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Power Electronics

Power Electronics

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Published by: Adnan Ahmad on Dec 10, 2010
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POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES THYRISTORS A Thyristors is one of the most important types of power semiconductor devices.

They are used extensively in power electronics circuits. The word thyristor¶ is originated from Greek word. The word ³thy´ means switch. The total word thyristor indicates that the switch belongs to a transistor family. The Development of thyristor has revolutionized the use of semiconductors for power control. The thyristor was first invented by Bell Laboratory in U.S.A. in the year 1948 and it (100V,10A) was first introduced in the market by General Electric Company in the year 1957. However, commercially it started becoming available after 1960. Since this time there has been a rapid growth in the control equipment making use of thyristors.

Initially however for a period of 5-6 years the failure rate of the equipments hampered the growth of thyristorised equipment in industry. This however did not cause any break in the building up of know-how and technical literature has been piling up since, at a rate of about 200 reported articles per year on various aspects of this technology.It will not be wrong to say that the present state of thyristor technology has been a result of about ten years efforts in all directions including development in semiconductor and printed circuits technology. Today single thyristor is Capable of handling maximum of 25MW [5000V, 5000A].

TERMINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THYRISTORS The thyristor has four layers PNPN semiconductor switching device. It has three terminals: Anode, Cathode and gate When the anode voltage is made positive with respect to the cathode. The junction µJ1¶ and µJ3¶ are forward biased while junction µJ2¶is reverse biased. A very small leakage current will flow through the device. The thyristor is then said to be in the forward blocking state or off state condition. If the voltage at anode is continuously increased, the breakdown of reverse bias junction µJ2¶ occurs due to high voltage gradient and the device is switched on. The voltage drop would be due to ohmic drop in the four layers and it is small, typically 1v. In the on-state, the anode current is limited by an external impedance or a resistance,

,As shown in fig.1(a). The anode current must be more
than µLatching Current¶for on-state condition.If the anode current does not fall below the µHolding Current¶the thyristor remains on.The latching current is usually double the holding current but both are low, even much less than 1 of the full load rated value. µLatching Current¶is the minimum anode current required to maintain the thyristor in the on-state immediately after a thyristor has been turned on and gate signal has been removed

Figure-1 Thyristor Symbol and Three P-N Junctions.

then transistor µQ2¶ is turned on and starts to conduct. one PNP transistor µQ1¶ and other NPN-transistor µQ2¶ as shown in fig. The regenrative or latching action due to positive feedback can be demonstrated by using a two transistor model of thyristor. If a positive potential is applied to the gate electrode G when the anode A is positive with respect to cathode K. Q1 also starts to conduct. Since the collector current of µQ2¶ is the base current of µQ1¶.Two Transistor Model of Thyristor. A thyristor can be considered as two complementry transistors. each transistor maintains the other in conducting state by regenrative action. The collector current of µQ1¶ is also the base current of µQ2¶ Hence as long as the anode is positive.The regenrative action of the thyristor operation can be explained mathematically .

Figure-2 Two Transistor Model of Thyristor .

localised over heating with in the crystal may reduce the life of the thyristor. the charging current i = c dv / dt may. The dv / dt turn on of the thyristor is avoided due to the following reasons. which is clear from the above mathematical expression. The spreading of charged carriers over the entire area of thyristors take some time and as a result . magnitude with the leakage current that there may be possibility of turning on of the thyristor. Turning on by providing signal from gate takes negligible power to turn on the thyristor. attain to sufficient.When Q1 and Q2 have a very small forward bias the value E 1 and E1 + E2 is small and hence IA is small. . of course. The sum of E1 + E2 can be made to approach momentarily by injecting a short duration positive current at the gate and thyristor will be on due to execessive anode current IA . The PN junction of the thyristor is capacitive because of the deplection layer during blocking. Whenever there is rapid rate of change the forward anode to cathode voltage (dv /dt).

