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Interviewing Skills

Interviewing Skills

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Published by: Faisal Abu Al Saoud on Dec 10, 2010
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Competency-Based Interviewing

Competency-Based Interviewing (CBI) At Saraya


v By the end of this part, participants will:

 Develop an understanding of the importance competencies for assessing people;  Identify and use key skills of interviewing;  Identify the strengths & limitations of the interview;  Evaluate candidates & make fair, objective decisions;  Analyse competency-based interviews;  Practice interview skills and receiving feedback.



fulfillment and longevity v Provides and teaches formatted questions based on behavioral traits v Examines real-life examples and case studies also include in-house case studies v Empowers managers to make smart hiring choices v Eliminates personal biases in interview questions v Creates a format for interviewing that produces consistency and will fit all levels of the organization .Benefits v Teaches interview techniques to determine an applicant’s level of self-awareness and self-assessment v Saves money through hiring more effectively v Leads to greater job satisfaction.

What we will do v During this interactive session. Behavioral interviewing.” as well as higher retention rates. . also referred to as “fit. can lead to win-win hiring. done well. we will learn and practice the techniques that will take our interviewing skills to a new and more effective level.

long-term investment to build a high quality workforce capable of accomplishing the organization’s mission now and in the future  v Recruitment is a critical management function – all levels of the organization should be involved in planning and implementation  .Recruitment v Recruitment is not about filling jobs that are currently vacant – it is about making a continuous.

Recruitment Challenges v Globalization – “The World is Flat” v Aging workforce in some countries  § High cost of sustaining pension benefits – reducing benefits could decrease the attractiveness of public sector employment § Brazil has more retirees than employees  v Changing definition of career has reduced the loyalty of employees to organizations  v According to IPMA-HR aging workforce study: § 51% do not believe that sufficient talent already exists in the organization to fill positions left by retiring workers § 70% believe competition with the private sector for talent is increasing § 60% believe that recruiting efforts will need to expand v  .

skills and abilities. but how do you determine if this person will fit in with the team or be able to handle the diverse challenges that a position presents. . Interviewers can ask about a person’s experience. It is standard to interview based on the job description for a particular position.How to Recruit ? v Interviewing based on job specifications is the norm.

v Sorting candidates and preparing a shortlist. v Selection interviews   . v Job analysis.Steps in the Recruitment and Selection Process v Issuing a vacancy announcement.

v Any other reasons ? v . v Unexpected openings.Impact of Poor Selection v The image and credibility of the organization. v Cost. v Decrease Excellence. v Low morale. v Performance of organization. v Increase unwanted attrition and turnover.

 v Based on the findings of many research studies. over 95% of large organizations use interviews as a major part of the assessment procedure. . however. considerable confidence can be placed upon their reliability. interviews as they are typically conducted do not provide a solid basis upon which to make solid decisions. and often selection decisions are based entirely on the interview.Selection Interviews v v Globally.

   Problems with Typical Interviews   Research Findings 12/10/10 .

Brainstorming  v v What are the main problems with typical selection interviews can SARAYA face? 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .  § After this time. information is perceived and accepted in a way that is congruent with the decision which has already been made.Research Findings … v Interviewers make decisions early on in the interview:  § Studies how that the average length of time between a candidate entering the interview room and a decision being made is just under fur minutes.

 § Interviewers can agree about some aspects of candidates.Research Findings … v Interviewers have different views on the person they are looking for. and one candidate could be highly recommended by one interviewer and rejected by another. 12/10/10 . but not about others.

whilst another may be influenced by his/her lack of mobility. 12/10/10 .Research Findings … v Interviewers use different databases for their assessments:  § One interviewer may place great emphasis on a candidate’s previous experience in a similar job.

Research Findings … vInterviewers weigh the same information differently: § If a candidate confesses that he is not always meticulous with details. whilst another may perceive it as evidence that the candidate prioritizes effectively and spends most of his time working on important and substantive issues. 12/10/10 . one interviewer may perceive this as an admission of a careless approach to work.

