P. 1


|Views: 0|Likes:
Published by Kunal Tilak

More info:

Published by: Kunal Tilak on Dec 10, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less








Software engineering is a layered technology. The bedrock that supports software engineering is a quality focus. The foundation for software engineering is the process layer. Software engineering process is the glue that holds the technology layers together and enables rational and timely development of the computer software. Software engineering methods provide the technical ³how to¶s´ for building software. Methods encompass a broad array of tasks that include communication, requirements analysis, design , modeling, program construction, testing and support. Software engineering methods rely on a set of basic principles that govern each area of the technology and include modeling activities and other descriptive techniques.

e.5 lakhs passengers in reserved accomodation every day. with travel time as long as 72hours and distance upto several thousand kilometers.The Computerised Passenger Reservation System(PRS) facilates the booking and cancellation of tickets from any of the 4000 terminals(i. at New Delhi.Secunderabad subsequently. . over Northern Railway with the installation of Integrated Multiple Train Passenger Reservation System(IMPRESS).INTRODUCTION TO THE RAILWAY RESERVATION SYSTEM: The Indian Railways (IR) carries about 5.Chennai.preparation of train charts and accounting of the money collected. The objective was to provide reserved accomodations on any train from any counter. The project of PRS was launched on 15th November 1985..Kolkata. PRS bookin window all over the countries). The application was implemented in 1987 Mumbai. These tickets can be booked or cancelled for journeys commencin in any part of India and ending in any other part. an online transaction processing system developed by Indian Railways in association with Computer Maintenance Corporation Ltd.

.RAILWAY RESERVATION METHODS: ‡ ONLINE BOOKING: With the help of this people can book their tickets online through internet. Using their credit cards people can easily get their tickets done within minutes. ‡ COUNTER BOOKING: This is the oldest method of booking the tickets. There are certain charges for online booking as well. The reservation counters are there at railway department from where people can get the tickets to their respective destinations. sitting in their home by a single click of mouse.

ticket availability on a particular train or for a place. .train arrival or departure details. ‡ As now there are no call centers facilities available to solve the queries of the passengers.PROBLEM DEFINITION: ‡ Railway passengers frequently need to know about their ticket reservation status. so it takes a long time for any individual to book the ticket. ‡ On most of the reservation systems there are long queues. ‡ The number of the reservation counters available to the passengers and customers are very less.. special trains etc. Customer information centers at the railway stations are unable to serve such queries at peak periods.

2. The user is also provided with a provision of canceling the reservation where in the entire amount is credited back to his account. 4. . 3.ANALYSIS: 1. For the purchase of the tickets he is asked for payment details (like credit card details etc).for booking the tickets online the intended user has to enter details like username and password. Once the username and passwords are verified then he is allowed to enter the main system wherein he can select the destination. The analysis part also comprises of the UML diagrams that boost the program. In Online Railway Reservation System. date and no of tickets.


‡ During early iterations. the incremental release might be a paper model or prototype. originally proposed by Boehm [BOE88].THE SPIRAL MODEL: ‡ The spiral model. . there are between three and six task regions. During later iterations. ‡ It provides the potential for rapid development of incremental versions of the software.Typically.increasingly more complete versions of the engineered system are produced. also called task regions. ‡ A spiral model is divided into a number of framework activities. software is developed in a series of incremental releases. Using the spiral model. is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model.

and other project related information. . and provide user support (e. ‡ Planning²tasks required to define resources. test. ‡ Engineering²tasks required to build one or more representations of the application. ‡ Customer evaluation²tasks required to obtain customer feedback based on evaluation of the software representations created during the engineering stage and implemented during the installation stage.g. install. timelines.. documentation and training).Figure depicts a spiral model that contains six task regions: ‡ Customer communication²tasks required to establish effective communication between developer and customer. ‡ Risk analysis²tasks required to assess both technical and management risks. ‡ Construction and release²tasks required to construct.

software team performs activities that are implied by a circuit around the spiral in a clockwise direction. the spiral model can be adapted to apply throughout the life of the computer software. .USE OF SPIRAL MODEL ‡A spiral model is divided into a set of framework activities defined by software engineering terms. beginning at the center. ‡As the evolutionary process begins. ‡Unlike other process models that end when software is delivered. ‡The first circuit around the spiral might result in the development of a product specification. subsequent passes around the spiral might be used to develop a prototype and then progressively more sophisticated versions of software.

‡Every new step is dependent on the previous step and moves spirally outwards. ‡In the case of errors we can easily trace the root cause of errors. both we and customers can better understand and react to the risks at evolutionary level. ‡Because software evolves as the process progresses. ‡Spiral model is very realistic approach towards the process development. . ‡At any point in the system we can return back to the previous step.

public: getLogin(). d2[15]. char pasw[50]. n. train().CLASS DIAGRAM: class a private: int c. char id[50]. char date[10]. char d1[15]. a. s. . i.

USE CASE DIAGRAM: Enter user id and password verify password and user id system Make a reservation user Verify payments Update reservations cancellation of reservation administrator .

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM: :User Log in Secure communication Enter date Request confirmation Enter desired destination Choose desired express Enter the no of tickets Request confirmation Confirm purchase {verify funds} Place order {execute order} {verify user} {verify date} :System :Administrator .

Verify credit cards detail (invalid) (success) Debit account Send confirmation Settle transaction Send invalid notice ACTIVITY DIAGRAM Close transaction .

Online reservation system STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM Enter user id and password invalid Make reservation Confirm reservation For cancellation Cancellation of reservation Make payments exit .

0 LEVEL DFD DIAGRAM: User Transaction Process website .

1 LEVEL DFD DIAGRAM: Enter userid and password verify userid and password Enter date Enter no of tickets Online train reservation system Check for the availability of date Enter express name Make purchases .

Validation testing and etc etc. . But however due to the time constraint we could not perform various types of testing. Hence we just applied alpha testing which is a part of validation test to our project.TESTING: ‡ Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification. and code generation. design. Unit testing 2. ‡ The types of the testing are as follows: 1. System testing 3.

‡Due to time constraints it was not possible to incorporate all the concepts related to the topic.CONCLUSIONS: ‡Our project is only the gist of the online reservation system. . ‡So the program created is just an instance of the Original Online Railway Reservation System.

A Practitioner¶s Approach. ‡Object oriented modeling and design with UML by Michael Blaha and James Rumbaugh.REFERENCES: ‡Programming with C++ by Balagurusamy. by Roger Pressman. ‡Software Engineering. .

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->