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ACTIVITY'
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STAP P 1 M 6110
The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for
reasons different from those owing to which it was given
TITLE
CASING DESIGN MANUAL
DISTRIBUTION LIST
Eni - Agip Division Italian Districts
Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units
STAP Archive
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities
Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities
NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a CD-
Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in Eni -
Agip Division Headquarter)
Date of issue:

ƒ


€ Issued by P. Magarini
E. Monaci
C. Lanzetta A. Galletta
28/06/99 28/06/99 28/06/99
REVISIONS PREP'D CHK'D APPR'D
28/06/99
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INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION 5
1.1. PURPOSE OF CASING 6
2. CASING PROFILES AND DRILLING SCENARIOS 7
2.1. Casing Profiles 7
2.1.1. Onshore Wells 7
2.1.2. Offshore Wells - Surface Wellhead 7
2.1.3. Offshore Wells - Surface Wellhead & Mudline Suspension 7
2.1.4. Offshore Wells - Subsea Wellhead 7
2.2. Drive, Structural & Conductor Casing 8
2.2.1. Surface Casing 8
2.2.2. Intermediate Casing 9
2.2.3. Production Casing 10
2.2.4. Liner 11
3. SELECTION OF CASING SEATS 12
3.1. Conductor Casi ng 15
3.2. Surface Casing 15
3.3. Intermediate Casing 15
3.4. Drilling Liner 16
3.5. Production Casing 17
3.6. CASING AND relative HOLE SIZES 17
3.6.1. Standard Casing and Hole Sizes 21
4. CASING SPECIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION 22
4.1. CASING SPECIFICATION 22
4.2. API CASING CLASSIFICATION 23
4.3. NON-API CASING 25
5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL 28
5.1. General 28
5.2. Stress-Strain Diagram 28
5.3. Heat Treatment Of Alloy Steels 30
6. TUBULAR RANGE LENGTHS & COLOUR CODING 36
6.1. Range lengths 36
6.2. api tubular marking and colour coding 38
6.2.1. Markings 38
6.2.2. Colour Coding 39
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7. APPROACH TO CASING DESIGN 41
7.1. WELLBORE FORCES 42
7.2. DESIGN FACTOR (DF) 42
7.2.1. Company Design Factors 44
7.2.2. Application of Design Factors 45
8. DESIGN CRITERIA 46
8.1. BURST 46
8.1.1. Design Methods 46
8.1.2. Company Design Procedure 47
8.2. COLLAPSE 50
8.2.1. Company Design Procedure 50
8.3. TENSION 54
8.3.1. General 54
8.3.2. Buoyancy Force 54
8.3.3. Company Design Procedure 59
8.3.4. Example Hook Load During Cementing 59
8.4. BIAXIAL STRESS 62
8.4.1. General 62
8.4.2. Effects On Collapse Resistance 62
8.4.3. Company Design Procedure 64
8.4.4. Example Collapse Caclulation 65
8.5. BENDING 67
8.5.1. General 67
8.5.2. Determination Of Bending Effect 68
8.5.3. Company Design Procedure 70
8.5.4. Example Bending Calculation 70
8.6. CASING WEAR 72
8.6.1. General 72
8.6.2. Volumetric Wear Rate 73
8.6.3. Factors Affecting Casing Wear (Example) 76
8.6.4. Wear Factors 80
8.6.5. Detection Of Casing Wear 86
8.6.6. Casing Wear Reduction 86
8.6.7. Wear Allowance In Casing Design 87
8.6.8. Company Design Procedure 88
8.7. SALT SECTIONS 89
8.7.1. General 89
8.7.2. External Loading Due To Salt Flow 89
8.7.3. Company Design Procedure 94
9. CORROSION 96
9.1. General 96
9.1.1. Exploration and Appraisal Wells 96
9.1.2. Development Wells 96
9.1.3. Contributing Factors to Corrosion 97
9.2. Forms Of Corrosion 98
9.2.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 98
9.2.2. Corrosion Caused By CO
2
And Cl
-
105
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9.2.3. Corrosion Caused By H
2
S, CO
2
And Cl
-
107
9.3. Corrosion Control Measures 108
9.4. Corrosion Inhibitors 109
9.5. Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels 109
9.5.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels 109
9.5.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels 110
9.5.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels 110
9.5.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 110
9.5.5. Duplex Stainless Steel 111
9.6. Casing For Sour Service 113
9.7. Ordering Specifications 114
9.8. Company Design Procedure 114
9.8.1. CO
2
Corrosion 114
9.8.2. H
2
S Corrosion 115
10. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 118
10.1. High Temperature Service 118
10.2. Low Temperature Service 119
11. LOAD CONDITIONS 120
11.1. SAFE ALLOWABLE TENSILE LOAD 120
11.2. CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 120
11.2.1. Casing Support 120
11.2.2. Cementing Loads 121
11.3. PRESSURE TESTING 122
11.4. BUCKLING AND COMPRESSIve loading 122
11.4.1. Buckling 122
11.4.2. Compressive Loads 123
12. PRESSURE RATING OF BOP EQUIPMENT 126
12.1. BOP selection criteria 126
12.2. Kick tolerance 129
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1. INTRODUCTION
The selection of casing grades and weights is an engineering task affected by many factors,
including local geology, formation pressures, hole depth, formation temperature, logistics and
various mechanical factors.
The engineer must keep in mind during the design process the major logistics problems in
controlling the handling of the various mixtures of grades and weights by rig personnel without
risk of installing the wrong grade and weight of casing in a particular hole section. World-wide,
experience has shown that the use of two/three different grades or two/three different weights
is the maximum that can be handled by most rigs and rig crews.
After selecting a casing for a particular hole section, the designer should consider upgrading
the casing in cases where:
• Extreme wear is expected from drilling equipment used to drill the next hole
section or from wear caused by wireline equipment.
• Buckling in deep and hot wells.
Once the factors are considered, casing cost should be considered.
If the number of different grades and weights are necessary, it follows that cost is not always
a major criterion.
Most major operating companies have differing policies for the design of casing for exploration
and development wells, e.g:
• For exploration, the current practice is to upgrade the selected casing,
irrespective of any cost factor.
• For development wells, the practice is also to upgrade the selected casing,
irrespective of any cost factor.
• For development wells, the practice is to use the highest measured bottomhole
flowing pressures and well head shut-in pressures as the limiting factors for
internal pressures expected in the wellbore. These pressures will obviously place
controls only on the design of production casing or the production liner, and
intermediate casing.
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1.1. PURPOSE OF CASING
Casing tubulars are placed in a wellbore for the following reasons:
a) Supporting the weight of the wellhead and BOP stack.
b) Providing a return path for mud to surface when drilling.
c) Controlling well pressure by containing downhole pressure.
d) Isolating high pressure zones from the wellbore.
e) Isolating permeable zones from the wellbore which are likely to cause differential
sticking.
f) Isolating special trouble zones which may cause hole problems e.g.:
• Swelling clay, shales.
• Sloughing shales.
• Plastic formations (evaporites).
• Formations causing mud contamination e.g. gypsum, anhydrite, salt.
• Frozen unconsolidated layers in permafrost areas.
• Lost circulation zones.
g) Separating different pressure or fluid regimes.
h) Providing a stable environment for packers, liner hangers, etc.
i) Isolating weak zones from the wellbore during fracturing.
j) Isolating permeable productive formations, reducing the risk of underground
blowouts.
k) Confining produced fluid to the wellbore and providing a flow path to surface.
Production casing must perform a number of critical functions as follows:
a) Providing internal pressure containment when the tubing system leaks or fails.
b) Preventing wellbore fluids from contaminating production.
c) Providing protection for completion equipment.
d) Providing access to producing formations for remedial operations.
e) Providing cement integrity across producing formations.
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2. CASING PROFILES AND DRILLING SCENARIOS
2.1. CASING PROFILES
The following are the various casing configurations which can be used for onshore and
offshore wells.
2.1.1. Onshore Wells
• Drive/structural/conductor casing
• Surface casing
• Intermediate casings
• Production casing
• Intermediate casing and drilling liners
• Intermediate casing and production liner
• Drilling liner and tie-back string.
2.1.2. Offshore Wells - Surface Wellhead
As in onshore above.
2.1.3. Offshore Wells - Surface Wellhead & Mudline Suspension
• Drive/structural/conductor casing
• Surface casing and landing string
• Intermediate casings and landing strings
• Production casing
• Intermediate casings and drilling liners
• Drilling liner and tie-back string.
2.1.4. Offshore Wells - Subsea Wellhead
• Drive/structural/conductor casing
• Surface casing
• Intermediate casings
• Production casing
• Intermediate casing and drilling liners
• Intermediate casing and production liner
• Drilling liner and tie-back string.
Refer to the following sections for descriptions of the casings listed above.
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2.2. DRIVE, STRUCTURAL & CONDUCTOR CASING
The purpose of this first string of pipe is primarily to protect incompetent surface soils from
erosion by drilling fluids. Where formations are sufficiently stable, this string may be used to
install the full mud circulation system.
It also serves the following purposes:
• Guide the drilling string and subsequent casing into the hole. The conductor in
offshore drilling may form a part of the piling system for a wellhead jacket or piled
platform.
• Provide centralisation for the inner casing strings which limits column buckling.
They do not carry direct axial loads except during initial installation of the surface
casing.
• Reduce wave and current loadings imposed on the inner strings.
• Provide sacrificial protection against oxygen corrosion in the splash zone.
• Minimise the transfer of stresses to the inner casings resulting from the
settlement and rotational movement of gravity platforms.
The conductor casings are usually driven completely to depth or, alternatively, run into a
predrilled or jetted hole and cemented. If they are driven, they must be designed to withstand
hammering loads.
Conductor casings, in offshore drilling with subsea BOP's, are usually either jetted into place
or cemented in a predrilled hole. They support a Temporary Guide Base which
accommodates and aligns all future wellhead installations for both the drilling and production
phases. They directly carry both the axial and bending loads imposed by the wellhead, but are
rigidly connected to the next casing with centralisers and cement in order to dissipate loading
and minimise resulting stresses.
2.2.1. Surface Casing
The surface casing is installed to:
• Prevent poorly consolidated shallow formations from sloughing into the hole.
• Enable full mud circulation.
• Protect fresh water sands from contamination from the drilling mud.
• Provide protection against hydrocarbons found at shallow depths.
The surface casing string is cemented to surface or seabed and is the first casing on which
BOPs can be mounted. It is important to appreciate that the amount of protection provided
against internal pressure will only be as strong as the formation strength at the casing shoe,
hence it may be necessary to vent any influx taken through the surface string, rather than
attempt containment.
The surface string usually supports the wellhead and subsequent casing strings.
In offshore wells, above the top of the cement, the surface casing must be centralised to limit
column buckling.
The annulus between the conductor and surface string is usually left uncemented above the
mudline to minimise load transfer and bending stresses in the surface string.
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2.2.2. Intermediate Casing
These are used to ensure there is adequate blow-out protection for deeper drilling and to
isolate formations or hole profile changes, that can cause drilling problems.
The first intermediate string is the first casing providing full blow-out protection. Its setting
depth is often chosen so that it also isolates troublesome formations, loss zones, shallow
hydrocarbons, water sands, or the build-up section of deviated wells. It is usually cemented
up into the shoe of the conductor string and in some cases all the way to surface.
It is essential to install an intermediate casing string whenever there is a risk of experiencing a
kick which could cause breakdown at the previous casing shoe, and/or severe losses in the
open hole section.
An intermediate casing string is, therefore, nearly always set in the transition zone above or
below significant overpressures, and in any cap rock below a potential severe loss zone.
Similarly, it is good practice when appraising untested or deeper horizons, to case off the
known hydrocarbon bearing intervals as a contingency against the possibility of encountering
a loss circulation zone. Obviously the latter is intended primarily for massive reservoir
sections rather than sand-shale sequences with numerous small reservoirs and sub-
reservoirs. An intermediate string may also be set simply to reduce the overall cost of drilling
and completing the well by isolating intervals which have been found to cause mechanical
problems in the past.
For example it may be desirable to isolate:
• Swelling gumbo shale.
• Brittle caving shale.
• Creeping salt.
• Over-pressured permeable stringer.
• Build-up or drop-off section.
• High permeability sand.
• Partly depleted reservoir that causes differential sticking.
The designer should plan to combine many of these objectives when selecting a single
casing point. A liner may be used instead of a full intermediate casing and difficult wells may
actually contain several intermediate casings and/or liners. Caution should be taken when
using liners as it is necessary to ensure the higher casing is designed for the pressures at
lower depths.
The cement should cover all hydrocarbon zones and any salt or other creeping evaporites.
Zones containing highly corrosive formation waters are also often cemented off, especially
where there may be aquifer movement which replenishes the corrosive elements around the
wellbore.
Longer cement columns are sometimes required to prevent buckling of the casing during
deeper drilling. Many operating companies cement up inside the previous casing shoe for this
reason and is legislated on by some regulatory authorities.
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2.2.3. Production Casing
This is the string through which the well will be completed, produced and controlled
throughout its life.
On exploration wells this life may amount to only a very short testing period, but on most
development wells it will span a significant number of years during which many repairs and
recompletions may be performed. It is essential therefore that production casing retains its
integrity throughout its life.
In most cases, the production casing will serve to isolate the productive intervals, to facilitate
proper reservoir maintenance and/or prevent the influx of undesired fluids. In other cases,
accumulation conditions are such that the well can be cased with an open hole section below
the casing for an open hole completion (Refer to the completion design manual). The size of
the production casing should be selected to meet with the desired method of completion and
production.
On production wells the drilling engineer must design the casing in conjunction with the
completion engineer to ensure the optimum completion design is obtained. This usually
impacts on the production casing design with regard to:
• Well flow potential, i.e. tubing size.
• The possibility of a multiple tubing string completion.
• The space required for downhole equipment e.g. safety valves, artificial lift
equipment etc.
• The geometry required for efficient through-tubing well intervention operations.
• Potential well servicing and recompletion requirements.
• Adequate annular clearances to permit circulation at reasonable rate and
pressures.
It is also possible that the casing itself could be used as a conduit for maximising well
deliverability (casing flow), for minimising the pressure losses during frac jobs, for chemical
injection or for lift gas. Consideration must be given to production operations which will affect
the temperature of the production casing and impose additional thermal stresses. Annulus
thermal expansion can cause production casing collapse when it is cemented up into the
intermediate casing. The loads to which a production casing is subjected are, therefore, quite
different from those imposed during drilling.
It is very important that the selection of the steel grade and connections for the production
string are made correctly.
Special considerations are required where the production casing will be drilled through and
may therefore suffer some damage e.g.: open hole (barefoot) completions, open hole gravel
packs, liner completions, deep zone appraisal.
In a liner completion, both the liner and casing form the production string and must be
designed accordingly.
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2.2.4. Liner
A liner is a string of pipe which is installed but does not extend all the way to surface. It is
hung a short distance above the previous casing shoe and is usually cemented over its entire
length to ensure it seals within the previous casing string.
Drilling liners may be installed to:
• Increase shoe strength.
• Meet with rig tensional load limitations.
• Minimise the length of reduced diameter and the possible adverse effects on
drilling hydraulics.
Production liners may be installed to:
• Reduce costs.
• Minimise the length of reduced diameter production tubing and the consequent
adverse effect upon well flow potential.
• Meet with rig tensional load limitations on occasions on deep wells.
Either type of liner may subsequently be tied-back to surface with a string of pipe stabbed into
a liner hanger Polished Bore Receptacle (PBR).
There are a number of disadvantages to installing liners, including:
• The risk of poor pressure integrity, either across the liner lap due to poor
cementation or as a result of wear to the casing from which the liner is hung off.
• The risk of the liner running equipment being cemented in the hole.
• The difficulty of obtaining a good cementation due to smaller liner to hole and liner
to production casing clearances.
• The need to set a retrievable bridge plug above the liner lap if the BOP stack
needs to be removed. (This does not apply to completion operations when a
tubing string has been run and landed.)
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3. SELECTION OF CASING SEATS
The selection of casing setting depths is one of the most critical in the well design process
and is based on:
• Total depth of well.
• Pore pressures.
• Fracture gradients.
• The probability of shallow gas pockets.
• Problem zones.
• Depth of potential prospects.
• Time limits on open hole drilling.
• Casing programme compatibility with existing wellhead systems.
• Casing programme compatibility with planned completion programme (production
well).
• Casing availability (grade and dimensions).
• Economy, i.e. time consumption to drill the hole, run casing and cost of
equipment.
When planning, all available information should be carefully documented and considered to
obtain knowledge of the various uncertainties.
Information is sourced from:
• Evaluation of the seismic and geological background documentation used as the
decision for drilling the well.
• Drilling data from offset wells in the area. (Company wells or scouting
information).
The key factor to satisfactory picking of casing seats is the assessment of pore pressure and
fracture pressures throughout the well.
As the pore pressures in a formation being drilled approach the fracture pressure at the last
casing seat then installation of a further string of casing is necessary.
figure 3.a and figure 3.b show typical examples of casing seat selections.
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Figure 3.A - Example of Idealised Casing Seat Selection
Notes to figure 3.a above:
a) Casing is set at depth 1, where pore pressure is P1 and the fracture pressure is
F1.
b) Drilling continues to depth 2, where the pore pressure P2 has risen to almost
equal the fracture pressure (F1) at the first casing seat.
c) Another casing string is therefore set at this depth, with fracture pressure (F2).
d) Drilling can thus continue to depth 3, where pore pressure P3 is almost equal to
the fracture pressure F2 at the previous casing seat.
This example does not include any safety or trip margins, which would, in practice, be taken
into account.
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Figure 3.B - Example Casing Seat Selection
(for a typical geopressurised well using a pressure profile).
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3.1. CONDUCTOR CASING
Setting depth is usually shallow and selected so that drilling fluid may be circulated to the mud
pits while drilling the surface hole. The casing seat must be in an impermeable formation with
sufficient fracturing resistance to allow fluid circulation to the surface.
Where working with subsea wellheads, no there is no circulation through the conductor string
to the surface. It is set deep enough to assist in stabilising the guide base to which guide lines
are attached.
Large sizes are required (usually 16ins to 30ins diameter) as necessary to accommodate the
size of all subsequently required strings.
3.2. SURFACE CASING
Setting depths should be in an impermeable section below any fresh water formations.
In some instances, near-surface gravel or shallow gas may need to be cased off shallower.
The depth should be great enough to provide a fracture gradient sufficient enough to allow
drilling to the next casing setting point and to provide reasonable assurance that broaching to
the surface will not occur in the event of BOP closure to contain a kick.
In hard rock areas the string may be relatively shallow, but in soft rock areas deeper strings
are necessary.
3.3. INTERMEDIATE CASING
The most predominant use of intermediate casing is to protect normally pressured formations
from the effects of increased mud weight needed in deeper drilling.
An intermediate string may be necessary to case off lost circulation zones, salt beds, or
sloughing shales.
In cases of pressure reversals against depth, intermediate casing may be set to allow
reduction of mud weight.
When a transition zone is penetrated and mud weight increased, the normal pressure interval
below surface pipe is subjected to two detrimental effects:
• The fracture gradient may be exceeded by the mud gradient, particularly if it
becomes necessary to close-in on a kick The result is loss of circulation and the
possibility of an underground blow-out occurring.
• The differential between the mud column pressure and formation pressure is
increased, increasing the risk of stuck pipe.
To ensure the integrity of the surface casing seat, leak-off tests are necessary and must be
specified in the Drilling Programme.
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Sometimes it is necessary to alter the setting depth of the intermediate casing during drilling
under certain circumstances such as when:
• Hole problems prohibit further drilling.
• Pore pressure changes occur substantially shallower or deeper than originally
calculated or estimated. For this reason the Geological Drilling Programme should
state the pore pressure requirement at which casing should be set when setting
casing into a transition zone.
3.4. DRILLING LINER
The setting of a drilling liner is often an economically attractive decision in deep wells as
opposed to setting a full string. Such a decision must be carefully considered as the
intermediate string must be designed for burst as if it were set to the depth of the liner.
If drilling is to be continued below the drilling liner then burst requirements for the intermediate
string are further increased which increases the cost of the intermediate string. Also, there is
the possibility of continuing wear of the intermediate string that must also be evaluated.
If a production liner is planned, then either the production liner or the drilling liner should be
tied back to the surface as a production casing.
If the drilling liner is to be tied-back, it is usually better to do so before drilling the hole for the
production liner. By doing this, the intermediate casing can be designed for a lower burst
requirement, resulting in considerable cost savings. Also, any wear to the intermediate string
is spanned prior to drilling the producing interval.
If increasing mud weight will be required, while drilling hole for the drilling liner, then leak-off
tests must be conducted and specified in the casing programme for the intermediate casing
shoe within the Geological Drilling Programme (Refer to the Drilling Procedures Manual).
Insufficient fracture gradient at the shoe may limit the depth of the drilling liner.
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3.5. PRODUCTION CASING
Whether production casing or a liner is installed, the depth is determined from the geological
objective. Depths, hence the casing programme, may have to be altered accordingly if depths
come in too high or too low.
The objective and the method of identifying the correct production casing depth should also
be stated in the programme.
To cater for some completion operations, a sufficient amount of sump is required for fill during
production or well intervention operations, run out for logging tools and to accommodate lost
tools or dropped TCP guns, etc. Drilling extra hole, for dropping TCP guns or similar reasons,
may be costly and the effectiveness of such considerations should be seriously evaluated
before commitment.
3.6. CASING AND RELATIVE HOLE SIZES
In general, it is good practice to run standard bit sizes but in deep wells, thick walled casing
may be necessary to provide sufficient strength. The designer can sometimes solve this
problem by specifying ‘special’ drift casing which will allow running of bits with diameters
approaching the casing inside diameter rather than being limited to drift diameter.
Manufacturers produce oversize casing in several sizes providing strength comparable to API
sizes, but with clearances to suit standard bit sizes. A typical well may have 30ins drive/
structural/conductor casing, 20ins surface casing, 13
3
/
8
ins and 9
5
/
8
ins intermediate casing
and 7ins production casing/liner.
Although the above is one of the most common arrangements, there is a multitude of different
combinations of casing sizes which the operator may choose to use if he desires, and if the
casing design allows.
For a normal exploration well, it is recommended that an 8
1
/
2
ins hole be the smallest diameter
planned because of drilling and evaluation difficulties encountered with 6ins. A 6ins hole size
should only be planned as a contingency.
figure 3.c shows the choice of casing and bit sizes available to engineers.
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Figure 3.C - Casing and Bit Selection Chart
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The chart in figure 3.c can be used to select the casing bit sizes required to fulfil many drilling
programme options.
To use the chart:
1) Determine the casing or liner size for the last size pipe to be installed.
2) Enter the chart at that point.
3) The flow of the chart then indicates hole sizes that may be required to set that size pipe
(i.e., 5” Liner inside 6” or 6
1
/
2
” hole).
Solid lines indicate commonly used bits for that size pipe and can be considered to
have adequate clearance to run and cement the casing or liner (i.e., 5
1
/
2
” Casing inside
7
7
/
8
” hole).
The broken lines indicate less common optional hole sizes used (i.e., 5” inside 6
1
/
8