Research Findings … v Interviewers prefer candidates like themselves:  § The interviewers favor candidates like themselves . it was found that 80% of candidates who were personally liked were made job offers. educational background. ethnicity. or even general interest. for example in nationality. gender.  § In one study. 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .Research Findings … v Interviewers overweight negative information:  § A number of studies suggest that interviewers give more weight to unfavorable than to favorable information.

In other words. assessments seem to come from person-to-person comparisons rather than from comparing each applicant thoroughly with the person specification for the job.Research Findings … v Interviewers rank candidate comparatively:  § Studies suggest that a candidate’s assessment partially depends upon the other individuals being rated at the same time. 12/10/10 .

candidates became more relaxed. had good eye contact. 12/10/10 . became more talkative and generally were found to be more effective in creating a good impression.  § In international studies. it was found that where interviewers were warm. and used head nodding frequently. acted in a more friendly way themselves.Research Findings … v A number of studies have demonstrated that how an applicant behaves in an interview is partly dependent on how the interviewer behaves.

12/10/10 . it was found that where the interviewers had decided to reject candidates.Research Findings … § § In one study. were more cold and critical and interviewees reported themselves as feeling uncomfortable and became more hesitant in their replies. they talked less.

12/10/10 .Research Findings … v  v One study of potential recruits showed that 43% complained of poor interviewers and over 50% said that one or more companies had made a bad impression on them.

v The “Homs Effect” is the negative opposite of the “halo effect”. 12/10/10 . the interviewer then sees all of the candidate’s further comments and actions as positive.The “Halo Effect” v A candidate says or does something the interviewer likes.

make sure that the panel is composed of different genders. … 12/10/10 . nationalities. v To avoid this. backgrounds.Stereotyping v Stereotyping occurs when interviewers consciously or unconsciously apply assumed characteristics of a group to an individual effectively “typing” the person.

v Interviewers should take notes. v Focus on obtaining evidence. v More than one interviewer involved in the selection process 12/10/10 .Improving Interview Effectiveness v The interview should be properly conducted. v Interviewers should be supported by other assessment techniques. v Interviewers should be trained.

   Competency-Based Interviews 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .Exercise v Mini Interviews:  § Participants will interview each other on a certain competency for 5 minutes. § Other participants will evaluate interview.

Specialist skills are needed to perform all tasks v . skills. attitudes and values needed by everyone across a variety of life contexts.What Is Competencies v Key competencies are things you are competent at that are key to the job you are applying for such as particular skills you may have or what skills you have that you think would be advantageous to the potential employer.  v Key competencies are the knowledge.

The Competency-Based Interview v v Referred to as a behavioral interview  v A particular type of structured interview in which the interviewers questioning is directed at ascertaining the candidates qualities or capabilities on a number of specific job related dimensions of behavior (competencies). 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .The Competency-Based Interview • v Question usually focus on eliciting specific examples from the candidates describing situations where they might (or might not) have demonstrated the required behaviors.

12/10/10 .Key Definition v v Competency-based interviews are structured and use behavioral questions to help the interviewer assess candidates based on critical competencies identified for the position.

. Tell me about a difficult or sensitive situation that required careful communication? Etc….  Key Behaviors/action to look for:   Interview Questions : -  . language and tone appropriate to audience Uses appropriate structure Have you ever had to convince your co-workers to accept an idea? How did you do it? What was the results? Tell me about a time your communication skills were put to the test.Examples   Key Competency: Communication Actively listen Checks understanding Use Style.

knowledge. and behaviors.Interview Questions  Interview Questions should aim to elicit information about a candidate’s past experience. . skills.

Questioning Techniques  v Open Questions v Probing Questions v Comparative Questions v Behavioral Questions 12/10/10 .

Open Questions v v What kind of supervisors do you like? v What aspects of your job do you consider most crucial? 12/10/10 .

What was the problem? What was your role? What was your objective? What did you actually do? What was the effect of your behavior? 12/10/10 .PROBE*  Problem ( position) Role Objective Behavior Effect    *Scott Bradbury: A Question of Evidence v Describe a situation in which you had to deal with a conflict in your team.

