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The Pembina and

Turtle Mountain Metis

& Chippewa
Prepared by:
Larry Haag
Red River Metis Heritage Group
Lawrence Barkwell
St. Norbert Parish-La Barriere Metis Council
Jean Baptiste Wilkie (1803-1886)
Pembina/St. Joseph Metis Chief
• Son of Alexander Wilkie and
• Married Amable Elise (Isabella)
Azure (b. 1808), daughter of Pierre
Azure and Margaret Assiniboine.
• Two of their sons-in-law, Gabriel
Dumont and Patrice Fleury, were
leaders of the 1885 Metis Resistance
at Batoche.
• Wilkie and the Chippewa had a
palisaded fort on the Souris River
near Towner N.D. which was attacked
and burnt down by the Dakota in

Metis Hunting Camp West of Turtle
Metis Hunting Camp West of Turtle
Turtle Mountain Metis on the Plains
Chief Ayabe-way-we-tung or Ase-anse
(Little Shell III)
• His father, Little Shell II, signed the Red
Lake Pembina Treaty with Commissioner
Ramsey in 1863 as Chief of the Pembina
Band of Chippewa.

• Little Shell III, is known for his resistance

to signing the McCumber Agreement of
• He was married to Okimahkwe, “Great
Woman”. Little Shell III was born
between 1825-1830. He died between
1900-1901 at the Turtle Mountain
Chippewa Reservation in Rolette County,
Belcourt, North Dakota and was buried in
St. Anthony's Cemetery.

• He and his followers had moved to

Montana, The Little Shell Band of
Montana is recognized by the state but not
by BIA.
Turtle Mountain Delegation to Washington,1874

Seated, left to right: unidentified; unidentified; Little Shell (Ase-ance);

Something Blown Up By The Wind (Ka-Ees-Pa Gourneau, Metis). Back row,
left to right: unidentified; The Man Who Knows How To Hunt (Ke-Woe-Sais-
We-Ro, Metis); Little Bull (Mis-To-Ya-Be). Photo by W.H. Jackson.
Okima Kee Kee
• Chief Voice
• Photo courtesy of the State
Historical Society N.D. (#) A
Turtle Mountain Band

• A-Wa-Mi-Pi
• Young Elk and Wife
• Photo courtesy State Historical
Society of North Dakota (# A
1863 Treaty Signatory
• Na-pa-sis, Jack Little
• Jack signed the
Pembina Red Lake
Treaty in 1863 as
band member #211
Pembina Band
• Misko-penase, Chief Red
• Cree/Chippewa chief of
the Pembina Band
• SHSND #833-9, photo
taken in 1907, he was
about 89 years of age
• Red Thunder was the
father of Flying Eagle
Little Shell III’s, Metis Councilors, 1890s
• These men also served as • Batees-shish Valley (58) son of
counselors for Little Shell II, Norbace Valley
“Ayse-sense” . • Ahkee-win-nini, Alex Jannott (58)
• Sas Swaine Poitras (67) • Tcheer-kuhk, Joseph Demarais (56)
• Kug-kay-dway-wash-kung, William • Bay-riss, Corbet Grant (55)
Davis (70) • Karn-nar-dah, Antoine Heneult (59)
• Paydway-walsh-kum, Louis Lenoir • Jean Batees Gorin (Champagne) 57
• Boin-ence Davis (73)
• Kar-yence Delorme (50) a son of • Sergeant’s at Arms for Little Shell
• Musway-aush-kah, Antoine Fournier
• Sharlo Boittineau (68) (35)
• Ossa-otit, Francois Demarais (55) • Sharlance Azure (57)
• Tchee-kee-tarn, Parisien (68)
Chief Se-gon-ake-skung (Rising Sun)

• Chief Rising Sun pictured with his

wife, Simaquan (“Come from Above”
or “Up There Person”) in 1907. She is
94 years of age in this picture.

• Se-gon-ake-skung signed the 1863

Treaty as Band member # 241.

• Photo courtesy of the State Historical

Society of North Dakota (No. A
Chief Ka-ke-no-wash
Flying Eagle

• Flying Eagle succeeded chief Little

Shell in 1901 and served until 1930.

• In January of 1917, Kakenowash and

his interpreter, Eustache Roussin,
went to Washinton, D.C. to represent
the tribe.

