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New 17254093 Quantitative

# New 17254093 Quantitative

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## Sections

• NUMBER SYSTEM
• Natural numbers
• Whole numbers
• INTEGERS
• Positive Integers
• Negative Integers
• Non-negative Integers
• Rational Numbers
• 3. Product of two numbers
• Introduction
• Some useful shortcut methods
• SOME BASIC FORMULAE
• SOME USEFUL SHORT–CUT METHODS
• Explanation
• Solution
• Some Useful Short-Cut Methods
• Units of Measurement
• Conversion of Units
• = 9seconds
• =20knots/hr
• SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS
• Note:
• Lines And Angles
• Definition and Basic Properties
• Nomenclature Associated
• Altitude or Height
• Types of Triangles
• Pythagoras Theorem
• Simple Trigonometric Ratios
• Parallelogram
• Basic Properties
• Rhombus
• Rectangle
• Square
• Trapezium
• Circles
• Basic Constructs
• Circumference
• Secant
• Chord
• Tangent
• Area
• Arc
• Sector
• Arcs and Sectors
• Circular Pathway
• Properties of Circles
• A. ARCS, Chords And Central Angles
• B. Angle in a circle
• C. Chords in a circle
• D. Tangents to a circle
• E. Pair of Circles
• Geometrical relationships
• Solids
• Polyhedrons
• Cuboid
• Cuboid metrics
• Hollow cuboid
• Cube
• Cube Metrics
• Hollow cube
• Pyramid
• Pyramid metrics (Right regular pyramid with base polygon of N sides)
• Prism
• Solids with curved surfaces
• Cylinder
• Cylinder metrics
• Cone
• Cone Metrics
• Frustrum
• Sphere
• Sphere Metrics
• Geometrical Relationships
• Hemisphere
• Sets Statements
• 5. Some Result to Remember
• 18. Types of Permutations based upon Geometrical Applications:
• Experiment
• Sample Space
• Sample point / event point
• Discrete Sample Space
• Event
• Problem of Events
• Types of Events A. Simple Event/Elementary Event
• Example:
• B. Mixed Event or Compound Event or Composite Event
• C. Equally likely events
• D. Exhaustive Events
• Important
• E. Mutually Exclusive Events
• F. Independent Events or Mutually Independent events
• G. Dependent Events
• H. Complementary Events
• Occurrence of an Event
• 1. Sequence
• 2. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
• 4. Selection of Terms in an A.P
• 5. Some Useful Results
• 6. Sum to n Terms of an A.P
• 7. Insertion of Arithmetic Means
• Insertion of n Arithmetic Means between a and b
• 8. Geometric Progression
• 9. Selection of Terms in G.P
• No. of terms Terms Common ratio
• 10. Properties of Geometric Progressions
• 11. Sum of Terms of a G.P
• 2. Weighted Arithmetic Mean
• 3. Combined Mean
• 4. Geometric Mean
• 5. Harmonic Mean
• 6. Relation among A.M, G.M. And H.M
• (b) if n is even, then
• 11. Skewness

# ICET

Quantitative Aptitude
INDEX
ARITHMETIC
1. Real Number System --------------------------------------- 03-12
2. *Ratio & Proportion --------------------------------------- 13-19
3. **Percentages --------------------------------------- 20-24
4. *Averages & Mixtures --------------------------------------- 25-33
5. **Profit & Loss --------------------------------------- 34-38
6. **Simple & Compound Interests --------------------------------------- 39-43
7. *Time & Work --------------------------------------- 44-49
8. *Time & Distance --------------------------------------- 50-56
9. *Age Problems --------------------------------------- 57-61
GEOMETRY
10. Plane Geometry --------------------------------------- 62-80
11. **Mensuration --------------------------------------- 81-91
COUNTING METHODS & PROBABILITY
12. Set Thoery --------------------------------------- 91-97
13. *Permutations & Combinations --------------------------------------- 98-103
14. *Probability --------------------------------------- 104-110
15. Progressions --------------------------------------- 111-117
16. Statistics --------------------------------------- 118-124
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ALGEBRA
17. Progressions -------------------------- 126-132
18. Matrices -------------------------- 133-142
19. Statements -------------------------- 143-148
20. Sets -------------------------- 149-154
21. Real Numbers, Rational Numbers & Law of Indices -------------------------- 155-
160
22. Surds -------------------------- 161-168
23. Linear Equations, Inequations & Modulus -------------------------- 169-174
24. Polynomials, Remainder & Square Roots -------------------------- 175-177
25. Quadratic Equations & Expressions -------------------------- 178-180
26. Relations & Functions -------------------------- 181-183
27. Derivatives & Limits -------------------------- 184-187
28. Logarithms -------------------------- 188-190
29. Binomial Theorem -------------------------- 191-193
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NUMBER SYSTEMS
In Hindu Arabic System, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent any number. This is
the decimal system where we use the numbers 0 to 9. 0 is called insignificant digit.
A group of figures, denoting a number is called a numeral. For a given numeral, we start from extreme
right as Unit’s place, Ten’s place, Hundred’s place and so on.
Illustration 1 We represent the number 309872546 as shown below:
T
e
n

C
r
o
r
e

1
0
8
C
r
o
r
e
s

1
0
7
T
e
n

L
a
c
s

(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
)

1
0
6
L
a
c
s

1
0
5
T
e
n

T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d

1
0
4
T
h
o
u
s
a
n
d

1
0
3
H
u
n
d
r
e
d

1
0
2
T
e
n

s

1
0
1
U
n
i
t
s

1
0
0
3 0 9 8 7 2 5 4 6
“Thirty crores, ninety- eight lacs, seventy-two thousands five hundred and forty-six.”
In this numeral:
The place value of 6 is 6 ×1 = 6
The place value of 4 is 4 ×10 = 40
The place value of 5 is 5 ×100 = 500
The place value of 2 is2 ×1000 = 2000 and so on.
The face value of a digit in a numbers is the value itself wherever it may be.
Thus, the face value of 7 in the above numeral is 7. The face value of 6 in the above numeral is 6 and in the above
numeral is 6 and so on.
NUMBER SYSTEM
Natural numbers
Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... are know as natural numbers.
The set of all natural numbers, can be represented by
N= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,….}
Whole numbers
If we include 0 among the natural numbers, then the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, … are called whole numbers.
The set of whole number can be represented by
W= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…}
Clearly, every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a natural number.
INTEGERS
All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are know as integers.
The set of integers can be represented by
Z or I = {…-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …}
Positive Integers
The set I
+
={1, 2, 3, 4,…} is the set of all positive integers. Clearly, positive integers and natural numbers are
synonyms.
Negative Integers
The set I
-
= {-1, -2, -3…} is the set of all negative integers. 0 is neither positive nor negative.
Non-negative Integers
The set {0, 1, 2, 3,…} is the set all non-negative integers.
Rational Numbers
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The numbers of the form p/q, where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0, are known as rational numbers, e.g. 4/7, 3/2,
-5/8, 0/1, -2/3, etc.
The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q. i.e. Q ={x:x =p/q; p,q belong to I, q≠0}.
Since every natural number ‘a’ can be written as a/1, every natural number is a rational number. Since 0
can be written as 0/1 and every non-zero integer ‘a’ can be written as a/1, every integer is a rational number.
Every rational number has a peculiar characteristic that when expressed in decimal form is expressible
rather in terminating decimals or in non-terminating repeating decimals.
For example, 1/5 =0.2, 1/3 = 0.333…22/7 = 3.1428704287, 8/44 = 0.181818…., etc.
The recurring decimals have been given a short notation as
0.333…. = 0.3
4.1555… = 4.05
0.323232…= 0.32.
Irrational Numbers
Those numbers which when expressed in decimal from are neither terminating nor repeating decimals are known as
irrational number, e.g. √2, √3, √5, π, etc.
Note that the exact value of π is not 22/7. 22/7 is rational while π irrational number. 22/7 is approximate value of π.
Similarly, 3.14 is not an exact value of it.
Real Numbers
The rational and irrational numbers combined together are called real numbers, e.g.13/21, 2/5, -3/7, √3, 4 + √2, etc.
are real numbers.
The set of all real numbers is denote by R.
Note that the sum, difference or product of a rational and irrational number is irrational, e.g. 3+ √2, 4-√3,
2/3-√5, 4√3, -7√5 are all irrational.
Even Numbers
All those numbers which are exactly divisible by 2 are called even numbers, e.g.2, 6, 8, 10, etc., are even numbers.
Odd Numbers
All those numbers which are not exactly divisible by 2 are called odd numbers, e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7 etc., are odd numbers.
Prime Numbers
A natural number other than 1 is a prime number if it is divisible by 1 and itself only.
For example, each of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7 etc., are prime numbers.
Composite Numbers
Natural numbers greater than 1which are not prime, are known as composite numbers.
For example, each of the numbers 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, etc., are composite numbers.
Note:
1. The number 1 is neither a prime number nor composite number.
2. 2 is the only even number which is prime
3. Prime numbers up to 100 are:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19,23, 29, 31, 37, 41,43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, i.e. 25 prime
numbers between 1 and 100.
4. two numbers which have only 1 as the common factor are called co-primes or relatively prime to each
other, e.g. 3 and 5 are co-primes.
Note that the numbers which are relatively prime need not necessarily be prime numbers, e.g. 16 and 17 are
relatively prime although 16 is not a prime number.
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The method is best illustrated with the help of following example:
Illustration 2 54321 – (9876+8976+7689) = ?
st
column: 54321
9876
8967
7689
27789
6+7+9 = 22
To obtain 1 at unit’s place add 9 to make 31. In the answer, write 9 at unit’s place and carry over 3.
nd
column:
3+7+6+8=24
To obtain 2 at tens place add 8 to make 32. In the answer, write 8 at ten’s place and carry over 3.
rd
column:
3 + 8 + 9 + 6 = 26
To obtain 3 at hundred’s place, add 7 to make 33. In the answer, write 7 at hundred’s place and carry over
3.
th
column:
3 + 9 + 8 + 7 = 27
To obtain 4 at thousand’s place add 7 to make 34. In the answer, write 7 at thousand’s place and over 3.
Step 5 5
th
column:
To obtain 5 at ten-thousand’s place add 2 to it to make 5. In the answer, write 2 at the ten-thousand’s place.
∴ 54321 – (9876 + 8967 + 7689) = 27789.
Common Factor
A common factor of two or more numbers is a number which divides each of them exactly.
For example, 4 is a common factor of 8 and 12.
Highest common factor
Highest common factor of two or more numbers is the greatest number that divides each one of them exactly. For
example, 6 is the highest common factor of 12, 18 and 24. Highest Common Factor is also called Greatest Common
Divisor or Greatest Common Measure.
Symbolically, these can be written as H.C.F. or G.C.D. or G.C.M., respectively.
Methods of Finding H.C.F.
I. Method of Prime Factors
Step 1 Express each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors.
[A number is said to be a prime number if it is exactly divisible by 1 and itself but not by any other number, e.g. 2,
3, 5, 7, etc. are prime numbers]
Step 2 Choose Common Factors.
Step 3 Find the product of lowest powers of the common factors. This is the required H.C.F. of given numbers.
Illustration 1 Find the H.C.F. of 70 and 90.
Solution 70 = 2 × 5 × 7
90 = 2 × 5 × 9
Common factors are 2 and 5.
∴ H.C.F. = 2 × 5 = 10.
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Illustration 2 Find the H.C.F. of 3332, 3724 and 4508
Solution 3332 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 × 17
3724 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 × 19
4508 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 × 23
∴ H.C.F. = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 = 196.
Illustration 3 Find the H.C.F. of 360 and 132.
Solution 360 = 2
3
× 3
2
× 5
132 = 2
2
× 3
1
× 11
∴ H.C.F. = 2
2
× 3
1
× = 12.
Illustration 4 If x = 2
3
× 3
5
× 5
9
and y = 2
5
× 3
7
× 5
11
, find H.C.F. of x and y.
Solution The factors common to both x and y are 2
3
, 3
5
and 5
9
.
∴ H.C.F. = 2
3
× 3
5
× 5
9
.
II. Method of Division
A. For two numbers:
Step 1 Greater number is divided by the smaller one.
Step 2 Divisor of (1) is divided by its remainder.
Step 3 Divisor of (2) is divided by its remainder. This is continued until no remainder is left.
H.C.F. is the divisor of last step.
Illustration 5 Find the H.C.F. of 3556 and 3444.
3444 )3556 (1
3444
112 ) 3444 ( 30
3360
84 ) 112 ( 1
84
28 ) 84 ( 3
84
×
B. For more than two numbers:
Step 1 Any two numbers are chosen and their H.C.F. is obtained.
Step 2 H.C.F. of H.C.F. (of(1)) and any other number is obtained.
Step 3 H.C.F. of H.C.F. (of (2)) and any other number (not chosen earlier) is obtained.
This process is continued until all numbers have been chosen. H.C.F. of last step is the required H.C.F.
Illustration 6 Find the greatest possible length which can be used to measure exactly the lengths
7 m, 3 m 85 cm, 12 m 95 cm.
Solution Required length
= (H.C.F. of 700, 385, 1295) cm = 35 cm.
Common Multiple
A common multiple of two or more numbers is a number which is exactly divisible by each one of them.
For Example, 32 is a common multiple of 8 and 16.
8 × 4 = 32
16 × 2 = 32.
Least Common Multiple
The least common multiple of two or more given numbers is the least or lowest number which is exactly divisible by
each of them.
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For example, consider the two numbers 12 and 18.
Multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, …
Multiple of 18 are 18, 36, 54, 72, …
Common multiples are 36, 72, …
∴Least common multiple, i.e. L.C.M. of 12 and 18 is 36.
Methods of Finding L.C.M.
A. Method of Prime Factors
Step 1 Resolve each given number into prime factors.
Step 2 Take out all factors with highest powers that occur in given numbers.
Step 3 Find the product of these factors. This product will be the L.C.M.
Illustration 7 Find the L.C.M. of 32, 48, 60 and 320.
Solution 32 = 25 × 1
48 = 24 × 3
60 = 22 × 3 × 5
320 = 26 × 6
∴ L.C.M. = 26 × 3 × 5 = 960.
B. Method of Division
Step 1 The given numbers are written in a line separated by common.
Step 2 Divide by any one of the prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, … which will divide at least any two of the given
nu8mbers exactly. The quotients and the undivided numbers are written in a line below the first.
Step 3 Step 2 is repeated until a line of numbers (prime to each other) appears.
1 Find the product of all divisors and numbers in the last line which is the required L.C.M.
Illustration 8 Find the L.C.M. of 12, 15, 20 and 54.
Solution2 12, 15, 20, 54
2 6, 15, 10, 27
3 3, 15, 5, 27
5 1, 5, 5, 9
1, 1, 1, 9
L.C.M. = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 × 1 × 1 × 1 × 9 = 540.
Note: Before finding the L.C.M. or H.C.F., we must ensure that all quantities are expressed in the same unit.
Some Useful Short-Cut Methods
1. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Decimals
Step 1 Make the same number of decimal places in all the given numbers by suffixing zero(s) if necessary.
Step 2 Find the H.C.F./L.C.M. of these numbers without decimal.
Step 3 Put the decimal point (in the H.C.F./L.C.M. of step 2) leaving as many digits on its right as there are in each
of the numbers.
2. L.C.M. and H.C.F. of Fractions
L.C.M = L.C.M. of the numbers in numerators
H.C.F. of the numbers in denominators
H.C.F. = H.C.F. of the numbers in numerators
L.C.M. of the numbers in denominators
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3. Product of two numbers
= L.C.M. of the numbers × H.C.F. of the numbers
4. To find the greatest number that will exactly divide x, y and z.
Required number = H.C.F. of x, y and z.
5. To find the greatest number that will divide x, y and z leaving remainders a, b and c, respectively.
Required number = H.C.F. of (x – a), (y – b) and (z – c).
6. To find the least number which is exactly divisible by x, y and z.
Required number = L.C.M. of x, y and z.
7. To find the least number which when divided by x, y and z leaves the remainders a, b and c, respectively. It is
always observed that (x – a) = (y – b) = (z – c) = k (say)
∴ Required number = (L.C.M. of x, y and z) – k.
8. To find the least number which when divided by x, y and z leaves the same remainder r in each case.
Required number = (L.C.M. of x, y and z) + r.
9. To find the greatest number that will divide x, y and z leaving the same remainder in each case.
(a) When the value of remainder r is given:
Required number = H.C.F. of (x – r), (y – r) and (z – r).
(b) When the value of remainder is not given:
Required number = H.C.F. of (x – y) , (y – z) and (z – x)
10. To find the n-digit greatest number which, when divided by x, y and z.
(a) leaves no remainder (i.e. exactly divisible)
Step 1 L.C.M. of x, y and z = L
L ) n – digit greatest number (
Step 2 remainder = R
Step 3 Required number
= n-digit greatest number – R
(b) leaves remainder K in each case Required number
= (n-digit greatest number – R) + K.
11. To find the n-digit smallest number which when divided by x, y and z
(a) leaves no remainder (i.e. exactly divisible)
Step 1 L.C.M. of x, y and z = L
L )n-digit smallest number(
Step 2 remainder = R
Step 3 Required number
= n-digit smallest number + (L – R).
(b) leaves remainder K in each case.
Required number
= n-digit smallest number + (L – R) + k.
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RATIOS, PROPORTIONS AND VARIATION
A ratio is a comparison of two quantities by division. It is a relation that one quantity bears to another with respect to
magnitude. In other words, ratio means what part one quantity is of another. The quantities may be of same kind or
different kinds. For example, when we consider the ratio of the weight 45 kg of a bag of rice to the weight 29kg of a
bag of sugar we are considering the quantities of same kind but when we talk of allotting 2 cricket bats to 5
sportsmen, we are considering quantities of different kinds. Normally, we consider the ratio between quantities of
the same kind.
If a and b are two numbers, the ratio of a to b is a/b or a +b and is denoted by a : b. The two quantities that
are being compared are called terms. The first is called antecedent and the second term is called consequent.
For example, the ratio 3 : 5 represents 3/5 with antecedent 3 and consequent 5.
Note:
1. A ratio is a number, so to find the ratio of two quantities, they must be expressed in the same units.
2. A ratio does not change if both of is terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. Thus,
2/3= 4/6 = 6/9 etc.
TYPES OF RATIOS
1. Duplicate Ratio The ratio of the squares of two numbers is called the duplicate ratio of the two
numbers.
For example, 3
2
/4
2
or 9/16 is called the duplicate ratio of ¾.
2. Triplicate Ratio The ratio of the cubes of two numbers is called the triplicate ratio of the two
numbers.
For example, 3
3
/4
3
or 27/64 is triplicate ratio of ¾.
3. Sub-duplicate Ratio The ratio of the square roots of two numbers is called the sub-duplicate ratio
of two numbers.
For example, 3/4 is the sub- duplicate ratio of 9/16.
4. Sub-duplicate Ratio The ratio of the cube roots of two numbers is called the sub-triplicate ratio
of two numbers.
For example, 2/3 is the sub-triplicate ratio of 8/27.
5. Inverse Ratio or Reciprocal Ratio If the antecedent and consequent of a ratio interchange their
places, the new ratio is called the inverse ratio of the first.
Thus, if a : b be the given ratio, then 1/a : 1/b or b : a is its inverse ratio.
For example, 3/5 is the inverse ratio of 5/3.
6. Compound Ratio The ratio of the product of the antecedents to that of the consequents of two or
more given ratios is called the compound ratio. Thus, if a :b and c:d are two given rations, then ac : bd is the
compound ratio of the given ratios,
For example, if ¾, 4/5 and 5/7 be the given ratios, then their compound ratios is 3× 4× 5/ 4× 5× 7, that is, 3/7.
PROPORTION
The equality of two ratios is called proportion.
If a/b = c/d, then a, b, c and d are said to be in proportion and we write a : b: : c: d. This is read as “a is to b as c
is to d”.
For example, since ¾ = 6/8, we write 3; 4: : 6: 8 and say 3, 4, 6 and 8 are in proportion.
Each term of the ratio a/b and c/d is called a proportional. a, b, c, and d are respectively the first, second, third
and fourth proportionals
Here, a, d are known as extremes and b, c are known as means.
SOME BASIC FORMULAE
1. If four quantities are in proportion, then product of Means = product of Extremes
For example, in the proportion a : b: : c: d, we have bc = ad.
From this relation we see that if any three of the four quantities are given, the fourth can be determined.
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2. Fourth proportional If a: b: :c :x, x is called the fourth proportional of a, b, c.
We have, a/b = c/x or, x = b×c/a
Thus, fourth proportional of a, b, c is b × c / a.
Illustrational 1 Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 2, 5, 4.
Solution Let x be the fourth proportional, then
2 : 5 : : 4 : x or 2/5 = 4/x.
∴ x = 5 × 4 /2 = 10.
3. Third proportional If a: b: : c: x, x is called the third proportional of a, b.
We have, a/b= b/x or x= b
2
/a.
Thus, third proportional of a. b is b
2
/a
Illustration 2 Find a third proportional to the numbers 2.5, 1.5
Solution Let x be the third proportional, then
2.5 : 1.5 : :1.5 : x or 2.5/1.5= 1.5/x.
∴ x = 1.5 × 1.5/2.5 = 0.9
4. Mean Proportional If a: x: : x: b, x is called the mean or second proportional of a,
b.
We have, a/x =x/b or x
2
= ab or x = √ab
∴Mean proportional of a and b is √ab.
We also say that a, x, b are in continued proportion
Illustration 3 Find the mean proportional between 48 and 12.
Solution Let x be the mean proportional. Then, 48 : x : : x : 12 or, 48/x = x/12 or, x
2
= 576 or, x=24.
5. If a/b = c/d, then
(i) (a + b)/b = (c +d)/d (Componendo)
(ii) (a – b)/b = (c-d)/d (Dividendo)
(iii) (a + b)/a-b = c +d/c-d = (Componendo and Dividendo)
(iv) a/b = a + c/b+d = (a –c)/b-d
Illustration 4 The sum of two umber is c and their quotient is p/q. Find the numbers.
Solution Let the numbers be x, y.
Given: x + y = c …(1)
and, x/y = p/q …(2)
∴ x/ x+y = p/p+q ⇒x/c = p/p+q [Using (1)]
⇒ x = pc/p +q.
SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS
1. (a) If two numbers are in the ratio of a: b and the sum of these numbers is x, then these numbers
will be ax/ a + b and bx/ a+b, respectively. or
If in a mixture of x liters of, two liquids A and B in the ratio of a: b, then the quantities of liquids A and B in the
mixture will be ax / a + b litres and bx/ a + b litres, respectively.
(b) If three numbers are in the ratio a : b: c and the sum of these numbers is x, then these numbers will be
ax / a + b + c , bx / a + b + c and cx / a + b + c, respectively.
Explanation
Len the three numbers in the ratio a: b: c be A, B and C. Then,
A = ka, B = kb, C =kc and, A + B + C = ka + kb + kc = x
⇒k(a+b+c) = x ⇒k = x / a + b+ c.
∴ A = ka = ax / a + b+ c.
B = kb = bx / a + b+ c.
C = kc = cx / a + b+ c.
Illustration 5 Two numbers are in the ratio of 4 : 5 and the sum of these numbers is 27. Find the two numbers.
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Solution Here, a = 4, b = 5, and x = 27.
∴ The first number = ax / a + b = 4 × 27 / 4+5 = 12.
and, the second number = bx / a + b = 5 × 27 / 4+5 = 15.
Illustration 6 Three numbers are in the ratio of 3: 4 : 8: and the sum of these numbers is 975. Find the three
numbers.
Solution Here, a = 3, b = 4, c = 8 and x = 975
∴ The first number = ax / a + b+ c = (3 × 975)/ 3 + 4 + 8 = 195.
The second number = bx / a + b+ c = (4 × 975)/ 3 + 4 + 8 = 260.
and, the third number = cx / a + b+ c = (8 × 975)/ 3 + 4 + 8 = 520.
2. If two numbers are in the ratio of a : b and difference between these is x, then these numbers will
be
a) ax/ a-b and bx/ a-b, respectively (where a > b).
b) ax/ a-b and bx/ a-b, respectively (where a < b).
Explanation
Let the two numbers be ak and bk.
Let a > b.
Given : ak – bk = x
⇒(a – b)k = x or k = x / (a-b).
Therefore, the two numbers are ax / a-b and bx/ a-b.
Illustration 7 Two numbers are in the ratio of 4 : 5. If the difference between these numbers is 24, then find the
numbers.
Solution Here, a = 4, b = 5 and x = 24.
∴The first number = ax/ b-a = 4 × 24/5- 4 = 96 and, the second number = bx/ b-a = 5× 24 / 5-4 = 120.
3. (a). If a : b = n1 : d1 and b : c = n2 : d2, then
a : b : c = (n1× n2) : (d1× n2) : (d1 × d2).
(b). If a : b = n1 : d1, b : c = n2 : d2, and c : d = n3 : d3 then
a : b : c : d= (n1× n2× n3) : (d1× n2× n3 ) : (d1× d2× n3 ) : (d1× d2× d3 ).
Illustration 8 If A : B = 3 : 4 and B : C = 8 : 9, find A : B : C.
Solution Here, n1 = 3, n2 =8, d1 =4 and d2 = 9.
∴a : b : c = (n1× n2) : (d1× n2) : (d1× d2)
= (3× 8) : (4× 8) : (4× 9)
= 24 : 32 : 36 or, 6: 8 : 9.
Illustration 9 If A : B = 2 : 3, B:C = 4 : 5 and C : D = 6 : 7, find A :D.
Solution Here, n1 = 2, n2 = 4, n3 = 6, d1 = 3, d2 = 5 and d3 = 7.
∴A : B : C : D = (n1× n2× n3) : (d1× n2× n3) : (d1 × d2 × n3) : (d1 × d2 × d3)
= (2 × 4 × 6) : (3 × 4 × 6) : (3 × 5 × 6) : (3 × 5 × 7)
= 48 : 72 : 90: 105: or, 16: 24 : 30 ; 35. Thus, A : D = 16 : 35.
4. (a) The ratio between two numbers is a : b. If x is added to each of these numbers, the ratio
becomes c : d. The two numbers are given as:
ax(c – d) / ad – bc and bx(c- d) / ad –bc.
Explanation
Let two number be ak and bk.
Given : ak +x / bk+x = c/d ⇒akd +dx= cbk + cx
Therefore, the two numbers are ax(c-d) / ad-bc and bx(c-d) / ad- bc
(b) The ratio between two numbers is a : b. if x is subtracted from each of these numbers, the ratio becomes c : d.
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The two numbers are given as:
Explanation
Let the two numbers be ak and bk.
Given : ak-x/bk-x = c/d ⇒akd-xd = bck-xc
Illustration 10 Given two numbers which are in the ratio of 3 : 4, If 8 is added to each of them, their ratio is
changed to 5 : 6. Find two numbers.
Solution We have,
a : b = 3 : 4, c : d = 5 : 6 and x = 8.
∴The first number = ax(c – d)/ ad –bc = 3 × 8× (5-6) / (3× 6- 4 × 5) = 12.
and, the second number = bx(c – d)/ ad –bc
= 4 × 8× (5-6) / (3× 6- 4 × 5) = 16.
Illustration 11 The ratio of two numbers is 5 : 9. If each number is decreased by 5, the ratio becomes 5: 11.
Find the numbers.
Solution We have,
a : b = 5: 9, c: d = 5: 11 and x =5.
∴ The first number = ax (d – c)/ ad –bc
= 5 × 5× (11-5)/ (5× 11- 9 × 5) = 15.
9× 5× (11-5)/(5× 11-9× 5)= 27.
5. (a) If the ratio of two numbers is a: b, then the numbers that should be added to each of the numbers in
order to make this ratio c : d is given by ad-bc/ c-d.
Explanation
Let the required number be x.
Given: a+x/ b+x = c/d ⇒ad+ xd = bc + xc
(b)If the ratio of two numbers is a : b, then the number that should be subtracted from each of the numbers in order
to make this ratio c : d is given by bc-ad/c-d.
Explanation
Let the required number be x.
Given: a-x/ b-x = c/d ⇒ad- xd = bc - xc
Illustration 12 Find the number that must be subtracted from the terms of the ratio 5 : 6 to make it equal to 2 : 3.
Solution We have a : b= 5 : 6 and c: d =2 : 3.
∴ The required number = bc-ad/ c-d
= 6 × 2-5× 3/ 2-3 =3.
Illustration 13 Find the number that must be added to the terms of the ratio 11 : 29 to make it equal to 11 : 20.
Solution We have, a : b= 11 : 29 and c: d =11: 20.
∴ The required number = ad-bc/ c-d
= 11 × 20-29× 11/ 11-20 = 11.
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PERCENTAGES
Introduction
The term per cent means per hundreds or for every hundred. It is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase per centum.
Scoring 60 per cent marks means out of every 100 marks the candidate scored 60 marks.
The term per cent is sometimes abbreviated as p.c. The symbol % is often used for the term per cent.
Thus, 40 per cent will be written as 40%.
A fraction whose denominator is 100 is called a percentage and the numerator of the fraction is called rate per cent,
e.g. 5/100 and 5 per cent means the same thing, i.e. 5 parts out of every hundred parts.
1. To Convert a fraction into a per cent:
to convert any fraction l/m to rate per cent, multiply it by 100 and put % sign, i.e. l/m × 100%
2. To Convert a Percent into a Fraction:
To convert a per cent into a fraction , drop the per cent sign and divide the number by 100.
3. To find a percentage of a given number: x % of given number (N) = x/100 × N.
Some useful shortcut methods
1. (a) if A is x% more than that of B, then B is less than that of A by
% 100
100
]
]
]

×
+ x
x
(b) If a is x% less than that of B, then B is more than that of A by
% 100
100
]
]
]

×
− x
x
2. If a is x% of C and B is y% of C, then A = x/y × 100% of B.
3. (a) If two numbers are respectively x% and y% more than a third number, then the first number is
% 100
100
100