It is known that in case of a transistor.there is no possibility of destruction of thyristor by the principle of voltage gradient firing of thyristor.(E1 +E2 ) . Similarly for transistor µQ2¶ Ic2 = E2 IK +ICBO2 IA = IC1+IC2   E1 IA +ICBO1 + E2 IK +ICBO2 where IK = IA +IG IA = E1 IA +ICBO1 + E2 (IA +IG ) +ICBO2   E1 IA +ICBO1 + E2 IA +E2IG +ICBO2 E1 IA +E2 IA + ICBO1 +E2IG +ICBO2   IA (E1 +E2 ) + ICBO1 +E2IG +ICBO2 IA -IA (E1 +E2 ) = ICBO1 +E2IG +ICBO2   IA[1 .(E1 +E2 ) ] = ICBO1 +E2IG +ICBO2 IA = ICBO1 +E2IG +ICBO2 / 1 .base current and E $ Ic / IE . For Q1 IE = IA and collector current is Ic1 Ic1 = E1 IA +ICBO1. Ic = EIE +ILeakage  Ic = EIE +ICBO where ICBO is the leakage current of colector.

If the intensity of this light exceeds a certain value. When light is thrown on the gate-cathode junction through a light window. A thyristor is turned on by increasing the anode current. Due to regenrative action.Such a thyristor is known as light activated SCR (LASCR).(E1 +E2 ) may tend to be unity and the thyristor may be turned on. the thyristor is turned on. Temperature Triggering. there will be an increase in the number of electron hole pairs. Light Triggering. 2. . 1. This increase in currents would causeµE1¶ and µE2¶ to increase.THYISTOR TURN-ON. the electron-hole pairs will increase ( free charge carriers electrons and holes are generated ). which would increase the leakage current. This type of turn-on may cause thermal runaway and is normally avoided. If the temperature of a thyristor is high. This can be accomplished in one of the following ways.

Sufficient leakage current will flow to initiate regenrative turn-on. With forward voltage across the anode and cathode of a thyristor.This junction has the characteristics of a capacitive due to charges existing across the junction.If the entire anode to cathode forward voltage Va appears across junction J2 and the charge is denoted by µq¶ than a charging current µI¶ given by equation y Gate Triggering. the two junctions are forward biased but the inner junction J2 is reverse biased. This type of turn-on may be destructive and should be avoided. because this method lends itself accurately for turning on the SCRs at the desired instant of time . 4. The gate triggering is the most common method of turning on the SCRs. When the forward anode to cathode is greater than the forward breakdown voltage VBO.3. dv / dt Triggering. Forward Voltage Triggering.

Such phenomena of turning on a thyristor. the current is given by i = Cj dVa / d t If the rate of rise of forward voltage µdVa / d t¶ is high. For controllable operation of the thyristor. False turn-on of a thyristor can be prevented by using a snubber circuit in parallel with the device.I = (dq / d t). Typically µdV / d t¶ are 20-500v / Qsec. the capacitive of junction µJ2¶ is almost constant.   d (Cj . the charging current plays the role of gate current and turns on the thyristor even when gate signal is zero. the rate of rise of forward anode to cathode voltage µdVa / d t¶ must be kept below the specified rated limit. called µdVa / d t¶ turn-on. must be avoided as it leads to false operation of the thyristor circuit. . Va )/ d t   Cj dVa / d t + Va dCj / d t As Cj.

The gate signal should be removed after the thyristor turned on. If a thyristor is forward biased. the forward blocking voltage is decreased. While thyristor is reverse biased. The following points should be considered in designing the gate control circuit: 1. A continuous gating signal would increase the power loss in the gate junction. the injection of gate current by applying positive gate voltage between the gate and cathode terminals would turn on the thyristor. the pulse width tG is normally made more than the turn on time ton of the thyristor . otherwise. the thyristor may fail due to an increased leakage current. In practice. 3. 2. As the gate current is increased. There should be no gate signal. The width of gate pulse tG must be longer than the time required for the anode current to rise to the holding current value IH.GATE CURRENT.


MAIN FEATURES OF FIRING CIRCUITS The most common method for controlling the onset of conduction in an SCR is by means of gate voltage control. . light triggering and gate triggering. The gate control circuit is also called firing. A firing circuit should fulfil the following two functions. or triggering circuit.FIRING CIRCUITS FOR THYRISTORS An SCR can be switched from off-state to on-state in several ways. The gate triggering is the most common common method of turning on the SCRs. temperature triggering. These gating circuits are usually low power electronics circuits. these are forward voltage triggering. dv / dt triggering. because this method lends itself accurately for turning on the SCRs at the desired instant of time.

