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Other titles. of interest
Ae to H'll,'df'V dv namics of' Sailing' Jrd edition: C ~"4.. M archaj
,.t ~ ,I .
mSBN' n 7136 5073 7
Incorporating many years of research, this book takes Marchaj's expositions on the design. and handling of sailing boats in Sailing Theory and Practice a stage fur her . Clear explanations cal lculation ~ diazrams 3' nd photog ranhs help to' q. ruant .:C:y' the Dl'JI]l'V i."':a'''i,''10· "1'';:'
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which determine the performance of a sailing boat. It :1S all internationalclassic in its field .
..
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~S·BN 0 71.36 412.3 ]
This In'!J' or work is based on C ·At Marchaj's Satline Theory and Practice which when ·it
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was st pun 'S: teo over ._. years ago, quic .'. ,y secamea C1.aSSlC ]11 as ne ."'1 ~ smee t i .. en.
JtIDIIly developmen ts in sail pcrfo rnance have taken place. 'I'ony M archaj explains the factors. that affect sail power and concludes that the Bermudan rig, 'which dominates the
,. 'J' . '" b ]. b il 'I!.'! II" h k k
contemporary sarung scene, rs byno means. t tebest avauame .. nrs :·00: marks a.
turning poi' C' t in mo dern thinki n g on the Sill bj ect.
The Propeller Handbook: Dave Gerr IS,B.:': 0··' 7 n "11'6" :~7'~1 IU·I
. '" .'. .11.. .:L . ..,; l ,.)
This clear ,al1.d easytouse handbook is Intended as a. practical aid for the mechanic, engineer, boatbuilder, naval architect or yachtsman and concerns all boats ._. power and.
il kin dn 'S "'a11 I . d. h d 1 b i b d
:'!II" ",1",,',,', ,'_ . ,'" ,', "":""I' '!II. .~ ",.. ,,'.!!! ':r" , .... , . " '.,. 1"~ I·· .• r ' . I '1',',  , .... 0"," ', ••... , '. , ',,'
sa ., won g anc p leasur e.' ·peel. ·.Y uev ~ se· c. .arts an: . gra P];8 enac e t ... e rea er to
analyse the speed and powering characteristics of a boat and work out its optimum propeller requirements, Propeller selection and installation is also discussed in detail,
B .. ". ~,., :i\.I ~ .,.f, .. ' /'. d' Electri 'l~ 'lW,4"·, ... /. 21. d" , .. }',' t'"  ...... N' CO" 'J IC' . '1 d : ...... ., oatoltl·'n(;·L~ .lVl,f.:CtUllnC:(l, an. I:'; (L.:J lea A~anua .. ' ll_ e( 11.l0n~ ... 16e ... ' ·~h,el.
]SB'N 0 7136 4291 2
The yachtsman's complete doityourself manual. Extensively illustrated and very broad in. scope, it takes novice and experienced boat owners through minor to major repairs of electrical systems, engines, electronic equipment, plumbing, pumps, stoves", spars and rigging.
A userIriendly.rpractical manual for all onboard electrical projects  from. fixing UOOSIt:; connections to res iring' :l.e entire boat. Simple, clear and abundantly illustrated" it is the key '[0 understanding 'and customising aU aspects of a 'boars electrical systems,
.
M ar ine Electrical lJuui Elec tronie s Bib~ : John C Payne ISBN 0' _ 136 ill 110",
The mo [ ' om''C1k te .guid·. in prin on hew 0 sele C" ... install .. troubleshoot ~ and repair t ie electrical anr electronic systems on boats, from bartenes 'to bilge' pumps and from radar to refri _ I ~r3J1:ur.5 .. TI' e I' nique Jorm 1'[ mal .' is, information ::." s_; tit) find.  it is smust for profession 'I.. '. rho .. vork with electrical and elee tronic ar, as well us for wee kend or lonzdi t .1 cei Lr ,O'MS
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,ADLA,[R,D ICO!LES 'NIA,IUTJC:AL
London
Second edition published in ).000 by Adlard 'Coles Nautical, an imprint of A. & C Black (Publishers) 'Ltd
35 Bedford Row, .ondon wcrR 4JH
Copyright e Lars 'Larsson and Rolf E EHassou 2000.
first edition 1.994 Reprinted ] 996:: _] 991 Second edition 2000
ISBN n'71365181~4
.1\]] rights reserved, No part nf this: publication may be reproduced in any form. or by any means _. graphic, electronic Of' mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping or information storage and retrieval systems _ without the prior permission in. writing of the publishers ..
. A ell? catalogue record for this book is a vailable f ·'OID. the
B· :'l~'" '1\", ibn ~ I.
ri ~ isn ~l ,.]I ary,
Typeset in Monophoto "1 IDles. by T ony & Penny Mills,
,\'11 I ..  th . I . E' '·e ..... ·' "'1:[",, .,. S·' ·f!!"· 'lk'
""f .renIL,:! a ,3. I_~.· L;CJ:,CS" . U J 0, '.: ."
Printed and bound it'D Great Britainby .HHlmHD" Printers (Frome) Ltd.
CIO' ····N··'·· "'TIE'  N" TS······ ....
'. :. '. .  .  '. ".
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, ,"._ r. " ',,' _,_, ••. _ ',_ [' '. ::_ •...
....
Preface to the Second Edition 'List of Svmhols
!
",
..
rx
x
1
Jntrednction
1.. Design Metho,dolo'gv
" , [' .iII"
The design spiral
Computer aided design. (le.A.DJ)
.\'"'.
)
7
2~ Preliminary Considerations Choice of boat type Intended use
Maul dimensions
Cost
Checklist of considerations Checklist for the 'YD40
10 10 10 11 13 I~
IS'
,31 Holl. G·eom.etry Definitions
Lines drawing Tools
W'ork plan
Computer aided design of ·h.l1US
16 '6
20 1;°2'
,.L·.
26 ~'7···
.&:.. "
4. Hydrostatics and is·tabil.lty Calculation of areas
Wetted surface
Displacemen t
,I
Centre of buoyancy
Water plane area
Transverse and longitudinal stability at small angles Transverse stability at Iarge angles of heel
Curve of static stability
Rolling
Influence of waves 0 n the righting 111 0 IlJte11 t Stability statistics
Ass,eSSlD1f!111 of seaworthiness
]:0 3.0 3.2 3.2 34 38 401 ,42
144 ,46
49 52 ~'3:11
;,).
'Ii
"V~
'po ,,':'_'II" ~'I,:"""':' '.' ·.·f '·Y'·· rcht '0·:",· .. ·,' ~IO'"
I ,I ,I ncrpies 0., rae ,'.' Lrestgn
5· 'H:!uI], 'I .' DI c· esi g: . 'Jill
!Ii..··!l1 . ' ,' .. ~1i3 \: .1.0[11
Forces anc moments on a sailing yacht Resistance components
'ViSCOllS resistance, 'basic concepts F ricti 011 al resistance
Viscous pressure resistance
,R,o ughness
Wave resistance, basic concepts
Influence of hull shape 1011 ,\NIIve resistance Heel resi ~t· an ce
,," . "c.1' u ',' '. '.,
Added resistance ill, 'waves Other seakeeping aspects H,u.m! statistics
I .
5'16 56 58 60 61 64,
66 69 73 83 83 8,8
90
16'1 Keel 311.d Rudder Design
JiO'W around a wing:
Definition ofthe keelplanform Classic a] w ing theory
Ti~p shape
Advanced planform design
Evaluation of some planform concepts Definition of the section
Th.ree useful NA'CA sections
Influence of shape 011 section characteristics
LSO,]ne practical conclusions regarding section shape Influence of deviations from the' theoretical section shape Advanced section design
Statistics on keel and rudder area
Th Y" '. D"'4 O'
, l:e ".') " .
~Jti" 1'96'"
,,' . .]
99 ]00 105 107 1[3 nl I" 5' ,
l, ~ .. '::
116 'm 18 ']24
125 1.28
t "'0':" ,lL ,.) .... 1
'[30
c7,~, SaD an.d Rig ,Die sign,
FIlo .: ' ux a' r~ o· ':'tll'1i' d r['J a.·.·.·· ; '1 !p , . .' 1f!¥' . . '.. ..ill, ., ,C),. lJi,j '"
Planform S:,ail camber
Mast interference
Means for reducing mast disturbances Streamlining'
A, practical model for sail and. rig aerodynamics S~a.il statistics
13'2 132 134 139 142
14,1~
. I)"""'P.
1,46
147 '153
8~, Balance Effect IQf' heel Good balance
Celli. ',e' of effort of the underwater body Centre of effort of the sails
Lead
I' udder balance
15,5: 155 1.57
] 5·····,7:·'
'_' ," .'
160 162 16,,1
i i
VII
9. Propeller and Engine
'Resistance in calm and rouzh weather
........
Propeller characteristics
Design of an optimum propeller Performance of the nonoptimum propeller Check of blade area
Propeller resistance
164 . 165 169 171 174,
179 181
..
.
'1 O~ Hig,b Speed Hydrodynamics Planing
De ad rise
(; .' 6'.
18,3 183 .187 188 193 197 19'9 .200
F orces 1011 a planing hull
S<· or ", ~'1!::"1 ste '11',:] h tton '.,. .,". d tra '. :':. " flans :.'p'ra) raus, s eppeo , .0  ,(lU1S an, ransom I. aps
'D i, bilit
, yn:aml.C sta ... .l J'ILY
Alternative propulsion devices An example
u. Rig Construction
Definitions and scope of the standard F O'.ICe.S o,n the shrouds
Forces ,on th:e 'stays
Comparison between 'wire and rod Transverse mast stiffness Longitudinal mast stiffness Fractional mast top
Boom
Spreaders
Holes in. the mast TIle YD4f) rig
20"'·'
':,
  .. '~
2,05 208 .212 ~l ~m,8 ~~8 ", 1'1 '8'
_ .. ,1:
218 220 2,2.2 222
12·' H' .i1·1l1 C, ','" 0." m strue tio , D"
.. '. 11., ,._ .. ' '. ..',' _ _ ._.. '. '
226 227' 228 234 234 237 ? 3'"'' '7":"
~ ..
Concepts ill structural mechanics Global loads
Local hydrostatic loads
LO"{''!i'a'I' h rydrody nan rn tic load s
.! ... I~.~ , I, ·.: r I:.:.._., "',1,:.:. " ,_,~;__ II,' • ,!:.:'(: .....
Transverse load distribution Local deformations
Forces from the keel
Forces from grounding Forces from the rudder Summary of' loadings
245
1.3;1 Materials
Glass reinforcement Wet Iamin ates Fatigue
Exotic laminates Sandwich
250 251 25'6 256 2.57 260
VII,I
Princlples ot Yacht 'Design.
'T"Y""IJ';C~::l']1 san d we ich b uck Iin 0
' ~'.!II. "CI.Jll 16 ' ;, , ,,!!, '.' "',' l.., ~~ ,~.Jl .. ~,
I,' [~
'S'" and lwich be :'U' .. ' d· . ing
~C I . _' .. _ JIJ.V' ..... " .• ,;,' ':,
Sa ndw vich u· 'iii practice
.1U ... _ ,.Ill. .1 _'v. __
Final remarks
2' 6"3"
.'J .• '
264,
2.~·5~<
U_"
267'
14~ Scantling Determination
S tructure of t 11e IS'O' Standard 'H  'lrl d efin "1'1" on' Q
" i, U J.,:, " ' .,]. I,:' .';:],
S" ., 1 ,', t
uastc iarmnate
Design loads for the bottom Design loads for the topsides
Design loads for the decks and bulkheads Design loads for the internals Longitudinal impact distribution factor Area reduction factor
Panel calculation
Stiffener calculation
Spade ,rll.ldder stock
Chainplates and keelbolts
Sandwich construction
'. .
The 'YD'40 scantlings
,..,
269 269 2,72
2'~7::4;'1
;;l. 'I
27'5'"
I _': ~ "::
280 280,
?~r'O····.'1
~c; ..
2.801 28,2 284,
286 ,287 ,2:90 ,290 293
15:,t Layout
Generic space requirements .A!()COilll,TI1.0 dation
Deck lay 0 .. : rut
, vt::,:ItS._, ,n. " _,
2 W"T
" ,7'}'
297
29' 8"
: , '.
_,, '.:)
30'''5'
, I.'J
'16 'D" III • "E 'I ii,
",:_,,, .jest,go ··va·,uauoID.
N.' '0::· nd I" m .. en si ona '1' p' ;::?:l· .... a m eter .. "Q'
.. ". ....  ... .lIl. ~b). . d~',.. _ "' ",ij;Jt,_ I , " ~ t~, . fiJI
'TIle Velocity Prediction Program (VPP)
Tr'''W::1r'II 0:' if ~l1l",· * e' st "]~ Il . g' • ~{,'lli,b l:c: .. JILl.l\. I~.I ~';:, , r .~ e
Computational Fluid, Dynamics (CFD)
311 312 .31,3
31'6
318·····~
~. :',
A dli' 1
p:p,e:n: IX '
M :.' "",., .. ":"'., ·""t·0"~i .s of tl r Y D"',4:' 10"1 ,aID pal ~a.u~"at SID· I, le . ..... ',.'
Appendix 2 Weight calculation
... ',2· ,,'iiI '''!j; . .,
,J' ',~
A' di 3"
! ' .':','''.'. '.... . •..
,1.1 pell. lX. . .
STIX. calculation
]',29
1il!1'e"e:'Tec':D"IIf!I'~~ ;0.. .... J, ,_ .. ' '.. J ,I,",.~...,
330
3':3'2', ~
, l·
PRO ""E" "F'A' C""'E
1 I 'I ' '. ", .' : 1 "
,:,:'1' . .4:' .::'. .,' 1":'4
. .' . '" '. ' ,
....
•• ' ince 'this bOOI,k.. was first published we have received many '. '. '. comments and. suggestions from interested readers, and we have III!""'III..,.,.·'.··· tried to incorporate as much as possible of t,111.8 valuable advice fun the Sel)011d edition. One major change has 'been. the inclu .. sion of more material relevant to power boats .. Although the emphasis 1.1:1 the book has been 'on sailing yachts, many power boat enthusiasts have found it ill .eresting and requested more jnformation related to this area .. , In the new edition we have tried to' accomplish this .. There is an entirely new' chapter 011 hmgh, speed hydrodynamics with special reference to power boats, and in. an updated chapter 0'11 scantling determination both types
of" b 0'," ats are c 0" . 'n S· '.1"' d ' .. Ie: red , Si n ,~".~ r]' no, ~ 'to 0'" ,f'" th ~ o th er m ":'Ii t eria '1 1" ~I a: III" C'I o 'I isef iu l~
. .'. . ,~.)Ij,. Ll I... Ilo..l .' . "','. _ '" .... , ~ "' '. JI,.IIi V!i;;.." _ L~ . Ji]1 .. . !Io..;o .... .JlJJ . ,_...Ll,C. .. IIJ,.,fIo"T.IJ. ... Ij;,L I L:iI " I i:lI '. b .o.;;!i .~ , ,_~.
we reel confident that power boat designersand owners may 'Ienefic: from reading this book,
Another important task has been to update the mate 'ial rel I' . d 1:01 international standards, The ISIO{TC188 Work ... ~!.g Group ~,___ ,b.· ,"1
delivered a final proposal fer the seaworthiness of sailing' craf between 6 m and, .24, m.'his draft, which is most likely' to ble.' approved, differs from the one presented in the first edition of the book, and the new approach is described here, with the permission of the chairman, Mr Andrew Blyth .. , The ISO/T'C Working' .Group 18 dealing with. scantlings has not yet arrived at a 'final proposal. but with the permission of the chairman, Mr Fritz Hartz, th .. eir main ideas are included in. the updated chapter on, scantlings, Previously this chapter was 'based entirely" on the ABS rule,
Minor changes and corrections have been made throughout the book and, for clarity, the original chapter O·fl hul construction has been divided into two one dealing with loads and the other withmaterials,
'\Ve would like to express our gratitude to am] readers who have taken the time to suggest improvements. In particular we' would like 'tOI tll!anlk the following (in alphabetical order): H Barkla, 'BI Beck, P K Coles. G· Dyne, 'F Eldridge. G' Heyman, H. Liljenberg 'N Newland, .Pl Schwarze] and C Vcghera.
'L ,,'."' 'L' ."'"1'.' , ': &,"" R··I elf 'EI 'E~··'·,,,,,,,·
.,arsarsso.n i.' I' • o ill .', 1.~laS~t)11
Gothenburg 1999
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III general, the' symbols 11~H3d in this book are those recommended by tile International Towing Tank Conference (ITTe),. However, 'in, the chapters on scantling determination (hull dimensioning) _and, the Nordic Boat Standard (rig dimensioning) other symbols have been used. This is to simplify the later use of these standards 'by readers,
A~A{j) a
ao ,An
aJ
tl,
,AB,S ,ADI
Af~ Ar Air
... ANJ
A
~
, IDn]'
BI'
.
B,D
~ ,DU
,H,M:
B~M,A.X 'B!Jl
'B'\VL
area general
1 .
elongation
di st an, ce from neutral axis to centre' of area area of propeller disk
distance from LWL to T 1.
do, trom L, t T
rI .., T"" .. J.,.., .ri",. _, "', ..
istance ,J: om . 'NL . 0 2
American Bureau of Shipping propeller blade area, developed (,"'0". '.' re tn T ~'11 ale area
Jat,. ~~  ~~'' ·5  
flanze area
~ ..
projected rudder 'are"! : ., ;.J·"·I\ ... ".~ I 1,'.',.,IIo.{j., I.': 1',;(,
mainsail area, or midship section area below designed .
waterline keel/hull area
aft perpendicular aerodvnamic driving, force
. . .
. . ~ d h '. .;, . .' '1·
.... '1''" ..... c, ."I;.'_~"., rrr .. '. ' .... > 0 '''':' . 0'" " ... : 'I ,' ..... ,... ",.,' .:. ',,...., ,).,,,' •... <;.,', "I" ."
aspect ratio ant , C range 111 aspect r atr '0 , respective y
effective aspect ratio'
sail area (main +, fore triangle) or aerodynamic side force
f ]'
area '0" water piane
'111 a 'Xl1TIUln1 section 'areca belo W", designed waterline
~. ~ ~ , " ,. _'~ • j, g ... \... . ,. , .l _ ., ... . '. .. ". I .. ~ ... ;r ., .,' ._.
half beam
beam of 1111~1 amidships, or centre of buoyancy TIU,n:
IIp ri ght
. f b [' }I·· I ] d
".,'o{;j '_'. • _. ,::,' 1··· ... '·. ';" .. t' .. ',. . . '_ •. 'ri_ .... ..,: .!,r; ...•
centre 0, nay,alley" J.U,., lee· ,e', c,
b oorn heigh rt above deck
.. " II , 1Il,' '. ""', ~ .,1;,..111;;.,,.,.
I • . •
distance 'between. centre of buoyancy and gravity
metacentric radius
· b f I·' 1"'1
maximum neam 0" au '
Taylor thrust coefficient beam of waterline
'i'
,X,I
c
C
: DP
C'EI'
, "
c
,P
CR, 'CS
01
,
D. ,'ji
. .u. !.~~ . .J
dkb
DWL E
Ec E'F' Er
E"rc F
F ~ "~'
.11. ~~ • .J!
F~ Ff
Pb F[ Fn, FP F .
.r
Fs
Fs Fv FRP
,g'
0,'
.... ;
'G'M 'GR,P
GZ'
:" .. '
chord length, or crown width of stiffener, or compressive
strength" (see also, list 0 ' Indices) sp re ad er com P ression fo irce
~, . (;It,., " " " .' ,;,J! , '.~' 1 ~, . " .
block coefficien t d r ag C10 ern, cien t
ind uced drag coefficien t
drag coefficient at zero angle of attack, or drag coefficient
of mast, rig and topsides L ~,,~
:rlSC'OUS (parasitic) drag coefficient 'of sails aerodynamic centre of effort
skin friction coefficien t
I
Computational Fluid DIYD,atniCS
heel resistance coefficient
lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient, respectively rudder lift coefficient
hydrodynamic centre of lateral resistance prismatic coefficient, lor pressure coefficient resi d uary re sis tance coefficien t aerodynamic sid e force coefficient
depth of yacht, or drag, or propeller diameter diagonal shrouds
core diameter of keelbolt designed waterline
modulus of elasticity, or blase of mainsa il~IIOI'. I
.....
compressive modulus of elasticity
flexural modulus of elasticity tensile modulus of elasticity average modulus iOr elasticity
, . ,
flat factor of sails" or flexural strength, or' flange width of
stiffener, or design head reduction factor
dimen si 0·'. nir ·lg.: r t I'~a:r~' "9; C':'l,e·~'~i""s, ;!I~ rig for ,c.' e~J
__ .J. '_" ; 1. _' _I •• •. .' ;0" • ..ILl] " , . 1IL .. !ii.iI '., 1, il,. .:,.', • i!J!
, . ' .
freeboard aft
f eeboard forward horizontal boom, force impact force
Froude number forward perpendicular rudder side force
design head reduction factor freeboard at mast
vertical boom force
fibre reinforced plastic
acceleration of gravity, or girth length lor ballast weight centre of gravity or empty weight of yacht
metaeentri c heigh t
o't a S'J:J 'fl 'e'~ n ~'("'1 I"'C"; e' '. d pl ast 1'" c ,
:5,1 ... L () ,,'..c. W ll.," ".,,'... .....(, ." .
righting ann,
=
xu.
11,
roughness height, or rudder height, or design head, or height of stiffener, or mast height above deck lor superstructure to' the highest sail carrying fo restay f 0',0 r h eight
significant wave height
distance between rudder bearings
heeling arm ~,
distance from bottom of rudder tiD lowest bearing ~
height of fore triangle (IIO'R)~ or moment of inertia longitudinal moment of' inertia of water plane area International Measurement System
..
International Offshore Rule
T International Standards Organization
transverse moment '0'1"" 'inertia of water plane area
D_laSS moment of inertia around a transverse axis through 10 transverse moment of inertia for the mast
longitudinal moment of' inertia for the mast
base of fore triangle (lOIR)
a radi 'u'" in itch 0  ' .. 'u   "'t '" 1f;'.' f: t
€jY, , .. _] i' S] pI , "~ 'r aspec, ratIO II ac or
mast panel factor, or aspect ratio factor In ast sta ying fact or
mast step factor
to rq ne coefficien t
thrust coefficient
horizontal length of rudder a: centre of effort, or long
span of panel, or stiffener length length, general, or length rated, or lift floor length
rig panel lengths
distance from :LWL to top of aft stay'
distance from leading edge to centre of effort longitudinal centre of buoyancy
length overall
length between perpendiculars length of waterline
mass displacement mass (general), or mast material factor bending moment, or metacentre
hull bending moment
floor bending moment
floor bending: moment, from grounding transverse moment from keel.
rudder bending moment
spreader bending moment
rudder force factor
Nordic boat standard
number of persons on board or rate of revolutions, QJ number IO,f' floors ill way of keel
number ofkeelbolts
I~I H
'I ' Ii]
ha_ H,A

h,
I
IL 1M,S
IOIR ISIO
IT Iyy t,
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X,"'i'UI , • ~l l~ W
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a
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P,
.
transverse fractional mast top Jength 110'111 aitu d" 1'"1·11 al f""r' .acti '(""""11]' 'a" 'I' m ,;em st '~~o···'··P'·1 len 'g' '~hI
,L, ,e.lL, ,IIL". '. )(J(!.. ,elL." ,,,,JI,, ~ " . ,IC.II.I') _' l. .1 ,!i;".",.1 '/ ,I!J, , '
'[ . ] t 1~' ., ~l' (lOR) 1]". h ] d
tJI! , cr .:' ", &  " .' i ,,  ," ," jI''  .'. . I"' .' '.' fi' _, ~~,  .. , ., /'II' , .  . ' • . .... . • I' f
,J,e16.1. 0 _, m .. aIDJ5kU 1_., ' ',' .. ' O.I proper er pitc ,01 0'311,;,
general
dimensioning aft stay' load horizonta ~" p: art ,0'" r :9! ft sta v load
. . 'L Il,. . ~ QIi..... 0 I!i./!..J ,. "GI, . 
....
vertica '~: 'po iar .. 't of: a ft ,~t,,,);IJI load
_\..I _.dj .1Ui . , '" ,IJ,. !oJ! u,. ,."'Il,."
, '
bottom pressure
composite property critical load
PI
mast
PT
PI
r
Q,
R 'R'"
I' i\.
R',A'W Rp,
I,"
,RH·"
I .
RM···'··
'\".:
. "
.
delivered power or design pressure
compression force in deck, dimensioning shroud ill 0 ad horizontal part of forestay load dimensioning inner forestay load dimensioning outer forestay load vertical part of forestay load horizontal cornponent ofstay forces keel 1)0,1t load, tension
total keel. 'bolt load
ma t property
mast pressure
dimen si o •. min g." ill" :. a s .... t load
un ~,!!..,,!Jl= . J!l, . . . ,. n.
grounding Ioad torque
resistance. general, 01~ reef factor ofsails
11'. .:i1
windage
added resistance in 'waves
'R""M'
i .. " '1.
RM:, .. ··, _. , ., J()
'R','M········
,'. , '\' ·,on ,_.. ~,J
4...... 1 ,.
·,W, nett 011a, resi sta nee
heel resistance righting moment
righting 111.10111enlt at 1 deg heel righting moment at 30 deg heel righting moment at 90 deg heel Reynolds number
'Royal O,ce,~111 Racing Club residuarv resist ance
';'
I10I.se radi ItS
dd f f;(' "1 di ~
f11 .... er centre 0" ettort, vertical ." tistance trom top
Royal Y achting Association
short span of panel, stiffener spacing Iength of spreader
total triangular sail area
sail area, fore triangle (IO'R)
sail area, mainsail, triangular (lOR) length of spinnaker leech (lOR) section modulus
_
,R,[I, RORe ,RR
r.t
R've
R,YA
,SIt(El)
SA'"
I·, :
SA·,"'F
I, ,", ,I. I
,SIAM, S,'L
S·'M·· .. '
I . .
.
X,IIV
SMfl,
SM .... ,,:··
',' '11u1J
S'M' '." .' :[
SI·M·".·'[ 'fp
 .' "t\.
S"'M
_'I '.:
, {]
SMW""
t. . .....  ..
. " '.'
floor section modulus
hull girder section modulus
section modulus to inside lor panel section modulus increase ir~ way of 'keel section modulus to outside of pan el snirmaker width 1(, lOR)
lE'" ....
'11 e' tt ed s'" urface i'Ji re 'a
\f"fr . .:__' .1":', ... ,"] .ill. ,~~ .. '.:' ~ u,.:I.~.·.
S'Vvr S,C
t, t,max T
Tr
T.2 Tbooru, r,
t
PC
Teo
tf
T head Titl T'hu Tr T~
,i>
V'
'V'l2 'V.A,\V
"V'~W'''''~
.. :1. " til
'VCB
VP:P V
'£
W'
wetted surface asea with "c' in dice thickness andmaximum thickness respectively
draft of yacht, or propeller tbr ust, or ten sile s treugth wave period or transve .rse fo :rl ~'S' 8'·' il force
".",,,,, ""," 11j.,, __ UU .. ·, '.,I!o..r,C. 11 .... ~.
transverse mainsail force transverse force.at root of mainsail upper 'bOOt11 force
core thickness
...
transverse centre of gravity face thickn ess
t' '1'''; a, n sve .rse .!"O:I""C: e 'at t on 0" f rn ain . 1('1 a til
.=" [~I., ' l' '_'.' .. ' ! II . ", ."';l [! .' . L, ..ft::JI . '." .. , I' _011
lower shroud force upper shroud force rudder torsional 11101.nen.t time to, sto p
volume displacement, 0'1' yacht speed vertical shroud
apparent wind, speed
effective apparent wind speed, yacht heeled vertical centre of b"llOy'Ii11CY
Vel oci ty Prediction Program
yacht speed (m/s)
weight displacement, 10][ effective width of panel, lor fibre.
angle
fibre content by weight weight 'of ballast position of neutral 'axis
distance from leading edge to centre of rudderstock ratio elf mat i~'l a composite
Cartesian coordinates, Origin at 'F'P:~ 'X aftwards, Y tOI starboard Z. vertically upwards
deflecti on
distance from keel centre of gravity tOI L,IVL
y Yk
angle of attack, or scale factor 'aft stay angle' to mast
forestay angle to mast
I 0. ~~,'tl: ray 'an' g' le
I~~ ~¥ [~¥l" .' .... ". ,·Lt
di ~ hr d l
I" If 1'".' ... , t .~ •• . , ilf':' : .' . . ,', I ", ""
,Ia,gIOtl,a,~ u.. . 0 ti', ang e tio 1 'last
ap :"p. 'arnt vind annIe
. . " n···.:.  ~ . ....:_ ~ . ._. I • ~ '~. I 0. '.
List of Symbols
xv
p
vertical shroud angle
Taylor parameter, or horizontal angle of spreader additional righting moment from crew to windward safetv factor
• §o'l'
propeller efficiency
trim angle
wavelength, ,Of taper ratio sweep angle
kinematic viscosity density ... 1
,_. ,·,E.l·,1Il. _.
1.1 orm al stre S~~L IO.r c avitati Din 11.U.1n hie; r
. I ~
I.
yield stress
desian 'stress
I!'£....!I
.~
1'1.2 o
°RIVl 11 "rIo e
A
A
v
r:
o
Ole.
'V
design stress for rudder stock normal stress in. sandwich face ultimate stress
y i eld stress
Burrill parameter, or shear stress heel angle
'natural frequency . ill roll) frequency of wave encounter volume displacemen t
iIf'!Ir. V'c
Uf °u cry
t
rom
I!l:!'
.'
I d_j'
n. ees
r II 1
canoe body keel
I'L1.d, der
upper lower
('Ii '""",
k:
'.
X'VI
Conversion factors
'To convert metric measures into imperial measures, multiply by x To couvert imperial measures into metric measures, multiply by Y'
J1jjf'e t· U~' ,j ~.~ j la I." I I t~rJL.
1 · ~' mperuu
.X
y
Lengfh
M':'l]'~' ' ... ' ... ( , 1. 1 me tres rmm: 1
Centimetres (em,' Metres (m) Metres (1((1,)
Metres (m
K ilometres (kUI) Kilometres 111_'_)
'.II, ,: .. :, ,i I' . T ·_,SI 1,1, J:.\.Jll.
1ft t ... h1" es .u . .J.i","I. '_ ',~,
In": ches
.. "_'  ~
0.039 0.394 39~37 3.'81 0.914 0 .. 62.1 o 53917
..
~.5~40 .2.540 0.025 0.305 1.094 1.609
] .,853:7,
Inches Feet Ya.rds
G''':!!; ,0' 0"1' "'ilp' ,h" , .i f'" I ....... ··::ii ;01,,=
~. E!:i * rO,l.. , .  ~Ii./ . "Uil~'1:..:
N a 11 [1 calmiles
Area
'S" C'I' .. ,,, .. _. nil I ,.. ' .. ', tr " '(" ',' m' ,2')1 ., i uare ill]" tme res m '," .
Sq uare centimetres (en, 2) Sq uare metres (IT].') Square metres (m 2.)
S,: . · '.. ., tn (r 2') .. ,qUtue meJ,es ,:m .
Square inches Square inches Square inches Square feet
S· , . " " . ~ _' ,7" d s"' quare yards
03)016 0.,] 55 1600 .. 0 10,,,764 0.8355
t:4" ]' 0
Il";l: .. o.. "
t: 4' =? Ill •. I:' .....
0.,00063
Q,I092".(ll
.1' .:.". 7
1..,1.968
Volume
C'U" bi f1' f"'Q nt .;' n.." etres rc ,,3""1 . ~', .I..." ~""'~.J. ..!LJI..l . .II.: es \' 'L_ l
'Cubic m etres (nl,l) Cubic metres (m') L,i [res (L.)
Litres (L
Litres (L.)
Litres (L)
Cubic inches 'Cubic feet
Cub" 'f
'<Ie yare's
Cubic inc he s leu hie feet
US'~ II
.' ga ons
Imp gallons
10,[ 0' ',6,:' ·10::
•... . .
']5",  3' ]5",
_"'}. !"! ••• ~.
O '7'c4
it ': (:~ .. ~
[4] 'Q'JA[.
u [i·'··L ..... ~
?'8.,317 0.264 0.220
645,,10 O.02~,.3 1 .. 309 0,.01: 64 OJJ353 3.785 ,4.,54'6
"Ma'ss and '\\leigbt Gr3JnS (g) Kilograms (kg) Tonnes metric (T) Tonnes, metric (T) Newton (N) Kilonewton (kN)
Ounces Pounds Pounds Tons" long P'CHUlds Pounds
0..0.353 2...2046 2204.6 0.,9843 (t2247' " '14'1 '7:3
.L.~ < t :
''1' 0 ~1 ,;;;>(1j1 ,~O!lI.JJlj
0.4536,
0,.00045 'W +0160
if 4:1.'~,O'
~ ... I,PI}'
0+0044
Density
'Ii"
Kilograms/m (kg/m']
Pounds/cubic (toot
lrfi,,026
P ,
',",g  .. ;. 'oj! ......... •   "'. • ••••• , • I .
. , .ressnre" stress, work, lenc,rgy
Newton/mm' (NlnrmJ) Kilonewton/mm' (kN ImJ~ 2) Pas C" , .. II (Pa) ( .;:::;:::;:' 1 N, /m l '
~ • .;",a" " ,U', !l;,L, , ,J.. .
'!G': ":] " "", .' ... ] ~"'p', 'J. (~' '1" It..:N"''',;: ," <!)"
'.:" , ,Op,d .. Sc.·a, ,11{., a . ,_, 1\. ..,. 11. ..1
Megapaseal (.MP31) r= ] 'N/llID1~1 Gigapascal (GPa) 1.:= ] ~kNh.1illl':
Newtonmetres (", 'm)
Kil an ewron metres (k Nm) Horsepower (metric ' Kilowatts (leW)
P ': ' . . 'd'",J s, I .= .. ,]: I . oun .s sq Inc,'
Pounds/sq inch
P" oun ds/sq incl .... '
• '", I', ~,~, ".,', Lt
Pounds/sq inch Pounds/sq inch" Pounds/sq ineta F cotpounds Footpounds:
Horsepower (imp) Horsepower (11: ap)
]44~95 ]449150. 10.,00014 O. 4495 1.44.95 144.950 0.7370 737.010 1..0142 0.7463
1.0,',69 0,.00000.6.9 [6899 ,6,.899 0,,,0069
O oo in 0' '0" 6'9",
III lj, "Ii,.~ . ." .
1 . .3568 OJ)] .36
0.986'0 ].3400
Speed
M etres per secon d (Ol/S) Metres per second (nJJJ's) Kilometres per 'hour (km/h) Kilometres per hour (km h)
Feet p.er second
" 
Knots,
Miles per hour 'Knots
'l :8'·"10:,,18:'
,_ iI.,....... .
1.,.9425 OJi~~4 0 .. 5397
IN<'T·R·.······.O •• ····.··.D'···.··U. C·······'TI····I·'O···,·N····
• " ," . , ) '.,' • . '_, • '.' • . 1_. '. '. '. . . . " • • • " '. . . • " • "I. .' . ~. .' _. . . " ,
uring the past 30 years yachting has expanded fr 0 In. being, generally speaking, a minority sport  too expensive for the large 'major ity of people ._ into a major recreational activity practised 'by millions all over the world, 111 the 1960s many attractive coastal areas were still relatively free from pleasure 'boats;' today it call be difficult to find a suitable mooring place for the night. TIle interest in. racing has increased correspondingly at all levels, from dinghy racing to tile America's Cup and around the world races"
DI1Til1..g this 'period, many new yacht designs have aL}J pe a red. and the number of professional as well as amateur desig ners "has' increa sed
..... : .~..., '.. , •• r , r. I'.'" (:., ~ , .' ". " ., .. 1 '... . .',' . . ':' ' .. , '. ' : . .'.' ,.' .1 "_ ,_ . . ·V(;. . . .' ..
st e adily In far .. 't· 'm'o: st ya ch tsmen ha ve a"1 k een l~"n" tere st in ·th1·11=iI prn ueiples
_ . .rl.,. . l' .' I! ,,~l~~ _ • . .'. • .• ' "',' , _,' ~'." ,r, .•• ',' I [_,I !.! i1 . , . , __ c •.... I~II . .Ill,I; w .. _",. _ ~ > '_ . ~~
behind the design of their yacht and. the theory of sailing, Most
 .
yachting magazines have design sections, and articles on design
principles feature regularly ~
At tl ae ~a"il11'P; tim ,~, y·,·"Jic .. .ht I,.·I~·QP';a·,lr( .. h .: · has b. '0·'1[0: Ifl ed  T~l... otal I~' '·R'·iif!Ii.,..:aI~"'~
. ,.w.. 0 .' ". ,I"P .. ~~ ~'. .r ~IJ . . . w,Ll"'~ . ,'Ii;#, , I W 1~~:1 . . ~, "!Ill JILl. =." . .. J.!J..t~ L~,U,W L lW ~
, ,
ill orne round of the America's CtLP is llLO'W in tItle' region 101 ' 1~1' _:I
million, about one ten th of which is"'p~'nt 0  reses rch '_ nd development. Yacht research is presented regularlv at Sf' "!eY'[aJ( ries 0'"
~ ,'~ 
. _. fe . '., . n. icl . n th H' ·IS··.rW:'· "A' ·8········~'  ~ H" ·n'  d he
Cron .. eren,c:~es~ sU.C·} as t .. re' .r· .:...... ,,·Yl11 .. p,osau:m_ In .. 0 [alli,." ' e
S···N···A·': M····· 'E/··A.':·"·IA·· A' ·S······,·· ,'. ". ~""" ..... tl ". 'US' W", ,[.'1ft. C .. :··,·, ... · t .' id '1':'" C" ·h··,,· ,····k·· .",'.,_' .·/·,·········,ymP()Slu.m.o.~l .le". _:eSJL.·OdS all I .. "[lre .. _~esa.pe.a;.re
Sym P'O"~'~Ul'n' on th"e Ea st C':' oa st Pape ',_""(i' on sailing theory are fr eq ruentlv
~ _: .' L'!I~, _ '.~ . '.lJL· . . .. ' .' LJ _ . .'." . __ _ ill] , C': ,JL!J 1.~.jl!.~ ,.'1[',' .1 . .l1!. '~" _1,1.· " 1~ . .!.I!. . '.' . Ut· . I ~:
fo n n d 1'·' '~1 sc ie n tific J" OIU"J als 0" n h y .. ,. '11 'w· 0·: d .: y., n . a': n 1] ].~ IC: ~ an d '. fl Ill'" d m'll ech 'a' I] ]" rr""'~:
.l rl IIo.i. ..' .l1.·ilI. JIb. I... .' .lI! .. ,1,.... JIl., .", I.U , . . '.. . .. r •. , .. ,(\J[ '"'" . _ .• '. 'Ii.,;> ,.iL. .,. V.'' ..
