made guitar. BATCH PRODUCTION The manufacture of a (batch) - large number of bicycles CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION The continuous manufacture - production 24 hours a day of car bodies.

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Further Questions / Exercises - Energy Production

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V. Ryan © 2006

Personal, Social and Health Education is taught widely in UK schools, as well as Citizenship. Pupils are introduced to a range of topics and activities that help them develop as members of the community. Many of the activities below are aimed at helping pupils develop communication, discussion and reasoning skills (Still Under Construction) 1. How to Organise the Way I Work. 2. Are you Equipped to Learn? 3. Listening Skills 4. How to be Successful in Life 5. Organisation - Fire Drill Practice 1. Helping Others / Putting Others First 2. Honesty 1. Vandalism - 1 2. The Cost of Vandalism 3. The Image of a Vandal 1. Why Bullying is Wrong - 1 2. Why Bullying is Wrong - 2 3. Why Bullying is Wrong - 3

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Further Questions / Exercises - Energy Production

1. New Pupil in School? 2. What Do You Know About Your School? (New Pupil in School) 3. What Do You Know About Your New School - Teachers and Subjects 4. Classroom Rules 5. Friendship - 1 6. Friendship - 2 7. My Type of Friend 8. Voluntary Groups

1. What is a Good Citizen? 2. Why it is Important to be a Good Citizen 3. Characteristics of a Good Citizen 4.Citizenship and Crime 5. School Report - Self Evaluation and Citizenship 6. First Parents Evening 1. Why is Smoking Bad for your Health? 1. What is a General Election? 2. What is a Political Party? 1. Looking Ahead 2. Carrying Out an Interview - Lesson Starter 3. Interview Questions 1. Raising Money for Charity 2. A Difficult Customer? 1. The Homeless - 1 2. Housing - 1 3. Sharing Living Accommodation - 1 4. Sharing Living Accommodation - 2

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Equipment and Processes Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2001-2007

BASIC EQUIPMENT 1. The Fretsaw 2. Machine Drills 3. The Bench Drill 4. The Bench Drill - Worksheet 5. The Hand Drill 6. How to use a Hand Drill 7. G Cramps 8. Sash Clamps 9. Types of Planes 10. How to use a Smoothing and Jack Plane 11. The Woodworkers Try-Square 12. The Marking Gauge 13. The Engineers Try-Square 14. The Sliding Bevel 15. Back Saws 16. The Coping Saw 17. How to use a Centre Square 18. How to use a Surface Gauge 19. The Centre and Dot Punch 20. General Chisels 21. The Mortise Gauge 22. The Mortise Chisel 23. The Hot Glue Gun 24. The Power Hacksaw 25. Hand Files - 1 26. Hand Files - 2
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Equipment and Processes Index Page

27. Hand Files - 3 28. Disk Sander - 1 29. Disk Sander - 2 30. Bending Tubes and Pipes MATERIALS 1. An Introduction to Materials 2. Natural Woods 3. Manmade Boards 4. Plastics 5. Metals 6. Smart Materials - Polymorph - Shaping by Hand 7. Smart Materials - Polymorph - Using a Mould 8. Smart Materials - Shape Memory Alloys - Page One 9. Smart Materials - Shape memory Alloys - Page Two PLASTICS EQUIPMENT 1. Injection Moulding and Extrusion 2. Blow Moulding 3. Examination Question - Injection / Blow Moulding 4. Moulding Through Compression 5. Vacuum Forming (two pages) 6. Vacuum Forming Examination Question - 1 7. Vacuum Forming Examination Question - 2 8. Using a Strip Heater 9. Strip Heater Question 10. Sequence Drawing - Use of the Strip Heater 11. The Profile Cutter

HEAT TREATMENT 1. The Brazing Hearth 2. Brazing a Joint 3. The Brazing Hearth - Health and Safety

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Equipment and Processes Index Page

4. Hardening and Tempering 5. Case Hardening of Steel 6. Annealing of Metals 7. Foundry Work 1(Casting 1) 8. Foundry Work 2 (Casting 2) 9. Foundry Work 3 (Casting 3) 10. Foundry Work 4 (Casting 4) 11. The Furnace 12. Safety Clothing for Casting 13. The Casting Procedure (1) 14. The Casting Procedure (2) 15. The Casting Procedure (3) 1. Pewter Casting -1 2. Pewter Casting - 2 3. Pewter Casting - Safety 4. Pewter Casting - Question Sheet-1 5. Pewter Casting - Question Sheet - 2 6. Pewter, Small Scale Casting Project - Part 1 7. Pewter, Small Scale Casting Project - Part - 2 8. Pewter, Small Scale Casting Project - Part - 3 9. Pewter, Small Scale Casting Project - 4 10. Pewter, Small Scale Casting Project - 5 ENGINEERING 1. The Shaping Machine. 2. The Polishing (Buffing) Machine 3. The Polishing (Buffing) Machine - Health and Safety 4. The Vertical Miller (1) 5. The Vertical Miller (2) - Making Adjustments 6. The Vertical Miller (3) - More Information 7. The Vertical Miller - Health and Safety 8. The Horizontal Milling Machine 9. The Horizontal Milling Machine - Cutters and Up-Milling

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Equipment and Processes Index Page

10. The Centre Lathe 11. The Centre Lathe - 'Facing Off' and Short Taper Turning 12. Turning a Long Taper 13. Using the Centre Lathe to Drill 14. Using the Automatic Traverse to Turn a Length of Steel 15. How to Centre a Lathe Tool - Types of Tool 16. How to use a Knurling Tool PRECISE MEASURING 1. The Digital Vernier Caliper - 1 2. The Digital Vernier Caliper - 2 3. The Vernier Caliper - Manual Version 4.The Micrometer 5. The Depth Gauge Micrometer

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CNC Index Page

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CNC or Computer Numerical Control is growing in importance in schools. This section is an introduction to CNC machining and explains in simple terms the equipment needed and how it can be used. 1. CNC Work - An Introduction 2. Simple Diagram of a Boxford Duet 3. What does CNC mean ? Stages in CNC work 4. Production Flow Chart for CNC Work
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CNC Index Page

5. CNC Systems Diagram 6. CNC Product - Poster/Flyer Design 7. 2D Computer Aided Design and Manufacture 8. 3D Computer Aided Design and Manufacture 9. 3D Manufacture using CNC Machines 10. The CNC Control Panel 11. Setting up the Cutting Tool to the Correct Length 12. CNC Machines and Safety 13. Advantages and Disadvantages of CNC Machines PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURE 14. The Manufacture of PCBs through the use of CAD/CAM BASIC QUESTIONS 1. Basic Questions - CNC Machines 3D MODELLING 1. Rapid Prototyping - The 3D Printer - Page One 2. Rapid Prototyping - The 3D Printer - Page Two 3. Manufacturing a Model with the 3D Printer 4. More Advantages of a 3D Modelling and Questions LASER CUTTING / ETCHING MACHINES (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) 1. Laser Cutting / Etching Machines - 1 2. Laser Cutting / Etching Machines - 2 3. From Design to Manufacture

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POWER TOOLS

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V. Ryan © 2006 - 2007

THIS SECTION IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 1. CORDED HAMMER DRILLS 2. BASIC ACCESSORIES AND DRILL BITS 3. CORDLESS HAMMER DRILLS 4. SDS (SPECIAL DIRECT SYSTEM) DRILLS 5. POWER SCREWDRIVERS 6. MACHINE PLANERS 7. SHEET SANDERS 8. PALM SANDERS 9. MACHINE ROUTERS 10. MACHINE ROUTERS AND ROUTER BITS 11. THE JIGSAW 12. FURTHER USE OF A JIGSAW 13. HAND HELD CIRCULAR SAWS 14. TABLE CIRCULAR SAWS - 1 15. TABLE CIRCULAR SAWS - QUESTION 16. DISK SANDER - 1

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POWER TOOLS

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Technology and Cultures Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2001-2007

This section is concerned with the way societies/cultures in the past have used and developed technology. This section covers areas of interest such as the Terra-cotta Army and the Great Wall (China), also, Petra (Jordan). Great structures such as the Eiffel Tower are included.