Probing Questions v “I decided that it was time to move on”  Probe: “Why was that?” v v “I did have some problems in that job”  Probe: “What sort of problems?” v v “I see my strengths as being good with people”  Probe: “In what way do you mean good with  people?” v 12/10/10 .

Comparative Questions v v v How do your responsibilities in your current job compare with those in the previous position? 12/10/10 .

Behavioral Questions v v v Behavioral questions are based on the theory that past behavior is the best predictor for future behavior. § Recent behavior. v Concentrate on: § Varied situations. 12/10/10 .

v Describe a time in the last 6 months when you had to help a client.Examples of Behavioral Questions v Give me an example of a time when you had to explain something difficult to someone who did not have your background. v Tell me how you organize yourself when you have a lot of work. 12/10/10 .

Give me an example of a time where you have interpreted the rules with more flexibility. v v Tell me about a time when you have had to translate a strategy into actions and plans. regulations and principles that have to be adhered to and some that can be interpreted more flexibly. 12/10/10 .More Behavioral Questions v In most organizations there are rules.

OPEN Oppor tunity BACK Experience Behaviour al description A ppr aisal Comparison Knowledge 12/10/10 .

EXAMPLE 1   OPPORTUNITY: What opportunities did you have in making decisions? a decision?   EXPERIENCE: Tell me about a time you had to make APPRAISAL: What kind of feedback have you received about your decision-making?     COMPARISON: How would you compare your KNOWLEDGE: What are the main elements in making decisions? decision-making with that of other colleagues?   12/10/10 .

EXAMPLE 2  v OPPORTUNITY: current job? How important are clients in your v v BEHAVIOURAL: How do you come to understand their requirements?  v APPRAISAL: What do they think of you? v v KNOWLEDGR: What is important in client service?  What lessons have you learned from your clients? 12/10/10 .

SUMMARY AND RESTATEMENT  Retelling what has been said in the same words or in summary is a useful aid to effective listening. 12/10/10 .  v This provides a check when there is any doubt.

SUMMARY QUESTIONS They are used to summarize briefly. to review or to check interviewer’s understanding of the facts. or even to clarify respondent’s own thoughts: ü As I understand it … ü So what you’re saying is … § This is very useful in controlling a talkative respondent.  12/10/10 .

Response to CBI Questions  v There are three parts to a behavioral question: § SITUAION OR Task or Problem § Action § Result 12/10/10 .

Collecting STARS S T A R 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .Exercise: v Answer this question using the SituationAction-Result method: v Give me an example of a time that you were able to take the lead in changing a practice for your organization.

QUESTIONS TO AVOID Closed questions Hypothetical Leading Multiple choice Double Marathon Inappropriate questions 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .CLOSED QUESTIONS ü ü Do you work well with people? How long did you do that job? Change them into behavioral question.

HYPOTHETICAL QUESTIONS ü ü ü What is the best way to handle a staff member who isn’t performing to the required standard? ü ü Behavioral. 12/10/10 .

LEADING QESTIONS  ü How well do you accept criticism? ü Your knowledge is up-to-date I suppose? ü ü Behavioral. ü 12/10/10 .

OFFER OF ALTERNATIVES  ü Do you think that attitude or skill is the most important factor in this situation? ü v Better: What do you think is the most important quality needed for this post? 12/10/10 .

  12/10/10 .THE COMPLEX LEAD  ü Budget cutbacks will mean that much more effort will have to be made to provide the sort of service we can be proud of. won’t it? ü ü Better.

THE PERSONAL LEAD  ü When did you last lose your temper? ü How often do you feel aggressive? v In this case. the questions assume the existence of a negative personality trait? 12/10/10 .

12/10/10 .  v Such questions usually confuse the interviewee. and what skills relevant to the present job they indicate. why they were so good. We should split them into their constituent parts and ask one question at a time.MULTIPLE AND MARATHON QUESTIONS ü Please tell me what you think your main achievements in the job were.

INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS v Are you married? v When do you intend to have children? v Who will take care of your children when you are on duty travel? .

v v v Structure of the Competency-Based Interview 12/10/10 .

time and effort. That is where it all starts. Select the right person for the job. Selection mistakes can cost money. Our success as an organization depends on the quality of the people we hire. 12/10/10 .v v Before the Interview The success or failure of a job interview relates mainly to the amount and type of preparation.

 v Interviewers should meet before the interview to structure the interview: who will greet applicants. … 12/10/10 .PREPARATION v Interviewers should be prepared in advance for their interview roles. who will ask what.

PRACTICAL PREPARATION v Timetable to allow a realistic amount of time for the interview v Reception of candidates v Interviewing room v Information for the candidate 12/10/10 .

COMPETENCIES The competencies required for the job are to be determined and agreed upon on in advance of the interview by the interview panel.  The JD includes these competencies 12/10/10 .

Requirements (Skills. 4.JOB Terms of Reference 1. Competencies 12/10/10 . TORs are very important to every employment interview. They outline the duties and responsibilities. 3. educational training). 2.

v It has the following parts on each value and competency: § Positive Indicators § Negative Indicators § Sample Questions 12/10/10 .SARAYA Competency-based Interviewing Guide v Let us have a look at the Guide.

12/10/10 .QUESTIONS  v The main interview questions are to be determined in advance of the interview and the same questions are to be asked of each candidate for the post.

INTERVIEW WORKSHEET  v An interview worksheet is to be prepared for each candidate and notes are to be taken during the interview. 12/10/10 .


An evaluation of the candidates is to be prepared immediately after the interview.



To ensure transparency and objectivity, interview panel should include the post manager to whom the successful candidate will report, and may also include other supervisors or members of the work unit, managers outside the work unit, and/or a representative from the Recruitment Section.

Gender balance of panel members.


Understand the job ücompetencies üjob description üperson specification Understand the person üresume/PHP übackground information üperformance management Questions Briefing the candidate Domestics


Before the Inter view

§ Time available.Structure of the CBI v Introduction: § Chairperson or Secretary will introduce panel members and ask candidate to introduce himself/herself. § Mention that you will take notes. § Explain agenda. § Questions from candidate. 12/10/10 . § Describe aim and format of interview.

Structure of the CBI
v 2.

Opening Question – Ice-breaker:

v Tell me about the main responsibilities in your current job.


v Ask candidate to briefly summarize education and recent work history; v Ask questions relating to competencies/technical aspects of the job. v Tell candidate which competency you are exploring;

§ Each Panel member will cover a competency § Other Panel members may ask questions they may have about a competency explored by another member.


Structure of the CBI
v 3.

§ §



Exploring Competencies: Cover each competency in turn; Try to get examples of behavior from different areas of the candidate’s experience; For each competency, aim to explore both positive and negative information; Summarize after each competency.


it may be necessary to discuss further issues such as current application and further aims.Structure of the CBI v 4. § Provide an opportunity for the candidate to ad any further points:  Is there anything else you feel is relevant. which you would like to add? Explain next steps in the process 12/10/10 . Closure: § After all the competencies have been covered.

v vEvaluating Candidates 12/10/10 .

ORCE vObservation vRecording vClassifying vEvaluation 12/10/10 .

ORCE vObservation vRecording vClassifying vEvaluation v   vObservation: § Observe what candidates do or say. § Watch body language § Concentrate on getting the information you need  12/10/10 .

VERBAL BEHAVIOUR Proximity Relaxed tone Smiles Eye contact Open gestures Nodding Physical distance Aggressive posture Tone of voice Staring eyes Hostile gestures th os H W ar m Do m in at io Physical positioning Interrupting Loud tone Dominant gestures 12/10/10 Co nt ro l Interviewer’s Body Language b Su e en iv iss m ity til ss Minimal input Quiet tone Permitting interruptions Downcast eyes Nervous gestures n .OBSERVE NON .

v Observation v Recording v Classifying v Evaluation 12/10/10 . hesitancy.ORCE  v Record: § Take notes openly. write brief notes using key words. § In order to maintain rapport and write down important notes. excessive nerves. § Use evaluation form § Record what candidate said § Take notes on other aspects of behavior: verbal fluency.