hole, etc.).
The selection of one of these broken paths requires special attention be given to the
connection, mud weight, cementing and doglegs.
Large connection ODs, thick mud cake build-up, problem cementing areas (high water
loss, lost returns, etc.) and doglegs all aggravate the attempt to run casing and liners in
low clearance situations.
Once the hole size has been selected. a casing large enough to allow passage of a bit
to make that hole can be selected. The solid lines are commonly required casing sizes.
encompassing most weights (i.e., 6
1
/
2
” bit inside 7
5
/
8
” casing).
The broken lines indicate casing sizes where only the lighter weights can be used
(i.e. 6
1
/
8
” inside 7” casing).
This selection process is repeated until the anticipated number of casing sizes has
been reached.
Note: Some drilling programmes can require special tools and operations to
obtain the wellbore size for the casing to be installed. An underreamer is
a drilling tool, used to enlarge section of hole below a restriction
(situations where equipment, such as BOP or wellhead size restrictions,
limit the tool entry size).
figure 3.d shows the standard casing programme and figure 3.e the possible alternative.
further standard casing and hole sizes information is shown in table 3.a.
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Figure 3.D - Standard Casing Programme
Figure 3.E - Alternative Casing Programme

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3.6.1. Standard Casing and Hole Sizes
Outer Casing
Size
Largest Inner
Casing Size
Under-Reaming
Minimum Pilot
Hole Size
Under-reamed
Diameter
Maximum
Tool OD
24 20 18
1
/
2
26 18
20 16 17
1
/
2
22 17
16 13
3
/
8
14
3
/
4
17
1
/
2
14
13
3
/
8
(48-68#) 10
3
/
4
12
1
/
4
15 11
3
/
4
11
3
/
4
8
5
/
8
10
5
/
8
12
1
/
4
10
9
5
/
8
(29.3#) 7
5
/
8
8
3
/
4
11
1
/
2
8
1
/
4
8
5
/
8
(24-32#) 6
5
/
8
7
5
/
8
9
1
/
2
7
1
/
4
8
5
/
8
(36-49#) 6 7
3
/
8
9 7
7
5
/
8
5
1
/
2
6
1
/
4
8
1
/
2
6
7 (17-32#) 5 6 8 5
3
/
4
Table 3.A - Recommended Casing Size Versus Hole Size
Note: Recommendations above are based on:
• • The minimum clearance of 0.400” on diameter between the outer
string drift diameter and inner coupling diameter.
• • The clearance between the hole wall and the coupling OD is at least
2” on diameter. Less clearance than this may create a back pressure
which will dehydrate the cement to a point where it cannot be
pumped.
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4. CASING SPECIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION
There is a great range of casings available from suppliers from plain carbon steel for
everyday mild service through exotic duplex steels for extremely sour service conditions. The
casings available can be classified under two specifications, API and non-API.
Casing specifications, including API and its history, are described and discussed in sections
4.1 and 4.2. Non-API casing manufacturers have produced products to satisfy a demand in
the industry for casing to meet with extreme conditions which the API specifications do not
meet. The area of use for this casing are also discussed in section 4.1 below.
The properties of steel used in the manufacture of casing is fundamentally important and
should be fully understood by design engineers, and to this end these properties are
described in section 4.2.
4.1. CASING SPECIFICATION
The American Petroleum Institute (API) has an appointed Committee on Standardisation of
tubular goods which publishes, and continually updates, a series of Specifications, Bulletins
and Recommended Practices covering the manufacture, performance and handling of oilfield
tubular goods. They also license manufacturers to use the API Monogram on products which
meet with their published specifications therefore can be identified as complying with the
standards.
The API Forum has been in existence since 1924, and their standardisation of oilfield
equipment and practices are almost universally accepted as the world standard on tubulars.
This does not mean that the published performance data is accepted as the best theoretical
representation of the parameters of tubulars.
It is essential that design engineers are aware of any changes made to the API specifications.
All involved with casing design must have immediate access to the latest copy of API Bulletin
5C2 which lists the performance properties of casing, tubing and drillpipe. Although these are
also published in many contractors' handbooks and tables, which are convenient for field use,
care must be taken to ensure that they are current.
Also a library of the other relevant API publications shall be available and design engineers
should make themselves familiar with these documents and their contents.
It should not be interpreted from the above that only API tubulars and connections may be
used in the field as some particular engineering problems are overcome by specialist
solutions which are not yet addressed by API specifications. In fact, it would be impossible to
drill many extremely deep wells without recourse to the use of pipe manufactured outwith API
specifications (non-API).
Similarly, many of the ‘Premium’ connections that are used in high pressure high GOR
conditions are also non-API.
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When using non-API pipe, the designer must check the methods by which the strengths have
been calculated. Usually it will be found that the manufacturer will have used the published
API formulae (Bulletin 5C3), backed up by tests to prove the performance of his product
conforms to, or exceeds, these specifications. However, in some cases, the manufacturers
have claimed their performance is considerably better than that calculated by the using API
formulae. When this occurs the manufacturers claims must be critically examined by the
designer or his technical advisors, and the performance corrected if necessary.
It is also important to understand, that to increase competition, the API tolerances have been
set fairly wide. However, the API does provide for the purchaser to specify more rigorous
chemical, physical and testing requirements on orders, and may also request place
independent inspectors to quality control the product in the plant.
4.2. API CASING CLASSIFICATION
Casing is classified by:
• Outside diameter.
• Nominal unit weight.
• Grade of the steel.
• Type of connection.
• Length by range.
• Manufacturing process
An example of an API table showing the parameters listed above in given in table 4.a.
Reference should always be made to current API specification 5C2 for casing lists and
performances.
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Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5
Size: OD Nominal Wt Grade Wall Thickness Type of Thread
ins mm lbs per ft Grades Inc ins mm Short Long Buttress Extreme Line
8
5
/
8
219.1 24.00 J, K 0.264 6.71 X
8
5
/
8
219.1 28.00 H 0.304 7.72 X
8
5
/
8
219.1 32.00 H 0.352 8.94 X
8
5
/
8
219.1 32.00 J, K 0.352 8.94 X X X X
8
5
/
8
219.1 36.00 J, K 0.400 10.16 X X X X
8
5
/
8
219.1 36.00 C, L, N 0.400 10.16 X X X
8
5
/
8
219.1 40.00 C, L, N, P 0.450 11.43 X X X
8
5
/
8
219.1 44.00 C, L, N, P 0.500 12.70 X X X
8
5
/
8
219.1 49.00 C, L, N, P, Q 0.557 14.15 X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 32.30 H 0.312 7.92 X
9
5
/
8
244.5 36.00 H 0.352 8.94 X
9
5
/
8
244.5 36.00 J, K 0.352 8.94 X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 40.00 J, K 0.395 10.03 X X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 40.00 C, L, N 0.395 10.03 X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 43.50 C, L, N, P 0.435 11.05 X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 47.00 C, L, N, P 0.472 11.99 X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 53.50 C, L, N, P, Q 0.545 13.84 X X X
9
5
/
8
244.5 59.40 C 90 only 0.609 15.47
9
5
/
8
244.5 64.90 C 90 only 0.672 17.07
9
5
/
8
244.5 70.30 C 90 only 0.734 18.64
9
5
/
8
244.5 75.60 C 90 only 0.797 20.24
10
3
/
4
273.1 32.75 H 0.297 7.09 X
10
3
/
4
273.1 40.50 H 0.350 8.89 X
10
3
/
4
273.1 40.50 J, K 0.350 8.89 X X
10
3
/
4
273.1 45.50 J, K 0.400 10.16 X X X
10
3
/
4
273.1 51.00 C, K, K, N, P 0.450 11.43 X X X
10
3
/
4
273.1 55.50 C, L, N, P 0.495 12.57 X X X
10
3
/
4
273.1 60.70 P, Q 0.545 13.84 X X X
10
3
/
4
273.1 65.70 P, Q 0.595 15.11 X X
10
3
/
4
273.1 59.40 C 90 only 0.545 13.84
10
3
/
4
273.1 65.70 C 90 only 0.595 15.11
10
3
/
4
273.1 73.20 C 90 only 0.672 17.07
10
3
/
4
273.1 79.20 C 90 only 0.734 18.64
10
3
/
4
273.1 85.30 C 90 only 0.797 20.24
11
3
/
4
298.5 42.00 H 0.333 8.46 X
11
3
/
4
298.5 47.00 J, K 0.375 9.52 X X
11
3
/
4
298.5 54.00 J, K 0.435 11.05 X X
11
3
/
4
298.5 60.00 J,K,N,C,L,P,Q 0.489 12.42 X X
13
3
/
8
339.7 48.00 H 0.330 8.38 X
13
3
/
8
339.7 54.50 J, K 0.380 9.65 X X
13
3
/
8
339.7 61.00 J, K 0.430 10.92 X X
13
3
/
8
339.7 68.00 C,L,J,K,N,P,Q 0.480 12.19 X X
13
3
/
8
339.7 72.00 C, L, N, P, Q 0.514 13.06 X X
16 406.4 65.00 H 0.375 9.52 X
16 406.4 75.00 J, K 0.438 11.13 X X
16 406.4 84.00 J, K 0.495 12.57 X X
18
5
/
8
473.0 87.50 H, J, K 0.435 11.05 X
18
5
/
8
473.0 87.50 J, K 0.435 11.05 X
20 508.0 94.00 H, J, K 0.438 11.13 X X
20 508.0 94.00 J, K 0.438 11.13 X
20 508.0 106.50 J, K 0.500 12.70 X X X
20 508.0 133.00 J, K 0.635 16.13 X X X
Table 4.A - Example API Casing List
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4.3. NON-API CASING
Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to use API casings whenever feasible. Some
manufacturers produce non-API casings for H
2
S and deep well service where API casings do
not meet requirements. The most common non-API grades are shown in the attached table
figure 4.a shows the API and non-API materials available and the environment in which they
are recommended to be used.
Figure 4.A- Casing Materials Selection
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Application (Refer to
figure 4.a)
Domain Material
SM’
Designation
Notes
Mild Environment Domain “A” API J 55
N 80
P 110
(Q 125)
SM 95G
SM 125G
Sulphide Stress Corrosion
Cracking (medium pressure
and temperature)
Domain “B” Cr or Cr-Mo Steel
API L 80
C 90
T 95
SM 80S
SM 90S
SM 95S
Sulphide Stress Corrosion
Cracking (high pressure and
temperature)
Domain “C” 1Cr 0.5Mo Steel
Modified AISI 4130
SM 85SS
SM 90SS
SM C100
SM C110
Higher yield
strength for sour
service
Wet CO
2
Corrosion Domain “D” 9Cr 1Mo Steel SM 9CR 75
SM 9CR 80
SM 9CR 95
Quenched and
tempered
13Cr Steel
Modified AISI 420
SM 13CR 75
SM 13CR 80
SM 13CR 95
Quenched and
tempered
Wet CO
2
with a little H
2
S
Corrosion
Domain “E” 22Cr 5Ni 3Mo Steel
25Cr 6Ni 3Mo Steel
SM 22CR 65*
SM 22CR 110**
SM 22CR 125**
SM 25CR 75*
SM 25CR 110**
SM 25CR 125**
SM 25CR 140**
Duplex phase
Stainless steels
* Solution Treated
** Cold drawn
Wet CO
2
with H
2
S Corrosion Domain “F” 25Cr 35Ni 3Mo Steel
22Cr 42Ni 3Mo Steel
20Cr 35Ni 5Mo Steel
SM 2535 110
SM 2535 125
SM 2242 110
SM 2242 125
SM 2035 110
SM 2035 125
As cold drawn
Most Corrosive Environment Domain “G” 25Cr 50Ni 6Mo Steel
20Cr 58Ni 13Mo Steel
16Cr 54Ni 16Mo Steel
SM 2550 110
SM 2550 125
SM 2550 140
SM 2060 110***
SM 2060 125***
SM 2060 140***
SM 2060 155***
SM C276 110***
SM C276 125***
SM C276 140***
As cold drawn
*** Environment
with free
Sulphur
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Table 4.B - Example Non-API Steel Grades
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5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL
5.1. GENERAL
Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e.g. the shattering of glass),
Yield, wear, corrosion, and other causes. These failures are failures of the material. Buckling
may cause failure of the part without any failure of the material.
As load is applied, deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs. With all solid
materials, some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation, i.e. the
material behaves elastically.
Beyond the elastic limit, the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of
plastic, or permanent, deformation, If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation
before final fracture. It is classed as ductile material, and if fracture occurs with little or no
plastic deformation. The material is classed as brittle.
5.2. STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM
Tests of material performance may be conducted in many different ways, such as by torsion,
compression and shear, but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively
characteristics of all the other types of tests.
The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension of the tension test is usually
represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional
area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two
gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae.
A typical plot for a carbon steel is shown in figure 5.a.
From this, it is seen that the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line defined by
Hooke's law, and the slope of this line, or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range,
is the modulus of elasticity E, sometimes called Young's modulus.
Beyond the elastic limit, permanent, or plastic strain occurs.
If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength (see
above) the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the
original elastic line, leaving a permanent set.
In steels, a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit, known as yielding. This gives
rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant
load. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower
part of the yielding region the lower yield point. In the harder and stronger steels, and under
certain conditions of temperature, the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is
correspondingly harder to measure. In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point, it is
customary to define a yield strength. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the
material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0.2 percent is widely accepted in the
industry).
For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods the API specifies the yield strength as
the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0.5 and 0.6 percent of the gauge
length.
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Figure 5.A - Stress - Strain Diagram
Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice.
Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set, as required by
definition, it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition
the proportional limit) as the elastic limit. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the
‘proportional elastic limit’.
As extension continues beyond yielding, the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the
curve, but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is
drawn out. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum
and then falls off until final fracture occurs. The stress at the maximum point is called the
tensile strength (TS) or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted
property.
The mechanical and chemical properties of casing, tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API
specifications 5CT and 5C2.
Depending on the type or grade, minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical
properties, and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H 40).
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The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength, e.g.:
Grade Min. Yield Strength
H 40 40,000psi
J 55 55,000psi
C 75 75,000psi
N 80 80,000psi
etc.
In the design of casing and tubing strings the minimum yield strength of the steel is taken as
the basis of all strength calculations
As far as chemical properties are concerned, in API 5CT only the maximum phosphorus and
sulphur contents are specified, the quality and the quantities of other alloying elements are left
to the manufacturer.
API specification 5CT ‘Restricted yield strength casing and tubing’ however, specifies the
complete chemical requirements for grades C 75, C 95 and L 80.
5.3. HEAT TREATMENT OF ALLOY STEELS
The structure of a metal or alloy and its mechanical and corresponding physical properties
are strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the material and heat treatment
applied. In the heat treatment process, the temperature reached and the rate of cooling are
the essentials of obtaining the physical properties.
Comparison of the chemical composition shows that in general there is little difference
between the various grades of steel and the difference in mechanical properties is achieved
mainly through the variation heat treatment process.
Rapid cooling of the steel from above the crystallisation temperature by quenching provides a
hard, brittle type steel. Slow cooling provides a soft low-strength steel.
The hardness of a specific alloy steel is directly proportional to the strength of that steel.
The various methods of heat treatment are as follows:
Annealing In this process the steel is heated above a critical temperature
and cooled very slowly, usually in the furnace. Annealing
accomplishes the following:
• Refines grain structure.
• Makes structure more uniform.
• Improves machinability.
Normalising This is an identical process to annealing except that the steel is
air cooled. As an example API grades J and K55 are heated to
about 860°C (1,580°F) before cooling.
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Tempering Consists of re-heating a quenched or normalised steel to a
specified temperature below the critical temperature, between
600°C and 680°C (1,110°F and 1,260°F) depending on the
grade for a specific time and cooling back to room temperature.
This process makes the steel tougher with only small loss in
strength.
Stress relieving Is similar to the tempering process but is done to relieve
internal stresses set up during the manufacturing process
(such as in upsetting).
Quenching Is the same procedure as normalising but has rapid cooling,
usually done in water, salt water or oil. un-tempered quenched
steels are very hard and brittle.
See the following tables for process of manufacturing, heat treatments, chemical composition
and mechanical properties of API tubulars.
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Tempering
Temperature Min.
Group Grade Type
Process of
Manufacture
Heat
Treatment
o
F
o
C
H 40 - S or EW None - -
J 55 - S or EW None
Note 1
- -
1 K 55 - S or EW None
Note 1
- -
N 80 (Casing) - S or EW None
Note 1
- -
N 80 (Tubing) - S or EW Note 1 - -
C 75 1 S or EW N&T 1,150 621
C 75 2 S or EW Q&T 1,150 621
C 75 3 S or EW N&T 1,150 621
C 75 9 Cr S Q&T* 1,100 593
C 75 18 Cr S Q&T* 1,100 593
2 C 90 1 S Q&T 1,150 621
C 90 2 S Q&T 1,150 621
C 95 - S or EW Q&T 1,000 538
L 80 1 S or EW Q&T 1,050 566
L 80 9 Cr S Q&T* 1,100 593
L 80 13 Cr S Q&T* 1,100 593
3 P 105 - S Q&T or N&T** - -
P 110 - S Q&T or N&T** - -
Q 125 1 S or EW*** Q&T - -
4 Q 125 2 S or EW*** Q&T - -
Q 125 3 S or EW*** Q&T - -
Q 125 4 S or EW*** Q&T - -
Note:
Full length normalised, normalised and tempered (N&T) or quenched and tempered (Q&T) at the
manufacture’s option or if so specified on the order.
Type 9 Cr and 13Cr grades may be air quenched
** Unless otherwise agreed between purchaser and manufacturer/processor
*** Special requirements unique to electric welded Q 125 casing are specified in SR11. When
welded Q 125 casing is furnished, the provisions of SR11 automatically in effect.
S = Seamless pipe
EW = Electric welded Pipe
Table 5.A - API Process of Manufacture and Heat Treatment