,
`

.
|
×
+
+
y
x
of the second and the second is % 100
100
100

,
`

.
|
×
+
+
x
y
of the first.
(b) If two numbers are respectively x% and y% less than a third number, then the first number is
% 100
100
100

,
`

.
|
×

y
x
of the first.
4. (a) If the price of a commodity increases by P%, then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the
expenditure is % 100
100

,
`

.
|
×
+ P
P
.
(b) If the price of a commodity decreases by p%, then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the
expenditure is % 100
100

,
`

.
|
×
− P
P
.
5. If a number is changed (increased/decreased) successively by x% and y%, then net% change is given by (x+y+
(xy/100))% which represents increase or decrease in value according as the sign is +ve or –ve.
If x or y indicates decrease in percentage, then put –ve sign before x or y, otherwise +ve sign.
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6. If two parameters A and B are multiplied to get a product and if A is changed (increased/decreased) by x% and
another parameter B is changed (increased/decreased) by y%, then the net% change in the product (A × B) is given
(x+y+(xy/100))% which represents increase or decrease in value according as the sign in +ve or –ve.
If x or y indicates decrease in percentage, then put –ve sign before x or y, otherwise +ve sign.
7. If the present population of a town (or value of an item) be P and the population (or value of item) changes at r%
per annum, then
(a) Population (or value of item) after n years =
n
r
P
,
`

.
|
+
100
1
(b) Population (or value of item) n years ago =
n
r
P

,
`

.
|
+
100
1
where r is +ve or –ve according as the population (or value of item) increase or decreases.
8. If a number A is increased successively by x% followed by y% and then by z%, then the final value of A will be

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+
100
1
100
1
100
1
z y x
A
In case a given value decreases by any percentage, we will use a negative sign before that.
9. In an examination, the minimum pass percentage is x%. If a student secures y marks and fails by z marks, then the
maximum marks in the examination is
x
z y ) ( 100 +
.
10. In an examination x% and y% students respectively fail in two different subjects while z% students fail in both
the subjects, then the percentage of students who pass in both the subjects will be (100-(x+y-z))%.
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Averages & Mixtures
Whenever we are asked the marks scored by us in any examination, we usually tell the marks in percentage, taking
the percentage of total marks of all subjects. This percentage is called average percentage. Also, in a class, If there
are 100 students, instead of knowing the age of individual student, we usually talk about average age.
The average or mean or arithmetic of a number of quantities of the same kind is equal to their sum divided by the
number of those quantities. For example, the average of 3, 11, 15, 18,19, and 23 is
3 + 9 +11+ 15+ 18+ 19+ 23+ /7 = 98/7 = 14.
SOME BASIC FORMULAE
1. Average = sum of quantities/ Number of quantities
2. Sum of quantities = Average × Number of quantities
3. Number of quantities = Sum of quantities/ Average
Illustration 1 A man purchased 5 toys at the rate of Rs 200each, 6 toys at the rate of Rs 250each and 9 toys at the
rate of Rs 300 each. Calculate the average cost of one toy.
Solution Price of 5 toys = 200 × 5 = Rs 1000
Price of 6 toys = 250 × 6 = Rs 1500
Price of 9 toys = 300 × 9 = Rs 2700
Average price of 1 toy = 1000 + 1500 + 2700/ 20
= 5200/20 = Rs 260.
Illustration 2 The average marks obtained by 200 students in a certain examination are 45. Find the total marks.
Solution Total marks
= Average marks × Number of students
= 200 × 45 = 900.
Illustration 3 Total temperatures for the month of September is 840
0
C, If the average temperature of that month is
28
0
C, find of how many days is the month of September.
Solution Number of days in the month of September
= Total temperature/ Average temperature = 840/28
= 30days.
SOME USEFUL SHORT–CUT METHODS
1. Average of two or more groups taken together
a) If the number of quantities in two groups be n1 and n2 and their average is x and y, respectively,
the combined average (average of all of then put together) is
n1x +n2y / n1 + n2
Explanation
No. of quantities in fist group = n1
Their average = x
∴ Sum = n1 × x
No. of quantities in second group = n2
Their average = y
∴ Sum = n2 × y
No. of quantities in the combined group = n1+n2
Total sum (sum of quantities of first group and second group) = n1x+n2y
Combined Average = n1x+n2y./ n1 +n2.
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b). If the average of n1 quantities is x and the average of n2 quantities out of them is y, the average of
remaining group (rest of the quantities) is
n2x – n2y/ n1- n2.
Explanation
No. of quantities = n1
Their average = x
∴ Sum = n1x
No of quantities taken out – n2
Their average = y
∴ Sum = n2y
Sum of remaining quantities = n1x – n2y
No. of remaining quantities = n1 – n2
∴ Average of remaining group = n1x – n2y/ n1 – n2
Illustration 4 The average weight of 24 students of section A of a class is 58 kg whereas the average weight of 26
students of section B of the same class is 60. 5 kg. Find the average weight of all the 50 students of the class.
Solution Here, n1 = 24, n2 = 26, x = 58 and y = 60.5.
∴ Average weight of all the 50 students
= n1x+n2y/ n1 +n2
= 24 ×58 + 26×60.5 / 24+26
= 1392 +1573/ 50 = 2965/ 50 =59.3kg.
Illustration 5 Average salary of all the 50 employees including 5 officers of a company is Rs 850. If the average
salary of the officers is Rs 2500, find of the class.
Solution Here, n1 = 50, n2 =5, x = 850and y = 2500.
∴ Average salary of the remaining staff
= n1x-n2y/ n1-n2 = 50× 850 -5× 2500 / 50-5
= 42500-12500/ 45 = 30000/ 45
= Rs 667(approx)
2. If x is the average of x1, x2, …, xn, then
a) The average of x1 + a, x2 + a, …., xn + a is x +a.
b) The average of x1 - a, x2 - a, …., xn - a is x -a.
c) The average of ax1, ax2,….,axn is ax, provided a ≠ 0.
d) The average of x1 / a, x2 / a, …., xn / a isx /a, provided a ≠ 0.
Illustration 6 The average value of six numbers 7, 12, 17, 24, 26 and 28 is 19. If 8 is added to each number, what
will be the new average?
Solution The new average = x +a.
= 19+8 = 27.
Illustration 7 The average value of x numbers is 5x. If x – 2 is subtracted from each given number, what will be the
new average?
Solution The new average =x -a.
= 5x- (x-2) = 4x +2.
Illustration 8 The average of 8 numbers is 21.If each of the numbers multiplied by 8, find the average of a new set
of numbers.
Solution The average of a new set of numbers
= ax = 8× 21 = 168.
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3. The average of n quantities is equal to x. If one of the given quantities whose value is p, is replaced by a new
quantity having value q, the average becomes y, then q = p+n(y-x)
Illustration 9 The average weight of 25 persons is increased by 2 kg when one of them whose weight is 60kg, is
replaced by a new person. What is the weight of the new person?
Solution The weight of the new person
= p + n(y-x)
= 60 + 25(2)= 110kg
4. a). The average of n quantities is equal to x. When a quantity is removed, the average becomes y. The
value of the removed quantity is n(x- y)+y.
b) The average of n quantities is equal to x. When a quantity is added, the average
becomes y. The value of the new quantity is n(y-x)+y
Illustration10 The average are of 24 students and class teacher is16 years, If the class teacher’s age is excluded, the
average age reduces by 1 year. What is the age of the class teacher?
Solution The age of class teacher
= n(x- y) + y
= 25(16 – 15) + 15 = 40 years.
Illustration 11 The average age of 30 children in a class is 9 years. If the teacher’s age be included, the average age
becomes 10years. Find the teacher’s age.
Solution The teacher’s age
= n(y- x) + y
= 30(10 – 9) +100 = 40 years.
5. a).The average of first n natural numbers is (n +1) /2
b). The average of square of natural numbers till n is (n +1)(2n+1)/6.
c). The average of cubes of natural numbers till n is n(n +1)
2
/4
d). The average of odd numbers from 1 to n is (last odd number +1) / 2
e). The average of even numbers from 1 to n is (last even number + 2) / 2.
Illustration 12 Find the average of first 81natural number.
Solution The required average
= n + 1/ 2 = 81 + 1 /2 = 41.
Illustration 13 What is the average of squares of the natural numbers from 1 to 41?
Solution The required average
= (n+1)(2n+1)/ 6 = (41+1)(2× 41+1)/ 6
= 42 × 83/ 6 = 3486/ 6 = 581
Illustration 14 Find the average of cubes of natural numbers from 1 to 27.
Solution The required average
= n(n +1)
2
/ 4 = 27× (27+1)
2
/ 4
27 × 28 × 28 / 4 = 21168 / 4 = 5292.
Illustration 15 What is the average of odd numbers from 1 to 40?
Solution The required average
= last odd number + 1/ 2 = 39 +1/ 4 =20.
Illustration 16 What is the average of even numbers from 1 to 81?
Solution The required average
= last even number + 2/ 2 = 80+2 = 41.
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6. a).If n is odd: The average of n consecutive numbers, consecutive even numbers or
consecutive odd numbers is always the middle number.
b). If n is even: The average of n consecutive numbers, consecutive even numbers or consecutive odd
numbers is always the average of the middle two numbers.
c). The average of first n consecutive numbers is (n+1).
d). The average of first n consecutive odd numbers is n.
e). The average of squares of first n consecutive even number is2 (n+1)(2n+1) / 3.
f). The average of squares of consecutive even number till n is (n+)(n+2) / 3.
g). The average of squares of squares of consecutive odd numbers till n is n(n+2)/ 3.
h). If the average of n consecutive numbers is m, then the difference between the smallest and the largest
number is 2(n-1).
Illustration 17 Find the average of 7 consecutive numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
Solution The required average= middle number=6.
Illustration 18 Find the average of consecutive odd numbers 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35.
Solution The required average
= average of middle two numbers
= average of 27 and 29
= 27+29 / 2 = 28.
Illustration 19 Find the average of first 31 consecutive even numbers.
Solution The required average = (n+1) = 31+ 1= 32.
Illustration 20 Find the average of first 50 consecutive odd numbers.
Solution The required average = n = 50.
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PROFIT AND LOSS
Business transactions have now-a-days become common feature of life. When a person deals in the purchase and
sale of any item, he either gains or loses some amount generally. The aim of any business is to earn profit. The
commonly used terms in dealing with questions involving sale and purchase are:
Cost Price The cost price of an article is the price at which an article has been purchased. It is the abbreviated as
C.P.
Selling Price The selling price of an article is the price at which an article has been sold. It is abbreviated as S.P.
Profit or Gain If the selling price of an article is more that the cost price, there is a gain or profit.
Thus, Profit or Gain = S.P- C.P.
Loss If the cost price of an article is greater than the selling price, the suffers a loss.
Thus, Loss = C.P- S.P.
Note that profit and loss are always calculated with respect to the cost price of the item.
Illustration 1. (i)If C.P. = Rs. 235, S.P. = Rs. 240, then profit = ?
(ii) If C.P. = Rs. 116, S.P. = Rs. 107, then loss = ?
Solution (i) Profit = S.P.- C.P. =Rs. 240- 235 =Rs.5.
(ii) Loss = C.P.- S.P. = Rs. 116- 107 =Rs.9.
SOME BASIC FORMULAE
1. Gain on Rs. 100 is Gain per cent
Gain% = (Gain × 100)/C.P
Loss on Rs. 100 is Loss per cent
Loss% = (Loss × 100)/C.P
Illustration 2 The cost price of a shirt is Rs. 200 and selling price is Rs. 250. Calculate the % profit.
Solution We have, C.P. = Rs. 200, S.P = Rs. 250.
Profit = S.P.- C.P. = 250- 200 =Rs.50.
∴ Profit% = profit× 100/ C.P = 50× 100/ 250 = 25%
Illustration 3 Anu bought a necklace for Rs. 750 and sold it for Rs. 675. Find her percentage loss.
Solution Here, C.P. = 750, S.P. = Rs. 675.
Loss= C.P- S.P. = 750-675 = Rs. 75.
∴ Loss% = Loss × 100/ C.P = 75× 100/ 750 = 10%
2. When the selling price and gain% are given:
C.P = 100× S.P / (100+Gain%)
3. When the cost and gain per cent are given;
S.P = (100+Gain%)× C.P/ 100
4. When the cost and loss per cent are given:
S.P = (100-Loss%)× C.P / 100
5. When the selling price and loss per cent are given:
C.P =(100)× S.P / (100-Loss%)
Illustration 4 Mr. Sharma buys a cooler for Rs. 4500. For how much should he so that there is a gain of 8%?
Solution We have, C.P. = Rs. 4500, gain% = 8%
∴S.P = (100+Gain%/100)× C.P.
= (100+ 8/ 100) × 4500
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108/100 × 4500 = Rs. 4860
Illustration 5 By selling a fridge Rs. 7200, Pankaj loses 10%. Find the cost price of the fridge.
Solution We have, S.P. = Rs. 7200, loss% = 10%.
∴ C.P =(100/100-Loss%)× S.P.
= (100/100-10) × 7200
100/90 × 7200= Rs. 8000.
Illustration 6 By selling a pen for Rs. 99, Mohan gains 12 ½ %. Find the cost price of the pen.
Solution Here, S.P. = Rs. 99, gain% = 12 ½% or 25/2%.
∴C.P =(100/100+Gain%)× S.P.
= (100/100+25/2) × 99
= (100× 2/ 225) × 99 =Rs. 88
SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS
1. If a man buys x items for Rs. y and sells z items for Rs. w, then
the gain or loss per cent made by him is
(xw/zy -1) × 100%.
Explanation
S.P. of z items = Rs. w
S.P. of x items = Rs. w/z x
Net profit =w/z x-y.
∴% profit = w/z x-y/y × 100%
i.e.(xw/zy -1) × 100,
which represent loss, if the result is negative.
Note: In the case of gain per cent the result obtained bears positive sign whereas in the case of loss per cent the
result obtained bears negative sign.
How to remember:
1. Cross-multiply the numbers connected by the arrows (xw and
zy)
2. Mark the directon of the arrows for crossmultiplicaton. The
arrow going down forms the numerator while the arrow going up forms the denominator (xw/ zy).
Illustration 7 If 11 oranges are bought for Rs. 10 and sold at 10 for Rs. 11 what is the gain loss%?
Solution
% profit= (xw/zy -1) × 100%
= (11× 11/10× 10-1) × 100%
= 21/100 × 100% = 21%
Illustration 8 A fruit seller buys apples at the rate of Rs 12 per dozen and sells them at the rate of 15 for Rs.12.
Find his percentage gain or loss.
Solution
% gain or loss = (xw/ zy -1) × 100%
= (12× 12/15 × 12 -1) × 100%
= -36/144 × 100% = -25%
Since the sign is –ve, there is a loss of 25%.
2. If the cost price of m articles is equal to the selling price of
n articles, then
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% gain or loss = ( m-n/n) × 100
[If m > n, it is gain and if m<n, it is loss]
Explanation
Let the C.P. of one article be Re.1
∴ C.P. of m articles = Rs. m× 1=Rs. m
S.P. of n articles = Rs. m
∴ S.P. of 1 articles = Rs. m/n
∴Profit on 1 article = Rs.(m/n-1)
i.e. Rs. (m-n/n)
∴ %profit = m-n/n × 100/1 i.e.(m-n/n) × 100.
Illustration A shopkeeper professes to sell his goods on cost price but uses 800 gm, instead of 1kg. What is his
gain %?
Solution Here, cost price of 1000 is equal to selling price of 800 gm.
∴ % gain = (m-n/n) × 100
= (1000-800/800) × 100
= 200/800× 100 =25%
Illustration 10 If the selling price of 12 articles is equal to the cost price of 18 articles, what is the profit %?
Solution Here, m = 10, n =12
∴ Profit %= (m-n/n) × 100
(18-12/12) × 100
= 6/12 × 100= 50%
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SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST
If P stands for Principal, R the rate per cent per annum, T the number of years, I the simple interest and A the
amount, then
1. Simple Interest = Principal × Rate × Time
100
or, I = P × R × T
100
Principal = 100 × Simple Interest
Rate × Time
or, P = 100 × I
R × T
3. Rate = 100 × Simple Interest
Principal × Time
or, R = 100 × I
P × T
4. Time = 100 × Simple Interest
Rate × Principal
or, T = 100 × I
R × P
5. Amount = Principal + Simple Interest
= Principal + Principal × Rate × Time
100
Some Useful Short-Cut Methods
1. If a certain sum in T years at R% per annum amounts to Rs. A, then the sum will be
P = 100 × A
100+R× T
= Principal (1+(Rate × Time)/100)
or, A = P (1 + (R × T)/100)
2. The annual payment that will discharge a debt of Rs. A due in T years at R% per annum is
Annual payment = Rs. (100A/(100T + RT(T – 1)/2))
3. If a certain sum is invested in n types of investments in such a manner that equal amount is obtained on each
investment where interest rates are R1, R2, R3, …, Rn respectively and time periods are T1, T2, T3, …, Tn respectively,
then the ratio in which the amounts are invested is
1/100+R1T1 : 1/100+R2T2
1/100+R3T3 : … 1/100+RnTn
4. If a certain sum of money becomes n times itself in T years at simple interest, then the rate of interest per annum
is R = 100(n – 1)/T %
5. If a certain sum of money becomes n times itself at R% per annum simple interest in T years, then
T = (n-1)/R) × 100 years.
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6. If a certain sum of money becomes n times itself in T years at a simple interest, then the time T in which it will
become m times itself is given by
T′ = (m – 1/n – 1) × T years.
7. Effect of change of P, R and T on simple interest is given by the following formula:
= Product of fixed parameter/100 × [difference of product of variable parameters]
for example, if rate ® changes from R1 to R2
and P, T are fixed then Change in SI = PT/100 × (R1 – R2)
Similarly, if principal (P) changes from P1 to P2 and R, T are fixed, then change in SI = RT/100 × (P1 – P2)
Also, if rate ® changes from R1 to R2 and time (T) changes from T1 to T2 but principal (P) is fixed, then
change in SI = P/100 × (R1T1 – R2T2).
8. If a debt of Rs. Z is paid in ‘n’ number of instalments and if the value of each instalment is Rs. a, then the
borrowed (debt) amount is given by
Z = na + (Ra/100 × b) × n(n – 1)/2
Where, R = rate of interest per annum
b = no. of instalments/year
b = 1, when each instalment is paid yearly
b = 2, when each instalment is paid half-yearly
b = 4, when each instalment is paid quarterly
b = 12, when each instalment is paid monthly.
9. If a certain sum of money P lent out at SI amounts to A1 in T1 years and to A2 in T2 years, then
P = A1T2 – A2T1
T2 – T1
and, R = A1 – A2/A1T2 - A2T1 × 100%
10. If a certain sum of money P lent out for a certain time T amounts to A1 at R1% per annum and to A2 at R2% per
annum, then
P = A2R1 – A1R2/R1 – R2
and, T = A1 – A2 × 100 years.
A2R1-A1R2
11. If an amount P1 lent at simple interest rate of R1% per annum and another amount P2 at simple interest rate of
R2% per annum, then the rate of interest for the whole sum is R = (P1R1+P2R2/P1+P2).
12. If a certain sum of money is lent out in n parts in such a manner that equal sum of money is obtained as simple
interest on each part where interest rates are R1, R2, …, Rn respectively and time periods are T1, T2, …, Tn
respectively, then the ratio in which the sum will be divided in n parts is given by
1/R1T1 : 1/R2T2 : …1/RnTn
13. When there is a change in principal (P), Rate (R) and Time (T), then the value of simple interest I also changes
and is given by
I1/I2 = P1 × R1 × T1/P2 × R2 × T2
⇒A1 – P1/A2 – P2 = P1 × R1 × T1/P2 × R2 × T2
as I1 = A1 – P1 and I2 = A2 – P2.
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14. Out of a certain sum P, 1/a part is invested at R1%, 1/b part at R2% and the remainder (1-1/a-1/b) say 1/c part at
R3%. If the annual income from all these investments is Rs. A, then the original sum is given by
P = ((A × 100)/R1/A+R2/B+R3/C)
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TIME WORK
In our daily life, we come across situations where we need to complete a particular job in a reasonable time. We
have to complete the project earlier or later depending upon the needs. Accordingly, the men on duty have to be
increased or decreased, i.e. the time allowed and the men engaged for a project are inversely proportional to each
other, i.e. the more the number of men involved, the lesser is the time required to finish a job. We also come across
situations where time and work or men and work are in direct proportion to each other.
For solving problems on time and work, we follow the following general rules:
1. If ‘A’ can do a piece of working ‘A’ will finish 1/nth work
in one day.
2. If 1/n of a work is done by ‘A’ in one day, then ‘A’ will take
n days to complete the full work.
3. If ‘ A’ does 1/nth of a work in one hour then to complete the
full work, ‘A’ will take n/m hours.
4. If ‘ A’ does three times faster work than ‘B’ then ratio of
work done by A and B is 3:1 and ratio of time taken by A and B is1: 3.
5. A, B and C can do a piece of work in T1, T2 and T3, days,
respectively. If they have worked for D1, D2 and D3 days respectively, then
Amount of work dine by A= D1/T1
Amount of work dine by B= D2/T2
And, Mount of work done by C=D3/T3
Also, the amount of work done by A, B and C together
= D1/T1+D2/T2+D3/T3
Which will be equal to 1, if the work is complete?
SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS
1. If A can do a piece do a piece of work in X days and B can
do the same work in Y days, then both of them working together will do the same work in XY/ X+Y days.
Explanation
A’s 1 day’s work = 1/X
B’s 1 day’s work = 1/Y
Then,(A+B)’s 1 day’s work = 1/X+1/Y= X+Y/XY
∴ A and B together can complete the work on
= XY/ X+Y days.
Illustration 1 A can finish a piece of work by working alone in 6 days and B, while works alone, can finish the
same work in 12days. If both of them work together, then in how many days, the work will be finished?
Solution Here, X= 6 and y = 12.
∴Working together, A and B will complete the work
in = XY/ X+Y days = 6× 12/6+12 days, i.e. 4days.
2. If A, B and C, while working alone, can complete a work in
X, Y and Z days respectively, then they will together complete the work in XYZ/XY+YZ+ZX days.
Explanation
A’s 1 day’s work = 1/X
B’s 1 day’s work = 1/Y
C’s 1 day’s work = 1/Z
∴ (A+B+C)’s 1 days work
=1/X+1/Y+1/Z = (XY+YZ+ZX)/XYZ.
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So, A, B and C together can complete the work in = (XYZ/ XY+YZ+ZX) days.
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Illustration 2 A,B and C can complete a piece of work in 10, 15 and 18 days, respectively. In how many days
would all of them complete the same work working together?
Solution Here, X=10, Y=15 and Z= 18.
Therefore, the work will be completed in
= XYZ/ XY+YZ+ZX days.
= 10× 15× 18/10 × 15 +15 × 18+18 × 10 days,
i.e. 2700/600 or, 4 ½ days.
3. Two persons A and B, working together , can complete a
piece of work in X days. If A, working alone, can complete the work in XY/Y-X days.
Explanation
A and B together can complete the work in X days.
∴(A+B)’s 1 day’s work = 1/X
Similarly, A’s 1day’s work= 1/Y
There fore, B’s 1 day’s work =1/X-1/Y= Y-X/XY
∴B alone can complete the work in (XY/Y-X)days
∴B alone will complete the work in
Illustration 3 A and B working together take 15 days to complete a piece of work. If A alone can do this work in 20
days, how long would B take to complete the same work?
Solution Here, X = 15, and Y=20.
= XY/Y-X days =15× 20/20-15, i.e. 60 days
4. If A and B, working together, can finish a piece of work in
X days, B and C in Y days, then
a) A, B and C working together, will finish the job in (2XYZ/XY+YZ- ZX) days.
b) A alone will finish the job in (2XYZ/XY+YZ- ZX) days.
c) B alone will finish the job in (2XYZ/ZX+XY- YZ) days.
Explanation
(A+B)’s 1 day’s work = 1/X
(B+C)’s 1 day’s work = 1/Y
(C+A)’s 1 day’s work = 1/Z
So, [(A+B) + (B+C)+ (C+A)]’s 1 day’s work = 1/X+1/Y+1/Z
or, 2(A+B+C)’s 1day’s work = (1/X+1/Y+1/Z)
or, (A+B+C)’s 1day’s work = ½ (1/X+1/Y+1/Z)
i.e (XY+YZ-XZ/2XYZ)
∴ A, B and C working together, will complete the work in (2XYZ/XY+ZX-XY) days.
Also, A’s 1 days work – (A+B+C)’s 1day’s work –(B+C)’s 1 days work
= ½ (1/X+1/Y+1/Z)- 1/Y
= ½ (1/X-1/Y+1/Z)
= XY+YZ-XZ/2XYZ
So. A alone can do the work in (2XYZ/XY+YZ+XZ) days
Similarly, B alone can do the work in (2XYZ/YZ+XY+XY) days and C alone can do the work
in(2XYZ/ZX+XY+YZ) days.
Illustration 4 A and B can do a piece of work in 12 days, B and C 15 days, C and A in 20 days. How long would
each take separately to do the same work?
Solution Here, X = 12, Y=15 and Z=20.
∴A alone can do the work in = 2XYZ/XY+YZ-ZX
= 2× 12× 15× 20/12× 15+15× 20-20× 12 days. or, 7200/240, i.e. 30 days.
B alone can do the work in = 2XYZ/ZY+ZX-XY days
= 2× 12× 15× 20/15× 20+20× 12-12× 15 days or, 7200/360, i.e. 20 days.
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C alone can do the work in = 2XYZ/ZX+XY-YZ
= 2× 12× 15× 20/20× 12+12× 15-15× 20 or, 7200/120, i.e. 60 days.
5. (a) If A can finish a work in X days and B is k times efficient
than A, then the time taken by both A and B working together to complete the work is x/1+k.
(b) If A and B working together can finish a work in X days and B is k times efficient than A, then the time
taken by
(i) A, working alone, to complete the work is (k+1)X.
(ii) B, working alone, to complete the work is (k+1/k)X.
Illustration 5 Harbans Lal can do a piece of work in 24 days. If Bansi Lal works twice as fast as Harbans Lal, how
long would they take to finsh the work working together?
Solution Here, X =24 and k=2.
∴Time taken by Harbans Lal and Bansi Lal, woking together, to complete the work
= (X/1+k)days.
= (24/1+2) days, i.e. 8 days
Illustration 6 A and B together can do a piece of work in 3 days. If A does thrice as much work as B in a given
time, find how long A lone would take to do the work?
Solution Here, X = 3 and k = 3.
∴Time taken by A, working alone, to complete the work
= (k+1/k) X = (3+1/3)3 = 4days
6. If A working alone takes a days more than A and B working alone takes b days more than
A and B together, then the number of days taken by A and B, working together, to finish a job is given by
√ab.
Illustration 7 A alone would take 8 hours more to complete the job than if both A and B worked together. If B
worked alone, he took 4 ½ hours more to complete the job than A and B worked together. What time would they
take if both A and B worked together?
Solution Here, a = 8 and b = 9/2.
∴Time taken by A and B, working together, to complete the job
= √ ab days
= √ 8×9/2 or, 6days.
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Time and Distance
The terms ‘Time’ and ‘Distance’ are related to the speed of a moving object.
Speed: We define the speed of an object as the distance covered by it in a unit time interval. It is obtained by
dividing the distance covered by the object, by the time it takes to cover that distance.
Thus, Speed = Distance traveled/ Time taken
Notes:
1. If the time taken is constant, the distance traveled is proportional to the speed, that is,
more the speed; more the distance traveled in the same time.
2. If the speed is constant, the distance traveled is proportional to the time taken, that is,
more the distance traveled; more the time taken at the same speed.
3. If the distance traveled is constant, the speed is inversely proportional to the time taken,
that is, more the speed; less the time taken for the same distance traveled.
SOME BASIC FORMULAE
1. Speed = Distance/Time
2. Distance – Speed × Time
3. Time = Distance/speed
Units of Measurement
Generally if the distance is measured in kilometre, we measure time in hours and speed in kilometre per hour and is
written as km/hr and if the distance is measured in metre then time is taken in second and speed in metre per second
and is written as m/sec.
Conversion of Units
One kilometre/hour = 1000metre/60×60 seconds = 5/18 m/sec.
∴One metre/second = 18/5km/hr.
Thus, x km/hr =(x ×5/18) m/sec.
and, x m/sec. =(x ×18/5) km/hr.
Illustration 1 Calculate the speed of a train which covers a distance of 150 km in 3 hours.
Solution Speed =Distance covered/Time taken= 150/3
= 50km/hr
Illustration 2 How long does a train 100 metres long running at the rate of 40 km/hr take to cross a telegraphic
pole?
Solution In crossing the pole. the train must travel its own length.
∴Distance traveled is 100 metres.
Speed = 40 km/hr. = 40×1000/ 60×60 = 100/9m/sec.
∴ Time taken to cross the pole = 100/(100/9)
= 9seconds.
Illustration 3 A train running at a speed of 90 km/hr passes a pole on the platform in 20 seconds. Find the length of
the train in metres.
Solution Speed of the train = 90km/hr
=90×5/18 = 15 m/sec.
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∴ Length of the train = Speed of the train × time taken in crossing the pole
=25× 20=500m.
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SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS
1. (a) If A covers a distance d1 km at s1 km/hr and then d2 km at s2 km/hr, then the average
speed during the whole journey is given by
*(1) Average speed = s1s2(d1 + d2)/s1d2 + s2d1 km/hr.
(b) if A goes from X to Y at s1 km/hr. and comes back from Y to X at s2 km/hr., then the average speed
during the whole journey is given by
Average speed 2s1s2/s1+s2
Explanation
a) Time taken to travel d1 km at s1km/hr is t1 = d1/s1 hr.
Time taken to travel d2 km at s2 km/hr is t2 = d2/s2 hr.
Total time taken = t1 + t2 = (d1/s1+d2/s2)hr
= (s1d2 + s2d2/s1d1/s1s2)hr
Total distance covered = (d1 +d2)km. Therefore,
Average speed =Total distance covered / Total time taken
= s1s2(d1+d2)/(s1d2+s2d1)km/hr …(i)
b) Let the distance from X to Y be d km.
Take d1 = d2 =d in (i), we get
Average speed = 2ds1s2/d(s1+s2) = 2s1s2/s1s2.
*(2) Illustration 4 A ship sails to a certain city at the speed of 15 knots/hr and sails back to the same point at the
rate of 30 knots/hr. What is the average speed for the whole journey?
Solution Here, s1 = 15 and s2 = 30.
∴ Average speed = 2s1s2/s1+s2 = 2×15×30/ 15+30
=20knots/hr.
2. A person goes certain distance(A to B) at a speed of s1 km/hr. and returns back (B
to A) at a speed of s2 km/hr. If the takes T hours in all, the distance between A and B is
T(s1s2/s1+s2)
Explanation
Let the distance between A and B be d km
Time taken during onward journey = t1= d/s1 hrs
Time taken during return journey = t2= d/s2 hrs
∴ Total time taken during the entire journey is T = t1+t2 = d/s1+d/s2= d(s1+s2)/s1s2
∴d = T(s1s2/s1+s2)
Thus, the distance between A and B is = T(s1s2/s1+s2)
= Total time taken × Product of two speeds/Sum of two speeds
*(3) Illustration 5 A boy goes to school with the speed of 3 km an hour and returns with a speed of 2 km/hr. if he
takes 5 hours in all, find the distance in km between the village and the school.
Solution Here, s1 =3, s2 = 2 and T = 5.
∴The distance between the village and the school= T (s1s2/s1+s2) =5(3×2/3+2) = 6km.
3. If two persons A and B start at the same time from two points P and Q towards each
other and after crossing they take T1 and T2 hours in reaching Q and P reactively, then
*(4) A’s speed/B’s speed =√T2/ √T1.
Explanation
Let the total distance between P and Q be d km.
Let the speed of A be s1 km/hr and that of B be s2 km/hr.
Since they are moving in opposite directions, their relative speed is (s1 +s2)km/hr.
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AGE PROBLEMS
Problems based on ages are generally asked in most of the company examinations, To solve these problems, the
knowledge of linear equations is essential. In such problems, there may be three situations:
i. Age some years ago
ii. Present age
iii. Age some years hence
Two of these situations are given and it is required to find the third. The relation between the age of two persons
may also be given. Simple linear equations are framed and their solutions are obtained. Sometimes, shortcut
methods given below are also helpful in solving such problems.
SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS
1. If the age of A, t years ago, was n times the age of B and at present A’s age is n2
times that of B, then
A’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2) n2 t years
and, B’s present age =(n1-1/n1-n2)t years
Explanation
Let the present age of B be x years.
Then, the present age of A =n2 x years Given, t years ago,
n1(x-t)=n2x-t or, (n1-n2)x = (n1-1) t or, x=(n1-1/n1-n2) t years.
Therefore, B’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2) t years.
And, A’s present age =(n1-1/n1-n2)n2 t years
Illustration 1 The age of father is 4 times the age of his son. If 5 years age father’s age was 7 times the age of his
son at that time, what is father’s present age?
Solution The father’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2)n2t [Here, n1 =7, n2=4 and t=5]
=(7-1/7-4) 4×5 = 6×4×5/3 = 40years.
2. The present age of A is n1 times the present age of B. If t years hence, the age of A
would be n2 time that of B, then
A’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2)n2 t years and B’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2)t years
Explanation
Let the present age of B be x years. Then, the present age of A= n1x Given, t years hence, (n1x +t)=n2 (x+t)
or (n1-n2)x = (n2-1)t or, x=(n2-1/n1-n2)t
Therefore, B’s present age =(n2-1/n1-n2)n1t years
and, A’s present age =(n2-1/n1-n2)n1t years
Illustration 2 The age of Mr. Gupta is four times the age of his son. After ten years, the age of Mr. Gupta will be
only twice the age of his son. Find the present age of Mr. Gupta’s son.
Solution The present age of Mr. Gupta’s son = (n2-1/n1-n2)t
=(2-1/4-2)10
[Here, n1 = 4, n2 = 2 and t=10]= 5years.
3. The age of A, t1 years ago, was n1 times the age of B. If t2 years hence A’s age would
be n2 times that of B, then,
A’s present age =n1(t1+t2)(n2-1)/n1-n2 +t1 years
and, B’s present age =t2(n2-1)t1(n1-1)/n1-n2 years.
Explanation
Let A’s present age=x years and B’s present age=y years.
Given:x-t1 = n1(y-t1) and x+t2 =n2(y+t2)
i.e. x-n1y=(1-n1)t1 ....(1)
and x-n2y=(-1+n1)t2...(2)
Solving (1) and (2), we get x=n1(t1+t2)(n2-1)/n1-n2 +t1
and, y= t2(n2-1)+t2(n2-1)/n1-n2.
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Illustration 3 10 years ago Anu’s mother was 4 times older than her daughter. After 10 years, the mother will be
twice older than the daughter. Find the present age of Anu.
Solution Present age of Anu = t1(n2-1)+t1(n1-1)/n1-n2
[Here, n1 =4, n2= 2, t1= 10 and t2 =10]
=10(2-1) +10(4-1)/4-2 = 10-30/2 =20years.
4. The sum of present ages of A and B is S year. If, t years ago of A was n times the
age of B, then
Present age of A =Sn-t(n-1)/n-1 years, and Present age of B= S+t(n-1)/n+1 years.
Explanation
Let the present ages of A and B be x and y years respectively.
Given: x+y = S …(1)
and, x-t =n(y-t)
or x-ny = (1-n)t
Solving (1) and (2), we get x=Sn-t(n-1)/n+1.
y= S+t(n-1)/n+1.
Illustration 4 The sum of the ages of A and B is 42 years 3 years back, the age of A was 5 times the age of B. Find
the difference between the present ages of A and B.
Solution Here, S=42, n=5 and t =3
∴Present age of A
= Sn-t(n-1)/n+1= 42×5-3(5-1)/5+1
= 198/6=33 years
and, present age of B
5+t(n+1)/n+1 = 42+3(5-1/5+1
=54/6=9years.
∴Difference between the present ages of A and B =33-9=24 years.
Note: If, instead of sum(S), difference (D) of their ages is given, replace S by D and in the age denominator
(n+1) by (n-1) in the above formula.
5. The sum of present ages of A and B is S years. If, t years hence, the age of A would
be n times the age of B, then
Present age of A=Sn+t(n-1)/n+1 years
and, present age of B = S-t(n-1)/n+1 years.
Explanation
Let the present ages of A and be x and y years, respectively
Given: x+y=S ….(1)
and, x+t=n(y+t)
or, x-ny=t(n-1) ….(2)
Solving(1) and (2), we get
x= Sn+t(n-1)/n+1
and, y= S-t(n-1)/n+1
Illustration 5 The sum of the ages of a son and father is 56 years. After four years, the age of the father will be three
times that of the son. Find their respective ages.
Solution The age of father
= Sn+t(n-1)/n+1= 56×3+4(3-1)/3+1
[Here, S=56, t=4 and n=3]
= 176/4= 44years.
The age of son = Sn-t(n-1)/n+1
= 56-4(3-1)/3+1
= 48/4 = 12 years.
6. If the ratio of the present ages of A and B is a: b and t years hence, it will be c: d,
then
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and, B’s present age= bt(c-d)/ ad-bc
Illustration 6 The ratio of the age of father and son at present is 6 : 1. After 5 years, the ratio will become 7:2. Find
the present age of the son.
Solution The present age of the son = bt(c-d)/ ad –bc
[Here, a =6, b=1, c=7, d=2 and t=5]
=1×5(7-2)/6×2-1×7 = 5years.
Note:
If, with the ratio of present ages, the ratio of ages t years age is given, then replace t by(-t) in the above formula.
Illustration 7 6 years ago Mahesh was twice as old as Suresh. If the ratio of their present ages is 9 : 5 respectively,
what is the difference between their present ages?
Solution Present age Mahesh
=-9×6(2-1)/1×9-5×2
[Here, a=9, b=5, c=2, d=1 and t =6]
=54 years
Present age of Suresh
= -5×6(2-1)/1×9-5×2 =30 years.
∴Difference of their ages =54-30=24 years.
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PLANE GEOMETRY
Lines And Angles
Any two straight lines which meet at a point make an angle. The angle made by the two straight lines could be any
of the following.
Some basic properties of angles.
Any straight line makes an angle of 1800. In the figure 1 and 2 are called adjacent angles. The sum of these angles is
equal to 1800. They are called supplementary angles to each other.
The sum of the angles made at a point is equal to 360
0
. So, (1+2+3+4+5) = 360
0
.
Whe
n two lines intersect as in the adjacent figure they form a pair of vertically opposite angle (1, 4) and (2, 3). A pair of
vertically opposite angles are equal.
So, 1 = 4 and 2 = 3.
Parallel lines AB and CD are lines that are separated by a constant distance. They do not have any point of
intersection. Any line that cuts a pair of parallel lines is called a transversal.
The angles formed by the transversal with the parallel lines have the following properties.
(a) The correcponding angles are equal i.e. 1 = 5, 2 = 6, 3 = 7, and 4 = 8.
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(b) The alternate angles are equal 4 = 5, 3 = 6.
(c) The interior angles add up to 180
0
, i.e. 4 + 6 = 180
0
and 3 + 5 = 180
0
Conversely, whenever the corresponding angles are equal or the alternate angles are equal or the interior angles are
supplementary, when a straight line cuts two other lines, then we can conclude that the two lines are parallel.
If the sum of two angles is 90
0
, then they are complementary to each other. If they add up to 180
0
, then they are said
to be supplementary to each other.
If more than two straight lines intersect at one and the same point they are called concurrent lines. If there are three
lines, if no two of them are parallel and they are not concurrent, then they form a closed figure. Such closed figures
formed by three lines are called triangles.
Definition and Basic Properties
A triangle is a plane figure bounded by three straight lines.
 In a triangle, the side which is opposite to (or facing) the largest angle is the longest side and the side which
is facing the smallest angle is the shortest side.
 The sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is always greater than the length of the third side.
 The sum of the internal angles in a triangle is equal to 180
0
.
Nomenclature Associated
The corners of the triangle are called its vertices. Generally, the side opposite a vertex is represented by the same
nomenclature but in a different case. For example, the side opposite “∠ A” would be named “a”. The side opposite
“∠ B” and “∠ C” would be named as “b” and “c” respectively.
The angles associated with these vertices are called the interior angles. Each interior has an associated exterior angle
which can be obtained by extending any one side of the angle. The interior and the exterior angels are
supplementary.
Altitude or Height
The perpendicular dropped to the side of a triangle from the vertex opposite that side.
The perimeter of any triangle is the sum of the lengths of its sides.
Perimeter = a + b + c
Semi – perimeter (s) = (a + b + c)/2
Area = (base × height)/2 (OR)
) )( )( ( c s b s a s s − − −
Types of Triangles
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Scalene, when its sides (and angles) are unequal
Perimeter = a + b + c
Area = ) )( )( ( c s b s a s s − − −
Equilateral, when all its sides (and angles) are equal.
AB=AC=BC ⇒a=b=c. ∠ A=∠ B=∠ C=60
0
.
Perimeter = 3a
Area =
2
4
3
a
Height = a
4
3
Isosceles, when two of its sides (and two angles opposite the two equal sides) are equal. AB = AC and ∠ B = ∠ C.
Perimeter = 2a + b
Area =
2 2
4
2
1
b a b − × ×
Height =
2 2
4
2
1
b a − ×
Right Angled, when one of its angles is a right angle. ∠ B = 90
0
and ∠ A+∠ C = 90
0
Perimeter = a + b + c
Area = ac
2
1
Pythagoras Theorem
The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse. Then, from Pythagoras theorem,
a
2
+c
2
= b
2
A triplet is a set of numbers which will satisfy the Pythagoras theorem. The frequently used triplets are (3, 4, 5) (5,
12, 13) (7, 24, 25) (8, 15, 17) (9, 40, 41) (11, 60, 61) (12, 35, 37) (16, 63, 65) (20, 21, 29). The multiples of triplets
are also triplets. Example : 6, 8, 10.
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Right Angled Isosceles, when one of its angles is a right angle, and the sides containing the right angle are equal.
AB = BC and ∠ A = ∠ C = 45
0
Perimeter = 2a + b
Area =
2
2
1
a =
2
4
1
b
Simple Trigonometric Ratios
Consider a right triangle : With reference to angle A, the following trigonometric ratios are defined:
Sine of the angle : sin (A) or sinA = (Opposite side/Hypotenuse)
Cosine of the angle : cos(A) or cosA = (Adjacent side/Hypotenuse)
Tangent of the angle : tan(A) or tanA = (Opposite side/Adjacent side)
A quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides. A quadrilateral has four sides and four internal angles. The sum of the
internal angles, i.e. ∠ A + ∠ B + ∠ C + ∠ D = 360
0
, since the quadrilateral can be split into two triangles.
Quadrilaterals can be classified based on relationships within its sides.
Parallelogram
A quadrilateral in which the opposite sides are parallel is called a parallelogram.
Basic Properties
 The opposite sides are parallel and of equal length. AB=DC and AD = BC.
 The sum of any two adjacent interior angles is equal to two right angles or 180
0
.
∠ A+∠ B=+∠ B+∠ C=∠ C+∠ D=∠ D+∠ A=180
0
.
 The OPPOSITE Angles are equal in magnitude. ∠ A=∠ C and ∠ B=∠ D.
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 The diagonals of a parallelogram are not equal in magnitude, but they bisect each other, and from two pairs
of congruent triangles.
 Perimeter = (Twice the sum of non parallel sides) = 2(AB + BC)
 Area = (base × height) = (b × h) where the height h is the perpendicular distance between the base and the
side parallel to it.
If D is one of the diagonals, and if a, b are two adjacent sides of parallelogram, then
Area [ ]
2
, ) )( )( ( 2
c b a
s where D s b s a s s
+ +
· − − − × ·
 BD
2
+AC
2
= 2(BC
2
+ CD
2
)
 The line joining the midpoints of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram is parallel and half the length of the
corresponding diagonal of the parallelogram. This line cuts the other diagonal in the ratio of 1:3.
 The line joining the midpoint of a side of a parallelogram with one of the opposite vertices cuts one of the
diagonals in the ratio of 1:2.
Rhombus
A rhombus is a special case of a parallelogram where all the sides are of equal length.
Basic Properties
⇒ The opposite sides are parallel and all sides are of equal length. AB = BC = CD = DA.
⇒ The sum of any two adjacent interior angles is equal to two right angles or 180
0
.
∠ A+∠ B=∠ B+∠ C=∠ C+∠ D=∠ D+∠ A=180
0
.
⇒ The opposite angles are equal. ∠ A=∠ C and ∠ B=∠ D.
⇒ The diagonals bisect each other at right angles and form four right angled triangles.
Thus BE=DE=BD/2 and AE=CE=AC/2 and ∠ AEB=∠ BEC=∠ CED=∠ DEA=90
0
.
⇒ Perimeter = (4× side) = 4AB = 4BC = 4CD = 4AD
⇒ The area of a rhombus = half the product of its diagonals = ½ m× AC × BD.
⇒ Areas of the four right triangles, ∆ AEB, ∆ BEC, ∆ CED, ∆ DEA are equal and each equals 1/4
th
the area
of the Rhombus.

