Protected Cultivation Technology

  

Protected cultivation practices can be defined as a cropping technique wherein the micro climate surrounding the plant body is controlled partially or fully as per the requirement of the vegetable species grown during their period of growth. With the advancement in agriculture various types of protected cultivation practices suitable for a specific type of agro-climatic zone have emerged. agroAmong these protective cultivation practices, Green house, Plastic house, Lath house, Cloth house, Net house ,shade house, Hot beds and Cold frames etc is useful for the central India.

1. Green house 

A greenhouse is a framed or an inflated structure covered with a transparent or translucent material in which crops could be grown under the condition of at least partially controlled environment and which is large enough to permit persons to work within it to carry out cultural operations.

Pasts and disease can be effectively controlled in the growing enclosed area. . seeds and plant protection chemicals can be well maintained in a green house. fertilizer.Advantage of Green house     Under greenhouse one can grow crops under controlled environment and throughout the year four to five crops can be grown due to the availability of required plant environmental conditions. This helps in increased crop productivity and superior quality of produce can be obtained. Gadgets for efficient use of various inputs like water.

When the crops are not grown. drying and related operation of the harvested produce can be taken up utilizing the entrapped heat. Greenhouses are suitable for automation of irrigation. SelfSelf-employment for educated youth on farm can be increased. . application of other inputs and environmental control by using computer and artificial intelligence techniques.    Percentage of germination of seeds is high in greenhouse.

Ventilation . carbon dioxide . Water supply .drip.well. etc. Plant system .size and future expansion 2. Greenhouse .soil. platform or soil less media 6. Site selection . sprinkler and ridge. gate. Irrigation .Points to be considered for planning of green house construction        1. bags. river. forced and openings 8. tank.type.natural. plant layout and working drawing 5. 3.source . etc. cattle trap. Environmental factors . pot. 4. pipeline.design.temperature. Fencing .furrow ridge7. RH.

. and present and future effects of adjacent properties should be taken into consideration. price. transportation.REQUIREMENTS FOR GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION Site Selection for the Greenhouse: Selection of geographical location of the land. Topography of the Land It determines the amount of work and expense that will be required to provide good surface drainage and efficient transportation.

Access roads to the property will need to be large enough and surfaced to handle large motor freight equipment . If the proposed site is hilly.     . it should be anticipated that considerable land preparation will be required. Greenhouse that were built outside of cities become surrounded by urban development with increased pressure of urbanization may develop problems in future. The type of neighboring properties may have varied affects on the greenhouse plants. Transportation in and Around the Greenhouse This is an important factor.

usually it is acceptable for irrigation and for use in boilers with some treatment. If municipal water is available. Electrical shutdowns that are a nuisance for a machine shop could be a disaster for a greenhouse.Utilities  Electricity Greenhouse businesses cannot have interruption of electrical service for more than a few minutes without serious consequences. Extensive treatment may be needed for boiler. make-  . there are some potential problem. Water The quality and quantity of water that is available to the site must be determined. When water has to be supplied by well or pond on the site. make-up water.

 . The greenhouse should be constructed in such a way that vegetable can be harvested and moved to the marketable areas very easily.   Economy of Construction Ridge and furrow type construction is usually more economical and needs less land area. The house should be arranged in such a manner so that labour is conserved and the crop can be handled more effectively.

This dose requires painting to prevent rust. . The most durable wood with the least maintenance cost is redwood. initial cost. Wooden framework is used primarily for temporary or semi permanent structures. durability.      Framework for Various Types of Greenhouse The choice of materials for the framework of a greenhouse is based on structural strength. but it is very satisfactory in other respects. Steel framework has been used widely. and maintenance costs.

     Steel frame house may have redwood or aluminum roof and wall bars as well as ventilator sash. or aluminum. Aluminum has become increasingly popular for the greenhouse framework. steel. It should be kept in however. and the structure does not require painting. The corrosion problem with aluminum is slight. that the glazing procedure and maintenance are approximately the same for wood. . The roof wall bars and ventilating sash all are made of aluminum.

  COVERING MATERIALS FOR GREENHOUSE The greenhouse must be covered with as clear a material as possible to provide the maximum amount of sunlight for the plants.   . Fiberglass. Poly Film etc is used as covering material for greenhouse. the initial cost. The durability of the covering material. and the maintenance costs then determine the desirability of the material.

best growth of vegetables occurs within a limited temperature range.  Variations in this temperature may result in a complete lack of growth or extremely excessive development. . HEATING AND COOLING OF GREENHOUSE  Accurate temperature control in the greenhouse is of great importance because the desired.

Plastic houses  These are common use.2.  The cheap houses are made of polythene and are widely used. .

The frame consists of cloth of light transmission plastic. . Shade houses   Shade houses are made with straight sides and a flat top.3. shade slightly lowers maximum daily temperature and slightly increases the relative humidity.

but the cover is movable lath sash. Lath houses are usually used to protect high light sensitive plants. The frame is similar to that of shad houses. . Lath houses    Lath houses have straight sides and a flat top.4.

 Hot beds are headed with the help of different heating systems like hot air. systems. hot water and electricity.  Reinforced polyester plastic is also used for frame. which are adopted depending upon availability and cost. is likely to decrease with age.5. easy to handle and admits light. Hot beds The frame of hot bed made of concrete blocks which acts as an effective insulator but obstruct light.  It is light in weight.  . which however.

. cover may be removed. Cold frames are of two types (i) temporary which is usually made of wood. Cold frames are used to protect plants from frosts heavy rains and heavy winds. concrete block and bricks. During summer.6. and (ii) permanent which is made of concrete. These are used in winter for raising herbaceous leafy vegetable plants. Cold frames     The cold frame is made with frame and the cover.

cucumber. lowIn subtropics. bottle gourd. early varieties of tropical cauliflower and coriander can be successfully grown during summer/rainy season also. The choice of crops depends upon the size of the polyhouse structure. capsicum and tomato give quite remunerative yields during winter in lowlow-cost polyhouse. . It is also useful in production of vegetable nursery under adverse weather conditions. With proper ventilation cabbage. While it is convenient to raise any vegetable crop in environmentallyenvironmentally-controlled polyhouse during any part of the year. the selection of crops is more critical in case of ordinary low-cost polyhouse.Selection of vegetables      The polyhouse cultivation is beneficial only when offoffseason vegetables are grown. market demand as well as the expected market price.

Now it is well-established that if seeds of cucurbits wellare sown in small plastic bags during winter and the seedlings are reared in polyhouse. But in some crops in certain seasons. they remain safe from frost injury and become ready for transplanting early in February to give early and remunerative harvest  . For example in many subtropical areas the nursery period of early and mid season cauliflower coincides with the period of heavy rainfall. the nursery is exposed to adverse weather which results in heavy mortality of the seedlings.Nursery raising    Under normal weather conditions it is possible to raise vegetable seedlings in open with ordinary care.

2During winters. higher plant density and intensive cropping do not allow many weeds to grow. mulching of the soil surface with polythene sheet may help in raising the soil temperature to favour the fruit set. In polyhouse. the controlled irrigation. . Diseases and insects also pose problem in polyhouse which should be controlled timely by using appropriate pesticides. checking the weeds and conserving the soil moisture.Aftercare      The nutritional requirements of crops grown in a polyhouse are similar to those of open field grown crops. It is better to cover the ground surface with plastic sheet for about a month during summer months to solarize the soil after 2-3 years gap.

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