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Group Grade
Type
Carbon Maganese Molybdenum Chromium
Nickel Copper Phos-
phorous
Sulphur Silicon
min max. min max. min max. min max. max. max. max. max. max.
1 H - 40 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 ...
J - 55 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 ...
K - 55 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 ...
N - 80 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 ...
2 C - 75 1 ... 0.50 ... 1.90 0.15 0.40 *** *** *** *** 0.040 0.060 0.45
C - 75 2 ... 0.43 ... 1.50 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 0.45
C - 75 3 0.38 0.48 0.75 1.00 0.15 0.25 0.80 1.10 ... ... 0.040 0.040 ...
C - 75 9Cr ... 0.15 0.30 0.60 0.90 1.10 8.0 10.0 ... ... 0.020 0.010 1.0
C - 75 13Cr 0.15 0.22 0.25 1.00 ... ... 12.0 14.0 0.5 0.25 0.020 0.010 1.0
L - 80 1 ... 0.43* ... 1.90 ... ... ... ... 0.25 0.35 0.040 0.060 0.45
L - 80 9Cr ... 0.15 0.30 0.60 0.90 1.10 8.0 10.0 0.5 0.25 0.020 0.010 1.0
L - 80 13Cr 0.15 0.22 0.25 1.00 ... ... 12.0 14.0 0.5 0.25 0.020 0.010 1.0
C90 1 ... 0.35 ... 1.00 ... 0.75 ... 1.20 0.99 ... 0.030 0.010 ...
C90 2 ... 0.50 ... 1.90 ... NL ... NL 0.99 ... 0.030 0.010 ...
C95 ... ... 0.45* ... 1.90 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 0.45
3 P -105 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 ...
P -
110
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.040 0.060 ...
4 Q -125 1 ... 0.35 ... 1.00 ... .75 ... 1.20 0.99 ... 0.020 0.010 ...
Q -125 2 ... 0.35 ... 1.00 ... NL ... NL 0.99 ... 0.020 0.020 ...
Q -125 3 ... 0.50 ... 1.90 ... NL ... NL 0.99 ... 0.030 0.010 ...
Q -125 4 ... 0.50 ... 1.90 ... NL ... NL 0.99 ... 0.030 0.020 ...
Note:
*** For Grade C - 75, Type 1, Chromium, Nickel and Copper combined shall not exceed 0.50%.
* The Carbon contents for L - 80 may be increased to 0.50% max. if the product is oil
quenched.
* The Carbon contents for C - 95 may be increased to 0.55% max. if the product is oil
quenched.
NL No Limit. Elements shown must be reported in product analysis.
Table 5.B - Chemical Composition of API Tubulars
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Yield Strength Tensile
Strength
Hardness Specified Wall
Thickness
Allowable
Hardness
Variation
Group Grade min. max. min. max.*
psi MPa psi MPa psi MPa HRC BHN Inches HRC
1 H -40 40,000 276 80,000 552 60,000 414 ... ...
J - 55 55,000 379 80,000 552 75,000 517 ... ...
K - 55 55,000 379 80,000 552 95,000 655 ... ...
N - 80 80,000 552 110,000 758 100,000 689 ... ...
2 C - 75 1,2,3 75,000 517 90,000 620 95,000 655 ... ...
C - 75 9Cr 75,000 517 90,000 620 95,000 655 22 237
C - 75 13Cr 75,000 517 90,000 620 95,000 655 22 237
L - 80 1 80,000 552 95,000 655 95,000 655 23 241
L - 80 9 Cr 80,000 552 95,000 655 95,000 655 23 241
L - 80 13 Cr 80,000 552 95,000 655 95,000 655 23 241
C - 90 90,000 620 105,000 724 100,000 690 25.4 255 0.500 or less 3.0
C - 90 90,000 620 105,000 724 100,000 690 25.4 255 0.501 to 0.749 4.0
C - 90 90,000 620 105,000 724 100,000 690 25.4 255 0.750 to 0.999 5.0
C - 90 90,000 620 105,000 724 100,000 690 25.4 255 1.000 and
above
6.0
C - 95 95,000 655 110,000 758 105,000 724 ... ...
3 P - 105 105,000 724 135,000 931 120,000 827 ... ...
P - 110 110,000 758 140,000 965 125,000 862 ... ...
4 Q -125 125,000 860 150,000 1035 135,000 930 ... ... 0.500 or less 3.0
Q -125 125,000 860 150,000 1035 135,000 930 ... ... 0.501 to 0.749 4.0
Q -125 125,000 860 150,000 1035 135,000 930 ... ... 0.750 and
above
5.0
* In case of dispute, laboratory Rockwell C hardness tests shall be used as the referee
method.
Table 5.C - API Tensile and Hardness Requirements
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6. TUBULAR RANGE LENGTHS & COLOUR CODING
6.1. RANGE LENGTHS
The following tables provide the API tubular length ranges available.
Range 1 2 3
Casing And Liners
** Total range length include 16-25 25-24 24-48
* Range Length for 95% or more of carload
Permissible Variation, max. 6 5 6
Permissible length, min 18 28 36
Tubing
** Total range length include 20-24 28-32 -
* Range Length for 100% or more of carload
Permissible Variation, max. 2 2 -
Permissible length, min 20 28 -
Pup Joint
*** Lengths 2,3,4,6,8,10 and 12ft
Tolerance t3ins
* Carload tolerance shall not apply to orders of less than a carload. For any carload of pipe, shipped
to the final destination without transfer or removal from the car, the tolerance shall apply to each car.
For any order consisting of more than a carload and shipped from the manufacturer’s facility by rail.
but not to the final destination, the carload tolerance shall apply to the total order, but not to the
individual carloads.
** By agreement between purchaser and manufacturer or processor the total range length for range
1 tubing may be 20-28ft
*** 2ft pup joints may be furnished up to 3ft long by agreement between purchaser and
manufacturer, and lengths other than those listed may be furnished by agreement between
purchaser and manufacturer.
Table 6.A - API Range Length In Feet
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Range 1 2 3
Casing And Liners
Total range length include 4.88-7.62 7.62-10.36 10.36-14.63
* Range Length for 95% or more of carload
Permissible Variation, max. 1.83 1.52 1.83
Permissible length, min 5.49 8.53 10.97
Tubing
** Total range length include 6.10-7.32 8.53-9.75 -
* Range Length for 100% or more of carload
Permissible Variation, max. 0.61 0.61 -
Permissible length, min 6.10 8.53 -
Pup Joint
*** Lengths 0.61, 0.19, 1.22, 1.83, 2.44, 3.05 and 3.66m
Tolerance t76.2mm
* Carload tolerance shall not apply to orders of less than a carload shipped from the manufacturer’s
or processor’s facility. For any carload of pipe shipped from the manufacturer’s or processor’s
facility to the final destination without transfers or removal from the car, the tolerance shall apply to
each car. For any order consisting of more than a carload and shipped by rail, but not to the final
destination in the rail cars loaded, the carload tolerance shall apply to the total order, but not to the
individual carloads.
** By agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer or processor the total range length for
range 1 tubing may be 6.10-8.53m
*** 0.61m pup joints may be furnished up to 0.91m long by agreement between purchaser and
manufacturer, and lengths other than those may be furnished be agreement between purchaser and
manufacturer.
Table 6.B - API Range Length in Metres
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6.2. API TUBULAR MARKING AND COLOUR CODING
6.2.1. Markings
All API tubulars are marked as per API specification 5CT. The following example shows the
marking code.
Table 6.C - Example Marking Code (Dalmine)
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6.2.2. Colour Coding
Group 1, Group 3, Group 4
In addition to the required identification markings as specified in 6.2.1 above, each length of
casing and tubing shall be colour coded by one or more of the following methods.
• A paint band encircling the pipe at a distance not greater than 2ft (0.61m) from the
coupling or box.
• A paint band encircling the centre of the coupling.
• Paint entire outside surface of coupling.
For pup joints shorter than 6ft (1.83m) in length, the entire surface except the threads shall be
painted.
The colour and number of bands shall be as follows:
Grade H 40 No colour marking, or black at the manufacturer’s option
Grade J 55 One bright green band
Grade K 55 Two bright green bands
Grade N 80 One red band
Grade P 105 White
Grade P 110 White
Grade Q 125 Orange
Group 2
1) A paint band or bands encircling the pipe at a distance not greater than 2ft (0,61m) from
the coupling or box.
Grade C75 One blue band
Grace C75, 9Cr One blue band and two yellow bands
Grade C75, 13Cr One blue and one yellow band
Grade L80 One red band and one brown band
Grade L80, 9Cr One red and one brown and two yellow bands
Grade L80, 13Cr. One red and one brown and one yellow band
Grade C90 One purple band
Grade C95 One brown band
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2) A paint band or bands encircling the centre of the coupling.
Grade C75 One blue band
Grade C90 One purple band
Grade C95 One brown band
3) Paint entire outside surface of coupling. The colour shall be as follows:
Grade C75 Blue
Grade C75, 9Cr Blue with two yellow bands
Grade C75, 13Cr. Blue with one yellow band
Grace L80 Red with brown band or longitudinal stripe
Grade L80, 9Cr Red with two yellow bands
Grade L80, 13Cr. Red with one yellow band
Grade C90 Purple
Grade C95 Brown
4) For pup joints shorter than 6ft (1.83m) in length, the entire surface except the threads
shall be painted.
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7. APPROACH TO CASING DESIGN
Casing design is actually a stress analysis procedure. The objective of the procedure is to
produce a pressure vessel which can withstand a variety of external, internal, thermal, and
self weight loading, while at the same time being subjected to wear and corrosion.
During the drilling phase, this pressure vessel is a composite of steel and in conjunction with
a variety of biaxially stressed rock materials.
As there is little point in designing for loads that are not encountered in the field, or in having a
casing that is disproportionally strong in relation to the underlying formations, there are four
major elements to the casing design process:
• Definition of the loading conditions likely to be encountered throughout the life of
the well.
• Specification of the mechanical strength of the pipe.
• Estimation of the formation strength using rock and soil mechanics.
• Estimation of the extent to which the pipe will deteriorate through time and
quantification of the impact that this will have on its strength.
Considering the axial stress (σa) in a string of casing, it is obvious that the stress due to the
buoyant weight of the casing below any point of interest will be a major component of the total
axial stress.
Furthermore any changes in the internal and external pressures acting on casing will induce
changes in the axial stress as well as the radial (σr) and tangential (σt) stresses.
In addition, since the pipe is held or fixed at both ends, changes in all three stresses will occur
due to temperature changes and from the occurrence, and degree, of any buckling effect.
The inter-relationship between these loads can be analysed manually by applying a
combination of Hooke's Law, ‘Lame's Equations’ and some form of yield criteria. This is
referred to as ‘Triaxial Stress Analysis’.
The forces affecting casing design are outlined in section 7.1.
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7.1. WELLBORE FORCES
Various wellbore forces affect casing design. Besides the three basic conditions (burst,
collapse and axial loads or tension), these include:
• Buckling.
• Wellbore confining stress.
• Thermal and dynamic stress.
• Changing internal pressure caused by production or stimulation operations
• Changing external pressure caused by plastic formation creep.
• Subsidence effects and the effect of bending in crooked holes.
This list above is by no means comprehensive and research in progress may identify some
other effects.
The steps in the casing design process are:
1) Consider the loading factors for burst first, since burst will dictate the design for the
major part of the string.
2) Next, the collapse loading should be evaluated and the string sections upgraded if
necessary.
3) Once the weights, grades and section lengths have been determined to satisfy the
burst and collapse loading, the tensile load can then in turn be evaluated.
4) The pipe can be upgraded as necessary as the loading is determined.
5) From all of the above, the appropriate casing connection can be determined although, if
the well is to be completed and the casing exposed to long term production,
consideration may be given to using a premium connection.
The final step is a check on biaxial reductions in burst strength and collapse resistance
caused by compression and tension loads, respectively. If these reductions show the
strength of any part of the section to be less than the potential load, the section should again
be upgraded.
7.2. DESIGN FACTOR (DF)
The design process can only be completed if knowledge of all the anticipated forces is
available. This however, is idealistic and never actually occurs, therefore some
determinations are usually necessary and a degree of risk has to be present and accepted.
The risk is usually associated with the assumed values and the level of the design factors
applied.
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The design factors are necessary to cater for:
• Uncertainties in the determination of actual loads that the casing needs to
withstand and the presence of any stress concentrations due to dynamic loads or
specific well conditions.
• Reliability of listed properties of the various steels used in the industry and the
uncertainty in the determination of the spread between ultimate strength and yield
strength.
• Probability of the casing needing to bear the maximum load determined from the
calculations.
• Uncertainties regarding the collapse pressure formulas.
• Possible damage to casing during transport and storage.
• Damage to the pipe body from slips, wrenches or inner defects due to cracks,
pitting, etc.
• Rotational wear by the drill string while drilling.
The DF may vary with the capability of the steel to resist damage inflicted from handling and
running equipment.
The company values selected for DFs are a compromise between safety margin and
economics. The use of excessively high DFs guarantees against failure but provides
excessive strength and, therefore, increased cost. The use of low DFs requires accurate
knowledge about the loads to be imposed on the casing as there is less margin available.
Casing is generally designed to withstand stress which, in practice, it seldom encounters due
to the assumptions used in calculations, whereas, production tubing has to bear pressures
and tensions which are known or can be calculated with considerable accuracy.
Furthermore, casing is cemented in place after installation whereas tubing is often recovered
and used again. As a consequence of this, and due to the fact that tubing has to combat
corrosion effects from formation fluid, a higher DF is used for tubing than casing.
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7.2.1. Company Design Factors
The following table gives the DF’s are Eni-Agip’s specified design factors used in casing
design calculations:
Casing Grade Burst Collapse Tension
H 40 1.05 1.10 1.7
J 55 1.05 1.10 1.7
K 55 1.05 1.10 1.7
C 75 1.10 1.10 1.7
L 80 1.10 1.10 1.7
N 80 1.10 1.10 1.7
C 90 1.10 1.10 1.7
C 95 1.10 1.10 1.7
P 110 1.10 1.10 1.8
Q 125 1.20 1.10 1.8
Table 7.A - Eni-Agip Design Factors
Note: The tensile DF on grade C 95 and below is 1.7, and higher than C 95 is 1.8.
Note: The tensile DF must be considerably higher than the previous factors to
avoid exceeding the elastic limit and, therefore invalidating the criteria
on which burst and collapse resistances are calculated.
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7.2.2. Application of Design Factors
The minimum performance properties of tubing and casing specified in the API bulletin are
only used to determine if the chosen casing is within the DF. The design factors are applied
as follows:
Burst For the chosen casing (diameter, grade, weight and thread) take the
lowest value from API casing tables, columns 13 through 19. This
value then divided by the applied DF gives the internal pressure
resistance of casing to be used for design calculation.
Collapse Use only column 11 of the API casing tables and divide the value by
the DF to obtain the collapse resistance for design calculations.
Tension Use the lowest value from columns 20 through 27 of the API casing
tables and divide it by the DF to obtain the joint strength for design
calculations.
Note: It should be recognised that the Design Factor used in the context of
casing string design is essentially different from the ‘Safety Factor’ used
in many other engineering applications.
The term ‘Safety Factor’ as used in tubing design, implies that the actual physical properties
and loading conditions are exactly known and that a specific margin is being allowed for
safety. The loading conditions are not always precisely known in casing design, and therefore
in the context of casing design the term ‘Safety Factor’ should be avoided at all times.
Section 8 describes the exact design process in detail including the determination of all the
loading applied.
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8. DESIGN CRITERIA
8.1. BURST
Burst loading on the casing is induced when internal pressure exceeds external pressure.
8.1.1. Design Methods
The most conservative design for burst assumes the gradient of dry gas inside the casing,
the pressure of which equals the formation pressure of the lowest pressure zone from which
the gas may have originated or, alternatively the fracture pressure of the open hole below the
shoe.
The basis for this design criteria is that a dry gas blow-out is assumed that, when shut-in at
the surface, would either build to the blow-out zone's static shut-in pressure or cause an
underground blow-out once the shut-in pressure reaches the fracture pressure of the
weakest formation exposed in the open hole section.
Most operating companies modify this basic ‘dry gas’ design concept according to a number
of other influences including:
• Casing wear considerations
• Amount of open hole section
• Depth of the shoe
• DF applied
• Current BOP rating, etc.
Based on the vast amount of well data which is currently available, a set of key design
considerations are made:
a) Blowouts, especially those which are capable of exerting ultra high surface
pressure (i.e. dry gas blowouts), are very rare.
b) Ultra high surface pressures can only be experienced if an actual dry gas blow-
out does occur.
c) High strength casing, regardless of how overdesigned it may be, has no impact
on the reduction of the blow-out risk.
d) Once a blow-out has occurred, damage to the rig, environment, etc. will have
already commenced, regardless of how strong the casing may be.
e) If there is a blow-out, even a dry gas blow-out, it does not always concur that the
casing will is exposed to high burst pressures.
f) Surface wellheads have an advantage over subsea wellheads during drilling
operations, as there is access to any of the previous casing annuli whereas this is
not available with conventional subsea wellheads.
Access to these annuli could in turn provide a means of applying back-up
pressure to a casing string, thus reducing the net burst pressure being exerted on
that particular string. This feature is not always possible if the annulus may is
either cemented to the surface or not cemented into the previous casing shoe.
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The key to this problem is to recognise the rare and exceptional well circumstances that may
require or result in a hard dry gas shut-in. The decision process should be based on the initial
adoption of a ‘middle ground’ design.
The Eni-Agip Drilling Engineering Department evaluated these key design considerations and
have decided to use the most conservative method and to reduce the obtained results by
40%.
8.1.2. Company Design Procedure
To evaluate the burst loading, surface and bottom-hole casing burst resistance must first be
established.
Surface Casing
a) Internal Pressure