2 2
2
2 2
) (
,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
·
BD AC
side
Rectangle
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A rectangle is a special case of a parallelogram where the adjacent sides are perpendicular to each other.
Basic Properties
1. The opposite sides are parallel and of equal length. AB=CD and AD=BC. The longer side is called the length (L)
and the shorter side the Breadth (B).
2. The adjacent sides are perpendicular. ∠ A=∠ B=∠ C=∠ D=90
0
3. The diagonals of a rectangle are of equal length and bisect each other. AC=BD; AE=BE=CE=DE.
4. Perimeter = 2(L + B) Area = (Length × Breadth) = L × B
5. If L is the length and D the diagonal, from Pythagoras theorem, Breadth
2 2
L D B − ·
Conversely, if B is the breadth and D the diagonal, from Pythagoras theorem, Length
2 2
B D L − ·

ABCD is a rectangle. SU and TV are two paths drawn parallel to the W is the width of each parallel path.
Area of two parallel paths (shaded portion) = W(l+b-W)
Square
A square is a special case of a parallelogram where all the sides are of equal length and perpendicular to each other.
Thus it is a rhombus and a rectangle also.
Basic Properties
⇒ All the sides of the square are equal. Opposite sides are parallel and adjacent sides are perpendicular.
AB=BC=CD=DA. ∠ A=∠ B=∠ C=∠ D=90
0
.
⇒ The diagonals of a square are of equal length and bisect each other at right angles, AC=BD and
AE=BE=CE=DE.
⇒ Perimeter = 4a Area = a
2
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⇒ Diagonal of the square, from Pythagoras theorem =
( ) 2
a Thus area of square = (Diagonal)
2
/2
⇒ Of all quadrilateral with a given area, the square is the one which has the least perimeter.
⇒ Of all quadrilaterals with a given perimeter, the square is the one which has the greatest area.
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Trapezium
A trapezium is a quadrilateral where only one pair of opposite sides are parallel. All parallelograms are thus
trapeziums (converse is not true).
The Area of a trapezium = half the sum of the lengths of the parallel sides multiplied by the perpendicular distance
between them.
Area = h BC AD ) (
2
1
+
Circles
A circle is a set of points which are equidistant from a given point. The given point is known as the center of that
circle. The angle in a circle is 360
0
.
Basic Constructs
The distance from the centre of the circle to any point on it is known as the radius (R). A circle is completely
defined by its radius and its position can be fixed if its centre’s position is given. Twice the radius is known as the
diameter (D).
Thus D = 2R.
Circumference
All the points which lie on the circle constitute the circumference. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter is a
constant for any circle and is given by Π D=2Π R.
Secant
Any line which passes through the circle is called a secant. A secant cuts the circumference of the circle at two
points.
Chord
Any line segment whose ends lie on the circumference of the circ le is called a chord of that circle. A chord which
passes through the centre of the circle is the diameter.
Tangent
A line which touches the circle at one point is called a tangent to that circle. The point common to the tangent and
the circumference of the circle is called the point of contact. The radius of the circle and the tangent to the circle are
perpendicular at the point of contact.
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Area
The Area contained the circle is determined by Π R
2
, where R is the radius of the circle.
Arc
A part of the circumference of a circle is called an arc. Each arc has an angle associated with it which it subtends at
the centre of the circle. This central angle is related to the length of the arc through the metric of radian.
By definition, the radian is that angle which is subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of length equal to the
radius of that circle. Consequently, since the full circle is 2Π r (circumference of circle), a full circle would
There is a direct relationship between degrees and radians i.e. 360
0
0
would be
Sector
A sector is part cut from the circle bounded by an arc and the radii drawn from the centre of the circle to the arc’s
ends. The radii form the centrally subtended angle between them. The area of a sector is directly proportional to this
angle and it is equal to that of a full circle if this angle is 360
0
.
Arcs and Sectors
For a circle of radius R, if the central angle subtended by an arc is α
0
, then
Length of Arc

,
`

.
|
·
0
0
360
2
α
πR L Perimeter of sector =
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
0
0
360
2 2
α
πR R
Area of the sector =

,
`

.
|
0
0
360
2
α
πR
From the above two relations, it is obvious that
,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
R Sector of Area
Arc the of Length 2
In case the central angle is given in radians (say β radians), then
Length of arc = Rβ Perimeter of the sector = (2R) + (Rβ )
Area of the sector = ½ (R
2
β )
Circular Pathway
OAC is a circle of radius = r, there is pathway, outside the circle of width = W
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Area of circular pathway = π × W(2r + W)
When, the pathway is inside the circle, Area of circular pathway = π × W(2r – W)
Properties of Circles
The properties of circles can be categorized in the following classes:
A: Arcs, Chords and Central angles
B: Angles in a circle
C: Chords in a circle
D: Tangents to a circle
E: Pair of circles
A. ARCS, Chords And Central Angles
 In equal circles (or in the same circle), if two arcs are equal, the chords associated with the arcs are equal.
 In equal circles (or in the same circle), if two arcs subtend equal angles at the centres or at the
circumferences of the circles, then they are equal.
 In equal circles (or in the same circle), if two chords are equal, then the arcs which they cut off are equal.
B. Angle in a circle
 The angle which an arc of a circle subtends at the centre is double that which it subtends at any point on the
remaining part of the circumference.
 Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
 The angle in a semicircle is a right angle.
C. Chords in a circle
 A straight line drawn from the centre of a circle to bisect a chord, which is not a diameter, is at right angles
to the chord, i.e. if OP bisects AB then OP ⊥ AB. Conversely, the perpendicular to chord from the centre
bisects the chord, i.e. if OP⊥AB then AP = PB.
 Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. Conversely, The chords that are equidistant from
the centre are equal.
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 If two chords of a circle, AB & CD, intersect internally at O, then AO × OB = CO × OD.
D. Tangents to a circle
 The tangent at any pint of a circle and the radius through that point of contact are perpendicular to each
other. OT is perpendicular to PT.
 If two tangents are drawn to a circle from an outside point, the length of the tangents from the external
point to their respective points of contact are equal, i.e. PA = PB.
 The angle which a chord makes with a tangent at its point of contact is equal to any angle in the alternate
segment, i.e. ∠ PTA = ∠ TBA.
 If PT is a tangent (with P being an external point and T being the point of contact) and PAB is a secant to
circle (with A and B as the points where the secant cuts the circle), then PT2 = PA × PB
E. Pair of Circles
 If two circles touch each other, the point of contact of he two circles lies on the straight line through the
centres of the circles, i.e. the points A, C, B are collinear.
 In a given pair of circles, there are two types of tangents – the direct tangents and the cross (or transverse)
tangents. In the figure given alongside, the direct tangents are AB and CD while EF and GH are the transverse
tangents.
 When two circles of radii R1 and R2 have their centres at a distance of d,
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The length of direct common tangent =
2 2
r d −
, where r = R1 – R2
The length of the transverse tangent is
2
2 1
2
) ( R R d + −
Note that if the two circles touch d = R1 + R2
A quadrilateral whose vertices lie on the circumference of a circle β called cyclic quadrilateral.
 The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary.
In the given figure ∠ ADC + ∠ ABC = α + β = 180
0
.
 The area of a cyclic quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d is
) )( )( )( ( d s c s b s a s − − − − , where s =
2
d c b a + + +
Geometrical relationships
 Of all surface with a given area, the circle is the one which has the least perimeter.
 Of all surfaces with a given perimeter, the circle is the one which has the greatest area.
 If a circle is inscribed in a square, the diameter of the circle is equal to the side of the square. The area of
the largest circle that can be inscribed in a square of side ‘a’ is
2
4
a
,
`

.

 If a square/rectangle is inscribed in a circle, then the diagonal of the square/rectangle is equal to the
diameter of the circle. Area of a square inscribed in a circle of radius r is 2 r
2
.
 If a circle is inscribed in a rectangle, the diameter of the circle is equal to the smaller side of the rectangle.
 The area of a circle circumscribing an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’ is
.
3
2
a
,
`

.

The area of a circle
inscribed in an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’ is
2
12
a
,
`

.
| π
.
 Two circles are said to be concentric if their centres coincide.
Solids
Solids can be classified into two main divisions viz. solids with flat surfaces and solids with curved surface. Solids
with flat surfaces are described as polyhedrons while surfaces of revolution would form the important part of solids
with curved surfaces.
Polyhedrons
A polyhedron is a closed solid object formed using planar surfaces. It has an overall convex shape, no curved
surfaces and has no perforations.
Cuboid
A rectangular solid having six faces – all of which are rectangles.
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Cuboid metrics
Let the cuboid have dimensions of length L, breadth B, and height H.
Volume = (cross section area × height) = L × B × H cubic units.
Area of four walls (excluding top and bottom faces) = 2[(L+B)H].
Total surface area = 2(LB+BH+HL) sq. units. Length of the diagonals of a cuboid =
2 2 2
H B L + +
units
Hollow cuboid
Consider for example a carton used for packing. It is not completely solid. Besides, L, B and H, there will another
dimension, which is the thickness T.
If L, B and H are the external dimensions, then the internal dimensions are [L-2T], [B-2T] and [H-2T].
Volume of material used = (External Volume – internal Volume). Thus
Volume of material used = LBH – [(L-2T)(B-2T)(H-2T)] cubic units.
However, if it is an open box, that is the top face is missing, then the internal dimensions will be [L-2T], [B-2T] and
[H-T].
Cube
A rectangular 6-faced solid whose every face is a square.
Every cube is a cuboid also, such that L = B = H.
Cube Metrics
Let the length of the edge of the cube be A. Volume = [(area of cross section) × (height)] = A
3
cubic units.
Area of four walls of a cube (excluding the top and bottom faces) = 4A2.
Total surface area of a cube = (sum of areas of all six faces) = 6A
2
sq. units
Length of a diagonals of a cube = A√3 units.
Hollow cube
If the thickness is T,
Volume of material used = External Volume – internal Volume = A
3
-{A-2T}
3
, in the case of closed box.
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= A
3
– [{A-2T}
2
{A-T}], in the case of an open box.
Pyramid
A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base and planar angular surfaces on the side leading to an apex point or
a vertex at the top. A regular pyramid has a regular polygonal base. A right regular pyramid is a regular pyramid in
which all the side surfaces (all surfaces except the base) are equal. The axis of a pyramid is an imaginary line joining
the midpoint of the base polygon to the top vertex of the pyramid. In a right regular pyramid, the axis is perfectly
vertical (i.e. it is perpendicular to the base). In case the axis is not perpendicular, a tilted pyramid is formed.
Pyramid metrics (Right regular pyramid with base polygon of N sides)
Volume = 1/3 × Area of the base × height , where the height is the length of the axis.
Surface area = Area of the base + (N × area of each side)
Prism
Prism contains similar top and bottom face and the side faces are rectangular shape. Let P is the perimeter of base, H
is the height of the prism and B is the base area of the prism then volume = B × H, Lateral surface are = P × H,
total surface area = (P × H) + 2 × B.
Solids with curved surfaces
These are generally obtained by revolving a planar surface about some axis. Symmetrical curved solids of revolution
are obtained when the surface being revolved is symmetrical (say a regular polygon) and the axis of revolution is
also properly chosen.
Cylinder
A solid formed when a rectangle is revolved about one of its sides is called the right circular cylinder.
Cylinder metrics
Let the base radius be R and the height be H.
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Volume of the cylinder = area of cross-section × height or V = π R
2
H cubic units.
Curved surface Area of the cylinder (excludes the areas of the top and bottom circular regions) = area of rectangle
whose sides are 2Π R and H or CSA=2π RH sq. units.
Total surface Area = Curved Surface Area + Areas of the top and bottom circular regions or
TSA = 2π RH + 2π R
2
=2π R[R+H] sq. units.
If it is a hollow cylinder of thickness T, then internal base radius = r = R – T, Volume of material in a hollow
cylinder = External Volume – Internal Volume or V = π (R
2
– r
2
)H cubic units.
Cone
A solid formed by rotating a right angled triangle about one of the sides containing the right angle.
Cone Metrics
Let the Base Radius = R, Vertical Height = H, and Slant Height = L.
Volume = 1/3 (π R
2
H cubic units) Slant Height L =
2 2
H R +
units
Curved Surface Area = π RL sq. units total Surface Area = π R(R + L) sq. units
Frustrum
If a cone is cut by a plane parallel to the base, then the lower part is called the frustrum of the cone, Let the radius of
the top = r and the radius of the base – R and height = h.
Slant Height L = [ ]
2 2
r R h − + . Curved Surface Area = π [r + R]L sq. units.
Total surface area = π [(r + R)L + r
2
+ R
2
]sq. units. Volume = π
[ ] rR R r
h
+ +
,
`