. • • I •
'With this background, it is surprising that there is 'no good IIp to.
date ~b[ook, on yacht design available, More than moo. years ago, Skene 'wrote l1is ·D.OIW· classic Elements o] Yacht Design, which was revised several times by Kinney, This work is. still used at design offices all. over the world and 'by': many amateur desig ners brut while several of the
. '.. r!d! ..' _. "., .. ' '.' '.' , ':'_ .. _.. .' '.' , 1 ." •••• ',.' • _.' ;_.. •• • '. • •
methods ex plained in the book are still useful, many sections dea ing with building materials design principles [etc are obsolete
tri"''f·_ ~ ~"" .. ' '.' ,f '_" ,L .:" . I., .·il"· '.' ~" ,'.". '., _'. b.,!,.".,. _ ...•
Two other, more, or less classic books on the same topic are Salling Yacht Design by' D PhillipsBitt and Sailing Yacht Design ._. An Appreciation of a Fine Art "by .R. IG Henry and R . Miller. These books
. ...... ft· ..... , .. . t ". b' 'J '.' ··h· d :', the In,s' '0' .. .' ri 1 . "':1'" 196'0" . _,. '. . .... 11 ~ = '. ·1·' Thev .. _. '.
were rSI P'UI JS .. ,:e, .. III . le .. 'Ji.,., 'S an.:c eal y .' '..:5, I. egpec ill ve ... y", .. ey [aI.le
' .. : ..... , .' ' .. I' t [ .. ··f' . :'. t· . . . d:" de .. I' . t r , .•.••. " [' t·· '. b '. . .. . · d .. ,1' : . . .." . d[ I· '. ' .~ '.' . " [ "'. '.
110W out or prmt an,.c_,Q no seeIn ,Q',e '1V1.ey usee any ionger.
However, the latter was updated in all interesting paper: Sailing Yacht
D ~ A N A .,. NI'£;""I:·' A b R T~ M· "1 d K' L
. es~gn _. .: ". e~/iJ ~ ppreciatum OJ G L' Z'11e . ·rr.y I,. .1 .. ::] ler (lIl·j\· 1
Kirkman at the Annual Meeting [of the Society of Naval Arcl1.itects ,al)id .Marine 'E·o.gil1eers iII 1990.
'The l1r1.0st 'w'eli" nown boock's on. saiting theo,ry' ,arre the· excellillent o'nes 'by' Ie A. M.arcIlaj: Sailing .TlleotJ an'd Practi'ce, .first :P1JbEs.hed in 1964
2.
The Aer aHydrodynamics (~1· S ailing in. .1 979" and .Sea:vvo.r thiness ~ the Forgotten Factor ill. 1986., Other books in the same category are The Science of Yachts, Wind and :Water by H :F Kay and Technical Yacht Design by A G· Hammitt, both published ic the early l'97fjs., However, neither O!11C of' these is useful for the designer, since they do '1110t cover methodology, statistical data for existing yachts or design evaluation techniques, Furthermore, these books concentrate O;D the hydro an,d.
aer 0 d'Y1'1' am ~ r= a ~pAC' .t S 0' f th Po pr ~o" b ,,~Ie' ill whi l e fo" I~ ra !('l't an p,i':'i;';_ r' ,("'Ij; 'ad  i no
 "I_:'ill ,(ill.L!ILlIl"I; .. i "~I i;:];,II;;.i, , it ,,,",,, ,_'!..!I!. ,II,,'~.!HIJL, .JL:i, 1Il ,~,_j_lu.0~, ~,':,,I I. O~
!!:'~ tren g< t ,.~~ ~I n d Ci 'f,I"I~U ctura '1 p' ro b ,··1·0I1"'iff[] C~ for AX' 'an' "1~r1·1Iml ~ as wel ~ [as" 'P"l:'a: ,", ct ~' c ,(} ~l d [' e s ig n
i.) _ . ~~, I, , .Ll, L:!i, :',, Ii.) IL, " .. , ,i" ;m:!I!., ,.,', ." c. JL ,Gl I! ,1. ~i ",' _ .. 1Il,l;:' 1Il~; (,:1 ~h'. '.I1.m (, . ,1,', ~ _ ,h.til;',, _ ' ",I.l!!.',l,
considerations, are either 11,Ot mentioned, or ate treated very briefly ..
TW(J more recent books on the topic are Modern Developments in Yacht Design 'by ,D Connell 1& J Leather and The Design of Sailing Yachts by' 'P Gutelle, both out 'of print, The former is 11,Ot very useful as
a, textbook, since only a few selected aspects of the subject are. covered, and the latter falls in the same category as those in the previous paragraph, ,GIl tell e, however, refers to' a future second volume of his book, where the more practical aspects of design will be treated. Comprehensive reviews of the literature and research "in. sailing theory may be found in L Larsson's 'Scientific Methods in Yacht Design' and J i Mngra~'s '~l;uidMe~han~c8fOI. Sailing Vessel Design', p:ublished in tbe I Annual ReV,lelrtl of Fluid Mechanics 1'990 and 1,998~ respectively.
T~ere is thus no modern textbook comparable to Skene's as a guide \ for t~e yacht ~e.signeL Trying to replace this classic text with a m~detn \
0]1' e ] CI 'an' e 'll';Co ~I tm o· C' h 'a] I e'n g" e 19:11 d ~, s ucces .,." ['11'] 1~e'C'l11"t W' _ 0 'I ild oLl' a' t ii' sfy a"
"",_' ,,01' ::_, :,::_A,~:~,' , ',,8,;,,( ,,~Ll:~", (i. HI. I ~~ success _ ,..II. : "~I;,J' U,'· saus, "',
deeplyfelt need among professional and amateur yacht designers all lover the world. With, the present book the challenge bas 'been taken IlP~
For 'a book of this kind to be. successful, 'tWIO conditions must be sa tisfied ::'
I. It must cover all aspects of yacht design
I. Although it must be comprehensible for amateurs, it must, be advanced enough to be lof interest also to professional designers,
There follows a short presentation of this book and a1J. explanation of the strategy adopted for satisfying these t\NO requirements,
'The book 'begins "with a. description of the methodology recommended 'in the design process, Specifications of the: yacht and tile design concept are discussed in Chapter ,2. and Chapters 3 and 4, cover tbe geometric description of tbe hul 1 and the hydrostatics and stability ill calm 'water and waves, The hydrodynamic design of the hull, keel and rudder and the aerodynamics of the sails :are explained in Chapters 5, 6 and 7;~ and methods are introduced for finding the balance of the yach It' in Chapter 8~ Chapter 9 deals with the selection of the correct propeller and engine.
Structural aspects of design are treated 'in Chapters lI, L2, 13 and l4,.
Loads acting on the rig and 11,u]l1 are identified and methods for computing them, introduced. Dimensioning according to the ISO Standard is explained. and complete calculations carried out for one example, There is; also a discussion on different FR'P (fibre reinforced plastics) materials,
.3
including sandwich laminates, Practical matters, such as the layout of .cockpit, deck and cabin are discussed in Chapter 15, and Chapter 16 presents different "means for evaluating the design, A. complete weight calculation is carried out ill. Appendix ,2~
The different aspects of the design process are therefore well covered.
To satisfy the secon d require m ie .. mt above the rna t erial must be well
' ~;;:1 'J!!. •.. '_'." . iJI·.,·., ". '," ,I.' ,1Il ' . , 0 •.•.••• _" •• c........ '. .:lIL_ .. , ,,' ''' .. ' . " ..... "
presented" and we have tried to accomplish this in 'a number of ways,
~ .
Yacht design is by its nature a quantitative proces s ,.1 A designer,
professional or amateur :. S not much helped 'by' qualitative reasoning. It is not el101l,g11 to know that the hull can withstand a greater load if the skill 1.S made . hieker, or that stability is increased 'by more Iead III the keel, What he needs to know as exactly a~ possible, is the minimum skin thickness and the least amount of lead needed ill the keel for the yacht to be safe under all possible conditions. If he is not able 1 0' compute these quantities the yacht may be slower. and more expensive than necessarv and, worst of aJI .. it may be unsafe. "Therefore, a basic
J ~. ~'
principle of tills. book has been tOI provide formulae or diagrams for all
aspects; of the design, process, The reader should be able to evaluate quantitatively every step in the design procedui e.
'W'e are fully aware that many potential readers rnay "be rntimidated by a text loaded with formulae, and would, reject the book as being too technical, To avoid this 'the equations have been removed from the text and. in serted into the figures, A serio us designer will 1IJ]J' ed 'tOI work ' through the formulae himself or the reasons just explained, but " e believe that the book could 'also, be of interest to, yachtsmen in general, since many may have 'a keen interest in the basic physics of sailing. They' will be able 'tOI read the text without digging too deeply into' the quantitative aspects,
On the other hand, the equations are not very' complicated from a mathematical p. oint of view, Thev are numerous, and they may be
I. .' I.
lengthy but they are. all of the algebraic type, Higher mathematics, such
a .. '~ intezra ~ 0,·'.'1:' differential ca lculus, have been completely avoid ed. and
tL:!I, .. .lU, ~ !Jo,.,!'~' , uJ, ~' . jII, _ '_ "" = . JliU C Jl.. . . ill _1i1I .,iLI;.. , .. t.' ..:!l.!i;;.;.o", ' . " ,.IL. . , .• , ' .
everyone with a basic mathematical background from, say, second .. ary school S110L~ld be. able to understand them .. ,
To help the reader understand tile practical application of the principles and formulae presented, the design of a new yacht, called 'YD40 (Yacht Design 40 footer) is: followed throughout the book.
TIl U 'C1 aft er In" 0·:·8:·t" of the fo "'m· "'['I1"a: e the computed v'··"a:·]ll.e·· +'O·'·]'~ the Y ... ·'D,4·IO[ ;18'
.' Ii:) [ H.l . I ,.". ~,l .... _,_, "._ ~ r : ... ,;1.,. I', _"I' L~ ':., ',':'I.' I . .1. ,_.:'" ::_) J.l.~"" ..... ,' ' .... JiLl:
given, and all drawings (like lines plan interior and exterior layout, rig plan and general arrangement) are for this modern cruiser/racer. T11is does not mean of course, that the book is limited to this type of yacht. 'The: material covers other cruisers and racers, traditional or modern designs and different rig types, To a certain extent dinghies are also included, but. there is not much discussion on multihulls, and reference to'po'\'ver boats is made '011.1y occasionally, Power boats are addressed specifically in. the chapters 011 high speed hydrodynamics and scantlings, butmuch of the other material ill the book 1S applicable to this type of craft as well,
.4.
"Th" '. . y·'····· ... D:· 4' '0"1'"    ~ f d ... dete ~:11" A' .. '.' ':'i;'" dix 1 ... , ·'1 . '~'" '1 '1'1; the d' . Tj" .~
.f;, •.... _:_ .... IS .sp,eC~.,_le::. 111.. el.allll . .111 .' .p.p,en IX . ' W.le'le ,a 1Il . j_le •. ,.a!l!.a ~.s
given. There are two different sets of data. 011e is for the cruising con di tion with all the necessa ry eq u] prnen t and th e tanks half full
...... , .. '.."." '."  .. ' ._., , :'5: : '_",'~"'," ·C." '.,~._ ~.' "'.",,,, __ .,, !C' •.•..• "
'while the other is for the light version, without cruising equipment, The latter versi 011 .. or' an even lizhter one is 11 0 rrnally used in advertising
" '...... ' " ..
material for new yachts. The weight calculation in Appendix .2. is' for the
YD'::,4IIO" ". the half Ioad ·d'· tditiou. i icludi OF' "'~ ""
'Ii"~ ln . Ie 11 .. ' ,I :oae: cOin, l'Ion .. ~ Inc U'. Inb Cle\v ..
. ~
To evaluate a new design and its qualities it is important t(f compare
, ~
it 'with other yachts. Sections with statistical data are therefore included
..... ';. '. of the cha ,.,if:'. 'i"", M···,: sdian ','.,; 1' '';';',: f·~· ","l' ."_;"" . isti ., .... : vachts "'IoQ!; .. '.:::tIJ.
ill ill,&U1Y O',~ ) .'e, C I .• ap'bel,8" ... , ft Itan va .n,es ,101 e.Xl1S :fillg y~al,; I ,.s are given.
and the spread, within which approximately .95'oyo 0,"[' all yachts lie, is
." .. die '·I't· 'd'" T~t..,··· ""3 ..... 1','1:·" .'. " d·' ;" . I "'1 . " .... ~, :.,. .' .,' th' ", " f ~.c.' t 'I' ":"f' d ,,, .. i.. t .; .. ,' f'" ' .. ,', .... , the
111.1 scaten. . .nere IS a .SO' a ciscussron 011 rne enec s o '·, .. eVI3, mg rom .. e
median, which will enable the designer to create a yacht with special
" ialiti .. , .. ~ T"h'''e' ~ ,nC11'·'t'·'O'·']'1 of the 'l,TD" 4" 0:' within till'· e statistical d' .ata l"'o('i al .. :Ql·o·· .. ,
qtL a: 1 ·]:es, ..'.. p'v~,_ 1. ", .. "'" '. ". '"I· .,.. ...: .. IL~ ,.' .,0; '~.~ _4.0 Jt~,~ I .'., .'_ lj (.·.0.
shown and a, motivation for this position is given in the li ght lor the yacht sp .• eeification in, Chap .. ter .2 and .. Appendix I"
.  ..
111 order to' satisfy the more qualified readers of the book there ate
ti d' d d '. h tl' th ddt l" d ib d
',Oil·:,. '" ':,'_~.  ', .... _ .a ' .. ,,, ~ , .... ,.. . "'," ..•. ( .. ,. .'.:.J'"  ·'..:~L ," '. :.",," _  . ,"' :" _.' ''''.;' I', 'r. " ':'~ .. .:' •. '" ." ',. ~" ~,<._"... .•. 'I'~'" I', .OII!!: ....
sec 10'ID1S, 0]] acvaneec nesign, wr ere ae me ,I O' .. ,S ana _0,0. aoescrioe ale
n ot 111'0'.' rma Ily a . va ' 1:' la b,~~ e to.:' n .' ,0'· . n .. · .. · ... p rr 0' ~e·· ssi 'o,n ,"11 '[ '9,  .A, 1 ~,o,,·· thr 0'.11" ~~:g':. h ,fJTU' t U· .b e bo :0 ,k·· .
,,'. lib. _ ..... ,', ill ... & "I;' ,v' ,. '_ ,y, .' ".w:. .,',' ' , . K ,"'_ ',"'.l3 ,~, ,~U~~~~!I' .' ~~,., ,1 ." ,.J:., '.,'. ~. j ,', ' .,
the results of the most recent research ]11 yacht design are presented .. Much of this is' .not discussed in. yachting literature,
,. . . ... '. '. . . .... . ~ '. .. _.... ..  ,., "~ " ',', .  ." . ~ 
Fin ally' , some general remarks on the principles and style of the book mu st be TI'iiJi:JI,d···· !Qi;. With few excep .. rtion C" th !Pi' S:1 ('1Y .. /st em of units 1" s ado p .. ned
). '.",:)' _.flo...', .,]lIU,· !i;.I." _.',,' .1lu •••. !\;..o', .!!i..<, ..... M:.·,.I,)I ., ~ ,' ... ,LI'c: lUi. ";;.,.0, I· 1Il~ 1~.C:ii .LIi ,iJII.·'""·i,· .""' .... ~
Unfortunately, the A.BS rule does. not follow this standard, $,,0 in. the
~ ~
chapter on. scantlings we have had to adopt other systems. Otherwise it
is, only the '(PIcht speed that does 110,t follow in the 8I system; it is eiven
. . ''',', . .1 J'. ~. L,.; _. ... _ ... " _. . " .. • ._.. . ... _...  ~ ~ b ."
,'~ .. 1"'" .. ' '1' A'" t th ,'. . . . 'to t :', ... ':t ~ .... , "·",· .. ··b.r.~ b'~' '" .. "';;;" .".,. fi" , tr .' r",·_·" th .", ' .. '. 'd" In rno 8",~,, . r e presemtnne I; 18 pro' .. a,'JIlY p .. remature to give .... e spee ..
in metres pier second (m/s) , A conversion table'. between the SI and
E li 1 it b I ... '· d .: .~
• , K • " K.!' I • I'" ill"; , ,'~ • '. '. " ,'I ' ,,',. '" ,,' .. , '. . t 'r ' , " ,
" n,g IS], U .. nl .. S Ilflay .. e , .OtlD,· .. o,n. p,age XV,i .. ,
i\J' oth.er stall.,d;ar,d ~adop,ted. 1.:8 the n'omen.clature specifi,'ed b'y t.h'e
"1,,:'t' ·c·· .. 'i:,t··: .... , ...,,1' T·· "',: ,·,;'r'·· '.' T!··' ·k·,· 'C" ": ".", .t" .... ,,_~,p,: 'CI" ,("'IT"'TC" "')" T' ·h····:,: h' j: .. 'i' b'" .. ' .......  d··' .... · ·::·i· ,1"" ',p'_·······d·' .. 11 .. ellla.I,o,nlw " (lWln,g I ,an .'.~: ,.onleI\r>n. e , , ,,: i'" _.. IS ,i.S .een ; leve o. e ~
over a very lO;l1.g 'p'eriod. of tinJe ,and is ru,gree!d 'by' all l11clD.·beI:S ,of the ITT',e" ~7hicIl itlClu .. ,de all rea,so'n~ibly' sized to'wing tanks in. the world~ ias w,ell a~ [nost LLnjv't~rs'wtj,es te'ac.hin"g N';aval Archi.tecttlre" Tl1.le SYll1'bot~ in this s,ys\tem ,are listed separate:!y' at tl~e b'eginnmng ,of tlle. 'book.
A R,efere'Dces sectIT.iOl1. nl,ay bi~' £oTI.nd .al the ,en.d. of' th,e 1101lok" The' list 'IDS ,arr.Etl1.,ged .in, alph·a.betic"al o.r(~er 'b,Y tIle first ,a'uthor"s Sttrna:l1le". N°,o
"f"" I: '.' " 'b"'''·" '. "l " ",,'': .. ' '\. th ",' ... ~ ·;,;,,··:···t· bl.,., t·, ': ",' ···,:t :'~bl t'" .... ". ::" f':" ",.,,, , ,d""~'f~IT(""'" ·t·
Te~.'er,etlCe 11 u.tn,el S, at e gl.ve11 ]In. .6 Ie,x", ,ll.. con rm IU ]on.s , rOIn. '.' l ~,erel~,_
individ,uals· ,or grollps ,are id'entified b'y the auth.o:r's n;ame, ,and it. Sh.O'U,]d
b·: .:. . ...... "'i: '. t· .... ·· "ft···· d" t.'ih ' ..  r:' . ·t· . 1 b:',~'··""", to, ... ":" ffj:l' ',' 'l"~"'r 'It· ,h .. ,.·,···· uJ· "d b' . ,,' ··,t;·d' I. e easy ,0 '. ,n.' ' .. " _.,I .. e re~.evanlJ pu .. .' lIllea. 11011 In 1~ le .. J.S!l.", ... _ s." 0' ~ ,_. I.· e n.o'·.e_
th,at there are lli'O.re re.fer,ellces in the list than. are spJocificall,)l teferf'ed to ill the te'xt..
'D' ' .. a.. E··S······· I' G········ '~T . .•.• .•... .·i \.1"
 .
M' E·····'T.··· "'H' '. "'O·i········D· .. ·_.······O···,·····:······,'L·· O·········.·G········:····y,····,:··
.' I I ,
. . . . ',,"
 I ", ". .",,' . : ... /: ',"" : I' I .... .' .... ,"' .... '"
_ . : • ." • , ,." " .....~  .' . • •• • . '. • I" .. •.• .• " . • '. • '. • _'
The design spiral
f'; . "1 l' 'I be .. J .'," t • '' .. ir ./ ~g, . '., I_I ···]e (JeSl[gn spr. a .
,""
acht design is an. iterative 'trial and error' procedure where the final result has to satisfy certain requirements, specified beforehand. To achieve this, the designer has to! start with, a number of assum ptiO[11S and work thr ough the desi gn to s.ee if, at the, end, it sa tisfies the requirements, This 'will most certainly' 110t be the case ill the first iteration, so he will have to change some assumptions and repeat t]1e process, normally several times. TIle sequence of operati O]lS is. of tell referred to as a spiral, where the d .. esizner runs
"" .....,
through all the design steps and then returns tOI the starting point,
whereupon a new 'turn' begins, After several turns the process may have produced the desired result" We 'will describe the, design spiral in
m· ,0' . "[ e d et a ]"1 be Io . 'W'""
. I .'. I .' ",,",. ' ...lIl .' •. ". ,',
"If all steps are taken manually the procedure can be 'very' time consuming, and it is tempting to stop the' iterations 'before the' initial specifications have been fully met, A" 11 uge saving Jll. tittle and accura _y i possible if modern computer aided design (C.I;l\D) techniques are adop ed, and we will discuss this possibility in, the second part of the chapter.
In Fig 1 ~ 1 the design spiral is shown, Eleven different segments may be identified, and each segment corresponds to, an operation 'by the
Up ck;de' ol' bk:!la ."or .('1tJ.xfi ;.'ftJrQ.iiOn'
(2)
EV't~'itj[(j lion'
(1'.6)
J.\!"",".",,"I: __ FI .~. . ..... rd .. _J ........ ,., .If' 19i·gi . .' 1I..iII;.f.~' Y ~'~;._:_ g: ~';r
(j:Bs.lgn
(6)
W":eig'ht oolou h:rflon:s
{App5ndM' 2)~' __ j,~~~~1t~~:7~~~~~_
.Siail ,and ,r:1g delsl9'1'~
(1~ e)
IG.sn 6'ra'l
.... ;!i"'~ ,,,,,,,f'!!.""!;.,,,,,,,,", ~."" .. ~,~ ~~ w.',i"i!'~'iIir'ii!'~ ~ ~',i!"'~~~
.Pro'pe[I/6J·" a nd (.1 5)
(/j.f1gine
(9)
designer, Not aU. operations have ·to, be carried out ill each turn, and. the tools used 'in each, operation may v,ary from turn to turn. In principle,
11'10"'re" a nd 11"] ore se am e nts a'  re ". includ e . d and b etter a n d be tter to ols are
~ " . !. (: _ '"' _ • _.i.l~:" .LJ.'!EL 1, . , .. ":]1 , .' ,,'..' elL. _ ' ... , I , . '. ' . . _ I"" . \._rl. , . ~. "  . :'..:.. v.!ll. ll. " " . t.3 (.,_ ~
used, as the process converges towards the fin . al solution, T11e figure shows that eaeh sector corresponds to a chapter (or possibly two) ill this book.
From the start the designer has only the specifications of the yacht, ie its requested. capabilities, Based 011 his experience ... '0.[ data from other
...
yachts, he assumes the main data of the hull, Nondimensional
parameters such as displacement/length ratio, .8 ail area/wetted area. ratio, heeling arm and metaeentric height may thus be computed, and a rouah C .. h .. ·e· ck of tl'l he p" erformance may be m a' 'de': based on s···t' a' 11"'S'" tics from
.!Ij.J . 0' , .. ," ' : .. I. I, ," J " W ,11.,": '"" '_' .11. ,I .~, J. [~~, ',' .' .,. ,I,., II"_.:"_ • I' .. _.',. ." jli..1. ,11_. . 1 .'"" ,1 S ," J
other :y,aclTts..,h'e procedure is summarized in Chapters 2 and 16., In this first spiral turn the designer jumps from th.e first tal the last segment directly, and the evaluation is very rough,
In the second turn, after having adjusted tile main parameters, it may be time to 'begin the actual design of the hull, keel, rudder and sail plan; The theory for this is given in Chapters 3, 5, 0; 7 and 8 .. A rough Iayout 10:[ the interior and exterior design (see Chapter 15) may be made . . :00. to give an. initial weight estimate. needed for the stability calculation (see Chapter 4),. It is Iikely that neither the weight, nor the stability \\'111 'be correct so several turns IDJay' be required to satisfy these requirements reasonably, Of' course, not all previous operations may have to 'be redone in leach t11][11,. Having found a reasonab e 'weight and stability for the yacht, the next. turn may include the detailed hull scantling: calculations and the dimensioning of the rig, as well as the choice of the. engine (see Chapters 914)., Only at this stage can an exact weight calculation 'be' carried. IO·Ut ... as shown ill Ap .. pendix 2~
~. ...
As the designer approaches the final solu ion he may want to'
evaluate the design more carefullv, und t.OI do this a Velocity ..• ·. Prediction
[ !.. . .
Program (V'P'P,) is required, Such programs are described in Chapter 16
where other, even 'more accurate, techniques are also presented, The amateur designer may not have access tlo either of these. tools, however, SIO his evaluation of the current design will have to: be based on
m
eX1Jerlle •.. ] r, } ("":e: ..
,'ti. ~. _ "~ m
It should be pointed out that ill some segments internal iterations are required. This is particularly the case in the hull design area, Here, requirements for volume and its distribution are probably specified beforehand, and .it may take several iterations to satisfy them, If the process iSI manual, iterations between the different "d. ew s to! fair the lines are also required, as will be described in Chapter 3~ In the' hydrostatics and stability segment iterations are required tOI find tile' proper sinkage
d tri 'h he hull I 1 ~ 1·
i" . . \ ,"  ", [ .' _. '. I •  ," ] """ ' ,'.II!I,.. ., ~ .•
an . trim w ... ,en t~. e' '. .. lee· s a t tar ,ge a~lg ,es a.
_
Com,p'D'ier Ald,ed Design ""AD"'~"
. " . I
. . '., .',
Thanks to the rapid development in recent years, computer aided design (CAD) may be. carried out efficiently '0111 'I·, C air Macintosh computers, It is important to' have a. high resolution screen and special graphics software speeds. up the 'iJrO'CeS$~ A, laser printer will produce reasonably good smallseale graphical output, but professional designers, use pen plotters of various sizes to, produce drawings [1,P to full scale,
'The 1110,s;1 important module of a CA,~) system for yacht design is a
pow .. ve rful p .rozram If 0, ',1'" genet a .ting 'the' h': 'L111 ~l':>li·'l"'1i'e'~' a: n id such pro Ct'I'0i14lf'1S':
, "" . l " "51.,,,,,, W i.,,_, :_' I, ,., "" ,,_."I ,_,1:. . .1: 'Q!~! ,' ,'. !i},L/,. "b 'Ub.LJll.,'
have belen ava,i able since the early': 980s.. The hull is represented mathematically either by t\VOI families of lines, one running longitudinally and the other transversely on the surface, ,D,£' by surface patches matched at the intersections by some conditions of fairness. 111 either case, any point ,OIl the surface may 'be found from the mathematical representation, or more precisely, ,if two coordinates of' a point are given, the program COIDIJutes the third one, Thus. if the user provides the distance from the bOI",;, X, and the distance above the waterline ,Z", the program computes the local beam, 'Y} at this location, By specifying several points, all)' CUI~" through the surface may IJe obtained, for instance, any station lor waterline,
There are principally two, different problems in connection with the surface representation. The task can be either to generate a new hull, or to dunlicate as accurately as possible, all existing one. The la te problem is more difficult, It is certainly possible in all itera .ive ' irocess to approach 'a given shape, bout it can be time. consuming, I.' rtu a' ] the [designer is normally interested in, the first task.: creating , nex hull To achieve this he has to work with a. set "of master curves close 'to, but not normally exactly on the surface, Each master curve is defined by a set of points (vertices lying 011 the 'Cl]TVe,~ The n umber of curves and vertices varies from case' to case, but are often in. the range 51 5. By III ovin g' one vertex the master curve changes and the hull surface is locally deformed in such a way that it is still smooth, In most programs the curvature of the surface may be plotted, thus enabling the designer to generate fair lines even 011 a small scale, and with the relatively low resolution of the screen, Some programs use points on the h, ull i tself for defining its shape, but all the major programs on the interna tional market use master curves, There seems to be a consensus among yacht designers that this approach is very effective for creating fair lines. In Chapter 3 we \'1i11 s110'v( how the 111L~m, i.s, generated by the master curves,
Most hull geometry programs have the capability to 'rotate the' hull and show it in different perspectives on the screen. The possibility of showing a perspective plot of the hull is important and is a major
. d ith 'hi ] h '1 nl l'
improvement compared WIt· the 111R.lIUa", approach wnere. 0, y three
standard views are employed (see Chapter 3)., For example the shape of the sheer line may .ook quite different in perspective comps red 'with the side view, since the line that meets the eye is influenced also by the beam distribution along the hull, Hulls, that look good in a side view ina)' look quite ugly in reality.
8
,
SO;111e 'of the more advanced programs include the deck and superstructure as for the hu]! model, ie these parts of the yacht are represented in three dimensions and may be displayed in perspective, III other programs they are treated separately, To compute stability at large an gl es of heel the deck, cabin and cockpit need to be modelled, and this is frequently done ill a, separate module where these parts are added relatively crudely, section b"Y section,
,A keel/rudder module is often available ill yacht ,eA])' systems, The designer may choose between a number of different '~ro'files fO'T the crosssection and. specify the, planform of the keel/rudder, The code computes tbe volume, weight of the keel, centre of gravity and centre of eff ort of th·, e hyd rodyn a m ;1"':' fore .. e. The Iatter ~('I' req U ired ' '11'1 the balancing r
'!i;.o', .··,.!I.IL,·.··, ',., .. ,' lI!.'!;;,,!l: ...• ," , Jl!u.., JIlILl v:., '!i,;;.Ic·,,Jl, _n, ·u·="k.U· . .:IL '.'
o _ , . _
of the yacht, as explained in Chapter 8. For this tbe sai plan is also
required, and some systems have a simple sail module which computes sail areas and centres, given the' sail corner coordinates,
The total weight and centre of gravity location (in three directions) are computed in a weight schedule monitor, which accepts the weight and, position relative to a, given reference point of all items on board. Appendix 2 presents tile input and output from such a monitor.
Very imp '0' rt ant modules of the yacht CAD system are the hydrostatics and stability programs, These compute all the quantities discussed ,in Chapter ,4:~ including stability at small and large heel angles, weight per mm of sinkage, and. moment per degree of trim. 111 the stability calculation the correct sinkage aud trim are. found for each heel angle  a very time consuming procedure if carried out manually,
TIlle Velocity Prediction Program (VPP), mentioned earlier, may also be rcgerded as a module oitbe ,CAD system. As expJail1e'ld ab(1lv;e:~ this program computes the speed, heel angle and leeway angle at all wind speeds and directions of interest, ba aed on a set of dimensions for the hull, keel, rudder and sails. The very' simple performance estimator, based 011 a few' main parameters a111d, used, in the first iteration of the design, spiral, 'may also, be a module of the 'system.
Finally more or less advanced programs for the structura) design of the yacht 111"ay' b,e included. Such programs can be based Oil thole rules, given by the classification societies: the American Bureau of Shipping, (ABS); Lloyd's Register of Shipping (L'R) and others or the IS:O, Scantling Standard 1221.5'~ The ISO Standard will 'be described in Chapter 14., Other methods employed in the: ri,g and scantling calculations m .. ay hie' 'biased: on basic strength theory or finite element techniques,
Computer aided design may 'be ext en ded to computer aided manufacturing, which can "be used ill the prod uction of the' yacht, 'F or example, the very time consuming lofting process, where the builder produces fullscale templates, may be eliminated, T raditionally the b'uild~I .receives offset tables from the designer. Based on these offsets, the templates are drawn at full scale with, a reduction ill dimension for the skill. thickness of the hl]lill~, This 'ms, necessary, since the templates are used internally during the building process, If the hU1Il has been Ci\._D
'9
desi gil ed however the fullscale templates with the 'proper reduction may be plotted directly, provided a sufficiently large plotter 'is available. Plate: expansions may also ~be obtained from the C,AD system, simplifying the' production of steel and aluminium hulls.
...
. ,
\
PR.;EI L..,IMI ... · .. ···I'·N.·····A····R··:Y<···
.' ' . . .' . ',  " , '. " . ",' '. _" .
.
co ·····,N·r··[S/·.··ID·,·····E· .... I,i T' "'1' "·O····.·········N···· .I'S·····,<[
'.' '. _.' . . . . ". " '.. '.' '. . .,' " " .  ! ~ " ..... '.: . ..... . . " '. . '. " " . " .. .l I, a, . '. '. .. t, ~. . . ~
..
efore actually starting the design work, '\ve must ha ve a clear . picture of tIle yacht's purpose: what are the requirements .. .1 limitations and objectives of the design? 111 this chapter we will lisl the .: id .. ' '~.' .. t" .... th. t r ... the ,.~ .. , rtir '.. . . ... rt ·f:" th de ,i .' '.
1St I e COins! ,eI8,11!r101181 . la _. 10nn _ J1e S Lar .mg Pi 0 ill , 0 . Ie·'. If;.Sl,gn ..
Regardless of whether the client is all. individual owner or a boatbuilding firm 11e will have definite ideas as to the type of 'boat he wants. Most people have a particular yacht ill. mind which, with changes in dimensions, style, arrangement. rig or hull form satisfies their dernan .. ds, These preferences are often modified by other considerations, such [as local conditions, economic considerations and th,e intended use, Personal opinion often governs the. choice of type to, such all extent that the more logical and scientific arguments may become of secondary concern, if ']10t set aside entirely,
e ded use
The intended use of the yacht is 3, matter that CIQlTI.e,S first 011 the; list of consider a tious. The first distinction is that between racing and. cruising ..
. 
For the racer we. must naturally decide to which rule tbe 110at should
b desi d d i ~~ .~. 1 · ~ 11' b .  hi" " d
Ie resignee ~ an: III which C ass It wu .>e racing. TI' s gives us a goo, ..
starting point regarding the size of boat a. [1 d. crew, rig size and type, by comparing it 'with. existing successful designs. 'Having' established the type and size of boat, we can proceed 'with the design process described ill the following chap rters makin 0" adjustments so as to couform to th e
".: .~, L .!.. ' •• _ ,1 ", .. ' _I' Ill, ' ..  ~ .. '0 ;_ ',", ~",,'."_ . .!'_.:.~ 1 .. " • : •••• I'.' .' .. ' ,; '.' , ,r, .• :
rule we are followine.
........
For the cruiser the primary requirement influencing the tY1Je of desizn to ad lopt regarding hull deck' accomm od ation a n d rig I":~ the
 :0 .. 51.. ..' (:"._ :". "._ '._ ,c;l 1.... '. ;:; '.; .. Ii. . '.'. _,' '.:' t. c'. '  "' .. 1 _ .ill. ,;1 ~ [ I .. '
Yacht's intended use. in broad terms ie unlimited ocean passagemaking
~,'. • . ', • ,",' : I ," .... ~. . " ,', ",' .". ._ • :' '. • l~. '. 1 ., I •.• ' '.! .,' J ',;, ,n ,.". ~.' a..:, . e. "!'. ',' I:~. .
IO .. rpen or restricted offshore U'("P'_ [0:':'1;'" C·'O'··I.;:J~tiJilI"· 0·":1'" she .. ltere d use Ob V:·'iJ'O·.ll!Q:}Y' ~·t·
. lo.)... . "". .... ~ _I!,. ~1J;..1i,.;. .. , '. 11!JI. "'. Ii) '1,;.;., .1. .' ." [ . .II,L]! . ,j[:I[.. :.. .:,. .. e c .w. .. . !I,..r... ._ 1Ii.., '.: ,Lji ._" .II.
is easier to reach high stan .. dards of safety'; stability [al1 ,d. 'performance with a 'big yacht, provided there is sufficient crew to handle the vessel,
This brings us 'to the question of the need for compromise. The requirements of speed, seaworthiness, dryness, weatherliness, e·ase of
l· ..... " dline ', .. fort .. ' d . the . 'J it 'i.. . f"t··,· a, • ...... fl" ,.: .... t but tl ,r.' ..   th
nanunng comror ann 10. .ner qua rues o· en com rct. mi ~ ae rewer .. 1' e
comp remises the 'better the desien will be, ·We. ]1]1 at decide at "In early
. ,= • .' , •..• _ ... ~ .••.• ','0  .', YI '_, ,., .'~ _oJ", '. I, .,' •• '_, ', .• '.,
stage what particular qualities "\\;'6 desire most, O'I require tal the greatest extent. By getting [Qurp[jlo.ritiles right from the start we know where compromises can be made with the leasr harm, T[DOI many yachts are designed [on the assumption that it is possible to achieve all of the qualities of the perfect yacht without regard. tOI the limitations of .. he ChOSCl1 type and its inte aded use .. To achieve a good design it is. crucial
1 1
M·; di II<
. ., (. '. . . :' ;" ,: .' II . .,'. I .. ,~
am " In ens 10 ns
It is generally agreed that increasing the size of the boat 'will produce a,
I desi 'm f" 'f" d if tl' '}' '" d
'L ':,.,,'~; ..•• > I" :.·· •. I~' ..... " _ ... 1::31'·"" ,", .'" r' ~ 'r' .. ,..l'~;"':' ", '," ~',' ~, (')II" •. ~._: .. ". , ~." .. >:'":.,. "':i':' il . (';,'. I "Ii ,.1 r .... : ~ ~ .• ' ..  ..  , .. 1
oetter ucsign HI terms 0, perrormance aID]., com, ort; on tne at let han ".
t h"" b """~I'!f!' . ,~~ h,,:t be  ',''', ,"', ',', d iffi " ilt t , ':, I,'''_' ', dle bv ,,r,,,, ,,_, ~,'l~ ,',, ,,~', ." S .. ,,' "'", ,,~, i., ' '1' ., ::,
e ooat nng , oe more ,,' 1 ,CIII ro nan ie ,Y a smau crew, oize 18 2tSO
1 ;~. "' 1 ... ··d' , tc ;I!'b, ;'. te ,, d'I' "d' ". " ''.t.~, 'I' "3;~ , '' }," "t, ;3d~ " , ',,' " '", '" ,', ' , ,,]1'1 ""1'"""" I
InA,~":. _10 me 10 .em .ec area 0,]. use: 11111, inn ,I e •. :11 ocean use natura uy places
greater dem ands on a boat C""IQ,',m'' rpa red with sheltere •. ·d .• ·· wate r use Not
_ v ,. _ ~ . __ '" _ ~ . _. _ "" L .... . e . •. . . ,r ,. :s.. , . ~ .._. !Pt. . '_' . ~~l OJ \.r. 1111 • _ .•
~! ~ 1'1' . d ,. h d·' . d d 1. 
only w~ It neeo to' Wit. stan strong Win/ _ S and Ilea vy seas, but it win
also 11!CJed, tOI carry more fuel, water and stores  ,all of which point to the bigger yacht. Howe .. 'er, it. is not seltevident that size in this respect means length; a better measure would perhaps 'be displacement ,S]11Ce this describes the ViOl1111r:U~ ,of the boat. Take two boats of similar displacement: the ']0: 11· ae 1'" 0': n 'e"" will usuallv have better P erfo rm at ace but
'II~', .. \W.I~,I~~~ I~' .. :, I!! I .,,~ .. ~: " .. : y \,~(.~~~_, .' L.·· .. • . >",' ! IU,~ :','. I j~' ~ ,\ ~ '." " : . I~. ~1L .' ".. 1'.··., ,:'!' 1,ri;..J.'~ ::1...,..
its carrying capabilities will be roughly the same as for tile' shorter one.