1) The wellhead burst pressure limit is arbitrary, and is generally set equal to that of
the working pressure rating of the wellhead and BOP equipment but with a
minimum of 140kg/cm
2
. See ‘BOP selection criteria’ in section 12.1.
With a subsea wellhead, the wellhead burst pressure limit is taken as 60% of the
value obtained as the difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe
and the pressure of a gas column to surface but in any case not less than
2,000psi (140atm).
Consideration should be given to the pressure rating of the wellhead and BOP
equipment which must always be equal to, or higher than, the pressure rating of
the pipe.
When an oversize BOP having a capacity greater than that necessary is selected,
the wellhead burst pressure limit will be 60% of the calculated surface
pressure obtained as difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe
with a gas column to surface. Methane gas (CH
4
) with density of 0.3kg/dm
3
is
normally used for this calculation. In any case it shall never be considered less
than 2,000psi (140atm).
The use of methane for this calculation is the ‘worst case’ when the specific
gravity of gas is unknown, as the specific gravities of any gases which may be
encountered will usually be greater than that of methane.
2) The bottom-hole burst pressure limit can be calculated and is equal to the
predicted fracture gradient of the formation below the casing shoe.
3) Connect the wellhead and bottom-hole burst pressure limits with a straight line to
obtain the maximum internal burst load verses depth.
When taking a gas kick, the pressure from bottom-hole to surface will assume different
profiles according to the position of influx into the wellbore. The plotted pressure versus
depth will produce a curve.
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b) External Pressure
In wells with surface wellheads, the external pressure is assumed to be equal to the
hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud.
In wells with subsea wellheads:
• At the wellhead - Water Depth x Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm)
• At the shoe - (Shoe Depth - Air Gap) x Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm)
c) Net Pressure
The resultant load, or net pressure, will be obtained by subtracting, at each depth, the
external from internal pressure.
Intermediate Casing
a) Internal Pressure
1) The wellhead burst pressure limit is taken as 60% of the calculated value obtained
as the difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe and the
pressure of a gas column to the wellhead.
In subsea wellheads, the wellhead burst pressure limit is taken as 60% of the
value obtained as the difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe
and the pressure of a gas column to the wellhead minus the seawater pressure.
3) The bottomhole burst pressure limit is equal to that of the predicted fracture
gradient of the formation below the casing shoe.
4) Connect the wellhead and bottom-hole burst pressure limits with a straight line to
obtain the maximum internal burst pressure.
b) External Pressure
The external collapse pressure is taken to be equal to that of the formation pressure.
With a subsea wellhead, at the wellhead, hydrostatic seawater pressure should be
considered.
c) Net Burst Pressure
The effective burst pressures are obtained by subtracting the external from internal
pressure versus depth.
Production Casing
The ‘worst case’ burst load condition on production casing occurs when a well is shut-in and
there is a leak in the top of the tubing, or in the tubing hanger, and this pressure is applied to
the top of the packer fluid (i.e. completion fluid) in the tubing-casing annulus.
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a) Internal Pressure
1) The wellhead burst limit is obtained as the difference between the pore pressure
of the reservoir fluid and the hydrostatic pressure produced by a colum of fluid
which is usually gas (density = 0.3kg/dm
3)
.
2) Actual gas/oil gradients can be used if information on these are known and
available.
3) The bottom-hole pressure burst limit is obtained by adding the wellhead pressure
burst limit to the annulus hydrostatic pressure exerted by the completion fluid.
Generally the completion fluid density is equal to, or close to, the mud weight in
which casing is installed.
Note: It is usually assumed that the completion fluid and mud on the outside of
the casing remains homogeneous and retains the original density values’
however this is not actually the case, particularly with heavy fluids, but it is
also assumed that the two fluids will degrade similarly under the same
conditions of pressure and temperature.
4) Connect the wellhead and bottomhole burst pressure limits with a straight line to
obtain the maximum internal burst pressures.
Note: If it is foreseen that future stimulation or hydraulic fracturing operations
may be necessary, assume: at the perforation depth the fracture pressure
at that point and at the wellhead the fracture pressure at the perforation
depth minus the hydrostatic head in the casing plus a safety margin of
70kg/cm
2
(1,000psi).
b) External Pressure
The external pressure is taken to be equal to that of the formation pressure.
With a subsea wellhead, at the wellhead, hydrostatic seawater pressure should be
considered.
c) Net Burst Pressure
The resultant burst pressure is obtained by subtracting the external from internal
pressure at each depth.
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Intermediate Casing and Liner
If a drilling liner is to be used in the drilling of a well, the casing above where the liner is
suspended must withstand the burst pressure that may occur while drilling below the liner.
The design of the intermediate casing string is, therefore, altered slightly:
1) Since the fracture pressure and mud weight may be greater or lower below the
liner shoe than casing shoe, these values must be used to design the
intermediate casing string as well as the liner.
2) When well testing or producing through a liner, the casing above the liner is part of
the production string and must be designed according to this criteria.
Tie-Back String
In a high pressure well, the intermediate casing string above a liner may be unable to
withstand a tubing leak at surface pressures according to the production burst criteria. The
solution to this problem is to run and tie-back a string of casing from the liner top to surface,
isolating the intermediate casing.
8.2. COLLAPSE
Pipe collapse will occur when the external force on a pipe exceeds the combination of the
internal force plus the collapse resistance.
It occurs as a result of either, or a combination of:
• Reduction in internal fluid pressure.
• Increase in external fluid pressure.
• Additional mechanical loading imposed by plastic formation movement.
8.2.1. Company Design Procedure
The design of a string of casing in collapse mode consists of selecting the lowest cost pipe
that has sufficient strength to meet with the desired design criteria and design factor.
If, when making a selection, a choice exists between a lower grade heavy pipe and a higher
grade but lighter pipe, both of which provide adequate strength at similar cost, the higher
grade (lighter) pipe should be chosen due to the reduction of tension loading.
Note : The reduced collapse resistance under biaxial stress (tension/collapse)
should be considered.
Note : No allowance is given to increased collapse resistance due to cementing.
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Surface Casing
a) Internal Pressure
For wells with a surface wellhead, the casing is assumed to be completely empty.
In offshore wells with subsea wellheads, the internal pressure assumes that the mud
level drops due to a thief zone.
b) External Pressure
In wells with a surface wellhead, the external pressure is assumed to be equal to that of
the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud.
In offshore wells with a subsea wellhead, it is calculated:
• At the wellhead - Water Depth x Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm).
• At the shoe - (Shoe Depth - Air Gap) x Seawater Density x 0.1 (if atm).
c) Net Collapse Pressure
The resultant collapse pressure is obtained by subtracting the internal pressure from
external pressure at each depth.
Intermediate Casing
a) Internal Pressure
The worst case collapse loading occurs when a loss of circulation is encountered while
drilling the next hole section with the maximum allowable mud weight. This results in the
mud level inside the casing dropping to an equilibrium level where the mud hydrostatic
equals the pore pressure of the thief zone. Consequently it will be assumed the casing
is empty to the height (H) calculated as follows:
(H
loss
-H) x dm = H
loss
x G
p
H = H
l oss
(dm - Gp)/dm
If Gp = 1.03 (kg/cm
2
/10m)
Then H = H
loss
(dm - 1.03)/dm
where:
H
loss
= depth at which circulation loss is expected (m)
dm = mud density expected at H
loss
(kg/dm
2
)
Gp = pore pressure of thief zone (kg/cm
2
/10m) - usually normally pressured
with 1.03 as gradient.
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Figure 8.A - Fluid Height Calculation
When thief zones cannot be confirmed, or otherwise, during the collapse design, as is
the case in exploration wells, Eni-Agip division and associates suggests that on wells
with surface wellheads, the casing is assumed to be half empty and the remaining part
of the casing full of the heaviest mud planned to drill the next section below the shoe.
In wells with subsea wellheads, the mud level inside the casing is assumed to drop to
an equilibrium level where the mud hydrostatic pressure equals the pore pressure of the
thief zone.
b) External Pressure
The pressure acting on the outside of casing is the pressure of mud in which casing is
installed.
The uniform external pressure exerted by salt on the casing or cement sheath through
overburden pressure, should be given a value equal to the true vertical depth of the
relative point.
c) Net Collapse Pressure
The effective collapse line is obtained by subtracting the internal pressure from external
at each depth.
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Production Casing
a) Internal Pressure
Assume the casing worst case is being completely empty. It is a fact of life, that during
the productive life of well, tubing leaks often occur and wells. Also wells may be on
artificial lift, or have plugged perforations or very low internal pressure values and, under
these circumstances, the production casing string could be partially or completely
empty. This must be taken into consideration in the design and the ideal solution is to
design for zero pressure inside the casing which provides full safety, nevertheless in
particular well situations, the Drilling and Completions Manager may consider that the
lowest casing internal pressure is the level of a column of the lightest density producible
formation fluid.
b) External Pressure
Assume the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the mud in which casing is installed.
The uniform external pressure exerted by salt on the casing or cement sheath through
overburden pressure, should be given a value equal to the true vertical depth of the
relative point.
c) Net Collapse Pressure
In this case of the casing being empty, the net pressure is equal to the external
pressure at each depth.
In other cases it will be the difference between external and internal pressures at each
depth.
Intermediate Casing and Liner
1) If a drilling liner is to be used in the drilling of a well, the casing above where the liner is
suspended must withstand the collapse pressure that may occur while drilling below
the liner.
2) When well testing or producing through a liner, the casing above the liner is part of the
production string and must be designed according to this criteria.
Tie-Back String
If the intermediate string above the liner is unable to withstand the collapse pressure
calculated according to production collapse criteria, it will be necessary run and tie-back a
string of casing from the liner top to surface.
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8.3. TENSION
8.3.1. General
Tensile failure occurs if the longitudinal force exerted on a pipe exceeds, either the tensile
strength of the pipe or its connection. Generally, the connection used in a string of casing is
stronger than the pipe body although this must always be confirmed.
For situations where a connection coupling has to be special clearance, (i.e. of a smaller
diameter than the normal) the connection will be weaker or if flush joint pipe must be used in
special circumstances.
Tensile loads are imposed on the casing by:
• The weight of pipe itself. The highest tensile stresses will occur at the uppermost
portion of the pipe. The tension is the weight of the pipe in air less buoyancy.
• Shock loading:
a) While lowering casing through unstable formations such as cavings where
the casing string may get temporarily stuck before suddenly slipping through
thereby inducing tensile shock loads.
b) When landing casing in a subsea wellhead from a floater.
• Upward and downward reciprocating movements carried out where there is a
tendency to become differential stuck, etc. in order to become free. To free the
pipe considerable pull may be necessary.
• Bumping a cement plug.
• High internal pressure will induce tensional stresses caused by radial expansion
and, hence, axial contraction.
• Bending.
Note: The varying parameters which can affect tensile loading leads to the
estimates used for the tensile forces are more uncertain than the
estimates for either burst and collapse. The DF imposed is therefore
correspondingly much larger.
8.3.2. Buoyancy Force
The effect of buoyancy is generally assumed to be the reduction in weight of the casing string
when it is suspended in a liquid compared to its weight in air.
The buoyancy or reduction in string weight, as observed on the block is actually the resultant
of pressure forces acting on all the exposed horizontal faces and in calculations is defined as
negative as it act upwards, hence reducing the pipe weight.
The areas referred to are the tube end areas, the shoulders at point of changing casing
weights and, to a smaller degree, the shoulders on collars (Refer to figure 8.b).
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a) Different casing weights b) Shoulders on collars
Figure 8.B - Casing Buoyancy Areas
The forces acting on the areas of collar shoulders (F3) are for practical purposes negligible in
casing design as the upward and downward facing shoulders countered each other over
short distances.
Note: When calculating the tension with regard to buoyancy trends, the
different weights per unit length of the casing must be taken into
account, as they have different cross-sectional areas. In the following
example an average weight value is assumed since this does not
substantially affect the calculations.
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Well Depth
(m)
Casing Data
Casing Weight
(kg)
Size
(ins)
Unit Weight
lbs/ft (kg/m)
Cross Sectional
Area (Af cm
2
)
0-1000
1000-2000
2000-3000
9
5
/
8
9
5
/
8
9
5
/
8
47.0
43.5
40.0
69.9
64.7
59.5
87.6
81.0
73.9
69.900
64.700
59.500
Total Casing Weight 194.100
Well Depth (m)
Hydrostatic Head
(atm (*))
Buoyancy (kg)
1000
2000
3000
150
300
450
150 (87.6-81) = 990
300 (81-73.9) = 2.130
450 (73.9) = 33.255
Total Buoyancy 36.375
Table 8.A - Buoyancy Example Calculation
* Mud density, dm = 1.5kg/dm
3
The average buoyancy for the whole profile is:
S = 194,100 - (194,100 x 0.808)
= 37,267kg
The difference (37,267-36,375) is 892kg and thus negligible in the calculations.
Refer to table 8.b for buoyancy factors.
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Density
Fluid Head
Degrees
API
Specific
Gravity
lbs/gal lbs/cu ft g/cc psi/ft
kg/sp
cm/m
Buoyancy
Factor*
60 0.738 6.160 46.08 0.738 0.320 0.0738 0.905
55 0.758 6.325 47.31 0.765 0.328 0.0758 0.903
50 0.779 6.499 48.62 0.779 0.336 0.0779 0.900
45 0.801 6.683 49.99 0.801 0.347 0.0801 0.897
40 0.825 6.878 51.45 0.825 0.357 0.0825 0.894
35 0.849 7.085 53.00 0.848 0.368 0.0649 0.891
30 0.876 7.304 58.64 0.876 0.379 0.0876 0.688
25 0.904 7.537 56.38 0.904 0.391 0.904 0.884
20 0.933 7.786 58.24 0.933 0.404 0.0933 0.680
15 0.985 8.052 60.23 0.965 0.418 0.0965 0.675
10 1.000 8.337 62.36 1.000 0.433 0.1000 0.872
1.007 8.400 62.63 1.007 0.435 0.1007 0.871
1.031 8.600 64.33 1.031 0.446 0.1031 0.868
1.055 8.800 65.82 1.055 0.457 0.1055 0.865
1.079 9.000 67.32 1.079 0.467 0.1079 0.662
1.103 9.200 68.82 1.103 0.477 0.1103 0.859
1.127 9.400 70.31 1.127 0.488 0.1127 0.856
1.151 9.800 71.81 1.151 0.498 0.1151 .0852
1.175 9.800 73.30 1.175 0.509 0.1175 0.849
1.199 10.00 74.80 1.199 0.519 0.1199 0.846
1.223 10.200 75.30 1.223 0.529 0.1223 0.843
1.247 10.400 77.79 1.247 0.540 0.1247 0.840
1.271 10.600 79.29 1.271 0.550 0.1271 0.837
1.295 10.800 80.78 1.295 0.561 0.1295 0.834
1.319 11.00 82.28 1.319 0.571 0.1319 0.831
1.343 11.200 83.78 1.343 0.581 0.1343 0.828
1.367 11.400 85.27 1.367 0.592 0.1367 0.825
1.391 11.500 86.77 1.391 0.602 0.1391 0.822
1.415 11.800 88.27 1.415 0.612 0.1415 0.819
1.439 12.000 89.76 1.439 0.823 0.1439 0.816
1.463 12.200 91.26 1.463 0.633 0.1463 0.613
1.487 12.400 92.75 1.487 0.644 0.1487 0.810
1.511 12.600 94.25 1.511 0.654 0.1511 0.806
1.535 12.800 95.75 1.535 0.664 0.1535 0.803
1.559 13.000 97.24 1.559 0.675 0.1559 0.800
1.583 13.200 98.74 1.583 0.585 0.1583 0.797
1.607 13.399 100.23 1.607 0.696 0.1607 0.794
s / m 1 BF ρ ρ − ·
BF = Buoyancy Factor
m ρ = Mud Density
s ρ = Steel Density
Fluid Density Pressure and Buoyancy Factors(60
o
F) (Continued Over Page)
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Density
Fluid Head
Degrees
API
Specific
Gravity
lbs/gal lbs/cu ft g/cc psi/ft
kg/sp
cm/m
Buoyancy
Factor*
1.631 13.600 101.73 1.631 0.706 0.1831 0.791
1.655 13.800 103.23 1.655 0.716 0.1655 0.788
1.679 14.000 104.72 1.679 0.727 0.1579 0.785
1.703 14.200 106.22 1.703 0.737 0.1703 0.782
1.727 14.399 107.71 1.727 0.748 0.1727 0.779
1.751 14.600 109.21 1.751 0.755 0.1751 0.776
1.775 14.800 110.71 1.775 0.768 0.1775 0.773
1.799 15.000 112.20 1.799 0.779 0.1799 0.770
1.823 15.200 113.70 1.823 0.789 0.1823 0.767
1.847 15.399 115.20 1.847 0.799 0.1547 0.764
1.871 15.600 116.89 1.871 0.610 0.1871 0.761
1.895 15.800 118.19 1.895 0.820 0.1895 0.757
1.919 16.000 119.68 1.918 0.831 0.1919 0.754
1.943 16.200 121.18 1.943 0.841 0.1943 0.751
1.967 16.400 122.68 1.967 0.851 0.1967 0.748
1.991 16.600 124.17 1.991 0.862 0.1991 0.745
2.015 16,800 125.67 2.015 0.872 0.2015 0.742
2.039 17.000 127.16 2.039 0.863 0.2039 0.739
2.063 17.200 128.66 2.063 0.893 0.2063 0.736
2.087 17.400 130.18 2.067 0.903 0.2087 .0733
2.111 17.600 131.65 2.111 0.914 0.2111 0.730
2.135 17.800 133.15 2.135 0.924 0.2135 0.727
2.159 18.000 134.54 2.159 0.935 0.2159 0.724
2.183 18.200 136.14 .2183 0.945 0.2183 0.72
2.207 18.400 137.64 2.207 0.955 0.2207 0.718
2.231 18.600 139.13 2.231 0.955 0.2231 0.715
2.255 18.800 140.63 2.255 0.976 0.2255 0.712
2.278 19.000 142.12 2.278 0.987 0.2278 0.708
2.326 19.400 145.12 2.326 1.007 0.2326 0.792
2.350 19.600 146.61 2.350 1.018 0.2350 0.699
2.374 19.800 148.11 2.374 1.028 0.2374 0.696
2.398 20.000 149.61 2.398 1.038 0.2398 0.693
Buoyancy factor is used is used compensate for loss of weight when steel tubulars are immersed in fluid.
Applicable only when tubing or casing is completely filled with fluid.
Apparent Weight = Weight in Air - Buoyant Force
Buoyancy Force =
Density Steel
Density Mud x Air in Weight
Apparent Weight =