These pulses must be periodic in nature and the sequence of firing must correspond with the type of thyristorised power controller. gating circuit must produce one trigger pulse after every 60 degree interval The control signal generated by a firing circuit may not be able to turn ±on an SCR. A driver circuit consists of a pulse amplifier and a pulse transformer .If power circuit has more than one SCR. the triggering circuit must produce one firing pulse in each half cycle . in a 3-phase full converter using six SCRs. the firing circuit should produce gating pulses for each SCR at the desired instant for proper operation of the power circuit. in a single phase converter using two SCRs. For example. It is therefore common to feed the voltage pulses to a driver circuit and then to gate-cathode circuit.

Shielded cables transmit the amplified pulses to pulse transformers. A regulated DC power supply is obtained from an alternating voltage source.A firing circuit scheme. supplied from both AC and DC sources. Pulse generator. . in general consists of the components shown in above fig. The function of pulse transformer is to isolate the low voltage gate-cathode circuit from the high voltage anode-cathode circuit . gives out voltage pulses which are then fed to pulse amplifier for their amplification.

Resistance Firing Circuit 2.Pulse Transformer Firing Circuit yResistance Firing Circuit Resistance triggering circuit is the simplest and the most economical method.This however. suffer from a limited range of firing angle control (0 to 90 degree).Types of Thyristor Firing Circuits 1.UJT Firing Circuit 4. great dependence on temperature and differnce in performance between individual SCRs y R C FIRING CIRCUITS The limited range of firing angle control by resistance firing circuit can be overcome by RC firing circuit. The firing angle control range from 0 degree to 180 degree . RC Firing Circuit 3.

As a result. . power dissipation in the gate circuit is large. This difficulty can be overcome by UJT triggering circuits. Resistance and RC triggering circuits give prolonged pulses.Types of Thyristor Firing Circuits y UJT triggering circuits.

RESISTANCE FIRING CIRCUITS Theory of operation As shown in the circuit. In case R2 is zero. Diode D. gate current may flow from source. R2 is the variable resistance. This current can be limit with the value of R1 . R is the stabilizing resistance. This current should not exceed permissible gate current . through load. R1. and gate to cathode.

y Resistance R should have such a value that maximum voltage drop across it does not exceed maximum possible gate voltage .OPERATION OF RESISTANCE FIRING CIRCUITS y It is thus seen that function of R1 is to limit the gate current to a safe value as R2 is varied.

R C FIRING CIRCUITS The limited range of firing angle control by resistance firing circuit can be overcome by RC firing circuit. .

In the negative half cycle. y y . firing angle can be controlled from 0 to 180 degree. SCR is fired and after this. capacitor holds to a small positive voltage. Diode D1 is used to prevent the breakdown of cathode to gate junction through D2 during the negative half cycle. This capacitor voltage remains constant at ±Vm until supply voltage attains zero value.Theory of operation of RC Firing Circuit y y Fig illustrates RC triggering circuit. When capacitor charges to positive voltage equal to gate trigger voltage Vgt. C charges through D2 . By varying the value of R.

is called the emitter. Base-one(B1) and Base-two(B2). three terminals called the Emitter (E). This is termed a ³negative resistance characteristics¶¶. It is made up of an N-type base to which P-type emitter is embedded. has a resistance which rapidly decreases when the input voltage reaches a certain level. The device input. P-type emitter is heavily doped and N-type base is lightly doped . It is a three terminal device .Unijunction Transistor (UJT).

UJT Equivalent Circuit & Characteristics Curve .