The requirements of engine, rig and deck equipment depend largely
····'il'·,.,.· .,'i,~~, and '~II,,,t'] ';", '''''']·1 .", bearr T' 'II'~h' ,,"' .rtain .ed
on SIze; weignt anc iengtn as wen 'GLSIe',lm., ,_,0' reac a, 'eel .am speec
under power with a limited 'power source the lengthweight ratio is of 'vital importance while the stability required to carry enough sail is, more' dependent on the beam and weight, In tills context it is. noticeable that the heeling forces increase with size to the power "of 3" while the stability increases with size to the power of ,4"., S"O scaling a boat IIp linearly does 110t produce a design compatible with good performance and stabilitv,
...
The changes in proportions 'with increasing size have been calculated
.c .. ",,,, ""I " '1'1"'" ,',' tri ... ,' .i., '. f~ ,',,'' "11' from 'L ,_' ~7:'''' ·t" LI. , 1 0 , 'b", " F']
tot an a" ,OJ.11.erIC senes ~Q' yacnts JUIO'j[ll 'OI,A  /rn 1,0!O'_4 ,_ ,,,nl,'Y,~
M' Barkla of the University of St Andrews, Scotland (see Fig' 2.I)~ As we can, clearly see. different dimensions and parameters scale differently with length. The scaling factors shown in the figure produce boats of
", , ,"' 1 if" b h ," "I ,.. • ' tard ": . . .. 'f:"" . . .. .  .. . .. d i1i,,,r". 'I"  1     ,~ d i .' t1
smn ar oe aviour regarc rng 'per ormance 'all: •. ree. VI len SCcLIl,e_ in en ter
direction [1"'0. mi 'f<,:1 ba se m I I 10·.·.· d'I ~'l The 'L' ]'"nl Fig .• · 2'·, '1 refers ~O··' 'I +.'l;,P l en gt h:'
_ 'i;..!. II!., ,. , , ., u . Cli ,.. _. ...... '.' _' J[ .!i..I .., ' .. ' _" ,] J!!. '" !lJ1 Ill,., 1J..11rr;... . 11,...0", .,
.'   j: .'
relation between the base model and the derivative For example, if we
, "
., h ,]!  h f h b b 5'O()J, '. 1' ,h L 1 b d I
rncrease tt e Iengt I ~ OJ'  th er oat ~Y' ,', )'Q, ie . ~:'i tunes L, t lie 'earn" ,_: ept ,]
and freeboard will be increased by' 1~50.7 ==: 1~33 times the original value t.o keep the boat within the same performancefamily.
. . fJ
1,2.
F i, g 2. .. '1 Proport ;0.115 vets us sire l~dfklaJ
F]{J 2~2 Prelimituuv
d "
esigr: peremete rs
L. a4J ,;;;;;:;' L flll'9'fh o 'VB roll [m}
L ,Wl. ~ !...ffJf'l.gfh in i"y'(:)ttlr',/'in 8 [m}
B.UM ~ ,A/a:xi'rn'uffl .bs1am' Irnl
T' ~ M:uxlmu.m 'deprlh from waterttn« [m]
V _, Lfg.h:f load 'volume dtspJa'c',eme.ni (m.31
SA ,= N'omfna/ sall ·ar80!l main + toox tors ,trlonghfJ [m2) SW ;:;;' We ft\8 ,d' (}'re(1' of htJ.lI a:nd ,apP8'11·d(;1(J'es.' [rn2]
ot: R D1l'sp,lcu:ufun'fln" Van'.fI:fh R,ci!a [2,81.3:rJO· '9/ t: WI J ]
LDR ,= Sls',nd6rnes:sr' ,R:af!o' [LWL,/V f/J'] ,I'
SD'R ,= Sal' CU7,a l)lsp!lo'cem,snf RaTIo; (SA,2Y~V' 1'/03 ] S l "IX: ~ Sf:abilify In'dsiX;~. ,des,~.ribe.d In C'h ~pJfJr" ,4
Preli 171"': n' .:. a,, F'Y:.·,,·,, C.".' 'on C;:,'I· d .. ' e··:"r"a;: f 0' ••  :n' rr
_ _'_ . ~ ~ '_ ~ ,J_, __ _' _' .: . _ ""~ '_ . _ ' I _ . '. '.' , ,;;I
A very good, 'way of establishing dimensions for the hull and rig' of a new design before there are any drawings or calculations, is to decide 011 some vital dimensionless ratios that can be checked against known designs, Chapter .5 deals in more detail with this, and explains 'what
f~ . ,to "'<!'"Il ... ,,.. .. ~"""~""1''_' d 'F'~cr? 2'·1 show: C''" tl ,. "y:' '. D''41 0'" the ,',~ '1," _',.' of the
ac ors are mvorveu, ,1~ _....,~,' S"OW,S" ror I~< te ." ',',_ .ne V.a,TIleS 0 I: ie
I~ ~
. d . d f' f ,. f~' h · di ., C' .,
"",,,(, •. , . .,;,, """,. ,'.'_'". "I':"':'' 1'""" "",:.":,, ,'_' .. r: "., , ,_' ',' r ''',,' a , ".',", ""1"'",',: . "', '.',' .. ,. """':'"'1
ratios ei rver .rom trst estrmate« 0,.1, t .e main ,,1111e.l1.smon.S,.,' ompanson
1·,,..,, made with an ex .. tisti '1"' o yacht of th e same .(:i;''7',~ Once we are satisfied
.:S ."';'~"' " ,¢JL, 11;;;.,:;;) \, :e, ,',~ '. ". ,',' !JiG_.' I, ri;).l1, ... ..:..'I;;;"o,.' " ii'li,;"l_' '''~:.JIld: 1"",_,
!!I:Il
with the numbers we have a good starting point [0,[ the design,
..
No one is interested in having a boa t 'built more expensively than necessary, Taking only that prerequisite into ,aCQOU11t~ the obvious .answer seems to 'be to build the boat as small as possible, since building costs relate directly tal size (0'[' rather weight), However, in going for light weight we might be forced to use exotic materials and advanced building methods which in turn might increase the cost compared 'with using heavier materials and a. more conventional building technique, At. the other end of the scale are the 'heavy building methods needed for steel and ferrocement, for Jnstance, which certainly provide cheap materials but produce heavy boats that need much power (sail and engine) to drive them 'and robust deck equipment for handling them, ,,,,,,,"1" 0,'" 'f>' W" '~1:~ ch co '~,ifi 'IT' non ey :,'
IW= ,_ ,,], 1" _ _ '" II!. . v"~ _
,A common pitfall when designing a boat in, the smaller size. range' to keep c,?sts down, is to miniaturize. Everything might look 'well proportioned O,~1 paper, but in practice the design may not work
b he h be b led d 'M ..
'eca lms e the numan _ emg cannot be seated own. .',' " ore over trying to
squeeze too much into a small volume would J]'O:[' produce a, cost .. , effective design, not only because everything found III a bigger yacht would be there, but also because :i~ 'would be so much harder to fit in:'! due to lack of space,
TIle hull form ills basically derived fr 0 111 hydrodynamic and hydrostatic requirements, while the form of the deck is, more open to, the whim air the designer, to fashions and trends, ,[IDJ}d, to what 'character' the design is intended tOI radiate. A deck with lots of angles and sharp turning points "is IDlICh more difficult to build (FRP construction) compared WiUI one with, smooth areas and large radii in the corners. Helie we have a choice that most definitely 'will affect the construction cost, Designing decks 'or parts of deck's, that require multiple 'moulds. to make mouldrelease possible, wiillm also make the costs higher. We have to be quite sure that the benefits, of such a design outweigh the increased cost that goes along with it .
To some extent the same reasoning can, 'be applied to the accommodation. Obviously, a flat panel attached tOI another at a, square an gle e is ... much ch eaper t,Q,.,, produce "t'b' a n a:' curved o •. me attach ed at ,"?I·'D·'
a .i.. .. IJ;]i ,,,_l.! . . "'~, v~ '!J.. .. ._ . ... . . . . .. . ...'. .. .., .. .. ,,~
bI'· 1 0" '1" 'h' h" d d d ] d 'b']' i, {\1
onnqne angie, · .•. :11 tile other nann, rounneo paneis ano onnque angies
can be used to achieve better space utilization which, in the end, will make the boat so much 'better that the increased building 'COsts can be justified, Another way of increasing usable space is to let areas and
compartments overlap one another. It ],8 not always necessary to have
Fig ,~.~3 ,PreU:~llin~rv .Ia:youf·"104:0
the full cabin height over the full length of tIle boat .. For example ;21, toilet '",''',' be und '" , rockpit seat witl til." ",",,' sst of the [1 ad "~'"'" und ",'
ouet can ne unner a COC:I,l_ sea wnn tne res, 0" me H,e(1'_, area unncr
the superstructure, Instead of thin .. king of the accommodation as a twodimensional jigsaw puzzle, it might be fruitful to think of' it as a threedimensional puzzle so as to utilize the space available in the, best way, A word of warning though: complicating things tO'D much might raise the CO'Slt out of all p, srop •. iortion, S'O a better way mig ht be to' make the
, . ,  ~
whole boat bizser and simpler i 11 order to fulfil the requirements.
~  ,..,." "c,' ',oa = ". ,,, I,.; • '_ ~ ,~ , '" , , ,. ,,' . " ,,,' ,,' ,_ "If"' " ,,~
Tl', · ','" ,'," t of c,,'*,o"". 'l.'c'~':l .', '''~,,'' rent .... "1···· "~"" .. ,"~ .. ' t'" W" ""1 ~'"
ne amoun .. '0 I, stanoaro equipmen a ,S'O prays an rmpor rant ro, e In
the overall cost of the boat, regardless of whether she is light Dr heavy, By this we mean whether to have all. airconditioner/heater, running hot
~ ,
and cold 'water. a watermaker a freezer/refriaerator electric winches
" "" L,. !it. ",. . . .. '"""., " , .,. " '  ',','  '0 _.. . . :;"~' '. ",' ) ,,' ~')
full electronics with radar, a chartplotter and ,1lLtOI pilot, self furling sails and so on, i\J1 these items can, almost equal the cost of the rest. of th  'b' ~,
. I,: '.'!" I
,.,e Q,al"
S9,c/'Q,llzin: ,an.,e
P',Q,_,3ag,. st •• pl'n~1'
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Id" " .
• ". ~ I •• . . . _' ~ • _J,
,pIf,;:;h ,C i!!N'l f're'ii!' bw:f'
'W'atl':1~ ¢iii "f' C,'Q,t"n p',t;t,n lQn~.g;,y
'trQ':f'ifl'c  .
A,:ft' CQ,b'lt'l, wtfni_"'_~""'_"_~':"'''_''W"''':~' .C!!,~,;~, , .... _'s,'k:,:·",a.,_".~"gr,d,: \'''' ' , .. :
seeQ ,De,rlll,tst _.';II!I;;I!' 1Ii'_ .....
,ap,oc,t1'... \ ..
\
jj,Q,r.b 0< ILI'I"" s:t.,.p,In g' .a're'C!I.'
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,.,;ii,,_ "'"'.. ,~' oJ',s', .. ....i!i "';"~ ,~.,.".,.,: 
., . .= I~ ~ 1I!!If!IIIP.' W' ~.... 1!IiI!1 .. ~.
b".rl:h'.
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GiOQld' c'dck,pl'f 1;oIG,k,~.r
5.P'QC,_
,FO~Ifj,PGiC'k wlt.h ,c'CI,I'I/:./lo,n  ,D u lie'," .'t::j' d' ,to. a ,C'<iC"0 rrsrrr 0 dd.'f1a n' ,P' 10 ,ri' ,ofF 111'. b"oct
" ..... , Ma',s'" pe'fS,tfIQ',~ ,crucIal ta
s:cd',o'o,n Jay DIU:'
,n __ ,Jh' '_!ii' ~'i__ ,_''i' .... _, """ ,.r,~', .. :I!'/:
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11',8 Q'aroo'i"T1' Q'rf!lQ,S'
,U'.Q'd' In pJt,r;;:'h' Ic'.'ntre w"{:"h $PQICi. for' sf'Cl'tl s'h';o 'Wd'r ,&t'w.i:f' ,gIC!,r
H,sV' s,fa:fl'o,f1 wlf:h ,fu,U ,s'I'Z,,,. ,ftj,fUr:1 rl "a bl. IUtl d' 9'tt)lod c'o,n1f7lu'1',icQ,f:1on wl:f'h 1:heo c'o',c,kplt
Prel irninarv Considerations
15
HULL
GEO"'M'ETRY
. II. ' .... "."... . I .... ,:. ...... '" "'1 '. ',.., . .:' .
". '; ..' ". !', r.. .... :
"'. '. ",' .  . .
. ' .: ..... > .. : : " ,.,.:;,' ,: :__,' " _ .. :' , .".. ". ......, . ,
_.
h 1:' • lex l h di ~"·w· . .,
e hull of a yacht is a comp. ex three ... · r , imensio 118Jl shape, which
cannot b'e defined by any S1111ple. mathematical expression, GT.OISS features of the hull can be described. by dimensional quantities
' "h' , "",,, '1' . ,', th b .: , ','. , '. d d .. ·'" ft :. d " '.:." .. ', 1 ' ., 11 ,'" k .. a ': ••. t'": ,
sue. ' as . engtn, . 'e,al11 an ',II,a" O'I nonoimensiona ones JIll e pnsmauc
coefficient or slenderness (length/displacement) ratio, F'OII all accurate definitiou of the hull t111t! traditional Iines drawing is. still ,8, common tool, although IllOISt professional yacht designers now take advantage of the rapid developments in, C,ADI introduced :in, Chapter 1 ,i
In this chapter we start by defining a number of quantities, frequently referred to in yachting Iiterature describing the general
. 
features of the yacht. Thereafter, we will explain the principles of tile
traditional drawing and the tools required to produce it, 'We recommend a certain work plan for the accurate production of rhe drawings and, finally, we show briefly how the 11uIl Iines are generated
· d C'A' D
• ( .'. '"". '. • '" Jill' • ," , '", _'II." ", 'i ' . ,
11.][ a. mo er n i., ....' pr 0 gram"
The list of definitions below il1Clu"d,es. the basic geometrical quantities used ill defining a yacht hull. Many more quantities ,are used it], general S11i Pi hydrodynamics, 'but they are not usually referred to in the yachting field, A. complete list. may be found in the International Towing Tank Conference (ITT C) Dictionary ofShip Hydrodynamics.
The m ax, m,'n), U1TI. length of the hull from the forwardmost poim on the stem. to the extreme after end (see Fig 3,1. )., According to common practice, spa rs or fittings, like bowsprits, pulpits etc are iLIO,t included and neither is the rudder,
Length 0.( waterline (LWL)

The length of 'the designed waterline (often referred to as tile .DWL).
Length between
per pendiculars ( L p'p)
This length is not lTIUC.ll used in yachting' but is quite important for ships, The: forward perpendicular (FP) is the forward end of the designed waterline while the aft perpendicular (M) is the centre of the rudder stock,
The single most important parameter in any rating rule Usually L is obtained by' considering the fullness of the' bow and stern sections in a
I 1
' . . 'f""  .. " ',: " .... ':II .' .",'
more or ess comp ex, way,
'The maximum beam of the 'hull excludinz fittiuzs like rubbing strakes
.' . ~.'." .;, '. ;'. .v··..... .. I ,", :.....".. '': ' . .. , ~ . ,' '01' , "',~L ,I .... ," '. I. . , 'I . ."._.' Ii
17
~ ~~·L ~_ ~=~~~~~~~
,OA,
,.____SrU!fi6'r· lin 6
. _,.
.:»:
LWL.
lloi'~~~~ L
PoP
AP'
D:H/:L
1
I'.
8
2
FP
Fig 3.1' Deiinitions of the meln dimensions
Beam of waterline (B'WL)
Draft (T)
DI;'~·"l:··I'" ., ,t
. ,hll1"utemen.
The .nlHLxil11U1TI beam at the designed waterline.
The maximum draft of the yacht when floating on the designed waterline, T, is the draft of the hull without the keel (the 'canoe' body).
Th' " .... t ,. '. I: d'~' star .' ~"':~, , .. ifr·l··· . d ."" .'. ~ . _ ."''if.' f th ke .. ]' ·t·· th  '. h , . l' '" .' . e ver icar cis: ance ~1 om tne ' .. eepest pomt 0' . e xeei _10 re sneer me
(see' below). D, is without the keel.
Could be either mass displacement (m) ie the mass of the yacht, or volume displacement (V or '\7)" the volume of the immersed part of the yacht ill V and Vi are' tile corresponding notations without the
.' "'," _. ' ' .. 'c~, . C I. '.' L··· : . '. '.' · .. ··.r' "'. ",,~ I. ,'.' .', I,,'. ",i '.',' '" I ,"
keel,
F or ships, this secti on is Iocated rnid way between the fore and aft perpendiculars, For yachts it is more common to put it midway between the fore and aft ends of the waterline, The area, 0 .:' the midship section (submerged part) is, denoted ,A.1Y~" with, an index 'c indicating that the keel is not included.
For yachts the maximum area section is usually located behind the midship section. Its area is. denoted A; (',Ax', ,).,
A ~. ,~ ....
'Tins is tile ratio' of the volume displacement and the maximum section area multiplied by the waterline length, ie Cp, ~ Vl(Ax ., ~~ll.)~ This. 'value is very much influenced by the keel and in most yacht applications only
tlL .. ·'11' ..•.. ~ b .. iodv ,., ,·"'···· .. sid .. ··· .... ed: c····  ''\7 (A" • L '). ·S,····;'iJ F'or. 3;,' Tl ...
" !J..ru:~ call oe. O..y IS Co,n,SJ· el1e ' ~ 'Pc  v 'f,; ,'Xc ··\VL.' .. " e~ ~ l,b ' " ."""" ,. 11,6
prismatic coetficient is representativ e of the fullness 'of the vaeht TIle
•.. ' .. I ,c. : . .:_ .. _._. "_',,',". ~" .. .:. ..' "'_" .'~, . .... . ..... '" ," . ". , .. ,.,1 ,.' .... '£ . .,:', '.' . ,".
l' 8::';'
, ._ .
rJlrC'um,sc.rib:_,s,d' cylfn "'fill'" V,'(J,,ILl,ma' ,=' ~C,'rL ,_ "Lwi AX~
..
'fJ en.
L A
!l!1 .,.
WL ',X
Fig :3 ,.2 Th,e prismstic ccetticient
Ala'x"
. , I'
__  .... ·· .. ·,II!I
A, x
CtrC'u',m'S'crib,s'd ,box votume = V BD."K ,~' Lwi' BWL.· 'Tc
,I'
" L.,'rIL
v
c.
V ,BOX
C £"'Ii';;;::' a
L ., B r
,WL. ',Wl, .'  G
~ entre of bltoY,4nl~Y BJ
'reeboa vd
. ... '£.11t. :' ,. '.:~ '.r'
rumble home
f"' Q "l. 4, D'Ie' Iin iticn ...... r,f
~o .JIi., ',' I_ ,/L' ~,,~, :n V
tumble home and flare
fuller the end ~ the larze I'~ th e C''''''
, , oJl ,'!or.' " Ll"l '.  "  o. '. '. _P,'"'
d 1" d i C' . 5
.j "'," ,". 'fl ~ ... , , , ,. 1'. •. . :"'.1!," '. .t:'J!'" I
spele ~' a ~ ex P .(line··. In '" . 11 aptci ~ ... '
Its optimum value depends 011 the
Although quite important in general ship hydrodynamics this coefficient is not so commonly used, in yacht design. TIle volume displacement is
di id 'J b "'[.,;. 1 f ib d bl k ( I h
110W I rvmeo oy tne 'VOllID,e Oi a circumscnbed ···O'C,'· I.Orl1'Y tne canoe
b id ".' al 'I '.". f' .... , "1' ~ 1 J . ce) 'C','   \7' 1("' " B'" iJ T') S" F'" :3 3'
.,o.· ... y V"I,lH~ IS 0, an) reievancej Cg,  v e'~L',"tL <cr: See rig ~:,.,c:_,.,
 !
TIle centre of gravity of the displaced volume of water. Its Iongitudinal ,. ad ertical ". siti  .. , "." 'd,'il'" rted 'b' Le' "BI •  d V""C" 'B . ., , ... ,t~' '1"·
,all:: Vc;,Ilea. p~)Sl[rl()n'Sr dIe " i ,'en,OI'!:" ,:,Y '~"'. I an,_' r ,. ',I r,e~pe(),·_'llve, y.
I.
The centre of gravity of tile yacht must be. 011 the same 'vertical Iine as the centre of buoyancy. In drawings G' is o fte n marked 'with a special symbol created by a circle and a cross, This 1"S·: U' sed T':L'~S:,O: ~O,If" markinz
J , L .. , .. .. ~~; ,j(,.. . .,.' _ . v " or.;:] ~ , . LJ , .' __ ,,], 11. .llL~lL.. . ,w .. " ~
'. , . L..'
geometric centres of gravity. Sreeij for instance, :'],gs 5.,27 or 8.2~
The intersection between the deck and the topside, Traditio nally, the projection of this line on the symmetry plane is concave the 'sheer' ]S
Positive. Zero and negative sheer may 'be found Ion some extreme racing
,"_" ,
yachts and powerboats,
TIle vertical distance between the sheer line and the waterline.
When the maximum beam is belo .. ·.,l,1l,l" the sheer line the upper part o th,
___ ___! ••• ,....l .11. ",' .... ' I ',_" . g~ •••• ~~ •• ''II .,' .~. .' 'r' ", .'.' ' __ '_1_
, .
topsides will bend inwards (see Fig 3.,4)~ To some extent this reduces the
weight at deck level, but it also reduces the righting moment of' the
20'
,
.' .,
crew Qln the windward rail, Further, the 'h,ul1 becomes more vulnerable to outer skill damage 1.11 harbours i'
...... '
TIle opposite of tumble h .. ome, On the forebody in particular, the sections 111ay bend outwards to' reduce excessive pitching of the yacht and to keep it more dry Vi/hen beating to windward.
'Tills is not a geometrical parameter of the hull, but it is very important when d" ,:flo ~'1" g" nin g.. a Y", 'a: c ' ], t Th ,12' !O:'C" ~'II1e'" f a tc t '0" ,f' 1'· q CI imp ";1' Y' . t· t, re' ]:''''~I t·l· 0" '0", f a len g. .th
'\..."'lIL.l. '. ~ ~ I .. ll, 1. '_ ,J 1. : _ .. c. . .. _~ ,.. ~ ~ . ~ ,~ : ";UH1· . '..: .'. . ,LIi aJ.w.J.II.l~.w.,1 . ~ J .. ~... , . 11D.1I. ." . , [. l' !!r.l,.!l.,.1.I' ,
I· .' . • ' ".
(for instance the LW]) at full seale to tile corresponding length at 111ode1
scale. Note that the ratio of corresponding areas (like the wetted area) is (12 HJ11d of corresponding volumes (like displacement) a3.
A complete lines drawing of the YD,40 is presented in 'Fig 3: . .5, .. The 111111 is shown in, three views: the profile plan (top left)", the body plan 'tOPI right) and, half breadth plan (bottom). Nate that the 'brow is to the right.
III principle the hull can be defined by its intersection with two different families cf planes, and these are, usually taken, as horizontal ones (waterlines) and vertical ones at. right angles to tile Iongitudinal axis of the hun (sections), While the ,c umber of waterlines 'is chosen rather arbit rarily, there are standard rules for the positioning of the sections. In yacht architecture 'tile designed waterline is, usually divided into ten equal parts and the corresponding sections are numbered from the forward perpendicular (section 0) backwards. At the ends, other equidistant sections, 1 ik e' '#' l 1 and # 1 may be added, and to define
rap' id cha ' 11' g, ': 'e"'s·· in the gJie:."'O"ill' . e trv hi I q 'It"~ 0': '1'" q' 'li 3'; , l ... t e· "f' secti 0' 11'1:" m':' (!Ily,.' . .' be
,I, _ e . .... , .... (:A .. __ ... . til ',' ,.,' ','., " ... ~" . r(.~." '".!o •.• ~.lI .... ,' .. rill·, .11l ... l~' ,.I[(.}.Ilf:' ... ~
inrroduccd as, well. In Fi,g' 3.,5 half sections are used throughout.
 Tillie profile is veryimportant for the appearance of the yacht, showing the shapes, of the bow and stern ar d the sheer line. W111el1 drawing the waterlines displayed in the' half breadth pIa11, it is most helpful if the lines end in a geometrically well defilled way, Therefore a 'ghost' stein and. a 'ghost' transom may be added, The ghost stem is the imagined sharp leading edge of the hull, which in practice often has a rounded stem, and the ghost transom is introduced because th,le real transom .is often curved and inclined, If an imagined vertical transom is pitt near the real one at some convenient station, it will facilitate the fairing of the lines, The drawing of Fig 3.,5 has been produced on a CAD system a.nd no ghost stern is shown, However, a ghost t]"allS0ITI is. .iucluded.
111. the body plan, the cross sections of the hul 1 are displayed, Since the hull is usually symmetrical port and starbo ard, only' one half needs to be shown and this makes it possible to present the forebody to the right and ':. e afterbody to the left. Ill. this wav mixing of the lines is avoided and the picture is clearer. Note that '·.11 the figure the half stations are drawn using thinner lines,
Th e above c ut C throuzh the hull a' I .. e···· sufficie n t fo II·' d efining th e,':" sh ape
',,' ,j 1(.!1l,. .... '_ "; .' ,.C) _ ,,,'," '_ '0' Il:.~. ~, . '.. 1.1'J..(., ., illi "_:~_='....!.,e~ _' . ', .. ,11 U},,' '.;
bur another two families of cuts are usually Q .. dded, to, aid, i.n the v'· StLaI
 ~ ~
perception of the body, Butto cks are introduced III the profile plan,
:Hiull Ceornetrv
,2,1
,~
' ..... .: u.
o
ID:l
Ii
.
i~' • :~
....
j II ';:;::: '~,
e
In, ""'",
li!II+!+IifHI~'~ 4HN++f
r '~ ,_ ',  ',I
111:1+;11' __  .; ira
, ~
iii
4
E
':3
t::"I~
'S::
!OI ...... ~,
tJl
F~g .3,.5 The: lines elrawing
22.
P·r1'11··:·C·: ip 'I'e::s"' o··f·· Ya ch .. rt '0' .05;'· ,'g' n
 ~ ". _....  .'. I_ I ,"' . _. ~. ,} i( ::
Tools
pho' 0 3 .. ' T 00.1· (trianglel . I pl_ "~' ic j1m s[traig/lt ,seise'. br _ : 'hi' pe'n ~, pencii, er:' sing . hi[E,ld end ereser)
showing vertical, longitudinal cuts through the hull at positions indicated in ':11.,: half breadi plan, The diazonah in t.II,I:_' .,[01f,."' er part of the half breadth plan are also quite important. They are obtained 'b:y cutting tho hull longi .udinally ir different inclined pla es as indicated
1"11 th ~ body p' ila '11. The planes should be a [t:1 much 'O::L'il"i 1"',0. issib le at righ .. tt
~.. ' """". . ... _. '." ~ . ,~ . Q., """"i,;::l •. I .. '_. . .]1. . . " ""'" . n;::l .,~ !j" 1Ij.j, • !C.;:;' J _ L:!! CIi , _I ". ._...::
I ,. • [_ •
angles t,c[ the . urface of the 11U]l~ thus representing its 101 sgitudi lal
smoothness. In practice, the 1}10'\1\(' tends to follow the diagoaals, at least approxima tely ~ SOl rhs .t th ey are representative of the h .. \ 11 shape as . 'see.·n,' by the water." Special attention should 'be pe ·i.d to the a.' 'ter end of the diagonals, where' knuckles, not noticed in. the other cuts ma,y be found, particu arly [on, lOR. yachts from tl e 197'Os and the 199:0[~ Almost certainly, such unevenness increases the resistance and r educes the speed of the vacht,
'I!"
TIle other line, .m the lower part of the half breadth plan 'is the curve of
~ I ' '1 I' "', . ...iI::,. 1 di ibuti f th b d
secuona .. rreas, representing t ne Iongitudinal I 'istnbution 10" ' ;11: submerge Co:
volume of the yacht, TIle value at eacn section is proportional tOI the submerzed area of that secti 0 11, , while the 'total area under the ': urve
'"
represents the displacement (volume). }\ more detailed description of the
construction of the CU!"V'IC IQf sectional areas will 'be given in Chapter ,4, .
.In order to define exactly the shape of the hull ·'L tab, e of offsets is usually provided by the designer, This is to enable the builder to lay lout the lines at full size and produce his templates, Offsets are always
pl·"·O·:~ 'l:'d·]ed···' '10'·' r th ~ .. 'W" . '3·,' te ~~il1. ,es:· but the ~a····n·"l'p 1"1] ,f," .mation m' a~"" be W··[·'··'I~n·· s: "1""
".".' "H·. . ';'. . , ".) .. 1 ., ~ .,,,,,,,," I..'}'" ~"'"'" .. _ ),1. ,(;~1Il.. Vi .... .' _. ~ v 1,11, 1
_.
d ia aO:'!11'a~ Is B··' n d/o :'1'"' bu tto •. cks also. . ,:". '[0" :te" tha t'· all measurements are to the
._:' __ ' {. '~L .l!!! _.~~ ,," . ..__,  _" r, l) ~~ ~... J •• "._ ~ .' •• ~,~~"iLJ!L Jlj ~ .. ~£..LL"l, .. ~~ "_ . . .... l~, _.£..:.
ontsic e' of i he shel ii
The drax ing should 'be made 'aiD a special plastic film. available :"i'n different thicknesses. Tile film is robust and wi U 110t be damaged 'by
H ,, ,, I] IG'" .e .s:  ,,: '" ,t "".' .', , ,u". ',". eom.ellry
Ph oto 3.,,7 Trsn sier of n1e3sU'r;E S' from bodv ,plan 1"Te)'D)' to L, '"'ii, "f'", bre :iI"..},jI:""l' p. l~' ~'iI
, 1. >,1". ir:,i • ._.I f,~Q" .' . !C~~U,t.I·: ~.'", ,C{~.J
(HtOTIC)rV1) using a peper rib.bon
erasing. Furthermore, it is unaffected by the humidity of the air, which may s:'I,: irink ordin ':.i1TV pi' a pe 'r:'
,W,l, .. "!!.,, . . '.' ~,~,U, ,. 1IJ ."._ 'U _J (: :  " .1'
·S::~' " th .  filn ',. tra .' .'."'.'  t t'11''' .'.: rid for the 1':, I~ ·d' ", .... .r., .,,' ., dr ,,'. smcc IU_, ie ,I. In 1..8 rransparen tne gno or JIl1.e .mes •. 1,aWl11g IS '. 1. awn
th back s that "t .. ,":]]1  .... .:'. , ... after ~, ... .:.: th: hull Iir .'
on ne oacx so I, 1,dL  1. wr J, remain, even, ai ter erasing tt e nu . mcs on
the front many ti111 es, Great c.a.fle must be exercised when drawing the grid 9. making sure that the alignment a 11;(1 spacing are correct and that I 11' . I ····1' ... ·· ~ '. . "~'I ', .' . ' . '.' ,t]'  9>0'0 'T'  F·.' I' >1, .~ th [ 0'" "d'" ,'.. sh ,,., '.' ..  '" th t., '1 " ._."  '"  .. t·, l' au angies at. e exacuy _. '. ,Ill ~~ 19 .. ,:L_J . e brill. IS s own. as , 1.11. l,orlz:on,a~,
. _
and vertical lines, .representing waterlines, buttocks and stations,
'B"11' a" ck ink should 't\..;.~ used wh en drawing t he grid and p:·'[·e·.··· fera b ly when
l_b'. ,. ."" .. ~)I,. ._., _ 11l}'!o. . ,0 .1 __' •..•. , .. "_U,C~,_ .. l _ ,_. .' , , I(_ilk,!" _. , ,,·,11 .. _ '. .'Ii~, . "
, .
fi ~. 'hi' ":J .':l hi WI 1": . .... Is ". I'Jr, ~ . 1' ", wh: ., .. ~'1' .: ... t,,], ..  lir .~ ,.,.
I rus, nng tne , ,.U __ u rnes aLW.S'O. rtowever, W' en. VViO.r (11]g on .. 1, ,leo nnes a
,. __ , :'1·~'· __ ·di: ;i" . • ~', , ~ ti  '.' .' , .. ' d <do, T'l .. ",,', Ii'  ,: .': , ,f,'. ... ~t '" ...... ,:"', '1 ' .. '.  ,. ""]  I, d'
penci an . _. an em: a set are neer _' e'·, .; '_ lere tIre ~ In j_ a c ., 1:S peciai pen Cl _ S {St,n::
erasers for this type of work on .. plastic film, An erasing shield and, a brush are also most useful (see Photo .3 ~ 6 ).~
For creating the grid a long straight edge is required, together with a
.24
Pn . ·t' "'") 8" D" ck ' d ,', ,no 0 ,,)., " " 'U(.",:,S a.n~, a
Ii In d .
I .: . • • , ','1 ,', r :'", ',' . .. •• '11 '/11' ".r "~ .• I'" 'f " ", ," . ..
sp U1B USeG 01' "J ewing a.
wsterline
Pl:0tO 3.9 reHlp.iates used tor drawing lines witi: .large curvature
_
_...._..,.
large 90a set square, It is 'very convenient t.OI have a bunch of paper ribbo ms which c ;<';1111 be used  for transferring d iffer ... ent m"  e"r;I ~1'L1I1~,'e'" fr om one
'1. ," ," . ,", " JL., U....L!Il.. ~ ... ~~ .. _. '., 1L.~, [.  I ul'.·_.lIL .l:,r. to' .' Pili. .tlL.. v", D_~. :. ',LID . ~ _.... .,' .. '_,,' .
111al1 to' the other. For example, 'W11 en drawing a waterline the offsets of this lillie may be marked en the ribbon directlv from the body plan and
,. ~, ,
moved to the half breadth plan (PI10tOI ,3,.7).,
To draw the hull TInes it is necessary to have '1 set of splines and weights or ducks, Long, smooth arcs can 'hie created when bending the splines and supporting them by the ducks at certain intervals P~)OitIO 3*8 SllOWS how these t()O~,S are used when, drawing a waterline", The splines sb.oLLldbe .made of plastic, somewhat Ionger than the hull on the drawing , and with a crosssection of about 2 5 mm Manv different
••• ,., /_ .: 1 •• ,., .. I ... _ ' '·.t ..... D,' •• , •• J ... ""n •• ,. J .. _,'.' ti.
t ypes 0' if d ucks C, a: n b':e',' fo und C}'0111e',· IQ,f th em 1111 om , ie m 'a, de Preferablv
',',I,,"fIo,..o,J ',~ ,", ,iiJI' " ' , '," ,I.'" ' ,.,' i.;JI_, ,', = : "." If . " .1, C. ,_. ., .!I! , .111'1 C." ,J 0;
H ull Geo 111 etry
.2,5
Ph oto 3",1 0 Plen i m eter
they should be made of Iead, and the weight should 'be between 1, . .5 and ? . .5 kg. 'T[D 'be, able to! support the spline, they should ha e a pointed nose, as shown ill Pho t,01 .3 1_ :8 ,!
The splines are needed when drawing the lines, ill the profile and. bI breadth plans", However, the lines of' the body plan are usually too curved for the splines, so it is niece sary to make use [of a set 0  . templates especially deveioped Ior this purpose, The most well .kl10'W~11 011e8 are the so called Copenhagen S;hiPI~_: curv ,es the most frequently used
~ ~ , , ~
of which are s,J.)()WWl in. Photo 3.9,.
A very convenient instrument, 'well known in naval architecture, is the planimeter, used for measuring areas (see Photo 3l.,lO}., The pointer of the planimeter is moved around the area t10 be measured. and the chanze in the readinz of the .s.cale when returnii 2> to the point of
""=' L..' ,._..,
departure gives the area enclosed 'by the patll followed. Considering the
difficulty .in following exactly any given line the accuracy is surprisingly
h1'1" 0"]'1' m 0.' re tb an a , deq ua te '("0' , ''[I'" tb e prese m t purpo ise s The need ['0' ·,or·
, 0' "',' ~ . .' .. llc. w.  1Ii..' ." _. , 1. i ,,.!l. _ '... . i.J. '. ,.!II..  .' I., .. _. _ u ,l.~. .
mea surina a reas will be expla in ed in I the next cha pt er
l~ I; _'"' 'I l!Lo._ , '='. ...1 ." 'I' . ". ~ I ".~,_ ,!b' ,~, ,·~'..m'  'J.l1, :' _ : 'I!!!