,
`

.
| −
Density Steel
Density Mud Density Steel
Air in Wieght
Apparent Weight = Weight in Air x Buoyancy Factors
Steel Density = 7.85 kg/l
Table 8.B - Fluid Density Pressure and Buoyancy Factors(60
o
F)
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8.3.3. Company Design Procedure
1) Calculate the casing string weight in air.
2) Calculate the casing string weight in mud by multiplying the previous weight by the
buoyancy factor (BF) in accordance with the mud weight in use.
Example:
Weight of casing in air = 250,000kg
Mud weight = 1.70kg/dm
3
Buoyancy factor = 0.782
Weight of casing in mud = 250,000 x 0.782
= 195,500kg
Buoyancy force = 54,500kg
3) Add the additional load due to bumping the cement plug to the casing string weight in
mud.
Note: This pull load is calculated by multiplying the expected bump-plug
pressure by the inside area of the casing.
Example: 9
5
/
8
" 43.5 lbs/ft casing
Pressure when at bumping plug = 180kg/cm
2
Inside casing area, Ai = 388.39cm
2
Additional pull load = 388.39 x 180
= 69,910kg
A calculation of this kind is an approximation only because the assumption has been
made that:
• No buoyancy changes occur during cementing.
• The pressure is applied only at the bottom and not where there are changes in
section. As seen with the previous case, the differences in the calculated values
are quite small, which justifies the preference for the simpler approximation
method.
Once the magnitude and location of the forces are determined, the total tensile load line
may be constructed graphically.
Note: More than one section of the casing string may be loaded in compression.
8.3.4. Example Hook Load During Cementing
The following is an example of casing load and therefore hook load when conducting a casing
cement job. This calculation includes the use of temperature data.
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Example Data
Estimated top of cement 2,800m
Cemented length of casing 1,250m
Casing size 7ins
Steel grade P 110
Weight (imperial) 38lbs/ft
Weight (metric) 56.55kg/m
Internal diameter 5.898ins
Casing shoe depth 4050m
Mud weight during cementing operation 1.93kg/l
Average cement slurry density 2.00kg/l
Expected mud weight at end of next phase 2.16kg/l
Estimated bump plug pressure 140kg/cm
2
Next phase total depth 4400m
Calculation of Cross-Sectional Areas
Casing external area 248.28cm
2
Casing internal area 176.26cm
2
Cross-sectional area 72.02cm
2
Input Temperature Data
Average flowing temperature at casing shoe 65
o
C
Average static temperature at casing shoe 95
o
C
Estimated flowing temperature at next phase depth 95.5
o
C
Estimated static temperature at next phase depth 120.0
o
C
Estimated Total Hook Load (at end of cement operation)
Weight of casing in air 229t
Internal fluid weight plus bump plug 162t
Buoyancy effect 196t
Back pressure 0t
Total load at the end of cementing 195t
Total Hang-Off Weight
Weight in air of uncemented casing 158t
Stress due to the variation in internal pressure -3t
Stress due to the variation in external pressure 0t
Delta T m1 at casing shoe 75.4
o
C
Delta T m1 at end of next phase 103.3
o
C
Average delta T 27.9
o
C
Stress due to temperature variations 52t
Critical shock load If negative ignore) -28t
Total required hang-off load 207t
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Guidelines For Landing The Casing
The load conditions in the casing do not consider the additional axial stress placed in the
casing when it is landed. Casing practices make it difficult to estimated the various stresses
when it is landed in the wellhead. The API have identified four common methods for landing
casing:
• In tension which was present when cement displacement was completed.
• In tension at the freeze point, which is generally considered to be at the top of the
cement.
• In neutral point of axial strength at the freeze point.
• In compression at the freeze point.
API recommendation is to land the casing with the same tension at the end of the
displacement in all wells where the mud density does not exceed 12.5ppg (1.50kg/l) in the
next section.
The second option is used when excessive mud weights are anticipated, to prevent any
tendency of the casing to buckle above the freeze point.
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8.4. BIAXIAL STRESS
8.4.1. General
When the entire casing string has been designed for burst, collapse and tension, and the
weights, grades, section lengths and coupling types are known, the reduction in burst
resistance needs to be applied due to biaxial loading.
The total tensile load, which is tensile loading versus depth, is used to evaluate the effect of
biaxial loading and can be shown graphically.
By noting the magnitude of tension (positive) or compression (negative) loads at the top and
bottom of each section length of casing, the strength reductions can be calculated using the
‘Holmquist & Nadai’ ellipse, see figure 8.c
Note: The effects of axial stress on burst resistance are negligible for the
majority of wells.
8.4.2. Effects On Collapse Resistance
The collapse strength of casing is seriously affected by axial load, but the correction adopted
by the API (API Bulletin 5C3) is only valid for D/t ratios of about 15 or less. In principle collapse
resistance is reduced or increased when subjected to axial tension or compression loading.
As can be seen from figure 8.c, increasing tension reduces collapse resistance where it
eventually reaches zero under full tensile yield stress.
The adverse effects of tension on collapse resistance usually affects the upper portion of a
casing string which is under tension reducing the collapse resistance of the pipe.
After these calculations, the upper section of casing string may need to be upgraded.
Note: Fortunately for instances, the biaxial effects of axial stress on collapse
resistance are insignificant.
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Figure 8.C - Ellipse of Biaxial Yield Stress
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8.4.3. Company Design Procedure
The value for the percentage reduction of rated collapse strength is determined as follows:
1) Determine the total tensile load.
2) Calculate the ratio (X) of the actual applied stress to yield strength of the casing.
3) Refer to .figure 8.d and curve ‘effect of tension on collapse resistance’ and find the
corresponding percentage collapse rating (Y).
4) Multiply the collapse resistance by the percentage (Y), without tensile loads to obtain the
reduced collapse resistance value.
This is the collapse pressure which the casing can withstand at the top of the string.
Figure 8.D - Stress Curve Factors
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1
X= Tensile load
Pipe body yield strength
Y
=






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8.4.4. Example Collapse Caclulation
Determine the collapse resistance of 7", N80, 32lbs/ft (4 kg/m), BTR casing with the shoe at a
depth of 5,750m and a mud weight of 1.1kg/dm
3
.
Collapse resistance without tensile load = 8,610psi (605kg/cm
2
)
Pipe body yield strength = 745,000lbs (338t)
Buoyancy factor = 0.859
Weight in air of casing = t 274
000 , 1
62 . 47 x 750 , 5
·
Weight in mud of casing = 274 x 0.859 = 235t
695 . 0
338
235
Strength Body Yield Pipe
casing of mud in Weight
x · · ·
From the curve or stress curve factors in figure 8.g, if X = 0.695 then Y = 0.445 and the
collapse resistance against tensile load can be determined:
Collapse resistance under load = Nominal Collapse Rating x 0.445
Refer to figure 8.e for a graphical representation of this calculation.
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Figure 8.E - Graphical Representation
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8.5. BENDING
8.5.1. General
When calculating tensile loading, the effect of bending must also be considered, if applicable.
The bending of the pipe causes additional stress in the walls of the pipe. This bending causes
tension on the outside of the pipe and in compression on the inside of the bend, assuming the
pipe is not already under tension (Refer to figure 8.f).
Figure 8.F - Bending Stress
Bending is caused by any deviation in the wellbore resulting from side tracks, build-ups and
drop-offs.
Since bending load increases the total tensile load, it must be deducted from the usable rated
tensile strength of the pipe.
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8.5.2. Determination Of Bending Effect
For determination of the effect of bending, the following formula should be used:
TB = 15.52 x α x D x Af Eq. 8.A
where:
α = Rate of build-up or drop off (degrees per 30m)
D = Outside diameter of casing (ins)
Af = Cross-section area of casing (cm
2
)
TB = Additional tension (kg)
The formula is obtained from the two following equations:
J 2
D MB
×
×
· σ
Eq. 8.B
where:
MB = Bending moment (MB = E x J/R) (kg x cm)
D = Outside diameter of casing (cm)
J = Inertia moment (cm
4
)
σ = Bending stress (kg/cm
2
)
E x J = Bending stiffness (kg x cm
2
)
R = Radius of curvature (cm)
J E
L MB
×
×
· θ
Eq. 8.C
where:
MB = Bending moment (kg x cm)
L = Arch length (cm)
E = Modulus of elasticity (kg/cm
2
)
J = Inertia moment (cm
4
)
θ = Change in angle of deviation (radians)
Obtaining
L
J E
MB
× × θ
· from equation 2), equation 1) becomes:
L 2
D E
×
× × θ
· σ
Eq. 8.D
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Then, by using the more current units giving the build-up or drop-off angles in degrees/30m,
we obtain the final form of the equation for ‘TB’ as follows:
L 2
Af D E
TB
Af
TB
×
× × × θ
·
· σ
Eq. 8.E
30 2 180
Af D E
TB
R
1
L
30 180
R
× ×
× × × α × π
·
·
α × π
×
·
Eq. 8.F
α ·
α π
·
· ·
x 15.52 TB
100 x 30
x Af D x 4) x (25
x
180 x 2
) 10 x (2.1 x x
TB
106kg/cm2 x 2.1 m2 21,000Kg/m E
6
Eq. 8.G
When:
Af = Square inches
α = Degrees/100ft
TB = 218 x α x D x Af (lbs) or 63 x α x D x W (lbs)
W = Casing weight (lbs/ft)
Note: Since most casing has a relatively narrow range of wall thickness (from
0.25 to 0.60ins), the weight of casing is approximately proportional to its
diameter. This means the value of the bending load increases with the
square of the pipe diameter for any given value of build-up/drop-off rate.
At the same time, joint tension strength rises a little less than the direct
ratio. The result is that bending is a much more severe problem with
large diameter casing than with smaller sizes.
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8.5.3. Company Design Procedure
Since bending load, in effect, increases tensile load at the point applied, it must be deducted
from the usable strength rating of each section of pipe that passes the point of bending.
The section which is ultimately set through a bend must have the bending load deducted from
its usable strength up to the top of the bend. From that point up to the top of the section the
full usable strength can be used.
8.5.4. Example Bending Calculation
Data:
• Casing: OD 13
3
/
8
", 72lbs/ft (107,14kg/m), C75, BTR
• Directional well with casing shoe at 2,000m (MD)
• Kick-off point at 300m
• Build-up rate: 3°/30m
• Maximum angle: 30°
• Mud weight : 1.1kg/dm
3
• Pipe body yield strength: 1,558,000lbs (707t)
• Design factor : 1.7
Calculation:
1) Casing weight in air (Wa)
Wa = 107.14 x 2,000 = 214t
2) Casing weight in mud (Wm)
Wm = 214 x 0.859 = 184t
3) Additional tension due to the bending effect (TB)
TB = 15.52 x 3 x 13.375 x 133.99 = 83,441kg = 83t
This stress will be added to the tensile stress already existing on the curved section of
hole.
4) Tension in the casing at 300m(TVD)=156 t. 5)
5) Total tension in the casing at 300m = 156 + 83 = 239t
6) Tension in the casing at 600m (MD) =129t.
7) Total tension in the casing at 600m (MD) = 129 + 83 = 212t.
See figure 8.g for the graphical representation of the example.
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Figure 8.G - Bending Load Example
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8.6. CASING WEAR
8.6.1. General
There is no reliable method of predicting casing wear and defining the reduction in casing
properties due to the reduction in casing performance through decreases in burst and
collapse values which are proportional to the reduction in wall thickness. However, theoretical
predictions may be made as described in this section.
For most purposes, consideration of wear allowances can be restricted to deviated wells with
the most likely wear spot at the kick-off point where burst reduction will be the greatest
consideration. In a vertical well , casing wear is usually in the first few joints below the
wellhead or intervals with a high dogleg severity. In deviated wells, wear will be over the build-
up and drop off sections.
Figure 8.H - Casing Wear
The major factors affecting casing wear are:
• Rotary speed.
• Tool joint lateral load and diameter.
• Drilling rate.
• Inclination of the hole.
• Severity of dog legs.
• Casing wear factor.
The location and magnitude of volumetric wear in the casing string can be estimated by
calculating the energy imparted from the rotating tool joints to the casing at different casing
points and dividing this by the amount of energy required to wear away a unit volume of the
casing. The percentage casing wear at each point along the casing is then calculated from
the volumetric wear.
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Eni-Agip acceptable casing wear limit is </= 7%.
Volumetric wear is proportional to an empirical ‘wear factor’ which is defined as the coefficient
of friction divided by the volume of casing material removed per unit of energy input.
The wear factor depends upon several variables including :
• Mud properties.
• Lubricants.
• Drill solids.
• Tool joint roughness.
• Tool joint hardness.
Note: The chemical action of gases such as H
2
S, CO
2
and 0
2
tends to reduce
the surface hardness of steel and, thus, contributes significantly to the
rate of wear.
8.6.2. Volumetric Wear Rate
The volume of casing worn away by the rotating tool joint equals:
Energy Specific
Foot Per Input Energy
V ·
Eq. 8.H
where:
V = Wear volume per foot
Specific Energy = The amount of energy required to wear away a unit volume of
casing material.
The frictional energy imparted to the casing by the rotating tool joint equals:
Energy Input Per Foot = Friction Force Per Foot x Sliding Distance Eq. 8.I
where:
Friction Force Per Foot = Friction Factor x Tool Joint Lateral Load Per Foot
Sliding Distance = n x TJ Diameter x Rotary Speed x Contact Time
and
Tool Joint Contact Time =
DPJL
TJL x S Eq. 8.J
where:
S = Drilling distance(ft)
TJL = Tool joint length (ins)
P = Rate of penetration (ft/hr)
DPJL = Drill pipe joint length (ft)
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The lateral load on the drill pipe equals:
DPJL
TJL x TJLLPF
L ·
Eq. 8.K
where:
L = Drill pipe lateral load per foot
TJLLPF = Tool joint lateral load (lbs/ft)
TJL = Tool joint length (ins)
DPJL = Drill pipe joint length (ft)
The Wear Factor controlling the wear efficiency is defined as:
Wear Factor = Friction Factor/Specific Energy Eq. 8.L
Combining eq. 8.h-eq. 8.l shows that the Wear Volume ’V’ equals:
P
S x N x D x L x F x x 60
v
π
·
Eq. 8.M
where:
V = Wear volume per foot (in
3
/ft)
F = Wear factor (ins
2
/lbs)
L = Lateral load on drill pipe per foot (lbs/ft)
D = Tool joint diameter (ins)
N = Rotary speed (RPM)
S = Drilling distance (ft)
P = Penetration rate (ft/hr)
The tool joint and drill pipe lengths do not appear in Equation 6 because they do not
effect the amount of casing wear in the linear model.
Note: Wear volume increases non-linearly against wear depth, because
grooves become wider as the wear depth increases.
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Figure 8.I - Wear Rate
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8.6.3. Factors Affecting Casing Wear (Example)
Figure 8.J - Example Well
Figure 8.K - Factors Affecting Casing Wear
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Figure 8.L - Wellbore Displacement
Figure 8.M - Factors Affecting Casing Wear
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Figure 8.N - Affect of Tool Joint Diameter on Casing Wear
Figure 8.O - Casing Wear
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Figure 8.P - Lateral Tool Joint Loads in Smooth Ideal Well
Figure 8.Q - Lateral Forces in Actual Well
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8.6.4. Wear Factors
Drilling Fluid Tool Joint Wear Factor (F) (10
-1
psi
-l
)
Water+Betonite+Barite Smooth 0.5 to 1
Water+Betonite+Lubricant (2%) Smooth 0.5 to 5
Water+Betonite+Drill Solids Smooth 5 to 10
Water Smooth 10 to 30
Water+Betonite Smooth 10 to 30
Water+Betonite+Barite Slightly Rough 20 to 50
Water+Betonite+Barite Rough 50 to 150
Water+Betonite+Barite Very Rough 200 to 400
Table 8.C - Typical Casing Wear Factors
When tool joints are smooth, casing wear is minimised when the mud consists of water,
bentonite and barite, (F = 0.5 to 1.0).
The small particles of barite appear to act as ball bearings and prevents the tool joint and
casing materials from coming into intimate contact.
Casing wear is increased tenfold when the mud is weighted with drill solids instead of barite,
(F = 5 to 10). This shows the importance of having good solids control when running heavily
weighted muds.
Water (without solids) causes high wear, (F = 10 to 30) because there are no solids to
prevent the sliding metals surfaces from coming into contact and causing galling wear. In
extreme cases, the surface can weld together resulting in chunks of metal being torn from the
surfaces.
When tool joints have rough hardbanding, the wear is controlled primarily by the roughness of
the tool joint and is almost independent of the mud properties. In this case, the rough tool
joints tend to machine away the casing in even larger pieces (similar to the cutting action of a
mill) resulting in rapid failure of the casing. table 8.d gives comparisons of casing wear with
twelve different hardmetal materials tested in the DEA-42 project.
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Tool Joint
Tool Joint Wear
(Open Hole)
Casing
Wear, %
Wear
Factor
Friction
Factor
Remarks
Smooth Steel 0.043 18.2 5.6 0.21 AISI Steel 4145
Rough Tungsten
Carbide
75 1417 0.29
Mesh size 14/24 (20
min test)
Smooth Tungsten
Carbide
0.014 27.8 10.8 0.20
Mesh size 14/24
(field worn surface)
Hughes Smooth X
21.8 7.6 0.15
Tungsten Carbide
(spherical granules)
Drilco Sphere
7.6 1.95 0.21
Tungsten Carbide
(spherical)
Agip Tungsten
Carbide
17.2 5.5 0.19 Low vibration
Agip Austenite 14.6 4.3 0.18 Low vibration
Aluminium
Bronze
9.5 2.3 0.32 High friction
Armacor-M 0.027 5.9 1.1 0.15 Amorphous material
Arnco-200X 0.018 7.0 1.43 0.14 Chromium Carbide
Colmonoy 5 0.016 5.9 1.06 0.15 Nickle base
Triboloy-800 0.020 4.2 0.65 0.12
Cobalt Molybdenum
Duocor 9.7 2.24 0.24 Titanium Carbide
Stellite 6 9.7 2.19 0.17 Cobal base
Polished Chrome
6.6 1.27 0.15 Sensitive in salt
mud
BP-1 10.2 2.53 0.19
Steel machine
ground smooth
BP-2 18.6 6.74 0.21
Steel hand ground
finish
Table 8.D - DEA-42 Comparable Tool Joint Hardmetal Test Results
(N 80 with 3,000ft/lbs load and Water Based Mud)
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figure 8.r below shows casing wear versus tool joint passes.
Figure 8.R - Effect of Hardmetal Roughness on Casing Wear
Drilling Fluid Tool Joint Wear Factor (10
-1
psi
-l
)
Water+Betonite+Barite Rubber Protector 1 to 2
Water Rubber Protector 4 to 10
Table 8.E - Typical Casing Wear Factors (Shell-Bradley, 1975)
The data given in table 8.c and table 8.e show that drill pipe rubber protectors (F= 1 to 10) will
reduce casing wear under all conditions except when using smooth tool joints with water
base mud weighted with barite, (F = 0.5 to 1.0).
In applications where very rough hard metal tool joints (F= 200 to 400) are being used, the
rubber protectors (F = 1 to 10) can reduce casing wear by 95 to 99 percent.
Limited casing wear data for oil based muds is also available. These limited tests indicate that
casing wear rates are nearly identical for oil based and water based muds.
Shell (Bol. 1985) found that the addition of barite to the mud significantly reduces casing wear
(Refer to figure 8.s).
The barite apparently acts as ball bearings and keeps the sliding metal surfaces from coming
into contact with each other and causing galling wear as already described in the previous
section.
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Figure 8.S - Effect of Barite on Casing Wear (Bol, 1985)
The barite reduced the wear factor from 25 using no barite to 1 to 2 with barite.
Shell (Bol, 1985) conducted tests which showed that a 10ppg mud weighted with drill solids
produced significantly more casing wear then a 10ppg mud weighted with barite (Refer to
figure 8.t below).
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Figure 8.T - Effects of Barite on Casing Wear
With lateral loads of 900 to 1,800lbs (4 to 8kN), the wear factor ranged from 5 to 10 with drill
solids compared to 0.5 to 1.0 with barite. Apparently the small diameter of the barite
contributed to this reduced wear.
Shell (Bol, 1985) conducted tests with muds weighted with different weighting materials and
found that weighting materials significantly reduce casing wear.
Figure 8.U - Effect of Weighting Materials on Casing Wear (Bol, 1985)
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Drilling Fluid
Mud Weight
(lbs/gal)
Tool Joint
Weighting
Material
Wear Factor
(10
-l0
psi
-1
)
Oil+Bentonite 10 Smooth Barite 0.9 to 1.2
Water+Bentonite 10 Smooth Barite 0.8 to 1.6
Water+Bentonite 10 Smooth Iron Oxide 3 to 4
Water+Betontite 10 Smooth Drill Solid 5 to 11
Water+Betontite 10 Smooth Sand 11 to 13
Water+Betontite 8.8 Smooth None 22 to 27
Table 8.F - Effect of Weighting Material on Casing Wear Factor (Bol, 1985)
Weighting materials were found to reduce casing wear in all cases. Wear was greatest (F=
22 to 27), when no weighting material was present to act as a buffer between the tool joint
and the casing. The addition of silica sand to the bentonite and water reduced the casing
wear in half, (F = 11 to 13).
Drill solids (F = 5 to 11) produced less wear than silica sand.
Iron oxide (F = 3 to 4), which is often considered very abrasive, produced less wear than all of