UJT Firing Circuit y The unijunction transistor is a highly efficient switch . its switching time is in the range of nanoseconds. Since UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics. y Fig. (a) shows a circuit diagram with UJT working in the oscillator mode. The external resistances R1 R2 are small in comparison with the internal resistances RB1. RB2 of UJT bases .

is given by VC = VE = VBB( 1 ± e-t/RC) The time constant of the charge circuit is M1 = RC When this emitter voltage vE (or vC) reaches the peak-point voltage VP (= L VBB + VD). the unijunction between E ± B1 breaks down. emitter circuit of UJT is an open circuit. The capacitor voltage vC. UJT turns on and capacitor C rapidly discharges through low resistance R1 with a time constant t2 = R1C. when source voltage VBB is applied. During this charging. (a). As a result. equal to emitter voltage vE.Operation of UJT Firing Circuit In Fig. Here t2 is much smaller than t1. capacitor C begins to charge through R exponentially towards VBB. UJT turns off . When the emitter voltage decays to the valley-point voltage VV.

for isolation between the gate circuit and the load circuit. . The main reason for this is that the load may use a high voltage ac supply. or a series diode to prevent reverse gate current. The transformer generally used arc either l:l twowinding. and a low leakage resistance. or l'l:l three-winding types. The secondary coil of the pulse transformer is connected directly between the gate and the cathode. These have transformers have a low winding resistance. . and the firing circuit may use a low voltage. The pulse transformer provides electrical isolation as it transfers a pulse from the primary 1o the secondary coil.Pulse Transformer Firing Circuit Sometimes pulse transformers are used in firing circuits for thyristors and GTOs. or may have series resistor.

Figure shows the basic pulse transformer coupling to drive a single thyristor .There are various ways of connecting the pulse transformer to trigger the thyristor.

Figure 3. . this is transmitted faithfully at its secondary terminal through the resistor R to the gate of the thyristor.A pulse at the output of the pulse generator is given to the primary of the pulse transformer.19 shows another way of using a pulse transformer to drive an anti-parallel pair of thyristors.

Here a three-winding transformer provides complete isolation and the pulse generator must supply enough energy to trigger both thyristors. These dots are used to indicate the polarity of the windings. Transformer polarity is defined as the relative direction of the induced voltages in the primary and secondary windings with respect to the winding terminals. The dot is used to indicate which windings have the same instantaneous polarity . Note the black dots on the primary and secondary windings.

This transformer has usually two secondaries. These transformers are designed to have low winding resistance. low leakage reactar~ce and Iow interwinding capacitance.SCRs and GTOs. The turns ratio from primary to the two secondaries is 2:1:1 or 1:1:1.Pulse Transformers Pulse transformers are used quite often in firing circuits for . A square pulse at the primary terminals of a pulse transformer may be transmitted at its secondary terminals faithfully as a square wave or it may be . The advantages of using pulse transformers in triggering semiconductor devices are: (a) They provide isolation of low voltage firing circuit from high voltage anode-cathode power circuit and (a) The trigger pulse can be coupled to one or more devices from the same trigger source by means of pulse transformer.

2 Here. trigger pulses are preferred due to the following reasons: . A general layout of the trigger circuit using a pulse transformer is shown in Fig. R1 limits the current in the primary circuit of pulse transformer.transmitted as a derivative of the input waveform. In practice.

A device with a hard drive can withstand high di/dt at the anode circuit.(a) This pulse waveform is suitable for injecting a large charge in the gate circuit for reliable turn on. . and therefore. (b) The duration of this pulse is small. (c) The fact stated (b) as mentioned permits Va to be raised to a suitable high value so that a hard drive of SCR is obtained. no significant heating of the gate circuit is observed. which is desirable.

SNUBBER CIRCUIT yThe circuit used to prevent unwanted of SCR is called Snubber circuit dv /dt triggering y For di/dt protection inductor is connected in series .

THYRISTOR COMMUTATION TECHNIQUES The gate has no control over thyristor once its turns on . It can be turn off by reducing its forward anode current to a level below the holding current. y In Choppers.There are mainly two types of commutation y Natural Commutation y Forced Commutation y In Phase controlled Rectifiers Thyristor turned off automatically due to natural behaviour of input supply after half cycle. In these circuits Thyristor will turned off by applying following forced commutation techniques y Voltage Commutation y Current Commutation These techniques will be discussed in Chopper and Inverters . and Inverters input supply voltages are DC.

source to a variable-volt-age d.c. For example.c. However. or battery operated vehicles require power from a fixed voltage d. y In many cases. . source. the processes necessarily require the use of variable speed drives. drives are being in-creasingly used in all industries. source for the armature of the d. subway cars. These drives and processes take power from d.c.c.c. conversion of the d.Choppers Introduction y To produce quality goods in any industry. trolley buses. source voltage to different levels is required. y Variable speed d.c. motor.c.c. voltage sources. their speed control requires conversion of fixed voltage d. and a.