Since many calculations have to 'be carried out when preparing the drawings, and indeed, iu the 'whole design process, all electronic calcula 0'1']"' ]~S essential A~' sim ple one \~,10"'U II·d' be ClU' fficient in m CO'IL't ca ses
w, ',.:._ .Jl. __ ... .:._ .... "., :1 ~I:'. II ... ",'Ii . o~ ,f "", ~ "_" ,_=" ·jfY ,._'.,,' ,' 1311, wlli~.,_ ~L.!'!' • ' •• ,ItJ.i. "'. (2) .... 1 .. 1
<
but a programmable calculator would simplify S0111e of the calculations,
particularly if a. planimeter is not available. Most scientific calculators have programs for calculating areas WIDth acceptable accuracy, and .programs are available, ,~OI most of the calculations described in. tile next chapter,
26
"
, '" ....
'P"" inl f:> Y h D" .'
"I ' ,':,'", ',,' '',  "'" r= "I' ' '",,' '," ,
,r~ ncrp es 01" raci t. Lrestgn
H', II G'~ .
• • ..•.. , '.' ""1 , .• '
. u ~ '. .eornetry
27'
Computer ai,ded des:ign ...  ull
._ . ," s
Photo 3.1'1 Grid of master cu:rves used tor the
'D40 (til[eJ v. rticsl line to the. r.(gh f: me rks the 0 ri gin  ottilie coordinate system)
Photo 3.,1:.2 A, section with
ertices (crosses). meste r cur e (oetweea the [ctosse'5),r hull surface end curveture (outermost line)
As mentioned iII Chapter I, most CAD[ programs use .master curves for ge ne ra ting th e '~11~Il' sur fa C: .e. E:·.a,IC·}'l·· curve '~CI d efine . d 'i' by a": nu m b er .. · of
" . '. 1IL:.: _' ' = e ), ·,4t, _'.. r_~·, •••• .'. !Ii.(.. ~ U~, ,"' JIi.~1 _ ~ _ ' .... ~ _'. .' _~ " . , .. ' I ~ ..•• ' .' . '. ,
points, called vertices .. , Photo 3" 11 shows ~ itl a plan view the grid of master curves used for generating the:Y,D40 hull. One of the transverse curves has been selected in Photo 3,.,12. and it can be seen how the smo otb hull surface is generated inside. the curve, which is. sho '. wn ';1·S··:, p iec :p,"rlli' c .... ·e:· linear b e tween rbe 'V~ ertices
J.'"" , . ,\!L ,.. ill. .. '" '11"'''' ii:!J.IL..IH ..• ·· ,,"ili.,.;""" .. ll;. .. ~, ~" . .1!!.'\.r .. , '.
~ ~ .
. . '
T'l ,::I; tas k ... ; f'" the d '. ,,":., . .... '~. to . '.' ..... if . t h; .' ..' ..... ~~ . .10 ',.' ~ I':'" :1.· .... . _ .'. , th ,; t
ae rasx 'O! . ie ". esigner IS [0 specu y [~" e' vernces In SlJ en a wa y na'
the desired hull shape is created There are' different ways of achievinz
. .... ....... . .. , "..... \  '. " .~. ~ ... ". .... . .'" "" , ' " , '. '. . . _' [. '. ;." ,e .. _'.:" '. . . c " '. '.0
this Some programs start from a IlOIlOi' cylindrical body or a box while
I~, lj':.11i :. '". I I, :.,' I'! . _ L'. _ . ...:~ I '5..£5 " .  I, ' ... '." ',b~ ':>J .. ,", ! ",1(.".. .",.;.,.': "'~. . .... ,,:"., .. . "
:' th ,.: .Ii" '. ta 't fL:' . '" ,. fl "', t . _ . ct . . ~ .. ". '. t,··; h d' ~~', ... d b .... . 'I ·rt· 'h, .. ' :.. .)1 '.' ~ d
o ners 8 ar rom a . a rectangular p1a1,C(,: ."e.a:me ny an ort .. ogonai gnu,
These or sinal shap es are ·tllell distorted by, moving the vertices around,
ib~ I I~;' .'.' '.~
and it is relative y' easy to! produce a yachtlike. body. However, it takes
Ie' x perience and experimentation to obtain a shape that satisfies criteria
:.._\ ["., ,_." (., " ,. ! ' "; . ". , I • '" ~.' _ " ,_"J ~ _~" : ••• ' .' ", _~ ," ._. , '.. I .. , ' ", :" .' • . • ~ • .1 ~ \'to &0...'. • r .:... .' , .""" '. !~,
Principles of Yacht Design
Photo 3,. '1 3 Sh eer lin e witt: vertices and cutveture. (TCIPj. Reel design.
(BOTTOM) One vertex poin: moved Ium rn
set U]~ beforehand, III practice, designers very seldom start from scratch, but work from earlier designs which already have a desirable shape and a known grid of master curves surrounding it. Since 1110St new designs a.re evolutions of previous ones this approach is. very natural,
A problem encountered when th .. e first ,CAD programs for yachts appeared "vas that the scale 011 the screen W~:E1S toe small and the resolution t.010 ]OW to enable the designer to create fair lines, S1l1.a~1J bumps Oilll. the. surface could. 110,. be de.tect,~,d 1011 the screen .. and it '·som.etimes, happened that the bumps were noticed· only after the st~rt of the null construction Therefore the ICAD program developers introduced nlots of
_.' , 0,, _'_ ~ ,', ~ .. ~_011  ,'.,,_, .".1. _ .. :'1:" ,"_.', ~' .. '/ .. " II!", . •·· .• .:..".··.rl,·· .. ~··· .. , ", _ 1 .. 1, .. : "1.._ .,'.
the f ... r irva .tur re .. ,0· .[.. lines o m the hull Such a p. ·10: '·It 1" ~~ sh  0·· rwn in Ph o't· 0, .... 3:' I?
.. L. ~1.'.1t. . , ... .;,1 ::.,.1, .'. ,'. ;II . , •• v~.._ ," .... ',. Ii:l ~ .,' .. rrY·, .. ..!I!:'I;' ' .. ":' ". '. ~!
Tl···,· .,. '.,' ' .. t .,.~. _··f' tl . " .. . . hi ":h . ,"'Ii· , .r . ti 1111 ,. 'JIo •. ····1 ds ·t··· ., .. ,. ti .. ,. . '"
!. re curva ure 0 I tne 111e~~ IN tc . essen. iai .. y corresporx .. S 101 a seC,1011 IS
almost CO;~lsta at, except at the ends where it goes to zero",
Photo 3 ~ 13 illustrates the sensitivity of the: curvature to small changes of the surface. The sheer line is Sh,QW'l in a .1J]a11 view, 111 the top p aoto . the real design) the curvature 'is smooth and relativelv constan .t a 10··· ··n· g: ..
,_,!,., . ,', •. :._..~ .• :.; .•. l,., 1,., ,.:...!.,.", __ ,1_ ~. l ..... ! '.,1 "_' '," " ", J ._·· .. ~",Il~.!U..,,_,. _., ... l. ,_."'
the hull. .:11. the bottom pl oto one vertex point has been 1 oved 110 Dl111 at full seale perpendicular to the surface, The resulting change in. tile'
1 linej 11 1·' b d d b b h
o  ". ". • " • I : :. . , ' . .. '. _'.' 'J ~.. •  ,: , "'. '. .' .....' I,. ~. "''"' .•.. • • . .~
is leer me ts 8'0 sma _ t iat t C;~lnn,ot'~e detectec ,.·y:: eve, .. ut the
, ~
curvature exhibits a considerable bump and SOU1e smaller fluctuations, show in IT that th Q, line is lI10i· t sm o .oth By "'·]·o~·,o,:l'rl·Ill(t a, .t the ,C' I ] .. V"~CI't·~I'[r.,e·· line ·S::
Lli '..11. b I. '(~'. '\...' "" ~, _: · .. ·,·1\.. 0 '. ,_~. __ ~ , 110.,. ~ .. )
: .. , t·, I . ,."11 b·' .. . . . .. t· ·'d··· tha t I·' .. k f r.; . .' ,t f'·' ~]'I ' ,..; 1 '
111ay urus be genera .ec u a 00' ,. air even at ruu scare,
Hull Geometry
2'9"'·,
, I _.
Photo 3.14 Perspective vie;w A, great advantage of rnost CA_D programs is that fhe h U _ a be ot the YD'4a . s.ll0W11 1.11, perspective. As pointed out in, Chapter 1 it is impo I " _' It (0
study the sheer line in, particular from different angles since he impression of the 11uJI CO]ltO'Uf ill reality' is also influenced b~ the beam distributi OID1, which is 11(Jt 'visible if only the profile, mew is St1 died. Fig 3 ,h 14 shows the 'YD4IO it] perspecti ve and a good impression can _l'le obt ~ 1111e' d 0 f th e' " ha pe
I, '1.!C:w. ,:",:,. '·.01,,·, S,'". ;'_: ~
By using a C,AD program a fair hull can be produced rapidly and different requirements may IJe satisfied without '[0"0 much work, such as a given prismatic coefficient or longitudinal centre lof buoyancy. Meeting such requirements accurately ill. a manual process ]S extremely time consuming, so it is understandable that CAD techniques are alwavs UI sed 1'1()'~:·:·'J'id: ay s .. by profession al desizners Howeve 'I~ d Iue t'o .. the
,.~,'t""J~ . .:J __ '.'~ ''ii, .. ',,:' , .. " I.ill.!, L:Jj,' .iL,. ..'_ D, •. !0I. ',' ".U", .'
considerable cost of a C~~,D system, ITIOst amateur designers wil 1 still have to lls.e the manual approach described above
'H····· "Y''':'''''D' ···'··'R······ O··_,······,··'S· ····T···· "A' T·'I·'C·::···S····:·::· ..
"." ". '. "1.';' ". . '.: "." ' " .'" _" '..
• . .;, I. ", . '. . . .
", /'.,',' .. ' ' ..' ' . '.' ':
• • [ • 1 ' ", : • • ••• _. : '. t : '. "_ _' ;" •••.. _' /' _' ". .: •• ' • , ," "'" ,," '. • •• ", .' , __ ... : . "
AN'·D·· .S······· •• ····T··:A········'····· BI"I'L" :' I" .T ···Y·'·'·,,'·'··· .. r
 .' '. "_", ',' . ..'_.: , .:' . ", " '~. .... :~" ,_: . '., ,'.' '. . .. ' .' ' " ",.. .. ' ,_: . . , . ' . . , .' "
. 'o'oki11g back at 11'U] I development in the history of yachting, It is obvious that opinion about the. optimum shape 'of (1 yacht has
~ <"ch.ailg:ed many times, TIllS is due ill part to. tile changing rules, 'but more recently the changes ill design trends reflect' the increasing knowledge about the physical laws governing the behaviour of sailing yachts, The aim of this. book is to present the state of the art ill yacht design. While current knowledge does 11:0t provide explanations for all phenomena, there is one area where the basic laws have been known for a 1 eng time, and where the methods :ha vie been in use by' designers for centuries, This is tile area of hydrostatics and stability.
Hydrostatics and, stability represent perhaps the 11},OSt important aspects of ,3 design, since the properties of a. yacht in these respects reflect its ability to, carry the required weight and to withstand tIle heeling moment from the sails. It should be stressed that the exact knowledge of stability is restricted, to the static case, with 'I]O waves on the water surface. 'We. have, however, chosen to include also: dynamic stability in this chapter, although the laws are quite different.
"W:e begin this chapter by introducing some simple ways of computing areas" This knowledge is. required in subsequent paragraphs dealing with calculations ',of the wetted surface, displacement and, its centre of gravity, the prismatic coefficient, tile water plane area, and, the related, mass per mm of immersion as, well as the. moment pier degree of heel 'and trim,
T'h d' ,.' a. f d '. b .'~ '" '. 1 des stabili '. '1 d
. '.,e,J,SCllSSI1011, 0:,' c .ynannc sta burty menu .es stat 'W.' rty .111 waves, 111,et 1.'0. S
for reducing roll, requirements for offshore yachts and some statistical
., .,,; ..... ,f': ~ h ,0 h ,. f' .. '. h
mformation on t '·t~ rig .. tmg moment O_" existmg yachts,
For the amateur designer, one way to obtain the area 'of a closed curve might be to draw' it ion a square grid and just count the number ,of squares, III most cases this method is accurate enough but it is tedious and would hardly 'be' used by professionals,
Another convenient 'way' is to make use of the planimeter, as
.r. .J".':,  . d ,0 . the nrevio: is ch '" t ,''f' T'~li': l' ..... th ··d·' js last ,.,,' ... d . "!I,'''iI; , '., 'it " b  rt
expiamec .m ~:le p_\,e.1Q,US c= ap, e _ .. , , '_ "s ,.nle _~_O'. _S ~,dlS: an_ aC!Jur,l, 'e,IL[1
few amateur designers have access to this. handy mstrument.
The 'b,est choice for many designers is to compute the area using a simple numerical method, based on the ordinates (yvalues) of the curve at certain intervals. SU(>l merhods are of tel} included in the subroutine package of electronic calculators, but if this option is not available it is simple to a_'pply' the method from first principles,
Fi,g,4,.1 introduces the most common numerical method for computing

Fig 4,. 'I Simpson's rule
'y
,.;I, !J'P.m....... ,~, A
Ml"~·""" 1 .... _
r. t'·' "y"
unC:lan :'
 c,',    .  ,J' , I~~, J'~' ..
= ,~.l'rnp',SDi.n ,5' ,mUJil.lp~Jr8,rs'
areas. It is, called Simpson's rule, and is quite popular in, .naval architecture. Since the sequence of operations is always the same when applying Simpson's rule a special scheme, shown in Fig ,4.1, may 11,e employed. The distance between the end points of the interval, fun, this case Xu and X::U)I" is divided ,]'11tO an, even number of equidistant steps, in this case 10,m The step size is' denoted S. Values of the function Y are computed for ,a,U Xvalues and may be inserted into the table ill the col umn 'ordinate value' '. 'By mul tip lying each value by its Simpson multiplier, I for the end values and 4, and 2 alternating for the others,
x
32
and a ddin g' all the products tile ~SU111 of products' is obtained, The area A under the curve Y is then simply obtained as this sum multiplied by the step size divid e d by 3:.,
.. "" .. ~,. ~;. , .. .It _.~ , •
Of course, the uumber of steps may be other than 10; 'but the number has to be. even ill Sil111)S,'Ol1 s rule" In many applications within. yacht design the number of steps "is i ideed 10:. due to' the standard division of tile waterline from station 0 to station 10" 'but .sometimes a
.~~
hi .. g .• .her aC:'Jc"U'"I"'OJI,(,"'Y' is ...... n eeded nfe, .. ar the ends where h' al'f':' stations m iav be
," , .. ·.",i~"!Jl,L.< . .II..' ...... , .. 11,,,:., ,G· . ,,:, . ,.:Ii;, " .... ,1,: ' ... ",.!Ik" • .!Ik, ~I" ... , .:"
, .
introduced. 'The principle of Simpson 's rule may still' be ~used~ ~ by
considering end intervals as pairs of halves" but the number of full intervals must always 'be even, so normally two or four intervals have tOI be divided Fin 4· 1; ShOVlS the' chance caused b'y',,' dividing an interval
,..... .. .. , ~ b  .~~ n. ,1 .. ," ,'. o. , b" ,,_.,' .... ".', '.;  ",." '.. ' ' ,'" ,"_ C I,
. 1 ] h fC 11" '. d .'. .' Il 1 f
" • _ •• " .:. .'. "!Oil • '. . ~ I '" ' ", • r..·. ... ,. J"  • • I ""'ii. ,.; " .. 1. . .', ', ..~. 1 '",' . • • , . '.' _ ,~ "1".' I . • ••.• l.
Into two na .ves, t e 10 owing cuscusston, we wi a ways le, er to
S'· " .'" ,.',' . "" ruh c, !If">.. .,,"'" '',,' '];". ,]., ti C,' . i H·""· '.".' .' ,."._ th:  . the ... · , ethc d I.:
, .rmpson s ruie ,~O'I area ca cu. auons. =. owever .' e 0,. rer me, ,10. ~S
mentioned above mav 'b'e used as alternatives.
.t
Wetted surfa ce
Due to the threedimensional nature of the 'hull an exact calculation of the wetted surface . is complicated, but a good approximation may be obtained las explained in Fig 4,2~, If' the' girth length g I" ong the surface from the keel 'lO the waterline is measured at each station, and plotted against the longitudinal position on, the hull from bow to stern, the area A under the curve is 'a reasonably good representation of the wetted surface of one half [of the hull, TIle computation of this area is also shown 111 Fig ,4".2. 'The values for the YD4,O are given in brackets.
Theproblem with the computed area is 'that the longitudinal slope of the hull, as seen ill the waterlines or the diagonals, is 110t considered, The effect lof this is small, but a more aecurate result is obtained 'by adding 2,4~/o.,~ ie by multiplying b'y a 'bilge factor' c, which is in the range 1,.c021~O,4,. T'11e bilge factor can be. estimated by comparing the length of a typical diagonal 'with the straight Iine distance between the end points of the waterline.
To simplify the presentation as much as possible, we have chosen to
11S"IP fu lls ... ca le entries '~O~"~"" al " W' fo irrn rulae M::,," e asures obtained from t: 'I';e
,,, . 1, '_,"_ '.,~ ", ... ~"'~_.1..=..,,:.. 1!l .. ,JIL. I, ill .11. ." I fU~'.1 . d': ,. tioJ'. " ",' . , .. , ·!(.Jt..LlL ," , .. .II., ~ _, 1.1:,_
drawings therefore have to be converted to full. scale befor e being used 1'1 the calculations, In this. way the somewhat confusing exercise wi th
sea le factors 0:' "J;" " ario ""U' IS" P ',O···,'1I·J:1'e,·'I"".!l;;!, C: '31'''"11 b e a v . 0,]'· d e'.' d lID· . tho Ie' di iffe rent f·· ... O·"I··l11·IJ'~·]le··,.
u, '. ill ',' , '.,' J ... .~!IJ _. " _.1 . "Y'I( LJ.! ". . t.,' .' ' ...... ,_., ..' ',., ,"_ .', ., .'... •• J~_.w"'~;1'" 'iI'
Note also that many calculations, like the present one, are: made for Q'MIly one half of the hull, Where this is the case the final value WS therefore obtained OIllY after multiplying by 2.
A very fast, but somewhat more approximate method to find the: wetted surface is tOI make 'use of ,a,11 empirical formula 'based [011 the length, beam, dr .aft d ispla cement and prism "a' i]~IC., C·'· ,0' : efficient of the c a noe b )!IQ':"'""'l' ~'l (as shown
, '. " ., . "1, I. . ._,f!;.;'., ." .. " _ , '. ~.. " . ,u· . ,\or , ..' I. _ '.'~ "... jIL~, r: . . . l,').,IL!I! .. I,J (!II '. l'Y lli.l.
ill Fig 4,,2)~ FIOf' smooth hulls this f~O]1)11d,a is surprisingly accurate but if a
drawing of the hull is available the method above is recommended.
Displaeea ent
According tOI Archimedes' principle the mass of a floating body is equa] to the mass of the [displaced volume of water, Thus the volume displacement of the yacht, V ~ multiplied 'by tile density of water, p (ie the weight
H' , d " d S b "'I~
Y" rostan cs an t, Sta ,t, rtv
3_'3',,'1
1 '"
Fig' 4.2 Cslculeiion oi tbe wetiedsurtece
go;
,
)( 'J
X· " .."
Jtt",,",
 ~ llii'
s~ ~ 2' '!, C ,. A
I 's == 2'5, 22tJI m2]' ,:
'''Iit\'  ,,~, ,
t 0.,752' J
!j ~ B,I ,,''T'' 'I' ""'"
~ Ilillitl' :' U)')' til'..,. ~p",c :
"L. ,H,~, IIIr "
] 4
.
!
f'· 4' 3 C···· I I ti i t.h
t", _ _. " , I I _". , "."., ...  U •••••• J
_ ].g  ,oe .'  .aCLl a lon 0:,. ,e
section d J ar:e,c1
displacement m), has. to, be equal to. the total mass of the yacht,
111 tl11S chapter we will deal with the calculation of the: volume displacement, while the mass of the yacht will be discussed iu Appendix 2;, It should ble. noted, that p is equal to 110001 kg/nr' for fresh water, but varies for salt water, depending o:n the salinity, As an" average value for salt water 102.5 kg/m' may be used,
To obtain tile volume, the curve of sectional areas has to be
OJ;
detern .. "·· d fl ... .t} T' t'~. is obt , .. "'.' 'd' bv nlottins the a ". i of . ch .,~'" tic .' (t t  eiermmec ,_ n st. . ~11S rs 0':, ame ,Y P O'IL ng , e area 0,11 eacn sec _m'OI} .' ne
. ." ~
b d) . b '~' m ,n th 1 '1' f' b d . h '~I • lid
sou n1Jerg,e,, __ , part, at a suitable seame ]n I, e ,12iL '. ', breadt I" pian, as e.X;p ,@.lfl,e
.  (: i'h  ·t  3' , A:" d' ~ f~C::' "!I   '1 ,t ~  .. .  t .~. d "l··:tI; . ..  . '1' ,'.,... ·S~ .,  _.. 1"" ,., ~. ,iii,
In,, .,: 'ap" ,er .: ' Ii, .a ', '1, w]c'U",_y 'enC{JUl1,ele,' W 1el1. ap'pyl11g :~]m,'psc'n S IUJle iu..O
compute the area As of a, section is. that the ordinates are not known at . suitable intervals ,s,o,"eaell section 'has to' 'be properly divided (see Fig ;4.,3).
'T1 '. rd ~ ' .. " u ,,'....':, F";: {t 4' '3:1 ''~O; the t, ~ llf~ b '.'  dtl .. I a: f"'~' ..   ' .. d ,"  cl c' ~ .. : ..
.. ne orumates rn _1,'10' ',_'.,.' ar .. e tne nau orcac as arrangec m Sll,11 a way
that the depth Q:t that section is divided, into five parts, Half s"P'3"C.111,g is 11Se.d in the Iowest interval, "Since the ordinates vary rapidly "in that region. TI1e' Simpson multipliers are thus changed it] this interval, but otherwise the normal scheme may be used ..
Havinz obtained all the areas of the sections and had them plotted to
01;".' . r
obtain the curve of sectional areas (as in the lines plan of Fig 3,;5);~ the
displacement is obtained as the area under the curve .. Fig 4,~4, .s110W'S how this 1""1:'1, com i pu ted '[;'1" m",'; Ig,::', S··.·: .• 'impson's ru ile. Note ag ain 1ih··II,~JiI.,t'_ fullscale .
. n , lIlrD rO !io.! . ..' . _ .S . _1,,",, __ o,J .• ~ ._.... = •. _!i;,;!' '_,,_;(;: _.J!J. I!J. ."u _, ~ :s ...... , J!l., .
values are used throughout and that the values. for the 'y'D40 are' given .. b k 
': . ',~, I :"", _, •
mbr ac cets.
The moment created by a force with respect to a perpendicular axis is
H,l,J".u ,S9C tio,n DVrll.
,.r!f..I'I".'!."'!"'"il.'_".".'.' .r_i i.:'t _':::'.'7I~'.C';~'t:.'.~~1'.~r"7':'r"..,....".".,..,....,.,. il·"""""'. ,T":"7. ';;.' '_,..,...,..' '_~.~ },, '",. /  ,
... , •• _ •••.• Ii • •• •••• • ~. • ••••••• !. II •••• ! • • • • • •• , •••• !., :
I • • •••••• , •• ,j • • J •• L II r • !' j L ~ • " • r • • i .. 'I • • • • • • • • • .. • • i i •• ~ • • • • • ••. .'
. "" "" " ~.I..~~u..J ~JII.l_"...J.J . .!!..IL_I .. I.UJ....i..!iI_.I_..Lb.1..i J L ,I I J. I i; I~' • I
lj "? j "," .• ,'".1,". ".",'.",! "_", ",r"'.: _ll~ I L' ."I."!. '!I1! ". ".' .:.J!~ "! "_" •••• " ." .. ". "." •• ~ ", ',"." ~ "_ " ••• ". . ""," ."'."', ••• ".
I _ _ " •••• ,  II ••• " ••••• II •• , '" • u! .••• _ •••. r , .._ .
': :::,:": ::.: :::<": :::: :::": >::.~~ ~: ;'~~.:":":: :::.~: :.: >::.:::.:: :~:: :~" :: : r
.. . _ .• ,.. 'I !""'''' _. ·_.· ....... iI ••• _._ .... _.__. ! ,'" "~ ..•
,. ~ ••••• ! _ ~ , • II, ••• , • ~! •••• " •••••••• j •••••• , ~.._ ..
 I~~ ";~~::~ :~;';~~~.~'7:~"'~.:"~':'~~;!~~"<'.:.:':.~":.:<.:'~.:~ .. :.:.;.~:.~._:'; .. : .. ,II I'·,
[s 0, I t 4 m ] i~ f:'?}::: :':{~}':~:~::':;':':': ':;:::' :':' >:; ,;.::'::.'. <'''' A r~Q _ A
'to
(bofh s:/ders)
[,., " .. ' ..;2J'" A .::=' 1.,,Jti7 m ... "
, s
Fig 4 .. 4· Celculetiott oi the volume displecernent
A
s
... f .e._ ,,,~ ..... 1Iiiii1.  ,. """"_ ...... '.",
I .... ' : . ~ _'C' ,'/"""" ,. a.. .....~' _'ro.f.! •
. X
X"2!'
.J
x;
ibI'
{ "5 ~ 7 .• .ooa m' 1
A " A~as col,C'.ula.fBd ,as In Fi~ 4...3'
. '~.. . .. :ar
..
, is ( .. . ."" d",'" )',
V ,:= ? •.• SU.m ·,QT' P'FO' .,UC'J'S·
G ~ _ .
tile product of the force and tile distance to the lax is (the lever arm ,. TIllS concept can be USN:~,d for finding" the centre of gravity of a body B,y····
6 ,,',',' • . • 1 ...._. ," I,· .. i'L· .' J , ',' '_' • _'.' • • • ~ _' ' ..' o'l. "  w'_ :.. , e" '". ,_. " . " _', rl _ .' ,
definition, the centre of gravity is the pOU1t where the. mass, of the body may be assumed concentrated, TIlt: gravitational force may be assumed acting at this point,
One W'·H.y to calculate the distance tOI the centre of gravi y from an arbitrary axis, is to add .. the moments of the different parts ,QJf the body with respect to this axis, This gives. a resultingmoment .. which must be: equal lOI that of the concentrated mass: at the centre of gravity ~ This ,mn~ is explained in Fig 4,.5., where the axis cho s en, is located
h h ., 'J'FP
~  " .. ~: ,_  I . '," '1". , , .
at _ warts ,IpS at t. ,le  .. , ,j
A. corresponding computation can be performed for the centre of gravity of the displaced volume of water, ie tile centre of buoyancy. Let.us
...... , . h' 1 . dU··1 · i Le' ':B ·'1 '"
.' .'if'. I .  .!"1Il' . . . [_ .;.. . _.: ".. .:.,  • '" ,.," ~ 1 II' . . t·..· . .' . J ", ' , '<"f. ' I!' "  i .'1" . ',.,"',' ". I 'I.' . ' r • . ,
In st compute t e ongitu aa .. position , c,' I:, [1~I11,g the same axis as
Principles of Yacht Design
F":.: iv' 4 5,' M',' '. t L, d ," ~ :",,( s:  d r · ~". .' "' ~'o '"'~. ,:~ ietno ",5 o,~ an, U7.g
til e cen ire of g.ra v j ty
Z I
.
~~'*4~
X'1
i"==~Xj ;;.+1 1
.  / ",: .' I" /
" "'
~I' I Tnt 9'
.:=:::!!11~:::::c__~==~~++=~_fi__~~~='" . ,D'WL
~,g
T ran .,. '11"" """'.~ .... , T ,I: ~ ~ ~'Ia:" !IZf.'Jl' lUll I~
axis a,~'FP
'Xa.....!l
n'Ii ~'
"~pt ~
fflto,t g' ""xc ~' rJ7.:9'X1 + 'n:!?g7 +, in39'3' ,+ ,.,.,,,, +, ,m~~,g;y +, '",<!',. tn" .. x:.,. ~'m~ ~ + 17'7.", x.. '+ m, x~,,+ ...... .+ ,m'·, x., ,+, '. '","
" tad::  'G .~ i   ::i::::  ,:if  " "oJ ' ..... " ""  I' .I "
....... 'm+,~'+,r:n;._+ +m" .. ...,L.
~. ~·I~Jl : .. J. ~ ....... , " .:~:;. 1[, ' ,,' :..'~:' .  '~:!. .. :;_., ,,' r 'r. I.' . :.: ":~' . ~ ~oIl__'; ,~,!I,!J
'J'Or[ t I Iim. ,r.
before, Each. section of the hull 111ay now 'be considered as contributing to the moment bl)!, an :Eun,O'U.11t proportional to; its area multiplied by' its
dist i,··,:' .e •· from the F""P" "Tll"I' 'c !" ", ... :, '"'l'',''' ·, ..... 1'" ,,': ctioual jnome rts' .,' ....... be
, JS ance f'Ol1G .ne " '" .1US 1(1 CUI' e 0 sec .ionai moment S can I e
constructed in. a similar way .. ·.· to' the curve of sectional areas Tile: area
. = _" ."" "" ~ _ " . ,_ _ _ . ~" .... , _" _ "',. t . ~ ., .. cU ., .. c:... " ..
under tile new curve represents the total moment from which the position
.' __, " ,'" ~. "'"," ~'". •• •. • .,' . .1 , . '.' ., I . ,~ • "
,.4:" t" 1"' ',"';" .... ,.n." tre "I,.'" b 'I: ..... ··('f"·' . : ... " ':, ",." be ib 't' ':,' . ed '.:: ,'. 'c r ",:" 'J' :,,~ '. ed ,'~  'F' ,i 1"' 4·'" ,'6"
or ae cenu e or .lIO) ElnUCY can ne 0 ".1 arnec as expramec III l.g I!,. ,.
T"h .. ). ,; ."" :"' " ,"" } .. " ~. It, . ~ jj\:;: .,' . . t h . d"·· ]: ich ", I' d fr ':2ii t· . ill' '" r"'" .
I. tere is a. Sll11P e a ern .. auve me . 0, '" wmcn is usee ,J equenuy ror
dete ,", " :., '1·'"' .: the LC"'"B" If······ :.r'".' f .. ,' "·1]1'.,:,~" 1}1f,':" : d tl is nieth ,· .. d) ":".. ,'" ob I'b" "'1" .,~ ',I
_ .etermnung tne ._ ,... " CLll e U, J,Y e,TI1.p w,o,ye~" I~] IS m.e, , o. '" IS pro" ,a,. y as
'I' curate '''''1'' the .. nerical ""'.' T1t.., '. :!lC!i.'if'~'." 1 "",,/.,,, .... ,',","> .... ."; o·',,~· '"""'1," ·· .. ut
accura .e as tne 1111111,e:n.ca_ OIl e. LI.e ~eC11,10na area curve ,IS smip y eu
"I t , i., ~"I ",.","'" ,", of cardbo: '·,d:1 and tl '. ,'. t ut : art "">., b .. , 1"  ced : .... the ed
ou " In a piece 0, car rooaru anc , ie ClI, Out" par '" ts ua anceo on ". e e ,ge
Hvdrostatics and Stability
" .
'ic:\ 4 f,;, ,(;,~ "~",, "I If''', """"f~'fh" 'I
,~ ,llg '".() '00 ICU"JlJO,n or,t e
longitudinel centre of b'l:.uJyancy oithe canoe body'
A x,
'I" ".
~ :s '"
, ,)I ~_,_ Mi!"~w
..... f' _"", ... ,Ji'l~","" .... _j
,~!, lio.::i'i !!P.I" ~ I "f" ~'l"~' ~'E~I
ffl'Q"m, .. ,,''"''', ..... ''': ....
. ,_, 1;P.i,1l· ~ .~""i
" v' ,A
».
X, ·10
[ ,S
T (J'O()' ]
~ :::':"', '. "
,_ _ .,,__c,,' ",_:' m _'
4
{ ,4D,.,g.'{}4 rrr ]
,AIM 'V
e:
[' , )"
,5 ,,,3,5:(]' m ","
, , ,
of a knife at right anzles to the long itudinal axis When the cardboard
"~' ,". ;, , •..•• ,'.~ I~ I, '~ :'" ", ,.~ ~L.;~, ... ,u . ,"_ ," ''! .. j ( .• ," , " ... 1, .1' [111'1 r '. " '. ,I.'''' . ~II~' ': ,_ : "'!I;.:;, ..
':.' b ... ~'~',~ ,,' ,', d its ':'1 "t'," ,', of ",', it '" ,', , the edze ',' '[;' th "', k .. ,:'.C'.. Th~~" '. ' 'c ], '''' ," is .' aiance '" 18 centre ,0", gra vt y IS 1011. _J1e eage 0,_ ie 11Ile"" ., . ts IS arso
the position of the LeB,,, If the piece. is hung on a needle and allowed to rotate the: vertical line throuzh the needle Grosses the centre of gravity
" ,(1, ' ~' ' " " ", l:!i ' , "' " '__ ', '' '__ , ~  '" " " , . _, , , , , , ":: ij;:,_", .. ' _, :,' •
'By: hanzinz the, piece at two positions and using a plumb bob to mark
"[", ""~ ',iL..,jJ' _ !....~,bJ _' ,,'_ ~",:""",  . ]',':. . __ '.. .', f~· .• • ,II" ," . ", _. '. ~ f _ _,'  ••.• _ ·_,L·I·R ,,_ ,:, (_ ,_~ • .' I .. I.. . ", _ ," "I '. ,'.. rl."
the vertical lines, the centre of gravity is found at their intersection ..
For the determin ati 0'0 of the vertical 'position. of the c en tre 10i:: f b I'A '11,0': yan CY'H'
",'_', '_" ' __ '_"_'_'_'_' "(;,)l!,, ',, , ,',", .',,' ",,' "!L ''', C" " ',"'," _' " ',~" " ':' ',' IJ...I!', ~ £: ' _:
 ,
(VCB)~! th .. e 'vertical distribution of sectional moments 1.1]_11St be considered.
If thea .., f"" '" '1 n ' e, ""'1' "" .. , . . ·"'dr:;:;;;~,.: the ve 1': . '1 d '~' t ,i'b' , t~· . . ~r th ' , . ie areas 01 severai water Illes ar~ known . ie vel . lea ·~Js:n,,'IU 1011 O'lL, i' e
velum 'iP' can be plotted in the form of a,'," curve T' ']'1"'1"~ curve can the D'" be
_ ":,,,~ _. II:~~ I ... ~.", 1 ..•.. ) .... ·.,.:I~I.:,:._ J. 1,," ,IV I · .• ·1. . _ .. __ ",,11,. ~~ •. =~~~j: .. ;:'1 .•.•.. ", __ " I~CI,j I ,I, _'.\...~
38·'::
[ "
P'· . II Iy h DC .,
nncipres IOli~ Yacht ,·'esign
Fig 4.'7 Celculeuon of the lon~f?ltH(Jina I moment of" in : ertie
~: '.J~_ 1.'_'
2'
b, )('"
iI _ :
, , .
I
L·~ JI'r' ~ ,_' t_oF"" "
A· ""' ..... _, 2
CurV6 Q' f S',(fJc,tlon a I m' om,e,n f:s D:f In' IS rife
X ,1
XJ X4 X .>l 6' X
'.' !J . '7 [ s == r.ooo rn J b .~' hatt' tsearn
..
I  2: . S (' S .,' f' d·',I.)1 LFP .;;;;; c'_' .. .3 . . ' .. um {;}. p,rp.: uc,~.":5: ,'.
[' . 1 .
,93., t .m·]
{. 5' sr« ...}'
, .: • U':' "¥ F7.'1 ..
treated. in tile same way as the sectional area CUTve and the location of the
VC··'"'i,'B ',', " b ·t· ... ··,,···,· rd H .,"., ':_.'., .,., the ",'".J, of th ... ','· .. rt 'I~ .... _ ",:' ht · .. :t b '.. .xan e t ouna. ~ owever, l" ,e areas 0 e wa er mes rnigi not be
kI10'WI1, since they are 11,Ot normally required for other purposes, Another possibility is, to cut out all sections of the hull from a. piece of paper and glue them together just as ill the body plan, The vertical position of the.' , rtr .. ·· . f ' ,,' ","" ,·:t· .' f .... thi, .. '. " ',"!' b .. xlv ' .. tl ,,' d' .: .,p r , d V' C" "B'
'oe'n Ie 0', gravlly .or' IS p,apeIO'·,Y IS 16 leSlIe ': .'. "' .: "
The water plane area, ie the area inside the designed waterline (DW'L)~
is important in several respects; first, its size determines 'tl e weight per mm immersion' ~ ie the, additional weight required to sink the hull.a.c,
3,9·<·:
.
Hg 4~8 Cslculetion of the transv€ rse rnorne n t of inetti«
.S $
CU""V~l D'" cubt«
. ".' .. . (I ~_ .,,, ...
'U:1lf' .bB'(:1m
.3 b ..,
X·
, ,
.x?'
X'·'O
I' ..