the other weighting materials except barite. This is apparently due to the small size of the iron
oxide weighting particles.
These tests indicate that the size of the weighting particles may be more important than the
composition of the particles.
Oil based and water based muds weighted with barite produced minimal wear (F = 0.8 to
1.6). This shows the importance of having good solids control when using heavily weighted
muds.
Shell (Bol, 1985) found that the addition of 2% lubricant to an unweighted mud consisting of
water and bentonite significantly reduced casing wear refer to figure 8.v.
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Figure 8.V - Effect of Lubricant on Casing Wear
The addition of 2% lubricant reduced the wear factor with the bentonite mud from between 30
to 5 with 1,800lbs lateral load (8kN) on the tool joint to between 30 to 0.5 with 900lbs load
(4kN).
These tests show that lubricants may be useful in wells where casing wear may be a
problem.
8.6.5. Detection Of Casing Wear
Detecting casing wear can be achieved by two methods:
• Use of magnets in the mud flow return.
• Running a caliper survey after setting the casing to provide a base log. A wear log
can then be run at any time throughout the life of the next section.
8.6.6. Casing Wear Reduction
If there are fears about casing wear, it stands to reason practices to reduce it should be
considered, including:
• Using down hole motors and turbines.
• Using rubber drill pipe casing protectors.
• Using drill pipe without hard facing.
• Keeping doglegs to a minimum.
• Keeping sand content low.
• Using oil based mud.
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8.6.7. Wear Allowance In Casing Design
With the design loads recommended it is highly unlikely that a reduction in collapse
resistance due to wear will be critical at shallow depths or similarly that the reduction in burst
resistance will be critical at the lower end of the casing string.
The most likely wear points in a deviated wells are at the kick-off point and near surface in the
vertical portion where buckling may occur (particularly at the top of cement).
In the vertical wells, wear points may also develop at the top of cement if buckling occurs but
unless there are known sudden changes in formation dip, which could cause a large ‘drilled
dogleg’, wear is likely to be small and uniformly spread over the entire length of the string.
For most purposes, consideration of wear allowances can be restricted to deviated wells,
with the most likely wear point at the kick-off point where burst reduction will be the prime
consideration.
Since wear estimates are order of magnitude calculations, it is recommended that wear
allowances be considered only in cases where the burst (or collapse) resistance of the
casing at the wear point will be approached during the anticipated operating time in the string.
In marginal cases, it may well prove cost effective to run a base caliper survey to re-survey
the casing prior to entering a hydrocarbon bearing zone (or pressure test the casing to the
equivalent of the burst pressures anticipated from the zone) than to run heavy walled casing
through all the anticipated wear sections.
The recommended procedure is therefore:
1) Conduct the casing design.
2) At the wear points, calculate the allowable reduction in wall thickness so that the burst
(or collapse) resistance of the casing just equals the burst (or collapse) load, including
the appropriate Design Factor applied.
3) Estimate the wear rate in terms of loss of wall thickness per operating day.
4) Calculate, from the allowable loss in wall thickness and the rate of wear, the allowable
operating time in the string.
If the allowable operating time is less than the anticipated operating time, use heavier casing
(or increases the grade) 100m above and to 60m below the wear point until the allowable
operating time exceeds the anticipated operating time.
If the allowable operating time is greater than the anticipated operating time (say estimated 50
days allowable versus estimated 20 days operating) do not include a wear allowance. If the
allowable operating time and the anticipated operating time are about the same, either:
a) Include a wear allowance
or
b) Monitor casing wear during drilling, and commission an intermediate string if the
worn casing strength approaches the design loads.
In any given situation whether option a) or b) is exercised will be dependent upon a number of
factors, many of which are beyond the scope of routine casing design.
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Option a)
Is the conservative approach, but it may be too high, given the gross uncertainties inherent in
wear estimations. However, in rank wildcats, particularly in remote locations, it may be
justified.
Option b)
Requires a base caliper survey to be run immediately after installing the casing string,
followed by runs at discrete intervals during the drilling phase.
If wear is proven to have occurred, and an intermediate string has to be commissioned early,
the deeper objectives of the well may not be reached. However, conditions as drilling
proceeds may indicate that the design loads assumed are not going to be encountered and
the reduction in casing strength is acceptable.
In any event, valuable data on casing wear in the area will be obtained and field practices may
be improved as result of the attention paid to wear, eventually leading to a reduction in overall
wear rates.
In most cases, option b) is preferred.
8.6.8. Company Design Procedure
There is no reliable method of predicting casing wear and defining the corresponding
reduction in casing performance. Because the reduction in burst and collapse rating is
directly proportional to wall thickness the revised theoretical value may be calculated.
The normal procedure to cater for possible wear when designing casing is to select the next
casing grade or wall thickness, therefore, in a vertical well, casing wear is usually in the first
few joints below the wellhead or intervals with a high dog-leg severity.
Consideration should be given to increasing the grade or wall thickness of the first few joints
below the wellhead.
In deviated wells, wear will be over the build-up and drop-off sections. Again the casing over
these depths can be of a higher grade or heavier wall thickness.
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8.7. SALT SECTIONS
8.7.1. General
Salt formations often exhibit plastic flow properties which can cause exceedingly high loads
on casing. The rate of salt flow is a function of its composition, temperature, depth or
overburden pressure and also probably influenced by how it is bedded or interbedded with
other formations.
The problem of salt formations has to be assessed on an individual well to well and/or area to
area basis.
The objectives for drilling through salt zones should be:
a) To achieve trouble free drilling.
b) Prevent casing collapse during the drilling and the production life of the well.
With regards to trouble free drilling, sticking due to salt flow, mud problems from salt
contamination, hole enlargement and the well's overall casing programme, are the prime
factors to be considered.
There are other factors that have to not be under evaluated such as:
• Control of gas flows from porous zones interbedded in the salt, differential sticking
in porous zones.
• Abnormal pressure due to entrapment of pressure by salt.
• Shale sloughing from interbedded or boundary shales.
To prevent casing collapse, the designer should plan for non-uniform salt loading, obtaining
the best possible cement job, using casing with higher than normal collapse ratings and
possibly two strings of casing through the salt section.
Running casing in salt sections is rather a cementing problem than a casing design problem.
In some cases, two strings may be more advantageous as experience has demonstrated that
it is not practical to design a casing string to resist collapse. This technique is probably the
most reliable and safest approach for preventing casing collapse but is probably not
necessary for the majority of salt sections.
8.7.2. External Loading Due To Salt Flow
Traditional analyses of casing response to external loading are not adequate when
considering all of the possible effects caused by salt formation flow.
Three additional factors have to be analysed for casing design in areas where there is salt
flow:
a) Uniform external loading.
b) Non-uniform or non symmetric external loading.
c) Asymmetrical formation loading.
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Uniform External Loads
Figure 8.W - Uniform External Loading
If there is a possibility of salt loading, several remedial actions may be taken. The first group
of precautions may be classified under the general heading of filling the casing internally,
either, with gravel, other solids or a fluid. For production casing, such actions are usually not
possible.
The alternative is to run a scab liner inside the casing opposite the suspect formation and
cement the annulus between the two casing strings refer to figure 8.x.
The benefits gained from running such a liner are substantial.
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Figure 8.X - Casing With Liner Installed and Cemented
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Another source of non-uniform loading is bending of the casing as a result of curvature of the
wellbore. Consider an initially straight casing length under external pressure and axial loads
that are insufficient to result in collapse. Now assume that the casing is gradually bent by an
additional external force as for example due to salt flowing (Refer to figure 8.y below).
Figure 8.Y - Non-Uniform Loading
In the lower portion of the figure, the flowing formation has come in contact with the casing
thus restricting its movement. Above this point of contact, additional flow of the formation is
depicted as being in progress. Subsequent formation movement above the frozen point will
cause severe bending loads and, thus, reduce the casing cross-sectional integrity.
Problems may be observed before final catastrophic failure of the cross section e.g. the
ovality of the cross section may be sufficient enough to result in restrictions in the casing that
will prohibit the passage of bits or production equipment.
However, even in the presence of non-uniform external loads, the structural benefits of using
concentric casing strings are substantial.
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Asymmetrical Formation Loads
For straight casing the most severe loading situation that could be expected from the salt
environment is 'point loading’.
If for some reason cement placement results in only a partial sheath around the casing, the
remainder of the annulus being filled with mud, subsequent movement of the salt formation
will result (Refer to figure 8.z below).
The result of point loading is devastating leading to complete casing collapse. In fact, no
casing is strong enough to resist point loading in its extremist form.
Figure 8.Z - Point Loading
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8.7.3. Company Design Procedure
In designing casing for any application, the accepted design load is the one for which the
casing is subjected to the greatest conceivable loads.
In the particular case of casing design opposite salt formations, certain guidelines can be
considered:
• For production casing exposed to salt formations, assume the casing will be
always evacuated at some point during the well life.
• The uniform external pressure exerted by salt on the casing (or cement sheath)
due to overburden pressure should be given a value equal to the true vertical
depth to the point in question.
• Proper cement placement opposite a salt section is often difficult due to washout.
• Any beneficial effects of the cement sheath should be ignored during design of the
casing.
• If the wellbore is deviated, additional axial forces due to hole curvature should be
considered when determining the collapse resistance of the casing.
Conclusions:
• Running casing in salt sections is rather a cementing problem than a casing
problem.
• If the pipe is well cemented, it is sufficient to design for collapse load in the
traditional mode (overburden pressure/design factor).
• If the casing is poorly cemented the collapse effect may be very high. In this case,
it may help to run heavier wall casing (Refer to figure 8.aa).
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Figure 8.AA - High Collapse Resistance Casing For Deep Wells
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9. CORROSION
9.1. GENERAL
A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing.
They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus.
However, it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such,
production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when
designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S) or carbon dioxide (CO
2
) laden
reservoir fluids can be expected.
During the drilling phase, if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring,
consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the
reservoir.
The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service.
9.1.1. Exploration and Appraisal Wells
Routine measures to be taken during drilling include:
• Use of casing and wellhead equipment with a metallurgy suitable for sour service.
• Use of high alkaline mud to neutralise the H
2
S gas.
• Use of inhibitors and/or scavengers.
These measures will provide a degree of short term protection necessary to control corrosion
of the casing in the hole during the drilling phase.
9.1.2. Development Wells
Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production
casing only.
• Internal corrosion
The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within
the tubing string by using premium connections.
Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive
environment, during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing
or wellhead leak, should be designed to withstand such an environment.
• External corrosion
Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the
consequences of such corrosion are serious, the production casing should be
cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the
expected corrosion environment).
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9.1.3. Contributing Factors to Corrosion
Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence
of water. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities, it is
necessary to the corrosion process. In the presence of water, corrosion is an electrolytic
process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process. To have a flow of
current, there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit.
The existence, if any, of the following conditions alone, or in any combination may be a
contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion:
• Oxygen (O
2
)
Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. It can cause
severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1.0ppm.
The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure, temperature and chloride
content. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water.
Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels.
• Hydrogen Sulphide (H
2
S)
Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid
and usually causes pitting. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is
referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion.
The combination of H
2
S and CO
2
is more aggressive than H
2
S alone and is frequently
found in oilfield environments.
Other serious problems which may result from H
2
S corrosion are hydrogen blistering
and sulphide stress cracking.
It should be pointed out that H
2
S also can be generated by introduced micro-organisms.
• Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
)
When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, decreases the pH of
the water and increase its corrosivity. It is not as corrosive as oxygen, but usually also
results in pitting.
The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure,
temperature and composition of the water. Pressure increases the solubility to lower
the pH, temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH.
Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’
corrosion.
Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion, the
following relationships have been found:
Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk.
Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicate high corrosion risk.
Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive.
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• Temperature
Like most chemical reactions, corrosion rates generally increase with increasing
temperature.
• Pressure
Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no
exception.
In oilfield systems, the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases.
More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased, this may in turn increase the
corrosivity of the solution.
• Velocity of fluids within the environment
Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates, but pitting is more likely.
Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from
the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion.
High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to
erosion, corrosion, impingement or cavitation.
9.2. FORMS OF CORROSION
The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual:
Corrosion caused by H
2
S (SSC)
Corrosion caused by CO
2
and Cl
-
Corrosion caused by combinations of H
2
S, CO
2
and Cl
-
Corrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included.
The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology
used to calculate the partial pressures of H
2
S and CO
2
will be illustrated in the following sub-
sections.
9.2.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC)
The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the
presence of stress in the material. The H
2
S comes into contact with H
2
O which is an
essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H
+
ion. Higher temperatures, e.g.
above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon, therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is
very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for
various depths.
Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. In gas wells,
gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions
for SSC. In oil wells, two separate cases need to be considered, vertical and deviated wells:
a) In vertical oil wells, generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes
higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’
and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of
the well.
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b) In highly deviated wells (i.e. deviations >80
o
), the risk of corrosion by H
2
S is higher
since the water, even if in very small quantities, deposits on the surface of the
tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical
threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC >1%).
The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH
2
S (partial pressure of H
2
S) in
both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells.
Firstly, the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values
combined with the type of well and deviation profile. If the conditions specified above are
verified then the pH
2
S can be calculated.
Gas Or Condensate Gas Well
H
2
S partial pressure is calculated by:
pH
2
S = SBHP x Y(H
2
S)/100
where:
SBHP = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm]
Y(H
2
S) = Mole fraction of H
2
S
pH
2
S = Partial H
2
S pressure [atm]
SSC is triggered at pH
2
S >0.0035 atm and SBHP >4.5 atm.
Oil Bearing Well
The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water; i.e.:
Water cut >15% for vertical wells
Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80
o
)
or if the GOR >800 Nm
3
/m
3
The pH
2
S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil.
Undersaturated Oil
In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved, because the wellhead and bottom-hole
pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature, is termed
undersaturated.
In this case the pH
2
S is calculated in two ways:
• Basic method.
• Material balance method.
If the quantity of H
2
S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H
2
S)], is not known
or the values obtained are not reliable, the pH
2
S is calculated using both methods and the
higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value. Otherwise the basic method is used.
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Basic Method
This method is used, without comparison with the other method, when the H
2
S value in the
separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H
2
S), molar fraction in
the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%.
The pH
2
S is calculated by:
pH
2
S = Pb x Y(H
2
S)/100
where:
Pb = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm]
Y(H
2
S) = Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if
extrapolated)
pH
2
S = Partial H
2
S pressure [atm]
Material Balance Method
This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity
of H
2
S is very small (<2,000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method
cannot be used when the WC values are higher). The value of H
2
S in ppm to be used in the
calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions. Note: H
2
S sampled in short
production tests, is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions.
The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH
2
S:
pH
2
S is calculated at the separator (pH
2
S
sep
):
pH
2
S
sep
= (Psep x H
2
S
sep
)/10
6
Eq. 9.A
where:
P
sep
= Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in
atm
H
2
S
sep
= Mean H
2
S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm)
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The mean molecular weight of the produced oil, PM :
( )
PM
GOR
d
PM
GOR
res
·
+