The set-up is bulky. link chopper (inverter-rectifier) In this method.c. by a rectifier. This method is still used for older traction installations y Motor-generator set Separate generator excitation gives a voltage which can be varied from zero to rated value with either polarity. for a given output voltage.Generally Following Methods are available for obtaining variable DC from fixed DC voltages yResistance control In this method.c. is first converted to a.c. by an inverter (d. different values of resistances are needed for different values of load current.c. a variable resistance is inserted between the load and the source. The obtained a. converter) . and less efficient because of the generator field time-constant y A. to a. This method is highly wasteful of energy.c: is then stepped up or down by a transformer and then rectified back to d.C. costly. the d. Also.c. . slower in response.

c.c. y Lower Maintenance. The d.c. traction-motor control. to d. chopper may be thought of as d. voltage from a source of constant d. Therefore.c.c. chopper is a static device (switch) used to obtain variable d. chopper (d. motors from a common d. y Greater efficiency. equivalent of an a.c. y Small Size. y Solid-state choppers due to various advantages are widely used in trolley cars. y Smooth Control. battery-operated vehicles.C.D. voltage. power converters) y A d.c. control of a large number of d.c. chopper offers following advantages as compared to previous methods. bus with a considerable improvement of power factor.c.c. transformer . . y Faster Response.

Types of DC Chopper According to the output voltages DC Chopper are classified as follows y Step Down Chopper y Step Up Chopper y Step Up-Down Chopper .

The chopped load voltage waveform is shown.Principle of Step Down Chopper The output of step down chopper is less than the input voltage. It is triggered periodically and is kept conducting for a period TON and is blocked for a period TOFF. The output can be controlled either by current limit control or time ratio control .Figure . The chopper is represented by an SCR inside a dotted square. illustrates the principle of a chopper.

choppers. Time-Ratio Control (TRC) In the time-ratio control. This is effected in two ways. . Time-ratio Control (TRC). the value of TON /T is varied. They are: 1.CONTROL STRATEGIES OF CHOPPERS yThe average value of output voltage. They are variable frequency operation and constant frequency operation. The two types of control strategies for operating the switches are employed in d. Current Limit Control. and 2. Vo can be controlled by periodic opening and closing of the switches.c.

the on-time Ton is varied but chopping frequency f (or chopping period T) is kept constant. Ton = 3/4T so that E= 75%. Variation of Ton means adjustment of pulse width. Here chopping period T is constant. as such this scheme is also called pulse-widthmodulation scheme. In Fig. illustrates the principle of pulse-width modulation. The output voltage V0 can be varied between zero and source voltage VS . Ton = 1/4 T so that E = 25%.(a).(b).Constant Frequency System yIn this scheme. In Fig. y Fig..

Variable Frequency System y In this scheme. This method of controlling µE¶ is also called frequencymodulation scheme . the chopping frequency f (or chopping period T ) is varied and either (i) on-time Ton is kept constant or (ii) off-time TOFF is kept constant.

inductor stores energy . the circuit of Fig.Principles of Step up Chopper y In this chopper average output voltage VO is more than the input voltage VO " VS . (a) acts as a step-up chopper and the energy stored in L is . voltage across the load. y Large inductor L in series with source voltage VS is essential y When the chopper is on. as the inductor current cannot die down instantaneously. y In this manner. this current is forced to flow through the diode and load . exceeds the source voltage VS. given by y VO = VS + L (di/dt). y When the chopper CH is off. y As a result.

Circuit Diagram and Waveform of Step UP Chopper .

CHOPPER COMMUTATION CIRCUITS There are three types of Chopper Commutations y Voltage Commutated Chopper y Current Commutated Chopper y Load Commutated Chopper .

. The chopper feeds a constant current load (highly inductive load). To start with the capacitor is pre-charged with lower plate positive by closing the switch shown in the Figure. The operation can be explained using 4 modes.Voltage Commutated Chopper As shown Fig.