1. China - The Great Wall of China 2. China - The Terra-cotta Army 3. Jordan - Ancient Town of Petra 4. France - The Eiffel Tower 5. France - The Millau Bridge 6. The Pyramids of Egypt 7. Pyramids - Block Lifting Technology 8. The Mostar Bridge 9. The Hovercraft 10. The Race for Vertical Take Off and Landing Planes 11. The Harrier Jump Jet - The Technology 12. The Leaning Tower of Pisa 13. The Empire State Building 14. The Bridges of Budapest - Hungary 15. The Giant Ferris Wheel - Vienna, Austria 16. Switzerland - Modern Light Oil Steam Trains 17. Switzerland - Mountain Railway Technology - 1 18. Switzerland - Mountain Railway Technology - 2 -The Landwasser Viaduct 19. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 1 - General Facts 20. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 2 - Foundations and Towers
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Technology and Cultures Index Page

21. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 3 - Cables and Decking 22. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 4 - Animated Stages of Construction 23. Nepal - Bhaktapur - City of Culture 24. Morocco - The Medina in Fez 25. Hawaii - Background Information 26. Symbols of Hawaii - 1 27. Symbols of Hawaii - 2 28. Symbols of Hawaii - 3 29. Symbols of Hawaii - Helicopter Flights

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2002 - 2007 RESISTANT MATERIALS STUDENTS/PUPILS SHOULD ALSO STUDY THE 'EQUIPMENT AND PROCESSES' SECTION OF THIS WEBSITE

MATERIALS
1. An Introduction to Materials 2. Natural Woods 3. Manmade Boards 4. What is a Sustainable Forest? 5. Plastics 6. Metals 7. Smart Materials - Polymorph - Shaping by Hand 8. Smart Materials - Polymorph - Using a Mould 9. Smart Materials - Shape Memory Alloys - Page One 10. Smart Materials - Shape memory Alloys - Page Two 11. Modern Light Weight Modelling Materials

JOINTS
1. Cross Halving Joints 2.Tee Halving, Dovetail Halving and Half Lap Joints 3. Bridle Joints 4. The Mortise and Tenon Joint - The Basics 5. Mortise and Tenon Joints - 1 6. Mortise and Tenon Joints - 2 7. Double / Twin Mortise and Tenon Joints

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

8. How to Mark Out and Cut a Mortise and Tenon Joint - the Mortise 9. How to Mark Out and Cut a Mortise and Tenon Joint - the Tenon 10. Dovetail Joints 11. How to Mark Out and Cut Dovetail Joints - The Tail 12. How to Mark Out and Cut Dovetail Joints - The Pins 13. Finger Joints 14. How to Mark Out and Cut a Set of Finger Joints - Part One 15. How to Mark Out and Cut a Set of Finger Joints - Part Two 16. Lapped / Rebate / Shoulder Joints 17. How to Mark Out and Cut a Rebate / Shoulder / Lapped Joint

QUESTIONS - JOINTS
1. Finger /Dovetail Joints - Questions 2. Tools Required for Cutting Finger / Dovetail Joints

SCREWS AND GLUES
1. Types of Screws - 1 2. Types of Screws - 2 3. Types of Nail 4. General Glues for Woods 5. How to Apply Cascamite 6. Glues for Plastics 7. Lesson Starter - Glues

HINGES
1. Types of Hinges

KNOCK DOWN FITTINGS
1. Knock-Down (K/D) Fittings 2. More Knock-Down (K/D) Fittings 3. The Table Plate

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

NUTS AND BOLTS
1. Bolts - Sheet 1 2. Bolts - Sheet 2

RIVETS
1. Pop Riveting 2. Cold Rivets - Types and General Use 3. Joining Plates with Rivets - 1 4. Joining Plates with Rivets - 2 5. Joining Plates with Rivets - 3 6. Rivets and Movement

FITTINGS FOR SHAFTS AND WHEELS
1. Push Fittings 2. Split Pins 3. Lock Nuts 4.Combination Lock Nut and Split Pin. 5. Fittings for Metal Tube Frames - 1 6. Fittings for Metal Tube - 2 7. Examination Question

BRAZING
1. The Brazing Hearth 2. A Brazed Joint

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

1. The Client /Customer 2. Introduction to Industrial Production Techniques 3. Scales of Production - an Introduction 4. Single Item / Prototype Production - Example 1 5. Single Item / Prototype Production - Example 2 6. Batch Production - Example 1 7. Batch Production - Example 2 8. Batch Production Exercise 9. Continuous Production - Example 1 10. Continuous Production - Example 2 11. Production Methods - Lesson Starter 12. CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacture - 1 13. CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacture - 2 14. Remote Manufacturing 15. Continuous Improvement (CI) - Page 1 16. Continuous Improvement (CI) - Page 2 17. Flexible Manufacturing Systems - FMS - 1 18. Flexible Manufacturing Systems - FMS - 2 19. Detailed Example of Flexible Manufacturing - CD / DVD Manufacture

QUALITY SYSTEMS
1. Quality Assurance 2. Quality Control 3. Quality Control Exercise 4. Tolerances - 1 5. Tolerance - 2

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
1. Properties of Materials - 1 2.Properties of Materials - 2 3. Properties of Materials - Questions 1 4. Properties of Materials - Questions 2

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
1. Exam Question 1 2. Exam Question 2 3. Exam Question 3 4. Exam Question 4 5. Exam Question 5 6. Exam Question 6

AS / A2 LEVEL QUESTIONS
1. Question 1 - Traditional Chair 2. Question 1 - Modern Plastic Chair 3. Question 1 - Contemporary Wood/Metal Chair

EXAMINATION PREPARATION THEMES
The aim of this sub-section is to set a design theme and context THEME: OFFICE FURNITURE AND RELATED EQUIPMENT CONTEXT: TABLE and DESKTOP ORGANISATION Pupils research the theme as they work through the resources/questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the Resistant Materials course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions* 1. Desk Top Organisation - Rich Picture 2. Product Analysis - 1 3. Product Analysis Exercise 4. Design Requirements 5. The Design Specification - Desk Top Organiser 6. Desk Organiser - Ergonomics. 7. Additional Resources You May Need MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUE ONE 1. Manufacturing a Simple Desk Top Organiser - The Base

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

2. Manufacturing a Simple Desk Top Organiser - The Tubes MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUE TWO 3. Injection Moulding MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES THREE 4. Line Bending / Strip Heater EXAMINATION STYLE QUESTIONS 1. Questions - 1 2. Questions - 2 3. Questions - 3 4. Questions - 4 5. Questions - 5 6. Questions - 6 7. Questions - 7 ADDING ACCESSORIES 1. Adding a Sellotape Dispenser 2. Sellotape Dispenser Examination Question 1 3.Sellotape Dispenser Examination Question 3 4. Sellotape Dispenser Examination Question - 4

2. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS THEME: EDUCATIONAL TOYS CONTEXT: YOUNG CHILDREN LEARN THROUGH PLAY Pupils research the theme as they work through the resources/questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the Resistant Materials course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions*

1. Rich Picture - Educational Toys 2. Product Analysis 3. Product Analysis (Toy) - Exercise 4. Educational Toys and Devices
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Joints and Fittings Index Page

5. Design Requirements - Educational Toy 6. The Design Specification - Educational Toy 7. Design Problem - Educational Toy 8. Further Explanation of Key Words /Phrases 9. Design Brief - Educational Toy 10. Educational Toy and Ergonomic Considerations 11.Educational Toy / Ergonomic Walking Toy 12. Symbols - Packaging- 1 13. Symbols - Packaging - 2 14. More Symbols and Questions 15. Safety Symbols - Lessons Starter 16. Toy Lessons Starter 17. Educational Jigsaw - 1 18. Educational Jigsaw - 2 19. Educational Jigsaw - 3 20. A Mechanical Toy 21. Another Mechanical Toy 22. Try the Mechanisms Index Page - CAMS and CAM Toys 23. Questions - 1 24. Questions - 2 25. Questions - 3 26. Questions - 4 27. Questions - 5

