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Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Problem Statement: Draw a interaction diagram for a 12" x 12" non- slender tied(non-spiral) column reinforced

w/ 4 - # 8 bars bending around it's x-axis.

2-1/2"

Y

fy = 60000 psi

b = 12"

X

7"

2-1/2"

h = 12"

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

Calculate ΦPnmax Due to the fact concrete structures placed monolithically are continuous, a Section R10.3.6

minimum eccentricity or minimum moment is assummed in this calculation, the &

code reduces the maximum axial load by 20% to account for this minimum R10.3.7

moment.

φPn = .8φ [.85 f ' c (Ag − Ast ) + Ast f y ] (Eq. 1-1) Section 10.3.6.2

Eq (10-2)

Ag = b × h = 12"×12"

Ag = 144 in2

2

Ast = (4 * .79) = 3.16 in

ΦPnmax = 347.60 kips

Calculate points It is possible to derive a group of equations to evaluate the strength of columns

on curve subjected to combined bending and axial loads. These equations are tedious to

use, therefore interaction diagrams for columns are generally computed by

assuming a series of strain distributions. These strain distributions correspond fo

a particular point on the interaction diagram, P and M.

and the yield strain of your steel.

ε s1 = Z × ε y (Eq. 1-2)

The "Z" factors can range from 1 to -1000 and increments between "Z"

depend on the required detail of diagram. The smaller the increment

the more detailed the diagram will be.

1

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

With the wide range of possible "Z" factors, every designer must understand there

are four mandatory points that must be calculated for each interaction

diagram.These four points "Z" factors are 0, -0.5,-1.0,,-2.5, the importance of each

point will now be discussed.

change from compression lap splice being allowed on all longitudinal bars to a

tension lap splice.

Z = -0.5 (fs1 = -0.5fy, εs1 = -0.5εy) This strain distribution affects the length of

tension lap splice in a column & is customarily plotted on an interaction diagram.

Z = -1.0 (fs1 = -fy, εs1 = -εy) This is the point of balanced failure. This strain

distribution marks the change from compression failures originating by crushing

of the compression surface of the section to tension failures initiated by yield of

the longitudinal reinforcement.

- Also marks beginning of transition zone for Φ for columns in which Φ increases

from 0.65 or 0.70 up to 0.90

strain limit of 0.005.

zone, (one with the column entirely in compression) (Z = 0.9, -0.5), the tension

controlled zone (Z = -5.0) and the transition zone (Z = -1.1).

2

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

3

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

Compression

Controlled zone

ε s1 ≥ ε y Section 10.3.3

Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the Section 10.2.2

distance from the neutral axis "c"

εs1

εs2 εc

d2

d1

d2 = 2.50 in As1 = 1.58 in2

Calculate ΦPn & As2 = 1.58 in2

ΦMn for point in

compression Z = .9

contolled zone &

column entirely in εc = 0.003 Section 10.2.3

compression

fy 60ksi

f y = Esε y ∴ ε y = = (Eq. 1-3) Section 10.2.4

Es 29000ksi

εy = 0.002069

Calculate εs1 Using Equation 1-2, from previous page calculate εs1

Strain in 1st row

of steel ε s1 = .9(.002069) ε s1 = 0.001862

As shown in Figure 1.1: "c" (distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral

axis) can be calculated using similar triangles.

⎛ ⎞

⎟⎟ = .003⎛⎜ ⎞

Calculate C d1 9.5"

c = .003⎜⎜ ⎟ (Eq. 1-4)

⎝ .003 − ε s1 ⎠ ⎝ .003 − .001862 ⎠

c = 25.05 in

Calculate "a" a = β 1C (Eq. 1-5) a≤h "a' must be less than depth of Section 10.2.7.1

(equivalent stress column

block)

For f'c ≤ 4000 psi β1 = .85 Section 10.2.7.3

For f'c ≥ 4000 psi β1 = .85 − .05( f ' c −4000 ) (Eq. 1-6)

β1 ≥ .65

a= 12.000 in

4

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

Calculate εs2 As shown in Figure 1.1: εs2 can be calculated using similar triangles.