[ .S =' 1.,t)O() m ]
. ert :', dist '," .. '. ···,···,···,· .. ··11, .. it .'. tr · .. :·f'''' [ ,it" .~ .. l' '.' ited  the " .. ,;,,"
eel a 111 , istance; seconc ,y~ IS cen re 0.:1 gravny IS ocateu 011 I ... }e axis
around which the 11,U]] is trimmed, whenmoving a weight longitudinally ,o'n board; th irdly, the socalled moment of inertia (sometimes called the
, .... " .. ,' .. J' '" .:." ... ' ," ,t,: f ..  .. ) .' ',~,.:. " . di' '.. 1:' zit dina m it"" '.~ •. d . t . _. ..' '.,' "till,',',
SeC011( momen 0 areai a,IO'(1][1'. a O'11gt, .u mar axis aetermmes . ne
stability at small angles of heel; and fourthly, the moment of inertia
. 
around a transverse axis through the centre of gravity (of the areai
yields tIle longitudinal stability, ie the moment required to trim the, 11,u~1 a certain angle,
'T1c, t'~. ",111Irt,··· .,' of the .. ···r :,. ,t,·",· rhtf " . "f·d .,' '.: S···· ."_' .,', " '" ._ ~·I.
, ne caictna .ion 0,. _" ~ e area IS ,S r aig .' ,01. warn, using umpson S 1. rue
exactlv as shown in Fig 4.1 ~ If the area i.:· denoted An"¥L (fullscale value),
40
the. additional displacement when sinking the hull ~ tum is 0",001 Oi .AD\VL In3~ The mass of this VO].lUl1e_ corresponding to the upplied mass on the
"1," .'m1 ." .," ii '0'" 0'1'0"11 ,. A'" . h ... "" .'.". r •. the .": iter d '"'i"1 ":' itv T'ID,c'" 'c,." ':",'" ,".' ',1'" " ..
nun, IS pr , ... ,..... "',DWL~ W iere P is tne wa el I' t;TISl .. y. .ne m~tSS per mm
immersion is thus calculated from this simple ~ot11111~a.,
As appears from the previous paragraphs the, centre of buoyancy is determined from the geometrical centre of gravity of the sectional area. 'CIII"'\l,e," Either 'a numerical method. like Simpson So, or  the simple
J. "JI. ~I '
'cardboard method can 'be used for he calculation. TID obtain the
geometrical centre of gravity of the 'water plane area usually called the 'centre' of flotation", the same techniques can be employed,
No, simple method is available fOT finding the moment of inertia, but
, ~
the numerical calculation is similar to that of the ere ntre of gravity, 'Let
f '[ I he Tonsi di "I f"i·' '. I b
' 1 • • '.!Ii.' 'I' . .  ., '.11 ,'1 : ~ . ,'. .  I . ij' _..... ' .' ", ". : ., ~.  '. II  . ." ,
U,S ]1 st caicu ate tt e .ongmx rna moment 10 111el tia ~L:f ,I' about a
transverse axis at the FP,. A, .curve of sectional 111 0 In e.rlt s of inertia' can Il(~W be constructed, where each ordinate is the product of the waterline halfwidth and the square of the distance from the FP .. 'The area of this curve can be used fOT flndinz the fullscale moment [of inertia (both
"""" .
sides) ]]1 t ae usual WIl:Y (see' Fig 4.7).
In, the formula 10:r longitudina] stabi lity ';1 to hie' presented in, the nex t section, the moment of inertia lL is taken abo LIt au axis, not through the'
FP' ,. b', 'f tl ',' ',I, '1 tlu . ,~. tt ,":.', ,,' ,I'" 'fl· I't·>", tior Th· .,' .. at:' '. 1" t . ,d' value I "" , I'"
. , ··Ull lroug] ,e c,t;]] I 1. e o~ . 0 _a .lOll. . e c, ell a e,. va ,1,1f 'LFP ~]1a"y,
'll..., , .,' . 'i'!' b .. ' ".; ""t····d·' tr I' rit .. ._" """1" , , . l .... " .. ;; 'F""·· 4" '7"
JIl.l0Weve.l~, e rCQIDVel e _0 "L qlU e srmp Y!i as 8.1 10 ,WIt III ,I 'Ig " ' ,.
iT., '. ;', ,,~, r. tbe t h,' '" ",:' .... ',: ~ •... ,'", nt of z., '",' .,~."." 'r ::. I'd' the
JL.n. prmcrpre, _'" Ie t ansverse moment or merna 'T ar ouno u e
longitudinal axis, needed, for the transverse stability, could 'be computed in a similar way, but tbeu the water plane area would have to be divided II" ato a set of' longitudinal strips which c ould be t re a:' ted like the
" .' .' _ ; ,.7' ", " .. ,' ,'. :.' '", ,". ..' .' I'  [1. ,'." . 'IL"I, ' .. ,., , '., _. ":.". '. .' .' . .' . '. ." ~ ,' .... " .:
'1'1~' ',.'" ,,,",,,'. ,,' ... ,,' ",' ,.' ," b'·· ,",' 'Th·:' ":iI!'~,. ","' .,~"" 1'''"' '"''"'" ,~, "t:·· " lli~ b·,·" .',', ',.' . '" .. ',.'. it ,~,,,,
transverse ones a oove, i ms lJIlIVlSIOIDl IS unpracncar, owever, since I lS
not used in any other calculation, An alternative method is therefore
sl ... ' .' ,c ~.c ii"''(" 41 8 N·"', ··t· thr t C,,~, , ..• ' I ' "., of. ',' ,'"." tl '", th: l' ieit idi tal
snown In 19' ~ ,I" " 0 ella ,,', 10,[ 1 ea.s.OI1S 0, symme .. ~y 'L .e ongi ,ll'~n',
<"::'i"""" 1· 8' Ii "'~~IS: to P' ·.JIS""~, through tho e cent re 0'" f flotation so n 0" correction nee d
'I.A l!!ili" ,'I[.Ii, I.Ji . !U, .. , . " '. J1L~. • ,.1 I.I(L._.I, ... ~,ll, !.J."·c· ,J".I. , "JIL'.," .• "
be applied,
The transverse stability of a, yacht may be explained with reference to F'ig 4 .. 9., When the yacht is heeled 'the centre of bUIOy,2JlllCY lr11IQVeS to leeward from .B, to B'Ol The buoyancy force, upwards, then creates [it couple with tile' equally large gravity force acting downwards at G. TIle lever arm is usually called GZ and tbe righting moment is 'In. 'I g · G'Z:'~I since the gravity force ]8 the mass, m, times the acceleration of gravity, ,g (9~8J m/s).
There is another important point marked, in the figure: the transverse metacentre, M .. This is the Intersection between the vertical line through B' and tile symmetry plane of the yacht. For small angles. of heel this point may be assumed fixed,~\vhich simplifies tile calculations considerably. TIle distance between G and, M'~, G:M~ is. called. the metacentric height and BM is the metacentric 'admILs", A fundamental stability formula (which 'w]IL not be proven 11 ere) says that tile metacentric radius is equal to the ratio of' the transverse moment of
,
, D'~ . idina. stability . ' small angles
'H'Id. .. ··· .. ·,'·t" 't"··, and '5':.'t' Ib··ili·t·",· ,~);:_ ros a res anooraoi ,I "~v
·41
Fig 4.9 Transverse stab i'l iiy
Tn::J'f.]'s'va',r.S8' $'fabilify relo/fton,s i~
,BM ~' ;~" (Fund'om,e',ntai $ ia 0 lllty rorrnuta )
G"·lI:J' '=' ~J:'" =·S·",..,r., (.. G:, a ~,"""iil..,c;; 8:. );'
... IJ!Y  Cl,," I' U ',' .IU,,,,!I!' ~ _
[ 1 7',2''/2'" ' 1
' . '." " •... " """"'. ..
!I' '_ .. I ,. ill II! .
I 1'., ,45'2 tn' ]
GZ " ,r~~ Jl ,. ""'" ,'./ ,=. um '·'Sln' '"
[ .D ... ~ £ii, 2' 7', rn J:::
:g~ ,~ v.··" .. '. ~.
(' c .". ,i!":I' 3]
J 'VI.=~ r:» m' ,,'
'
.

T1iaflS,'ytiu"St:,1 r(gn fin 9 rnarn erd: [N'mJ
[ 7iIl = m·g oCT]
.
 I I
/J.;.'g i
11M ,~
! .
~ I
I ~
J
Centre' 01 gravl'ty
~
_' ...
Upr.ig'h" ,~t!fII,n:f.rtf:. .i:»>: o.f b,,r:JQ_YQ'rii;:Y
....... _ Heelsd ICBn,f(""8 of b.uoy.Q'n'cy
......... ...,' e e« ~
inertia IT and the volume displacemen v., Using this formula and some
S· im ple g .comet ric rela t ions th e', lrg, htin o tn ,c orn e n . f. In' a: y.:: be obta ;[1' ed a.,~"""_____
" .. .W: ...... .... .'.:~ .. ,JIi. ~ .. .!Il.~ l··,~· .. JIl. ... , .,L) . .Jll~._ .. I, .~,l"'~',a ". ," ,. tIL .,' _ ".. ~ '. a..L ,',' . '. ['.0
" ~ d ,i' F~ 4 (: explaine '. In .  ig .' ~9 ..
Since the. stability of the yacht is proportional to GM t  ere are two principal 'ways of increasing it Either 'G may be lowered or M 111ay be raise d A'" 1110., w .. ·,' G'" is found 0,' n '11a" rrow  h e avy yacht 'C'I with a Ia '~f ge b a" llast
,." ,JLiJ! ,II,!) .. ' ,W.. ~l_ '. ", ,11. _,IIl,._ I .. :..' ~ '.~ I , '_ , .". ~ Jl . __ ,V ,_ [ \.f.l m.~1 ," i 1 !. ' . ,J!". '. ," _,jJ},~,I_~ .. _
ratio, like the 1 ? In and other R yachts. TIley have weight stability, Modern racing yachts 011 tIle[ other hand, are wide and shallow, which raises M. They have form stability, ~
The method of calculating the: longitudinal stability corresponds exact y t[o that of the transverse stability, Thus, the restoring moment when the hull gets a trim an gle, may be computed from the formulae of
Fig 4,.,1 0 L.[ongftudlnai' stabilit.y
Transverse stability at 'large angles of hee11
Lo,ngl'lu,dJ:r; al s:ra:bil'/:tr r~!l.rIJlion,;'
'. . It 
B'Mt._ = V (,F:unda,m@,n fal $'fa.b.Jh'1y :fo'.r;m t/,la )
F t t ~ 7B'5' In' }' F ti .",S: ,'15 m' ,]
GMi ,~' fiU;_ ~, fiG" GZ[  t;M~·' ,$.111 8,
[' .lit; ._: CL27' rn ,]
{' "=" ,_ 77 iB  .:.3],
, .~ 0::= '·,.ll:fZ' m _","
( ~ b" ..... ,'...,_, S" ),',
I~ w·· .. '~· .. ~' ,I.} ,"
(,a, ,~' 'if!.'~·~"""~fI·; l'ft[ )! .~ = ,.~. ,r~ !I!',r 4~'~'.I.!I:I!" ....
,.
,Lo'ngltudlru:J I rfg'h tin!} t1'J'jrH'n'911[t,'~~
(~= m,g'~J
 '7 !f£., == /tJ'ngU:'I':1in a.t ffl'S/Q'CJ9,f?'TfiS[
/1
 I
I '
I
I
,fji,"'g
'G"',l,;l' , '_mi.,'
I I
 ,
Ie
iF'..,,"'........... of',"
~ •• n r ,~,iI',!f 'iii" .: '.
,g.,·o vffy'
,{jprlgh t, c{!J,[l?r:ril' =.~:: .. .~~~ ~t'_"_""p~ .......... ~=~::":=';J
[~f ,buo~yal'n::y
 Tr.fmm,;J\d c,8r1'fra [of b,ux'rancy
!' ...... 'ii""':ll' ,f,1I'," ~
rrim Q'n'gltfl, In d:e.gri!j[6's' Iwh1e.n .l'''''N;:Ji.vln,g' [a' IW6'lg'!h f wIth the: nU:J,5,$ (W)
, .... _ .... _,' d"p,.II ........ ', ... _"'" ·rX,·l "' .... , .... 'n;;.I;'u.;!':f' ..... ,'I·,y' .'.'" ~ ;il',a 1."~,if.r. Lr.,a; t~. '..I ~·!b!'!.rr,.r:; if·:J.'· ·I~·.";r,,~ !bi'!,l~· ,"' ..
F.i2: ,4,.lO~ which corresp ond to those of tile previous fizure. Thereis also
I~ 07" 1 ~
.. ~. ~ '.' '~I . r""  ... . ... , t ". th .. t "," ..  .. '~I '.:iI; .. bt ' ... d ' '1  _. ~  (f' .' ,. ht
a. rorrmna .or eompu 1.11g' tne J .. 1111. angie (1 "arnle,1 w aen '11l0VU1~ a, weig .. '
I" 0' ngit U' d"~ n ally 0' n b 0 ~jl rd the v 'GIl ch rt
, I; ',,1L' [ Jl. [1l.lL, . ..... ' ,I I,(:'~ JIL ~ I.. ;; Ci.VI '.
"The calculation of the' righting moment at large heel 'angles is considerably more complicated than that for small angles. One difficulty arises from the fact that the positioning of tile heeled hull with respect to
t :rr; vat . ._, rf '. . :;'  ". I" t ]'., . .... I'f'" tho ..] ]' 'm ~ . . .. . ., t ~ ta t d.'' . b .... , ,t t h
.ne water SU.I ace is nOI known. ,i., e run ~S' JUS. loa _:ei _ anour rne
__ 
43"
'.  .
. ' .
Fi:g ·4. ] .]: Procedure to find' the heeled wetetline
centreline (at tile level of the D'·WL)., the displacement 'will generally' bcconu .. · too large and a. trimming moment will develop, The only way to, overcome this difficulty is by trial and error, ie by trying several attitudes, varying the sinkage and trim system atically , in order to find a position where the displacement and L,eB correspond to the original O:11es,.
After finding the right attitude a considerable amount of calculation is needed to find the. righting moment, since :no simple formulae, like those for small heel angles, are available ~ 111 practice, these calculations have seldom been carried 0;11t manually even for ships, because before the computer era naval architects made use of a special instrument,
C:· ."" l ed an intezra t o "r a' . d ,0;,': re] o .p' un ie n . t  0: · .. ·,f· t h . ~ p' ,']a'i!i"1'1"lneter Such $in'·'
. clJ. .' _ u.·· ,',. ' .. ' b ,". ." ,"... . _. !i.....,.\f _ ; .' ~ =.,' .'. .. ' .. ' J • \r.i .. ' U .. .II1. _ . _ .. 1 [.1 ", .; ,', " u
instrumen t, 1'~: 1"1' owever ra rel 'y'" availa . b ~Q!o. to tl ·le'··· y .... :. C,ll 1':' de '!;;'I'I'i zne r "" S· O· lXl""· W'" 1~'1'1
.rL:!1l .1 u. ... ' .. I ,0. . .. ocrr I., .... '''kil.I., [..11, "'", Jh ... , . ,'. ":: . ,.,. J ,1;,.. I, ... 1i.J'. b .. ' ~ .. , .,,', '"' ..... _
propose a slightly more approximate methode which ,1.S often accurate enough. The method is Illustrated in. Fig 4,.,1.1. Special care must 'be taken. however, with very beamy yachts with large fore and aft asymmetry . S uch .hII[~S will develop a. eonsidera ble trim ·w hen heeling, and. this effect is not COlI. sidered here,
To find tbe attitude of the hull, rotate it first around the centrelir e at DWL to the desired angle, 'Then, calculate the displacement v A up to. this waterline located, .at ZA_"' This cannot be done however, without knowing the shape of 'the sections 011 both sides. of the symmetry plane, so the body plan. has first tOI be' completed to include both_ sides of the hu .' ..
The displacemen ·Y£\. is 1)OU1:1d to be too large" SOi a new waterline at ~H has to be found, ,A. first estimate of this line can be made by dividing the excess displacement by the area of the original DW·L., This gives the approximate distance to the new waterline ,at ZB' for which the displacement \] lB is. a so computed, N ot even this is likely to be very
, , ' .. ', 'r" ~.. b . t ~t... . fi " .. ; 1 .: .. '. : ,'~·t'· .' Z,·c. f th ',. . .... " t .... }" .. ·c. .' ,'. b .', fc ... ..:11 bv
(lrCCU la'L.e, ./U, tne mai P'QSI 10~1 ..  0'. . e W,@" er 111.e ca.n I. e 0 uno ay
interpolation or extrapolation to the right '\7; as explained III the .. figure, In this "way the displacement will 'be quite accurate, although all effects of trim are neglected.
4,4·
'. '" i 'I' f'" h ,' a.
'"1" ',,'.:" .' .'. .. '_ " :  ' .>  .: "',_,,,_ .. '
PJ rncrp e~, '01,_ Yale it Design
IlL m pi' Ji '11 2. , Stsbiiitv a' .' t le ree
lllllJit]l ~!!I ~ • . t[!CAt .' L} J.. .. QI~I
angles of heel
. ._,
Having found the waterline, the 'cardboard method' is used to find the transverse position of the centre of buoyancy, 131' III Fig 4,.,12 .. Al] heeled, sections below the waterline are cut 01]'.t ill cardboard 311d zlued
 ,""
together ill their correct positions, The centre of gravity call then be
found from the intersection of two lines obtained using a plumb bob, as explained above.
iii_1
..
r~ ~ I
i
/
,~
MavemBnl of meru0; Bnlr., r' Mji= ::;:~G:~~t.iS ,M ,= m'lfJ'.to',~'~'.n ire a:l ,upelgh't: p'(j,sIUot1', l,
.~~ I 7itp ,
/
Up,pfg,h't: 1C'f;3:,rrtre, Q f ,btJ'Qydn~y'
,H,f3_·sie.a' c9rd~ QI f b ~orr;;}'n a y
GZ
Kno wi 11 £, :BJ', the. location, of the point where the vertic~l through B" hits the centre plane 'M'r~1 can 'be' found, ~,ee Fig' 4 .. 1,2~ BI'M: may then. be mea~lred from the figure and the remaining formulae for small angles ·a pplied ..
The' curve of static stability represents the righting ,1TIOlTI'e:.Il..t at varying angles of heel. An eXa]11111e' ()f this is: given in Fig ·4"., 13" Since the moment differs from the lever "arm only with respect to the constant
Ag, the vertical seale could equally well represent IG',Z,,, ,
For small angles OM is constant and~ $i.11, ,tV ~ qJ (in radians), so 'GZ". is
, ,
proportional to, the heel angle, i.e GZ ,_: G'M, 'i' sin ~ ,~ GM, il Icb~ The
slope of the GZ curve 'at tile origin may thus b,e obtained by noting that the tangent should pass through the point GZ' :==: GM for (D := 1 rad .. lian ~P. at '5','7" _'''"}IO
.lll o~ .. Jl:. _ ,. JLw .. 1_ _ I. ~ i.
Another important aspect of the G·,Z curve is the maximum which
'~l ] ibl ,. 1 .. f '1 1 H Db '.' 1
represents the largest p08:8Th..,~e righting 'fl1JJ.'0111,611t 0,,' t re ,1UJl,~~ 1_' !VIOU,S. Y'
the yacht will capsize if the heeling moment exceeds this level.
Of great interest is tile socalled stability range, which is the range ,of angles for which a positive righting moment is developed, For larger angles the hull is sta bile upsidedown,
It is' also 'of interest to note that the area under the 'R'M' curve IIp to
45:
''
G
GZ Iml,
0,. 8 ~ l _l!l_Clx,. ~ = 10,. 76
0 .. ,7 0. ,6
O 5,'
, 0;;,_9
05,
I!. "
0,,,3 
o 2~:'
,0,
,~(J: "
, ...... : ....... il!'1 I.
a 2,'
 I!!!!II',· .... ·
S' := ButJ'YQ~n c.y' '(rare',s
G Grcivl"ty :"orct!l'
,r;'. :: " '
MtlN. rlghlln:g;1§~~
QI7n'

i
129
0.,3
,Min." =' '·O, .. ,~2
 _,,_._ ~._ ~ _...,'='"=' '='~ 'II"""""'" ........ = ~ __ , ,. ~"~ ~ _
S'" 'b' I'
Soli: b illty ra ,,' ire
I~:' teu 1.':f'", ran,,,.' '____",....;'""'""",,...., 
Ups.'idlJ' do w:n
F ig 4~ ~.1 The curve of ststk: ste bi u t:  r D4 0
F", g' 4' "li 4" 'G" Z'/ ' C' Uf' ve'c; io r
. (" :_ .... '. ~ ~ i, . :.... ,'_' . ,.'. ' ...... ~i ~~. >.
Grimzlkin end the Contesse 32
(jZ'
,
,
[m]
l,I' .......
,C'I~8'5' ,
tJ~8,' ,+,~~"""""'J""_~_r_~_._______v~.....,_==~_r_______r_~______;
'. Confluss',Q 52l'
I V'5.1ir:lp",~ l'
lGiI., 4, ,lit~~"_+_~i_______=!~_+_i=;;"'IIr_~ fCln'y k,tJ"s,.1 "t, ~~=I
/
GrIm a Ikln:;' tJ.2.' '+~~ flo',f botlcim. ,i="'r~~lf..3f!rf;I~~
,fin .keel .
a certain angle represents the work, by waves for ill stance , needed to
'hi '11:}' 1: ll to t [. . '~
r eei t ie nun to thrs angie.
Large differences are found in the stability curve's for .modern finkeel  yachts and traditional Vslla.pe,d ]011g' keel ones. After the Fastnet. Race disaster in 1979, a study was carried out at Southampton University in which two yachts of similar size 'were compared. Both raced in Class V ..
4'6'
.:
...
 .. : .'
One was a cruiserracer the Contessa 32.~ while the other one was au ex .. treme . ra ce r: Grima lkin .,0'···· foot L,·O,A·,·:.'····
_ /. ..II.. !;;...o .... V .1. ',. . '. ,. . } '&rn " ~rt.~ j. I j. . !l., .. '.... .,.
Interestingly enough both yachts have the. same GM == O,~,85 In (as
,n' ',' .. ' ', .. , • .., Ire ,;,.. F":· .'. 4' "1' 4' ' I ';'. J , 1. ,' t'l . 'G'; '. Z······ , . ""'.' ). "II'··:'· 'd';, .', ti .. II .
appeal 8 J~ 0',D1 ~_ 1,g .... .'~l W.1JCi1. Sll,OW S 111l.e .... , ,'""cu,rves·. . .. :liS. 0 es no, . n'1ean."I
however that RM is exactlv the same fot SlD"3_n angles, since the mass
... ' ",'" c:; ... . . . . . J. . . , . ,_., . , , ,_. ~  . ~ .. ,   , . ,
differs: 4600 kg for tile Contessa 32: and 3800 kg for Grimalkin. At 10 of heel .R:M is 6'70 'N1:11. (Newtonmetres) and 550 N:nl, respectively, It should
..,.,
be 1110ted that the sail area is, alrn ost exactly the same Jor both "yachts,
A larger difference is found in the maximum ,GZ·. which is about ·4·0%
" .. .. .,.. .. .,.,. . ,. _ _. = c =. ., ._ ~ ... ~ _ ~ ., _,' . . ~, .,. '__ _ ,
hizhe .. for th .. , C· .' .... t·· ""~ ·3'··"') C' : , .... ,· .. ···_.··,····· ... ted .:. .tc '·:·,·,·ht't' .. ~·"· .. · , ... C'·" ,,"~' the
iguer .,IOle ·/Oll,e,ssa "~; .. .onverteu ill o ngnnng moment rue
d."'f'{,:"· "'!JJ. .. "", ~ '.. . 'r' 1, '~g" F'" ~ d' C·" , 'if:'~.. "'12' 'RI' M··.'· ~ .~, "~"." , t ab .. ut
IJ.~t:ne·llce W.s e,en .. aI6er. ... 01 . ·le .•. ,on'[J~;S~cl J.:'_'. max (~CC[US a .. d.'QU.
80° and is equal to' 30200 Nm, while fCH~ Grimalkin ·R·M.1, n · ",,:.,. is onlv 17900'
..! _.I!..IIJI:J.tfi !II
N·· ." t : be ','it ~·o· 0 m a" al ,(Jill .J .. ' ,i,
A 1110Te significant difference is also found in the stability range. The Contessa .3.2 is stable up to about .1.5·.5° while zero righting moment occurs already ar about 1. [5,0 for Grimalkin. There is thus a very' small
.... . .. 'f'" '  .] " 2':~O ,} the ·c···· .' . ·fiJi; . "1 "j' ~. st .. b '1'" side 'd' '" and
range 0, angiesv zc", W aere .1 .. e v.ontessa ".l~, ]S s a, .. ,€! U.PSl e i .IO\iVn., ana
the area between _tillle RM curve and the horizontal axis is very small in this range. For Grimalkin the corresponding range is about 65.0 and the
. .' .': ." .' :', .. , ill"; . ..... . .. '. ' , t T'h' ,:. ~' " , '. . .. ,~ ~"~:., l' '. t .". ,.,. .. ' , .. ~." d' . . .. ,: b'l' ,~ .>". ~, '. d ~ ffic '1 t '~~'."
area, IS S1.g1r1 II carr ,. ..' is means mat 1 IS consioer a uy 11101 e '_ nncurr I~O
put the latter yacht ']11.10 the upright position once it has capsized. The
. .. :It r .... · , .... k . .. ·"ih. .d b ..... ".~ ... d" .. ,., ··d11 . ,,/ ... '~ ... 1 . ".' '. ;'"io . tni "'I .. ',' " . ht '., '." I
amount 0 WOl. ..... requrreq ...•. Y Wln,_. anr waves is tal ge, ~,O a, :1lS yac ..  may
b . d . id down f . . 11 fi' . t
...... ,,'_' .... _ ,',: ". " ...... I rav '. " ..... ,,'. ,.Ij ," ~: .,," ••• ' _ '",ii', .....  ,'.' . ',. _' .······1"·: .. ~. : .... 1] .' ~I. '"Ti'i ': .. '. "··T'~:·' I·"
e expecte to stay npsi ie iown _ 01], some ume, per ' .. ..;LpS at .. ew mmutes,
while the Contessa 32 'would. return to the upright position almost immediately after a knockdown.
From this discussion it is clear that the traditional yacht is safer under rough conditions than the more modern one, 111 the following paragraphs we will elaborate further IO.n the effects of waves 0'11 stability, before we present some statistics and criteria for the seaworthiness of oce anracing yachts
. _: .... ,m ..... __ .V ... ':_.: ,; _.!., .. ~.
A sailing yacht in a seaway moves ill ali] six. degrees of freedom, ie surge sway, heave, roll pitch and Y21'W. Tille first three are linear moti 0 ns ill th e 1()11 gi tudin al ~ transverse and vertical directions, while the remaining three are rotations around a Iongitudinal, transverse and vertical axis, respectively. From a safety point of ViC'~I~ rolling is the 111.08t important motion, ,an d it will be dealt 'with in this and the following section, More important for the added resistance in waves are the pitching and heaving motions, and. these will be discussed in Chapter 5.~ in COI]l ille cti 0111. with hull design,
If H hull is given a heel angle in still 'water and is then .s,ud.del1]Y teill·ea~He·d~ t]1.e righ.tim.lg fllonl!el1t '\villi] 11ll]116;diat;ely tend to p'ut the .hll..l1 u.prigllt. TIle li..ulli] st~lrts, ronin"g' ba(:J\ tOI its tlpri,ght .positio·n~ but ,dlle' to its inertia :ill.t will 110l sto:p \Vl1.ell the 'h,el~l a,n .. gle is zero, ~ Rather.~ i I '\vill COl1tin'u,e tal ro:n. o'ver to' the' othe.r sille, ·vlh.ere Ifln oplpolsjn.g rig'htirlg' ~m.iOll1t~11t d,.ev·elops. 'T.mle hull ihlen rolls bac.k (In.,d. ~orth umlJtil tl}e' motio,n is dam.pled lout_ In. f~lct~ for a, s,aflm,g yacht~ the d,ampin,g is very lliarge~ so th~e: motioIl dies rapidly.,
Fig 4, . .1. 5 ,Rio/I ampJ:if:ude for varying frequencies ,and darnp,lng
This example contains many of the important features in connection with rolling excited by a seaway .. 'Of great Importance is the frequency wi t.h which the lIu11 rolls ill th e still water tcs t: the SIO called natural
I
frequency. TIle higher the stability, and the lower the inertia, the larger
tile 'natural frequency. It can easily' 'be imagined that if the frequency of the waves 'hitting the hull in, rough water is the S3Jl1e 'as the natural frequency (res onance) " very large motions l!}.ay result at least :if the
damping is small. '"
This phenomenon is clearly borne out in, Fig 4.15,. Tl1{~ horizontal scale is the frequency of encounter of the waves divided, by the natural frequer cy of the hull, alld, the vertical scale is the roll angle divided by
th e" w .. " a· ,.le· ,:'I. r.:'!·llil O ':' 'p' I{;JI;, S) ev,':e;r'a' ~ IC"',lU··'V" .. ' e',' S":' u re.· . sh 0" '11: tn' 1'~ 11 t ~1 e:·· di .~! aI~a'" ,11:11 ea·' ,~:1"1'1 o· :['lIe' ~w· " ; tb I'
.' • • . •• f" laJ. " ~ • '.' _ . . ~ .' ',lW ", . \. , .' . u~ ",' . Yv.· " , 1.'': ._ JlL1Ci~.~, .'; ~~; " . u. '. '. . , .tr .. ,
a constant damping .. Note that the lowes curves represent the largest
d ,.
t alnpl11g.
1'.,0
If the freq .. · uency of encounter is low or the natural frequency high
' .... ' , .. ' .,' " ." ,,, . " .= .. ' ",' ,.... '_, ,.,'.' .. " .. . .' "... .,> ': =,~,
s111a11 values are obtained 0,]1 the horizontal axis. This is where all
. . _
curves converge into a value of oue on the vertical axis, The roll angle is. then the same as the wave slope. This may happen for long ocean waves after a gale, where 111,OSt hulls will follow the wave co,n~OIU,1."'. ,A, Iiferaft with a verv small inertia, ie hizh na ural freq uency \ /ill follow
(.J ~ ,'[ ,I
the wave contour for much shorter waves of higher frequency also,
since the value 0111 the horizontal scale is still 'very Iow, Ar the. other end of the spectrum ,aU curves tend to zero, This is where tbe waves hit the
h .n " t .' h . l' .' ' .. th fr .. · ,.' . '"",; tha t  t doe ..  + h r:  .' h . t ,', . to .. ··.. t" .j.. .
uu [~H SlJC a, 11 gn requency r a ' .m  toes 11,0 'l!, ~. a vie t e mime . [0 react, nn
unlikely situation for waves of any significant heigl 't.,
A. dangerous condition is when the freq ueney of encounter is close' to tJ]e' natural frequency, ie close to resonance. As appears from Fig 4. i 5
4_.8,,_,
1_._,
'F . 4 ~. J "'"~ f
'_ ,I,g '_ .. '1 ,D i f]l~' ue nee .0,:
"Section si1ap'€' On demp i ng
\
the roll angle may 'then be. several times larger than the wave slope and the yacht may capsize, 'W'e "rill 11!OW discuss lhle various means of avoiding this situation.
If tile yacht approaches resonance, ie the frequency of encounter gets close to. the natural frequency, 011.rB of these frequencies rnust be changed .. The 'most straightforward way of doing this, is. t~' change the course, S!]JlCe the frequency of encounter depends both onjhe wave speed (and length) and the speed component of the ~ yacht ill the direction of wave propagation changing the co urse \~ill change this
freq "1 ille"I'I' rv I'"f''''' the '·V· acht b"'ea' ts to' w' 'indw . ar' d lIl"::iI'ii111ij '1' 0  : " ;j"'. 'l''S n s : ~,. .' ··t'
, ...... : l.o:_'. ,'w,i '.' ,.. . lL >1 ~ ,Ui,' _,. ." . ~ . '. ': ' lu._ ' •. ' _ 'I .. (I.!IJ .. ,j' 1 ~l,[ie wa.,el ale Ille
per minute than if it runs downwind with the waves, This technique of avoiding excessive roll is used also on large ships under severe conditions. Speed reductions are also possible', of course.
'F:rO'ITl a theoretical point of view tile natural frequency rnay be changed by increasing or red U.CRJ1·g either the stability or the inertia (or ]110 re precisely, the m ass momen t 0, f inertia around a longitudinal axis). To avoid the resonance situation the natural frequency call 'be either increased or reduced .. However, in conditions where the problem occurs it is better t01 1D,O'Vle to tIle left in Fig 4~ 15,. either by' increasing stability or reducing inertia, If weights located. iat a high position ate moved down to the bottom of the hull (which is: probably closer to the centre of gravity) both these effects are accomplished.
The technique of avoiding resonance is' closely related. to the operation of the yacht, while the other way to reduce roll ~ namely to
'" d'" he desi " kv Damni b d'b
mcrease aamprng, 18 the designer s task ~ .rarnpmg mav oe causea joy
"" .. _ oJ
three things:
1.1 Friction between .. the water and the yacht, III Generation of waves on the' water surface.
I. Generation of vortices from the keel, rudder, sharp bilges and sails, This factor is by far the' most important for sailing yachts,
V', ~:f '." 0" . ",' ';(. t··· .. ' .,'' de ,. end '.r. rtlv  " tl' h '.," .. ·'r' tl];" .. ' ·'t' . ". (1'' .. F"":
O1IL.ex bene.r'l lr()11 .•... epel1.S, p,_a,r y [)t1 I.e S].aple.o "Je seClO,llS '! s.ee .. ' ,tg
,4 .. 16), but mainly on 'the size of the lateral area, Excessive rolling
.. _. . . '.' bi  . d '. 'ith ]! ' .... " ,'~,; ·d·~ ',' ' ~''', t . '.' '.].: (,, , · '1'·1 I·' '~: '".  :. f' · ~i1' zk of tl!...· ' fl :.' ,,'
CQIIJ. ... rnec wit JIJ.ow speer crea .es .,,a1 ,g"e angres ,0 al~,L,,2!LC .. ··. 0' 1 te lOW
_, , .. ;;. . ..,; zhin ,·th . k  1 .. ~ id , dde 'I ":'h' ," h th ,. . 'if , ,. ~']." d'i d d'" . t· '1']
a.ppr o'ac' Ing r e;.eie ctn'," , IU_:,' er~ w., lC .. I. _ !leI'Th gel~ Qver..,Q·a el_. a1.1 __ , saJL~
~T'rl '~' .... ' nh 1"'" ... ~·ll b" '" oja' lt with . t sc ,, . l' nath ,~ . 'C" 'ha t 'r' 6'" F"' , .nese p enomena wiu ne C ean WI.I, ]. a some engtn In .. .naprer ...... or
QL.
d' d b ~
I ",' '.., ' .: .' '1' . ",' _':__. ._. ..• ' •• " I
Hy .. rostatics an. Stal ,Idt)
Fig 4,. "I '7 Influence of 'peetlon roll dsmping= iinlcee f }l~1; ciit
Influen.c:e of waves '011.
tb _, bt'" " , e rig j aug moment
the fo . 'I"{""lPS: o I~ the sta [led .... ' .. urfaces the area is muc __ :, 1'1 11] 0, re II· npo : .. rtan t ' '11 an
'. ____: .1.'. .....!I;.f. . .,.1 . ,!!!..\o I.. , Ji . , L)! ,: ' 1. i " LJ· !o..i ",,~ Ii,..! "~. " .. 1..11. 11..:. " . '. ' . " .. J.~'" .' . 1 'c ~ (..ill '
other geometrical properties, ~H.) a long keel yacht will have more damping than a finkeel one .. This is an important conclusion, which speaks in. favour of traditional designs and against more modern ones with a smalllateral area ..
It should be poi rted out also that forward speed increases damping
,,, rLl ,'",' ,'"' ... "_", ',,_'._" I , .... ""'.:,' ,.. :'. I"., ,,_' '." ' .,1.. , .•.. "" ~., ',b
considerably particularly for finkeel yachts, If the speed is high enough the keel starts workinz prop erlv and tile forces get much larger F<·i2
I .' '. ,'  t:.,, " ~ . ..' " 0 1 .', .•.• ,. " I J' ,'. '. . . io ' ~,.' .'. , '~ ... ' .' '' '.....,. .. '. ,. '~I
4,.17 shows how tl1.crorl amplitude decays with time for Grimalkin in still water, At zero speed the decay is much smaller t]1CLIl at high speed, where the rolling '],s rapidly damped, It is, therefore important especially for fin ~ keel yachts to keep the speed 11.P under critical con di tions ..
TIle rightin g moment is influenced by waves in two ways:
Ie The wave profile along the hull changes t111e waterline shape
'. The centrifuaal forces 011. the water P .. articles change the pressure in
~ . ,
the wave
As regards the wave profile, two typical cases 111ay 11e distinguis lied " These are shown ill 'Fig ·4·.18.m Hogging is Wl1Je.l1 the wave crest is [at m idship, and sagging when the trough is at this position ~ . 'or a sai ling yacht with some flare at all sections, hogging means that the submerged part of' the hull gets thinner at the ends and beamier at midship .. , Since the water plane 1110meIlt of inertia and the metacentric radius depend OlD. beam cubed (Figs 4,8 and 4,.9).~ this results ill all increase ·1.11 stability. 111 sagging tIle opposite occurs with an. increase in beam at the ends and a reduction at. midship, ie a more even distrib mtion 0< 11 .... ' b earn, w_.~· h ich causes a' reductio n ';:n" st abilit v'" (It m ia y.:. oe
,. ' • .IIL '_, .,.~ ... _' t .... r . ,l _. _ lL.::.J. ·;.,",lIr .. fijl.1.JI ," '" ., "." . ~ . _.... Jll .. L.]. ,,~ , .J!. ,. [. '.,' '(:'_~
5"0"
,
" ,,"
F '~,!]I A 1 8'" H;' ioggln ",!Dr end
_ I g ,~,. , r ,_ Uio!,jb !C,ll., .,1: :
.5agglngr
mentioned that the effect is often the opposite for a ship 'with vertical sides a. t midshi P"~ )
For the wave profile effect to 'be significant the wavelength has to be of the same order as the hull length .. This is not' the case at sea, at least 110,t under difficult conditions, where the waves are much longer. 011. tileother 11 IDl d, the waves generated by tile hull itself often have the same length as the hull (as we will see in Ch apter .5), TIle hull is then in a. sagging condition and this n1:ay reduce stability considerably, particularly for hulla 'with a. shallow draft, where the maximum 'beam may be much reduced ip. the wave trough, A formula for this effect will be siven in the final section in this chapter.