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

3. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS THEME: MEDIA STORAGE CONTEXT: STORING DVDs, CDs AND COMPUTER GAMES Pupils research the theme as they work through the resources/questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the Resistant Materials course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions*

1. Rich Picture - Media Storage 2. Product Analysis of a Typical Homemade DVD / CD Storage Unit 3. Product Analysis Exercise - DVD Storage Unit 4. Design Requirements 5. Design Specification - Media Storage 6. Design Problem - Media Storage 7. Design Brief - Media Storage 8. Ergonomics - Media Storage 9. Manufacturing a Basic DVD / CD Storage Unit - Single Item Manufacture - 1 10. Manufacturing a Basic DVD / CD Storage Unit - Single Item Manufacture - 2 11. Assembly - Single Item Manufacture - 3 12. Manufacturing a Basic DVD / CD Storage Unit - Batch Production 13. Plastics - Batch Production - Many Made 14. Production Flow Charts - Single Item and Batch Production 15. CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacture - 1 16. CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacture - 2 17. Manufacturing a Cabinet - DVD / CD Storage Unit - Material Pine 18. Flat Pack DVD / CD Storage Unit 19. Free Gift - Glider - 1 20. Free Gift - Glider Manufacture 21. Modern Light Weight Modelling Materials 22. Making a Model Glider - By Hand

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Joints and Fittings Index Page

23. Flow Chart - Making a Model Glider By Hand 24. Examination Questions - 1 25. Examination Questions - 2 26. Examination Questions - 3 27. Examination Questions - 4 28. Examination Questions - 5 29. Examination Questions - 6 30. Examination Questions - 7 31. Examination Questions - 8 SUGGESTED FURTHER REVISION

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Technology and the Environment

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V. Ryan © 2002 - 2008

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Our society and industry relies on large amounts of energy and the world is becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal etc...). The industrialised nations of Western Europe and North America, China and India depend almost entirely on these fuels and the developing nations are also increasing their use. It is understood that there is a direct link between the way we produce energy and damage caused by pollution. Finding cleaner and alternative ways of producing electricity / energy are now looked upon as being very important for the future of our planet. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES Alternative Energy is a term used to describe sources of energy that occur naturally in the environment. For example, energy from the sun, the wind, movement of the oceans, etc.... Click on aspects in the index below to view examples.

SOLAR POWER
1. Solar Power - An Introduction 2. Solar Power - A Basic Heat Exchanger 3. Solar Power - Parabolic Solar Collectors 4. The Odeillo-Font-Romeau Solar Furnace
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Technology and the Environment

5. What is Photovoltaics? 6. Practical Examples of Photovoltaics 7.Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy 8. Solar Powered Cars 9. Making a Model Solar Powered Car - Page One 10. Making a Model Solar Powered Car - Page Two 11. Basic Construction of the Model Car 12. Sequence Drawing of Making Solar Powered Model Car 13. More Solar Powered Devices 14. The Ozone Layer - Background and Symbol Design

WIND POWER
1. How the Air Moves to Form Winds 2. The History of Wind Power - 1 3. The History of Wind Power - 2 4. The History of Wind Power - 3 5. The History of Wind Power - 4 6. Wind Power on Land 7. Wind Power at Sea 8. The Scale of Modern Wind Turbines 9. Sample Photographs of Wind Powered Electricity Generators 10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power

SEA POWER
1. Sea Power - Tidal Power 1 2.The Proposed Bristol Channel Tidal Power Scheme 3. Sea Dams - The Rance Estuary Tidal Power Scheme 4. Off Shore Turbine Systems 5. Power from Waves - 1 6.Power from Waves - 2 7. Power from Waves - the Salter Duck 8. Coastal Defences and Electricity Generation 9. The Electricity Generating Sea Buoy

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Technology and the Environment

DAMS / HYDRO ELECTRICITY
1. Water Wheels 2. Building a Model Water Powered Generator 3. Hydroelectricity 4. Pump Storage Systems 5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydropower

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
1. What is Geothermal Energy ? 2. Dry Steam Power Plant 3. Binary Power Cycle Plant 4. Flash Steam Power Plant

MORE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
1. Bio-Fuels - Using Fast Growing Willow 2. Bio-Fuels - Methane From Animal Waste 3.Bio-Fuels - Burning Domestic Waste to Produce Electricity 4. Bio-Fuels - Ethanol

NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION
1. Nuclear Power Generation 2. The Storage of Radioactive Waste Produced by Nuclear Power Stations

ENERGY SAVING DEVICES
1. Energy Saving Devices - Wind Up Chargers 2. Energy Saving Devices - Solar Chargers 3. The Magnetic Force Torch 4. The Magnetic Force Torch Technology - Alternative Applications 5. Quality Guaranteed Symbol and Eco-Friendly Products

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Technology and the Environment

LESSON MATERIAL
1. Energy Production - Lesson Starter 1 2. Energy Production and Environmental Damage 3. Conventional or Alternative Energy ? 4. The Generation of Electrical Power - Exercise 5. Energy Production - Rich Picture 6. History of Wind Power - Lesson Starter 7. Building a Wind Powered Generator 8. Making a Wind Powered Device 9. More on Wind Powered Devices 10. Working Drawing / Orthographic Drawing 11. Evaluation of Wind Powered Device (Individual) 12. Evaluation - Wind Powered Device - Summary 13. Class Evaluation - Wind Powered Device 14. Designing a Promotional Leaflet - Wind Power 15. Further Questions 16. Wind Power Project Wordsearch

THE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY HOUSE
1. An Energy Inefficient and Environmentally Unfriendly House 2. Design Template for an Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly House 3. The Energy Efficient House - Exterior 4. The Energy Efficient House - Interior

DRINKING WATER
1. Drinking Water - Drilling Boreholes 2. Water Purification and Simple Technology

ENVIRONMENTALLY TRANSPORT OF THE FUTURE
1. Steam Power - Transport of the Future ? 2. The HyTrans Transit Van 3. Hydrogen Powered Cars - A Simple Explanation 4. Solar Powered Cars

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Technology and the Environment

STRUCTURES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1. Are Structures Environmentally Friendly? DESIGN AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1. Product Design and the Environment

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Computer Control Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2002 - 06

Computers control many aspects of our lives. They control the way products are manufactured in factories around the world to the way we obtain money to buy the same products in shops. In school it is likely that you will use computers to present your work, to search the internet and to control devices such as robots and devices you will build in Technology. 1. The Basic Parts of a Computer - The Hardware 2. The Motherboard and Memory - The Basics 3. The Motherboard - A Detailed Description 4. Input Devices 5. Output Devices 6. Basic Concepts of the Microprocessor 7. BITs and BYTEs 8. Flow Charts 9. Integrated Circuits - 1 10. Integrated Circuits - 2 11. Integrated Circuits - 3

12. A Typical Interface 13. A Computer Program

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Computer Control Index Page

14. Sensors, Digital Inputs and Outputs 15. More Programming 16. Programming Using Logicator Software 17. The Social Implications of Microprocessors and Computer Control

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Gears Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2001-2004

The section is aimed at introducing pupils to basic concepts of gears and pulleys. Areas covered include spur gears, compound gears, chain drive, rack / pinion systems and pulley systems. Click on the aspect of gears/pulleys outlined below to view the information sheets.