• He is listed as Band member #50 of

the Turtle Mountain Band on the
treaty ratified in 1905.
Antoine-Blanc Gingras (1821-1877)
• Son of Antoine Cuthbert Gingras and
Marguerite Madeleine Trottier a
Metis woman. She appears on the
Pembina Annuity Roll, Little Shell's
Band, 1866: #3/39.
• Antoine married Scholastique
Trottier, born c. 1822 at Pembina) in
• Antoine and Scholastique and their
family of six boys and four girls took
annuities as Pembina/Turtle Mountain
Band members in 1869.
• He established the Gingras Trading
Post and, with Father Belcourt and
several Métis families, co-founded the
town of St. Joseph near Pembina.
• He served as a member of the
Minnesota Territorial Legislature
from 1851-1858.
Gringras Trading Post
St. Joseph, North Dakota
Francis Eagleheart Cree (1920-2007)
• Son of “Napasis” (Charles) Cree and
Celina Allary.
• Married Rose Machipiness, daughter
of Machipiness and Marion Pelletier.
• In 2002, Francis and Rose received
the National Endowment for the Arts
National Heritage Fellowship, which
recognizes the significant contri-
butions of American folk artists.
• Pipe Carrier and Tribal Chairman of
Turtle Mountain (1962-63).
• Great grandson of Cree Chief Broken
Arm “Eeh-tow-wée-ka-zeet” (He
Who Has Eyes Behind Him).
• Great nephew of Cree Chief “Match-
a-to-ge-wub” (Many Eagles Sitting),
Broken Arm’s older brother.
Judith Wilkie and Pierre Berger
• Judith Berger (b. 1825) was the
daughter of Jean Baptiste Wilkie
and Amable Elise (Isabella)
• Pierre Berger (b. 1816) was the
son of Jacques Berger and Cecile
Dumont. He is Band member #
148 on the Pembina Annuity Roll,
Way ke ge ke zhick's Band, 1868.
• In 1879, Judith and her husband
Pierre Berger, led twenty-five
Metis families to central Montana
in search of the diminishing
buffalo herds.
• They are considered to be the
founders of Spring Creek now
Lewistown, Montana.
Patrick Moses Gourneau (1904-1989)
• Patrick Moses Gourneau was born in
1904, the son of Joseph Gourneau (Kishki-
mun-eshiw) and Eliza McLeod. Joseph
was a Band councilor in the 1880s.
• His grandfather, Joseph Gornan (married
to Judith Delorme) signed the Old
Crossing Treaty with the Pembina and Red
Lake Bands of Chippewa Indians.
• Patrick was Tribal Chairman of the Turtle
Mountain Band between 1954 and 1958,
when he had to resign because of ill
• He wrote a history of the Turtle Mountain
people and took a strong leadership role in
the revival of traditional customs.
• In 1986, he was awarded the North Dakota
Heritage Profile Honour Award.
• He died in 1989. (The photograph is #C
3639, courtesy of the State Historical
Society of North Dakota).
Turtle Mountain Police circa 1900
(State Historical Society of North Dakota A-1660)
Martin Rolette, Kanick,
and Antoine Wilkie

• Martin Rolette (b. 1849) Treaty #

173, Interpreter, with his wife, Kanick
(Walking with Thunder) Treaty # 63
and Indian Judge Antoine Wilkie.

• Martin was a Councilman in 1911 and

one of the first policemen on the
Turtle Mountain Reservation.

• Photo courtesy of the State Historical

Society of North Dakota (No. C-264).
Chippewa and Metis Games
Playing Puk-Kaa-Son at Roseau River Rapids
(Photo courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota A-87)
Turtle Mountain Band Members

• Rear: (left to right) Iron

Bear, Hunts Thunder.
• Centre: Standing Elk,
Yellow Bird, Cuts Heart,
Old Face.
• Front: A. Farrel, Sage Hen
• Photo courtesy of Public
Archives of Manitoba (ca.
Marie Louise Bottineau (1863-1952)
In 1914, Washington College of Law’s first Native American (Metis) student to graduate.

• Marie Louise was the daughter of

Jean Baptiste Bottineau, enrolled
Turtle Mountain Band member and
lawyer for the band. Her mother was
Marguerite Renville, also a Metisse.
• Marie Louise Bottineau-Baldwin was
the first woman of color to graduate
from the Washington College Law
• The WCL student organization,
raises funds to support the Marie
Bottineau Baldwin scholarship, which
honors her achievement.
• Her great grandfather, Charles
[Joseph] Bottineau Sr. was with the
Lewis and Clark expedition [1803-
1806]. Charles was a counselor of
Little Shell I.
Chippewa at Fort Dufferin in 1873
• When the British Boundary
Commission began surveying the 49th
Parallel in 1873, the Chippewa
assisted in the survey from Lake of
the Woods to Pembina/ Fort Dufferin.