IOoW. .'
To understand the effect of centrifugal forces some knowledge is
required about the particle motion in. the waves, This is explained in Fig 4, .. 19. When the wave passesa certain point OIl the surface the 'water particles exhibit an orhila] motion, Thus, when the: particle is ].11 'a, wave: crest .it moves with. the wave while the OP110.site is true ill a wave trough, It is easy to' compute the orbital speed, since the diameter of the, circle is equal to the 'W(;L ve height, and the time to, complete one full turn is equal to, the wave period. F'Ol" ocean waves tins speed may be several metres 'pet second,
The centrifugal effect on the water particles is, explained in. the lower part of Fig 4.,19; In a crest the centrifugal force is directed upwards, me opposite to' the gravitational force; while in a trough the t,WI) forces are i]] the same direction, An extreme case is 'wheal the two forces are equally Iarge, which OlUY happen for short a.l.1d. steep, waves. Gravitation is then cancelled ill the wave crest and the. 'water 'will no longer be continuous, but break down into' droplets .. , A hull ill. this: position will lose all 'its stability. .A. relevant question is whether it 'will still stay afloat, and the Ji11S\Vef is. yes (provided it does not capsize), It will, in fact, float at tile original waterline .. This is because the hull loses as, much weight as the water due to, the circular motion .. ,
Complete 10&8 of stability' is, fortunately, 'very rare, but significant
Wat,9:r p'Q'rllals'
~~I
w/ prof11s

~
,.,1Il
, Welg'hr C'ouni",*ir:a c't Ing
, I  
,_, !I'_'; _ i ~. , ,.  I _ 1_' _
,WeIght
F j, a 4., "~' '9 Pe rticle rn nt'i OtJ
10
'.
Uir ,a w:a lie
F[g 4,"20 lntluence of wave on the stab1ilfty curViE.I ,_, Grima] kin
reductions may occur, as s11, o wn iII Fig 4~20,., Grimalkin 's stability' curve' is, shown for a wave height of 12 metres and a. wave period of 9 seconds. These extreme conditions were actually measured in ·tIl,e' Fastnet disaster in 1979~ It is seen that 011 a wave crest the stability is, almost halved and this is at a position when the yacht is most exposed to tile wind,
III general, modern yachts have larger GMs than traditional ones due to
their I b m/d f" ' 'T] .;' 'J'~ I
". '',' oil r'·'··· "Iii ••. ',iij. :'."'.: ,: ' 'J'!ij'.'I' :. _', 'j .. ':""Pt;," "1'" 'III!,. .: _',,_'.. ." ':''; ··1'·"··~'· '"i!!' 1.
t .en iarger eam/ora t ratio. i ne scatter is very iarge, nowever ,.11 a
survey of American IMS yachts around 1990 the Iowest value was 0.!67 m and the highest 2", I rn Contrary t(), what could be anticipated, there was 11,0' definite trend of increasing GMs with length, This is an effect of the red ucti on in relative '1) e am for larger yachts (to be discussed ill Chapter 5)~ The 'vast majority of yachts, had a G,M ill the range 0.,75 _,
1 r: C; A.". _'pc .' ,,' ,., .. frrr .'. F"~:" 4' 19'" th . Y"~, AO II·  "1 U~'MI of ]1 1]1"';;; " . I ·d:,1 ~' ..
,.,J m,. ~1..S a.p 'ealS ,~lc,nl , Thg '" ~;' _".e ,U~_.'. l,as ,ll '.,'" 0, 1Il.,'''Tj In, an.: ]8
, 'b lat '.' '1 . 'I t""I'''' .w '
,. .' "': 'I "";: .'. : II'
t .us 1 e. atrve y stir .'
As for the stability range, several yachts ']11 the IM'S, fleet had a positive righting momen t 'up to 180'0 while there were other yachts which developed negative stability at 100,{J of heel. The average was 1,22°~ which .. as 'we have seen above, 11rIUst be considered a relativelv low
~ ~ ;r
value from a safety point of view,
,A rapid way 'Of judging the stability 10:["' the yacht 18 to' compute the 8'0
'l'll' d D'" Il b '1  ] Thi '.   .  t I tl } 1 '1 th l m]
", ", . '." • . ," ._. , ' '.... J', ,". '_. '"', \0001'; • • " '. II' ... ," 'l'III!!', .:' '. ' .... .. • ." ,'" ~.' ,,', ,' .' " " .. ' •• '. ,. • I " " .
c,a .. e'_ .e .. Ien],a~ug,][ ang.e. . .. 1S IS dP',P.r Q,Xlll1a, eyle lee ang. e I, Ie lU, ,
will attain when sailing tOI windward in" a 18 l11.1S breeze." The angle is computed from a ~imple formula (given in 'Fig 4,.2ru)~ containingthe sail area, heeling arm, G,M a III d displacement. Tile heeling arm 1S defi ne d as the vertical distance between the, centre of effort of the sails and the centre of lateral pressure of the underwater body, (Both will be discussed
~ .
later. .. particularly in 'Chapter 8~) Most modern vachts fall within the band
;} ,II '. _I' ,.
of Fig 4.,2 lli " which gives the. _ Dellenbaugh angle versus the waterline
" .
len .. gth, 111e: ·,differe'l10e, between stiff and tender yachts is about 6° for all
1· igths F' "',.,' ".' l'O~I'" L' ',: acl 'l the "'"'1 " 'l· ~. ,~,t ... ' .... , r .. ,,'::.. 'b,; .. ··t···· : .. ;~.'," l'''o , ' d·:' ell:,.. !S .. , ,01 a , .... 111 "Vi/L Y,(t·. iLl. ,l, _.,e d.fl,g],e ]'8 ~,11,e1. e,1 orr!~ . ,e _ \v,eeu.. " ,_' an·· .. _,
19°~ and tile value for the 'Y,D40 is 13. 6° ~ which confirms the finding above that the yacht is quite stiff, Note that the Dellenbaugh angle says nothing about 'the stability at large angles of heel.
St bill"" ty . t~' t t,
,._',a', "1 ' :,,' sta nsncs
Fig ,4,. , 1 Dellenbs luglJ ,an;g/e
,/}elle'n'b',D'ug,h, an'gie [df/lg)
30
20 
:',0
0' I
" As~' MA'I rn» 'r.:;,U'
A.s ,~~ son areo' (frIQ'!stulrar) [rn 21 ,riA ~. H;eelfn,g' clrm'[m:1
m ,. D" .· .. forop· ta · ..... .m· :·~I!'1I'f' Fk' . ','OJ;
, ~ .". ·,t~:"' ". ~ go': ., ~l~if ': t. ~··'~:'I "
:GAl.~ &f,ef,a[cenlr{~' hiilllg.ftf Iml
I, I I J I ~ I i , i J I I ~ I  I I I I i 1
F, ....... I J= I I 1+ + t 
"" _. _
, _ I I 1
~'~  
I I I ~ I I I I I I,
' 
I  "."  I 1 I I +
~ '.
~ ''_'.  ""7"" I
 . . .~  I
~. , , .. T.s'ndier
" .,.""
I , 1 ~ ....... ,~./ 1 I I 1
~  1'  
I .. ~ I~ ~ , I I
'_", I ~
, ...... ........  f I
~ ~t;f;;1 '   ~ I I I
" ~ l I~I r'
~I r>  ~ I   I ~,
1 .,;_. .......
'1 _ " l ~~ 1 1 
...... ~ ..
,_
_L' ! ~ H r ~ I I ~
1  'I ,
,_  1 1

~    I ~
, I I )
I
, __ II I ,  
I _, I I
I" I '  ~ 
I 1 I I ,
_I , ......
II"""  (.mJ:·
'I 1"':':"
 ~,
12
Assessment of seaworthiness
It is extremely difficult tal find rigO'fOUSI criteria for I he safety of offshore yachts, 'We .have touched upon several factors of importance in p 'I"!'IP>V··~IO·lllS' sectio ms but when l~t t'o;(·I·)'II··""IIe·· .. s to" dynamic effec ts 1"11" a,' se .. away
~ r . ~ \.. . ill '. IIJ.;;UI . L.· .II.  .II, ~I" , •• " 11Jr... vv Lr , , Ll ':' Io.l. .. " : " ... ",. . . '. ',' ~ _. ,1 [~ . tOl ;'.' Ll.,~ 1r''If I'll!' .
little quantitative information has been given, Nevertheless, the' problem is of great importance and work is under way 'I o develop criteria for yachts. of 6 lTI up to and including 24 m length, endorsed by the International Sta ada .. rds Organizati O'D (I3:0) .. '~
The general idea is to define a 'stability index', STTX., obtainable from the main dimensions of the YIJ.ch( and its righting moment curve. Different qualities of the de s·'· gn of importance from a seakeeping and safety point of 'vi ew , are identified and expressed j[n the form of factors, which are multiplied to, obtain the S'TIX., 'The factors are explained below, T"" Fig 4~22 the exact formulae are given,
Base .le,tgtli factor (.LB~S)
TIle size of the yacht is: the single most: important parameter, when assessing safety at sea, since i defines a seale with which to measure the waves, The larger the yacht the smaller the relative size of' the waves, In this approach the size is Sl1.11P Y . aken as a weighted average of the length overall and the waterline length.
Displacement Iengtk factor (ED.L)
A. light displacement relative to the size of the yacht may be considered a disadvantage from a control point of view and is therefo e penalized, . I. appears from Fig 4~22,. The formula is designed to yield ,8 'value 0'" l..lO fa a normal' yacht, and the minimum and maximum values used in t .e STIX computation are 0.75 and 1. .. 25, even though the actual ralue rna b_' outside this range, Similar principles apply a18'0 to the other ractors below,
Beam disp'.ia;ce",J·ellt' factor (FBD)
Based 011 research carried lout in both England (Wolfson Uriit, So ith .',.' ot .... ). ,i.' .. d th: ·U··S·A (S' : .:. tv ·· .. f N:',',,· ."~ A, ..... bi .. tects ,." d M······ ",',
." out . I illl1.p 011.... al.l... . e '. ".t~ " .. " OCle.y 0, av,ai .' . lfC ~I, ec,rS], aIle , r. . .alll e
Engineers} after the Fastnet disaster, it has 'been. 0011Cl\J,ded that a large beam ill combination with light displacement accentuates the risk of waveinduced capsize .. , The hull .81s10 gets more stabile: upsidedown,
W· ;·:1, .; ch 1'· c u 111 c '}' e Q i ra 'I): 1 ,e·· 0'" '. n th e, o the 'I~' ha" nd . a v e: I""Y"' CI ITI nil al ~ b :' e: .''':l m t" o ",
LoU.""" .L::Ji. .. .. ilL. . . ..:n,~ ., . '. ". .. '., .l. . .1.. ..., _. " . i]1 LllliL!!L .. .!l! .. '''JIL.. .
disp Iacernen t ra tic may hill ve a nesa tive effect on the. form sta bilitv so
.... ·.>_·.· .. "_e' '.",= ,. "': ·.c· .. :. ,(: ".0'(' .',': .~ ..   .. ' ~ .",.' """J~ .. '
large deviations ill both directions from the 11'OflTI are penalized
, ,I ~ • I .:, '. . ". • • I .:_," , ',.. ." !.... _' _ ...,' .' L,..,." ..•. .I."!lool~ • • . ".' I " i. ~ '.: •.••. ... . ' •• 1
Knoekdown recol'el'Y' factor (FKR)
A mea sure of the y.' acht's ab ulity to reco ver unaid 'e' .d afteran in 'V'::"I,co'I",·C!}"'O,]l'
, " • 1;,' .• \1, .... '.',.. "'~X '. ' .. r ~ (,..;"I,.=.U, ." I,. 1.1 ··Y·.··.,·d! . '.'  '. __ . II: IU . .Jl, :._ \.r.! L.lI '.~' .1Ii
. .
Dynamic st.ah'ility lac:to.,~ (ED.S)
As shown in Fig 4· . .l S, the area under the righting moment cu:rve 'up to a certain heel angle 'represents the work needed 'by external forces (from wind and waves) to heel the yacht to this angle. This is utilized. in the
,(I' \lII' :':1 rn ; C··: s t· a'L'b' rili .," t y: .' fa c· to ':"1" "f('$1 ~1: ('': h '}' S··' pro p·IIO.· rti on 'a; t "0':· t h ,e· a rea un d . er t he
.J . . LII .. JL. .11.. . .._ _ _ .. ", . (.I, .'. • y,\ w......1. , . ; . .11:,. : '.' ,II. J.:~. ,". . . . '. " . .. (; .. ""l,. . ." ,"I ". . Ii;,,?
righting moment curve over tile whole stabilitv range, ie up to the allele
~ 1_ ... 1 1 • " r~
of vanishing stability, However, if the f st downflooding angle is
:t". '4 :)., ,
~,  FKR FlIER ,;:
,~V',D ,;_ r:,,LA .~
f"  4 J' J' ,S·"Tl'V. teb ~'I""f :". ,..J,.,,.,, (0" "1 ,. "'1" 1 Dolto E' lies ~o'n'l M" " ,': )' I g .e:«: ""I J /\ .5,[..:1 t. h Y J nue x I ,ossa n en I ' . mJI ,~, I' ' ,I' .=!!5, , _ C:' _, Don '
'H d ,. d S' bili:
, Y,·' rostatrcs an .• ·. Stabi rtv
smaller, tile area should be computed U:P to this angle. The downflooding angle is defined as the heel angle at which a downflooding opening becomes immersed, T11e: opening may 'be tOI either a main 'hatch, OT to a recess which is not quickdraining ..
Wind moment factor ,.I'
(FWM)
For hulls w ith a downflooding angle smaller than 90° this factor represents the risk. of downflooding due, 'to' a gust heeling tl1.e unreefed
. r
b oat rr.
' .
..... . ·iii
.
,D'(} J;V TI:!looilin:g .Ia,ct or (FDF)
TIns factor represents the risk of downflooding ill at knockdown.
STIX is. obtained from, the formulae at the top of Fig 4",22~ Different relations are used for blase 1 engths below and above 10 rn. Based 0111. the STlX number, the yachts rare classified in four different categories,
AD· .. ·,·I Tl1~ lim .~. its fO':""I~ the different ca tegories a re' given in Fie 4,'; 'J'? A'··
_ I, '_ ._.~ ~ 1, lLJ .. J .iILi.. .... ,l.~ : _" __ ," ~._ ... ' ._ ..... _ .. 113..'" :. ,11. '_ ~r  b .~_'." "
yacht in category A is considered very' seaworthy and should, be 'lit for ocean passages, 'while a yacht in category D should be used Ol]_[Y' 111 sheltered waters,
As appears from the figure, the YD40 has a ST,LX of ,46 and is, thus very well qualified for category A,. Only' the displacement length, far tor .is below' 1.0 and even this, is very' close (O.99}" The strongest points uri related to the righting moment (FKR and F',DSI) and the' downflooding angle (FD'F)~ In Appendix 3 the complete S'TIX calculation f :r YD40 is pres en ted. 'Note that the calculations shall be ca ried . 'I for tile SOl called 'minimum sailing condition which is the 'light ya "'1[' ~I) t\VO crew s a liferaft and SO'111e standard equip1melat.,, I ie Iight ve ch t corresponds to the light displacement of Appendii 1~ The . alues for the hull dimensions in Appendix 3 have been interpolated to the minimum sailing condition between tile two conditions ill Appendix 1.
The stability index has been developed by' V,a]1 Oossanen, Dolto, Eliassen and M"OOJl in an ISIQ working group ISO/Tel 188fS'C WG ,22 under the chairmanship of A G Blyth. The work is presented here 'by perm iission ,0" f t h ,PI I S::··IQ .. · '.. It sh ould bIe' s tres sed tha u the '~taI1:1' d a rd has no' ·,t
.. ',"  fiJlll.JI "" ,I .1. ~ " '._. ','iii . " I ·.·.· .. 1 .:.~ ~ . .:: .~~:L·1L"".··.:I:_ . J ' ', ", ...:!II. ~ .u. : L:.I~~_" 1.1 .rL11 .
yet 'been approved (January ',999), although it is in its final form for approval.
H'U"'L'L"
, •. .... .• ' •....
., .,
D'ES"'" G"'N'
. . I": . . '. '.:.' "~..:' ". . . . ,
,'1,'.', , '. ',.',! ... <
l I. ,l"~" .• '_' .
11 this chapter 'we describe the theories behind 'the hydrodynamic
,!? '
d·" , "0;  .'.".'. f'~" th ,,'. '}', ']]' 'W" rz., "tl " . , .. t'i b : ":'1 "t' ,'. d'" . ,:' , ro 't '1· ' '," " ., ,,' . , 1I f ': ,~\:'!J;" ,'. ;,' tin ,
les16]1 0._, tne IU ... "., ".,.f: stan I·Y mtrot U,C]110 .ne Va.11Q,Ut; rorces acung
, ,011 a sailing yacht, and explain how the forces are created 'by the flow around the hull. Formulae will be given for the force components, and th ';:=Ii tr 'ad PI offs in the h 'U" 111" d 'e' "' ..... }' O'n pro ce ~ 'w"';1'1' b p d 'e,c'l'] t "',];11',tI11 <1+ som e
ItJlUJII. ,: ,Ir;....' I,' ¢;;Ii" ,1"""""",, ~ ,;], _" ~ ,',_,'i;;_, ,_. "'_' ., '_ ";;" b:' ,:':11 ...IV<:)i.::,';;' J!!,,_,,_ ,1,,","' :" ,I'" '_ 'If~ ,_'" ClI~ i.:) ",' i. . ,.'. ,.'
I ." h F ~ al '1 t l' ,W . " 1 "]J t t .' '. lli '. b b d'
!"~' .. :.''' , "",,:" ' .r "··[· .. ··,~'I.·· . ::;: '~, '~,:.·:'''Iil·l .. , ":"':",' I' ;'1 '" '_:'.' I~·.· I" 1 .....• ".' .. 1l_ ":.'~ I 'I',: J~' r:" ,d' ": ." ';I"·~ .. I··.·,,··:
engtn, , in .uy, mer e ,]8 a section on ]U ,SI' a rstics, W rucn may .. c lLISEL __
as ,3, guide for selecting the main dimensions of a. new design,
Fig 5.,1 shows the different forces acting '011 8, sailing yacht, III the plan vi ~;n1 the horizontal compo ill' ents of ... the ~·O·'iI,.:: ..... ,,.;J!;'Q' are d "I" sp ila ved When the
"!i,.. ... 'I''I''..l,:" ,],,: ,1Z,l. ,Jl 1~.jl .. " .. ,", .•. "".'I .. ,,~ ... 11,1\;.1 l':JI..C!!...r'" ',' 'Ik.., 1S1""J.Iibi,., ",'l.ilj,,>J .... '>
hull 'is driven through the water a resistance is developed. Under equilibrium conditions, when the yacht is sailing at constant speed, in a given direction, the resistance. has to 'be balanced by a driving force from the c ,'? . ils U",+;·,",t'·'~'I",·,1']",·" this 1""""""'1 be "', ated witho t at the
rom. e sal $" .·.,nl(}rl.lnale'_',Y:J' ~ 1S can,no.! "e crea e., WL.,OU_".at .. .e
. :' .' rm I.': ti "I~ obt, ;, . ;'.  !J ~': .. id .... ,C',~' = wh :;;, hi, ~ " 'il'. "'.,.' 'ill'" I ':,.' 't·· 'I'j b .... bs '1', " ."..,' d bv a
same .. ime 0. ammg a :u .. ae 10Ice, V\. mCI.1D turn . nas 0 .. e iaianceo oy a
hydrodynamic side force The latter is developed 'bly 'the underwater body when sliding slightly sidewards, ie when the yacht 'boas a leeway angle, Since the turning 11101m.enl under equilibrium conditions must be
'" .~,. 'tI'·· ,. '".c·· ,'1 t' I, . ,c, ·h·'" dn , . d "I"';' d'I'I" ~''', "I .. ', . f C '""1L c· (i t he 'h' , " .. ' t'·,· . 'I
zero, I, ae resu .111g . y, ro ano aero I YllaJTIlC : ,OfeeSJ,n,: ie .onzontai
lane) al h lin
" ~, . ' , " ",' , if:·,"" ; . ',' ' ,c, " '", ,f:\1 '; ,c" , " . I "
P', ane .. must act " ,IO.Il,g t e same '" ie,
TI . '1.'" r.'~ .~. th b ~ t " .. .' ;f~' 'Fi ,. ,:.' 1 ., tlo 0"' the d'," '., " "t'·· '. . .',', f'~ ',, i, " 'I'~
l'~ view at "~o:eOIJ .. l111 0" .. rg ,J,;., ~S' aiong i" 'Ie" recuon U motion. .l
is seen that the resulting hydro and aerodynamic forces. are at right
· .' "al .o 'tOo. ::.. t.t ,", '. _. . 'AI't·· 'T'I']' .':,_'"ii '.:" ',c.' 1+' .. '. "",>,,,'. "I, ,,', ': ,,.,'; 1 ... · ,;""" 'I'" "t1,. t'~'''''I=I ':, 1':'1; . t it ~.. .,'" ,,'
angles 0 ne mast, i ms ts not necessar LY exac 1,Y J UE\ JU, u IS. an
.' " , .. . " .. '""". ", ti 1)" th ·t ,'. alwa , ".', ,.,..l .• ", . '; ''"1,:' .. ' '.' "'. ··h t th ~. ~,. ':T"h' h' ,', .c,],~  I'·
apptoxima I(Tl ra IS a ways maae III saiung yacnt t .. eery. lie. eenng
moment from tIle aerodynamic force is "balanced by' the righting moment from the buoyancy force and the weight,
,= . . ~ , _, . '.' ;(;, ~. """ ~,_ " , .., '._""  , :   I
'I" F:'",~' ]11 tl Q, '_l ',':'",". ' ent .: zind d .:'~'" _'f~'.: '_ ".,  ," .... 'k"''!;;'d 't .. ,,:, .,' '~t ,'. "1:',·,: '.'.',' 'T' "]'. " ,
. .11. " l,g J." c .le. a pp aren, _ V\1l11 .. ·... . II e c lu,O'll IS 111 ar " 'e'·" illy a J. a. _: arro w,o; ,,·lIS
is not the trtle "win,d direction,~ s;iD~ce the 'wind felt ,o,ub'oard, 'tile 'y,lcht is
,~ ~
influe11c,ed 'b'Y its sp,ee,d througll th,e ,air., Fig 5,.2 illu,str.ates tiie. .relations
't ' h t'" d' " , ,. "j' d d d'~ t··' . 'J [I dO'
...• "., , ' ":~ ":. f ~',.' _.  'I~' 'I'~' .' . '. ',_ " "' .. ', ...: .. ,',' ".'.:: ". ". . ,'.' .; ..... , ,'. I'··' '. 'l.li "j''''' _" ..... :': .' I~"'" J ••• .. :,.
,ehve,el1, t ,e_fUU:: an"" ap'parellt W,ln,c st)ee,,:s ,an: .. 1_,ueCJons~ tle SOC,l, e,
'velocity tria.rl,gle,. Nate tll,at the 'wind, created, 'by the 'yacht .speed (w'hich 1111~sl be used 'wlle'TI ,ad:dil1g: th,e; win,d 'vectoTs) is o'pposite to the. arro'w' sll.'own as y,a'cht speeld in tlle figure.
Tl ,". . .... m. '. '. ~ .. t',·" ,,"' ". ':'}] d'·· .. '1~1' I~" ·'·1 " , .,:"'t:t..· ·t"]·,·· ',,,', ~, 1 ~"r' ,', ",', Iif" c', ,.' .... ,. . .'. d' '. "t' .
,mliS eID,la p'IJel Will .., ea,n ]]l,alrI ,y W]. 11, le' I e,81S1u.dJ1C,e lOl ce an,. ,II,S
,com,pi,on,e.nts~ and ho,'w it can be minimized, by proper d,esign", 'TIle side 'lforce w,ill bie C011sili,d,ered ita tIle 11,e.xt cllapter itl eOllD,ection witll, the
d'" . " .. ,'~.. .·f k'· 1"" "d  , d'd' l'·" ·t'h"··· . 'h ,, ... ': .~ l' ..   '~bili' ""
1S'ClISSI011 10, ,; ee san': rlt, ,.:elS" SJflCe "II,es,e :L_av'e pl,11nalY re,sp'on,sl.·· .. ty
fbf the '~ide force p'rod'llctio'n
, .... , .' . '~" .. / ,' .. " .. ~ ,I,'· , ._, . , ". ".1 !'
,~
L,_tJ1way' Qngls,_,
/'
,
/ /
)'
A,ppar.nf wind QI'l'gJI9
Hyd'rod;yn'Q,m,/c ,',
iil!l!,I'..I'.1 tor , , , .;;Ii',f'Y'U' 1I'ii,I CI!J!
wi'n,d
/ /
~ __ + ~== _ _....!i_ [Hesling
'forc'.
H.'"....1d:"  Q .... '1, jUiI:"w.':"IlI, r.~, tea
lerc.
BU1t)yrz,n[l::Y fQ!,r:r;'!fiI
58
Principles of Yacht Design
,Fig 5".2 velocity triangle
'. ,"" h .
Fig 5,.3 Upn'g' t reststznce
YD4D
R [Il t t'
esss ance components
,I
\
.r1"'Ue win,d angl~1
Apparf!J'nd w;lnlCi""
,angi!!).[ \ ' '" ",
\"",'
• ,~
..
N' [NJ
, ',~~,
J
,4tHJO t=~~~,;~~~~~~______"'~~.===;r=~,:"I'I,!, :i
,I
3CJO'lJ ~,F ~........e~~4+!!+fi!~~+I.,._'~' ~
l
/
2'(J.{JD 1I!~+~iI~~+~If~+~~+~+~+~I
/
Fig 5,3 shows the resistance curve for the YD'40 if it were to be towed
I'"'' ",'1 rt "" ,," ",' ',", t h "~I"~': 'It ,',~ A:' t 1'"'''' '" ":"1'." eeds the d ': "",~",~, tir ('I ",',," "", c, ',,", t' ,':, '" tl ,',
upng }II, In smoot , water, ' ,'"OW speec S Il~, .e uommanng componerr IS , ae
","", ...... ,., , ":',.,.~~.:""" .... ,, d I"" t fricti al ,C~"'>" bef "",','_",'," the I nl [,.' d the ""': ..... ter
'VlS~OUS res~:sI~,~ln,ce, :_ ue 'uO' .ncuona rorces oerween I .e ,]U .. u an, [ 1,1 e water,
The friction gives rise tc eddies of [different sizes, which contain energy
left behind the }'i ~1' i ... th '~··.;I]:.I: Ttl,". "",.':. :'I·····~ tent · ,:~·','·'·,··>"·,:',,·:l:.,t·'"~I,~l",,, ie "e~.11n,~e nuu m tne wake. ,. ,~11.s. component increases 1 e a nv e y
slowly with speed, as I()P,POSf(l to the second component, the wave resistance, which occurs because the hull generates waves, transferring energy away, The sum of the viscous and wave resistance components is often referred to, as the upright resistance.
In 'a rea] sailing situation. the picture is more complicated, particularly upwind in a seaway, Fig 5, .. 4, Sl10'WS: a breakdown of the total resistance of the YD'40 bleating: to windward offshore at 6 .. 8 knots in 'a fresh
Flg 5 ~4· Breakdown of total te sists n ce, 'Y'D40
[N} t[XJ
1572" "_ ~   ._ .. _ r~~~~~~~ :_. ' ~ ~ . , . tOO
1429: _ '' ._ .. _ ~  ~
't;JOO '120t
eo
"
,Upr~ght
lS:44 . 59(3 53[5'
breeze, 'TIle 'values of' the resistance components are sho .In to t e 1_',' 1 ' _I computed 11Y the. formulae to the given in this chapter, All con p nen S
aI"'e' a 1 s o g. rive '~1' in I °hl of t 11' e· I ~L 0 tal fo rc I~e···· W' :.' e w: ·il·1 refer e . ten Sl" v 113'1, .
, (:_".._,., ... !' ·,·.ill u ',_' __ lL·· L.tJ.. .... ',_," .~. _' '._ I \..:lLa .. L. L ~ rll!"
fi sure in the fo .... 1']·0···\'1·"1'· II' 0 di scussion
.~[Ib .. . .::.' . '. ·Pf,.1 . ',b ~ ... I(!I'~'" . "= .•
The ViSGO'llS resistance has been subdivided into components to be discussed later. ... As well as the viscous and wave comp nents we have three 'new forces: heel, induced aDd added resistance, TIle heel resistance 'is the S;1111r1 of the changes ill tile. viSICOIILS· and wave resistance due to heel. This C'Ol111)011e.Jll is introduced in sailing theory [or convenience, Since methods for obtaining the two, resistance compone uts for upright hulls are we ill 1 established in ship hydrodynamics it is an advantage to consider t be effects of heel separately ~
The induced resistance is: caused by the leeway. When the yacht is moving slightly sidewards, water flows front the higher pressure on the leeward side, below the tip of the keel and rudder, and .a]80 be] ow the 'bOttO'111 of the hull to the lower pressure on. the windward side .. Longitudinal vortices are then created, Most sailors have probably SetHI the vortex from ~11e keel tipl at large heel angles, WhJeTI. the vortex gets close tal the surface, air is sucked down into its centre which makes it '\1$]1 ble, The vortices con tain rota tiona I. energy left behind the hull.
In a seaway all the calm "rater resistance components are increased .. due to' the uns eady motions of the yacht, However, it is a.n ,(; dvantage to lump all the changes together iW1tO' one C'OtTI.pO nent, called the added resistance ill waves. This. component is. represented at tile' top of the bar III Fig .5 .4.,
To sum LLP, we have five major resistance components: the viscous resistance, the wave resistance, the heel resistance, the induced resistance
. ~ .
59'
,:.":
so u
P'· inl fV hD j,
rillnClp', es '0' ' YacntUesrgn
'_ 1, ,
and the added resistance in waves, We will 110,'\J/ discuss them in turn and S110W' 110\\' they are affected by' th . e shape of the hull,
Fig, 5 ~,51 Diiiesen: reg ions in the' Ilow eround the hull
Viscous resistance derives its 'name: from the fact that it is the viscosity 'of the water fila t gi ves rise, directly air indirectly, to, this resistance component. The water 'viscosity' (kinematic), denoted 'v depends 'on the water temperature, At ?,Of~ Celsius it is ], ~O ;0 lO6 In2/s., 'We '\/Vi11 use this, value :]11 the following discussion. Viscosities for other temperatures may be found in standard tables, For estimates of the ViSGO'lfS~ resistance the. present value is good enough",
To understand the nature of ViSCOllS resi stall ce. certain concepts of II [tid mechanics must be known, TIle most important ones from this perspective are explained full, Fig .5.5,.
Whoever has looked down the side 'of a. ship moving in reasonably calm water I11US.t 'have seen that the water close to the hull is entrained 'and moves with the hull, It looks as if the WItter particles. closest to the, hull 'were stuck to the surface. This is, in fact the ease, The molecular forces between the hull and the water are strong enough to stop" the relative motion ill the innermost water layer. Viewed from the hull the water velocity increases gradually fr'ornLero at the surface to approximately the ship speed a certain distance away, The part of the flow within. this distance normally less than I m for a large ship is called the boundary layer .. , 011, a smaller scale, the same phenomenon occurs 'with a sailing yacht. At the 'bow the boundary layer is 'very thin, 'but grows backwards attaining a thickness of the order of 0,.1 In .near the stern, T11e boundary layer of Fig 5.,5 is thus grossly exaggerated for clari t,y,:: .
'" "I~. ,.'
' '
Near the bow the flow within the boundary layer is sm ooth. The
velocity in one layer is sli ghtly larger tl12111 ill the layer just inside This is the laminar P'I' art of the boundarv layer, After a. certain distance from
, , J ,
tile 'bow disturbances start to occur, and shortly thereafter the flo .. w
structure breaks d,OW11 into a seemin zlv chaotic state: turbulence. The
~' "
boundary Iayer is. now characterized by eddies. of different sizes and
frequencies. The fluctuating velocities caused by the eddies are, however,
'i .1"1'. , ji ,iI' , ' ub' Iav ,',
1r,I,SCO'!iiI/"S ,5' ,,·,,~~~t!J',r "
baur» r:J',,~ ,!l.;!I'I~',· ,,:,:,'~'~,'
N' 'I"
, _ .....
" ,0,·8,,,:
S'Ir""iI~"a~'l""",II"':!i' ... ~~.Iytl' ~IJI~ l~~'I'
.Lorr"l8<'Y g,ddf:9'$
. ,~
,Sm',al./a r
\ Turbu/en' bg'undory
\ ~r~'~"""'"""", .!,aY6r
'j
"'L... i _, , ,_, ~ ,_, I , __  i _, i _ II ,_, jl ,_, Ii ._ " _, • _ J~ ,
61
,
considerably' smaller than the rnean velocity at a11 points in the boundary layer, S'D the. flow is always moving backwards,
A. special region. can be distinguished in the inner part of the turbulen ~ boundary layer. 'This region is extremely thin. If the total boundary layer thickness over the main part of the yacht is of the order of a few ce 11.1 irn etres, the inn er region, ca l'~ ed tile viscous sub layer ~ is of the order of' 0,. ~ 0111:1.., N evertheless it plays ,q uite an. imports n t role,
P ".:111 ~I'It:·C· t .~.1".~ rly in c ~O": in  n PC:C.f!l·' 0·': n with sur f':1"~1 ce ~i"'O""IIU' g'111 ~n:~' ess "':'.Ii ,~. we w':1'"11 see In ·tl·h· e:'
l~.JL, ;' :: . ·~.1"~.llt 1: .IIl.... ..': .. ' .' "... . ¥. f~.. ." .,', . . u· J[ el,. ..... "l ,lL.·. . . , . 1..1IIo.JI ~ Q .. C~ 11'''''.'' ~I I ... ' ~ .. \.;., .. '
viscous sublayer the flow is. mainly laminar, but is sometimes disturbed b,y turbulent bursts" Iocated at isolated spots, ID.OVW11g downstream with the fiii ow
Ji.J..\.I._ .. 1f,'~' 1.1
~
TIle region where the AOI'w' changes from laminar to turbulent is
called the transition region and is normally very short. Tl1 'Fig .5.~5 .it is,
'L d ..
.. 'r r ". ... ..  .
mar ceo as, a point.
Close to tile stern another flow' phenornenon, called separation may occur, If the atern is]' very fIlII, the ftOI'W C311]10t f ollow the surface and
b" ., '''·d ';;., ', .. y., ""d:":,: '. '.  .. idlv . ru '~'I" t.. U": Ir f', '11<'. tl; o. 'fl'" J isest t; ". the
. en '. rn w ,at. J~, as rapic ',y as t:1 e nuu, .0 . act, ae .11 ow eM O'~HE:::.;, I) II 01 ~ ~ ... e
.S urface stops and farce s the fl O'W further out to proceed it! a direction
,. ] "·t·· k dl'L ddi d '1' , d"· . d . ]
.' '1 ' ... ...:.; ... ! I.,:. i ',01! •.•• 0  ~'.'" .... ' . .'. .... , ... :. ····1 '. ~ .. ,' •. .'!i".... ..'.' 1'': ''.'~. " ':".\~"..' ....  .... j ... '1 . ··1..... rnr: I:~":~" .'. "]':'·1 .;:..  ~"'"
more sti aig .. it aackwarc s"aIge e, _I. nes ieveiop, as in reatec III LIe
figure. It should be stressed th art these eddies are much stronger than ..
I l~
tho e 0;11 es in the t urbulent boundary layer, The mean flow 'n1 a y now
m· . 0·" V"IP forw ard It:· W"····'11·;:]e·· '1' t l' ·S···· lID"· .. possible 1"11 practic .. I~ ·t,o·. ..• 'a' V' 'oid transit ,; o' n to .
. ' .. ~ \. ... "w IUI.. .. _ri]il~, ._ JIJ JI: .. '.~' ~ .'" L1. ... ~ _ • .Jt ... I_!!.JJL.JL';' ._ t~_ ... V_ .. ·_ . u..LW._t];~ ,tW.'" I ..
turbulence in. the boundary layer on a sailing yacht, separation Sl10,u1.d definitely be avoided, since it increases the resistance considerabh ..
'D;" ... '... . '.' , '. ;.; ,." iod ... ,11:~ tl: '" 110':'" "R:' .; ,",,' ", ~.' . , ...  , t ;;  li:~' .. ".... ._. ~ . 'do; tc
.Uflfl.g ,Oll.e .perl[~. 'O.~.~1e . . ,el HI, vel Y lLUIf'Ven s e:l.n nl~b ,;yeM f U.Sf:.. _ 0
'cheat the rule', i,e to reduce the rating, but the price paid was a slower yacht, and after some corrections had been introduced into the rule this type of stern} disappeared,
TIle viscous .resistance may' be subdivided 111.10 three components; the direct friction 011 the S111.0oth surface, the pressure imbalance between
I f d af b di d' he b d '11 d the i .,
t .iefore ano afterboc ies " ue to the bounc ary iayer, and t ie increase 111
friction due to; surface roughness, We. will no,~ deal with these components individually,
'F", .• ' ''!IL''';','''I'' : .'J' . , , .. ~' : t ,.,.. :; ,.'