.
|
2 2
3
cubic units.
Sphere
A solid formed when a circle is revolved about its diameter.
Sphere Metrics
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Let the Radius of the Sphere = R.
Volume = 4/3 (π R
3
cubic units) Surface Area = 4π R
2
sq. units
If R and r are the external and internal radii of a spherical shell, then its Volume = [ ]
3 3
3
4
r R − cubic units.
Geometrical Relationships
 Of all solids with a given volume, the sphere is the one which has the lest surface area.
 Of all solids with a given surface area, the sphere is the one which has the greatest volume.
Hemisphere
Volume =
3
3
2
R π cubic units Surface Area = 3π R
2
sq. units
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MENSURATION
Solids
Solids can be classified into two main divisions viz. solids with flat surfaces and solids with curved surface. Solids
with flat surfaces are described as polyhedrons while surfaces of revolution would form the important part of solids
with curved surfaces.
Polyhedrons
A polyhedron is a closed solid object formed using planar surfaces. It has an overall convex shape, no curved
surfaces and has no perforations.
Cuboid
A rectangular solid having six faces – all of which are rectangles.
Cuboid metrics
Let the cuboid have dimensions of length L, breadth B, and height H.
Volume = (cross section area × height) = L × B × H cubic units.
Area of four walls (excluding top and bottom faces) = 2[(L+B)H].
Total surface area = 2(LB+BH+HL) sq. units. Length of the diagonals of a cuboid =
2 2 2
H B L + +
units
Hollow cuboid
Consider for example a carton used for packing. It is not completely solid. Besides, L, B and H, there will another
dimension, which is the thickness T.
If L, B and H are the external dimensions, then the internal dimensions are [L-2T], [B-2T] and [H-2T].
Volume of material used = (External Volume – internal Volume). Thus
Volume of material used = LBH – [(L-2T)(B-2T)(H-2T)] cubic units.
However, if it is an open box, that is the top face is missing, then the internal dimensions will be [L-2T], [B-2T] and
[H-T].
Cube
A rectangular 6-faced solid whose every face is a square.
Every cube is a cuboid also, such that L = B = H.
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Cube Metrics
Let the length of the edge of the cube be A. Volume = [(area of cross section) × (height)] = A
3
cubic units.
Area of four walls of a cube (excluding the top and bottom faces) = 4A2.
Total surface area of a cube = (sum of areas of all six faces) = 6A
2
sq. units
Length of a diagonals of a cube = A√3 units.
Hollow cube
If the thickness is T,
Volume of material used = External Volume – internal Volume = A
3
-{A-2T}
3
, in the case of closed box.
= A
3
– [{A-2T}
2
{A-T}], in the case of an open box.
Pyramid
A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base and planar angular surfaces on the side leading to an apex point or
a vertex at the top. A regular pyramid has a regular polygonal base. A right regular pyramid is a regular pyramid in
which all the side surfaces (all surfaces except the base) are equal. The axis of a pyramid is an imaginary line joining
the midpoint of the base polygon to the top vertex of the pyramid. In a right regular pyramid, the axis is perfectly
vertical (i.e. it is perpendicular to the base). In case the axis is not perpendicular, a tilted pyramid is formed.
Pyramid metrics (Right regular pyramid with base polygon of N sides)
Volume = 1/3 × Area of the base × height , where the height is the length of the axis.
Surface area = Area of the base + (N × area of each side)
Prism
Prism contains similar top and bottom face and the side faces are rectangular shape. Let P is the perimeter of base, H
is the height of the prism and B is the base area of the prism then volume = B × H, Lateral surface are = P × H,
total surface area = (P × H) + 2 × B.
Solids with curved surfaces
These are generally obtained by revolving a planar surface about some axis. Symmetrical curved solids of revolution
are obtained when the surface being revolved is symmetrical (say a regular polygon) and the axis of revolution is
also properly chosen.
Cylinder
A solid formed when a rectangle is revolved about one of its sides is called the right circular cylinder.
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Cylinder metrics
Let the base radius be R and the height be H.
Volume of the cylinder = area of cross-section × height or V = π R
2
H cubic units.
Curved surface Area of the cylinder (excludes the areas of the top and bottom circular regions) = area of rectangle
whose sides are 2Π R and H or CSA=2π RH sq. units.
Total surface Area = Curved Surface Area + Areas of the top and bottom circular regions or
TSA = 2π RH + 2π R
2
=2π R[R+H] sq. units.
If it is a hollow cylinder of thickness T, then internal base radius = r = R – T, Volume of material in a hollow
cylinder = External Volume – Internal Volume or V = π (R
2
– r
2
)H cubic units.
Cone
A solid formed by rotating a right angled triangle about one of the sides containing the right angle.
Cone Metrics
Let the Base Radius = R, Vertical Height = H, and Slant Height = L.
Volume = 1/3 (π R
2
H cubic units) Slant Height L =
2 2
H R +
units
Curved Surface Area = π RL sq. units total Surface Area = π R(R + L) sq. units
Frustrum
If a cone is cut by a plane parallel to the base, then the lower part is called the frustrum of the cone, Let the radius of
the top = r and the radius of the base – R and height = h.
Slant Height L = [ ]
2 2
r R h − + . Curved Surface Area = π [r + R]L sq. units.
Total surface area = π [(r + R)L + r
2
+ R
2
]sq. units. Volume = π
[ ] rR R r
h
+ +
,
`

.
|
2 2
3
cubic units.
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Sphere
A solid formed when a circle is revolved about its diameter.
Sphere Metrics
Let the Radius of the Sphere = R.
Volume = 4/3 (π R
3
cubic units) Surface Area = 4π R
2
sq. units
If R and r are the external and internal radii of a spherical shell, then its Volume = [ ]
3 3
3
4
r R − cubic units.
Geometrical Relationships
 Of all solids with a given volume, the sphere is the one which has the lest surface area.
 Of all solids with a given surface area, the sphere is the one which has the greatest volume.
Hemisphere
Volume =
3
3
2
R π cubic units Surface Area = 3π R
2
sq. units
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SET THEORY
Sets: A set is a well defined collection of objects. These are called elements of the set. The sets will be denoted by
capital letters A, B, ……… X, Y. The elements of the set are denoted by small letters a, b, ….. x, y.
A set can be represented in two ways. (i) Roster form (ii) Set builder form.
Example: Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}. (Roster form)
All the elements are written in a curly bracket.
S = {x / x ∈ N ; x < 8} (Set builder form)
We represent the elements of the set as ‘x’ and after it we put” / “(such that) and then give the rule
which every element of the set should satisfy.
If all the elements in set A are in set B then we say A is a subset of B. (A ⊂ B). B is super set of A.
Number of elements in the
set
Number of
subsets
Number of proper subsets
2 2
2
2
2
-2
3 2
3
2
3
-2
4 2
4
2
4
-2
N 2
n
2
n
-2
Power set: Let A be any given set. A set which contains all the subsets of A as elements, is called the power set of
A. It is denoted by P [A].
Example: A = {p, q, r}
P[A] = [{p}, {q}, {r}, {p, q}, {p, r}, {q, r} [p, q, r} φ ]
Finite set and Infinite set: If the number of elements in a set are finite, then it is called a finite set. A set which is
not finite is called an infinite set.
Equal sets: Two sets are said to be equal if they contain same elements.
Ex: A = {1, 2, 3, 4}
B = {2, 4, 1, 3}
Since the elements in both A and B are equal, they are called equal sets.
Equivalent sets: Two sets are to be equivalent if the number of elements in two sets are same.
Ex: A = {1, 2, 3}; B = {p, q, r}
Number of elements in both the sets are same. So A and B are equivalent sets.
If there are not elements in a set, then it is called a null set. It is denoted by { } or φ .
Union of sets: The set containing the elements of A or B or both is called as union of sets.
A ∪B = {x / x ∈ A or x ∈ B}
Representing A ∪ B by Venn diagrams.
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Intersection of sets: The set containing the common elements of set A and set B is called intersection of A and B.
A ∩B = {x / x ∈ A and x ∈ B}
Representing A∩B by Venn diagrams:
The difference of two sets A – B: The set consisting of all the elements, which belong to A and do not belong to B,
is called the difference of A and B. It is denoted by A-B.
A-B = {x / x ∈ A and x ∉ B}
Similarly B-A = {x / x ∈ B and x ∉ A}
A-B ≠ B-A
Symmetric difference of two sets: The symmetric difference of two sets is represented by A ∆ B.
A ∆ B = (A-B) ∪(B-A) = (A∪B)-(A∩B)
Universal set: The union of sets which are to be observed is called universal set and it is denoted by µ .
Complementary set: The set of elements which belong to µ and does not belong to A is called complementary of
set A
|
. It is denoted by A
|
or A
c
.
Basic theorem: If X⊂Y and Y⊂X; then X=Y. In proving equality of two sets we use this basic theorem. This is
called Antisymmetric property.
(A’)’ = A, when A is a subset of some universal st.
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In the following table A, B, C stand for sets; φ the empty set; µ a universal set and p, q, r stand for statements.
‘≡ ’ represents logical equivalence of statements: ‘t’ to take only the value of ‘T’ and ‘f’ to take the only truth value
of ‘F’.
S.No. Law
Algebra of
Sets Statements
1. Idempotent Laws A∪B = A, A∩A=A p v p ≡ p, p ^ p ^ p
2. Associative Laws (A∪B)∪C = A ∪(B∪C)
(A∩B)∩C = A ∩(B∩C)
(p v q) v r ≡ p v (q v r)
(p ^ q) ^ r ≡ p ^ (q ^ r)
3. Commutative Laws A∪B=B∪A
A∩B=B∩A
p v q ≡ q v p
p ^ q ≡ q ^ p
4. Distributive Laws A∪(B∩C) =
(A∪B)∩(A∪C)
A∩(B∪C) =
(A∩B)∪(A∩C)
p v (q ^ r) ≡ (p v q) ^ (p v
r)
p ^ (q v r) ≡ (p ^ q) v (p ^
r)
5. Identity Laws A∪∅=A, A∪µ =µ
A∩µ =A, A∩∅=∅
p v f ≡ p, p v t ≡ t
p ^ f ≡ f, p ^ t ≡ p
6. Complement Laws A ∪A′ = µ , A∩A′ = ∅
(A′ )′ = A, µ ′ = ∅, ∅′ =µ
p v (~p) ≡ t, p ^ (~P) ≡ f
~ (~p) ≡ p, ~t = f, ~ f ≡ t
7. De Morgan’s Laws (A∪B)′ = A′ ∩ B′
(A∩B)′ = A′∪B′
~(p v q) ≡ (~p) ^ (~q),
~(p ^ q) ≡ (~p) v (~q)
In any law of equality of sets, if we interchange ∪ and ∩; and µ and φ ; the resulting law would also be true. This
principle is known as Principle of duality.
Example: A∪φ = A ⇒A∩µ = A
If A ∩ B = φ ; then a and B are called disjoint sets.
A ∩ B φ ⇒A ⊂ B′ and B ⊂ A′ .
A and B are two subsets of a universal set µ . Then A ∩ B = A - B′ = B - A′ .
If A ⊂ B then A′ ⊃ B′ .
[If A is a subset of B, then A′ is superset of B′ ]
A′ - B′ = B – A
A ∪ B = φ ⇒A = φ and B = φ
If A ⊂ B ; B ⊂ C; then A ⊂ C (Transitive property).
A – (A – B) = A ∩ B.
A ∪ B = A ∩ B ⇔ A = B.
If A ⊂ B then A ∪ (B – A) = B.
If A and B are disjoint sets, then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B).
If A and B are any two non-empty sets, then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B).
N (A∪ B ∪ C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(B ∩ C) – n(C∩ A) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C)
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l and m are two coplanar lines. If l ∩ m = φ ; then the lines l and m are parallel to each other.
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PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS
1. Principle of Counting: If some procedure can be performed in n1 different ways and if, following procedure, a
second procedure can be performed in n2 different ways, and if, following this second procedure, a third procedure
can be performed in n3 different ways, and so for; then the number of ways the procedures can be performed in the
order indicated is the product n1, n2, n3 …………….
2. The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r (0≤ r≤ n) at a time is given by
n!/(n-r)! ; n ≥ r
where
n
Pr =
0 ; n<r
3. The number of permutations of n objects taken all together, when p1 of the objects are alike of one kind, p2 of
them are alike and of the second kind,…., pr of them are alike and of the rth kind, where p1 + p2 + ….. pr = n is given
by
n!/p1! P2!.....pr!
4. The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r (0 ≤ r ≤ n) at a time is given by
n n!/(n-r)! r!, n ≥ r
= C(n, r) =
r 0 , n < r
5. Some Result to Remember
(i)
n
C0 = 1 =
n
Cn
(ii)
n
Cr =
n
Cn-r (0 ≤ r ≤ n)
(iii)
n
Cr-1 +
n
Cr =
n+1
C
r
(1 ≤ r ≤ n)
(iv)
n
Cr =
n
Cs implies r = s or r + s = n.
(v)
n
Cr = {n-r+1)/r}
n
Cr-1
r = n/r, n even
(vi)
n
Cr is greatest =
r = nt 1/2, n odd
(vii)
n
C0 +
n
C1 +
n
C2 + ….+
n
C
n
= 2
n
.
(viii)
n
C0 +
n
C2 + …. =
n
C1+
n
C3 +……=2
n-1
.
(ix) 2
n+1
C
0
+ 2
n+1
C1 +….+2
n+1
Cn =2
2n
.
(x) The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken
r(≤ n) at a time, when k(0 ≤ k ≤ r) particular objects always occur, is
n-k
Cr-k.
(xi) The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when k(1 ≤ k ≤ n) never occur, is
n+k
Cr.
(xii) The total number of selections of one or more objects from n different objects
= 2
n
– 1 = (
n
C1 +
n
C2 +
n
C3 +….+
n
Cn).
(xiii)
r
Cr +
r+1
Cr +….+
n
Cr =
n+1
Cr+1
6. The total number of selection of any number of things from n identical things
n + 1 , (when selection of 0 things is allowed)

n , (when at least one thing is to be selected)
7. The total number of selections from p like things, q like things of another type and r distinct things
= (p + 1) (q + 1) 2
r
– 1 (if at least one thing is to be selected)
(p + 1) (q + 1) 2r – 2 (if none or all cannot be selected)
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8. The total number of selections of r tings from n different things when each thing can be repeated unlimited
number of times =
n+r-1
Cr.
9. The number of ways to distribute n different things between two persons, one receiving p things and the other q
things, where p + q = n ⇒
n
Cp ×
n-p
Cq
= n!/p!(n – p)! × (n - p!/q!(n – p – q)! = n!/p!q! {∴n = p + q}
Similarly for 3 persons, the number of ways
= n!/p! q! r!, where p + q + r = n.
10. The number of ways to distribute m × n different things among n persons equally = (nm)!/(m!)n.
11. The number of ways to divide n different things into three bundles of p, q and r things
= n!/p! q! r! . 1/3!.
12. The number of ways to divide m × n different things into n equal bundles
= (mn)!/(m!)n . 1/n!
13. The total number of ways to divide n identical things among r persons =
n+r-1
Cr-1.
14. The number of ways in which n different objects can be distributed into r different boxes, blank boxes being
n
.
15. The number of ways in n different objects can be distributed into r different boxes are not allowed, is coefficient
of ∝
n
in n! (e

-1)r.
16. The number of circular arrangements of n different things (n – 1)!
17. When clockwise and anticlockwise arrangements are not different, number of circular arrangements of n
different things
= ½(n – 1)!
18. Types of Permutations based upon Geometrical Applications:
(i) Out of n non-concurrent and non-parallel straight lines points of intersection are =
n
C2
(ii) Out of ‘n’ points the number of straight lines are (when no three are collinear)
=
n
C2
(iii) If out of n points m are collinear, then
Number of straight lines =
n
C2 –
m
C2 + 1
(iv) To find number of diagonals
Number of diagonals = n(n – 3)/2
(v) Number of triangle formed from n points
(when no three points are collinear)
(vi) Number of triangles out of n points in which m are collinear
=
n
C3 –
m
C3
(vii) Number of triangles that can be formed out of n points (when none of the side is common to the sides of
polygon)
=
n
C3 –
n
C1 –
n
C1.
n-4
C1
(viii) Number of parallelogram in two system of parallel lines (when I set contains m parallel lines and II set
contains n parallel lines)
=
n
C2 ×
m
C2
(ix) Number of squares m-1
= Σ (m – r) (n – r) ; (m < n)
r=1
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PROBABILITY
Experiment
An operation which results in some well-defined outcomes is called an experiment.
Random Experiment
An experiment whose outcome cannot be predicted with certainty is called a random experiment. In other words, if
an experiment is performed many times under similar conditions and the outcome of each time is not the same, then
this experiment is called a random experiment.
Example: a) Tossing of a fair coin
b) Throwing of an unbiased die
c) Drawing of a card from a well shuffled pack of 52 playing cards
Sample Space
The set of all possible outcomes of a random experiments is called the sample space for that experiment. It is usually
denoted by S.
Example:
a) When a die is thrown, any one of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 can come up. Therefore. Sample
space
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
b) When a coin is tossed either a head or tail will come up, then the sample space w.r.t. the tossing of
the coin is
S = {H, T}
c) When two coins are tossed, then the sample space is
Sample point / event point
Each element of the sample spaces is called a sample point or an event point.
Example: When a die is thrown, the sample space is S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} where 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are the
sample points.
Discrete Sample Space
A sample space S is called a discrete sample if S is a finite set.
Event
A subset of the sample space is called an event.
Problem of Events
 Sample space S plays the same role as universal set for all problems related to the particular experiment.
 φ is also the subset of S and is an impossible Event.
 S is also a subset of S which is called a sure event or a certain event.
Types of Events
A. Simple Event/Elementary Event
An event is called a simple Event if it is a singleton subset of the sample space S.
Example:
a) When a coin is tossed, then the sample space is
S = {H, T}
Then A = {H} occurrence of head and B = {T} occurrence of tail are called Simple events.
b) When two coins are tossed, then the sample space is
S = {(H,H); (H,T); (T,H); (T,T)}
Then A = {(H,T)} is the occurrence of head on 1
st
and tail on 2
nd
is called a Simple event.
B. Mixed Event or Compound Event or Composite Event
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A subset of the sample space S which contains more than one element is called a mixed event or when two or more
events occur together, their joint occurrence is called a Compound Event.
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Example:
When a dice is thrown, then the sample space is
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Then let A = {2, 4 6} is the event of occurrence of even and B = {1, 2, 4} is the event of occurrence of exponent of 2
are Mixed events
Compound events are of two type:
a) Independent Events, and
b) Dependent Events
C. Equally likely events
Outcomes are said to be equally likely when we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the
other
Example: When an unbiased die is thrown all the six faces 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are equally likely to come up.
D. Exhaustive Events
A set of events is said to be exhaustive if one of them must necessarily happen every time the experiments is
performed.
Example: When a die is thrown events 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 form an exhaustive set of events.
Important
We can say that the total number of elementary events of a random experiment is called the exhaustive number of
cases.
E. Mutually Exclusive Events
Two or more events are said to be mutually exclusive if one of them occurs, others cannot occur. Thus if two or
more events are said to be mutually exclusive, if not two of them can occur together.
Hence, A1, A2, A3,…, An are mutually exclusive if and only if Ai∩Aj = φ ∀ i ≠ j
Example:
a) When a coin is tossed the event of occurrence of a head and the event of occurrence of a tail are mutually
exclusive events because we cannot have both head and tail at the same time.
b) When a die is thrown, the sample space is S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Let A is an event of occurrence of number greater than 4 i.e., {5, 6}
B is an event of occurrence of an odd number {1, 3, 5}
C is an event of occurrence of an even number {2, 4, 6}
Here, events B and C are Mutually Exclusive but the event A and B or A and C are not Mutually Exclusive.
F. Independent Events or Mutually Independent events
Two or more event are said to be independent if occurrence or non-occurrence of any of them does not affect the
probability of occurrence of or non-occurrence of their events.
Thus, two or more events are said to be independent if occurrence or non-occurrence of any of them does not
influence the occurrence or non-occurrence of the other events.
Example: Let bag contains 3 Red and 2 Black balls. Two balls are drawn one by one with replacement.
Let A is the event of occurrence of a red ball in first draw.
B is the event of occurrence of a black ball in second draw.
then probability of occurrence of B has not been affected if A occurs before B. As the ball has
been replaced in the bag and once again we have to select one ball out of 5(3R + 2B) given balls for event B.
G. Dependent Events
Two or more events are said to be dependent, if occurrence or non-occurrence of any one of them affects the
probability of occurrence or non-occurrence of others.
Example: Let a bag contains 3 Red and 2 Black balls. Two balls are drawn one by one without replacement.
Let A is the event of occurrence of a red ball in first draw
B is the event of occurrence of a black ball in second draw.
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In this case, the probability of occurrence of event B will be affected. Because after the occurrence
of event A i.e. drawing red ball out of 5(3R + 2B), the ball is not replaced in bag. Now, for the event B, we will have
to draw 1 black ball from the remaining 4(2R + 2B) balls which gets affected due to the occurrence of event A.
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H. Complementary Events
Let S be the sample space for a random experiment and let E be the event. Also, Complement of event E is denoted
by E’ or E, where E’ means non occurrence of event E.
Thus E’ occurs if and only if E does not occur.
∴ n(E) + n(E’) = n(S)
Occurrence of an Event
For a random experiment, let E be an event
Let E = {a, b, c}. If the outcome of the experiment is either a or b or c then we say the event has occurred.
Sample Space : The outcomes of any type
Event : The outcomes of particular type
Probability of Occurrence of an event
Let S be the same space, then the probability of occurrence of an event E is denoted by p(E) and is defined as
P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = number of elements in E/number of elements in S
P(E) = number of favourable/particular cases
total number of cases
Example:
a) When a coin is tossed, then the sample space is S = {H, T}
Let E is the event of occurrence of a head
⇒E = {H}
b) When a die is tossed, sample space S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Let A is an event of occurrence of an odd number
And B is an event of occurrence of a number greater than 4
⇒A = {1, 3, 5} and B = {5, 6}
∴ P(A) = Probability of occurrence of an odd number = n(A)/n(S) = 3/6 = ½
and P(B) = Probability of occurrence of a number greater than 4 = n(B)/n(S) = 2/6 = 1/3
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PROGRESSIONS
1. Sequence
Sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers.
Real Sequence: A sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence.
Series: If a1, a2, a3, a4,……, an,….. is a sequence, then the expression a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + ….+ an + ….is a
series.
A series is finite or infinite according as the number of terms in the corresponding sequence is finite or infinite.
Progressions: It is not necessary that the terms of a sequence always follow a certain patterns are called
progressions.
2. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
A sequence is called an arithmetic progression if the difference of a term and the previous term is always same, i.e.
an+1 – an = constant (=d) for all n ∈ N
The constant difference, generally denoted by d is called the common difference.
For example. Show that the sequence <an> is an A.P. if its nth term a linear expression in n and in such a case the
common difference is equal to the coefficient of n.
Solution. Let <an> be a sequence such that its nth term is a linear expression in n i.e.
an = An + B where A, B are constants.
an+1 = A(n + 1) + B
∴ an+1 – an = {A (n + 1) + B} – {An + B} = A,
i.e. coefficient of n.
3. Properties of an Arithmetic Progression
(i) If a is the first term and d the common difference of an A.P., then its nth term an is given by
an = a + (n + 1) d
(ii) A sequence is an A.P. iff its nth term is of the form An + B i.e. a linear expression in n. the common difference in
such a case is A i.e. the coefficient of n.
(iii) If a constant is added to or subtracted from each term of an A.P., then the resulting sequence is also an A.P. with
the same common difference.
(iv) If each term of given A.P. is multiplied or divided by a non-zero constant k, then the resulting sequence is also
an A.P. with common difference kd or d/k, where d is the common difference of the given A.P.
(v) In a finite A.P. the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end is always same and is equal to the
sum of first and last term i.e.
(vi) Three numbers a, b, c are in A.P. iff b = a + c.
(vii) If the terms of an A.P. are chosen at regular intervals, then they form an A.P.
(viii) If an, an+1 and an+2 are three consecutive terms of an A.P., then
2an+1 = an+an+2
4. Selection of Terms in an A.P.
It should be noted that in case of an odd number of terms, the middle term is a and the common difference is d while
in case of an even number of terms the middle terms are a – d, a + d and the common differences is 2d. i.e.
(i) Selecting two terms of A.P. are a – d, a + d.
(ii) Selecting four terms of A.P.: a – 3d, a – d, a + d, a + 3d and so on…..
(iii) Selecting 3 terms of A.P.: a – d, a, a + d
(iv) Selecting 5 terms of A.P.:
a – 2d, a – d, a, a + d, a + 2d.
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5. Some Useful Results
6. Sum to n Terms of an A.P.
The sum Sn of n terms of an A.P. with first term ‘a’ and common difference ‘d’ is given by
Sn = (n/2)[2a + (n – 1)d]
Also, Sn = (n/2)[a + l], where l = last term = a + (n – 1)d.
Note. A sequence is an A.P. if and only if the sum of its n terms is of the form An2 + Bn, where A, B are constants.
In such a case, the common difference of the A.P. is 2A.
7. Insertion of Arithmetic Means
If between two given quantities a and b we have to insert n quantities A1, A2,…, An such that a, A1, A2,…An, b form
an A.P., then we say that A1, A2,…, An are arithmetic means between a and b.
Insertion of n Arithmetic Means between a and b
Let A1, A2,…,An be n arithmetic means between two quantities a and b. Then,
a, A1, A2,…, An, b is an A.P.
Let d be the common difference of this A.P. Clearly, it contains (n + 2) terms.
These are the required arithmetic means between a and b.
8. Geometric Progression
A sequence of non-zero numbers is called a geometric progression (or G.P.) if the ratio of a term and the term
proceeding to it is always a constant quantity.
The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G.P.
In other words, a sequence a
1
, a
2
, a
3
,…, an,…is called a geometric progression if
(an+1) / an = constant for all n ∈ N
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For example. Show that the sequence given by an = 3 (2
n
). for all n ∈ N, is a G.P. Also, find its common ratio.
Solution. We have, an = 3 (2
n
)
∴an+1 = 3 (2
n
+1)
Now, (an+1)/an = 3(2
n+1
)/3(2
n
) =2
Clearly, (an+1)/an = 2 (constant), for all n ∈ N. So, the given sequence is an G.P. with common ratio 2.
9. Selection of Terms in G.P.
Sometimes if is required to select a finite number of terms in G.P. It is always convenient if we select the terms in
the following manner:
No. of
terms
Terms Common ratio
3 a/r, a, ar R
4 a/r
3
, a/r, ar, ar
3
r
2
5 a/r
2
, a/r, a, ar,
ar
2
R
If the product of the numbers is not given, then the numbers are taken as a, ar, ar
2
, ar
3
,…..
10. Properties of Geometric Progressions
(i) If all the terms of a G.P. be multiplied or divided by the same non-zero constant, then it remains a G.P. with the
same common ratio.
(ii) The reciprocals of the terms of a given G.P. form a G.P.
(iii) If each term of a G.P. be raised to the same power, the resulting sequence also forms a G.P.
(iv) In a finite G.P. the product of the terms equidistant form the beginning and the end is always same and is equal
to the product of the first and the last term.
(v) Three non-zero numbers, a, b, c are in G.P. iff b
2
= ac.
(vi) If the terms of a given G.P. are chosen at regular intervals, then the new sequence so formed also forms a G.P.
(vii) If a1, a2, a3,…, an,…is a G.P. of non-zero non-negative terms, then log a1, log a2,…, log an,… is an A.P. and
vice-versa.
For example. The third term of a G.P. is 4. Find the product of its first give terms.
Solution. Let a be the first term and r the common ratio. Then,
a3 = 4 ⇒ar
2
= 4 ………… (i)
Now,
Product of first five terms
= a1a2a3a4a5
11. Sum of Terms of a G.P.
(i) The sum of n terms of a G.P. with first term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’ is given by
(ii) If l is the term of the G.P., then l = ar
n-1
(iii) If | r | < 1, then lim r
n
= 0. Therefore, the sum S of an infinite G.P. with common ratio r satisfying | r | < 1 is
given by
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Thus, the sum S of an infinite G.P. with first term a and common ratio r(-1 < r < 1) is given by
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STATISTICS
1. Arithmetic Mean
(i) Mean of unclassified data. Let x1, x2, …., xn be n observations, then their arithmetic mean is given by
x = x1+x2+…..+xn/n = 1/n

·
n
i
xi
1
(ii) Mean of grouped data. Let x1, x2, x3,…, xn be n observations and let f1, f2,…, fn be their corresponding
frequencies, then their arithmetic mean is given by

·
·
·
+ + +
+ + +
·
n
i
i
n
i
i i
n
n n
f
x f
f f f
x f x f x f
x
1
1
2 1
2 2 1 1
_
....
...
2. Weighted Arithmetic Mean
If w1, w2, w3,…, wn are the weights assigned to the values x1, x2, x3, ,…, xn respectively, then the weighted
average is defined as:
n
n n
w w w
x w x w x w
M WeightedA
+ + +
+ +
·
....
....
. .
2 1
2 2 1 1
3. Combined Mean
If we are given the A.M. of two data sets and their sizes, then the combined A.M. of two data sets can be
obtained by the formula
2 1
2
_
2
1
_
1
12
_
n n
x n x n
x
+
+
·
where x12 = Combined mean of the two data sets 1 and 2
x1 = mean of the first data
x2 = Mean of the second data
n1 = Size of the first data
n2 = Size of the second data.
4. Geometric Mean
If x1, x2, x3 are n observations, none of them being zero, then their geometric mean is defined as
G.M. = (x1, x2, x3….xn)
1/n
5. Harmonic Mean
The harmonic mean of n observation x1, x2,….., xn is defined as:

·
·

,
`

.
|
·
n
i i
i
n
i
i
x
f
f
M H
1
1
. .
6. Relation among A.M, G.M. And H.M.
The arithmetic mean (A.M.), geometric mean (G.M.) and harmonic mean (H.M.) for a given set of
observations are related as under:
A.M. ≥ G.M. ≥ H.M.
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Equality sign hold only when all the observations are equal.
7. Median
(i) Median of an individual series. Let n be the number of observations.
(A) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order.
(B) (a) If n is odd, then
Median = value of the ½ (n+1)th observation
(b) if n is even, then
Median = mean of the (n/2)th and (n/2 + 1)th observation
(ii) Median of a discrete series
(A) Arrange the values of the variate in ascending or descending order.
(B) Prepare a commulative frequency table.
(C) (a) If n is odd, then Median = size of the ((n+1)/2)th term
(b) If n is even, then
Median = size of the

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+ +
,
`

.
|
2
1
2 2
n n
th term
(iii) median of a Continuous Series
(iv) Prepare the commulative frequency table.
(B) Find the median class, i.e. the class in which the (n/2)th observation lies.
(C) The median value is given by the formula
Median = l +
,
2
h
f
c
n
f
×

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
where
l = lower limit of the median class
n = total frequency
f = frequency of the median class
h = width of the median class
cf = cumulative frequency of the class
preceding the median class.
8. Quartiles, Deciles and percentiles
(a) For ungrouped data Quartiles are also a kind of positional averages which divide the complete
frequency distribution into four equal parts.
Qr = nr/4 ; r = 1, 2, 3
Decline divide the frequency distribution into 10 equal parts.
Dr = nr/10 ; r = 1, 2, 3…… 9
Percentiles divide it into 100 equal parts
Pr = nr/100 ; r = 1, 2, 3,…….99
(b) For grouped data Arrange data is ascending order and prepare cumulative frequency
3 , 2 , 1 ;
4
·
,
`