• The Boundary Commission

photographers took this picture.

• Thirty mounted and armed Metis

Scouts, the 49th Rangers, were scouts
and guards for the British Boundry
Boundary Commission
• Maxime Marion, b.1838, son of
Narcisse Marion and Mary Bouchard,
married Elise Jerome, daughter of
Martin Jerome and Elizabeth Wilkie.
• Jean Baptiste Wilkie, the Metis chief,
was his uncle.
• Maxime was a signator to the Turtle
Mountain Treaty of July 13, 1892. He
and his family appear on the Turtle
Mountain Band census 1888-1892.
• Maxime was a Metis guide to the
Boundary Commission in 1872 (Lake
of the Woods to Fort Dufferin)
Boundary Commission: Chippewa at Fort
Metis Scouts: The 49th Rangers
Boundary Commission 1873-75
Two Metis Fiddlers with Boundary
Trading Post at Turtle Mountain
The Boundary Commission established this post at Turtle Mountain
Cutting line across Turtle Mountain
Boundary Commission
Dakota Camp at Turtle Mountain
Boundary Commission 1873-75
Metis Teamsters with Boundary Commission
Metis Scout: Boundary Commission
Nakota-Metis Hunting Camp
Boundary Commission 1873-75
Sun Dance Set Up Time at Turtle
Turtle Mountain Dancers
Photo courtesy of the State Historical Society of North Dakota (A74, 1908)
Turtle Mountain Chippewa Sun
Sun Dance Lodge & Drum Group
Turtle Mountain
Sun Dance and Offerings
Chippewa/Metis Group, Fort Dufferin, 1873
Turtle Mountain Band Members at Batoche
during the 1885 Resistance, and Metis who fled to
Turtle Mountain after the Battle
• Allery dit Henry. Marguerite (Boyer) (b. 1835) • Marion, Louis. (b. 1840)
• Belgarde (Bellegarde), Pierre. (b. 1859) • Monet dit Belhumeur, Isabelle (Sauve). (1848).
• Champagne dit Beaugrand, “Elisa” Elizabeth
(Vandal) (b. 1853) • Montour, Pascal Jr. (1852)
• Champagne, Elise (Parenteau) (b. 1859). • Nault, André Jr. “Nin Nin.”(b. 1860)
• Champagne, Emmanuel dit Beaugrand.(1823-1904) • Nault, Napoléon. (1858-1931)
• Champagne dit Beaugrand, Elizabeth (Vandal) (b.
1859). • Ouellette (Ouellet), Joseph. (c. 1792-1885)
• Champagne, Marie (Gosselin) (b. 1844). • Ouellette, Veronique (Dumas) (b. 1852).
• Davis, Louis. (b. 1856) • Parenteau, Agnes (Laverdure) (1850-1923).
• Deschamps, Madeleine (Turcotte) (b. 1859).
• Desjarlais, Emelie (Lafontaine) (1851-1943). • Pelletier, Marie-Madeleine (Lafontaine) (b. 1845).
• Desjarlais, Marie (Venne) (b. 1854). • Smith, Pelagie (Dumas) (1854-1906).
• Dumas, Michel (Le Rat or Watcheskon). (1849-
1901) • Tourond, David. (1851-1890)
• Fisher, Virginie (Tourond) (b. 1859). • Trottier, Charles “Wahpass” (Rabbit). (b. 1839)
• Fleury, Patrice Joseph. (1848-1943) • Trottier, Michel. (1832-1885)
• Fleury, Virginie (Arcand) (b. 1870).
• Gariépy (Gurriepy), Jean Baptiste. (b. 1835) • Turcotte, Napoleon (b. 1851)
• Gariépy, Philippe Elzéar. (1839-1900) • Turcotte, Norbert (b. 1855)
• Gariépy, Pierre. (b. 1826) • Vandal, Melanie, “Malvina” (Nault) (1843-1898).
• Grant, Rose-Marie (Gariépy) (b. 1828).
• Lafontaine, Louis. (1842-1939) • Venne, Alexandre. (b. 1856)
• Laverdure, Joseph. (b. 1834) • Wilkie, Agathe (Fleury) (1844-1941).
• Laverdure, Pierre “Beau-blé” (b. 1838)
• Lepine, Josephte (Turcotte) (b. 1858). • Wilkie, Madeleine (Dumont) (1840-1886).
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