 .. [IC,lt.lona, .. [1e8IS ,~nce
Havi 19 introduced some important concepts related tOI ViSCOI1IS resistance 'we are 110W ready to discuss the first and ILTI.Ost important com ipo nent d u PI ·to'''\ the d irect friction bet ween th e·' 'W: ···~l.t.,e·'III. an d the '~~TiII]l
.'. _. ll!.. ~.j..I.. ill " : '' .. J , . .1 .. , .'. Jll 'Ii.! , ' I ''I..:., '~""" ' .. ~' \'P'f~.· _. ,·1 _ I~)~f .1. I(.IJ..._, ll[~. [.1,U~ "
. J •
surface. Although the water does not slip, along the surface, a resistance
force is devel oped , because the layer of w·at,e.rclos,e:st [X) the: 11 ull is ~:]'1' 19..: uen  ce d .. ·· bv the n PIX' t Iay er w·· . l'''1i11"'C,· 'l}, .~ ~ moving b iack ·W'·· a rd II;;" 'T'h';:,Q in ·t·lll r '1'1 1'· C'
,lI..~._ ~.'; ~' . ."_: _ . J' ... ~ JIl v. .... _ JliQL~!I~' "." ' .. JL,.. Mel!.1 1[ .. : '. ~ .1 .. ·.. _'""!~~V' .. : _' .....• __ 1 ... Q~I .. JIl.ri)1 lli , . I, .... .D
affect!ed b'Y ;f_,ul.otbuer 'adjacel1t laYl3r~ tllld. sOlon" TillIe fri!ctio.na] force is in fact 'proportio1llal to the rate at 'vvhiell th_e .spleed of'Vvater i:n.crease's, witb the distari"ce frolm. t11 e s'll.rfaoe.
SOlme co.n.clu~siQ,nsl as to; tile frictiolTa] reSis,ta]lCe :may 110'W' be ,(lrawl1.,;, 'First Sil1.0e tlie friction ·.L\'cts 1011. th.e hul'~1 surface;, ]rrinin'llzin.,g the w·etted. Slllirfacife are'a U1USt l")e ad.vanta ge:Olls) .• , 'Tllis .inlpifovem:ent is resp··honsible. £or
._ .
·t h~ 1'·I',iIC·:· ·I"·e··a; il;2'le·· :; lttl:· l:' p" 'e:e' d·: ~. o· ,.: f" 11" e· w·· . . ,..::I' Q~~'r 011'~ l'~ 11 t, ]'1 .. ~ ~ 9' 6· · '0':', s···· ·w,··,· he· '~lll' t'lle" fi···· n" ·k· c.:..e II ·w.··· ··'9 Ci
_ _~ _ill·. I ••. '" Ll! '.lbill. .J1.i1· '.' . III .1 lt~~lIlC{.L .. I~I . ,,_. '. _"_ ~ .w, _.1., .'  .. · .. ill 1.11 '.' ..  .. : '. l Jl ,. 1(.:t; .. Cli
il1tr,od.lRced." tD.arkin.g a cOJlsid.er·able ~['e~(luctiol1 ill tIle "netted surf~Lce."
F~ ,. .:ro;:' t: 'V" 1 .. ··· . . 't l
~.g o.o .~ e.: DeL}
distribution in the fa 1"11 i fkl r . '·d·:·[· '6'1; ·fa 'I'f I· c" .. ,d·"·":':i·  .. afl . OfU ~n,~ .JJ(JO.:a.fY
lever
Secondly, since the velocity distribution in. the laminar part of the boundary layer is. different from that In. the turbulent part, the friction is' different .. , In the laminar case, the thin water lavers affect each other
 .  .' ,,;!.'  
only by molecular forces, which .are relatively weak, while ill the
turbulent case. adjacent layers :B:!'e more strongly connected due to the "stirring' effect of the eddies, Typical 'velocity distributions ill the t'vVOI
types of boundary layers are SI1rO'\\1'11 in Fig' 5.0. .~
Since the 'velocity' increases much more rapidly with the distance frO]D the surface in tile turbulent case, the friction is much larger. The laminar flow should thus be maintained as far back as possible, 'This effect is very important in. the design of keem~l, rudders and other appendices, like bulbs, where the shape CH:n be chosen freely. However, rnany other effects have '101 'be considered for the hull, 8rO 110't much can 'be. done in this. respect, The technique. employed in. appendage design will be described 'in the next chapter. Here it suffices to say that straight lines on the forebody are Iikely to increase tile laminar length, but in. any case the area covered by a laminar boundary layer 'will he only a small fraction of the total wetted surface of the hull .. ,
As an example, the boundary layer and, friction (offen called skin friction] distributions on a 7.6 ]11, traditional yacht for which, flow calculations have been made, are given in Fig 5.,7, .. Tile quantities are given along one streamline friona. bow to stern. It rnay 'be seen that th .. e boundary layer thickness increases slowly in. the laminar part, but after transition the increase is m ueh faster, particularly near the stern, The scale tOI the left gives the. thickness in, rnm.. The friction drops rapidly' ill the laminar part to a very SIn all vahie, but inci eases abruptly 'at transition .. After tran siti 011 it drops again to almost zero at the stern,
63
80:',1
.,
.._,___
~..
__ ~
_"
~'
Jj'o·,un'ldary /;aye·r·,', '". fhleK.ns,s,s [rnrn] \:,
Cataulatlan along .f:hls Iln'6
10,.'.10",'.;'.
"J •
eo
4'()
.....
,..' '. /.".
»:
.Jf!'
#"
" /;.,
/
.
/ I I
,
2,0
Srern I
I ~~~~J " ,
Ta rbule.n;t
Larntnar Bo w
F.ig· 5.,7' BoundarY'layer end skin friction distributitn: on a 7~ 6 m trsditionsl yacht'
This hull has a. relatively long Iaminar 'part Iduie to, the straight hull Iines 011 the forebody.
The dat a for Fig ,5 .. 7 were obtained 'by a computer program (SHIPFLOW) for the flow around ships and other bodies, This program, which will be described in Chapter 16~, is used ill advanced yacht design, mostly in connection 'with the America s Cup, but it is tOOl complex and expensive for the amateur yacht desi gner " There are, however, simple formulae valid for ·flat plates, which can 'b,e used for estimates of the bo undary layer thickness and skin, friction, Like all quantities related to the viscous res is t all ce they depend on a dim ensionl less num iber, calle .. d .. :. the Reynold s n '[,I:LD:r'b:e:I' R. This IDS":· the
. . .. , • =~..J.1!l. ". u '., . ., £., .' . . . ~ ... LL ..,' TI S ...... ~ .
product of the plate velocity V and length L. divided by the. kinematic viscosity of the water V';, R, ::= V ~ L, I v, Fig' Ss8 shows how the friction. varies 'with the Reynolds number, and the relevant formulae for estimating the friction of the different parts of the underwater body are also given, 'Note that, when the friction of the hull is computed only 70(YO~ of tIle waterline length. is used for defining the Reynolds number, This is because water particles do not generally follow the entire length of the ·bOttIOl11. F Dr instance, those: hitting the hull near maximum bearn will follow the 11111] only a. short distance 'before Ieaving it for the wake
b . '1, '.. d' tl . h I.~ ~ ill' 'l] V·' r '''1' , ~ . . .;' t h": b ." k .. t ". F" (, 5 .. · :8: .i '~". , f t·11 . ~ "i'D' . 0'"
e nll'., .1eIU .... '" (1 ue's, Wl, In ... ,.Iraces m l,g. ~ . are .or .iH! I ./ '.':!
Th" " di, ., .,,~, .' t h . ft·· .... '. ;I1h'·· t I, ~ l sk r., 'f' .: .. tic , . ':I't:~: ."~, t C: ".
ae magram 111 .. e .1 gure grves IU.: e 'OI~,djJ[ s., m rric ,1.011. (0(; mcteni, ". JF!
which may be converted into the frictional resistance force 'RFJ. using the formula inside th.e box. This way of representing forces by a coefficient
C .. ith I •. :': • d .,' .": _.' ,.' .. ' a, " :'.. fl iid .' r chr ' .. " '."'. .~ d th" , fo: _ .. :, ·.c .,.: .. '
'Vl .. '. an. nl,· rex IS veIY COlnlllon In .. IUl .. mt!:c .. c_" I1Il)S, an ..  . 11 .. e O'fee mel),
64
F·· ::I 5' ill C'"  J _',' r, ti " , " 'f th" ' ~ g  .D, ~':B[ Uta Ion 0, re
fti ctione! resistance
,~L I
~
0",,(}08 1f~;\4i"" ',;"T"~~~,,______r_~_r__~
\
,04,CI07' Ifil'~\' , +!=~;I~tt1"f.
Ol~, oa 6 1+~~f'LIl_""""t_____r__,;.._r___________;,'~
, "'"" '0:. {J,7S
, ".r"'~ = (Ltjg .e; ~ 2)2
,"I~ 005 1!f;I===O:""'4~=,:'+ •.• '"=., "" =" =="'""itt11 ..
Q~,(J·04 I+tI~~~,,£" rjj.i
Ii ", ,,_._
~
O,~ 0'02' 11++~~~i__~~___;__r_______1
,,.
Re,,"Il1',' :no/ds nu.r.nbdlr:.~' R. '= V·, L
,. . . ':'~' 1/' '
V ,= Y~,'1C)I'J'/ty d f yt1:u::b,;' in' m/t;:
r;"',r· h,'~~i~,_. ,,~ = ",,!!'. :7',., L ..
,r lli.;r. _ "_ Iiiir.,'·.ihiiiil!,_ ,L. iL#' __ ~  :,~L
[ '"7,;i"ij, l~'
,/, .. L.o ,m ",,'
=' ,mffJ',an' ch':Qi"'d r k,fj',r1.1,.~ '",45 ,m' ] I rl.ld'r::h~r.il ,0,.5 m ,)
5' 21
{. ,,",,,'_ ,r,;iI!, ' ...... 0· 4.,F, .....,;,~ 2""" ·'C'" ~, 'IIi:. ,;!!"II ~, 'II,. ,_ m,' 0;./"", },,'
rIiiIjt....,,~j .• I· ,...,. •• "'~'I!' ~~ ... ~, ,':' ' .,!I' ~ ., U' l' ," l~1 ,_:_"
{' L, .rr; AO'!!C'': ,U J',o
l""IUl"":'~ III¥ijl~.· U!!!I i~' I"l.i .
, '
I kS',9/:; 9,3~ ,6 N' 1
'_ '_
[ ~. ./ 31
p ,_ W,t:J'i,jJ1F"' c;lt!'.n'sl.fy :sall 'Wr:1ff6!t' (,)',,' 2(J y;~' " 0:25 kg/tn, .
,S:W'= 'I!ils"I"t,.d ls'uy,f(!J!J'c,(I {huli.;' ,2 S~ 2' ,n/~!l' [k.~,~,l:' 4 .. 4 mfJ [rU'dd~r:; t '.' 3 m2]
F:cu~' fD'tal rrlt::rrIona" f";js/sdarl'C'6' =' cHid fh6' c;,onfrlbulJ,(J'ns from
hl.~II .. '. ',1c~~/",C7nd'~;;d\r:i#l'r~" , "r ·§3'6,.,,2'·'N i e
alwa 'y::'1(i be o .... bt ained bv multiplying by the so ... call ed d yn amic pressure 0 5
,_ ''Yy,G, .!.J' '. _ ',I, ~i~, .IIl.,> '':..;. '" ." . "',.J' ,::" '. c,J', '. ~ '.. I,,,,, , t:a,ll,JI!., I, ,.~;J'." '.'.
,!! p.,[ " 'V':'J., and :81., representative area  here normallv the wetted surface S,w' v •
_" _" , "  "_,' "_.' . '. ' " .. ~ .. _ . ''~ ", ..  ... .. 'J'  _.. '~rt'f _" " ~' .. ,' ", .. ·.1I!!1
Th e v , alues C: :0· nnp uted for th e Y ;',.....D':=4'~O··.1 are at 3; 'S~··, ~n]'I,'Q or '6······ Q, k 11 ot Sol 11'11' e
. . . .![.ill.. ,'!i.I C) ..""..,. """"' u. " ., '_ "'~ '. _  I,· (I.JI..". ('I" '." ,1.1L Ll,' . • 0 " _ ' __ u c _ ~ ~"'"
same speed as ill Fig 5 ... 4"" By' adding the. contributions from, the hull,
k c, "I" ,," d ,.' d d ,',,"' ,t,ll" t "'1'" 1 frictio .''; ,', b 'if r. ec Ii " r'3'1'6" N'" ' . 1'," '" '" '" """ tl '
, cee .an rue '_ ,el ne ora f1l.;:1 ton 1~ 0' rameo as ,J _~,,)i ,.'; ,aLSO ,gt ven In I. le
b " _, "'f:' F,'·· r 4
iar O'~ ,'" 19 ,J,.,' ',.,
Fig 5.9 shows a typical pressure distribution '011 [he hull at a given aepti; ie sloag a certsin wsteninc. It is seen that the Ib,oPv and' stern pressures are higher than ]11 the undisturbed water at this depth, while
PloiIia, iIe!:iE'! ure
ill' ~~~~ .. '
~ ,Wlfh' s!fIJpa,r,atla'n'
;1'"
S'·,~lf.""oil1 ". ,=,1 r' ,, I
Bow
,S €lop Q'rc',flan \
\
, S""f,,,,e;m'" i./"n', ,';I!I1
. ', I,:.. ,.. !E71W! .... ,:_, "':..::_:" 1!;jiI'i
r,II''''''''' Woo:' ,tl·,~~, .... ,t,"~·"""n' I r .,,_, _. l~\.·" :g"l~ I,I:!I.r.i!",' .
I,
f;: P' :I::;:' Hi PrdS'C~' ~·~~dl ~ Ljl J ofJ V . ~.··I~·!U'~·IG
di str ibution witi: a nd withou: sepere tion
the pressure in, tile middle part of the hull is Iower, Had t bere been no, boundary layer, the pressure 10 rces over the 'bow would have balanced
tho ,'(!l_.Q;, 0: "IV"", er th r;.o. st en 1,' ex ~') ctl y':' 'a' , ]1 i~] th e ]ii"~' "w' "c). 'U 'l d 11 a ve b !e, en , IIt9I 0" "'"Q ~U'I; ttl '~:n I I
. ," LCI\.~ '.' . .111.. _ v ~ ' ,. . A!C~\I. '. .' " ,~l ~ .. , .~ lI! ~ , ~.' .. _ ~,~~ ',. . ,. ~. .IILI,· ~ "r.. a i_ ,
" .....
force (neglecting for a. moment the effect of the \N3V'es,. which also have
an influence on the, pressure), The boundary Iayer does, however .. modify the' pressure dis tribution, and, since the layer is considerably thicker around the stern than at the 'bow, the stern pressure is affected most, A. slightly' lower pressure is found at the stern, giving rise tOI the resistance comp 0 nent, which is indirectly caused by friction, through the boundary layer. For a sailing yacht it is in the range 5,100/0 of the di rect fr .icti 0': : n a, ,'1 fo ·l~'O·. ' ~,
, ,'""" "'' ' ,I, ,..... '"" ii", _ C; .'
The pressure resistance Just described is unavoidable, but it call be minimized by proper design of the stern. Thus the blunter the stern the larger the' pressure ,dTOP" As long as separation is avoided, the effects are small, but if tile flow separates a large reduction iII pressure will OICC,U"r.~ and the press ure resis [3 nee rna y 11'e considerab ly larger than the 51 O@/o mentioned, When judging the 'bluntness of the stern, the shape of the diagonals should be studied, since these are closer to the flow direction, than the waterlines. Maximum slopes of the diagonals 111lVe 'been suggested it] the literature, but the values vary considerably between the differen t authors, ranging [r01TI ab 0 u t ').20 to about 30° ,', MOSIIL likely the upper limit is too high, and to be safe it is better 110t 101 exceed the Iower valtre,
It should be' pointed out that the viscous pressure resistance is influenced 'by the prismatic coefficient and the' location of the longitudinal centre of buoyancy, 'TIle Iarger the C11 the fuller the ends of the hull and the D:10f;e aft the position of the LeoB the fuller the stern. In order to minimize the 'ViSCOllS, resistance the huf should have a shape
ss
. ,"
",:'
like a cod, but very slender. The C, should be less than 0,.5 and the L,CB should be positioned in front of the midship section, This would.
'b d d ,. ,. f"" tl .' A ~11' b
[,' e a goo". :' .estgn were' It 11'0'1 ; .or I' re wave resistance. ,:'5 wi re seen
1 ~r't' e r b )ufl·f fo ,1'''''~11I'o'' :d,11" e,: ·S·, tend t ,0· 1·: ucrea 'S' e·,. th !I~ w~ a "" res wh ile 1"' n Ia ct bJ'L' iff :.,
,1[L9l~ ,"' ., . 1.,. J.'I., ~ . ,,' '. . J", .• .ill. ~,I, ~ . II I. 1 ~ _ !~_ 'V ,_. 1;,:], ',', ",' . I '.. . . ,~, . ~
afterbodies tend to decrease them, A, thick stern boundary layer (on a 1111\f '. afterbody) makes the hull appear longer than it really is, and this, effect is even more pronounced if separation occurs, Some designers
. . ~.
have therefore produced very bluff sterns with some separation, just to
decrease 'the wave resistance .. This is not likely to, pay ~ off, however, LU1.1ess there are important gains from a measuring PO,iTI!. of view 111 a rating rule, Obviously, the stern. design, as 'well as Cp al1.d; LleB. must be optimized considering the speed for which the yacht is designed (ie· for which wind conditions it is optimized), The higher the speed the 'more important the wave resistance and the 'bluffer the stern, Optimum values of ~p and L,'C'B will begivenlater, in the discussion of wave resistance.
While the frictional resistance is set mainly by the wetted surface, the ViSCOllS pressure resistance deper {Is on the shape of the hull, This :ms also the case for the wave resistance, and both appear due to pressure imbalances, so' it is very common to lump both together into one COrDllp'011e11t:: the residuary resistance. "Ve will 11 Or give any formula here for the viscous pressure resistance itself, .but follow general practice and give the fo .. rm U' I] ·:til on I·v' f ... or the r e sid .: " u a 1~··, re "S~ stauc e Thi 'So wil 1 be p rre se mt e '"d,\
. ~ I.Li lii .. ,IL. I.,:; ra!.. "" J" ... t •• ', ," ~l.1l!. .. 1.' '_.' • , ·.!I!.iLl., '.IJ. .: ..... ~ , . l(Y,JI. .\g L_..:..,,~l.,.
 .
later. III 'Pig ,5,.,,4 we have Sll11IJly assumed that the 'V];SC'OlllS, pressure
resistance is ,1 'O~/Ir) (If the friction .. , which is a reasonable fiz ire,
~ b
Roughness
'The third component of' the 'viscous resistance, due to surface roughness, might not be too important from a design point ofview, but it is certainly of interest for the practising yachtsman, and should, therefore, be discussed,
Ace q rd '1' ng t 0' ,!,:l 1 a': rg p. r U· m b ,e' ,1~ of ~X' c'p' e ri m e ~'I1i .. t cr ~1:1'1" t hl.·· fl C·). 1,'11 S·' 0·" ver I'" 0"· U g' ,'h'
, ¥" ~ ,., ;0,' r!bl;o .. '!. ~ .. .11.. _ ,~.l. ,': .. ' ._,~,' .lIL· I .1llJ.,·,.:R 'f'~ " ._,,~l. 1{r¥~. : . '.1 ......••
, , ~ .
surfaces the effect of roughness disappears if tile roughness elements
are embedded in. the v.]'sC'O·lJS sublayer, introduced above .. There is thus a
IlI"]11't below which the surf "~JI'L'C,'P: ·nl"J1Y,·· b e· c 0'· msid : e .re 'd 00:'1'"\10: :'0",+1, fr ""0' im II;lI
.. ,,,I ,', ~ ,'. . ..~..!' .  1311. 1', [(.!lb .. "'" ",'~ I, .. '~, '.',' , . .t. " '_ "~']I,,.JL.l ,:,., l,,[ ... . a
, ,
resistance point of view: 'hydraulically S11:10Iotb·· in fluid mechanics
terminology. We have already noted that the thickness of tile 'ViSCOt18 su bl a yer is very' small, n 0 rmally o f the or der of 0 ~ ~ mm, Let us look at this in more detail, using the boundary layer calculation for the 7.6 In traditional yacht as an example '11 Fig 5' I' 0' th Ie·" thickness of the V·:·· i "',C· .ous
., .. ,. ,. ". . ' __ . ~ . tC, ~II.,. .. "''Ill. .... ~, , . ..,0 _." ..... ....l .... .' . .... .... ii.] .... rQ!
sublayer, ie the permissible roughness height, is given for three different
' .. :".:. eds '0"",,,, bn : .",'1" "'f"~' th ..., ·~ .. r·'· ' .. ;'. '~".:.'!;" ' t  the h ill.vwhile t 'b" .' It'~·, ,':, speen S,., ne or a 11 C n 10· e ClU.'· es repr esen _.S II e [I. ., W.fL e ' .. e 0 IDler IS
for the keel. At the forward end of the hull the boundary layer is ~'"!'I'In""J"'19I~ and, altl "1"10' nigh th ~ theo ries for this pa ·] .. t are. less well dev eloped
],C!)., "",""".wi (;'1,.' C:, ., UJL . ': ,_._ "" .. "J .... ,'. . .. 11. ., . . _. ~. '.'!I",.IC "Jl.~.II~
it is gafe. to' aSSU.lnle~ las ll:ilS h'eell. d .. OIle in the figuire~, that tIle i)~rlnis.siblle roughness in tlus rregio·n. is tIle saIne ,as in. th,e In{lst fOfW{.,\[ti p'art l1f the tUlrbUlllen.t bOllflldar)T lay,er·,.
S,everal o!bservatio'ns l1rJ.ay l}e fllad1e Ico'llcerning Fig' 5,.10,. ·First.. there is
r··· t .. ' d'· '. ·'· .. ·l·, , .'.  ~ ··d:·I,. ,. , .. d·, 1" th" .. , '''"T'. ,. "' , '.. "", .. ~" t'1··
do S l011g, .epel1uen.ce on spice: I." seco'n: ... y~, . ,I. ele 1.S an Ifl,c:r,e·ase III I'.le
'p1erlnissible r,oll,g'htleSs aft\Nard,~L, Thirdly;, the i,nlc;fie'a,se is .not as large ()n
'H" '11 '0'' . ~; .. , , ,.[1' ~"e'Sn5n
67
.P'errru;s"s1 b j:s.' . raugb'n'€J.,s's·
[~] "
, I 
2'00
,S:fern
ks'el
\
:Li'iOd h" '., ,rnl,$"Jp'
tl .. ' k " .,.] . .! . .:':" the h II} .. ,., .... ,. th '. st ,'.' ,' I' W··: '.... . ,",. ,'. ..]I" .:. " '.' ,t ' iII'li' t th , _. ' .. ' t'
.ne cee .. as 011 . I e ,.U, . near .ne s .ern,... e may aiso no' te ~ 1.1a. _de mos
strict requirement is O.Or3 mm, or 30 um for the highest speed 011 the forward half of the hull. To get a feeling for this small 'value we may note that a sandpaper of number 400 has a grain size. of' 25 um, This does not mean that the surface should be sanded with this paper, A
id bl h ld '. ld _] .' d ]' · 'J]
.' , .' .. ' _ .', ...._ . , "... . '. . ,. . .. " I. ~.' .', '" ,. K:.· , . , . '. ' "I. "'" M' r' .' 'I' ,~,. r.'· '.' .. ' ,. :. . .. ": . ," .. ~." ., .  .' _ . . .. _'. . .. ,
consu era ..... y roug ter one wcu '. yieiu t LIe' [leqUJ1IEj', smoottmess, smce t: ,e
grooves 'mo,lir.: after th 0; P~'P'" er a' re m ueh smaller ·t'] an th c' g ins
l I' q"ij,~,.s. ,hi_,~,W.l ~l_l'"",',,' ... ~ .. ltJl,\.;,. ' c ,', :T: l~,.· 2\ ,~n '"  _: ].~ .' ~='le~raI", ,i
There i '. ill I'" ; }' , '} 15 d f , r. " ' '~
. ." ,. . .'. " "'. ~.'  .:._....,  . .. '. ,,',' . ' '. .' .", .' . .. ' 'J!' ' . '~, .. ,'. . '.", .', ..,'
nere IS ,[1 very 81111p! e re anon wruc 1 can ne usee ,,0'1 estrmating t ne
permissible roughness on the forward part of the hull, This relation is
.' '" ,;;'.,  , '1"' 'f']' '. d .' II" . 'iIk~,; I,' '[ fc '' = ,.'." F" 0 '5.' I' t N" to. , tl: or' '~!.. t'hl'" ,".. '~,. h
gtven Hl n,mnen .. c.a, .. all·_ ... grapruca.. ,0 rno 11] . Ie ,.'" 1., .... O. e. Iu, 1,cll " .. e IO'llg, '=
ness ~~ siven ]']9, micr on I'CI a" nd that it is 1~'i11'V:' erselv proportional t'o" the
i ,. ~~lji ,l~ D'll. .... ' v.,!iJ"J.. ,,; .. ~, ,,,.JLl,,IL.~l,', .' ";~, ~'. 1Il1J. ',i. I, I~." ~ 1 :.... J,.! ._. "': .. : I. "!,.': _ a. 1.1 .... _JI :.~". • ..' l(JLll . _" '.' . i.!.'~
speed .;,]'1 ceu,
AmI appropriate question now is how much the VrlSC[';U8 resistance is increased 'wf the requirement for a hydraulically smooth surface is 110t met. To answer this, we 111Il.}I' return again to the calculations for the
tr . diti .. ' '1'1 r • .ht ['I F'j ,).' '1 2 the " .:"" ~... ~ "', ' · j .. '.  , .~, ,~ :. ".'" R,,·t' . ~, for
J. a mona yac ,I., .n , mg . .j _. ~ ie 111Cl ea,s'e 111. VlSCO l.LS rests ance .01'
varying roughness heights and speeds is given. It 'is seen that the increase is considerable particularly at higher speeds, Fig, 5,.,.12 was computed based on. measurements for flat plates, where the surface was densely covered with sand grains. This. is not' the. case for a sailing yacht, so the values given must be considered as ark upper limit. In. any case, it is obvious that roughness heights ab,o'v'e the limit for a hydraulically smooth surface cannot be tolerated for racing yachts, It
Ill: ,. 'C'" ~ 0 P 'ssib I
W':I g ,~,J '" u. ' ..•.. :' errn.lS:S,l" e
{ou:gh n ess, Tredition a',J
L_' ya.C,[,,t
68"
..
F i'g 5.1 1 Estimation of the permissible roughness at ditierent speeds
·F· ~ '2 ,. ;
1 ,I ' .. ~, Ii, I 'j " ,~
Ig ~.1  net ease In
viscous resistsnce due 1'0 toug h ness  tredi i ion al yacht
should be pointed out that barnacle growth, results ion much larger increases in resistance t 1.1. an indicated here, Two, lor even threefold increases in the viscous resistance have been noted for densely packed. b arnacl e s _ 51 everal rnillimetres 111 hei zht,
~ .._.
The YD40 has a maximum speed. of about 8.5 knots ie slightly
more than 4 m/s. ccording to 'Fig 5.,1] the permissible roughness is
6Q'
..
I'
~
Wave resistance, basic concepts
Hg 5~ 13 The I(elvin ·wave· s,Vste.m
then about ?O~l" Normally, a brushpainted surface has grooves 50 ~ 10f]~ in height so there ]'S a significant resistance increase as compared to the hydraulically smooth surface. In. Fig .5 ... 4 the. roughness component is '~O% of the friction and the. speed is 6, .. 8 knots: This is reasonable, judging from Fig 5,.1 ?'~~ where the 7 knot curve yields. 823~;Q increase fOT heights between 50 and :~ OO~u,. As pointed lout above this is. probably somewhat high for normal roughness types .. The fact that the curves of the .n.gu.r,e: are for a different hull Is 1101 too important, since the speed is the most significant factor. ».>
=W" ., ...  . .... °l]  ~ 1' m  1". '. t . tl Qj ' .. , d . .  '1' h ..... ':'0.' '" ..... ·t 'I' '" .'. .' .". , ...... ,,'. ... t ' f 1[;'.... C;:. 4.' ~
e WIlL nO'W~Ull1.0 tne secon . major rests ".:J11.oe component 01• rig ,;J, •. ~
~  .
wave resistance i, Like the 'ViS>C(JI,[S res ~ sta nee Thl could 'be split '1 n to s'U b
components, but they are of interest only under certain conditions, for instance when the 'bow wave breaks or is. tran .. sformed into spray. 'We
, I,)"
wit] neglect these phenomena here, Ats. in the case of 'viscous resistance
."] I bv i d~ '.' b '.
., '" ,E ~ 11', .,' . " , oJ' _. ',.,.'. '0 ' a ,",,',. ," ," ]'~'" . "'·~·.··I. ", .
we WI: .. , start .'y lull 0'1 lL1Cl11b SOlne _ ,aSle concepts.
If" ~  th _.   ~ .'"   ." t . ~. .. .~ .;j).. .. d'·'  ~II'''' . _. .. if. ~ ., .. ~ ... ... ... ~ ... (r"  . t .
one tnrows a s on Ie' into a ·pI011.···~, circu .. sar, concan In ic waves OlJ.6tO,.a e
from the point where the stone hits the surface, If one were to throw several stones in a row along a straight line the circular waves would interfere with one another and create a wave system 'very' similar to that far behind a yacht. TIns is :H system with welldefined properties, called the, Kelvin wave system, 'and is due to, a travelling point disturbance all
th f T'I . ,. f d f I]' d '[ 'h·' d
 : .• ~ ~., I[r.~" ~,' 'I:" I~' ( .E'··:· f ,, i I ';" ,,'. [' ' ,'ol .•.••• , ~ ""1 " " .. ~"'['~_ "I . ", "'i"!!~'" '."., ;' '_ Ij" _"
t e water SU.L~a"je., _. ,Jl~ same system is "·OU.11.I,,al:Je.JJJ1 ... ift]. ge ,S ... tps, an ~
ill fact behin .. d .all objects moving along the surface, TIle reason why the
. ~ . j '.  1 . ;, f'" . h } t 'lm d ff i, ]
,'). , ~"','J >(i~ n . .' .. :' 1."' ',' ',' , 11 ,'_, ~l3i\,'" "'!~.",  ~I I "Ii'~'  : ., .. ,'_', .. , ..... '. . > '1  ... " " ~:.:.. ,.,,,,_', .'~. :1 ... !l r' j .. ,. '_i .".. ", .•
same system rs ell[ eateo 1S t aat u t e waves nave rax e. e .. ,. a su I cient y
1 di d '~ ]  ] d ,. .. f
lil '.'11 ...• = ,", ~. ':' :: ,.: ";1 :.":~'" , I . • "'1." 'i"!!".~.i' ','" .:.' 'r':  j" i ,." .: ." :'" I' ~ .. "1 ._
arge distance, and OCCll .. py a, ,I,arge at ea compared to t re r JJ11lcnl8l0n.S or
the object, the latter may always. be considered as a point, For instance, if a. ship movin .. g in. calm water is viewed from an aeroplane, the SIl]P' itself is very small as compared with the area. covered b,y the wa ve
 "" ill .  .: ,,.' , d' tl , . ". ]". t "1 .. ". ] '  the t'" :~,. c'~' K: 11 "'.' . tn .. t ·i· .'. F· '~I c·. '5···· '~3·' ., C' .
system, ,In· _ J'e ._,a tel .J.as I,.,_e .yp]ca.~. . ..... ·e.~VU] 8 W,lJC ~ Uf'e .. , .. ' ],g ,_0.,. l.:. 1..8 .all
.. ~] . f' tl ,> ~ It mav beseen tl f
.. ,_ , _ • r ... _
"l 1"::'" ~:.·I ,:" ·····'1 '~': 11 ..  ':'." .'~~ , •.. ""1 •••••••• ~, •••••• ", •••••••• / :';".' • .,.... .•.•••• :'!"r' ,". 'I;'~ '.:,". ':, ...• ", _' a .. ',.;.,._
l ustratron '0, t.1J.S pnenomenon, u may .. ·e seen that two types 0' waves
Principles of Valent Design
F:~g 5" 1 4 .L.oc.:1.1 bow and stern I, ~ ave .systen1S
exist: diverging waves moving sidewards 3IICl transverse waves at right angles 'bo the direction of motion moving with the ship.
Locally, the situation is quite different and file waves are highly dependent 011 the shape of the hull. Within distances of a few hull _ lengths, waves from all poi Its on the hull surface win in theory contribute to the wave system, Some of the points are, however, more
II, ][}·p:·O. ;·I:1an~ '1 ')'1 a':' ,'1 Il"1 O.tjLli~I·'CI QI"I'll ce the d 'istt irb ance 1",1,;" lareer. F' or a' sailinz vacht
'. . !L.. . I. I. 10..1 '::J". L".i! •. I ,'\oJ _; _" _ .. _ ,.~o,J..., IE.' . ""'" . ..:l .' .(;~,..!t. "",",' ..• , I,. L"lIlU, , .. !L." .. ~ '_.'
 .... ....... ,,...
the high pressure regions at the bow t nd stern are dOl11.i1:~aJ1t ,.'_' and it IS
usually assumed that only two wave systems exis [see Fig' ·5,.] 4)~
There is. a very simple relation between wavelength alld, travelling speed, for surface waves As can be seen in Fig 5~ 15 the speed is equal to 1,.25 times the square TO'O! of the length, For example, a 7 111. JO'11.g· wave 'will have a speed of 3,,3 m/s,
Since the wave system travels with the yacht, at the same speed in the
1 itudi 1 ii " h 1 h .1:.'" 'B d '11 d
ongttur na direction, t te engt a.m, the generatec waves wi . I .. epend 0111
t h e va:,· cht speed If f '0' 1'" insta nee the spe ed is 1 ')5··,.' tl" In'e···'· s the squa I';;'.J!'Ii ro 0' ··;t,
r • ~. ~l ~ . .'  ' .!II], , ':.. ' ,IIJ" I:_ ,,!' _ I' ~ . ' WI! I, ," '. II ,I • ~ "_ ' I, .:' .'. ,"~.r, ~. :. .. 
of the waterline length, the length of the wa ve is the same as the waterline length. A yacht 'with. all L\\IT .. of 7 ill will thus. have one wave crest at the bow and the next one at the stern .if the speed is .3~.3 m/s,
TIle speed, dependence of thee waves gives rise to an important 'r .Ihen,om.eno'u: interference, All. illustration of this is given ill Fig ,5,. I 5., If the wave crests, from the bow system coincide with. those' [tOl11 .. he stern, large waves will 'be created, On the other hand if til Ie· bow wave crests coincide with troughs ill the stern waves, the result is, an attenuated wave, The first case is jllustratcd in (a) and (c)" where tile wavelength 18 half and equal to the waterline leng ,11, respectively. Tn (b) the wavelength is 1/3 of L·WL' and the waves are attenuated .. , In the last figure (d) the 'wavelength is Iarger than. the L\VL" The second wave crest then occurs aft. of the stern" which when the speed mcreases wi move into a trough, giving the hull a large trim angle,
~I' II '0' ,',
'I " "I':" "" 'J'"
_,U .. _ "esl~gnl
F~'g 5 +.1 s: lntertetence be:tvveen the bow snd
irTCi rn ~A '·~·v'e' 'C" ,~,t!ls..',_ ~: if, .~.'It 1tJI:'~ _,.".~
=~·,BOIIW WQ'II,I,S' ,s'Y'S~ffJm ,~. Stt!lm' Wa'Vd' ,sy.$f_'m
Fpo ude i'lU,m.ber.'t
V'
~, ~' '~/ ", ".lw. _I ':,!J ' L
,1 '~, L" /' 2 F'
'OJ'' A ';;;;' ",hUl / ~~. : :;, .=
nr:oL, , R
0'2,,")8""
iii,' ,I" •
I '
0) ~ = ,2L ,/,,",3' : F' ~' 0.,33'
wt'", "n
__ ,_, ,

 _I
,..___
r.:;:):: h ,~ .l.,uJ.~ :: F ~ (J.'.,4t):
', 1f;',L,' n
1 fll
',' '"  "_ ~"'" ,g'~ it·  '.",' F"'"
IWaV08 sp,fj1tllfi .:_ "," 2:' _, ', . .25 ,."", l,
., ',"  iT "
In each of the cases (a)(d) a quantity F, is given, This is the so' called Fronde number. which plays a similar role, for the "IVItVe resistance as the Reynolds number ,does for ViSCO'lIS resistance. TI1,e Fronde number is a dimensionless speed, where th,€: 'velocity in metres per second is ,d ivid ed by the square root of the waterline length times tile acceleration 'Of gravity (see 'Fig 5.~15);, It is the Fronde number that determines how many waves there are along' the hull. For instance, at F, '~' 0.4,01 there is one wave, at '0 .. 28 there are tWIO~ etc" The properties of the wave resistance curve are highly dependent on, the Froude number,
Principles of Yacht Design
a' I;' we 'W':1' ]:} S··: ee belo ·"W· Tl1 eo' 'I~ ]~O',UI de num rb er l'~ c~ there fo ,' ~,e: a' verx 1"1'''11'1' P''",O' rtant
CI V1·, .. III ,I\.rI· ~ ... ~". .1 . i, '_> ,r, ',' 1 .. ',' .. ,lluo! ".'Ij_.r1 Ll _,JIj, ~._[. jl:. =s= I.' ',. JJ . 1l. .:.1 ..... .: ,I, ,_,t:,I.ow' .
,. d .  · 1 I, t1 [']1 '. di i, 1
quantity anc we use rt extensive .y· ]11 tne . Ow O'\Vll1.g:',lSGU1 .. SS1.()D,,, rat .ier
than the velocity in blots or metres 'pel' second" U sing the s~ mple definition the FI r .... oude num ber can ~l~ ways be C" 0 u v' erted ie' a sily .', ito t h ese
'.:: ,,11. . ~, ,J. , , '  s ,_, " , I  ,_  ,_ \..0 \".,!C . " 1L'1Ll'll'll ,'~ I.) ,'   I, , ....... , Ib,I _ (_. , .. :n. r I~, " _ iIW' ,
di I . :, ',  ,'ll " "It "I tit i, " ,_.
unensronar quanti res,
Since the wave resistance occurs because energy is transported away ill the W'":"'~L"He,~s' t 1,] e amplification and attenuation due to interference
, ,,' " . £;. 'W'., i". U', _. ' ," I",,,. CU.lI;. , .'~,L' ,. ., _ ,'Ii;.. ,_. '.' jJ 1IL "iL, .