.
|
− + · r
f
i
F
Nr
l Q
r
9 ..... 3 , 2 , 1 ;
10
·
,
`

.
|
− + · r
f
i
F
Nr
l D
r
99 ..... 3 , 2 , 1 ;
100
·
,
`

.
|
− + · r
f
i
F
Nr
l P
r
where l is lower limit of the required class, i is class interval, f is frequency of the class and F is sum of all
frequencies just above the class of quartile/decile/percentile.
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9. Mode
(i) Mode of individual series In the case of individual series, the value which is repeated maximum number of
times is the mode of the series.
(ii) Mode of discrete series In the case of discrete frequency distribution, mode is the value of the variate
corresponding to the maximum frequency.
(iii) Mode of continuous series
(A) Find the modal class, i.e. the class which has maximum frequency. The modal class can be determined either by
inspection or with the help of grouping table.
(B) The mode is given by the formula Mode = l + (fm – fm-1/2fm – fm-1 – fm+1) × h,
where
l = the lower limit of the modal class
h = the width of the modal class
fm-1 = the frequency of the class preceding modal class
fm = the frequency of the modal class
fm+1 = the frequency of the class succeeding modal class.
In case, the modal value lies in a class other than the one containing maximum frequency, we take the help
of the following formula
Mode = l + fm+1/fm-1+fm+1 × h,
where symbols have usual meaning.
A distribution in which mean, median and mode coincide is called a symmetrical distribution. If the
distribution is moderately skewed, then mode can be calculated as follows:
Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean.
10. Measures of Dispersion
(i) Range It is the difference between the greatest and the smallest observation of the distribution.
If L is the largest and S is the smallest observation in a distribution, then its Range = L – S. Also.
Coefficient of range = L-S/L+S
(ii) Quartile Deviation Quartile deviation or semi-interquartile range is given by
Q.D. = ½ (Q3 – Q1)
Coefficient of Q.D. = Q3 – Q1/Q3+Q1
(iii) Mean deviation For a frequency distribution, the mean deviation from an average (median, or arithmetic mean)
is given by

·
·

·
n
i
i
n
i
i
f
x xi f
D M
1
1
_
| |
. .
Coefficient of M.D. = Mean deviation/Corresponding average
(iv) Standard deviation The standard deviation of a statistical data is defined as the positive square root of the
squared deviations of observations from the A.M. of the series under consideration.
(A) Standard deviation (also denoted by σ ) for ungrouped set of observations is given by

N
x x f
D S
n
i
i i ∑
·

·
1
2
_
) (
. . σ
(B) Standard deviation for frequency distribution is given by,
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N
x x f
D S
n
i
i i ∑
·

·
1
2
_
) (
. .
where, fi is the frequency of xi(1 ≤ i ≤ n).
11. Skewness
We study skewness to have an idea about the shape of the curve which we can draw with the help of the
given data. The term ‘skewness’ refers to lack of symmetry. We can define skewness of a distribution as the
tendency of a distribution to depart from symmetry.
(i) In a symmetrical distribution, we have
mean = median = mode.
(ii) When the distribution is not symmetrical, it is called asymmetrical or skewed.
In a skewed distribution Mean ≠ Median ≠ Mode.
Note:
(a) Absolute measures of skewness.
(i) Sk = mean – median (ii) Sk = mean – mode
(iii) Sk = Q3 + Q1 – 2Q2 or Sk = Q3 + Q1 – 2 (median).
(b) Relative measures of skewness. The following are four important relative measures of skewness:
(i) Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness
Sk = mean – mode/Standard deviation
If mode is well defined then using the relation,
Mode = 3 median – 2 mean,
For a moderately skewed distribution, we get
Sk = 3 (mean – median)/Standard deviation.
If follows that Sk = 0, if mean = mode = median.
(ii) Empirical relationships. If the data is moderately non-symmetrical, then the following empirical relationships
hold:
Mean deviation = 4/5 σ
Semi-inter-quartile range = 2/3 σ .
Probable error of standard deviation = 2/3 σ = Semi-inter-quartile range
Quartile deviation = 5/6 M.D.
From these relationship, we have
4 S.D. = 5 M.D. = 6 Q.D.
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ALGEBRA 17. Progressions 18. Matrices 19. Statements 20. Sets 160 22. Surds 23. Linear Equations, Inequations & Modulus 24. Polynomials, Remainder & Square Roots 25. Quadratic Equations & Expressions 26. Relations & Functions 27. Derivatives & Limits 28. Logarithms 29. Binomial Theorem -------------------------161-168 -------------------------- 169-174 -------------------------- 175-177 -------------------------- 178-180 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181-183 184-187 188-190 191-193 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------126-132 133-142 143-148 149-154

21. Real Numbers, Rational Numbers & Law of Indices

-------------------------- 155-

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NUMBER SYSTEMS
In Hindu Arabic System, we use ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 called digits to represent any number. This is the decimal system where we use the numbers 0 to 9. 0 is called insignificant digit. A group of figures, denoting a number is called a numeral. For a given numeral, we start from extreme right as Unit’s place, Ten’s place, Hundred’s place and so on. Illustration 1 We represent the number 309872546 as shown below: Ten Crore 108 Crores 107 Lacs 105 Ten Thousand 104 Thousand 103 Hundred 102 Ten’s 101 4 6
-3-

3

0

9

(million) 106Ten Lacs

8

7

2

5

We read it as “Thirty crores, ninety- eight lacs, seventy-two thousands five hundred and forty-six.” In this numeral: The place value of 6 is 6 ×1 = 6 The place value of 4 is 4 ×10 = 40 The place value of 5 is 5 ×100 = 500 The place value of 2 is2 ×1000 = 2000 and so on. The face value of a digit in a numbers is the value itself wherever it may be. Thus, the face value of 7 in the above numeral is 7. The face value of 6 in the above numeral is 6 and in the above numeral is 6 and so on. NUMBER SYSTEM Natural numbers Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,... are know as natural numbers. The set of all natural numbers, can be represented by N= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,….} Whole numbers If we include 0 among the natural numbers, then the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, … are called whole numbers. The set of whole number can be represented by W= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…} Clearly, every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a natural number. INTEGERS All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are know as integers. The set of integers can be represented by Z or I = {…-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …} Positive Integers The set I+ ={1, 2, 3, 4,…} is the set of all positive integers. Clearly, positive integers and natural numbers are synonyms. Negative Integers The set I- = {-1, -2, -3…} is the set of all negative integers. 0 is neither positive nor negative. Non-negative Integers The set {0, 1, 2, 3,…} is the set all non-negative integers. Rational Numbers _________________________________________________________________________________________ _
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Units 100

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6. Himayath Nagar.The numbers of the form p/q. 89. Composite Numbers Natural numbers greater than 1which are not prime. 59. each of the numbers 4. e.in . 47.05 0. etc. 97. e. 13. 3. 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100. 3+ √2. Even Numbers All those numbers which are exactly divisible by 2 are called even numbers. 4 + √2. 2 is the only even number which is prime Prime numbers up to 100 are: 2. 1. are known as rational numbers.g.333…. etc. The recurring decimals have been given a short notation as 0. 2. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. π.e. Odd Numbers All those numbers which are not exactly divisible by 2 are called odd numbers. For example.3 4. e.g.. 7. are real numbers.q belong to I. are composite numbers. 1/5 =0. √3. i. Note that the exact value of π is not 22/7. 37. Since 0 can be written as 0/1 and every non-zero integer ‘a’ can be written as a/1.in -4- www. 83.1428704287. Q ={x:x =p/q. Prime Numbers A natural number other than 1 is a prime number if it is divisible by 1 and itself only. 5.g. each of the numbers 2.2. The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q.181818…. etc.43.13/21.23. Irrational Numbers Those numbers which when expressed in decimal from are neither terminating nor repeating decimals are known as irrational number. 3.323232…= 0.g.. difference or product of a rational and irrational number is irrational. 8. 12. are even numbers. 11. e. For example..32. 4/7. 79. 22/7 is approximate value of π. √5. 4√3. 31. two numbers which have only 1 as the common factor are called co-primes or relatively prime to each other. 22/7 is rational while π irrational number. 19. e.g. 5. 8. 4. 9. Swetha Apartment.coachingworld. 67. -3/7. e. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.g. 53. 0/1. 73. -5/8.g. 2/3-√5.. every integer is a rational number. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.. The number 1 is neither a prime number nor composite number. Similarly.14 is not an exact value of it. 2/5. 16 and 17 are relatively prime although 16 is not a prime number. every natural number is a rational number. 29.2. 7 etc. 61. 71. e. are known as composite numbers. etc. 3/2. e. 4-√3. Every rational number has a peculiar characteristic that when expressed in decimal form is expressible rather in terminating decimals or in non-terminating repeating decimals. 41.1555… = 4. Hyderabad. Note that the sum. 8/44 = 0. are prime numbers.e. 6. 10. For example. Note that the numbers which are relatively prime need not necessarily be prime numbers. The set of all real numbers is denote by R. 3. -2/3. 3 and 5 are co-primes. i. 5. are odd numbers. q≠0}. 17. = 0. 7 etc. -7√5 are all irrational. √3. p. where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0. Note: 1. Since every natural number ‘a’ can be written as a/1. Real Numbers The rational and irrational numbers combined together are called real numbers.g. etc. √2. 3.333…22/7 = 3. 1/3 = 0. etc.

= 23 × 35 × 59. Solution The factors common to both x and y are 23. This is continued until no remainder is left. Swetha Apartment. 3 m 85 cm. of x and y.F.F.F. 32 is a common multiple of 8 and 16.F. Illustration 3 Find the H. 3724 and 4508 Solution 3332 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 × 17 3724 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 × 19 4508 = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 × 23 ∴ H.C.C. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Step 3 Divisor of (2) is divided by its remainder. Solution 360 = 23 × 32 × 5 132 = 22 × 31 × 11 ∴ H.C. Illustration 4 If x = 23 × 35 × 59 and y = 25 × 37 × 511.in .C.C. of 700. II. find H.F.F.C. For more than two numbers: Step 1 Any two numbers are chosen and their H.F. 12 m 95 cm. H. Hyderabad.in -6- www. is the divisor of last step.C.C. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Step 3 H. Method of Division A.F. of 360 and 132. of 3556 and 3444. = 2 × 2 × 7 × 7 = 196. This process is continued until all numbers have been chosen. Himayath Nagar.F.C.C. ∴ H.Illustration 2 Find the H. (of(1)) and any other number is obtained.C. Common Multiple A common multiple of two or more numbers is a number which is exactly divisible by each one of them.F.C. of H.coachingworld. H. 3444 )3556 (1 3444 112 ) 3444 ( 30 3360 84 ) 112 ( 1 84 28 ) 84 ( 3 84 × B. (of (2)) and any other number (not chosen earlier) is obtained.F.F.F. is obtained.C. 8 × 4 = 32 16 × 2 = 32. of H. Step 2 H. of last step is the required H. 1295) cm = 35 cm. 385. of 3332. For Example.C.F. Step 2 Divisor of (1) is divided by its remainder. Illustration 6 Find the greatest possible length which can be used to measure exactly the lengths 7 m. 35 and 59. = 22 × 31 × = 12.F. Least Common Multiple The least common multiple of two or more given numbers is the least or lowest number which is exactly divisible by each of them.C. Solution Required length = (H. Illustration 5 Find the H. For two numbers: Step 1 Greater number is divided by the smaller one.F.C. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.

of the numbers in numerators L.C.C. Step 3 Step 2 is repeated until a line of numbers (prime to each other) appears.e. = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 × 1 × 1 × 1 × 9 = 540. 5. The quotients and the undivided numbers are written in a line below the first. Step 2 Take out all factors with highest powers that occur in given numbers. 1 Find the product of all divisors and numbers in the last line which is the required L.C. 3.M. 20 and 54.C.C.F. Step 2 Divide by any one of the prime numbers 2. of Fractions L. Step 2 Find the H. and H. 5./L.F. Hyderabad. = H.C.M.M. 11.M. 15. 48. 36. Step 3 Put the decimal point (in the H. 15.C. of 32. Some Useful Short-Cut Methods 1. of Decimals Step 1 Make the same number of decimal places in all the given numbers by suffixing zero(s) if necessary./L. and L.in -7- www. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. This product will be the L.F.M. 9 1.C.F.C. of step 2) leaving as many digits on its right as there are in each of the numbers.C. 72. … Multiple of 18 are 18. Solution2 12. Method of Division Step 1 The given numbers are written in a line separated by common.C.F. 9 L. of the numbers in numerators H. 27 3 3.C..M.C.F.F. 10. 2. 48. Solution 32 = 25 × 1 48 = 24 × 3 60 = 22 × 3 × 5 320 = 26 × 6 ∴ L. Swetha Apartment. 1.M.in . 7.C.M.coachingworld. Methods of Finding L.M. 20. L. 72. 24. B. consider the two numbers 12 and 18.C.C. L.C. of the numbers in denominators _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.M.F. A. Illustration 7 Find the L. 1. = 26 × 3 × 5 = 960.M. of 12 and 18 is 36.M. … Common multiples are 36. Note: Before finding the L. … which will divide at least any two of the given nu8mbers exactly. i. 72. H.C. 54 2 6. 27 5 1.M = L. 54. of 12. 15.C. 5. … ∴ Least common multiple. 5. we must ensure that all quantities are expressed in the same unit. 60 and 320.C. of the numbers in denominators H.For example. Illustration 8 Find the L.C. Method of Prime Factors Step 1 Resolve each given number into prime factors. 36.M.C.M.C. or H. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. of these numbers without decimal. Step 3 Find the product of these factors.C. Multiples of 12 are 12. 15. Himayath Nagar.M.

C. To find the n-digit smallest number which when divided by x. 8. of x. of the numbers × H. y and z = L L ) n – digit greatest number ( Step 2 remainder = R Step 3 Required number = n-digit greatest number – R (b) leaves remainder K in each case Required number = (n-digit greatest number – R) + K. y and z = L L )n-digit smallest number( Step 2 remainder = R Step 3 Required number = n-digit smallest number + (L – R). It is always observed that (x – a) = (y – b) = (z – c) = k (say) ∴ Required number = (L.C.F. exactly divisible) Step 1 L. (y – r) and (z – r). y and z.in -8- www. y and z leaving the same remainder in each case.F. of (x – r). y and z (a) leaves no remainder (i. y and z) – k. y and z) + r. To find the greatest number that will divide x. Required number = H. of the numbers 4.M. y and z. To find the least number which when divided by x.C. Required number = H. respectively. Himayath Nagar.C. (b) When the value of remainder is not given: Required number = H. To find the least number which when divided by x. y and z leaves the remainders a. of x.C. To find the greatest number that will divide x.M. exactly divisible) Step 1 L. 11. Hyderabad.C.M. of  (x – y) .in . of x.C. b and c. of x.M. 5.e. (a) When the value of remainder r is given: Required number = H. 9.M.F.e. 6. of x. Product of two numbers = L.3. To find the n-digit greatest number which. of x. when divided by x. y and z. Swetha Apartment. (y – b) and (z – c). 7. y and z leaves the same remainder r in each case. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. y and z leaving remainders a. Required number = L. y and z. of (x – a).C. Required number = (L. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.F.C. respectively.  (y – z) and  (z – x) 10. (b) leaves remainder K in each case.F. b and c. Required number = n-digit smallest number + (L – R) + k.C. To find the greatest number that will exactly divide x. (a) leaves no remainder (i. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. To find the least number which is exactly divisible by x.C. y and z.M.coachingworld.

PROPORTIONS AND VARIATION A ratio is a comparison of two quantities by division. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. 5. Normally. that is. 2. then ac : bd is the compound ratio of the given ratios. c are known as means. For example. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.coachingworld. if a :b and c:d are two given rations.in -9- www. we write 3. 3/4 is the sub. Hyderabad.duplicate ratio of 9/16. If a/b = c/d. the new ratio is called the inverse ratio of the first. It is a relation that one quantity bears to another with respect to magnitude. 2/3 is the sub-triplicate ratio of 8/27. From this relation we see that if any three of the four quantities are given. 4. Thus. ratio means what part one quantity is of another. 4. Inverse Ratio or Reciprocal Ratio If the antecedent and consequent of a ratio interchange their places. This is read as “a is to b as c is to d”.in . then product of Means = product of Extremes For example. if ¾. in the proportion a : b: : c: d. Sub-duplicate Ratio The ratio of the square roots of two numbers is called the sub-duplicate ratio of two numbers. a. For example. since ¾ = 6/8. For example. Sub-duplicate Ratio The ratio of the cube roots of two numbers is called the sub-triplicate ratio of two numbers. Thus. Note: 1. then a. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. For example. For example. b. when we consider the ratio of the weight 45 kg of a bag of rice to the weight 29kg of a bag of sugar we are considering the quantities of same kind but when we talk of allotting 2 cricket bats to 5 sportsmen. For example.RATIOS. A ratio does not change if both of is terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. TYPES OF RATIOS 1. third and fourth proportionals Here. The first is called antecedent and the second term is called consequent. SOME BASIC FORMULAE 1. 4: : 6: 8 and say 3. d are known as extremes and b. a. c. For example. Duplicate Ratio The ratio of the squares of two numbers is called the duplicate ratio of the two numbers. If a and b are two numbers. then 1/a : 1/b or b : a is its inverse ratio. For example. Swetha Apartment. b. 33/43 or 27/64 is triplicate ratio of ¾. 3/5 is the inverse ratio of 5/3. if a : b be the given ratio. 2. Each term of the ratio a/b and c/d is called a proportional. 6. 6 and 8 are in proportion. and d are respectively the first. 4/5 and 5/7 be the given ratios. we are considering quantities of different kinds. For example. 3/7. 32/42 or 9/16 is called the duplicate ratio of ¾. then their compound ratios is 3× 4× 5/ 4× 5× 7. c and d are said to be in proportion and we write a : b: : c: d. the fourth can be determined. 2/3= 4/6 = 6/9 etc. PROPORTION The equality of two ratios is called proportion. In other words. If four quantities are in proportion. the ratio of a to b is a/b or a +b and is denoted by a : b. they must be expressed in the same units. The quantities may be of same kind or different kinds. Compound Ratio The ratio of the product of the antecedents to that of the consequents of two or more given ratios is called the compound ratio. we have bc = ad. the ratio 3 : 5 represents 3/5 with antecedent 3 and consequent 5. Himayath Nagar. A ratio is a number. so to find the ratio of two quantities. second. Triplicate Ratio The ratio of the cubes of two numbers is called the triplicate ratio of the two numbers. we consider the ratio between quantities of the same kind. The two quantities that are being compared are called terms. Thus. 3.

c is b × c / a. a/b = c/x or. B = kb = bx / a + b+ c. Solution Let x be the fourth proportional. respectively. ∴ x = 5 × 4 /2 = 10. B and C. We have. C = kc = cx / a + b+ c. We also say that a.5 = 0. a/x =x/b or x2 = ab or x = √ab ∴ Mean proportional of a and b is √ab.5= 1. We have. b. Illustrational 1 Find a fourth proportional to the numbers 2. Find the two numbers. bx / a + b + c and cx / a + b + c.5 Solution Let x be the third proportional. SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS 1. respectively. Third proportional If a: b: : c: x. x is called the fourth proportional of a. B = kb. Hyderabad. 48 : x : : x : 12 or. ∴ A = ka = ax / a + b+ c. x2= 576 or. C =kc and. 48/x = x/12 or. Fourth proportional If a: b: :c :x. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. fourth proportional of a.5/x. x = b×c/a Thus. (a) If two numbers are in the ratio of a: b and the sum of these numbers is x. Thus. y. A + B + C = ka + kb + kc = x ⇒ k(a+b+c) = x ⇒ k = x / a + b+ c. ∴ x = 1. x is called the mean or second proportional of a.5 : 1. Then. Swetha Apartment. c. x is called the third proportional of a. b. 3. 1. Illustration 5 Two numbers are in the ratio of 4 : 5 and the sum of these numbers is 27.coachingworld.2. b. a/b= b/x or x= b2/a. Himayath Nagar. Find the numbers.10 - www. Then. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. x. then (i) (a + b)/b = (c +d)/d (Componendo) (ii) (a – b)/b = (c-d)/d (Dividendo) (iii) (a + b)/a-b = c +d/c-d = (Componendo and Dividendo) (iv) a/b = a + c/b+d = (a –c)/b-d Illustration 4 The sum of two umber is c and their quotient is p/q. two liquids A and B in the ratio of a: b. then these numbers will be ax / a + b + c . or If in a mixture of x liters of. b are in continued proportion Illustration 3 Find the mean proportional between 48 and 12. then these numbers will be ax/ a + b and bx/ a+b. Mean Proportional If a: x: : x: b. (b) If three numbers are in the ratio a : b: c and the sum of these numbers is x.5/2.5. then 2. 5. then 2 : 5 : : 4 : x or 2/5 = 4/x.5/1. Solution Let x be the mean proportional.in . Solution Let the numbers be x. 4. If a/b = c/d. A = ka. b is b2/a Illustration 2 Find a third proportional to the numbers 2.5 × 1.9 4. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.5 : :1. We have. x/y = p/q …(2) ∴ x/ x+y = p/p+q ⇒ x/c = p/p+q [Using (1)] ⇒ x = pc/p +q.in . Given: x + y = c …(1) and. respectively.5 : x or 2. third proportional of a. Explanation Len the three numbers in the ratio a: b: c be A. 5. x=24. then the quantities of liquids A and B in the mixture will be ax / a + b litres and bx/ a + b litres. b.

B:C = 4 : 5 and C : D = 6 : 7. Thus. d1 = 3. the ratio becomes c : d. Hyderabad. respectively (where a < b). the second number = bx / a + b = 5 × 27 / 4+5 = 15. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. find A : B : C. ∴ The first number = ax/ b-a = 4 × 24/5. n2 =8. and x = 27. A : D = 16 : 35. (a). Illustration 8 If A : B = 3 : 4 and B : C = 8 : 9. b = 5 and x = 24. b : c = n2 : d2. find A :D. the second number = bx/ b-a = 5× 24 / 5-4 = 120. and c : d = n3 : d3 then a : b : c : d= (n1× n2× n3) : (d1× n2× n3 ) : (d1× d2× n3 ) : (d1× d2× d3 ). Explanation Let two number be ak and bk. the ratio becomes c : d. the two numbers are ax / a-b and bx/ a-b. If two numbers are in the ratio of a : b and difference between these is x. the third number = cx / a + b+ c = (8 × 975)/ 3 + 4 + 8 = 520. n1 = 2. ∴ a : b : c = (n1× n2) : (d1× n2) : (d1× d2) = (3× 8) : (4× 8) : (4× 9) = 24 : 32 : 36 or. Given : ak – bk = x ⇒ (a – b)k = x or k = x / (a-b). n3 = 6. (a) The ratio between two numbers is a : b. Solution Here. Himayath Nagar. and. (b). Therefore. Solution Here. b = 5. 4. If the difference between these numbers is 24. 6: 8 : 9. respectively (where a > b).d) / ad –bc. c = 8 and x = 975 ∴ The first number = ax / a + b+ c = (3 × 975)/ 3 + 4 + 8 = 195. a = 4. then a : b : c = (n1× n2) : (d1× n2) : (d1 × d2). 35. and. Find the three numbers. Let a > b.bc (b) The ratio between two numbers is a : b. Solution Here. Therefore. n2 = 4. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. If x is added to each of these numbers. Explanation Let the two numbers be ak and bk. Swetha Apartment. b = 4. ∴ A : B : C : D = (n1× n2× n3) : (d1× n2× n3) : (d1 × d2 × n3) : (d1 × d2 × d3) = (2 × 4 × 6) : (3 × 4 × 6) : (3 × 5 × 6) : (3 × 5 × 7) = 48 : 72 : 90: 105: or. d2 = 5 and d3 = 7. if x is subtracted from each of these numbers. ∴ The first number = ax / a + b = 4 × 27 / 4+5 = 12.4 = 96 and. Illustration 7 Two numbers are in the ratio of 4 : 5.coachingworld. Illustration 9 If A : B = 2 : 3. n1 = 3. If a : b = n1 : d1 and b : c = n2 : d2. Given : ak +x / bk+x = c/d ⇒akd +dx= cbk + cx ⇒ k(ad –bc) = x(c –d) ⇒k =x(c-d)/ ad – bc. b) ax/ a-b and bx/ a-b. 16: 24 : 30 . If a : b = n1 : d1.Solution Here. Illustration 6 Three numbers are in the ratio of 3: 4 : 8: and the sum of these numbers is 975. d1 =4 and d2 = 9.11 - www.in . The two numbers are given as: ax(c – d) / ad – bc and bx(c. a = 4. 2. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. 3. the two numbers are ax(c-d) / ad-bc and bx(c-d) / ad. then find the numbers. Solution Here. then these numbers will be a) ax/ a-b and bx/ a-b. a = 3. The second number = bx / a + b+ c = (4 × 975)/ 3 + 4 + 8 = 260.in .

Hyderabad.  100 − P  (b) If the price of a commodity decreases by p%. then the first number is  100 − x    100 − y ×100 % of the first. (a) If the price of a commodity increases by P%. 40 per cent will be written as 40%. 3. then B is less than that of A by  x  100 + x ×100 %   (b) If a is x% less than that of B. 1. To Convert a Percent into a Fraction: To convert a per cent into a fraction .g. (a) if A is x% more than that of B.e. Thus.coachingworld. If a is x% of C and B is y% of C. Scoring 60 per cent marks means out of every 100 marks the candidate scored 60 marks. Some useful shortcut methods 1. then net% change is given by (x+y+ (xy/100))% which represents increase or decrease in value according as the sign is +ve or –ve. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.e. then A = x/y × 100% of B.PERCENTAGES Introduction The term per cent means per hundreds or for every hundred. If x or y indicates decrease in percentage. 3. Himayath Nagar. 5/100 and 5 per cent means the same thing.  100 + P   P  ×100 % . then B is more than that of A by  x  100 − x ×100 %   2. then the first number is  100 + x   100 + y    100 + y ×100 % of the second and the second is  100 + x ×100 % of the first. A fraction whose denominator is 100 is called a percentage and the numerator of the fraction is called rate per cent. If a number is changed (increased/decreased) successively by x% and y%. i.    4. multiply it by 100 and put % sign. The symbol % is often used for the term per cent. otherwise +ve sign. To find a percentage of a given number: x % of given number (N) = x/100 × N. Swetha Apartment. then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is   P  ×100 % . drop the per cent sign and divide the number by 100. The term per cent is sometimes abbreviated as p.      (b) If two numbers are respectively x% and y% less than a third number. (a) If two numbers are respectively x% and y% more than a third number. e. then put –ve sign before x or y.in .in . Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. l/m × 100% 2. It is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase per centum. then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure is  5. i. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.13 - www. 5 parts out of every hundred parts. To Convert a fraction into a per cent: to convert any fraction l/m to rate per cent.c.

otherwise +ve sign. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. If the present population of a town (or value of an item) be P and the population (or value of item) changes at r% per annum. x 10.14 - www. 9.in .6. then put –ve sign before x or y. then the maximum marks in the examination is 100 ( y + z ) . 7. 8.coachingworld. In an examination x% and y% students respectively fail in two different subjects while z% students fail in both the subjects. Swetha Apartment. then the final value of A will be x  y  z   A1 + 1 + 1 +   100  100  100  In case a given value decreases by any percentage. If x or y indicates decrease in percentage. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. then the percentage of students who pass in both the subjects will be (100-(x+y-z))%. then r   (a) Population (or value of item) after n years = P1 +  100   P (b) Population (or value of item) n years ago =  n r  1 +   100  n where r is +ve or –ve according as the population (or value of item) increase or decreases. then the net% change in the product (A × B) is given (x+y+(xy/100))% which represents increase or decrease in value according as the sign in +ve or –ve. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. If a student secures y marks and fails by z marks. If a number A is increased successively by x% followed by y% and then by z%.in . In an examination. the minimum pass percentage is x%. we will use a negative sign before that. If two parameters A and B are multiplied to get a product and if A is changed (increased/decreased) by x% and another parameter B is changed (increased/decreased) by y%. Hyderabad. Himayath Nagar.