γ
γ
1000
1000
23 6
29
23 6
.
.
Eq. 9.B
where:
PM
res
= mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil = CiMi
i
n
·

|
.

`
,

]
]
]
1
100 /
Ci = Mole% of the ith component of the reservoir oil
Mi = Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil
d = Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1
The quantity of H
2
S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated:
[H
2
S]
oi l
= (pH
2
S
sep
/H
1
x (γ x 1000)/ PM )
Eq. 9.C
where:
H
1
= Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole
fraction). (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant)
PM = Mean molecular weight of the produced oil
γ = Specific weight g/l of the produced oil
The quantity of H
2
S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil):
[H
2
S]
gas
= (GOR/23.6 x H
2
S
sep
/10
6
) Eq. 9.D
where:
GOR = Gas oil ratio Nm
3
/m
3
(from production tests)
23.6 = Conversion factor
The pH
2
S is calculated at reservoir conditions:
pH
2
S = (([H
2
S]
oi l
+ [H
2
S]
gas
)/K ) x H
2
Eq. 9.E
where:
K = (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23.6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in
the reservoir
H
2
= Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil. (See
procedure for calculating Henry constant)
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In general, H
2
S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction.
There is SSC potential if pH
2
S >0.0035 atm and STHP >18.63 atm.
Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant
The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator.
The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and
200°C. Given the diagram in figure 9.a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types
of oils:
• Heptane PM = 100
• N-propyl benzene PM = 120
• Methylnaphthalene PM = 142
Remarks On The H
1
Calculation
Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq. 9.b,
the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis
of the following value thresholds:
• If PM > 142, the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used.
• If PM = 120, the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used.
• If PM < 100, the H(t) curve of heptane is used.
• If 100 <PM < 120, the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl
benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene.
• If 120 <PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane
and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene.
• Given FTHT, wellhead flowing temperature, the H
1
value is interpolated linearly on
the chosen curve(s). For this purpose the temperature values immediately before
and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration.
Comments On The H
2
Calculation
Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM
res
, using temperature
measured at the separator, H
2
is measured in a similar way as H
1
.
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Figure 9.A - H(t) Reference Curves
Oversaturated Oil
Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of
the system is lower than the bubble point pressure. Two situations can arise:
Case A
FTHP < Pb
FBHP > Pb
Case B
FTHP < Pb
FBHP < Pb
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
methylnaphthalene PM = 142
N-propylbenzene PM = 120
heptane PM = 100
T C°
Henry
atm/Y[H 2S]
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Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A:
1) Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir:
In this case pH
2
S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil.
2) Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead, i.e. when FTHP <Pb:
The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used.
Basic Method
pH
2
S = STHP x Y(H
2
S) / 100
where:
STHP = static tubing head pressure [atm]
Y(H
2
S) = mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature
pH
2
S= partial H
2
S pressure [atm]
The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH
2
S >0.0035 atm and STHP >18.63
atm.
Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B:
Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir:
In the reservoir the gas is already separated, FBHP <Pb, calculation of pH
2
S can be
approximated on the basis of the following:
• the PVTs are reliable, Y(H
2
S) >0.2%, the partial pressure is calculated as:
pH
2
S = Y(H
2
S)
(1)
x FBHP
where:
Y(H
2
S) = molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature
(from PVT)
• the PVTs are not reliable, the material balance method can be used as in the
case of undersaturated oil; these are the worst conditions. The error made can be
high when Pb >FBHP.
Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead
The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb)
(2)
Notes:
(1)
If the percentage (ppm) of H
2
S in the gas under static conditions is not known, the
corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the
wellhead.
(2)
If the percentage (ppm) of H
2
S in the separated gas under static conditions is not
known, the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial
pressure at the wellhead.
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9.2.2. Corrosion Caused By CO
2
And Cl
-
In the presence of water, CO
2
gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those
caused by the presence of H
2
S. It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO
2
exceeds a
particular threshold. As in the case of SSC, the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut
values combined with the type of well and deviation profile, is evaluated. If the conditions
described in section 9.2.1 exist, then the pCO
2
is then calculated.
Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells
The partial pressure is calculated:
pCO
2
= SBHP x Y(CO
2
)/100
where:
SBHP = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm]
Y(CO
2
) = Mole fraction of CO
2
pCO
2
= Partial pressure of CO
2
[atm]
Corrosion occurs if pCO
2
>0.2 atm.
Oil Bearing Wells
The problem exists where there is wetting water; i.e.:
• Water cut >15% for vertical wells.
• Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees).
Undersaturated Oil Wells
The partial pressure of CO
2
is calculated:
pCO
2
= Pb x Y(CO
2
)/100
where:
Pb = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature
Y(CO
2
) = Mole fraction of CO
2
in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the
PVTs)
pCO
2
= Partial pressure of CO
2
[atm]
Corrosion occurs if pCO
2
>0.2 atm.
The pCO
2
values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and
wellhead; i.e. pCO
2
at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions.
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Oversaturated Oil
The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure
of the system is lower than bubble point pressure. Two situations may arise:
Case A
FTHP <Pb
FBHP >Pb
Case B
FTHP <Pb
FBHP <Pb
Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A:
Calculation of pCO
2
in reservoir conditions:
FBHP >Pb pCO
2
is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this
section.
pCO
2
= Pb x Y(CO
2
)/100
where:
Pb = bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature
Y(CO
2
) = mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs)
pCO
2
= partial pressure of CO
2
[atm]
Corrosion occurs if pCO
2
>0.2 atm.
Calculation Of PCO
2
At Wellhead:
pCO
2
= STHP x Y(CO
2
)/100
where:
pCO
2
= partial pressure of CO
2
[atm]
Y(CO
2
) = mole fraction in separated gas at STHP
(3)
STHP = static tubing head pressure [atm]
Corrosion occurs if pCO
2
>0.2 atm.
Note:
(3)
If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known, the
corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the
wellhead.
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Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B:
Calculation of pCO
2
at reservoir conditions:
pCO
2
= FBHP x Y(CO
2
)/100
where:
FBHP = flowing bottom-hole pressure [atm]
Y(CO
2
) = mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs)
pCO
2
= partial pressure of CO
2
[atm]
Calculation Of pCO
2
At Wellhead:
The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A:
pCO
2
= STHP x Y(CO
2
)/100
where:
pCO
2
= partial pressure of CO
2
[atm]
Y(CO
2
) = mole fraction in separated gas at STHP
(4)
STHP = static tubing head pressure [atm]
There is corrosion if pCO
2
>0.2 atm.
9.2.3. Corrosion Caused By H
2
S, CO
2
And Cl
-
It is possible to encounter H
2
S and CO
2
besides Cl
-
. In this case the problem is much more
complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate. The phenomenon is diagnosed
by calculating the partial pressures of H
2
S and CO
2
and comparing them with the respective
thresholds.
Note:
(4)
If the percentage (ppm) of CO
2
in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known,
the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at
the wellhead.
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9.3. CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES
Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following:
• Cathodic protection
• Chemical inhibition
• Chemical control
• Oxygen scavengers
• Chemical sulphide scavengers
• pH adjustment
• Deposit control
• Coatings
• Non metallic materials or metallurgical
• Control
• Stress reduction
• Elimination of sharp bends
• Elimination of shock loads and vibration
• Improved handling procedures
• Corrosion allowances in design
• Improved welding procedures
• Organisation of repair operations.
Refer to table 9.a below.
Measure Means
Control of the environment • pH
• Temperature
• Pressure
• Chloride concentration
• CO
2
concentration
• H
2
S concentration
• H
2
O concentration
• Flow rate
• Inhibitors
Surface treatment • Plastic coating
• Plating
Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the
steel
Addition of the alloying elements micro structure
Table 9.A - Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion
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9.4. CORROSION INHIBITORS
An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction. Thus, a
corrosion inhibitor is a substance which, when added to an environment, decreases the rate
of attack by the environmental on a metal.
Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids, cooling waters, steam or
other environments, either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion.
There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells:
• Batch treatment (tubing displacement, standard batch, extended batch)
• Continuous treatment
• Squeeze treatment
• Atomised inhibitor squeeze - weighted liquids
• Capsules
• Sticks.
9.5. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS
Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing, however it is occasionally
used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth.
The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. To be
classed as a stainless steel, an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in
volume. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to
passivate the surface of the alloy.
Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical
content, metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are:
9.5.1. Martensitic Stainless Steels
The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element. The
most common types contain around 12% chromium, although some chromium content may
be as high as 18%.
The carbon content ranges from 0.08% to 1.10% and other elements such as nickel,
columbium, molybdenum, selenium, silicon, and sulphur are added in small amounts for
other properties in some grades.
The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their
response to heat treatment. The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat
treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels.
The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels. The most
commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410. The only grade of oilfield
tubular used in this category is 13Cr. As their name indicates, the microstructure of these
steels is martensitic. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment
condition.
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9.5.2. Ferritic Stainless Steels
The second class of stainless steels, is the ferritic stainless steels, which are similar to the
martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element. The
chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic,
stainless steel, and the carbon content is generally lower.
The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat
treatment. They are used principally for their temperature properties.
Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series, the principal types being 405, 430,
and 436.
The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite, which are also strongly
magnetic. Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure.
9.5.3. Austenitic Stainless Steels
The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements, chromium and nickel.
Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an
iron alloy based on this structure.
They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel, with other elements added for
particular reasons, and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel.
Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the
stainless steels, but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels.
They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some
extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic.
Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series, the most common being 304.
Others commonly used are 303 free machining, 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo,
and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance.
These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines, but due to its low
strength is not used for well tubulars.
9.5.4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation
hardened stainless steels’, which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel.
They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion
resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels.
Most were developed as proprietary alloys, and there is a wide variety of compositions
available.
The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through
specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures, the steels can be hardened to varying
strength levels.
Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product
being hardened. Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow.
These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not
as oilfield tubulars. Refer to figure 9.b for the various compositions of stainless steels.
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Figure 9.B- Stainless Steel Compositions
9.5.5. Duplex Stainless Steel
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In general, ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and
has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5.5% Ni-3% Mo-0.14% N.
The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes
increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking;
while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability.
This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO
2
and H
2
S conditions.
As a general note, there is a large gap between the 13CR and Duplex Stainless Steels used
as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties. This gap is attempted to be filled with
‘Super 13CR’ tubing being developed.
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9.6. CASING FOR SOUR SERVICE
OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H
2
S Only In Oil Wells
Conditions Material Alternately
0.0035< pH
2
S max < 0.1 FBHT >80
o
C J55, K55, N80, C95, P110 L80-Mod, C90-1, T95-1
0.0035< pH
2
S max < 0.1 60
o
C< FBHT >80
o
C J55, K55, N80 L80-Mod, C90-1, T95-1
0.0035< pH
2
S max < 0.1 FBHT >80
o
C L80 L80-Mod, C90-1, T95-1
pH
2
S max < 0.1 L80 Mod, C90-1, T95-1
OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H
2
S Only In Gas Wells
Conditions Material Alternately
0.0035< pH
2
S max < 0.1 FBHT >80
o
C J55, K55, N80-2, C95 L80-Mod, C90-1, T95-1
0.0035< pH
2
S max < 0.1 FBHT <80
o
C L80 L80-Mod, C90-1, T95-1
OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO
2
And Cl
-
Conditions Material Alternately
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100 FBHT <150
o
C Cl
-
<50,000 13% Cr
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100
150
o
C< FBHT <200
o
C
22% Cr
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100
200
o
C< FBHT <250
o
C
25% Cr-SA 25% Cr
OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO
2
, H
2
S And Cl
-
Conditions Material Alternately
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.0035< pH
2
S max < 0.005 FBHT <150
o
C Cl
-
<50,000
13% Cr-80KSI
Max
22% Cr
25% Cr
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
pH
2
S max <0.005
FBHT <200
o
C Cl
-
>50,000
22% Cr CW
25% Cr CW
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.0035< pH
2
S max <0.005
150
o
C< FBHT <200
o
C
Cl
-
<50,000
22% Cr
25% Cr
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.0035< pH
2
S max <0.005
200
o
C< FBHT <250
o
C
Cl
-
<50,000 25% Cr
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.0035< pH
2
S max <0.005
200
o
C< FBHT <250
o
C
Cl
-
>50,000 25% Cr CW
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.005< pH
2
S max <0.1
FBHT <250
o
C Cl
-
<20,000 25% Cr
pCO
2
S max <100e
0.005< pH
2
S max <0.1
FBHT <250
o
C Cl
-
<50,000 25% Cr CW
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.005< pH
2
S max <0.1
200
o
C< FBHT <250
o
C
Cl
-
<50,000 28% Cr
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.1< pH
2
S max <1
FBHT <200
o
C Cl
-
<50,000 22% Cr SA
22% Cr, 25% Cr
Incoloy 825
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.1< pH
2
S max <1
FBHT <250
o
C Cl
-
<50,000 25% Cr SA
28% Cr
Incoloy 825
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
0.1< pH
2
S max <1
FBHT <200
o
C Cl
-
>50,000 28% Cr Incoloy 825
0.2< pCO
2
S max <100e
pH
2
S max >1
28% Cr Incoloy 825
Table 9.B - OCTG Materials for Sour Service
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9.7. ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS
When ordering tubulars for sour service, the following specifications should be included, in
addition to those given in the above table.
1) Downgraded grade N80, P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or
K55 casing.
2) The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body.
3) The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC).
4) Cold die stamping is prohibited, all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die
stamped.
5) Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the
manufacture of the goods shipped, together with all the check analyses performed,
must be submitted.
6) Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the
results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted.
7) Shell modified API thread compound must be used.
Note: Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be
specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings.
The casing should also meet the following criteria:
• The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and
tempered. (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods
e.g. normalising and tempering).
• All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or
impact tests only, as per API Specification 5CT.
9.8. COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE
9.8.1. CO
2
Corrosion
The following guidelines should be used for the appropriate corrosive environment.
• In exploration wells, generally the presence of CO
2
in the formation causes little
problems, and will have no influence on material selection for the casing.
• In producing wells, the presence of CO
2
may lead to corrosion on those parts
coming in contact with CO
2
which normally means the production tubing and part
of the production casing below the packer.
Corrosion may be limited by:
• The selection of high alloy chromium steels, resistant to corrosion.
• Inhibitor injection, if using carbon steel casing. Generally, wells producing CO
2
partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion.
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9.8.2. H
2
S Corrosion
In exploration wells, if there is high probability of encountering H
2
S, consideration should
be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’
standard MR-01-75.
In producing wells, casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount
of H
2
S and other corrosive media present.
Refer to figure 9.c and figure 9.d for partial pressure limits.
Figure 9.C - Sour Gas Systems
Figure 9.D - Sour Multiphase Systems
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Figure 9.E - Sumitomo Metals
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Application
(Refer to figure 9.e)
Domain Material
SM’
Designation
Notes
Mild Environment Domain “A” API J 55
N 80
P 110
(Q 125)
SM 95G
SM 125G
Sulphide Stress Corrosion
Cracking (medium pressure
and temperature)
Domain “B” Cr or Cr Mo Steel
API L 80
C 90
T 95
SM 80S
SM 90S
SM 95S
Sulphide Stress Corrosion
Cracking (high pressure and
temperature)
Domain “C” 1Cr 0.5Mo Steel
Modified AISI 4130
SM 85SS
SM 90SS
SM C100
SM C110
Higher yield
strength for sour
service
Wet CO
2
Corrosion Domain “D” 9Cr 1Mo Steel SM 9CR 75
SM 9CR 80
SM 9CR 95
Quenched and
tempered
13Cr Steel
Modified AISI 420
SM 13CR 75
SM 13CR 80
SM 13CR 95
Quenched and
tempered
Wet CO
2
with a little H
2
S
Corrosion
Domain “E” 22Cr 5Ni 3Mo Steel
25Cr 6Ni 3Mo Steel
SM 22CR 65*
SM 22CR 110**
SM 22CR 125**
SM 25CR 75*
SM 25CR 110**
SM 25CR 125**
SM 25CR 140**
Duplex phase
Stainless steels
* Solution Treated
** Cold drawn
Wet CO
2
with H
2
S Corrosion Domain “F” 25C -35Ni 3Mo Steel
22Cr 42N -3Mo Steel
20Cr 35Ni 5Mo Steel
SM 2535-110
SM 2535-125
SM 2242-110
SM 2242-125
SM 2035-110
SM 2035-125
As cold drawn
Most Corrosive Environment Domain “G” 25Cr 50Ni 6Mo Steel
20Cr 58Ni 13Mo Steel
16Cr 54Ni 16Mo Steel
SM 2550-110
SM 2550-125
SM 2550-140
SM 2060-110***
SM 2060-125***
SM 2060-140***
SM 2060-155***
SM C276-110***
SM C276-125***
SM C276-140***
As cold drawn
*** Environment
with free
Sulphur
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10. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
10.1. HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE
For deep wells, reduction in yield strength must be considered due to the effect on steel by
the temperature.
It no information is available on temperature gradients in the area, a gradient of 3°C/100m is
to be used.
Use the values in figure .a10.a for reduction in yield strength.
where:
K
0.2
= Yield strength as per ISO normative with permanent deformation of 0.2%.
Figure .A10.A - Temperature Effects
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10.2. LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE
Operations at low temperatures require tubulars made from steel with high ductility at low
temperatures to prevent brittle failures during transport and handling.
(Refer to figure 10.b below)
Figure 10.B - Arctic Service
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11. LOAD CONDITIONS
When running casing, shock loads are exerted on the pipe due to:
• Sudden deceleration forces (e.g.: if the spider accidentally closes or the slips are
kicked-in when the pipe is moving or the pipe hits a bridge).
• Sudden acceleration forces (e.g.: picking the pipe out of the slips or if the casing
momentarily hangs up on a ledge then freed).
Either of the above will cause a stress wave to be created which will travel through the casing
at the speed of sound.
This effect is quantified as follows:
SL = 150 x V x Af
where:
SL = Shock load (lbs x ins
2
)
V = Peak velocity when running (ins/sec)
Af = Cross-sectional area (ins
2
)
150 = Speed of sound in steel (lbs x sec/ins)
11.1. SAFE ALLOWABLE TENSILE LOAD
A safe allowable pull on the pipe should be calculated, stipulated during the casing string
design process and specified in the Geological Drilling Programme or communicated to the
well site prior to running casing. This is particularly important when reciprocating pipe during
the cementing procedure.
The application of the pulling load should only be considered as an emergency measure to
retrieve the casing string from the wellbore. It is normal to incorporate an overpull contingency
of 100,000lbs (45tons over the weight of the string in the mud as part of the casing string
design).
11.2. CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS
11.2.1. Casing Support
The cement sheath can protect the casing against several types of potential downhole
damage including:
• Deformation through perforating gun detonations.
• Formation movement, salt flows, etc. (Refer to previous section 8.7).
• The loss of the bottom joint on surface or intermediate strings during drilling.
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However, the following aspects also need to be noted:
• Adding resistance to casing collapse for design purposes is questionable.
• In fault slippage zones, doglegs and certain sand control failures, the cement
sheath may contribute to problems.
11.2.2. Cementing Loads
As a cement slurry is pumped into the casing, the weight indicator increases to a maximum
when mud has been displaced from the casing by the full amount of cement.
The maximum weight of the string occurs when the cement reaches the casing shoe or when
the top cement plug is released.
This weight increase can approach the remaining allowable pull margin of the string. If
reciprocation is contemplated, this remaining margin may be so small to prevent
reciprocation and, hence stretching of the pipe. After considering this issue, the design
engineer may decide that a higher allowable pull contingency is required.
For design calculation, the worst case situation is assumed as follows:
• The mud weight in the annulus is the lowest planned for the section.
• The inside of the casing is full of cement slurry, with mud above.
• The shoe instantaneously plugs off just as the cement reaches it and the
pressure rises to a value of approximately ‘1,000psi’ before the pumps are able to
be shut down.
The load in this situation is calculated as follows:
CCL = [(Cw - Mw) x D + 1,000] x Ai
where:
CCL = Cementing contribution load (lbs)
Cw = Cement weight (psi/ft)
Mw = Outside mud weight (psi/ft)
D = Length over which Cw & Mw act(ft)
Ai = Internal area of casing (ins
2
)
1,000 = Pressure increment (psi)
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11.3. PRESSURE TESTING
Casing pressure tests will be carried out according to the pressure stated in the drilling
programme. The leading criteria for pressure testing will be the maximum anticipated
wellhead pressure.
In all cases the test pressure will be no higher than 70% of API minimum internal yield
pressure of the weakest casing in the string or to 70% of the BOP WP.
When establishing an internal casing pressure test, the differential pressure due to a
difference in fluid level and/or fluid density, inside and outside the casing, shall be taken into
account.
Consideration should be taken on the maximum allowable tensile strength of the casing
thread considering the relevant tensile design factor.
Each casing shall be pressure tested at the following times:
• When cement plug bumps on bottom with a pressure stated in the drilling
programme.
• When testing blind/shear rams of the BOP stack against the casing.
• After having drilled out a DV collar.
A cemented liner overlap will be positively tested applying a pressure greater than the lea-off
pressure of the previous casing. If there is any doubt, an inflow test could be carried out, with
a sufficient drawdown to test the liner top to the most severe negative differential pressure
that will exist during the life of the well.
The test pressure shall be held and remain stable for at least 10-15 mins
The test pressure and method for each well are determined on an individual basis and shall
be included in the Geological and Drilling Programme.
11.4. BUCKLING AND COMPRESSIVE LOADING
The following buckling and compressive loads must also be considered.
11.4.1. Buckling
Buckling is a failure of stability which can occur at stress levels well below the yield stress of
the material. Buckling cannot occur where the casing is supported by cement.
Factors responsible for buckling and the degree of buckling are:
• Length of casing, supported by cement.
• Hole size and degree of washout.
• Tensile loads on the casing string.
• Changed pressure conditions across the pipe.
• Temperature increases downhole.
All these factors are interrelated but the first three are generally considered major contributors
to buckling, while temperature and pressure changes are primarily the mechanisms that
cause the initial buckling.
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A buckling potential may exist in the uncemented portion of a string of casing, if the:
• Internal mud density is increased.
• Internal surface pressure is increased.
• Annular fluid removed or its density reduced.
• Casing is landed with less than full hanging weight.
• Temperature of the casing increases.
Buckling of long, uncemented portions of the casing string, in vertical wells, can be prevented
by:
• Cementing the casing up above the neutral point.
• Pre-tensioning the casing after landing.
• Limiting the increase in mud density used after drilling out the casing.
• Rigidly centralising the casing below the neutral point.
Provided that all casing strings can be landed with full hanging weight, the buckling calculation
is only required on the small percentage of deep vertical wells in which the mud density is to
be raised during the drilling of the next open hole section. Thus, for the majority of wells,
buckling is not a major design problem.
11.4.2. Compressive Loads
Compressive loads can occur in casing strings as a result of:
• Landing inner strings within or on top of an outer string.
• Restricting length changes that would occur as the result of increasing downhole
temperatures. This condition occurs when casing strings are anchored firmly at
both ends with an unsupported interval between.
In most well designs, the total compressive load is the buoyant load of the intermediate
casings, the tubing to production packer overpull and the weight of the wellhead. This
compressive load is carried by the outer casing string. This outer casing is usually the
conductor or surface casing.
When discussing compressive loads it is convenient to consider three types of well where:
a) The wellhead is at ground level or at the seabed.
b) The wellhead is above seabed (i.e.: platform wells).
c) The mudline suspension takes the weight of the casing at the seabed, but the
wellhead is above seabed.
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Wellhead at Ground Level or at Seabed
When the surface casing (i.e.: 20ins or 18
5
/
8
ins) is cemented to the surface or seabed it can
be considered as a rigid foundation capable of carrying the total buoyant weight of the inner
strings, the wellhead and any tubing to packer load.
If the surface casing is not cemented to surface the uncemented portion will compress in the
elastic manner until either the yield is exceeded or buckling occurs (if the unsupported length
exceeds a critical length). From this, it is obvious that surface casing should and must be
cemented to surface. The surface casing string must be designed to carry the compressive
loads placed upon it.
No compressive load is carried by the inner strings.
Buckling may be ignored if the surface casing is completely cemented to the base of the
wellhead.
Wellhead above Sea Level (Platform Wells, No Mudline Suspension)
Compressive loads in surface strings on wells in which the wellheads is above sea level, can
lead to buckling in the free-standing portion of the well.
To prevent buckling, every joint of the surface casing must be centralised within the previous
string (usually a free standing 30ins or 26ins string) or restrained by a wellhead jacket.
The surface casing must be designed for compression loads as outlined in a) above. For
every new platform, a full structural analysis should be commissioned. This analysis must
assess the adequacy of the conductor/surface casing design for buckling resistance.
Mudline Suspension
In this case, the weight of the casing strings is taken at the seabed. The surface casing must
be designed and cemented as outlined in a) above.
The tieback strings above the mudline suspension hanger may be subject to some degree of
buckling.
Most wellhead hook-ups can be safely supported on a 20ins x 133lbs/ft casing string in water
depths up to 300ft (92m). However, if buckling may be suspected to occur in the tied back
surface string a full structural analysis should be commissioned. The structural analysis may
be carried out by companies involved in the supply of conductors.
The analysis is in effect a Riser Tensioner Analysis as is evaluated for semi-submersibles
and it takes into account the effect of waves, current and the weight of the pipe in the free
standing mode.
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Compressive Loads Due to Temperature
Temperature rises in the uncemented portion of a casing string will give rise to axially
compressive forces in the string, if the casing is constrained. However, the compressive
forces will relieve the tensional forces in the casing and need not be considered in the design
unless buckling occurs.
Therefore, except in extreme cases such as thermal recovery wells, temperature loads need
only be assessed in casing strings on which buckling may occur and need only be treated in
this context.
Decrease in Temperature
a) Drilling Phase:
It is highly unlikely that any routine operation (other than extensive reverse circulation)
will cause a long term temperature decrease in the uncemented portion of a casing
string, thus, no loading applies.
b) Production Phase:
Temperature induced stresses are of no consequence in the outer strings of casing
and attention need only be paid to the production string.
Producers are normally subjected to temperature increases under operating conditions
and the compressive load induced should be treated in the context of buckling.
The tensile loads induced by cooling in high volume injection wells, or in producers
during high volume stimulation treatments or emergency squeeze kills, must be taken
into account.
It should be added to the axial load and included in the design load if the occurrence of
such loading is anticipated
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12. PRESSURE RATING OF BOP EQUIPMENT
This section includes design criteria for BOP equipment which are extracted from the Well
Control Policy Manual.
The prime considerations, when selecting and procuring pressure control equipment, are the
safety of the personnel, rig and maintaining the integrity of the wellbore. In order to assure this
safety requirement, several factors need to be considered.
Note: It should be realised that each drilling area may have local regulations
unique to that particular area which exceed the general requirements
stated in this section, or indeed the Eni-Agip Well Control Policy Manual.
In addition, the various operating companies and their contractors may
also vary from these general requirements, if dictated by individual
company policy and philosophy providing they are not less stringent than
described herein.
The anticipated formation pressure is the governing parameter which dictates the casing
depth, casing selection, BOP selection and pressure rating of the BOP equipment as
described previously in section 2.
The weakest element within any pressure control system determines the maximum pressure
that can be safely controlled.
Individual elements of the pressure control system may exceed the assembly WP, and
under no circumstances should components be used which are less than the
assembly WP. For instance, a 10,000psi choke may be rigged up with a 2,000psi BOP stack
in anticipation of its later use when the 10,000psi BOP stack is nippled up for a subsequent
string of casing.
The equipment in the well control system which has the lowest pressure rating will set the
rating for entire system e.g. 2,000psi stack and 10,000psi choke manifold would be rated to
only 2,000psi WP.
Since the well control system must be able to contain any anticipated formation pressures
that may be encountered, the maximum anticipated surface pressures must first be
calculated.
Many different methods are available to determine the maximum casing pressures which may
be encountered during a kick as described in section 2.
12.1. BOP SELECTION CRITERIA
Blow-out preventer equipment configurations shall consist of an annular preventer and a
specified number of ram type preventers.
The working pressure of any blow-out preventer shall exceed the maximum anticipated
surface pressure to which it may be subjected.
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The graph illustrated in the attached figure 12.a has been prepared to enable the first
approximation of the BOP rating necessary for use in drilling an exploration well. To use the
graph, the setting depths of the various casings and the relative pore pressure gradients must
be found or determined during the design phase.
The co-ordinates in the graph are depth and pressure and comprises two groups of lines
respectively, one representing the BOPs to be used while drilling and the other the BOPs to
be used during well testing.
Each group outlines the different solutions available to the various pore pressure gradients.
Example: The casing program assumes that a well test will be carried out at the shoe of 7”
casing. From the diagram shown in table 12.a, the maximum test, drilling
pressure values and the size of BOP to be used should be obtained which is
given in table 12.a below.
Casing
(ins)
Shoe
Depth
(m)
Overburden
Gradient
(kg/cm
2
/10m)
Pore Press.
Gradient
(kg/cm
2
/10m)
Fracture
Gradient
(kg/cm
2
/10m)
BOP
Drilling
(psi)
Size
Production
Test (psi)
20 750 2.23 1.03 1.83 2,000 /
13
3
/
8
2.620 2.36 1.30 2.01 5,000 /
9
5
/
8
4.200 2.42 1.70 2.18 10,000 /
7 4.830 2.43 2.00 2.29 / 15,000
Table 12.A - BOP Selection Example Data
The maximum theoretical stress possible at the casing head, Pmax, occurs when the well is
full of gas and the fracture pressure has been reached at the shoe of the last casing run.
This pressure is:
) (Kg/cm ) D - G (
10
H
Pmax
2
g r
·
where:
H = Casing shoe depth (m)
G
f
= Fracture gradient of the casing shoe (kg/cm
2
/10m)
D
g
= Gas density, assumed = 0.3(kg/dm
3
)
In the case of a well test, this pressure roughly corresponds to the limit value required for
pumping gas into the formation and is thus actually attainable in practice.
This hypothesis however is completely unrealistic in the drilling design, for which 60% of the
pressure Pmax will be used as limit value according to company policy in ‘burst design
criteria’, section 8.1. This value is also adopted by many other companies as the realistic
criterion of choice.
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Figure 12.A - BOP Selection Example
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12.2. KICK TOLERANCE
Kick tolerance is the term used to define the maximum kick volume which can be safely
controlled by any well control method with constant BHP without fracturing the formation
below the last casing shoe.
The most dangerous situation is when the top of the kick reaches the casing shoe. This is
calculated with the following formula:
( )
10
H G H G H G
P
m m i i p
top
× + × − ×
·
P
top
< P
fr
( )
10
x
10
x
x
10
x
H G H G H H H G
P
s fr i i
i s m
P
·
− −