Strain in 2nd row

of steel ⎛ C − d2 ⎞ ⎛ 25.05"−2.5" ⎞

ε s 2 = .003⎜ ⎟ = .003⎜ ⎟ (eq. 1-7)

⎝ C ⎠ ⎝ 25.05" ⎠

ε s2 = 0.002701

Calculate stress

in each row of f sx = ε sx E s f sx ≤ f y (Eq. 1-8) Section 10.2.4

steel (fs1 & fs2)

f s1 = .001862(29000ksi) f s 2 = .002701(29000ksi) = 78.33 ≥ 60

f s1 = 54 ksi f s 2 = 60 ksi

each row of steel Compression Steel: Fx = Asx ( f sx − .85 f 'c )

(Eq. 1-10)

(must subtract concrete stress when in compression since concrete will be

replaced by steel)

F1 = 79.95 kips F2 = 89.43 kips

.85f'c

b

a

a

/2

Cc

Section 10.2.6

Figure 1.2 - Equivalent rectangular stress block diagram

Section 10.2.7

Section 10.2.7.1

compression zone.

(Concrete

Compression Cc = .85 f 'c ab = .85(4ksi)(12")(12") (Eq. 1-11)

Force)

C c = 489.60 kips

5

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

b/2 = 6"

Calculate Pn & Mn

by applying forces Pn

to free body

diagram Mn

489.60 kips

d2 = 2.5"

a/2 = 6"

d1 = 9.5"

Pn = 658.98 kips

Using Figure 1.3 from previous page, calculate Mn by summing moments about

steel in line d1: (counterclockwise being positive moment)

ΣM = 0 = + − − Mn

12" 12" 12"

1' 1' 1'

Moment arms will be in inches, must convert to feet for desired Units.

M n = 2.82 kip-ft

ΦMn

φPn = (.65)658.98 φM n = (.65)2.82

Point on curve for "Z" = .9

φM n = 1.83 kip-ft

6

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

εs1

c

εs2

εc

d2

d1

ΦMn (column in d2 = 2.50 in As1 = 1.58 in2

compression & As2 = 1.58 in2

tension)

Z = -.5

εc = 0.003

Strain in 1st row

of steel ε s1 = −.5(.002069) ε s1 = -0.001034 (Eq. 1-2)

Calculate C c = .003⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ .003 − (− .001034) ⎠

c = 7.06 in

β1 = 0.85

a= 6.004 in

Calculate εs2

⎛ 7.06"−2.5" ⎞

Strain in 2nd row ε s 2 = .003⎜ ⎟ (eq. 1-7)

of steel ⎝ 7.06" ⎠

ε s2 = 0.001938

in each row of

steel (fs1 & fs2) f s1 = -30.00 ksi f s 2 = 56.21 kips

each row of steel

F2 = 1.58in 2 (56.21ksi − .85(4ksi)) (Eq. 1-10)

7

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

C c = 244.98 kips

b/2 = 6"

Calculate Pn & Mn

by applying forces Pn

to free body

diagram Mn

244.98 kips

d2 = 2.5"

a/2 = 3.002"

d1 = 9.5"

Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial and flexural calculations of Section 10.2.5

reinforced concrete.

Pn = 281.02 kips

Using Figure 1.5, calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1:

(counterclockwise being positive moment)

ΣM = 0 = + − − Mn

12" 12" 12"

1' 1' 1'

M n = 99.41 kip-ft

ΦMn

φPn = (.65)281.02 φM n = (.65)99.41

φPn = 182.67 kips

Point on curve for "Z" = -.5

φM n = 64.62 kip-ft

8

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

ΦMn (column in d2 = 2.50 in As1 = 1.58 in2

compression & As2 = 1.58 in2

tension)

εc = 0.003

Strain in 1st row

of steel ε s1 = −1.1(.002069 ) ε s1 = 5.401961

Calculate C

⎛ 9.5" ⎞

c = .003⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (Eq. 1-4)