/ n1 +n2. in a class. SOME BASIC FORMULAE 1. find of how many days is the month of September. we usually tell the marks in percentage. Solution Number of days in the month of September = Total temperature/ Average temperature = 840/28 = 30days. of quantities in the combined group = n1+n2 Total sum (sum of quantities of first group and second group) = n1x+n2y Combined Average = n1x+n2y. Illustration 3 Total temperatures for the month of September is 8400C. Average of two or more groups taken together a) If the number of quantities in two groups be n1 and n2 and their average is x and y. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. of quantities in fist group = n1 Their average = x ∴ Sum = n1 × x No. The average or mean or arithmetic of a number of quantities of the same kind is equal to their sum divided by the number of those quantities. 11. Himayath Nagar. of quantities in second group = n2 Their average = y ∴ Sum = n2 × y No. 15. If the average temperature of that month is 280C. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Sum of quantities = Average × Number of quantities Illustration 1 A man purchased 5 toys at the rate of Rs 200each. Swetha Apartment. 18.Averages & Mixtures Whenever we are asked the marks scored by us in any examination. and 23 is 3 + 9 +11+ 15+ 18+ 19+ 23+ /7 = 98/7 = 14. the combined average (average of all of then put together) is n1x +n2y / n1 + n2 Explanation No. Also. If there are 100 students. Find the total marks. we usually talk about average age. Illustration 2 The average marks obtained by 200 students in a certain examination are 45. instead of knowing the age of individual student. Average = sum of quantities/ Number of quantities Number of quantities = Sum of quantities/ Average 2. Solution Solution Total marks = Average marks × Number of students = 200 × 45 = 900.19.in . Calculate the average cost of one toy. Price of 5 toys = 200 × 5 = Rs 1000 Price of 6 toys = 250 × 6 = Rs 1500 Price of 9 toys = 300 × 9 = Rs 2700 Average price of 1 toy = 1000 + 1500 + 2700/ 20 = 5200/20 = Rs 260. Hyderabad. the average of 3. For example. SOME USEFUL SHORT–CUT METHODS 1. taking the percentage of total marks of all subjects. This percentage is called average percentage.15 - www. 3. 6 toys at the rate of Rs 250each and 9 toys at the rate of Rs 300 each. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.coachingworld. respectively.in .

n2.5 / 24+26 = 1392 +1573/ 50 = 2965/ 50 =59. find of the class.3kg. 17. x = 58 and y = 60.5. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.coachingworld. xn. xn + a is x +a.If each of the numbers multiplied by 8. of quantities = n1 Their average = x ∴ Sum = n1x No of quantities taken out – n2 Their average = y ∴ Sum = n2y Sum of remaining quantities = n1x – n2y No. ∴ Average weight of all the 50 students = n1x+n2y/ n1 +n2 = 24 ×58 + 26×60. If the average salary of the officers is Rs 2500. Himayath Nagar. n2 =5. x2 + a. …. Illustration 6 The average value of six numbers 7. then a) The average of x1 + a. xn . If 8 is added to each number. x = 850and y = 2500. c) The average of ax1. n2 = 26. …. 26 and 28 is 19. If x is the average of x1.a is x -a. = 5x.b). Illustration 8 The average of 8 numbers is 21. find the average of a new set of numbers. Illustration 5 Average salary of all the 50 employees including 5 officers of a company is Rs 850. Find the average weight of all the 50 students of the class. Solution Here. Solution Here.in .…. n1 = 50. x2 / a. x2 . Swetha Apartment. …. …. 5 kg.axn is ax..a.16 - www. Illustration 7 The average value of x numbers is 5x. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.in . d) The average of x1 / a.. what will be the new average? Solution The new average =x -a. Hyderabad. x2.. provided a ≠ 0. b) The average of x1 . the average of remaining group (rest of the quantities) is n2x – n2y/ n1. = 19+8 = 27. provided a ≠ 0. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.a.(x-2) = 4x +2. Explanation No. ∴ Average salary of the remaining staff = n1x-n2y/ n1-n2 = 50× 850 -5× 2500 / 50-5 = 42500-12500/ 45 = 30000/ 45 = Rs 667(approx) 2. xn / a isx /a. of remaining quantities = n1 – n2 ∴ Average of remaining group = n1x – n2y/ n1 – n2 Illustration 4 The average weight of 24 students of section A of a class is 58 kg whereas the average weight of 26 students of section B of the same class is 60. If x – 2 is subtracted from each given number.. Solution The average of a new set of numbers = ax = 8× 21 = 168. If the average of n1 quantities is x and the average of n2 quantities out of them is y. what will be the new average? Solution The new average = x +a. ax2. 24. n1 = 24. 12.

Swetha Apartment. Illustration 12 Find the average of first 81natural number.y)+y. The average of n quantities is equal to x.in . The value of the new quantity is n(y-x)+y Illustration10 The average are of 24 students and class teacher is16 years. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.y) + y = 25(16 – 15) + 15 = 40 years. What is the age of the class teacher? Solution The age of class teacher = n(x. b) The average of n quantities is equal to x. then q = p+n(y-x) Illustration 9 The average weight of 25 persons is increased by 2 kg when one of them whose weight is 60kg.The average of first n natural numbers is (n +1) /2 b). The average of square of natural numbers till n is (n +1)(2n+1)/6. The average of even numbers from 1 to n is (last even number + 2) / 2. Illustration 16 What is the average of even numbers from 1 to 81? Solution The required average = last even number + 2/ 2 = 80+2 = 41. the average age becomes 10years. the average becomes y. the average becomes y. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Himayath Nagar. is replaced by a new quantity having value q. a). Illustration 15 What is the average of odd numbers from 1 to 40? Solution The required average = last odd number + 1/ 2 = 39 +1/ 4 =20. 5. Illustration 13 What is the average of squares of the natural numbers from 1 to 41? Solution The required average = (n+1)(2n+1)/ 6 = (41+1)(2× 41+1)/ 6 = 42 × 83/ 6 = 3486/ 6 = 581 Illustration 14 Find the average of cubes of natural numbers from 1 to 27. Solution The required average = n + 1/ 2 = 81 + 1 /2 = 41. If the teacher’s age be included.3. the average becomes y. What is the weight of the new person? Solution The weight of the new person = p + n(y-x) = 60 + 25(2)= 110kg 4. The average of cubes of natural numbers till n is n(n +1)2/4 d). c). _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Hyderabad. When a quantity is added. the average age reduces by 1 year. a). When a quantity is removed. Solution The teacher’s age = n(y. is replaced by a new person. Illustration 11 The average age of 30 children in a class is 9 years. Find the teacher’s age. The average of n quantities is equal to x. The value of the removed quantity is n(x. The average of odd numbers from 1 to n is (last odd number +1) / 2 e).17 - www.coachingworld. If the class teacher’s age is excluded. If one of the given quantities whose value is p. Solution The required average = n(n +1)2 / 4 = 27× (27+1)2 / 4 27 × 28 × 28 / 4 = 21168 / 4 = 5292.x) + y = 30(10 – 9) +100 = 40 years.in .

The average of squares of consecutive even number till n is (n+)(n+2) / 3. 29.in . Illustration 17 Find the average of 7 consecutive numbers 3. 27. Swetha Apartment. b). Illustration 20 Find the average of first 50 consecutive odd numbers. Illustration 19 Find the average of first 31 consecutive even numbers.6. d). consecutive even numbers or consecutive odd numbers is always the middle number. If n is even: The average of n consecutive numbers. consecutive even numbers or consecutive odd numbers is always the average of the middle two numbers. Himayath Nagar. c). Hyderabad. Solution The required average= middle number=6. 33.If n is odd: The average of n consecutive numbers. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 23. The average of first n consecutive numbers is (n+1). 25. The average of squares of squares of consecutive odd numbers till n is n(n+2)/ 3. then the difference between the smallest and the largest number is 2(n-1). Solution The required average = n = 50. The average of squares of first n consecutive even number is2 (n+1)(2n+1) / 3. a). 35. 5. f). g). 7.18 - www. 9. Solution The required average = average of middle two numbers = average of 27 and 29 = 27+29 / 2 = 28. Solution The required average = (n+1) = 31+ 1= 32. If the average of n consecutive numbers is m. 6.in . 31. h).coachingworld. e). 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. The average of first n consecutive odd numbers is n. 8. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Illustration 18 Find the average of consecutive odd numbers 21. 4.

the suffers a loss. For how much should he so that there is a gain of 8%? Solution We have. S.50.P. ∴ Profit% = profit× 100/ C.coachingworld. S. SOME BASIC FORMULAE 1.P.P. Gain% = (Gain × 100)/C. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. = Rs. = Rs. S.P Gain on Rs.P / (100-Loss%) When the selling price and gain% are given: When the cost and gain per cent are given. The commonly used terms in dealing with questions involving sale and purchase are: Cost Price The cost price of an article is the price at which an article has been purchased. 675. The aim of any business is to earn profit.P. S.P. 100 is Gain per cent Illustration 2 The cost price of a shirt is Rs.P Loss on Rs. Hyderabad. 107. 4500. S. Solution Here.P. Loss= C. When a person deals in the purchase and sale of any item.PROFIT AND LOSS Business transactions have now-a-days become common feature of life. C.9.P. = Rs.P.P. It is the abbreviated as C.P = (100+Gain%/100)× C. 750 and sold it for Rs.19 - www.P.in .P / (100+Gain%) 3.P. = 750-675 = Rs...P = (100-Loss%)× C.P. 200 and selling price is Rs.5.in .P.S.P. Note that profit and loss are always calculated with respect to the cost price of the item.235 =Rs. = 750. = Rs. = Rs.P. C.S.P = 75× 100/ 750 = 10% 2. = Rs. 235.P. Thus. C. Profit or Gain If the selling price of an article is more that the cost price. =Rs. he either gains or loses some amount generally. = (100+ 8/ 100) × 4500 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Loss = C.107 =Rs. ∴ Loss% = Loss × 100/ C.P. then loss = ? Solution (i) Profit = S. Profit = S. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.S.P. 240. Sharma buys a cooler for Rs.P = Rs. It is abbreviated as S. 675. C. 250. S.. then profit = ? (ii) If C. Himayath Nagar. 4500.P. = Rs. Find her percentage loss. Profit or Gain = S. 116. 240. 100 is Loss per cent Loss% = (Loss × 100)/C.C.200 =Rs. Illustration 1.P / 100 5.P =(100)× S. 200.C. = Rs. Calculate the % profit.P = 100× S. (ii) Loss = C. When the cost and loss per cent are given: When the selling price and loss per cent are given: Illustration 4 Mr.P = 50× 100/ 250 = 25% Illustration 3 Anu bought a necklace for Rs.P. = 250.P. 116.P. Selling Price The selling price of an article is the price at which an article has been sold. there is a gain or profit. (i)If C. Loss If the cost price of an article is greater than the selling price. C. Thus. Swetha Apartment.P = (100+Gain%)× C.P. 250. gain% = 8% ∴ S.P/ 100 4.C. 75. Solution We have.

of z items = Rs. ∴ % profit = w/z x-y/y × 100% i. 10 and sold at 10 for Rs. of x items = Rs. 4860 Illustration 5 By selling a fridge Rs. S. = Rs. gain% = 12 ½% or 25/2%. w S. Mohan gains 12 ½ %. If a man buys x items for Rs. Himayath Nagar.20 - www. Note: In the case of gain per cent the result obtained bears positive sign whereas in the case of loss per cent the result obtained bears negative sign.P. = (100/100-10) × 7200 100/90 × 7200= Rs. which represent loss. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Solution Here.in . then If the cost price of m articles is equal to the selling price of _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Find the cost price of the pen.P =(100/100-Loss%)× S. Illustration 7 If 11 oranges are bought for Rs.e. S. n articles.P. 8000. Find the cost price of the fridge. loss% = 10%. there is a loss of 25%.(xw/zy -1) × 100. = Rs. 11 what is the gain loss%? Solution % profit= (xw/zy -1) × 100% = (11× 11/10× 10-1) × 100% = 21/100 × 100% = 21% Illustration 8 A fruit seller buys apples at the rate of Rs 12 per dozen and sells them at the rate of 15 for Rs. Pankaj loses 10%.108/100 × 4500 = Rs. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.P =(100/100+Gain%)× S.P. if the result is negative. ∴ C. How to remember: 1. the gain or loss per cent made by him is (xw/zy -1) × 100%. Mark the directon of the arrows for crossmultiplicaton. Find his percentage gain or loss.coachingworld.12.P. then Explanation S.P. 99. w. 88 SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS 1. = (100/100+25/2) × 99 = (100× 2/ 225) × 99 =Rs.in . 7200. w/z x Net profit =w/z x-y. Solution % gain or loss = (xw/ zy -1) × 100% = (12× 12/15 × 12 -1) × 100% = -36/144 × 100% = -25% Since the sign is –ve. The arrow going down forms the numerator while the arrow going up forms the denominator (xw/ zy).P. Swetha Apartment. Solution We have. 7200. Illustration 6 By selling a pen for Rs. y and sells z items for Rs. Hyderabad. 99. ∴ C. Cross-multiply the numbers connected by the arrows (xw and zy) 2. 2.

what is the profit %? Solution Here. What is his gain %? Solution Here.P.% gain or loss = ( m-n/n) × 100 [If m > n. m S. of 1 articles = Rs. Rs.e. (m-n/n) ∴ %profit = m-n/n × 100/1 i.P.(m-n/n) × 100. m/n ∴ Profit on 1 article = Rs.in . m ∴ S. it is gain and if m<n. cost price of 1000 is equal to selling price of 800 gm.(m/n-1) i.P. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Illustration A shopkeeper professes to sell his goods on cost price but uses 800 gm.coachingworld. of one article be Re. of m articles = Rs. ∴ % gain = (m-n/n) × 100 = (1000-800/800) × 100 = 200/800× 100 =25% Illustration 10 If the selling price of 12 articles is equal to the cost price of 18 articles. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.21 - www. m = 10. it is loss] Explanation Let the C. Swetha Apartment. m× 1=Rs. Hyderabad.e. Himayath Nagar.1 ∴ C.in . instead of 1kg. n =12 ∴ Profit %= (m-n/n) × 100 (18-12/12) × 100 = 6/12 × 100= 50% _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.P. of n articles = Rs.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST If P stands for Principal. If a certain sum is invested in n types of investments in such a manner that equal amount is obtained on each investment where interest rates are R1. If a certain sum of money becomes n times itself at R% per annum simple interest in T years. then T = (n-1)/R) × 100 years. A due in T years at R% per annum is Annual payment = Rs. Simple Interest = Principal × Rate × Time 100 or. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. then the rate of interest per annum is R = 100(n – 1)/T % 5. P = 100 × I R× T 3. Hyderabad.22 - www. I = P × R × T 100 Principal = 100 × Simple Interest Rate × Time or. T the number of years. …. A. R the rate per cent per annum. then the sum will be P = 100 × A 100+R× T = Principal (1+(Rate × Time)/100) or. Time = 100 × Simple Interest Rate × Principal or. (100A/(100T + RT(T – 1)/2)) 3. Rate = 100 × Simple Interest Principal × Time or.in . Himayath Nagar.in . I the simple interest and A the amount. The annual payment that will discharge a debt of Rs. R3. …. Rn respectively and time periods are T1. then the ratio in which the amounts are invested is 1/100+R1T1 : 1/100+R2T2 1/100+R3T3 : … 1/100+RnTn 4. If a certain sum in T years at R% per annum amounts to Rs. If a certain sum of money becomes n times itself in T years at simple interest. Swetha Apartment. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. T3.coachingworld. A = P (1 + (R × T)/100) 2. R2. T2. Tn respectively. R = 100 × I P× T 4. T = 100 × I R× P 5. Amount = Principal + Simple Interest = Principal + Principal × Rate × Time 100 Some Useful Short-Cut Methods 1. then 1.

coachingworld.6. when each instalment is paid monthly.A2T1 × 100% 10. then the borrowed (debt) amount is given by Z = na + (Ra/100 × b) × n(n – 1)/2 Where. If a debt of Rs. then change in SI = P/100 × (R1T1 – R2T2).in . A2R1-A1R2 11. Rn respectively and time periods are T1. if rate ® changes from R1 to R2 and P. If an amount P1 lent at simple interest rate of R1% per annum and another amount P2 at simple interest rate of R2% per annum. of instalments/year b = 1. If a certain sum of money is lent out in n parts in such a manner that equal sum of money is obtained as simple interest on each part where interest rates are R1. …. Hyderabad. Rate (R) and Time (T). R and T on simple interest is given by the following formula: = Product of fixed parameter/100 × [difference of product of variable parameters] for example. Tn respectively. Swetha Apartment. when each instalment is paid yearly b = 2.23 - www.in . 8. If a certain sum of money P lent out for a certain time T amounts to A1 at R1% per annum and to A2 at R2% per annum. then the ratio in which the sum will be divided in n parts is given by 1/R1T1 : 1/R2T2 : …1/RnTn 13. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. T are fixed. then change in SI = RT/100 × (P1 – P2) Also. T are fixed then Change in SI = PT/100 × (R1 – R2) Similarly. then the time T in which it will become m times itself is given by T′ = (m – 1/n – 1) × T years. Effect of change of P. Himayath Nagar. if principal (P) changes from P1 to P2 and R. 12. if rate ® changes from R1 to R2 and time (T) changes from T1 to T2 but principal (P) is fixed. If a certain sum of money becomes n times itself in T years at a simple interest. when each instalment is paid quarterly b = 12. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. T2. then P = A2R1 – A1R2/R1 – R2 and. R = rate of interest per annum b = no. …. a. R2. If a certain sum of money P lent out at SI amounts to A1 in T1 years and to A2 in T2 years. when each instalment is paid half-yearly b = 4. then the value of simple interest I also changes and is given by I1/I2 = P1 × R1 × T1/P2 × R2 × T2 ⇒ A1 – P1/A2 – P2 = P1 × R1 × T1/P2 × R2 × T2 as I1 = A1 – P1 and I2 = A2 – P2. R = A1 – A2/A1T2 . Z is paid in ‘n’ number of instalments and if the value of each instalment is Rs. then the rate of interest for the whole sum is R = (P1R1+P2R2/P1+P2). then P = A1T2 – A2T1 T2 – T1 and. 9. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. When there is a change in principal (P). 7. T = A1 – A2 × 100 years.

Swetha Apartment. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.in . Out of a certain sum P. Hyderabad. 1/a part is invested at R1%. If the annual income from all these investments is Rs.24 - www. then the original sum is given by P = ((A × 100)/R1/A+R2/B+R3/C) _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Himayath Nagar. 1/b part at R2% and the remainder (1-1/a-1/b) say 1/c part at R3%.in .coachingworld. A.14.

can complete a work in X. 2. 3. For solving problems on time and work. If they have worked for D1. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 4days.in . respectively. T2 and T3. while working alone. Explanation A’s 1 day’s work = 1/X B’s 1 day’s work = 1/Y Then. We have to complete the project earlier or later depending upon the needs. we come across situations where we need to complete a particular job in a reasonable time. Swetha Apartment. while works alone. then both of them working together will do the same work in XY/ X+Y days. then Amount of work dine by A= D1/T1 Amount of work dine by B= D2/T2 And. the lesser is the time required to finish a job. If A. B and C. A and B will complete the work in = XY/ X+Y days = 6× 12/6+12 days. 4. Himayath Nagar.TIME WORK In our daily life. Hyderabad. Y and Z days respectively. i. if the work is complete? SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS 1. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. X= 6 and y = 12. the work will be finished? Solution Here. Illustration 1 A can finish a piece of work by working alone in 6 days and B. We also come across situations where time and work or men and work are in direct proportion to each other. If ‘ A’ does three times faster work than ‘B’ then ratio of work done by A and B is 3:1 and ratio of time taken by A and B is1: 3. If ‘A’ can do a piece of working ‘A’ will finish 1/nth work in one day. B and C together = D1/T1+D2/T2+D3/T3 Which will be equal to 1. days. then ‘A’ will take n days to complete the full work. i. the men on duty have to be increased or decreased. Explanation A’s 1 day’s work = 1/X B’s 1 day’s work = 1/Y C’s 1 day’s work = 1/Z ∴ (A+B+C)’s 1 days work =1/X+1/Y+1/Z = (XY+YZ+ZX)/XYZ. ‘A’ will take n/m hours. B and C can do a piece of work in T1. A. If ‘ A’ does 1/nth of a work in one hour then to complete the full work. the amount of work done by A. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.25 - www. If A can do a piece do a piece of work in X days and B can do the same work in Y days. If 1/n of a work is done by ‘A’ in one day. ∴ Working together. then in how many days. can finish the same work in 12days.in . 2. D2 and D3 days respectively. we follow the following general rules: 1. then they will together complete the work in XYZ/XY+YZ+ZX days. i. the time allowed and the men engaged for a project are inversely proportional to each other.(A+B)’s 1 day’s work = 1/X+1/Y= X+Y/XY ∴ A and B together can complete the work on = XY/ X+Y days. 5.e.e. Accordingly. Mount of work done by C=D3/T3 Also.coachingworld.e. the more the number of men involved. If both of them work together.

So, A, B and C together can complete the work in = (XYZ/ XY+YZ+ZX) days.

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Illustration 2 A,B and C can complete a piece of work in 10, 15 and 18 days, respectively. In how many days would all of them complete the same work working together? Solution Here, X=10, Y=15 and Z= 18. Therefore, the work will be completed in = XYZ/ XY+YZ+ZX days. = 10× 15× 18/10 × 15 +15 × 18+18 × 10 days, i.e. 2700/600 or, 4 ½ days. 3. Two persons A and B, working together , can complete a piece of work in X days. If A, working alone, can complete the work in XY/Y-X days. Explanation A and B together can complete the work in X days. ∴ (A+B)’s 1 day’s work = 1/X Similarly, A’s 1day’s work= 1/Y There fore, B’s 1 day’s work =1/X-1/Y= Y-X/XY ∴ B alone can complete the work in (XY/Y-X)days ∴ B alone will complete the work in Illustration 3 A and B working together take 15 days to complete a piece of work. If A alone can do this work in 20 days, how long would B take to complete the same work? Solution Here, X = 15, and Y=20. = XY/Y-X days =15× 20/20-15, i.e. 60 days 4. If A and B, working together, can finish a piece of work in X days, B and C in Y days, then a) A, B and C working together, will finish the job in (2XYZ/XY+YZ- ZX) days. b) A alone will finish the job in (2XYZ/XY+YZ- ZX) days. c) B alone will finish the job in (2XYZ/ZX+XY- YZ) days. Explanation (A+B)’s 1 day’s work = 1/X (B+C)’s 1 day’s work = 1/Y (C+A)’s 1 day’s work = 1/Z So, [(A+B) + (B+C)+ (C+A)]’s 1 day’s work = 1/X+1/Y+1/Z or, 2(A+B+C)’s 1day’s work = (1/X+1/Y+1/Z) or, (A+B+C)’s 1day’s work = ½ (1/X+1/Y+1/Z) i.e (XY+YZ-XZ/2XYZ) ∴ A, B and C working together, will complete the work in (2XYZ/XY+ZX-XY) days. Also, A’s 1 days work – (A+B+C)’s 1day’s work –(B+C)’s 1 days work = ½ (1/X+1/Y+1/Z)- 1/Y = ½ (1/X-1/Y+1/Z) = XY+YZ-XZ/2XYZ So. A alone can do the work in (2XYZ/XY+YZ+XZ) days Similarly, B alone can do the work in (2XYZ/YZ+XY+XY) days and C alone can do the work in(2XYZ/ZX+XY+YZ) days. Illustration 4 A and B can do a piece of work in 12 days, B and C 15 days, C and A in 20 days. How long would each take separately to do the same work? Solution Here, X = 12, Y=15 and Z=20. ∴ A alone can do the work in = 2XYZ/XY+YZ-ZX = 2× 12× 15× 20/12× 15+15× 20-20× 12 days. or, 7200/240, i.e. 30 days. B alone can do the work in = 2XYZ/ZY+ZX-XY days = 2× 12× 15× 20/15× 20+20× 12-12× 15 days or, 7200/360, i.e. 20 days. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _
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C alone can do the work in = 2XYZ/ZX+XY-YZ = 2× 12× 15× 20/20× 12+12× 15-15× 20 or, 7200/120, i.e. 60 days. 5. (a) If A can finish a work in X days and B is k times efficient than A, then the time taken by both A and B working together to complete the work is x/1+k. (b) If A and B working together can finish a work in X days and B is k times efficient than A, then the time taken by (i) A, working alone, to complete the work is (k+1)X. (ii) B, working alone, to complete the work is (k+1/k)X. Illustration 5 Harbans Lal can do a piece of work in 24 days. If Bansi Lal works twice as fast as Harbans Lal, how long would they take to finsh the work working together? Solution Here, X =24 and k=2. ∴ Time taken by Harbans Lal and Bansi Lal, woking together, to complete the work = (X/1+k)days. = (24/1+2) days, i.e. 8 days Illustration 6 A and B together can do a piece of work in 3 days. If A does thrice as much work as B in a given time, find how long A lone would take to do the work? Solution Here, X = 3 and k = 3. ∴ Time taken by A, working alone, to complete the work = (k+1/k) X = (3+1/3)3 = 4days

6.

If A working alone takes a days more than A and B working alone takes b days more than A and B together, then the number of days taken by A and B, working together, to finish a job is given by √ab. Illustration 7 A alone would take 8 hours more to complete the job than if both A and B worked together. If B worked alone, he took 4 ½ hours more to complete the job than A and B worked together. What time would they take if both A and B worked together? Solution Here, a = 8 and b = 9/2. ∴ Time taken by A and B, working together, to complete the job = √ ab days = √ 8×9/2 or, 6days.

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101, Swetha Apartment, Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop, Himayath Nagar, Hyderabad. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.in - 28 -

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more the distance traveled. Thus. 2. If the time taken is constant. more the speed. that is. 3. we measure time in hours and speed in kilometre per hour and is written as km/hr and if the distance is measured in metre then time is taken in second and speed in metre per second and is written as m/sec. Himayath Nagar. the distance traveled is proportional to the time taken. Hyderabad. more the distance traveled in the same time. by the time it takes to cover that distance. the distance traveled is proportional to the speed. Find the length of the train in metres. Swetha Apartment. ∴ Distance traveled is 100 metres. SOME BASIC FORMULAE 1. more the speed. It is obtained by dividing the distance covered by the object. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. = 40×1000/ 60×60 = 100/9m/sec.Time and Distance The terms ‘Time’ and ‘Distance’ are related to the speed of a moving object. that is. and. Solution Speed of the train = 90km/hr =90×5/18 = 15 m/sec.in . Thus. Illustration 1 Calculate the speed of a train which covers a distance of 150 km in 3 hours. =(x ×18/5) km/hr. the speed is inversely proportional to the time taken. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. 2. x m/sec. x km/hr =(x ×5/18) m/sec. ∴ Time taken to cross the pole = 100/(100/9) = 9seconds. more the time taken at the same speed. Illustration 3 A train running at a speed of 90 km/hr passes a pole on the platform in 20 seconds. Speed = 40 km/hr.coachingworld. If the distance traveled is constant. Speed = Distance/Time Distance – Speed × Time Time = Distance/speed Units of Measurement Generally if the distance is measured in kilometre. ∴ One metre/second = 18/5km/hr. that is. Speed: We define the speed of an object as the distance covered by it in a unit time interval. Conversion of Units One kilometre/hour = 1000metre/60×60 seconds = 5/18 m/sec. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.in . Speed = Distance traveled/ Time taken Notes: 1. less the time taken for the same distance traveled. Solution Speed =Distance covered/Time taken= 150/3 = 50km/hr Illustration 2 How long does a train 100 metres long running at the rate of 40 km/hr take to cross a telegraphic pole? Solution In crossing the pole. If the speed is constant. the train must travel its own length.29 - www. 3.

coachingworld. Swetha Apartment.in . _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Himayath Nagar. Hyderabad.30 - www. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.in .∴ Length of the train = Speed of the train × time taken in crossing the pole =25× 20=500m.

Solution Here. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. s2 = 2 and T = 5. If two persons A and B start at the same time from two points P and Q towards each other and after crossing they take T1 and T2 hours in reaching Q and P reactively.SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS (a) If A covers a distance d1 km at s1 km/hr and then d2 km at s2 km/hr. the distance between A and B is = T(s1s2/s1+s2) = Total time taken × Product of two speeds/Sum of two speeds *(3) Illustration 5 A boy goes to school with the speed of 3 km an hour and returns with a speed of 2 km/hr.in . Hyderabad. Let the speed of A be s1 km/hr and that of B be s2 km/hr. Himayath Nagar. What is the average speed for the whole journey? Solution Here. ∴ The distance between the village and the school= T (s1s2/s1+s2) =5(3×2/3+2) = 6km.coachingworld. and comes back from Y to X at s2 km/hr. Therefore. if he takes 5 hours in all.31 - www. Average speed =Total distance covered / Total time taken = s1s2(d1+d2)/(s1d2+s2d1)km/hr …(i) b) Let the distance from X to Y be d km. *(2) Illustration 4 A ship sails to a certain city at the speed of 15 knots/hr and sails back to the same point at the rate of 30 knots/hr. then the average speed during the whole journey is given by *(1) Average speed = s1s2(d1 + d2)/s1d2 + s2d1 km/hr.in . the distance between A and B is T(s1s2/s1+s2) Explanation Let the distance between A and B be d km Time taken during onward journey = t1= d/s1 hrs Time taken during return journey = t2= d/s2 hrs ∴ Total time taken during the entire journey is T = t1+t2 = d/s1+d/s2= d(s1+s2)/s1s2 ∴ d = T(s1s2/s1+s2) Thus. If the takes T hours in all. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. their relative speed is (s1 +s2)km/hr. (b) if A goes from X to Y at s1 km/hr. Time taken to travel d2 km at s2 km/hr is t2 = d2/s2 hr. Since they are moving in opposite directions. s1 = 15 and s2 = 30. s1 =3. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Take d1 = d2 =d in (i). then *(4) A’s speed/B’s speed =√T2/ √T1. then the average speed during the whole journey is given by Average speed 2s1s2/s1+s2 Explanation a) Time taken to travel d1 km at s1km/hr is t1 = d1/s1 hr. Swetha Apartment. ∴ Average speed = 2s1s2/s1+s2 = 2×15×30/ 15+30 =20knots/hr. 1. A person goes certain distance(A to B) at a speed of s1 km/hr. Total time taken = t1 + t2 = (d1/s1+d2/s2)hr = (s1d2 + s2d2/s1d1/s1s2)hr Total distance covered = (d1 +d2)km. Explanation Let the total distance between P and Q be d km. 3. we get Average speed = 2ds1s2/d(s1+s2) = 2s1s2/s1s2. find the distance in km between the village and the school.. and returns back (B to A) at a speed of s2 km/hr. 2.

3. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. then. If the age of A.. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. the knowledge of linear equations is essential. we get x=n1(t1+t2)(n2-1)/n1-n2 +t1 and. was n1 times the age of B. A’s present age =(n1-1/n1-n2)n2 t years Illustration 1 The age of father is 4 times the age of his son. the present age of A =n2 x years Given. A’s present age =(n2-1/n1-n2)n1t years Illustration 2 The age of Mr. SOME USEFUL SHORT-CUT METHODS 1. then A’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2) n2 t years and. If 5 years age father’s age was 7 times the age of his son at that time. then A’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2)n2 t years and B’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2)t years Explanation Let the present age of B be x years.e. n2=4 and t=5] =(7-1/7-4) 4×5 = 6×4×5/3 = 40years. t years hence. n1(x-t)=n2x-t or. n2 = 2 and t=10]= 5years.. If t years hence. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Gupta’s son.(1) and x-n2y=(-1+n1)t2. x=(n2-1/n1-n2)t Therefore.in . shortcut methods given below are also helpful in solving such problems. the present age of A= n1x Given. After ten years. t years ago. To solve these problems. Then. 2. Then. Age some years hence Two of these situations are given and it is required to find the third.coachingworld. there may be three situations: i. Solution The present age of Mr.. t1 years ago. Gupta is four times the age of his son. Present age iii. If t2 years hence A’s age would be n2 times that of B.32 - www.in . The relation between the age of two persons may also be given. what is father’s present age? Solution The father’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2)n2t [Here. the age of A would be n2 time that of B. Simple linear equations are framed and their solutions are obtained. Sometimes. Find the present age of Mr. B’s present age = (n1-1/n1-n2) t years. Given:x-t1 = n1(y-t1) and x+t2 =n2(y+t2) i. Swetha Apartment. Gupta will be only twice the age of his son. B’s present age =(n2-1/n1-n2)n1t years and. B’s present age =(n1-1/n1-n2)t years Explanation Let the present age of B be x years.. n1 = 4. t years ago.(2) Solving (1) and (2). was n times the age of B and at present A’s age is n2 times that of B. B’s present age =t2(n2-1)t1(n1-1)/n1-n2 years.AGE PROBLEMS Problems based on ages are generally asked in most of the company examinations. The age of A. Explanation Let A’s present age=x years and B’s present age=y years. Therefore. The present age of A is n1 times the present age of B. In such problems. A’s present age =n1(t1+t2)(n2-1)/n1-n2 +t1 years and. x=(n1-1/n1-n2) t years. Age some years ago ii. (n1x +t)=n2 (x+t) or (n1-n2)x = (n2-1)t or. n1 =7. Himayath Nagar. Hyderabad. x-n1y=(1-n1)t1 . the age of Mr. (n1-n2)x = (n1-1) t or. And.. Gupta’s son = (n2-1/n1-n2)t =(2-1/4-2)10 [Here. y= t2(n2-1)+t2(n2-1)/n1-n2.

Solution Here. instead of sum(S). t1= 10 and t2 =10] =10(2-1) +10(4-1)/4-2 = 10-30/2 =20years. the mother will be twice older than the daughter. Find their respective ages. The sum of present ages of A and B is S year. Explanation Let the present ages of A and B be x and y years respectively. Solution Present age of Anu = t1(n2-1)+t1(n1-1)/n1-n2 [Here. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Himayath Nagar. the age of the father will be three times that of the son. If the ratio of the present ages of A and B is a: b and t years hence. x+t=n(y+t) or. we get x= Sn+t(n-1)/n+1 and. Given: x+y = S …(1) and. t=4 and n=3] = 176/4= 44years. n=5 and t =3 ∴ Present age of A = Sn-t(n-1)/n+1= 42×5-3(5-1)/5+1 = 198/6=33 years and. Solution The age of father = Sn+t(n-1)/n+1= 56×3+4(3-1)/3+1 [Here.in . Find the difference between the present ages of A and B. After four years. The sum of present ages of A and B is S years. n2= 2. 6. Illustration 4 The sum of the ages of A and B is 42 years 3 years back. S=42. 4. ∴ Difference between the present ages of A and B =33-9=24 years. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.coachingworld. x-ny=t(n-1) …. t years hence. n1 =4.Illustration 3 10 years ago Anu’s mother was 4 times older than her daughter. then Present age of A =Sn-t(n-1)/n-1 years. and Present age of B= S+t(n-1)/n+1 years. the age of A would be n times the age of B. 5. Explanation Let the present ages of A and be x and y years.(2) Solving(1) and (2).in . The age of son = Sn-t(n-1)/n+1 = 56-4(3-1)/3+1 = 48/4 = 12 years. y= S-t(n-1)/n+1 Illustration 5 The sum of the ages of a son and father is 56 years. replace S by D and in the age denominator (n+1) by (n-1) in the above formula. y= S+t(n-1)/n+1. then _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. present age of B 5+t(n+1)/n+1 = 42+3(5-1/5+1 =54/6=9years. Hyderabad. S=56. present age of B = S-t(n-1)/n+1 years. it will be c: d. the age of A was 5 times the age of B. After 10 years. then Present age of A=Sn+t(n-1)/n+1 years and. x-t =n(y-t) or x-ny = (1-n)t Solving (1) and (2). If. respectively Given: x+y=S …. Find the present age of Anu. t years ago of A was n times the age of B. Note: If. difference (D) of their ages is given.(1) and. Swetha Apartment.33 - www. we get x=Sn-t(n-1)/n+1. If.

the ratio of ages t years age is given. what is the difference between their present ages? Solution Present age Mahesh =--at(c-d)/ad-bc =-9×6(2-1)/1×9-5×2 [Here.in . _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.A’s present age = at(c-d)/ad-bc and. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.34 - www. d=1 and t =6] =54 years Present age of Suresh -bt(c-d)/ad-bc = -5×6(2-1)/1×9-5×2 =30 years. then replace t by(-t) in the above formula. ∴ Difference of their ages =54-30=24 years. After 5 years. Himayath Nagar. c=7. the ratio will become 7:2.in . b=5. Find the present age of the son. Note: If. d=2 and t=5] =1×5(7-2)/6×2-1×7 = 5years. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Hyderabad. If the ratio of their present ages is 9 : 5 respectively. a =6. Solution The present age of the son = bt(c-d)/ ad –bc [Here.coachingworld. Swetha Apartment. b=1. c=2. Illustration 7 6 years ago Mahesh was twice as old as Suresh. B’s present age= bt(c-d)/ ad-bc Illustration 6 The ratio of the age of father and son at present is 6 : 1. a=9. with the ratio of present ages.

1 = 4 and 2 = 3. The angles formed by the transversal with the parallel lines have the following properties. Himayath Nagar. So. 1 = 5. 3).in . Hyderabad. The sum of the angles made at a point is equal to 3600. Any line that cuts a pair of parallel lines is called a transversal. Some basic properties of angles. The sum of these angles is equal to 1800. The angle made by the two straight lines could be any of the following. Whe n two lines intersect as in the adjacent figure they form a pair of vertically opposite angle (1. (1+2+3+4+5) = 3600. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. 3 = 7. A pair of vertically opposite angles are equal. Any straight line makes an angle of 1800.PLANE GEOMETRY Lines And Angles Any two straight lines which meet at a point make an angle.e. In the figure 1 and 2 are called adjacent angles. So.coachingworld. 4) and (2. Parallel lines AB and CD are lines that are separated by a constant distance. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 2 = 6.in . (a) The correcponding angles are equal i. Swetha Apartment. and 4 = 8.35 - www. They are called supplementary angles to each other. They do not have any point of intersection.

040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. if no two of them are parallel and they are not concurrent. Such closed figures formed by three lines are called triangles.in . 3 = 6. the side opposite “∠ A” would be named “a”. (c) The interior angles add up to 1800. 4 + 6 = 1800 and 3 + 5 = 1800 Conversely. The perimeter of any triangle is the sum of the lengths of its sides. If the sum of two angles is 900. the side opposite a vertex is represented by the same nomenclature but in a different case. If they add up to 1800.  In a triangle. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.(b) The alternate angles are equal 4 = 5.in . Nomenclature Associated The corners of the triangle are called its vertices. If there are three lines. Swetha Apartment. the side which is opposite to (or facing) the largest angle is the longest side and the side which is facing the smallest angle is the shortest side.  The sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is always greater than the length of the third side. Himayath Nagar. Hyderabad. Definition and Basic Properties A triangle is a plane figure bounded by three straight lines. when a straight line cuts two other lines. For example. The side opposite “∠ B” and “∠ C” would be named as “b” and “c” respectively.36 - www. Perimeter = a + b + c Semi – perimeter (s) = (a + b + c)/2 Area = (base × height)/2 (OR) s ( s −a )( s −b )( s −c ) Types of Triangles _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. then we can conclude that the two lines are parallel. The angles associated with these vertices are called the interior angles. Each interior has an associated exterior angle which can be obtained by extending any one side of the angle.  The sum of the internal angles in a triangle is equal to 1800. then they are complementary to each other.coachingworld. i. Altitude or Height The perpendicular dropped to the side of a triangle from the vertex opposite that side. If more than two straight lines intersect at one and the same point they are called concurrent lines. The interior and the exterior angels are supplementary. then they form a closed figure. whenever the corresponding angles are equal or the alternate angles are equal or the interior angles are supplementary. Generally. then they are said to be supplementary to each other.e.

in . The multiples of triplets are also triplets. ∠ A=∠ B=∠ C=600. when one of its angles is a right angle. when all its sides (and angles) are equal. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 37) (16. 13) (7. Hyderabad. Perimeter = 2a + b 1 × b × 4a 2 − b 2 2 1 2 2 Height = × 4a − b 2 Area = Right Angled. AB=AC=BC ⇒ a=b=c. 17) (9. 24.coachingworld. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Himayath Nagar. 63.in . 10. 41) (11. Perimeter = 3a Area = Height = 3 2 a 4 3 a 4 Isosceles. Then. when its sides (and angles) are unequal Perimeter = a + b + c Area = s ( s −a )( s −b )( s −c ) Equilateral. 65) (20. when two of its sides (and two angles opposite the two equal sides) are equal. 5) (5.37 - www. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. 61) (12. 60. 8.Scalene. 29). Swetha Apartment. 12. 25) (8. 21. Example : 6. The frequently used triplets are (3. 35. a2+c2 = b2 A triplet is a set of numbers which will satisfy the Pythagoras theorem. 15. 40. ∠ B = 900 and ∠ A+∠ C = 900 Perimeter = a + b + c Area = 1 ac 2 Pythagoras Theorem The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse. from Pythagoras theorem. 4. AB = AC and ∠ B = ∠ C.

in . Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Quadrilaterals can be classified based on relationships within its sides. since the quadrilateral can be split into two triangles. Hyderabad. Basic Properties  The opposite sides are parallel and of equal length. AB=DC and AD = BC. ∠ A=∠ C and ∠ B=∠ D.in . AB = BC and ∠ A = ∠ C = 450 Perimeter = 2a + b Area = 1 2 1 2 a = b 2 4 Simple Trigonometric Ratios Consider a right triangle : With reference to angle A.e. A quadrilateral has four sides and four internal angles. when one of its angles is a right angle.  The sum of any two adjacent interior angles is equal to two right angles or 1800. Parallelogram A quadrilateral in which the opposite sides are parallel is called a parallelogram. and the sides containing the right angle are equal. Himayath Nagar. Swetha Apartment. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.  The OPPOSITE Angles are equal in magnitude. ∠ A+∠ B=+∠ B+∠ C=∠ C+∠ D=∠ D+∠ A=1800.coachingworld. the following trigonometric ratios are defined: Sine of the angle Cosine of the angle Tangent of the angle : sin (A) or sinA = (Opposite side/Hypotenuse) : cos(A) or cosA = (Adjacent side/Hypotenuse) : tan(A) or tanA = (Opposite side/Adjacent side) A quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides.38 - www. ∠ A + ∠ B + ∠ C + ∠ D = 3600. i. The sum of the internal angles. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.Right Angled Isosceles.

∆ AEB.coachingworld.in . If D is one of the diagonals. ⇒ ( side ) 2 =  AC   BD   +   2   2  2 2 Rectangle _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. ∆ CED. ∠ A=∠ C and ∠ B=∠ D. but they bisect each other. Rhombus A rhombus is a special case of a parallelogram where all the sides are of equal length.39 - www. ∆ BEC. ⇒ Areas of the four right triangles. This line cuts the other diagonal in the ratio of 1:3. Swetha Apartment. and from two pairs of congruent triangles. Basic Properties ⇒ The opposite sides are parallel and all sides are of equal length. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. and if a. Thus BE=DE=BD/2 and AE=CE=AC/2 and ∠ AEB=∠ BEC=∠ CED=∠ DEA=900.  Perimeter = (Twice the sum of non parallel sides) = 2(AB + BC)  Area = (base × height) = (b × h) where the height h is the perpendicular distance between the base and the side parallel to it. ⇒ The sum of any two adjacent interior angles is equal to two right angles or 1800. AB = BC = CD = DA. ⇒ Perimeter = (4× side) = 4AB = 4BC = 4CD = 4AD ⇒ The area of a rhombus = half the product of its diagonals = ½ m× AC × BD.in . then Area = 2 × s ( s − a )( s − b)( s − D ) . The diagonals of a parallelogram are not equal in magnitude. Hyderabad. ⇒ The opposite angles are equal. ∠ A+∠ B=∠ B+∠ C=∠ C+∠ D=∠ D+∠ A=1800. where s = [ ] a +b + c 2  BD2+AC2 = 2(BC2 + CD2)  The line joining the midpoints of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram is parallel and half the length of the corresponding diagonal of the parallelogram. b are two adjacent sides of parallelogram. ∆ DEA are equal and each equals 1/4th the area of the Rhombus. ⇒ The diagonals bisect each other at right angles and form four right angled triangles. Himayath Nagar.  The line joining the midpoint of a side of a parallelogram with one of the opposite vertices cuts one of the diagonals in the ratio of 1:2. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.

⇒ Of all quadrilaterals with a given perimeter. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Hyderabad.in .41 - www. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.⇒ Diagonal of the square. the square is the one which has the greatest area. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. from Pythagoras theorem = ( 2 )a Thus area of square = (Diagonal)2/2 ⇒ Of all quadrilateral with a given area. the square is the one which has the least perimeter.in . Swetha Apartment.coachingworld. Himayath Nagar.

Secant Any line which passes through the circle is called a secant. Hyderabad. Thus D = 2R. Circumference All the points which lie on the circle constitute the circumference.coachingworld. A circle is completely defined by its radius and its position can be fixed if its centre’s position is given. Swetha Apartment. The angle in a circle is 3600.in . Basic Constructs The distance from the centre of the circle to any point on it is known as the radius (R).Trapezium A trapezium is a quadrilateral where only one pair of opposite sides are parallel. The radius of the circle and the tangent to the circle are perpendicular at the point of contact.42 - www.in . All parallelograms are thus trapeziums (converse is not true). Twice the radius is known as the diameter (D). A chord which passes through the centre of the circle is the diameter. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. The given point is known as the center of that circle. Area = 1 ( AD + BC )h 2 Circles A circle is a set of points which are equidistant from a given point. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter is a constant for any circle and is given by Π D=2Π R. Tangent A line which touches the circle at one point is called a tangent to that circle. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Himayath Nagar. The point common to the tangent and the circumference of the circle is called the point of contact. The Area of a trapezium = half the sum of the lengths of the parallel sides multiplied by the perpendicular distance between them. Chord Any line segment whose ends lie on the circumference of the circ le is called a chord of that circle. A secant cuts the circumference of the circle at two points.

i. C.  Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. Chords in a circle  A straight line drawn from the centre of a circle to bisect a chord. the chords associated with the arcs are equal. if two chords are equal. Conversely. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.44 - www. Chords and Central angles B: Angles in a circle C: Chords in a circle D: Tangents to a circle E: Pair of circles F: Cyclic quadrilaterals A.  In equal circles (or in the same circle).in .  Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.e. the pathway is inside the circle. Area of circular pathway = π × W(2r – W) Properties of Circles The properties of circles can be categorized in the following classes: A: Arcs. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.e. then the arcs which they cut off are equal.  The angle in a semicircle is a right angle. which is not a diameter. Conversely. if OP⊥AB then AP = PB. The chords that are equidistant from the centre are equal. if OP bisects AB then OP ⊥ AB. if two arcs are equal. B.in . the perpendicular to chord from the centre bisects the chord. then they are equal. Angle in a circle  The angle which an arc of a circle subtends at the centre is double that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of the circumference.coachingworld.Area of circular pathway = π × W(2r + W) When. Swetha Apartment. Himayath Nagar. Chords And Central Angles  In equal circles (or in the same circle). if two arcs subtend equal angles at the centres or at the circumferences of the circles. Hyderabad.  In equal circles (or in the same circle). i. ARCS. is at right angles to the chord.

then PT2 = PA × PB E. i. the point of contact of he two circles lies on the straight line through the centres of the circles. Pair of Circles  If two circles touch each other. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. D.  If PT is a tangent (with P being an external point and T being the point of contact) and PAB is a secant to circle (with A and B as the points where the secant cuts the circle).coachingworld.  If two tangents are drawn to a circle from an outside point. the direct tangents are AB and CD while EF and GH are the transverse tangents. In the figure given alongside. If two chords of a circle. i. ∠ PTA = ∠ TBA.  The angle which a chord makes with a tangent at its point of contact is equal to any angle in the alternate segment.e. Swetha Apartment. Himayath Nagar. C.  When two circles of radii R1 and R2 have their centres at a distance of d. there are two types of tangents – the direct tangents and the cross (or transverse) tangents. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. then AO × OB = CO × OD. Tangents to a circle  The tangent at any pint of a circle and the radius through that point of contact are perpendicular to each other. the points A. i. B are collinear.in . 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. OT is perpendicular to PT. PA = PB. AB & CD.e. intersect internally at O.45 - www.  In a given pair of circles. the length of the tangents from the external point to their respective points of contact are equal.e.in . Hyderabad.

Hyderabad. It has an overall convex shape.  Of all surfaces with a given perimeter.  The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. Swetha Apartment. no curved surfaces and has no perforations. Solids with flat surfaces are described as polyhedrons while surfaces of revolution would form the important part of solids with curved surfaces. solids with flat surfaces and solids with curved surface.The length of direct common tangent = The length of the transverse tangent is d 2 − r 2 .in . The area of the largest circle that can be inscribed in a square of side ‘a’ is  π  2 a 4  If a square/rectangle is inscribed in a circle. the circle is the one which has the least perimeter. Area of a square inscribed in a circle of radius r is 2 r2. Solids Solids can be classified into two main divisions viz. d is ( s −a )( s −b)( s −c )( s −d ) . The area of a circle 3 inscribed in an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’ is   π  2 a .  If a circle is inscribed in a rectangle. Cuboid A rectangular solid having six faces – all of which are rectangles.coachingworld. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. the diameter of the circle is equal to the side of the square. Cyclic Quadrilateral A quadrilateral whose vertices lie on the circumference of a circle β called cyclic quadrilateral. Polyhedrons A polyhedron is a closed solid object formed using planar surfaces. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.in . 12  Two circles are said to be concentric if their centres coincide. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. b. the circle is the one which has the greatest area. where r = R1 – R2 d 2 − ( R1 + R2 ) 2 Note that if the two circles touch d = R1 + R2 F.46 - www.  The area of a cyclic quadrilateral with sides a. π  2  The area of a circle circumscribing an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’ is  a . Himayath Nagar.  If a circle is inscribed in a square. the diameter of the circle is equal to the smaller side of the rectangle. c. In the given figure ∠ ADC + ∠ ABC = α + β = 1800. then the diagonal of the square/rectangle is equal to the diameter of the circle. where s = a +b +c + d 2 Geometrical relationships  Of all surface with a given area.

in . such that L = B = H. then the internal dimensions will be [L-2T]. Volume of material used = (External Volume – internal Volume). in the case of closed box. if it is an open box. B and H are the external dimensions. B and H. Volume = (cross section area × height) = L × B × H cubic units.in . Cube Metrics Let the length of the edge of the cube be A. It is not completely solid. then the internal dimensions are [L-2T]. Total surface area = 2(LB+BH+HL) sq. Thus Volume of material used = LBH – [(L-2T)(B-2T)(H-2T)] cubic units. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. and height H. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Volume of material used = External Volume – internal Volume = A3-{A-2T}3.coachingworld. Length of the diagonals of a cuboid = L2 + B 2 + H 2 units Hollow cuboid Consider for example a carton used for packing. Total surface area of a cube = (sum of areas of all six faces) = 6A2 sq. L. [B-2T] and [H-2T]. breadth B. Every cube is a cuboid also. Area of four walls (excluding top and bottom faces) = 2[(L+B)H]. units Length of a diagonals of a cube = A√3 units. Hyderabad. Himayath Nagar. Area of four walls of a cube (excluding the top and bottom faces) = 4A2. which is the thickness T. If L.47 - www.Cuboid metrics Let the cuboid have dimensions of length L. Hollow cube If the thickness is T. there will another dimension. [B-2T] and [H-T]. Swetha Apartment. However. units. Besides. Volume = [(area of cross section) × (height)] = A3 cubic units. Cube A rectangular 6-faced solid whose every face is a square. that is the top face is missing.

040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.coachingworld. the axis is perfectly vertical (i. A regular pyramid has a regular polygonal base.in . Cylinder metrics Let the base radius be R and the height be H. Pyramid A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base and planar angular surfaces on the side leading to an apex point or a vertex at the top.= A3 – [{A-2T}2 {A-T}]. Cylinder A solid formed when a rectangle is revolved about one of its sides is called the right circular cylinder. in the case of an open box. In case the axis is not perpendicular.in . Swetha Apartment. it is perpendicular to the base). Himayath Nagar. A right regular pyramid is a regular pyramid in which all the side surfaces (all surfaces except the base) are equal. In a right regular pyramid. Lateral surface are = P × H. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. where the height is the length of the axis. Surface area = Area of the base + (N × area of each side) Prism Prism contains similar top and bottom face and the side faces are rectangular shape. a tilted pyramid is formed. Pyramid metrics (Right regular pyramid with base polygon of N sides) Volume = 1/3 × Area of the base × height . total surface area = (P × H) + 2 × B. Symmetrical curved solids of revolution are obtained when the surface being revolved is symmetrical (say a regular polygon) and the axis of revolution is also properly chosen.48 - www. Solids with curved surfaces These are generally obtained by revolving a planar surface about some axis. The axis of a pyramid is an imaginary line joining the midpoint of the base polygon to the top vertex of the pyramid. Let P is the perimeter of base. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. H is the height of the prism and B is the base area of the prism then volume = B × H. Hyderabad.e.

Hyderabad. Curved Surface Area = π [r + R]L sq. Curved surface Area of the cylinder (excludes the areas of the top and bottom circular regions) = area of rectangle whose sides are 2Π R and H or CSA=2π RH sq. units. Let the radius of the top = r and the radius of the base – R and height = h. Himayath Nagar. units Frustrum Slant Height L = R 2 + H 2 units total Surface Area = π R(R + L) sq. Volume of material in a hollow cylinder = External Volume – Internal Volume or V = π (R2 – r2)H cubic units. Total surface area = π [(r + R)L + r2 + R2]sq.in . units If a cone is cut by a plane parallel to the base.in . If it is a hollow cylinder of thickness T. h 3 [ ] Sphere A solid formed when a circle is revolved about its diameter.Volume of the cylinder = area of cross-section × height or V = π R2H cubic units. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. units. Vertical Height = H. Cone Metrics Let the Base Radius = R.49 - www. Volume = 1/3 (π R2H cubic units) Curved Surface Area = π RL sq. and Slant Height = L. Total surface Area = Curved Surface Area + Areas of the top and bottom circular regions or TSA = 2π RH + 2π R2=2π R[R+H] sq. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Sphere Metrics _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. then the lower part is called the frustrum of the cone. 2 2 Volume = π   r + R + rR cubic units. units. Swetha Apartment. then internal base radius = r = R – T. Slant Height L = 2 h 2 +[ R − r ] .coachingworld. units. Cone A solid formed by rotating a right angled triangle about one of the sides containing the right angle.

Hyderabad.in . Hemisphere Volume = 2 πR 3 cubic units 3 Surface Area = 3π R2 sq. units If R and r are the external and internal radii of a spherical shell. then its Volume = 4 3 R − r 3 cubic units. the sphere is the one which has the lest surface area.  Of all solids with a given surface area. Swetha Apartment.50 - www. the sphere is the one which has the greatest volume.in . 3 [ ] Geometrical Relationships  Of all solids with a given volume. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.coachingworld. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Volume = 4/3 (π R3 cubic units) Surface Area = 4π R2 sq. Himayath Nagar. units _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.Let the Radius of the Sphere = R.

there will another dimension. such that L = B = H. Volume = (cross section area × height) = L × B × H cubic units. Polyhedrons A polyhedron is a closed solid object formed using planar surfaces.in . L. Swetha Apartment.51 - www. It has an overall convex shape. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Thus Volume of material used = LBH – [(L-2T)(B-2T)(H-2T)] cubic units. Hyderabad. then the internal dimensions are [L-2T]. Besides. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. and height H.in . Volume of material used = (External Volume – internal Volume). Area of four walls (excluding top and bottom faces) = 2[(L+B)H]. B and H. Solids with flat surfaces are described as polyhedrons while surfaces of revolution would form the important part of solids with curved surfaces. Cuboid metrics Let the cuboid have dimensions of length L. which is the thickness T. It is not completely solid. Himayath Nagar. [B-2T] and [H-T]. then the internal dimensions will be [L-2T]. Cuboid A rectangular solid having six faces – all of which are rectangles. Total surface area = 2(LB+BH+HL) sq. if it is an open box. solids with flat surfaces and solids with curved surface. [B-2T] and [H-2T]. Cube A rectangular 6-faced solid whose every face is a square. Length of the diagonals of a cuboid = L2 + B 2 + H 2 units Hollow cuboid Consider for example a carton used for packing. If L. that is the top face is missing. no curved surfaces and has no perforations. B and H are the external dimensions.MENSURATION Solids Solids can be classified into two main divisions viz. Every cube is a cuboid also. units.coachingworld. breadth B. However. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.

Pyramid metrics (Right regular pyramid with base polygon of N sides) Volume = 1/3 × Area of the base × height . In case the axis is not perpendicular. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Hyderabad.e.in . Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.52 - www. Volume of material used = External Volume – internal Volume = A3-{A-2T}3. it is perpendicular to the base). Area of four walls of a cube (excluding the top and bottom faces) = 4A2. total surface area = (P × H) + 2 × B. Symmetrical curved solids of revolution are obtained when the surface being revolved is symmetrical (say a regular polygon) and the axis of revolution is also properly chosen. A right regular pyramid is a regular pyramid in which all the side surfaces (all surfaces except the base) are equal.Cube Metrics Let the length of the edge of the cube be A. Pyramid A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base and planar angular surfaces on the side leading to an apex point or a vertex at the top. Total surface area of a cube = (sum of areas of all six faces) = 6A2 sq. Let P is the perimeter of base. A regular pyramid has a regular polygonal base. The axis of a pyramid is an imaginary line joining the midpoint of the base polygon to the top vertex of the pyramid. Lateral surface are = P × H. in the case of an open box. Hollow cube If the thickness is T. Surface area = Area of the base + (N × area of each side) Prism Prism contains similar top and bottom face and the side faces are rectangular shape.in . the axis is perfectly vertical (i. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. where the height is the length of the axis. = A3 – [{A-2T}2 {A-T}]. Volume = [(area of cross section) × (height)] = A3 cubic units. Himayath Nagar.coachingworld. Swetha Apartment. H is the height of the prism and B is the base area of the prism then volume = B × H. units Length of a diagonals of a cube = A√3 units. Cylinder A solid formed when a rectangle is revolved about one of its sides is called the right circular cylinder. in the case of closed box. Solids with curved surfaces These are generally obtained by revolving a planar surface about some axis. a tilted pyramid is formed. In a right regular pyramid.

in . Total surface Area = Curved Surface Area + Areas of the top and bottom circular regions or TSA = 2π RH + 2π R2=2π R[R+H] sq. units. then internal base radius = r = R – T. Slant Height L = 2 h 2 +[ R − r ] . Vertical Height = H. 2 2 Volume = π   r + R + rR cubic units. Cone A solid formed by rotating a right angled triangle about one of the sides containing the right angle. units. units If a cone is cut by a plane parallel to the base.Cylinder metrics Let the base radius be R and the height be H.coachingworld. Let the radius of the top = r and the radius of the base – R and height = h. and Slant Height = L. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. units. Swetha Apartment. Curved Surface Area = π [r + R]L sq.53 - www. Himayath Nagar. Total surface area = π [(r + R)L + r2 + R2]sq. Volume of the cylinder = area of cross-section × height or V = π R2H cubic units. Hyderabad. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.in . h 3 [ ] _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. units. Curved surface Area of the cylinder (excludes the areas of the top and bottom circular regions) = area of rectangle whose sides are 2Π R and H or CSA=2π RH sq. Cone Metrics Let the Base Radius = R. If it is a hollow cylinder of thickness T. Volume of material in a hollow cylinder = External Volume – Internal Volume or V = π (R2 – r2)H cubic units. then the lower part is called the frustrum of the cone. units Frustrum Slant Height L = R 2 + H 2 units total Surface Area = π R(R + L) sq. Volume = 1/3 (π R2H cubic units) Curved Surface Area = π RL sq.

coachingworld. Himayath Nagar. units _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.  Of all solids with a given surface area. Hemisphere Volume = 2 πR 3 cubic units 3 Surface Area = 3π R2 sq.in . the sphere is the one which has the lest surface area. Sphere Metrics Let the Radius of the Sphere = R. the sphere is the one which has the greatest volume. Hyderabad. Volume = 4/3 (π R3 cubic units) Surface Area = 4π R2 sq. 3 [ ] Geometrical Relationships  Of all solids with a given volume. units If R and r are the external and internal radii of a spherical shell.54 - www. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Swetha Apartment.in . then its Volume = 4 3 R − r 3 cubic units.Sphere A solid formed when a circle is revolved about its diameter.