v Observation v Recording v Classifying v Evaluation v 12/10/10 .ORCE v v v Classifying: § In order to classify effectively. the interview needs to have a good understanding of the competency and the behaviors associated with it. § Determine which competency the behavior illustrates.

or Client Orientation § I developed the plan for the team to follow.ORCE v v v v Which competency is being covered: Planning & Organizing. § Delivered on time within resource constraints. § Ensure the plan met the client needs. § I set objectives and time lines. § Kept the client informed at every step. § Thought through the possible problems. § Adapted the plan as the client needs changed. v 12/10/10 v Observation v Recording v Classifying v Evaluation  .

Evaluation v v v Observation v Recording v Classifying v Evaluation  vWhen evaluating candidates: § Look for more than one piece of evidence. 12/10/10 . § Attempt to understand conflicting evidence. § Look for trends and supporting evidence.

usually rating the interviewee on the competency.ORCE v Observation  v Evaluating: § At this stage. the interviewer needs to establish the level of the behavior described. § Both numerical rating scales and a qualitative description are used for each v Recording  v Classifying  v Evaluation   12/10/10 . § Use the evaluation scale.

Emotional undertone v 12/10/10 .LISTENING  v Make correct assessment and analysis of what is heard: Sequence of ideas. Development of the theme.

to note any points we did not get down during the discussion. we shall need. while they are fresh in our memory.NOTE TAKING v At the end of each interview.  v This is the time to complete the Interviewer’s Evaluation Form v 12/10/10 . before seeing the next candidate.

Exercises v v Role Play 12/10/10 .

  Other Behaviors During the Interview  12/10/10 .

12/10/10 . but time’s run out. cause ü Don’t allow this: We’re getting rather short of time I’m sorry.TALKING TOO MUCH Nerves or basic character may someone to be almost unstoppable. I have another candidate waiting.

Talked too much ourselves Overwhelmed the candidate with an excess of information. We may have: Asked a difficult or embarrassing question before the conversational flow was established. however relevant. Said something without realizing it that has puzzled or upset the candidate.TALKING TOO LITTLE    Perhaps the fault has been ours. v 12/10/10 .

I must move you on quickly to the next point. but I have very little time.CANDIDATE DOMINATING INTERVIEW v Some candidates may take control of the proceedings. ü I’m afraid we are wasting each other’s time. As interviewer. it is essential that we remain master: v ü Forgive me. but I would prefer to stick to my original plan. ü I am sorry. 12/10/10 .

If it becomes too long.SILENCE A pause is often necessary to allow the respondents to order their thoughts Silences most often indicate that the person is thinking about his/her response. ask respondent if he/she needs more time or if something is unclear. 12/10/10 .

Weigh up evidence objectively.CBI CONCLUSIONS Good interviewers: ü ü ü ü ü ü Ask for evidence of behaviour. 12/10/10 . Do not leap to a decision. OPEN BACK. Support decisions with evidence. Make sure questions are fair & relevant.

and the interviewer speaks for only 20%.LISTENING  • ü A basic rule is that the candidate speaks for 80% of the time. ü  .

Common Listening Problems v v We let our attention wander. v We think ahead to what we want to say next and miss what’s being said. v We let our emotions interfere with our judgment. .

Examples  v Does the interviewee give examples from his/her own experience? .

Active Language v Does the interviewee use active language to describe his/her role?  v Does he/she avoid using passive language .

logical. concise and complete? .Logical Presentation v v v Are the answers organized.

Non-Verbal Communication v Does interviewee:  § Maintain eye contact? § Use the right gestures? § Respond to interviewers’ nonverbal communication?   .

.CBI Questions v v Should all questions in a CBI be behavioral questions?  v Not necessarily.

Competency Gaps v v Were there any competencies the interviewee couldn’t prove or didn’t have?  v Did the interviewee acknowledge the gaps and explain what steps he/she was going to take to overcome them? .

QUESTIONS? 12/10/10 .

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