. y IO = Output current and y E = Supply voltage.Designing of commutation circuit The following formulas are used to calculate the values of Capacitor and Inductors y where tC = Device turn off time.

To start with the capacitor is pre charged with top positive and bottom negative.. The details of commutation can be explained with the following modes . In current commutated chopper circuit.CURRENT COMMUTATED CHOPPER (CCC) The circuit and modes of CCC are shown in Fig. an inductor is connected in series with the capacitor Tm is the main SCR and TA is the auxiliary SCR.


. y ICP = Peak values of capacitor current and y VS = Supply voltage.Designing of commutation circuit The following formulas are used to calculate the values of Capacitor and Inductors y where tC = Circuit turn off time.

The load commutated chopper (LCC) uses four SCRs. They are triggered in pairs. Initially the capacitor is charged with a ² and b +. The working of LCC can be explained with the following modes. The circuit and modes of LCC are shown in Fig.

DC chopper can be used as switching-mode regulators to convert a DC voltage, normally unregulated DC output voltage. The regulation is normally achieved by PWD at a fixed frequency and the switching device is normally a power BJT, or MOSFET

Topologies of switching regulators
(1) (2) (3) Buck Regulators Boost Regulators Buck-Boost Regulators

Buck Regulators.
In a buck regulator, the average output voltage VO, is less than the input voltage µVS¶

BOOST REGULATORS In a boost regulator. the output voltage is greater than the input voltage . . A boost regulator using a power µMOSFET¶ as shown in fig.The circuit operation can be divided into two modes .

This regulator is also known as an inverting regulator . the output voltage polarity is opposite to that of the input voltage.Buck-Boost Regulators A buck-boost regulator provides an output voltage that may be less than or greater than the input voltage² hence the name "buck-boost".

CYCLOCONVERTERS y A device which converts input power at one frequency to output power at a different frequency with one-stage conversion is called a cycloconverter. y In step-up cycloconverters. the output frequency f0 is lower than the supply frequency fS fo < fS . y A cycloconverter is thus a one-stage frequency changer. cycloconverters are of two types. namely : (i) Step down cycloconverters (ii) Step up cycloconverters y In step-down cycloconverters. fQ >fs. the applications of cycloconverters include the following : (i) Speed control of high-power ac drives (ii) Induction heating (iii) For converting variable-speed alternator voltage to constant frequency output volt-age for use as power supply in aircraft or shipboards . At present. y Basically.

the load is assumed to be resistive for simplicity.Single-phase to Single-phase Step-up Cyclocbnverter For understanding the operating principle of step-up device. It should be noted that a step-up cycloconverter requires forced commutation. The basic principle of step-up device is described here first for mid-point and then for bridge-type cycloconverters .

. Waveforms for Step-up Cyclocbnverter .

commutation which is provided by ac supply.Single-phase to Single-phase Step-down Cycloconverter A step-down cycloconverter does not require forced commutation. .1. or natural. These converters need only line. Both mid-point and bridge-type cycloconverters are described in what follows . It requires phase-controlled converters connected as shown in Fig.

keeping the inverter at a constant gain or by varying the gain of the inverter y The gain of the inverter is defined as the ratio of the ac output voltage to the dc input voltage .INVERTERS Introduction y It is DC to AC converter y An Inverter enables one to convert a supply of dc input voltage to a symmetrical ac output voltage of a desired magnitude and frequency y This output voltage may be fixed or variable. y The variable output voltage can be obtained either by varying the input dc voltage. at a fixed or variable frequency.

and moderate-power applications these harmonics may be acceptable. stand-by/uninterrupted power supplies. but for high-power applications. low distorted sinusoidal waveforms are required These harmonic contents of the output voltage can be reduced or minimized by using high-speed switching power semiconductor devices Applications of inverters are: variable speed ac motor control. etc .Although the output voltage waveforms of an ideal inverter should be sinusoidal. induction heating. they are nonsinusoidal and contain certain harm For low. in practice.