1. Spur Gears and Simple Gear Trains. 2. More Detail Regarding Gears 3. Gear Trains, Idlers and drawing gears 4. Compound Gears 5. Rack and Pinion Gear Systems 6. Rack and Pinion Example 7. Bevel Gears 8. Gear Ratios (Velocity Ratio) - The Basics 9. Gear Wheels (Sprockets) and Chains 10. Worms and Wormwheels 11. Gears - A Practical Exercise 12. Gear Models - Simple Gear Trains 13. Gear Models - Rack and Pinion PULLEY SYSTEMS 1. Pulley Systems - General Introduction 2. Pulley Systems - Velocity Ratio and RPM - 1 3. Pulley Systems - Velocity Ratio and RPM - 2 4. Pulley Systems - Velocity Ratio and RPM - 3 5. Pulley Systems - Reversing Direction of Rotation 6. Pulleys and Lifting - Important Formulas
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Gears Index Page

7. Pulleys and Lifting -1 8. Pulleys and Lifting - 2 9. Pulleys and Lifting - 3 10. Pulleys and Lifting - 4 11. Pulleys and Lifting - 5 12. Pulleys and Lifting - Exam Question

SAMPLE QUESTIONS 1. Working Out Gear Ratio (Velocity Ratio) 2. Working Out Revolutions Per Minute (RPM) 3. Working Out Ratio and RPM of Systems Composed of Three Gears 4. Working out the RPM of Compound Gears 5. Rack and Pinion Question 6. Gear Train (including compound gear) 7. Worm Gear Exam Question 8. Rack and Pinion Examination Question - Steering System 9. Sample Answer - Steering System 10. Rack and Pinion Examination Question - Fork Lift Truck 11. Sample Answer - Fork Lift Truck 12. Pulley /Gear Examination Question 13. Pulley / Circuit / Switches Examination Question 14. Gears Examination Questions - 1 15. Gears Examinations Questions - 2

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Gears Index Page

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Health and Safety

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EDS'S HEALTH AND SAFETY
V. Ryan © 2003-2007

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A. Click here for 'Health and Safety for the Consumer'. B. Health and Safety in a workshop is very important. If a pupil/student uses equipment, tools and machinery, he/she should have received safety training. This should ensure that he/she feels confident in the use of machines and can operate them without having an accident or causing an accident to other people. Below are a number of exercises that introduce pupils/students to an understanding of working in a safe environment. This is 'Ed the Handyman', a cartoon character who knows very little about Health and Safety. He is a bad image for health and safety in a workshop. Ed says that Health and Safety is important but ignores it himself. He uses a variety of machines and equipment and thinks he will never have an accident or cause an accident to other people. BUT HE IS WRONG !!!! Look at the animations of Ed working and you should find it easy to see why his approach to health and safety is completely wrong.

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Health and Safety

Do not be like Ed. Take health and safety seriously so that you will be safe, work more efficiently and improve the quality of the items you manufacture.
Ed the HANDYMAN is a fictitious character and does not reflect the way health and safety should be approached.

CLICK BELOW TO SEE HOW ED THE HANDYMAN IGNORES HEALTH AND SAFETY Safety Starter The Safety Rules that Ed the Handyman Ignores What is Ed the Handyman doing wrong? Ed the Handyman and drilling machines. Ed the Handyman - further use of drilling machines How Ed the Handyman leaves a workbench. How Ed the Handyman uses a fretsaw. How Ed the Handyman should use a fretsaw Ed the Handyman - poor behaviour in the workshop.

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Health and Safety

Ed the Handyman - why it is important to use machines safely Ed the Handyman - today, is he fit for work? Ed the Handyman uses a chisel and mallet How Ed the Handyman should use a chisel How Ed the Handyman should use a Polishing Machine How Ed the Handyman uses a Hammer How Ed the Handyman uses a Vertical Milling Machine How Ed the Handyman uses a Brazing Hearth Safety Poster Design Safety Symbol Exercise Safety Cube Design Health and Safety Calendar Design BLANK TEMPLATE - CALENDAR SAMPLE JANUARY SAMPLE FEBRUARY SAMPLE MARCH SAMPLE APRIL SAMPLE MAY SAMPLE JUNE SAMPLE JULY SAMPLE AUGUST SAMPLE SEPTEMBER SAMPLE OCTOBER SAMPLE NOVEMBER SAMPLE DECEMBER Health and Safety - Lesson Starter Exercise Health and Safety Test - 1 Health and Safety Test - 2 Health and Safety Test - 3

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Health and Safety

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The Design and Technology Site

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V. Ryan © 2002-2005

PIC Microcontrollers are quickly replacing computers when it comes to programming robotic devices. These microcontrollers are small and can be programmed to carry out a number of tasks and are ideal for school and industrial projects. A simple program is written using a computer, it is then downloaded to a microcontroller which in turn can control a robotic device. Click on the sections below to view a detailed explanation 1. Lesson Starter - PIC-Micro-controller 2. Sample Answer 3. Inputs and Outputs- Identification Question

LOGICATOR
1. PIC Microcontrollers 2. The Project Board 3. Simple Project Board Operation 4. PCB Version of Project Board 5. Programming Questions - Basic Commands 6. Traffic Lights Problem - Using Logicator Software and PIC Microcontrollers 7. House Security Device 8. Adding a Powerful Motor or Solenoid

PICAXE
1. The PICAXE-08 Microcontroller Integrated Circuit 2. The PICAXE-08 Project Board

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The Design and Technology Site

3. Input, Process, Output - The PICAXE-08 Microcontroller 4. Using the Jumper Switch of the PICAXE-08 Microcontroller 5.Connecting the PICAXE-08 Microcontroller to other Components - 1 6. Connecting the PICAXE-08 microcontroller to other Components - 2 7. Programming a PICAXE-08 with Crocodile Technology® 8. Adding a Sensor to a PICAXE-08 Circuit

1. The PICAXE-18 Microcontroller and Pin Layout 2. The PICAXE-18 Microcontroller - Basic Operation 3. ThePICAXE-18 Microcontroller, Driver Chip and Sensors 4. The PICAXE-18 Microcontroller and Transducer Module 5. Alternative Layout to PICAXE -18 6. Programming the PICAXE Microcontroller with Crocodile Technology Software® 7. Basic PIC Micro-controller Projects with Smart Materials 8. Mechanisms / PIC-microcontroller Examination Question

SMART CARDS
1. What is a Smartcard ? 2. Smartcard Devices 3. The Smartcard Programmer 4. The Smartcard Reader 5. Using the Programming Module to Program 6. Samples Program Lines 7. Programming using Software and a Computer

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The Design and Technology Site

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Robolab

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V.Ryan © 2005 - 06

This section is aimed at introducing the Lego Robolab system. This system is ideal for introducing Primary School age pupils to the world of Control Technology, through the use of Pilot 1 to Pilot 4. It can also be used for older pupils especially if the Inventor level is used.

1. COURSE DETAILS 2. THE ROBOLAB CONTROL SYSTEM 3. THE RCX BUGGY - BASIC INFORMATION 4. SYSTEMS DIAGRAM 5. THE RCX 'BRICK' - BASIC INFORMATION 6. SELECTING A COMMUNICATIONS PORT 7. DOWNLOADING FIRMWARE

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Robolab

PILOT 1
8. PILOT 1 - EXERCISE 1 9. LOADING PILOT 1 AND CONTROLLING THE MOTORS 10. CHANGING THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION USING PILOT 1

PILOT 2
11. PILOT 2 - EXERCISE 1 12. HOW THE RCX BUGGY SHOULD WORK 13. CHANGING THE DIRECTION OF BUGGY

PILOT 3
14. PILOT 3 - EXERCISE 1 15. HOW THE RCX BUGGY SHOULD OPERATE. 16. ADDING A LOOP 17. PILOT 3 - ADDING A LIGHT / DARK SENSOR - EXERCISE 2 18. THE STEPS REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THE EXERCISE 2 19. PILOT 3 - PRODUCING AN ARC OF MOVEMENT - EXERCISE 3

PILOT 4
20. THE LIGHT / DARK SENSOR 21. PILOT 4 EXERCISE 1 22. HOW THE RCX BUGGY OPERATES - PILOT 4 EXERCISE 1 23. EXPLANATION OF EACH STEP - EXERCISE 1

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Robolab

24. FOLLOWING THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE - EXERCISE 2 25. PROGRAMMING STEPS - EXERCISE 2 26. EXPLANATION OF PROGRAMMING STEPS - EXERCISE 2 27. IMPROVING THE LOOK OF ROBOLAB EXERCISES - 1 28. IMPROVING THE LOOK OF ROBOLAB EXERCISES - 2

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Mechanisms Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2002 - 2006

This section of the website is aimed at introducing pupils to mechanisms and how they work. CAM profiles are discussed in detail as well as the design of a CAM toy. Linkages are also considered. Click on the titles below to view the section of your choice.
Please note: due to complex animations some pages take time to download.