If there are not elements in a set. 3} Since the elements in both A and B are equal. 4} B = {2. then it is called a null set. b. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. (Roster form) All the elements are written in a curly bracket. Ex: A = {1. 4. 4.in . Example: A = {p. 7}. 3. 1. r} [p. B = {p. A set which contains all the subsets of A as elements. is called the power set of A. Y. The sets will be denoted by capital letters A. 2. If all the elements in set A are in set B then we say A is a subset of B. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. r} φ ] Finite set and Infinite set: If the number of elements in a set are finite. (A ⊂ B). 6. 5. A set which is not finite is called an infinite set. x. Equivalent sets: Two sets are to be equivalent if the number of elements in two sets are same. Swetha Apartment. {r}. These are called elements of the set. The elements of the set are denoted by small letters a. A set can be represented in two ways. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. (i) Roster form (ii) Set builder form. x < 8} (Set builder form) We represent the elements of the set as ‘x’ and after it we put” / “(such that) and then give the rule which every element of the set should satisfy. So A and B are equivalent sets.SET THEORY Sets: A set is a well defined collection of objects. then it is called a finite set. {q}. q. r} Number of elements in both the sets are same. 2. they are called equal sets. B is super set of A. 3}. 3. B. r} P[A] = [{p}. Example: Let S = {1. q.in . Ex: A = {1. y. Himayath Nagar. Hyderabad. r}. q. {q. q}. …. It is denoted by { } or φ . Union of sets: The set containing the elements of A or B or both is called as union of sets..coachingworld. A ∪B = {x / x ∈ A or x ∈ B} Representing A ∪ B by Venn diagrams. Equal sets: Two sets are said to be equal if they contain same elements. S = {x / x ∈ N . It is denoted by P [A]. {p. Number of elements in the Number of Number of proper subsets set subsets 2 22 22-2 3 3 2 23-2 4 4 2 24-2 n N 2 2n-2 Power set: Let A be any given set. ……… X. 2. {p.55 - www.

Intersection of sets: The set containing the common elements of set A and set B is called intersection of A and B. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.in . A ∩B = {x / x ∈ A and x ∈ B} Representing A∩B by Venn diagrams: The difference of two sets A – B: The set consisting of all the elements. Hyderabad. Complementary set: The set of elements which belong to µ and does not belong to A is called complementary of | | set A . In proving equality of two sets we use this basic theorem. is called the difference of A and B. then X=Y.coachingworld. when A is a subset of some universal st. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Basic theorem: If X⊂Y and Y⊂X. (A’)’ = A. This is called Antisymmetric property.56 - www. Himayath Nagar. It is denoted by A-B. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Swetha Apartment. It is denoted by A or Ac.in . which belong to A and do not belong to B. A-B = {x / x ∈ A and x ∉ B} Similarly B-A = {x / x ∈ B and x ∉ A} A-B ≠ B-A Symmetric difference of two sets: The symmetric difference of two sets is represented by A ∆ B. A ∆ B = (A-B) ∪(B-A) = (A∪B)-(A∩B) Universal set: The union of sets which are to be observed is called universal set and it is denoted by µ .

in . and µ and φ . µ a universal set and p. B ⊂ C.57 - www. A∩Bφ ⇒A ⊂ B′ and B ⊂ A′ . If A ⊂ B then A ∪ (B – A) = B. φ the empty set. A – (A – B) = A ∩ B. If A and B are any two non-empty sets. ‘≡ ’ represents logical equivalence of statements: ‘t’ to take only the value of ‘T’ and ‘f’ to take the only truth value of ‘F’. then A ⊂ C (Transitive property). Hyderabad. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. ∅′ =µ (A∪B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ (A∩B)′ = A′∪ B′ p v f ≡ p. then A′ is superset of B′ ] A′ . If A and B are disjoint sets. p ^ t ≡ p p v (~p) ≡ t.A′ . q.B′ = B . [If A is a subset of B. Algebra of S. A∩∅=∅ A ∪A′ = µ . A∩A=A p v p ≡ p. If A ⊂ B then A′ ⊃ B′ . Swetha Apartment. A∪ µ =µ A∩ µ =A. C stand for sets. A∩A′ = ∅ (A′ )′ = A. 6. ~(p ^ q) ≡ (~p) v (~q) In any law of equality of sets. B. Law Sets Statements 1. p ^ p ^ p 2. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. p v t ≡ t p ^ f ≡ f.coachingworld. then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B). This principle is known as Principle of duality. the resulting law would also be true. Associative Laws (A∪B)∪C = A ∪(B∪C) (p v q) v r ≡ p v (q v r) (A∩B)∩C = A ∩(B∩C) (p ^ q) ^ r ≡ p ^ (q ^ r) 3. A ∪ B = A ∩ B ⇔ A = B.B′ = B – A A∪B=φ ⇒ A = φ and B = φ If A ⊂ B .In the following table A. Commutative Laws A∪B=B∪A pvq≡ qvp A∩B=B∩A p^q≡ q^p 4. A and B are two subsets of a universal set µ . r stand for statements.No. µ ′ = ∅. then a and B are called disjoint sets. 7. Identity Laws Complement Laws De Morgan’s Laws A∪∅=A. Idempotent Laws A∪B = A.in . N (A∪ B ∪ C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(B ∩ C) – n(C∩ A) + n(A ∩ B ∩ C) _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. ~t = f. Distributive Laws A∪(B∩C) = p v (q ^ r) ≡ (p v q) ^ (p v r) (A∪B)∩(A∪C) p ^ (q v r) ≡ (p ^ q) v (p ^ A∩(B∪C) = r) (A∩B)∪(A∩C) 5. Example: A∪ φ = A ⇒A∩ µ = A If A ∩ B = φ . ~ f ≡ t ~(p v q) ≡ (~p) ^ (~q). if we interchange ∪ and ∩. p ^ (~P) ≡ f ~ (~p) ≡ p. Then A ∩ B = A . then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B). Himayath Nagar.

in . If l ∩ m = φ .coachingworld.l and m are two coplanar lines. Hyderabad.58 - www. then the lines l and m are parallel to each other. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.in . Himayath Nagar. Swetha Apartment.

59 - www. p2 of them are alike and of the second kind.coachingworld. (ix) 2n+1C0 + 2n+1C1 +…. Principle of Counting: If some procedure can be performed in n1 different ways and if. is n-kCr-k. (v) nCr = {n-r+1)/r} nCr-1 r = n/r. n2.. a second procedure can be performed in n2 different ways. and if. is n+kCr. (viii) nC0 + nC2 + …. 2. then the number of ways the procedures can be performed in the order indicated is the product n1. n3 …………….in . (xii) The total number of selections of one or more objects from n different objects = 2n – 1 = (nC1 + nC2 + nC3 +…. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. r) = r 5. following procedure. following this second procedure.pr! 4. (when selection of 0 things is allowed) (when at least one thing is to be selected) n even n!/(n-r)! r!. = nC1+nC3 +……=2n-1.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 1. when k(1 ≤ k ≤ n) never occur. a third procedure can be performed in n3 different ways.+nCn). Himayath Nagar. n odd (vii) nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + ….+nCr = n+1Cr+1 6.in .…. (xi) The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time.+2n+1Cn =22n. Hyderabad. Some Result to Remember (i) nC0 = 1 = nCn (ii) nCr = nCn-r (0 ≤ r ≤ n) (iii) nCr-1 + nCr = n+1Cr (1 ≤ r ≤ n) (iv) nCr = nCs implies r = s or r + s = n. when p1 of the objects are alike of one kind.. The total number of selections from p like things. r (xiii) Cr + r+1Cr +…...+nCn = 2n. where nPr = 0 . and so for. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. (vi) nCr is greatest = r = n± 1/2. n ≥ r 0 .. when k(0 ≤ k ≤ r) particular objects always occur. where p1 + p2 + …. pr of them are alike and of the rth kind. n<r 7.. The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r (0 ≤ r ≤ n) at a time is given by n = C(n. Swetha Apartment. (x) The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r(≤ n) at a time. ⇒ n . The total number of selection of any number of things from n identical things n+1 . The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r (0≤ r≤ n) at a time is given by n!/(n-r)! . The number of permutations of n objects taken all together. q like things of another type and r distinct things = (p + 1) (q + 1) 2r – 1 (if at least one thing is to be selected) (p + 1) (q + 1) 2r – 2 (if none or all cannot be selected) _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. n≥ r n<r 3. pr = n is given by n!/p1! P2!.

where p + q = n ⇒ nCp × n-pCq = n!/p!(n – p)! × (n . Himayath Nagar. The number of ways to divide n different things into three bundles of p. The total number of ways to divide n identical things among r persons = n+r-1Cr-1. 9.in . The number of ways to distribute n different things between two persons. 12. 16. 1/n! 13.p!/q!(n – p – q)! = n!/p!q! {∴ n = p + q} Similarly for 3 persons. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Hyderabad. The number of ways in which n different objects can be distributed into r different boxes. The number of ways in n different objects can be distributed into r different boxes are not allowed.60 - www. 10. 14. n-4C1 (viii) Number of parallelogram in two system of parallel lines (when I set contains m parallel lines and II set contains n parallel lines) = nC2 × mC2 (ix) Number of squares m-1 = Σ (m – r) (n – r) . blank boxes being admissible is rn. then Number of straight lines = nC2 – mC2 + 1 (iv) To find number of diagonals Number of diagonals = n(n – 3)/2 (v) Number of triangle formed from n points (when no three points are collinear) (vi) Number of triangles out of n points in which m are collinear = nC3 – mC3 (vii) Number of triangles that can be formed out of n points (when none of the side is common to the sides of polygon) = nC3 – nC1 – nC1. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. where p + q + r = n.coachingworld.in . is coefficient ∝ of ∝n in n! (e -1)r. Swetha Apartment. q and r things = n!/p! q! r! . the number of ways = n!/p! q! r!. (m < n) r=1 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. one receiving p things and the other q things. Types of Permutations based upon Geometrical Applications: (i) Out of n non-concurrent and non-parallel straight lines points of intersection are = nC2 (ii) Out of ‘n’ points the number of straight lines are (when no three are collinear) = nC2 (iii) If out of n points m are collinear. number of circular arrangements of n different things = ½(n – 1)! 18. When clockwise and anticlockwise arrangements are not different. The number of ways to distribute m × n different things among n persons equally = (nm)!/(m!)n. The number of ways to divide m × n different things into n equal bundles = (mn)!/(m!)n . The total number of selections of r tings from n different things when each thing can be repeated unlimited number of times = n+r-1Cr. The number of circular arrangements of n different things (n – 1)! 17. 1/3!. 15. 11.8.

in . 3. Example: When a die is thrown.T)} Then A = {(H. It is usually denoted by S. the tossing of the coin is S = {H. 6} b) When a coin is tossed either a head or tail will come up.H). 6} where 1.61 - www. Mixed Event or Compound Event or Composite Event _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 5.T)} is the occurrence of head on 1st and tail on 2nd is called a Simple event. any one of the numbers 1. b) When two coins are tossed. Example: a) When a die is thrown. Sample space S = {1. (T. 3. Example: a) Tossing of a fair coin b) Throwing of an unbiased die c) Drawing of a card from a well shuffled pack of 52 playing cards Sample Space The set of all possible outcomes of a random experiments is called the sample space for that experiment. then the sample space is S = {H. then the sample space is S = {(H. Swetha Apartment.coachingworld. if an experiment is performed many times under similar conditions and the outcome of each time is not the same. Random Experiment An experiment whose outcome cannot be predicted with certainty is called a random experiment. 5. 4. Himayath Nagar.in . Discrete Sample Space A sample space S is called a discrete sample if S is a finite set. 3.  S is also a subset of S which is called a sure event or a certain event. Therefore.PROBABILITY Experiment An operation which results in some well-defined outcomes is called an experiment. Example: a) When a coin is tossed. In other words.  φ is also the subset of S and is an impossible Event. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. 3.H). B. T} Then A = {H} occurrence of head and B = {T} occurrence of tail are called Simple events. Types of Events A. then this experiment is called a random experiment. 2. 2. 2. 4. (H. 4. then the sample space w. Simple Event/Elementary Event An event is called a simple Event if it is a singleton subset of the sample space S. 5 and 6 are the sample points. 4.t. 5. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Event A subset of the sample space is called an event. the sample space is S = {1. (T. Hyderabad. T} c) When two coins are tossed. 2.T).r. 6 can come up. then the sample space is Sample point / event point Each element of the sample spaces is called a sample point or an event point. Problem of Events  Sample space S plays the same role as universal set for all problems related to the particular experiment.

Swetha Apartment.in . Himayath Nagar. their joint occurrence is called a Compound Event. Hyderabad.A subset of the sample space S which contains more than one element is called a mixed event or when two or more events occur together. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.in .coachingworld.62 - www.

6 form an exhaustive set of events. Thus if two or more events are said to be mutually exclusive. A2. 4. 3. then the sample space is S = {1. Let A is the event of occurrence of a red ball in first draw. B is the event of occurrence of a black ball in second draw. Important We can say that the total number of elementary events of a random experiment is called the exhaustive number of cases. events B and C are Mutually Exclusive but the event A and B or A and C are not Mutually Exclusive. A3. Thus. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Independent Events or Mutually Independent events Two or more event are said to be independent if occurrence or non-occurrence of any of them does not affect the probability of occurrence of or non-occurrence of their events. Two balls are drawn one by one with replacement. Example: Let a bag contains 3 Red and 2 Black balls. Hence. others cannot occur. Example: Let bag contains 3 Red and 2 Black balls. 6} B is an event of occurrence of an odd number {1. 3. 3. 4 6} is the event of occurrence of even and B = {1. 2. 5. the sample space is S = {1. Example: When a die is thrown events 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. 4} is the event of occurrence of exponent of 2 are Mixed events Compound events are of two type: a) Independent Events. Hyderabad. 2. Equally likely events Outcomes are said to be equally likely when we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other Example: When an unbiased die is thrown all the six faces 1. F.63 - www. 2. 4.…. if occurrence or non-occurrence of any one of them affects the probability of occurrence or non-occurrence of others.e. if not two of them can occur together. 5. 4.coachingworld. 6} Here. 5} C is an event of occurrence of an even number {2. and b) Dependent Events C. G. 5. 2. two or more events are said to be independent if occurrence or non-occurrence of any of them does not influence the occurrence or non-occurrence of the other events. Mutually Exclusive Events Two or more events are said to be mutually exclusive if one of them occurs. 5. An are mutually exclusive if and only if Ai∩Aj = φ ∀ i ≠ j Example: a) When a coin is tossed the event of occurrence of a head and the event of occurrence of a tail are mutually exclusive events because we cannot have both head and tail at the same time.in . b) When a die is thrown. 3. Two balls are drawn one by one without replacement. E. Himayath Nagar. Exhaustive Events A set of events is said to be exhaustive if one of them must necessarily happen every time the experiments is performed. As the ball has been replaced in the bag and once again we have to select one ball out of 5(3R + 2B) given balls for event B. 4. Swetha Apartment.in .. D. 2. then probability of occurrence of B has not been affected if A occurs before B. 3. Dependent Events Two or more events are said to be dependent. 4. 6} Let A is an event of occurrence of number greater than 4 i. 6 are equally likely to come up. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. A1. {5. 6} Then let A = {2. Let A is the event of occurrence of a red ball in first draw B is the event of occurrence of a black ball in second draw.Example: When a dice is thrown.

040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Now.e. the probability of occurrence of event B will be affected. Swetha Apartment. we will have to draw 1 black ball from the remaining 4(2R + 2B) balls which gets affected due to the occurrence of event A. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Because after the occurrence of event A i.in . Hyderabad.In this case.in . drawing red ball out of 5(3R + 2B). for the event B. the ball is not replaced in bag.64 - www.coachingworld. Himayath Nagar. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.

Himayath Nagar. c}. then the probability of occurrence of an event E is denoted by p(E) and is defined as P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = number of elements in E/number of elements in S P(E) = number of favourable/particular cases total number of cases Example: a) When a coin is tossed. 5} and B = {5. 6} Let A is an event of occurrence of an odd number And B is an event of occurrence of a number greater than 4 ⇒ A = {1. Hyderabad. let E be an event Let E = {a. Also. b. Complementary Events Let S be the sample space for a random experiment and let E be the event. 2. Complement of event E is denoted by E’ or E. T} Let E is the event of occurrence of a head ⇒ E = {H} b) When a die is tossed. ∴ n(E) + n(E’) = n(S) Occurrence of an Event For a random experiment. 3.H. If the outcome of the experiment is either a or b or c then we say the event has occurred. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Swetha Apartment. 4. sample space S = {1.in . where E’ means non occurrence of event E. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. 5.in . then the sample space is S = {H.coachingworld. Thus E’ occurs if and only if E does not occur. Sample Space : The outcomes of any type Event : The outcomes of particular type Probability of Occurrence of an event Let S be the same space. 6} ∴ P(A) = Probability of occurrence of an odd number = n(A)/n(S) = 3/6 = ½ and P(B) = Probability of occurrence of a number greater than 4 = n(B)/n(S) = 2/6 = 1/3 _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.65 - www. 3.

.P. then the resulting sequence is also an A. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. is a sequence. B are constants. c are in A. if its nth term a linear expression in n and in such a case the common difference is equal to the coefficient of n. (iv) If each term of given A.P.e. a2.P. a linear expression in n. Selection of Terms in an A. a + d and the common differences is 2d. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.P. (ii) Selecting four terms of A. the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end is always same and is equal to the sum of first and last term i. a – d. a3.P.PROGRESSIONS 1. a4.. then they form an A.P. iff its nth term is of the form An + B i.in . (vii) If the terms of an A. an+1 – an = constant (=d) for all n ∈ N The constant difference. (v) In a finite A. an+1 and an+2 are three consecutive terms of an A.…. Swetha Apartment. with common difference kd or d/k. iff b = a + c. (iii) Selecting 3 terms of A. (i) Selecting two terms of A. Sequence Sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers.P.. i. an.P. Real Sequence: A sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence. are chosen at regular intervals. the coefficient of n. Let <an> be a sequence such that its nth term is a linear expression in n i.P. Series: If a1. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.P. then the expression a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + …. 3. Solution. a + d. then 2an+1 = an+an+2 4.. i.e.P.P.P. a + 3d and so on…. a + d.in .: a – 2d.e. Himayath Nagar. i.66 - www. the middle term is a and the common difference is d while in case of an even number of terms the middle terms are a – d.+ an + ….P. a – d. with the same common difference.e.: a – 3d. generally denoted by d is called the common difference. then its nth term an is given by an = a + (n + 1) d (ii) A sequence is an A. For example.e.P. (vi) Three numbers a.) A sequence is called an arithmetic progression if the difference of a term and the previous term is always same. Arithmetic Progression (A.coachingworld. a + d.e.P. are a – d. an = An + B where A. is multiplied or divided by a non-zero constant k.P. 2.e.……. Properties of an Arithmetic Progression (i) If a is the first term and d the common difference of an A. Show that the sequence <an> is an A. where d is the common difference of the given A. coefficient of n.P. b. the common difference in such a case is A i. (iii) If a constant is added to or subtracted from each term of an A.P.. a + d (iv) Selecting 5 terms of A. A series is finite or infinite according as the number of terms in the corresponding sequence is finite or infinite. Progressions: It is not necessary that the terms of a sequence always follow a certain patterns are called progressions. It should be noted that in case of an odd number of terms.: a – d.is a series. then the resulting sequence is also an A. a. (viii) If an. Hyderabad. a. a + 2d. an+1 = A(n + 1) + B ∴ an+1 – an = {A (n + 1) + B} – {An + B} = A.

A2.….P.….5. A1. Hyderabad. These are the required arithmetic means between a and b. A2. where A. Let d be the common difference of this A. with first term ‘a’ and common difference ‘d’ is given by Sn = (n/2)[2a + (n – 1)d] Also.coachingworld.P. In other words.in . B are constants. Then.….P.P. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. Sum to n Terms of an A. An are arithmetic means between a and b. An. Himayath Nagar.P. A2. where l = last term = a + (n – 1)d.P. An such that a. a. it contains (n + 2) terms. 8.P. b form an A.. Insertion of Arithmetic Means If between two given quantities a and b we have to insert n quantities A1.…is called a geometric progression if (an+1) / an = constant for all n ∈ N _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. a2.An be n arithmetic means between two quantities a and b.67 - www. 7. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. A2.) if the ratio of a term and the term proceeding to it is always a constant quantity. Geometric Progression A sequence of non-zero numbers is called a geometric progression (or G. In such a case. Insertion of n Arithmetic Means between a and b Let A1. Some Useful Results 6. A2.in . A1.P. A sequence is an A. is 2A. Swetha Apartment.…. a sequence a1. the common difference of the A. a3.…An. The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G. Sn = (n/2)[a + l]. b is an A. Note.P. if and only if the sum of its n terms is of the form An2 + Bn. then we say that A1. The sum Sn of n terms of an A.…. Clearly. an.

P. ar3 r2 2 5 a/r . c are in G. with common ratio r satisfying | r | < 1 is given by _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. Solution.P. (an+1)/an = 3(2n+1)/3(2n) =2 Clearly. then the numbers are taken as a. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. log an. For example.P. (vi) If the terms of a given G.in .…. Find the product of its first give terms. a. the product of the terms equidistant form the beginning and the end is always same and is equal to the product of the first and the last term. of Terms Common ratio terms 3 a/r. a2. ar. Selection of Terms in G.For example. (iii) If each term of a G. ar2. Swetha Apartment. Himayath Nagar.P. Therefore. 9.… is an A.P. ar. R ar2 If the product of the numbers is not given.P. The third term of a G. a3. is 4. Product of first five terms = a1a2a3a4a5 11.P.P.P. are chosen at regular intervals. (v) Three non-zero numbers.P. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.68 - www. for all n ∈ N. Let a be the first term and r the common ratio.P. a3 = 4 ⇒ ar2 = 4 ………… (i) Now. be multiplied or divided by the same non-zero constant. then lim rn = 0.P. with first term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’ is given by (ii) If l is the term of the G. a. Sum of Terms of a G.P. of non-zero non-negative terms. 10. Also. for all n ∈ N. a/r. (vii) If a1. find its common ratio. with the same common ratio. then the new sequence so formed also forms a G.in . an = 3 (2n) ∴ an+1 = 3 (2n+1) Now. ar R 4 a/r3.. then log a1. Hyderabad. ar. (iv) In a finite G. Show that the sequence given by an = 3 (2n). and vice-versa. We have. an. ar3. b. So. iff b2 = ac. be raised to the same power. Properties of Geometric Progressions (i) If all the terms of a G. (an+1)/an = 2 (constant). Then. (i) The sum of n terms of a G.P. then l = arn-1 (iii) If | r | < 1.P. a. the resulting sequence also forms a G. (ii) The reciprocals of the terms of a given G.P. It is always convenient if we select the terms in the following manner: No. then it remains a G.…. Solution. a/r. is a G.P.. the sum S of an infinite G.…. log a2.P.…is a G. with common ratio 2. Sometimes if is required to select a finite number of terms in G.P.P.P.coachingworld. form a G. the given sequence is an G.

in .Thus. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. the sum S of an infinite G. Hyderabad. Himayath Nagar.P.in . with first term a and common ratio r(-1 < r < 1) is given by _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101.coachingworld. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.69 - www. Swetha Apartment.

none of them being zero. then the weighted average is defined as: WeightedA . Swetha Apartment. x2.M . xn respectively.M.+xn/n = 1/n ∑xi i= 1 n (ii) Mean of grouped data.. x2. Let x1. then the combined A.…. + f n x n x= 1 1 = f1 + f 2 + . 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. Relation among A..M. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. x2.. f2. Hyderabad.M.. Arithmetic Mean (i) Mean of unclassified data.…. wn x n w1 + w2 + . xn be n observations and let f1. 4.M. Weighted Arithmetic Mean If w1.in . then their arithmetic mean is given by x = x1+x2+….).M.…. x3 are n observations. Himayath Nagar. x2. then their arithmetic mean is given by f x + f 2 x 2 + .M. = ∑f i =1 n i ∑ x   fi    i =1  i  n 6. of two data sets can be obtained by the formula n x 1 + n2 x 2 x12 = 1 n1 + n2 _ _ _ where x12 = Combined mean of the two data sets 1 and 2 x1 = mean of the first data x2 = Mean of the second data n1 = Size of the first data n2 = Size of the second data.70 - www. x3. = w1 x1 + w2 x 2 + . Let x1. The arithmetic mean (A.STATISTICS 1.M.M. G. x2.in . of two data sets and their sizes. …. ≥ G.. Combined Mean If we are given the A. Harmonic Mean The harmonic mean of n observation x1. then their geometric mean is defined as G... + wn 3.) and harmonic mean (H.M. fn be their corresponding frequencies. w3. And H..coachingworld. . wn are the weights assigned to the values x1..M. = (x1.. x3…. Geometric Mean If x1.xn)1/n 5. w2.) for a given set of observations are related as under: A. geometric mean (G.. ≥ H.M . x2.. x3.…. + f n _ ∑f x i =1 n i n i ∑f i =1 i 2.…. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101..M..M.. xn is defined as: H . xn be n observations.

.. then  n   n     + +1    2   2 Median = size of the   th term 2     (iii) median of a Continuous Series (iv) Prepare the commulative frequency table.. 3. i. (B) (a) If n is odd.in .71 - www. (A) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. r =1. Median (i) Median of an individual series. Let n be the number of observations. r = 1. Dr = nr/10 .. Quartiles. 2 . 2.3. r = 1.99 (b) For grouped data Arrange data is ascending order and prepare cumulative frequency  Nr i Qr = l +  − F  . Himayath Nagar.3  4 f  Nr i Dr = l +  − F  . (B) Find the median class. Hyderabad.3. Swetha Apartment.coachingworld. 2. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.. r = 1. 99 100  f where l is lower limit of the required class.. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. then Median = value of the ½ (n+1)th observation (b) if n is even.Equality sign hold only when all the observations are equal. i is class interval..e. (C) The median value is given by the formula  n   −c f  2  Median = l +  f     ×h. 3…… 9 Percentiles divide it into 100 equal parts Pr = nr/100 .. 8. where    l = lower limit of the median class n = total frequency f = frequency of the median class h = width of the median class cf = cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class. then Median = size of the ((n+1)/2)th term (b) If n is even. 2 . 9  10 f  Nr i Pr = l +  − F  . 3 Decline divide the frequency distribution into 10 equal parts. r =1. (B) Prepare a commulative frequency table.……. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. r =1. the class in which the (n/2)th observation lies. 7. Qr = nr/4 . then Median = mean of the (n/2)th and (n/2 + 1)th observation (ii) Median of a discrete series (A) Arrange the values of the variate in ascending or descending order. 2 . f is frequency of the class and F is sum of all frequencies just above the class of quartile/decile/percentile. Deciles and percentiles (a) For ungrouped data Quartiles are also a kind of positional averages which divide the complete frequency distribution into four equal parts.in . (C) (a) If n is odd. 2.

(ii) Mode of discrete series In the case of discrete frequency distribution. Mode (i) Mode of individual series In the case of individual series. then mode can be calculated as follows: Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean.9. = Q3 – Q1/Q3+Q1 (iii) Mean deviation For a frequency distribution.coachingworld.D. of the series under consideration. = ½ (Q3 – Q1) Coefficient of Q. A distribution in which mean. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop.M. Also. the mean deviation from an average (median.e.72 - www. (iii) Mode of continuous series (A) Find the modal class. or arithmetic mean) is given by M .in . 10. Coefficient of range = L-S/L+S (ii) Quartile Deviation Quartile deviation or semi-interquartile range is given by Q. mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency. the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of the series.in .D. i. Himayath Nagar. If the distribution is moderately skewed. the class which has maximum frequency. Swetha Apartment.D. The modal class can be determined either by inspection or with the help of grouping table. where symbols have usual meaning. where l = the lower limit of the modal class h = the width of the modal class fm-1 = the frequency of the class preceding modal class fm = the frequency of the modal class fm+1 = the frequency of the class succeeding modal class. Measures of Dispersion (i) Range It is the difference between the greatest and the smallest observation of the distribution. σ = ∑ f (x i =1 i n i − x) 2 _ N (B) Standard deviation for frequency distribution is given by.D. Hyderabad. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld.D. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. In case. (A) Standard deviation (also denoted by σ ) for ungrouped set of observations is given by S . median and mode coincide is called a symmetrical distribution. we take the help of the following formula Mode = l + fm+1/fm-1+fm+1 × h. then its Range = L – S. (B) The mode is given by the formula Mode = l + (fm – fm-1/2fm – fm-1 – fm+1) × h. = ∑ f i | xi − x | i =1 n _ ∑f i =1 n i Coefficient of M. = Mean deviation/Corresponding average (iv) Standard deviation The standard deviation of a statistical data is defined as the positive square root of the squared deviations of observations from the A. If L is the largest and S is the smallest observation in a distribution. the modal value lies in a class other than the one containing maximum frequency.

For a moderately skewed distribution. The following are four important relative measures of skewness: (i) Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness Sk = mean – mode/Standard deviation If mode is well defined then using the relation. = 6 Q. Skewness We study skewness to have an idea about the shape of the curve which we can draw with the help of the given data. we have 4 S.D.D. (b) Relative measures of skewness. Mode = 3 median – 2 mean. Hyderabad. Himayath Nagar. The term ‘skewness’ refers to lack of symmetry. fi is the frequency of xi(1 ≤ i ≤ n). it is called asymmetrical or skewed. Swetha Apartment. Opp: Minerva Coffee Shop. From these relationship. (i) Sk = mean – median (ii) Sk = mean – mode (iii) Sk = Q3 + Q1 – 2Q2 or Sk = Q3 + Q1 – 2 (median).coachingworld.D. 040-64545060/64545363 info@coachingworld. = ∑ f (x i =1 i n i − x) 2 _ N where. (ii) When the distribution is not symmetrical.S . In a skewed distribution Mean ≠ Median ≠ Mode. If the data is moderately non-symmetrical.in . _________________________________________________________________________________________ _ 101. If follows that Sk = 0. 11.73 - www. (i) In a symmetrical distribution.D. if mean = mode = median. then the following empirical relationships hold: Mean deviation = 4/5 σ Semi-inter-quartile range = 2/3 σ . Probable error of standard deviation = 2/3 σ = Semi-inter-quartile range Quartile deviation = 5/6 M. = 5 M. we have mean = median = mode. (ii) Empirical relationships. Note: (a) Absolute measures of skewness.D. We can define skewness of a distribution as the tendency of a distribution to depart from symmetry.in . we get Sk = 3 (mean – median)/Standard deviation.

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