1. viz. but they are broadly divided in to two types.Classification of Inverters There are many ways to classify inverters.. these are further classified according to the taxonomy of Figure . singlephase. . and three-phase.

they show high efficiency Transistors. and GTOs are used in high-power applications. devices are used as a switch. transistors are used as amplifiers and due to high power dissipation in the device itself. therefore.Classification of Inverters In amplifier-type inverters. they generally give a low efficiency In saturated-type inverters. These inverters can also be classified into two groups: voltage-driven inverters and current-driven inverters . and IGBTs are generally used in lowand medium-power requirements Thyristors.

VOLTAGE CONTROL IN SINGLE-PHASE INVERTERS AC loads may require constant or adjustable voltage at their input terminals. The first two methods require the use of peripheral components whereas the third method requires no peripheral components. These methods are now briefly discussed . When such loads are fed by inverters. it is essential that output voltage of the inverters is so controlled as to fulfill the requirement of AC loads The various methods for the control of output voltage of inverters are as under External control of ac output voltage External control of dc input voltage Internal control of inverter.

External Control of dc Input Voltage In case the available voltage source is ac. then dc voltage input to the inverter is controlled by means of a chopper . Through an uncontrolled rectifier and a chopper. Through an ac voltage controller & an uncontrolled rectifier If available voltage is dc. then dc voltage input to the inverter is controlled through fully-controlled rectifier.

1.External Control of ac Output Voltage There are two possible methods of external control of ac output voltage obtained from inverter output terminals. AC voltage control Series-inverter control AC voltage control In this method. an ac voltage controller is inserted between the output terminals of inverter and the load terminals as shown in Fig. The voltage input to the ac load is regulated through the firing angle control of ac voltage controller .

(a) illustrates how the output voltage of two inverters can be summed up with the help of transformers to obtain an adjustable output voltage. . Fig.Series-inverter control This method of voltage control involves the use of two or more inverters in series.

This is the most popular method of controlling the output voltage and this method is termed as pulse-width modulation (PWM) control.Internal Control of Inverter Output voltage from an inverter can also be adjusted by exercising a control within the inverter itself. In this method. The most efficient method of doing this is by pulse-width modulation control used within an inverter. a fixed dc input voltage is given to the inverter and a controlled ac output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on and off periods of the inverter components. the filtering requirements are minimised. As higher order harmonics can be filtered easily. . The output voltage control with this method can be obtained without any additional components With this method. This is discussed briefly in what follows Pulse width modulation control. lower order harmonic can be eliminated or minimised along with its output voltage control.

In voltage fed inverters. thyristors remain forward biased by the dc supply voltage. GTOs and IGBTs are becoming increasingly popular. thyristors are more suitable. inverters using transistors. This entails the use of forced commutation for inverter circuits using thyristors . for high-voltage and high-current applications. However.FORCE-COMMUTATED THYRISTOR INVERTERS For low-and medium-power applications.

D2. The commutation circuit consists of auxiliary thyristors TA1. inductor L and capacitor C . TA2. auxiliary diodes DA1.Modified McMurray Half-bridge Inverter It consists of main thyristors Tl. DA2 . T2 and main diodes Dl. damping resistor Rd.


y When the input voltage starts to be negative at. the thyristor anode is positive with respect of its cathode and the thyristor is said to be forward biased.Principle of Phase Controlled Converters y The simplest form of controlled Rectifier circuit is consist of single thyristor feeding DC power to a resistive load R. [t = T. . as shown in fig 1(a). T1 conducts and input voltage appears across the load. y During positive half cycle of input voltage . the thyristor anode is negative with respect to cathode and T1 is said to be reverse biased and it is turned off. When T1 is fired at [t = E.

Circuit Diagram and Waveforms with Resistive Load .

Vo = 0 and Io = 0. . SCR is subjected to reverse anode voltage but it will not be turned off as load current Io is not less than the holding current. Io reduces to zero and SCR is turned off as it is already reverse biased. After [t = F. thyristor is turned on by gating signal. Io reaches maximum value and then begins to decrease. At [t = E. After [t = T. At [t = T.Single Phase Half Wave Circuit with RL Load As shown in fig.At some angle F"T. The load voltage Vo at once brcomes equal to source voltage Vs as shown. After some time. But the inductance L forces the load or output current Io to rise gradually. Vo is zero but Io is not zero because of the load inductance L.

Single Phase Half Wave Circuit with RL Load .

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