Lesson Starter - Mechanisms Lesson Starter - Mechanism, Forces and Movement 1. Cams - Definition, Profiles and Followers 2. Simple Example and Detailed Profiles 3. A Practical Example - Eccentric Cam 4. The Snail / Drop Cam 5. Swash Plate Cams 6. Box Cams 7. Flat Plate Cam 8. The Cylindrical Cam 9. Example cams and questions 10. More Cam Questions MECHANICAL TOY PROJECT 11. Example Toys

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Mechanisms Index Page

12. Cam Toy Exercise - Problem and Brief 13. Cam Toy Exercise 14. Cam Toy - Working Drawing 15. Cam Toy - Sequence Drawing 16. Cam Toy Mechanisms - Common Faults 17. Mechanical Toy - Evaluation Exercise 1 18. Evaluation - Sheet Layout 19. Toy Museum - Munich, Germany 20. A Mechanical Toy 21. Another Mechanical Toy OTHER MECHANISMS 1. The Quick Return Mechanism 2. The Shaping Machine and it's Mechanism 3. The Crank and Slider Mechanism 4. Ratchet Mechanisms 5. Cranks and Crank Shafts LINKAGES 1. Linkage Mechanisms 2. Bicycle Linkage Mechanism 3. Tool Box Linkage Mechanism 4. Linkage Questions SPRINGS 1. Springs 2. Spring Question SAMPLE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS Mechanisms Exam Questions - 1 Mechanisms Exam Question - 2 Mechanisms Exam Question - 3 Mechanisms / PIC Microcontroller Exam Question - 4

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Mechanisms Index Page

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Forces and Moments Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2002-05

This aspect of the website is concerned with the different types of forces that can be applied to any structure. Moments of force and equilibrium are also discussed.

1. Different Types of Forces 2. Struts and Ties 3. Structural Forces 4. More Forces in Action 5. Even More Forces In Action 6. Classes of Lever 7. Moments of Force and Example Questions (Two Pages)

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Forces and Moments Index Page

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PCB Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2002-2005

Modern electronics usually involves the use of printed circuit boards known as PCBs. Below is information regarding the production of PCBs and the accompanying soldering skills. CONVERTING CIRCUITS TO PCBs 1. Printed Circuit Boards - Stage One 2. Crocodile Technology to Real PCB - Stage Two 3. Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards - Stage Three 4. Manufacture of Printed Circuit Boards - Stage Four 5. Soldering Techniques 6. PCB Manufacture - Sequence Drawing 7. Manufacture of PCBs - CNC Machines 8. PCB Manufacture - A Summary 9. PCB Manufacture - Flow Chart Question 10. Safety and Soldering Work Sheet 11. PCB Examination Question 12. Examination Question - PCB Conversion USING CONTROL STUDIO® TO PRODUCE CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS 1. Modular Electronics - Control Studio® -1 2. Modular Electronics - Control Studio® -2 3. Modular Electronics - Control Studio® -3 4. Using Control Studio and Livewire® to Produce Working Circuit Diagrams. 5. Livewire® to PCB Layout. MANUALLY CONVERTING CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS TO PCB LAYOUTS

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PCB Index Page

1. Circuit Diagram to a Printed Circuit Board Layout (1) 2. Circuit Diagram to Printed Circuit Board Layout (2). 3. Circuit Diagram to PCB Layout - Questions.

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Structures Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2001-2006

1a. Lesson Starter - Famous Structures of the World 1b. Another Lesson Starter - Structures 1c. Introduction to Bridges. 2. History of Bridges - Wood Beam and Wood Frame Bridges 3. History of Bridges - The Stone Slab Bridge 4. History of Bridges - The Stone Arch Bridge 5. The History of Bridges - Iron and Steel Bridges 6. Typical Roman Stone Arch Construction 7. Roman Bridge and Aqueduct Construction 8. The Mostar Bridge (Stone Arch) 9. Switzerland - The Landwasser Viaduct 10. A Typical Box Girder Bridge 11. The Tay Bridge Disaster 12. Why the Tay Bridge Collapsed - One Theory 13. A Typical Cable Stay Bridge 14. The Normandy Bridge - Cable Stay Bridge 15. The Millau Bridge - Southern France (Cable Stay) 16. A Typical Suspension Bridge 17. The Bridges of Budapest - Hungary 18. Bridge Design Activity

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Structures Index Page

19. Bridge Location, Design and Leaflet - Activity 20. The Tacoma Suspension Bridge Disaster

21. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 1 - General Facts 22. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 2 - Foundations and Towers 23. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 3 - Cables and Decking 24. The Akashi-Kaikyo Suspension Bridge - Page 4 - Animated Stages of Construction 25. Model Art Straw Bridge Practical Project - Page 1 26. Model Art Straw Bridge Practical Project - Page 2 27. Model Art Straw Bridge Practical Project - Page 3 28. Model Art Straw Bridge - Collecting and Presenting the Data 29. Examples of Triangulation 30. Triangulation Continued 31. A Triangulated Conventional Roof 32. Designing a Model Tower 33. Making a Model Tower 34. Frames 35. Beams and Sections 36. Struts and Ties 37. The Eiffel Tower 38. Your New Eiffel Tower ? 39. Structures and the Environment 40. The Empire State Building 41. Designing the New London Tower

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Structures Index Page

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Drawing Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2002 - 2008

BASIC DRAWING EQUIPMENT 1. Basic Drawing Equipment - 1 2. Basic Drawing Equipment - 2 3. Basic Drawing Equipment - 3 4. Basic Drawing Equipment - 4 5. Exercise - 1 6. Exercise - 2 7. Exercise - 3 SIMPLE DRAWING EXERCISES 1. Setting up Paper on a Drawing Board 2. Printing in Block Capitals 3. Printing - Lower Case Letters 4. Drawing a Border and Title Block 5. Drawing Angles with Set Squares 6. 3D drawing using a 30/60Degree Set Square 7. T-Square and Set Square Exercise COLOURED PENCILS 1. Simple Shading Techniques - Flat Surfaces - (Plastics and Metals) 2. Simple Shading Techniques - Curved Surfaces - (Plastics and Metals)

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Drawing Index Page

3. Examples of Simple Shading Techniques (Plastics) 4. Card Composite Drawings - (Plastics) 5. Shading Natural Woods 6. Drawing/Shading Exercise 1 7. Drawing/Shading Exercise 2 8. Shading Exercise 3 9. Shading Techniques Exam Question FELT PENS 10. More Advance Felt Pen and Coloured Pencil Work - (Plastics and Metals) 11. Using Fine and Paint Brush Type Felt Pens - (Plastics) 12. Examples - Felt Pens - (Plastics) SELECTING THE RIGHT COLOUR SCHEME 1. Primary, Secondary and Complementary Colours 2. Colours, Feelings, Emotions and Atmosphere 3. Colour - Moods and Emotions 4. Colours and Cultures (Buildings) 5. Colours and Cultures (Countries) 6. Colours and Selling Products 7. The Chinese New Year - Cultural Images

EXPLODED VIEWS 1. Exploded Views - 1 2. Exploded Views - 2 3. Exploded Views - 3 4. Exploded Views - 4 SINGLE POINT PERSPECTIVE 1. Single Point Perspective 2. Single Point Perspective - Vanishing Points 1 3. Name in Perspective - Exercise 4. The Chair (Steel Tube)- Single Point Perspective 5. Traditional Chair in Single Point Perspective 6. The Table - Single Point Perspective 7. Dressing Table - Single Point Perspective 8. Interior Room - Single Point Perspective
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Drawing Index Page