⎝ .003 − (− .002276) ⎠

c= 5.40 in

(equivalent stress

block) a = .85(5.4") = 4.59" ≤ 12" (Eq. 1-5)

a= 4.590 in

Calculate εs2

⎛ 5.40"−2.5" ⎞

Strain in 2nd row ε s 2 = .003⎜ ⎟ (eq. 1-7)

of steel ⎝ 5.40" ⎠

ε s2 = 0.001612

in each row of f s 2 = .001612(29000ksi) (Eq. 1-8)

steel (fs1 & fs2)

f s1 = -60.00 ksi f s 2 = 46.75 kips

each row of steel

F2 = 1.58in (46.75ksi − .85(4ksi))

2

(Eq. 1-10)

C c = 187.27 kips

9

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

b/2 = 6"

Calculate Pn & Mn

by applying forces Pn

to free body

diagram Mn

a/2 = 2.295"

d2 = 2.5"

d1 = 9.5"

Pn = 160.96 kips

Using Figure 1.6 calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1:

(counterclockwise being positive moment)

ΣM = 0 = + − − Mn

12" 12" 12"

1' 1' 1'

M n = 105.45 kip-ft

Calculate ΦPn & φ = .65 + (ε s1 − .002 )⎜ ⎟ = .65 + (.002276 − .002 )⎜ ⎟ = .673

ΦMn

⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

φPn = (.673)160.96 φM n = (.673)105.45

Point on curve for "Z" = -1.1

φM n = 70.97 kip-ft

10

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

Tension Controlled

ε s1 ≥ .005

Zone

ΦMn for point in d2 = 2.50 in As1 = 1.58 in2

Tension controlled As2 = 1.58 in2

zone & column in

compression &

Z = -5

tension

εc = 0.003

Strain in 1st row

of steel ε s1 = −5(.002069) ε s1 = -0.010345 (Eq. 1-2)

⎛ 9.5" ⎞

Calculate C c = .003⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (Eq. 1-4)

⎝ .003 − (− .010345) ⎠

c= 2.14 in

β1 = 0.85

a= 1.819 in

Calculate εs2

⎛ 2.14"−2.5" ⎞

Strain in 2nd row ε s 2 = .003⎜ ⎟ (Eq. 1-7)

of steel ⎝ 2.14" ⎠

ε s2 = -0.000505

in each row of f s 2 = −.000505(29000ksi) (Eq. 1-8)

steel (fs1 & fs2)

f s1 = -60.00 ksi f s 2 = -14.65 kips

each row of steel

F1 = -94.80 kips F2 = -23.15 kips

Cc = 74.22 kips

11

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

b/2 = 6"

Calculate Pn & Mn

by applying forces Pn

to free body

diagram Mn

a/2 = .91"

d2 = 2.5"

d1 = 9.5"

Pn = -43.73 kips

Using Figure 1.7 calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1:

(counterclockwise being positive moment)

ΣM = 0 = − − − Mn

12" 12" 12"

1' 1' 1'

M n = 52.38 kip-ft

φ = .9 Section 9.3.2.2

Calculate ΦPn &

ΦMn φPn = (.9 )(− 43.73) φM n = (.9)52.38

Point on curve for "Z" = -5

φM n = 47.14 kip-ft

12

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

Calculate ΦPnt When column is entirely in tension the designer shall assume the concrete in the Section 10.2.5

column will not contribute to tension strength, only reinforcement shall resist

tension.

Pnt = − Ast f y

(Area of 1 - #8 bar = .79 in2)

2

Ast = (4 * .79) = 3.16 in

Find Φ Φ= 0.9 Section 9.3.2.2

diagram using

points calculated. 0.002069 347.60 0.00

0.0018621 347.60 1.83

-0.001034 182.67 64.62

-0.002276 108.33 70.97

-0.010345 -39.36 47.14

-170.64 0.00

400.00

300.00

200.00

ΦPn (Kips)

100.00

0.00

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00

-100.00

-200.00

ΦMn (k-ft)

13

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

Notes ACI-318 05

Reference

Finally an actual iteraction diagram will be shown with using more values of "Z", to

get a more detailed curve.

400.00

300.00

200.00

ΦPn (Kips)

100.00

0.00

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00

-100.00

-200.00

ΦMn (k-ft)

14

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