'between the wave svstems must have some effect 0111 the wave resistance
lit(. _ iii
curve. Thus, at speeds where there is all amplification of the waves the
resistance 111U,S.t. be relatively large, while the opposite 11111st be true at sp, eed .. s, where there is ,~111 attenuation. 'The wave resistance curve thus
, . ~
exhibits what is normally referred to as humps and hollows (see Fig
. 
5,.16),. It Ina)' be, assumed .ha wave resistance inc .eases with speed to
the' sixth, power, 111lLt in, addition there are the fluctuations due to'
; {i,e
• ",' • 0IIi • . " ._. IrIIi r
mterrerence,
Hg 5" IT 6 Humes and' hollows on th ~:' \{li ave resistsnce CUI1I,f!
:0
0.,3
HUIilp,S, and hollows may be more or less pronounced, depending on the hull shape. For In any' sailing yachts they' are very small ill the lower speed range, but the last hump is; still important, TIle slope of the curve gets 'very large just below this speed and 'to get 'over the hump is difficult. If this can 'be achieved, however, the increase in resistance becomes more gradual, and the hull enters the semiplaning speed range, Catamarans and extremely light canoes and dinghies may accomplish this; even beating to windward, while the 'lightest displacement hulls, like the America's Cup, yachts enter the semiplaning range ill the downwind legs, Most displa ce .me '1]1 hulls can CIC'O' t however Pi ass the ba rrier at the la Q~ hum  ;;'P'
JLi:!': t·. _I . • ,ilL,  __: .. ,h,J  ,(.it.) " _" . !, 1ft'!!"" .. 'I','~ ,_ _ ~~,:_,_ ,. Jl   ",: ,,;,,,I!!,._,, . II .'~
According to, the discussion above, the largest ,h,Ul11.P in, the resistance curve should occur when the wavelength is equal to tll,eluterliIle length, at F n  O,.40~ but in practice it OCCl1tfS at a higher Fronde number, ie at a higher speed, This is because the overhangs at the bow and stern cause the distance between the bow and, stern waves to 'be larger than the nominal waterline Iength, The last hump thus OCCllfS
'73
Inffuenee of hull shape on. 1\1'q veresistance
"F'''' 5 11"'" B·J! f th
I. '~'g; ... ~ 'II l ··.·.OC1Y ptsns 0:' me
two Delft parent models
normally at a Fronde number of about 0+5 a. Heavy displacement hulls cannot reach this value, except under special conditions, a's when sailing in 'h eavy following Se2Ji$,. Normally, it is difficult to reach higher Frou de numbers than 0.45 for this kind of hull, The YD4,O has a waterline length of 10 111.~ so it is difficult tOI reach higher speeds than 0.,45 ~ , 0 g =: 4,.,.5 m/s, corresponding to, 8.7 knots. This is, also apparent from the resistance curve of Fig' 5~3., .A hull twice ,a~s ,~01l1g would. reach a speed. of
0,', 4 s: ~ Ij: 0 cr ,_. ~ ':\ ,'. , I ( ., '11 , k··  l .s) 'T' III '. '" .   '.' :::J '~.. ...  '~1' ..." .'. ,.. ~~. . . , . db"  ;
,.,_j C"'~, ,tt; ,_. 0 ... ,_ m'S,. ,L,~~ knots). ,_~le ~'plee{J ,11.aS thus n1:CleaSe,,_~ly a
f f ,,'? .. ~. .
factor '0"1 .'
,:, :1""" .... .iIl. .'. .....;.,.
It should be mentioned that in. .most literature 1011 sailing theory an older quantity, tilt; so, .. called 'speed length ratio' is used: instead of the Froude number. This is defined as the speed ']11 knots, divided 'by the square root of the. waterline length in feet, In fact 'it differs only 11Y a constant from ·tllile Fronde number but its disadvantazes are that it is
· ... I ., , , ..,. . , . . .. . _ . . .' . .. '~ ". . . s . _ . , .. _ . .. ',.",_.; . . . . . {;. .
not dimensionless and that it is 11l0t based on 'metric quantities, Conversion between the two numbers Call 'be made easily using the formula: Froude number '~ O,~30 'I (speed length ratio).
V'''" .  .t .  "1("'. I '. I: ~:', , ,,..,.. i": ter t· " with rn . ·· .. d '1 '.' f' ,,,,~, .:} '.,_ . 0 ,·r· J. t ,,' h  . J bI'I .,"
ery ex tensive series or [1e.SS wnn moue S 011 sat 111'6 j acnts av e seen
· ·'i",,~}·::JI '. it be.  P'··"'·'P ... ',,, J' 'G"··· "~'·:*·I .j '.' id 't...,'"." I'riI .. ,". 'k ".' iI··~'.. th . D"'~I'f~l
cameo OIIIY ·101eSSOl ,_I.:ell LlS]TI,;a,L ana u.1S coworkers at _ ae ,_·eJ._"l,
University of Technology in the Netherlands, The 'first series '~Vl~LS rUJ1.
rh  .  th _. 'J 9'7'0 d' . . ~" .. d 2'}i .. del ith a : " ttr·: I ~' t ·t;j 
I unng me " .. ~':' oS, ano comprise . s: 1110,:e,lIls wit a syssemanc '\ ana aon
of' five different hull. parameters: LwL/BwL~ 'BVf[/T e C,p' LeBI and
. L' /\7 1/~ ;\.1'1 1," Ils , . .p deriv ed fro :: iJI, Frans M··. oJIla"s d esian ed .  ,. ,,!,.e,· rt
· 'WL v c i' ,J" l"'1J.lIIIJl,() we.r",,' ' eI .live " r ',: ill d, i,. ,c ~ t ~: I~~~. CI '. ,e, lone_. par en.
model, ·a. medium displacement, contemporary ocean racer. Its body
 '1' a" :. (il sh '0"'" rn ." '1' Fig ~ '1' 7(' top .,) D'" UI rin 'g' the 11 91(;1!"O'C! it became ap p., '1IJi' rent
pen 10 .;:i:I.~'\N_, illl ,:lJJ,':: ....)1., .. : .. J.f~ .. ··_ ..... 1.,'".""" ·:,0·:.:] Ll ,"\..oi.!L ... ,Ir;._., ,iflll.,.'liitJl:.I.IIu':,t
110:WleVer..,. that an extension of the series tOI lighter displacements was
Parent mo d[fJl~ Ugh t d1spIQI~~,m'tln1 (Nr.) ,;25)
_. ,
74
Principles of Yacht Design
fie q uired, and a new parent model was designed 11'Y' van de Stadt & Partners see Fig 5.17 (bottom). Seventeen hulls based on this. design were tested, The full range of variations in the five 11UH, narameters for a~] 39 models is zivcn in Table 5,.1.
,_
From the Delft series several important empirical relations were d eo: rive d T~1]'1 e fo "'I~I'"Y1 ula for t he' w"'" e t' 'tie', .d s .urfa tee was pre S, e te d in F' .~ rr 41 '')
.' ',', , .!Ib ~ _.: .... : r!! "'." '_ lli ... ·~U ..... Jll_ " .,:. , ... ' .. J~I JL.· ,I Yl '~" ,·A· "" .",". JI. '. llle 1.1, ......
N O'W'., however. we are concerned with resistance. Rather than
r' 
'"
presenting the wave resistance separately the scientistschose to give the sum of the wave and viscous pressure resistance" .me the residuary resistance, Since the hulls were smooth the only component missing in
th , t"~" .. ta ']1 " .: lTl~ t '~', ... ,. i .. t~ , .. ' "" I t1\ ' fric t ., . ', '(" n.e . 1:;r· .;: 4:)' A" :', ,,' tion ',d·
1. e 10 cL upr 1&1, resist ance IS ne .I lC ion s.ee 19;J _' I,. ".S men lone,
above. there is a good reason for lumping together the 'wave and Vi~~H:"OiUS press ure resistance, since th ey are both dependent 1011 the threedimensional shape of the hull, When optimizing the hull for a certain, spieled" the combined effect 0]] the wave and ViSCO'llS pressure components must be considered.
The residuary resistance based ,o'n a statistical analysis of a11 39 bulls may be computed from the' formulae of Figs 5,.18 and 5.l9,~ To better 'fit the measured 'results the speed range has been split mil' a. two parts, one for the typical displacement speedsup to a Froude number of O~45, Fig ,5,.]8,; and ,0 n Ie, for the semiplaning range 0,.,4750.,75 (Fig S~ ~9);. The low
" ,,' ed .f'., , ,, ',] onts ., , f ,~, ." net " ... 'B IT L 10' :~!~ L"C"':'B" , dl
speer', 10ffi1U ,a, cion runs 'QUi paranle .ers.., i.' \¥L c'~vvL' v c _.,; ,' ..... Ian"."
CIJ" while the high speed fOl111l1:[a contains only three: L\\1L/B'\NL~ L'eB and a special parameter AJV (.;2/3.. The latter parameter was chosen for the high speed range rather than the length/displacemet t ratio since it may better represent the ability of the hull to erieate a lifting force, the quantity ,Aw being the water plane area. A1ifl~l\l c~/J is thus a kind of . .oading parameter for the water plane ~ N ote tha t the total upright resistance is obtained by adding the friction, computed a's in, Pi,S; 5~8,.
'The interested reader with access to a programmable calculator may' program the formulae and 'use the coefficients of the tables to compute the residuary resistance of yachts of 'varying shapes" All accurate and effective optimization 'of a design may then be carried out, by
~ .~ [0,.,125 .= 0.450}·
,R, ,3
.__:_R",,, , ~  aO + 0"  C':.' .j ·0'2'  Lice .+ a3 . S' / .• ···r +
g' m··· • . 'v'  .. pI'" . . . WL: . C
,_ _ I'e
.~.
B ("L /·.rl/3)2 n ("L /Tj1/J')·.J
+ a;"'" .. '¥ ."+ a,~ ,., ' ... , ., ,,/, .. ~. .~./
" WL' c . . WL ',c .
. ' R  .' . ,,3. , ' _
L, _,N.,~, '10 = 7.971 d't F .' 0.,,55 1
gm n
. . c
a.f· F'  O~,35 )'
h
r: {i'O 4'"7 &::' 0' 7'1:::0' Y
f_ ~' '. _.1 .. , _. : i i;.i 1 ! r" ... : ~., '.' <:
'n .>: "
F
n
c,a c t
2' a
cJ
c:4
5'1 I .... , '
I , ' ~
'7.m451 :1 <41 +2* t 9'50,421 ,+,2I,.,168.9tf;2:3 +Q .. 00.,6480
tJ,o;500
I _, 11 .. ,15456' I '+2',~:f 790,46' I '+~ .. ,[85',74D,:J '+O.O':0967t6
O '~'2',"S
[.~:. '"
,I '+2'8.2', .. 9.8,73 1 ~',St.,S7'9,5,3'
O S: tso ,
.•. rJ "
  
'=14 .. 419'78 +',2'.,,32,61".1,7 +'4:~69'04:32' I +Q{Jt2147
0.575
0_,6:DD
'~'~5",~ '4':'iIii:'7.:'2':,:" 6" '2~,) 8'::5'" 7'.r"'I.£J
~.JI ... gl,~, W", ," . .' .. "~I;:Z~1
"'~ 8" '51' " 2"
~ ~ !~a1( .' .'.,: s .','
·+,5,.,078'768'
·+,2,.4J70'S6
[0 ... ,65'0
(JI ,,?(}(), ""
_ ... F '_ .
a. 725
0.,,75D
25' r 4'55' 8'
= 'j :. _",", .,
I .. ';pI ~ _.' :. "~
+0 .. , (J' .f 36'9'5
 'I's: 5"'~';::;4"B,'
.,. ... ~ ,.·grJ L ••
+' ... 8" 4" '''710'2' .:::'
. J., .l· '.1 ~ lJ l:;l ."_" ~
+,284'.,464 f
+ 1 .. ,7'0,3'98'1
'=' ,'6 .. , ,1542,3'
O 87'79" 1'2
....cL. [',' ",:,:.1, >,
T', iii . _ ....• L .',' ,
'I
+0' ... 014'575
,n 0'" _,' '7 _A' 2" +!i.if,,'/'.' I' ,.j ... ~]
'F ;'g .. , 1), '1' 9'>: Resid U:':Ii i!"'}/
, ,~,  ..... I. .' ~. _ ~.' .~' ~
~ . .
resistance in the Il{gh
speed range
investigating different alternatives. This approach is] more quantitative than the traditional one 'where the designer has to rely on experience and rules of thumb,
In, the Iollowing we shall a' so use the formulae to draw some general conclusions 011 the influence of 'tile 11.u'~1 shape 1011 tile residuary resistance.
III the f ormu lae ,0 f Figs 5., 18 and 5,.19 the. resid ua ry resistan ce is
exp re ,'CI s ed , a." S,,: 'a f I' '~"a' [f~t ~ 0" 'n' '0' f th j::i. hull W'" ,',' e '1'· if. 11t Th i' 1(1 f' ra C: n:'· ,I1'NiIl' I' Cl in t1(., ,i?' 'I' a n g' ',.;1!;
r.'"l.~'" .::J11 , ~. G. "J Iiir".B.,',.,". "~ ,,,<.', ' ... [~,Jh.l. .. ,'lIIl • ,w"'.~,~ .Jb(;.,.' ILl·· ~ .ill. .. " .. ~,~,I~, .. ;,\.;..!
01 O~1i. for h1.111 speeds of practical interest, As an. example" t11G resistance curves for the two' parent models of Fig 5,.,17 are. shown in Fig 5 .. 2,0,. These hulls are typical representatives of the medium/high displacement series (In 01 d els 122) and the light displacement series (2339)~ respectively. The resistance as a fraction of hull weight (top figure) :is 'very similar U,P to' a Froude number of around O.,4,~ but thereafter the curve for model 1 bends upwards, 'while that of model .25
= ~
exhibits an .inflexion after which the slope is reduced,
A, quite different picture is seen in the bottom part of Fig 5~18, which SIIOW8 the residuary resistance ill. Newtons for the t\VO 11tLlIs at full scale, assuming an, ,L\VL of 10 TIl., TIle displacement ofhull no I is 9.,18 tons, while th at of 11,0' .25 is only ,4·,.62 tons, so there is approximately a factor
O,f' two betwe ' . en the lie' av y",r, a n d t1" .ie ligh rt 1111'P d: isplaeem nents T'" his l' ~
, • Of'r " , , ",,,., li",d. ",.1. ",I,.. . , ., I, """ JI.. " " , J!lJl_ " ' ,ill""" ,..!I!.J., ' WI'.. .". ,.),u
reflected it '?IIIl ap P' I"n'X':'~111'"?I,'tce:';I'y·" equally larg e~ dif ifference in resista n C"Q; for
, ...... """,~ I "i" ,VII,.", IU'",.Il" ,!I;.JIi,_,~ , .. : ,., 'luJ '" "_',:~ :" .', ,1!!..., Lo, "'""" ,,, . , ,.wI'.iII., .' .. \..! 11,,1.
Hull Design
77
Fig 5. 70 Residuery resistsnce ot the' h..vo Delft pete 111 r models
.'
'f 1 1+___
1
lld25
 , __ #"I'
/
,I ~v
,i
, 0
!!j r
8 ;
.
.
7 It
16
5'
4: 
.3  
..
.
..
+1
I·'
,Mod '1'
II I
! 

,F
,f.li
,0.,6 !l"'"
,nl ~ UiIIJ
o~ .1
(J 2·:'
 ,~
o
R [N] R
5'0··...,"""
.' IU'V
40QO'I_+_
J,Q(Jr.J 11
2'{}OQ
'IOtJO Irt
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o
the low speed range, Due to t111e.' 'very' sharp increase in resistance for the heavy hull above F;  0.,45 this yacht will 110t reach higher Fronde 11111nlJ,ers than that, while the: light hull can. reach O~60 lor higher, since the slope of the curve is small,
From Pig' 5~20 we learn that the displacement is a 'very important
78
parameter for the residuarv resistance In the displacement speed ranee
.,..1. r:"'~I •• I ...... : .. : • _ol!!._ ",. '_', ' .. [I : .•. ' 'J ",' .. C .... lil ' .. , , • r, ..... ,1",.:.. ,1, L __ '...:..:_:_. ~' ~I ..  lb' ',
up to about F, :::; 0.,45, the resistance is roughly proportional to the di sp : la . cern ent A· : .. t a ce rt a in Fro ud ~ iI11· umb er t· h e'·· I··e· .sid U' a" ry Ie<Q is tance .: l~'
fUlll .... ...: _.~}~ .. =JI,~ .. , _ I!!' I " _.. ~ ,.J, I_C,. A" I. t ",' .. !tIL ... _ ~1 jJ. ", "I.· ....... r,l ,..".. .JL. .. '', .OI.LILrl!; .. _,_ ... v. ..:JI
more or less the same, expressed as a fraction of the: displacement,
dl f .... tl h r·' h h" 1 1) " u '11 1· ,. I
regar . less 0' '[1 ie 8 ape 0 i t e yac t, te 'W: nether '1 t 1S smatl 0'[, large, 19 11.
h beamv.et F '1 t F 0 ].., h id
.~, , '.'  ~ . . .. ' '."." . ::110 ~ .. '   , . .. ... , _. I . . m. .. . ~ •
01 . teavy, narrow or oeamy, etc, or examp e, a ... '"n  .:. .• ". tne resmuary
resistance is normally .. ·. O.30.:4~~) of the hull weigh t. a. F~ == 0 .. 35
• '. ~ II
O· 7:01 0'01 . . O' dO' 2 '0 2····· ~Ol .  d' '.. . [0" 4'~' 4·" ,,·:0/ N;···· . t ~ tl t th .
,. Coo ''. ·_0 /0 a\,~" ~". , .. .:_ ....... IO aW.l._· a .... ·~..J ..• "';'·Joo)1Uoo .J ··.0 e . la~ IlL, .Ie
 .
. ,
resis tance is gl ven vers lIS F ro tide numb er .. , If yachts of differen t si zes are
compared the larzer yacht 'will have a Iarzer speed at the Fronde
. .. . . .  . . . ,0' .. . . .. 0''' ..   ".. . . . . .
number in question.
,
While the displacement, or hull weight rather is the major factor
determining the residuarv resi stance th e form p arameters of Fig' 5 18
._ : .. ' \ . ,'_. ., :l'.'" I [. 1", 1 ", I!.I, ",J . :1,,1 '.[i._.ll __ .. ,.: ·:_t_, _. ,,'_ _ .. 1 .!'!!I .[. I' " ' ...... '. '.: ,I. . '.J ,
: .... .' ... .' 'h'" .' 0;.' tl ... " ... ' ·,t ·1·' ... ;. ; ,~:t'h·· th .'. l~ ....... <""::fr .. ,'.... . ·IT _ .. " t'" .. ~. . ...•. ~ ...
111.,s,y C' ange .' ie resis " a ll.ce· \"11 _" m . ie umuts gJ. ven anovc .101 a gJ,vel1
displacement .. Varia tions of 1020 ~VO in the residuary resistance may thus occur due. to changes in rhcse f011.11 parameters and at least three ,of them (L·\IVL!V ci0", C, and LC.B) need to be considered, if the 11Ull is to be optim i zed, In the following we will consider all five parameters, i.e
L·\lVl_/B,v.· and B'V~lL/T'c also.
L ength/displacement
A. high length/displacement ratio has a somewhat unfavourable effect on the "(resistance per unit weight in the low speed range, It is barely visible ill. .I.,' ~,g 5 ~20(a) due to the limited resolution, but the lighter hull with a
1 a rg e r le ng t' '1"..' /di :' spl ac . e me n .it r'"'a:"Itl'i 0' . i has a" sli g', ,hi· tly l' ~~ r· g. r'e·· r resi 'S 'If; fJli nee per kg Q' f' _.
..... '_' .: .• JIb.' .11·_' IWI __  '.' ' .. : ,lILL  ~L 111,..1..,' 1., ~L) ';J !~r ,', • .. I~'~I ".' ..... ~ .' .dt.Ur.!1!. !IIir".' " ~, :\... .'. . '.' . u
 • : • • 1 .' 1 • .' • 
displacement in this: speed range, However, the: major effect is 'in the
high. speed range, which can only' be reached. if the length/displacement
~ " l' 1 E Iv l 1· ] ,. 1 be is i ·
rano [8 large enougn, ·.xact .Y· .1JOW arge tne ratio las to r e is impossible
to say, since the other parameters, as 'Nell as section . shape, stability, etc
· 1' I'" ", .. le 'H .. '. "=*.. .. . ~ ..]. I  ':"1 ... '. • d 5" 7 . . ..' , ft '. .. ... ... t d · . t h .
,m so play a 1.0 e. O,Wt;:Vt:,l, va1ues raro,un· ..... , ,~\.re 0' I en qU,QII e i 111 . ll'e·
literature. Hulls with lower values are likely to run into the 'barrier' at around 'F]] := 0.45', while those with a. larger ratio 'may pass .he hump, and. reach higher speeds, TI1.e· larger the ratio the higher the speed possible, Unfortunately ~ i' is very difficult to build standard yachts with a. length/displacement ratio larger than about 5.2 . , due 10 st ructural
."  .... ..,. ble ;. E" tre . '. . ... ""....... .. .. ] · ··,M th ... .A .. ". . .•. ~.,... Cun ',. . .. ] ts _. , ....
pI Oil} ems. . x. lelne .ralo .. 1 S s.ue·.l. as . e t'1JlnellliC,a s ... U.p yac. :1.~S lIla.)"
howe rver reach values l"··[ilI'i to .: " 7::: 5:, and such v alues a re ofte 1111 ""o·o'·iun(d:1 ·$;'o···r··
.... , .I!i..r. __ .. 1\J!i.. __ "'_,~'' .. : ..... ., (. li:tirlb,.... ..... . . _ ' .. [~ . .l.W. JIl.I,. .' ..11.1.,
rae.mg· d'inghies lilce tiie 5 ... 0' ... ·5 al1.d the Fl:yin,g Dut(;llll1_·all .. .It m8 diffi.cUII.t to lJe,at th,e Jl1ternatio.Ilalli Canoe \vith a, ,r.allille ,of 8,.8., F·urth.er infornlation oln le11,gfh/displacement .ratilos is given ill th,e sectiOtl on ]lull statistics~
An rold.rer p,mramete:('" Oriell liSed. ill the sailin.g 1iterature~ i8' the dlsplaoelnlentJlength .. ratio, de,fill.e,d ,as ~j(L/IOO)3~ 'wllere L is the waterline lel1gtll .ill feet and ·~c: is .givet1. in to'llS. .. 'To' facilitate the cOln.p.ari."'o11 b'f!LWeen tlle two r.atios .Fig 5 .. 2.1 ~has been .p'.l',epa.red.. T.he
1  '1'·" d·'· d' i 1 /] h '.' t" 1 "0 h'"I'
,,":"" I  . ~ ~'. '[ " :.".', r '. .' : ... ~ ." (.' ''';' .. . .:. 't.' . . .  . I _.'.'., 'I' I'.' .,,,',  _. .
p amng ]ffi]t rexpesse, In·.l~p acenleUi .. engt. . rat1.0r IS. a 10Ut ". )'.'~ W 1.1 e
t]].e pr,acticallow'er linlit for .stal1d,ard h.l~lls is abollt .200.
~
'I·. 1,0
The O.ptinllJ1ID vallls of Cp fOrf 11e,lVY 110 rnediulll displacemellt llluis Ina)' be d.terived. frOlll tile fo,rmllla of Fmg' 5., 18 fo I~' reach giv'ell speerd, and tl1re
HuU Design
m
7'
w'
I!II""
\ I I I I . I I r
7' oo " II=,~u

1
2'()O ,II 
Fig 5.21' DispiacefHenV length ag'ai.n51. lengfhldispilacel:nen:t ratio
Fi~ 5 22 Optlmutt:
'lO .111" " d_ ._
ptismetic coefficient
,4
S,' 6 7'
.:.. ..
,( "11 if!dr/c' uni.fs; m ~',fr8S' a nld' cubIc' .nJ6,1't"'i8},s )
c p.
0' 6{J'
 ~
0.,55'
0. ,50
. I I ,_ I , I I__,~~"
I I J I I I I /V~ 
; l
1
! I I
I
I
I
I

I
, 1 
I~ I
I
I I _ , ~ ~
I
1
I • I i I I
, I /.
~r I /" I 
I· V::'I I+III_ 'I I
result is given in Fig 5',.22,. The designer has to, decide at what speed his yacht s11aH have its optimum performance, Upwind in light wind the prismatic coefficient should 'be 0.,) or even lower, while downwind in more wind the coefficient should be 0,.6 air slightly higher, if the hull is of the traditional heavy or medium displacement type. 'N ormally, hulls are
d ,. d t.'.... ,. f' b '. .. d ',. b T~'h
,es]gne I,or maXilllllill pertormance beatmg U,p'W'ln, , 111 a (f'reeze;, = ,J~
F", id " , ibe '", '."," "} "",_ ." ','.' d 10 3,'') wh ich ,":.:".", ,,:. ":' ":""'·","'I,,'t':"I" ofO ~'6,
roue e num oer rs rnen arouno u.so, W, sc ' ,g ves a pnsma ic 0, u.co.
F ig 5.,.2~~, Resistsnce
in creese (in % of displecemeot) tlue 'to nnnootimut» prismatic coeiticieot
T11e Th n ere a se in. resid nary resistance ~ if Cp differs. from the; optimum, may' also be obtained from the formula .. In. 'Fig' ,5",23 the increase is given for three different Froude numbers: IO.,}O; 0,.3.5 and 0.40., These cover the. upwind speed range for most yachts It can, lJe' seen that the largest increases occur if Cpo is too small and tbe speed, is relatively high.
ii
.=
I
1 •
I ~
'fr,L 
I I
r I
1 I
+1+ 1
I I
F ,~ o.~,40 I
p
I
0'· ~'.4.
jIo!'ifIiJ' o!
fi 5.'~'
~I.'··U
For lightweight htL~US~ which c,an rea ch the semiplaning region at Froude numbers above O.,45.~ the situation is more complicated. 'To attain high downwind speeds and surfing capabilities the aft part of the bottom 11,SLS to b'e flat and relatively horizontal, The best solution is in fact to have a submerged transom, ;6tS on power 'boats but this is. hardly possible for a. sailing yacht, which has to operate ill a wide speed range TIle low speed characteristics of this solution are not acceptable. For transom stern h ulls the optimum pri sma tic: increases to a bout 0 ~ 70 at Fronde numbers ,of 1,.,0 ... du,e to the fact thar the tral1S0111 should become larger as the speed increases, but if a. transom has to be avoided the requirement of ,3. flat horizontal bottom automatically means at. small prismatic. No . optimum value canb'e derived from the high speed formula of 'Fig, 5~ 19" since C, is: 11:0t even included .. , N either is it possible to Ide rive useful relations from th e g .: eneral hydrodynamics literature. .
. . ' .'. of. ~
since submerged transoms [are' always assumed in this speed" range. In
practice" the designer has 'to some extent to sacrifice the upwind characteristics in the 10,\1\1 speed range and use a somewhat sma ler prismatic than the 'Opt]DllUJ1. from Fig 5".22 to obtain better downwind performance.
81
Fill 0 5 '4 zivcs the optimum "location of 'the' centre lof buoyancy LeB
6 ... ~, ~.. . .. ".. . ..... "", ~  ~.~ . " . _",. ~". ' ".7'  _. ._. ,', ", _," ",' . "."_ ._.:. I '_ I '"", . A ' .. ,' •
A ,,;;' .. '*"1';"':· C' .... _ tl ..' editn to hizh disnlac .. ," ent 1 }1' O""':'b '~"' 1' the _ gam J~, .ns 1S tor ne 111e:__,],lUn '0, 11.g11 " tspiacemen , 111] is. '.·/VIOllS Y'o; ine
variation 18 very small over the speed rang e Note that a negative Sl(1)
, " '_.'. __ .. , , _._ ,_.... ~ ,  ,~'. ''''.:'. ' " _",!,:. ~ _" _' .. 1 '{,, __ "' , "J:)rL,
means aft of midship, and tha .. t the: numbers given represent the distance from this section t11 percentage of L " As ill the case of C tile increase
.. .. ,'''' "'.".', ..'= ',. :,.' ,',_' c",,,_' ,;t..:,::. " "~L," .,' .I ... f ' ... ,.L. ,. '.' pi,.,  '." ... ',',_" ..
due to a nonontimun 'C' .'. '[ b d d  ,i' ~
. r_o' . I' i' •. ,_. , __ .:', ::' ,"', . . .:. :~. ", ,~' I:. "I' 'I:: _' '~"~" ..... , 1:",'  :1. ' .e= II"·" ..... i' .,.. .'i!'~"'J["::  .~ I". cw·:· '.  .'.
__ ue to a I1'OJ1=optnnm11 ,L·· .. ,B nas been computed ano the result IS given
in. Fig 5,.25.,
C:.,.,," + ,t!!' JO' nf' ' b' :1I""·.flya~I:II j?'~J'; .','
.t.:J'"'~I=.f~ iV. . ·,:,·I.t.v.j •. :_.~'", •• ,~ 11
. ~' . . '
...
'Ii:"  5' "1'4 0" to, .'  , ..r.'~g ,:~L s s.nmmum
. '
location of centre of
buoyancy
Fip 5: . .25" Resistance
o
' •. , ..  .. ~ ... .  .. ',·';il (~' , rl/ . 'f
~ ncs ease I" n /~~ o
disolecemeo t) due to non· optim IJJ1W L. G~B' locs ti 0'.11
,ii
.~
t:GS
to
 
 I  ',
~  , I
~ ~
~ I""""" ~
.
.... ...... ....
 if!!P' t 
~'
,~ 
I
r
~ ! , i ~1 , ~
~ I
I ~ 1  ._  ... l 1 I
I I
~ I' j t ,
 ...
I .' J
_. ''
,.,. ,·3 "
'2
:i!"Ii 7"oC" ILl .. W>riJ.
ii"'l, .~,~ U!l3"~'
F :7tO'~30
n ....•.
!l+!!I+I ' .' <_. .. 
........ <, \.  ~~II  ;7' •. V,_:'" I! '~_' '1'=. ... II
~, _"if+++2;"""· +' +!I",~~~. 
.. ~ ."I~' ;') ~
'''''_,,"~ _ i .~.>~~~~ll ! ~.
" .:!. "' "
11l ~iii::' . ~ I  ' .. ~ I I
,~ f ,
 ·.'1'  .  '_'. "', 1 ",
,lnif;:.,ren1~en .. · 0.'.'
R' /'/': ..  ).1 rQ;ll'1' .'
. .~ .. ' ,'. 9 ~ ,m,~" t: A:!:,
,~~ ~ ..
I
I
F· ~ ,(L eo ..... n
F
Ii?,'
.n' 71:: I;' V~"aJj~ "
~
LICB
{'A\I'1' :.'
__ II,n,( __ ·
 .. :Ii .~ I ~~: ~. I!"""
10 5'
o
!_
8,2
The reasons why ep SD,IQ'uld 'be increased and, LCB moved aft when the speed increases 'ill the low speed range have been mentioned in, connection 'W':' itb the vise 'O·'.··'.'II'l~ press .. sure resistanc ~·e·" A' fu ,11' stern inc ... reases
"""' . _ Vii;.;; IL ., _~ . _ 11,. __ ,. . . ~ .. II".. c: ,.. ~,. . ~ . '" . = .. • ~ . = 1;.;. = _.. .. . ~ . CI''''',w
this component, while the wave resistance is reduced, due tOI the fact that the thick boundary layer and possible separation makes the effective hull longer. At speeds corresponding 1'0 Fronde numbers in. the
," ,'.. ~, ~ iI'. I' Jfio • n". til  •
range 0.400.,45 wave resistance dominates, and a full stern ills better"
.
while the opposite is true at lower speeds where the waves are small",
. . ~
As in the case of C, the optimum LCB, value, itl the high speed range
depend 'I',i::" on wh eth er or n ot ,"'].11 subm erged trans om ca n be aecepte xl, If so
, , , ' ,.IL . [1]1,. '. _, .'  .., C~!!Ji ~,J!h,.: . .. II. I~~.II... '. ,. v ..' " '~L, ve "'""" ,' ..., 1., ,~ "
the .L,CB should move aft to about 6~1 of LWL, from the midship at a Fronde number of 1,~O., This, is also, related to the fact that the transom should increase 'with speed, However, if a transom cannot be accepted, the LC:··.·'B·:·· auto •. un a tically l11,O.V'~S forward relative to,' the lo catio .. ··· .. ns ziven ;1"}',
_]I !i,;,;o ~ ,!l; . . _ .. ... (; , ,I!i;;;.' ~ .. , .'. ' _. . . . ~... .. . 'I. _ . . !);;,!I. 1f!l;,.1 _ ~ ...:. .. , .dw. 5,''''!i,;;.;~ ,w.
Fig 5.2,4, since the stern region 'has tal be fiat.
A problem occurs when applying tile above results to hulls with, an integrated keeJ~i since the measurements were made with 'fillkeel t.yp'e of yachts, The quantities above are fOT the hull alone, It is therefore
~ .
necessary to make an artificial separation of tile 111Jdl and keel and
compute the parameters for this new 11.'u]1.,
TIle effect of these parameters ]s very small. A beam variation was made between. the first three models in. the Delft series keeping all 'of the above parameters constant. Naturally, this variation caused changes both in, the length/beam and beam/draft ratios, but the result showed that th,e narrow 'beat (B'WLlTe _, 3,~O) had the smallest residuary resistance up to a, Fronde number of O,.375~ Thereafter, the medium boat (BWLlT,e ~ 4.,0) was the best. The beamiest boat (B'wLlTc ~ 5,~35) 'W',lS, worse than tbe others in all. 'but the highest speeds above F, '~ 0 ... 4, where it became 'better than the' narrow one,
It is possible to extract tile 'effect of ,BWLlTc alone :fi~'0111. the low speed formula. Since t~le coefficient A3 is, positive an increase ill this ratio should result in, a slight increase .'MII residuary resistance, Unfortunately, conclusions cannot be drawn on the influence of ,L"\Vl/B\VL alone, since it is, not included in the low speed formula. Neither is it "possible to' draw any genera] conclusions 011 this parameter alone from the high speed formula, where the parameter occurs ill several terms.
Often tile effect on the wetted, surface, and hence the frictional resistance: is as large or larger than the effect on the' residuary resistance when 'beam, is chan ged '.' There are also, other aspects on 'beam variations, ab Give all the hull stability, which increases wi til beam '110 the third, power. The effect on tile ad . ded resistance in waves is also quite important, and a
'~I b "1" 'l~i ,. t, b ,. ,., ., ~1' .
targe neam, or iarge tullness 1Jl ·t~,I,e bow region, In, particular, increases
this resistance component considerably, F].l1aJ~1r, there is an importarn effect on the resistance dne to! heel, as will be seen, below,
The 'Y~,D40 has been, designed to have its. 'best performance upwind in a fresh breeze, when tile Froude number 'is about O".35,~As appears frOJ11J Figs 5, .. 22 and ,5",24,. the prismatic coefficient should then 'be 0,.56
H'ul,I' Design
831
".'.
and the longitudinal centre of buoyancy should be located 3.5t}~ behind midship. Both these requirements are met, The choice of other shape parameters will be discussed in, connection with hull statistics ill a later section,
When the h'L1II heels due to the side force from the sails! two resistance components develop, as explained ill the first section of this chapter, Tille iuduced resistance ms by far the most unportant one, but it will 110,t be discussed, here, since. it is, mainly effused 'by the keel and rudder, which generate the major part of the hydrodynamic sideforce. Less important is the heel resistance, which represents the change in upright
(V:'liS"IC" "0'. rus P ··}U,IO wave) If"PCl'·S' .. t a mce due t'IO;'1 he he" e'~ a> ngle 0" ·.·n· ie way t' 0"" ob .tain
. """ !WI! .• ' ',rill' ,rVI . _' !io..oLJi, ;[;, , ............ ,._,;!L!r;.... _', _L,_ ,,' "Jll (:,l_ '.,,' " :.(,.1', ,' ... ,1.·.111:.:([.··
this component would 'be to compute the 'hull parameters for t~le heeled hull and us.e them ]11 the formulae above. By comparing with the unheeled results, the effect 'of heel could h'e obtained, However, if this technique were to be used, there is no need to treat the heeled resistance as a separate component.
A more common technique, simpler, but more approximate, :is to 'use
~.;li '~9 ent ire '1]:1' P.'TI"P ir l'",c:al C: ':,0: irrecti 0,' '111 to the t: l'p· ir ... l'~ gh t re sist a n . C·' "fJi' FIO, ,'1"'11il t hi e:·
~L,.JIl.1. ".' I.". "' L~, ~. . .". .. i,:_;_ ~ ,~,  . . . .. ',' .. !'~ .·r.iJliJJL·· ... ,. IIi.{.J .~ .. "J, _',,"
.' . ' '
Delft series the formulae of' Fig 5.,26 111ay be obtained. It maybe seen
that the two geometrical quantities of interest are tile hull [draft to the total draft, TJT,~ and the beam to hull draft ratio, :B\VLITJc, as mentioned above. 'TI},e resistance increases with Fronde number squared and is proportional to th!e heel angle,
When computing tile heel resistance of the YD'40 in Fig ,5,.14· the heel angle, which should 'be appropriate for about .8 'TIlls of wind, has been taken aSI the Dellenbaugh angle (defined in, the previous chapter], This angle is 1.3,~6°, 8.)}(1 yields a 'heel resistar ce of 99 N' 6r.5% of the total. N10te that the ang e shall be given in. radians (degrees/ 57.,3) in, the fO'I1TI ula,
.. 4dded, resistance ill waves
Ch 4 ,., d d' b + ~c, f I ~ . '. .'
, ill' :_.,_", '~ '. '.  ri ,'_...... .' ".;.,' ., .' : I .' ,.f·~I~ ".!!ii', ,".,. _" "., " I~' •. '. '1' Y··',·_ '_.
.. apter ~11tlIO ucee some I~ asie g,a 1,lety actors wnen sailing m w aves,
[ dnres ented · ad dis: ... ','11"" d th ',' "",,1" tio: of the .  .' ti .. 'f'"  tln . ',11"" .. ',
anc presen e. ;an[" . nscusse "I ie so u ron 101 ,_ .e equa ion "0,( ,Ie ro mg
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