9. Example - Room Interior in Single Point Perspective 10. More Examples - Single Point Perspective 11. Simple Examination Questions - Single Point Perspective 12. Examination Question - Complete a Room Interior 13. Examination Question - Design an Interior of a Room. 14. Examination Question - Logo and Packaging TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE 1. Two Point Perspective(1) 2. Two Point Perspective (2) 3. Two Point Perspective - Question 4. House with Flat Roof - Two Point Perspective 5. House with Conventional Roof - Two Point Perspective 6. Example - External View of a Bungalow - 1 7. Example - External View of a Bungalow - 2 8. Example - External View of a Bungalow - 3 9. Example - External View of a Bungalow - 4 10. Example - External View of a Bungalow - 5 11. Estimated Perspective - 1 12. Estimated Perspective - 2 13. Estimated Perspective - 3 14. Examination Question - Two Point Perspective - 1 15. Examination Question - Two Point Perspective - 2 16. Examination Question - Two Point Perspective - 3 OBLIQUE PROJECTION 1. Oblique Drawing 2. Cylinders Drawn in Oblique Projection 3. Oblique - A Practical Example ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 1. Isometric Projection - An Explanation 2. Isometric Projection - Summary 3. Isometric Circles and Cylinders 4. Isometric Cube Exercise 1
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5. Isometric Cube Exercise 2 6. Isometric Personal Stereo Exercise 2 7. Printing in Isometric Exercise 3 8. Isometric Diskette Exercise 4 9. Drawing a Mobile Phone in Isometric Projection - Page One 10. Drawing a Mobile Phone in Isometric Projection - Page Two 11. Simple Isometric Mobile Phone Question ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 1. Third Angle Orthographic Drawing - an Example 2. Third Angle Orthographic Projection - Further Explanation 3. Wind Power Device - Orthographic Drawing 4. First Angle Orthographic Projection 5. Dimensions (Measurements) 6. Working Drawings 7. Orthographic Drawing - Mobile Phone Example 8. Stages of Drawing a Mobile Phone in Orthographic 9. Presentation of an Orthographic Drawing 10. Orthographic Drawing Exercise ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS 1. House Analysis Exercise 2. House Front Design 3. Buildings - Plan Views/Architectural Drawings 4. Plan Views - Another Detailed Question 5. Location Maps and 'Zoom In' drawings 6. Topological Maps 7. Examination Question - 1 PRINTING PROCESSES AND PRINTING EFFECTS 1. The Letterpress (1) 2. The Letterpress (2) 3. The Rotary Letterpress 4. Screen Printing 5. Lithography 6. The Photocopier
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7. The Need for Printing Effects - Including Die Cutting 8. Printing Effects - Varnishing and UV Varnishing 9. Printing Effects - Laminating 10. Printing Effects - Embossing 11. Stamp Manufacture Through Direct Printing Technology - Mass Production

GRAPHIC STYLES OF WRITING 1. Graphic Styles of Writing 2. Examination Question - Writing Styles 3. Creating a Style of Writing that Suggests Movement/Energy 4a. Lettering Styles - Theme - TIME 4b. Sample Historical Clocks - 1 4c. Sample Historical Clocks - 2 4d. Making Model Sundials CARD MECHANISMS Below is a short pop-up card project. It includes basic techniques for producing movement with card / paper 1. Pop-Up Card Rich Picture 2. Making Pop-Up Lettering and Characters 3. Pop-Up Card Problem and Brief 4. Example Layout for Problem and Brief 5. Pop-Up Card - Analysis 6. Example Presentation - Pop-Up Card Analysis Further pop-up mechanisms 7. V-Fold Mechanisms and Internal Stands 8. Rotary Card and Mouth Mechanisms 9. Parallel Slide Mechanisms Card Mechanism Project 10. Mobile Phone Design 11. How to Draw a Simple Mobile Phone Accurately. 12. Adding Colour and Shade with Felt Pens 13. Promotional Rotating Disk (Mobile Phone Sales) LOGO DESIGN, SYMBOLS and COAT OF ARMS 1. Logo Design
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2. Logo Lesson Starter 3. Logo Exercise 4. Logo Exam Question 5. Logo / Writing Style Examination Question 6. Converting a Picture to a Logo/Symbol - 1 7.Converting a picture to a Logo/Symbol - 2 8. Converting a Picture to a Logo/Symbol - 3 9. Symbols - Packaging - 1 10. Symbols - Packaging - 2 11. Nut Allergy /Vegetarian Symbol Design 12. Modern Recycling Information Labels 13. Symbols - Paint Containers 14. Holiday Symbols Exercise 15. Analysis of Symbols - Lesson Starter 16. Safety Symbols - Lessons Starter 17. More Symbols and Questions 18. Quality Guaranteed Symbol 19. Creating a Safety Symbol 20. Symbols - Car Maintenance - 1 21. Tyre Tread Symbol Design 22. Air Bag Symbol Design 23. Fog Light Symbol Design 24. Eco-Friendly Symbols 25. Eco-Friendly Symbol Design 26. Fire Resistant Symbol - 1 27. Fire Resistant Symbol - 2 28. Hawaii - Background Information 29. Symbols of Hawaii - 1 30. Symbols of Hawaii - 2 31. Symbols of Hawaii - 3 32. Symbols of Hawaii - Helicopter Flights 33. Coat of Arms Lesson Starter 34. The Coat of Arms 35. Layout of a Coat of Arms
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Drawing Index Page

36. Coat of Arms - Your Choice 37. Design your own Coat of Arms 38. Presenting your Coat of Arms - 1 39. Presenting you Coat of arms - 2 40. The Ozone Layer - Background and Symbol Design 41. Grumpy Free Classroom Symbol Design

GLIDER PROJECT 1. Glider / Logo / Colour Scheme Project 2. Important Dates and Personalities - Planes and Gliders 3. Glider Project - Basic Construction 4. Glider Design - Sample 1 5. Further Glider Design Examples 6. Free Gift - Glider Manufacture 7. Modern Light Weight Modelling Materials 8. Making a Model Glider - By Hand

CALENDAR DESIGN PROJECT Health and Safety Calendar Design SAMPLE JANUARY SAMPLE FEBRUARY SAMPLE MARCH SAMPLE APRIL SAMPLE MAY SAMPLE JUNE SAMPLE JULY SAMPLE AUGUST SAMPLE SEPTEMBER SAMPLE OCTOBER SAMPLE NOVEMBER SAMPLE DECEMBER LOGO EXAM THEME - THE OLYMPIC GAMES The aim of this sub-section is for pupils to research the historical
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Drawing Index Page

context of the Olympic Games. They will look at the official emblems and design an emblem for the London Bid. They will then apply their emblem to merchandise, create a display and mark/evaluate each others work. If you are outside the UK, why not design an Olympic emblem for a City in your country? 1. Historical Background to the Olympic Games 2. Famous Symbols of the Olympic Games 3. Olympic Cities and the Olympic Emblem 4. Previous Olympic Emblems and Posters 5. The Olympics - Symbols of London and England 6. Olympic Symbols of England and London - Questions 7. Making the Emblem from Card 8. Design the Emblem for the Official Competitors Shirt 9. Design the Emblem for the Official Olympic Flag 10. Design the Emblem for the Official Training Olympic Shoes 11. Design the Emblem for the Official Olympic Hat 12. Design the Emblem for the Official Olympic Jacket 14. The Olympic Display - Your Designs 15.The Olympic Display- Evaluation / Mark Sheet

DEVELOPMENTS / NETS 1. What are Developments / Nets? 2. Developments - Pyramids, Cones and Cuboids. 3. Developments - Cylinders, Triangular Prisms, Point of Sale Question DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL CAR - PROJECT 4. Four Wheel Drive Car - Development Project - 1 5. Four Wheel Drive Car - The Number Plate 6. Stages - Designing a Pictorial License / Number Plate 7. Sample Individually Designed License /Number Plates 8. Four Wheel Drive Car - Alloy Wheels 9. Grills and Head Lights - Resources 10. How to Present your Research 11. Logo / Style of Writing - The Environmentally Friendly Car 12. Logo / Style of Writing - The Hydrogen Powered Car 13. Final Design - Four Wheel Drive Car 14. Car Development Rich Picture
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15. Example Hydrogen Car Designs - Card Models 16. Environmentally Friendly Sports Car Development - 1 17. Environmentally Friendly Sports Car Development - 2

DEVELOPMENTS OF PACKAGES 10. The Self Locking Package 11. Hexagonal Packages 12. Gift Box with Integral Handle 13. Gift Box - Small Scale 14. Development Exam Question 15. Development and Packaging Exam Question 16. Examination Question - Safety Symbols and Packaging ERGONOMICS 1. What is Ergonomics / Anthropometrics? 2. Ergonomics - Example Drawings 3. Examination Question - Ergonomics PACKAGING MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURE 1.The Functions of Packaging 2. How Paper and Card are Manufactured 3. Materials for Packaging - Paper and Card 4. More Materials for Packaging 5. Manufacturing Nets / Developments by Hand 6. Manufacturing Nets / Packaging in Industry - Small Scale Production 7. Manufacturing Nets /Packaging in Industry - Large Scale Production 8. Blow Moulding of Plastics 9. Packaging - Environmental Issues 10. Labelling of Food and Drink 11. Symbols - Packaging- 1 12. Symbols - Packaging - 2 13. Inks that change Colour with Temperature 14. Inks That Change After Contact With Water 15. Inks That Change Colour in Response to Sunlight and Temperature 1. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
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The aim of this sub-section is to set a design theme - Car Air Fresheners. Pupils research the theme as they work through the questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the graphics/product design course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions* 1. Research Theme - Car Air Fresheners 2. Car Air Fresheners - Further Preparation 3. Examination Questions (Renewable / Recycling)- 1 4. Examination Questions (Nets / Developments) - 2 5. Examination Question (Isometric) - 3 6. Examination Questions (Orthographic) - 4 7. Examination Questions - Inks, Perspective and Functions 8. Car Air Freshener - Packaging Questions 9. Designing Car Air Fresheners 2. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS The aim of this sub-section is to set a design theme - Soft Drink Containers - Pupils research the theme as they work through the questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the graphics/product design course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions* 1. Soft Drinks - Rich Picture 2. Converting a Picture to a Logo/Symbol - 1 3.Converting a picture to a Logo/Symbol - 2 4. Creating a Style of Writing that Suggests Movement/Energy 5. Examination Question - 1 6. Labelling of Food and Drink 7. Symbols - Packaging- 1 8. Symbols - Packaging - 2 9. Information Found on Labels - Question 10. Symbols - Food and Drink - Questions 11. Drinks Container - Product Analysis Exercise 12. Additional Resources - Soft Drink Containers 13. Analysis of a Container for a Soft Drink 14. Examination Question - 2 15. Examination Question - 3
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16. Examination Question - 4 17. Examination Question - 5 18. Examination Question - 6 19. Examination Question - 7 3. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS The aim of this sub-section is to set a design theme - Commemorative Stamps and the Environment. Pupils research the theme as they work through the questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the graphics/product design course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions* Rich Picture - Commemorative Stamps and the Environment 1. Analysis of a Postage Stamp 2. Modern Commemorative Stamps 3. Modern Stylised Designs 4. Modern Stylised Designs - Exercise 1 5. Modern Stylised Designs - Exercise 2 6. Commemorative Stamp Design Exercise - 1 7. Commemorative Stamp Exercise - 2 8. Reduction and Enlargement (Scaling) Exercise - 1 9. Enlargement and Reduction (Scaling) Exercise - 2 10. Enlargement and Reduction (Scaling) Exercise - 3 11. Using a Grid to Scale Stamps - 1 12. Using a Grid to Scale Stamps - 2 13. Styles of Writing to Reflect Alternative Energy - 1 14. Styles of Writing to Reflect Alternative Energy - 2 15. Commemorative Stamps - Packaging 1 16. Commemorative Stamps - Packaging 2 17. Commemorative Stamps - Packaging 3 18. Packaging Design - Isometric 19. Commemorative Stamp Package - Locking Mechanism 20. Commemorative Stamp Packaging - Question 1 21. Your Analysis of an Example Design 22. Stamp Manufacture Through Direct Printing Technology - Mass Production
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23. Steel Die Cutting of Stamps 24. Printing Effects - Embossing - The Visually Impaired 25. Special Inks - Inks that Change With temperature 26. Special Inks - Inks That Change After Contact With Water 27. Special Inks - Inks That Change with Natural and Artificial Light 28. Drawing Equipment - Exam Question 29. Examination Question - 1 30 Examination Question - 2 31. Examination Questions - Graphs / Pictograms - 1 32. Examination Questions - Graphs / Pictograms - 2 4. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH THEME and EXAMINATION QUESTIONS The aim of this sub-section is to set a design theme - Packaging and Imagery associated with Emergency Situations. Mobile Phones ? Pupils research the theme as they work through the questions below. They should draw on all the skills and techniques developed through the graphics/product design course. *PLEASE NOTE: You may need to use the search facility on the index page of this site to find information when answering some of the questions* 1. Rich Picture - Packaging 2. Emergency Mobile Phone Packaging - 1 3. Emergency Mobile Phone Packaging - 2 4. Common Mobile Phone Packaging 5. Design Exercise - Mobile Phone Packaging 6. Writing Styles - Emergency Symbols - 1 7. Writing Styles - Emergency Symbols - 2 8. Emergency Symbols - Exercise 1 9. Emergency Symbols - Exercise - 2 10. Emergency Symbols - Exercise - 3 11. Emergency Symbols - Exercise - 4 12. Emergency Symbols - Exercise - 5 13. Mobile Phone Packaging - Blister Packaging 14. Vacuum Forming - Blister Packaging 15. Renewable Energy and Mobile Phone Chargers

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Drawing Index Page

16. Orthographic Drawing - Mobile Phone Example 17. Stages of Drawing a Mobile Phone in Orthographic 18. Presentation of an Orthographic Drawing 19. Orthographic Drawing Exercise 20. Packaging Question 21. Graphics Examination Questions - 1 22. Graphics Examination Questions - 2 23. Graphics Examination Questions - 3 24. Graphics Examination Questions - 4 25. Graphics Examination Questions - 5 26. Graphics Examination Questions - 6 27. Graphics Examination Question - 7

SUGGESTED FURTHER REVISION

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The Design and Technology Site

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V. Ryan © 2001-2005

Below are the stages involved in producing a successful design project. You have only completed a design project if you work through each of the sections. Usually the sections are attempted in order as this will take you through the entire design process. Clicking on each of the section titles will take you to the blank template page you could use as the basis to your project. It is recommended that you view the website section 'Design Process' before viewing the sections below as it gives vital information on each aspect of a design project. This can be found on the Site Index Page. 1. The Cover Sheet 2. Rich Picture 3. Problem and Design Brief 4. Analysis and Synthesis 5. Planning 6. Existing Products 7. Safety 8. Letter to Manufacturer 9. Ergonomics 10. Joints and Fixings 11. Colour Scheme 12. Woods and Metals Research 13. Plastics and other materials - research 14. Questionnaire 15. Systems Diagram 16. Basic Pic Microcontroller Research 17. Individual Research 18.Circuit Research 19. Specification 20. Ideas Sheet - Style One 21. Ideas Sheet - Style Two 22. Circuit Ideas 23. Development - Main Sheet 24. Development - Aspects Sheet 25. Development - Mechanisms Sheet 26. Development - CAD Sheet One 27. Development - CAD Sheet Two 28. Circuit Development Sheet 29. PIC Microcontroller Development 30. PIC Microcontollers - Further Development 31. Costing a Project 32. Mass Production and Quality Control 33. Time Chart of Production 34. Sequence Drawing (Manufacture) 35. Safety and the Consumer 36. Product Testing 37. Working Drawing 38. Evaluation

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Links to Design and Technology Sites

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V. Ryan © 2003

The links page below will allow you to connect to other useful technology websites. These sites have been recommended by the World Association of Technology Teachers (WATT). If you wish to recommend a site please email your suggestion to : watt@teacher.com

WEBSITE / ADDRESS

NASA Robotics Education Project

The World Association of Technology Teachers

The Times 100 Science, Technology and Engineering Site Design and Technology on the Web

DESCRIPTION The Robotics Clearing House can be regarded as the educational arm of NASA. They select on-line educational materials and carefully review them. Work that is approved by the independent reviewers committee can be viewed by the public on the NASA RCC website which promotes robotics and other technologies. Links to www.technologystudent.com can be viewed on this site. A detailed site for Technology teachers. Sample schemes of work, lesson plans, OFSTED advice, departmental documentation, international partnership, free membership, members articles, free advice from Advisor Members, links to suppliers and much more. An excellent site for technology, economics or business studies pupils and teachers. Packed full of exceptional resources. This site has been developed by teachers in Melbourne, Australia as a resource for Systems and Materials students. A host of ideas and information tips for pupils at Key Stage 3 and 4

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Links to Design and Technology Sites

Design Technology Resource Page www.sda-uk.org

An excellent collection of resources for Design and Technology teachers and pupils Excellent Sites promoting sustainable technology

www.stepin.org www.PaperToys.com

A site dedicated to making paper / card models. Appears to be an interesting resource. A site listing suppliers of components for making robots and similar mechanisms. Lists of practical robot building books, magazines and CD ROMs. Resources for teachers, pupils, students and designers. Has a range of information covering resistant materials to graphic products Very detailed electronics website. Historical Posters - covering areas such as film and adverts. Excellent resource for those studying poster design. Electronic Resources for Technology Teachers - helping teachers and lecturers in aspects of practical electronics. Resources for KS2 to 'A' Level. An extremely helpful site for professional technologists. Including engineers, architects, software engineers etc.. Has information and animations regarding a range of technology including electronics, packaging, food and pneumatics. Contains a range of information on electronics, food, graphics, resistant materials, systems and control and textile technology. An interesting and detailed website relating to many aspects of technology including detailed Upper and Lower School work. A technology site for pupils with over 600 internal and external links to other useful sites. An interesting and informative site covering a range of devices and how they work. Component bases electronics site. Anyone can submit articles. Learn a variety of graphics skills through animated worksheets. A technology site covering many useful and interesting aspects of design and technology.

www.robot.org.uk

DesignandTech.com www.school-electronics.co.uk www.collect-online.com Edutec Tenlinks Design and Technology Online GCSE BITESIZE Deyes High School Technology Department. www.techitoutuk.com How Stuff Works.com ohmfree Electronics website Animatedworksheets.co.uk Technology at GCSE

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Links to Design and Technology Sites

Design and Technology Virtual School The Standards Site The Amethyst Consultancy Ltd Bad Human Factors Designs http://www.gglover.co.uk/ http://www.gglover.co.uk/graphics/ http://www.gglover.co.uk/electronics/ http://www.teaching ideas.co.uk/dt/ contents.htm www.gcseinengineering.com Ergonomics for Schools

A number of people and organisations contribute to this efficient technology site. Technology schemes of work from the Department for Education. Provide detailed schemes for KS3 and KS4 Design and Technology A site that gives examples relating to poor designs. Takes pupils through concise requirements for a Resistant Materials GCSE project. Takes pupils through concise requirements for a Graphic Products GCSE project. Takes pupils through concise requirements for a Electronics Products GCSE project. Primary School Design and Technology Site. The main site offers other subjects with a variety of work. Site that promotes GCSE Engineering. Information relevant to ergonomics in the school environment.

CLICK HERE FOR SITE INDEX PAGE

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Design Process Index Page

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V. Ryan © 2001-2008

Below is the contents list of the 'Design Process' section of this website. This section gives detailed information on each stage of designing and examples regarding many stages involved in the building of a successful folder / project. Another section called 'Project Template' gives blank design templates for each stage of a project / folder. When working through a project you must use a range of drawing techniques and also Information Technology must play an important part. 1. DRAWING TECHNIQUES 2. USING I.C.T. In order to achieve higher grades it is essential that your project follows the full design process. For each section listed below there are detailed information sheets and guidance sheets later in this information pack. Below is a project check list: PROJECT STAGE
(CLICK BELOW)

DESCRIPTION OF STAGE

TICK
WHEN COMPLETE

RICH PICTURE

At the beginning of the project place the theme at the centre. Put words / themes that are connected to it, around it.

DESIGN State the design problem clearly. Explain how you intend to PROBLEM AND solve it in general terms. DESIGN BRIEF

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ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS PLANNING

List as many questions as you can about the project you are attempting. E.g. What materials can I use ? What safety considerations must I keep in mind ? Answer the questions in the analysis. Use a time chart and flow chart to plan your use of time. (See additional sheet) If you are to get a high grade you must put effort into this section. Remember, all research must be relevant to your project and constantly refer to the problem you are trying to solve. Produce at least one sheet on each of the following: Suitable materials for your project. Investigate the ways in which materials can be joined together joints and fixings. The ergonomic factors that apply to your project. Safety factors related to your design problem. Write letters to manufacturers / shops. Research using the library. Research using the Internet / CD-ROMs/DVDs. Interview people with the aim of helping you to solve the design problem (record the interview). Carry out a survey / questionnaire and present the results as a pictogram/table of results. Collect pictures of existing products - photographs/catalogue pictures. How are existing products manufactured? Research other relevant areas such as electronic circuits.

RESEARCH

Once you have completed your design you should specify in a SPECIFICATION paragraph or two what exactly you are going to do to solve this problem. Always refer to your research. IDEAS Draw at least six ideas, with notes. The ideas should be different and not just the same idea slightly changed. Include environmental considerations (See additional sheet)

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To get the higher grades you must take your best idea and develop it further. One way of starting this section is to draw your best idea again and point out areas that can be improved. Areas may include, safety, colour scheme, cost, using a spreadsheet, shape, materials, mechanisms, circuits, systems diagram and the environment. You must show that you have DEVELOPMENT considered Safety and the Consumer. You also need to develop a circuit for your project. You may need to show how mechanisms can be used as part of your design. How will all the parts/components be joined together? What joints and fixings will be needed? Stages of programming a microcontroller circuit (flow chart). Produce a working drawing of your solution with a parts list. This must have measurements and constructional details.You SOLUTION may prefer to produce a Parts Sheet first. A three dimensional drawing can also be attempted. Produce planning sheets to show each stage of production - a flowchart, time chart, sequence drawing. MANUFACTURE Make a model. Make the solution. Do not forget this important section. Evaluate your product. State the good and bad points. Does the solution answer the EVALUATION design brief ? Spend some time on this section. You should include social issues, health and safety, ethical and environmental issues.

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Lesson Starter - Electronics - Answers

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LESSON STARTER - ELECTRONICS ANSWERS
V. Ryan © 2005

IDENTIFYING ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS Below are a number of common electronic components you are likely to use when making circuits. Underneath each component write the correct name.

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Lesson Starter - Electronics - Answers

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Lesson Starter - Electronics - Answers

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Lesson starter - Equipment and Components - Answers

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LESSON STARTER EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS FOR CIRCUIT WORK ANSWERS
V. Ryan © 2005

Some basic tools / equipment / components you may use when working with circuits are shown below. Name each tool / piece of equipment / component and explain what they are for.

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Lesson starter - Equipment and Components - Answers

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HOW A CAPACITOR CAN BE USED
V. Ryan © 2002

Using a capacitor in conjunction with a Computer Interface:

The capacitor is placed in parallel and when the switch is pressed it is charged. When the switch is released the capacitor discharges but as this happens it holds the relay closed for 3/4 seconds. This allows the computer enough time to detect the closed relay and then it turns on a motor. Using a capacitor as part of a 555 Timer Circuit:

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The 555 circuit shown above is more sophisticated than the circuit above and is composed of several components included the integrated circuit (NE555). When switched on the buzzer sounds for a certain amount of time. Some of the components are resistors and capacitors. It is often the combination of resistors and capacitors that control the time delay - in this case the length the buzzer sounds for. If the capacitor C1 is changed for a higher value capacitor then the buzzer sounds for a longer period of time. The variable resistor VR1 can also determine the length of time.

What will happen if the value of the capacitor is reduced ?

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RESISTORS IN PARALLEL - FURTHER QUESTIONS
V. Ryan © 2002

1. Calculate the total resistance for the two resistors in parallel

2. Calculate the total resistance for the two resistors in parallel

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3. Calculate the total resistance for the two resistors in parallel

QUESTIONS ABOUT THREE RESISTORS IN PARALLEL - CLICK HERE

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Sequence Drawing - Light / Dark Sensor - Answer

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SEQUENCE DRAWING - LIGHT/DARK SENSOR
V. Ryan © 2006

Below is a possible answer to the Light/Dark Sensor sequence drawing.

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Sequence Drawing - Light / Dark Sensor - Answer

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