( ) [ ]
i m
P m m f r S
i
G G
P 10 H G G G H
H

× − × + −
·
V
shoe
= C
a
x H
i
V1 x P1 = P2 X V2
V1
bottom
x P
p
= V
shoe
x P
fr
where:
C
a
= Annular capacity below the shoe, m
H = Total depth, m
H
i
= Height of influx, m
H
S
= Shoe Depth
G
fr
= Formation fracture gradient at shoe, kg/cm
2
/10m
G
m
= Mud weight, kg/ltr
P
P
= Formation pressure at total depth, kg/cm
2
G
i
= Density of the influx
P
top
= Top Influx Pressure
G
p
= Pore gradient
H
m
= Hight of the mud below the influx
P
fr
= Fracture pressure
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Appendix A - ABBREVIATIONS
API American Petroleum Institute
BG Background gas
BHA Bottom Hole Assembly
BHP Bottom Hole Pressure
BHT Bottom hole temperature
BOP Blow Out Preventer
BPD Barrel Per Day
BPM Barrels Per Minute
BSW Base Sediment and Water
BUR Build Up Rate
BWOC By Weight Of Cement
BWOW By Weight Of Water
CBL Cement Bond Log
CCD Centre to Centre Distance
CCL Casing Collar Locator
CET Cement Evaluation Tool
CGR Condensate Gas Ratio
CP Conductor Pipe
CRA Corrosion Resistant Alloy
CW Current Well
DC Drill Collar
DHM Down Hole Motor
DLP Dog Leg Potential
DLS Dog Leg Severity
D&CM Drilling & Completion Manager
DOB Diesel Oil Bentonite
DOBC Diesel Oil Bentonite Cement
DOR Drop Off Rate
DP Drill Pipe
DST Drill Stem Test
DV DV Collar
ECD Equivalent Circulation Density
ECP External Casing Packer
EMS Electronic Multi Shot
EMW Equivalent Mud Weight
EOC End Of Curvature
ESD Electric Shut-Down System
ESP Electrical Submersible Pump
FBHP Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure
FBHT Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature
FPI/BO Free Point Indicator / Back Off
FTHP Flowing Tubing Head Pressure
FTHT Flowing Tubing Head Temperature
GLR Gas Liquid Ratio
GMS Gyro Multi Shot
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GOC Gas Oil Contact
GOR Gas Oil Ratio
GPM Gallon (US) per Minute
GPS Global Positioning System
GR Gamma Ray
GSS Gyro Single Shot
HAZOP Hazard and Operability
HHP Hydraulic Horsepower
HP/HT High Pressure - High Temperature
HW/HWDP Heavy Weight Drill Pipe
IADC International Drilling Contractor
ID Inside Diameter
IPR Inflow Performance Relationship
JAM Joint Make-up Torque Analyser
KMW Kill mud weight
KOP Kick Off Point
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LCM Lost Circulation Materials
LCP Lower Circulation Position (GP)
LEL Lower Explosive Limit
LOT Leak Off Test
LQC Log Quality Control
LWD Log While Drilling
MAASP Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure
MD Measured Depth
MLS Mudline Suspension
MMS Magnetic Multi Shot
MODU Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit
MOP Margin of Overpull
MPI Magnetic Particle Inspection
MSL Mean Sea Level
MSS Magnetic Single Shot
MW Mud Weight
MWD Measurement While Drilling
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NDT Non Destructive Test
NMDC Non Magnetic Drill Collar
NSG North Seeking Gyro
NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Unit
OBM Oil Based Mud
OD Outside Diameter
OH Open Hole
OIM Offshore Installation Manager
OMW Original Mud weight
ORP Origin Reference Point
OWC Oil Water Contact
P&A Plugged & Abandoned
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PBR Polished Bore Receptacle
PCG Pipe Connection Gas
PDC Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter
PDM Positive Displacement Motor
PGB Permanent Guide Base
PI Productivity Index
PLT Production Logging Tool
ppb Pounds per Barrel
ppg Pounds per Gallon
ppm Part Per Million
PV Plastic Viscosity
PVT Pressure Volume Temperature
Q Flow Rate
Q/A Q/C Quality Assurance, Quality Control
RFT Repeat Formation Test
RKB Rotary Kelly Bushing
ROE Radius of Exposure
ROP Rate Of Penetration
ROU Radios Of Uncertainty
ROV Remote Operated Vehicle
RPM Revolutions Per Minute
RT Rotary Table
S (HDT) High Resolution Dipmeter
S/N Serial Number
SBHP Static Bottom-hole Pressure
SBHT Static Bottom-hole Temperature
SCC Stress Corrosion Cracking
SD Separation Distance
SDE Senior Drilling Engineer
SF Safety Factor
SG Specific Gravity
SICP Shut-in Casing Pressure
SIDPP Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure
SPM Stroke per Minute
SR Separation Ratio
SRG Surface Readout Gyro
SSC Sulphide Stress Cracking
STG Short trip gas
TCP Tubing Conveyed Perforations
TD Total Depth
TGB Temporary Guide Base
TOC Top of Cement
TOL Top of Liner
TVD True Vertical Depth
TW Target Well
UAR Uncertainty Area Ratio
UR Under Reamer
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VBR Variable Bore Rams (BOP)
VDL Variable Density Log
VSP Velocity Seismic Profile
W/L Wire Line
WBM Water Base Mud
WC Water Cut
WL Water Loss
WOB Weight On Bit
WOC Wait On Cement
WOW Wait On Weather
WP Working Pressure
YP Yield Point
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Appendix B - BIBLIOGRAPHY
Document: STAP Number
Drilling Procedures Manual STAP-P-1-M-6140
Drilling Design Manual STAP-P-1-M-6100
Overpressure Manual STAP-P-1-M-6130
Drilling Fluids Manual STAP-P-1-M-6160
Well Control Policy Manual STAP-P-1-M-6150
API Specification 5C
Holmquist & Nadai
Shell (Bol, 1985)
NACE Standard MR-01-75
Sumitomo Metals Literature

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INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF CASING

5
6

2.

CASING PROFILES AND DRILLING SCENARIOS
2.1. Casing 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. Profiles Onshore Wells Offshore Wells - Surface Wellhead Offshore Wells - Surface Wellhead & Mudline Suspension Offshore Wells - Subsea Wellhead

7
7 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 10 11

2.2.

Drive, Structural & Conductor Casing 2.2.1. Surface Casing 2.2.2. Intermediate Casing 2.2.3. Production Casing 2.2.4. Liner

3.

SELECTION OF CASING SEATS
3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. Conductor Casi ng Surface Casing Intermediate Casing Drilling Liner Production Casing CASING AND relative HOLE SIZES 3.6.1. Standard Casing and Hole Sizes

12
15 15 15 16 17 17 21

4.

CASING SPECIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION
4.1. 4.2. 4.3. CASING SPECIFICATION API CASING CLASSIFICATION NON-API CASING

22
22 23 25

5.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL
5.1. 5.2. 5.3. General Stress-Strain Diagram Heat Treatment Of Alloy Steels

28
28 28 30

6.

TUBULAR RANGE LENGTHS & COLOUR CODING
6.1. 6.2. Range lengths api tubular marking and colour coding 6.2.1. Markings 6.2.2. Colour Coding

36
36 38 38 39

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7.

APPROACH TO CASING DESIGN
7.1. 7.2. WELLBORE FORCES DESIGN FACTOR (DF) 7.2.1. Company Design Factors 7.2.2. Application of Design Factors

41
42 42 44 45

8.

DESIGN CRITERIA
8.1. BURST 8.1.1. Design Methods 8.1.2. Company Design Procedure COLLAPSE 8.2.1. Company Design Procedure TENSION 8.3.1. General 8.3.2. Buoyancy Force 8.3.3. Company Design Procedure 8.3.4. Example Hook Load During Cementing BIAXIAL 8.4.1. 8.4.2. 8.4.3. 8.4.4. STRESS General Effects On Collapse Resistance Company Design Procedure Example Collapse Caclulation

46
46 46 47 50 50 54 54 54 59 59 62 62 62 64 65 67 67 68 70 70 72 72 73 76 80 86 86 87 88 89 89 89 94

8.2. 8.3.

8.4.

8.5.

BENDING 8.5.1. General 8.5.2. Determination Of Bending Effect 8.5.3. Company Design Procedure 8.5.4. Example Bending Calculation CASING WEAR 8.6.1. General 8.6.2. Volumetric Wear Rate 8.6.3. Factors Affecting Casing Wear (Example) 8.6.4. Wear Factors 8.6.5. Detection Of Casing Wear 8.6.6. Casing Wear Reduction 8.6.7. Wear Allowance In Casing Design 8.6.8. Company Design Procedure SALT SECTIONS 8.7.1. General 8.7.2. External Loading Due To Salt Flow 8.7.3. Company Design Procedure

8.6.

8.7.

9.

CORROSION
9.1. General 9.1.1. Exploration and Appraisal Wells 9.1.2. Development Wells 9.1.3. Contributing Factors to Corrosion Forms Of Corrosion 9.2.1. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) 9.2.2. Corrosion Caused By CO2 And Cl-

96
96 96 96 97 98 98 105

9.2.

1. SAFE ALLOWABLE TENSILE LOAD 11.1. 9. Ferritic Stainless Steels 9.8. 9. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 9. PRESSURE TESTING 11. BUCKLING AND COMPRESSIve loading 11.1. High Temperature Service 10.ARPO ENI S.3.1. CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 11. Buckling 11.2.5. Corrosion Caused By H2S. BOP selection criteria 12. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 10.2.2. PRESSURE RATING OF BOP EQUIPMENT 12.5.5. Casing Support 11. CO2 And Cl- Corrosion Control Measures Corrosion Inhibitors Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels 9. LOAD CONDITIONS 11. 9.3. Martensitic Stainless Steels 9.2.2.5.8.1.2.1. Cementing Loads 11.5.2.6. Austenitic Stainless Steels 9. 10.5.3.2.4.4. Duplex Stainless Steel Casing For Sour Service Ordering Specifications Company Design Procedure 9. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 4 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 107 108 109 109 109 110 110 110 111 113 114 114 114 115 9.5.3.7. Kick tolerance 126 126 129 . CO2 Corrosion 9. 9.4.2.4.1.2.A. Low Temperature Service 118 118 119 11. 9.4.8. H2S Corrosion 9.p. Compressive Loads 120 120 120 120 121 122 122 122 123 12.

hole depth. For development wells. formation temperature. World-wide. the practice is to use the highest measured bottomhole flowing pressures and well head shut-in pressures as the limiting factors for internal pressures expected in the wellbore. the current practice is to upgrade the selected casing. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 5 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 1.A. Most major operating companies have differing policies for the design of casing for exploration and development wells. After selecting a casing for a particular hole section. the practice is also to upgrade the selected casing. Buckling in deep and hot wells. experience has shown that the use of two/three different grades or two/three different weights is the maximum that can be handled by most rigs and rig crews.p. irrespective of any cost factor. the designer should consider upgrading the casing in cases where: • • Extreme wear is expected from drilling equipment used to drill the next hole section or from wear caused by wireline equipment. e. it follows that cost is not always a major criterion. For development wells.ARPO ENI S. casing cost should be considered. Once the factors are considered. formation pressures. If the number of different grades and weights are necessary. logistics and various mechanical factors. INTRODUCTION The selection of casing grades and weights is an engineering task affected by many factors. These pressures will obviously place controls only on the design of production casing or the production liner.g: • • • For exploration. . irrespective of any cost factor. The engineer must keep in mind during the design process the major logistics problems in controlling the handling of the various mixtures of grades and weights by rig personnel without risk of installing the wrong grade and weight of casing in a particular hole section. and intermediate casing. including local geology.

anhydrite. Providing a return path for mud to surface when drilling. etc. Preventing wellbore fluids from contaminating production. Confining produced fluid to the wellbore and providing a flow path to surface.ARPO ENI S. Isolating special trouble zones which may cause hole problems e. liner hangers.p. Isolating permeable productive formations. Frozen unconsolidated layers in permafrost areas.A. Plastic formations (evaporites). Controlling well pressure by containing downhole pressure. Providing cement integrity across producing formations.g. . PURPOSE OF CASING IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Casing tubulars are placed in a wellbore for the following reasons: a) b) c) d) e) f) Supporting the weight of the wellhead and BOP stack. Agip Division 1. Providing access to producing formations for remedial operations. Separating different pressure or fluid regimes. Providing protection for completion equipment. Providing a stable environment for packers. Sloughing shales. reducing the risk of underground blowouts. Isolating permeable zones from the wellbore which are likely to cause differential sticking. Isolating high pressure zones from the wellbore. Isolating weak zones from the wellbore during fracturing.1. Lost circulation zones.: • • • • • • g) h) i) j) k) Swelling clay. Production casing must perform a number of critical functions as follows: a) b) c) d) e) Providing internal pressure containment when the tubing system leaks or fails. shales. Formations causing mud contamination e. salt. gypsum.g.

Offshore Wells . 2.1.1. 2. Offshore Wells .Surface Wellhead & Mudline Suspension • • • • • • Drive/structural/conductor casing Surface casing and landing string Intermediate casings and landing strings Production casing Intermediate casings and drilling liners Drilling liner and tie-back string.2. CASING PROFILES AND DRILLING SCENARIOS CASING PROFILES The following are the various casing configurations which can be used for onshore and offshore wells. Refer to the following sections for descriptions of the casings listed above. 2. Onshore Wells • • • • • • • Drive/structural/conductor casing Surface casing Intermediate casings Production casing Intermediate casing and drilling liners Intermediate casing and production liner Drilling liner and tie-back string. 2.1. 2.A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 7 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 2.3.Surface Wellhead As in onshore above.p. Offshore Wells .4.ARPO ENI S.Subsea Wellhead • • • • • • • Drive/structural/conductor casing Surface casing Intermediate casings Production casing Intermediate casing and drilling liners Intermediate casing and production liner Drilling liner and tie-back string.1.1. .1.

2. The conductor in offshore drilling may form a part of the piling system for a wellhead jacket or piled platform. The annulus between the conductor and surface string is usually left uncemented above the mudline to minimise load transfer and bending stresses in the surface string. Reduce wave and current loadings imposed on the inner strings. alternatively. Enable full mud circulation. It also serves the following purposes: • • • • • Guide the drilling string and subsequent casing into the hole. Provide protection against hydrocarbons found at shallow depths. run into a predrilled or jetted hole and cemented. They do not carry direct axial loads except during initial installation of the surface casing. hence it may be necessary to vent any influx taken through the surface string. STRUCTURAL & CONDUCTOR CASING The purpose of this first string of pipe is primarily to protect incompetent surface soils from erosion by drilling fluids.ARPO ENI S.1. but are rigidly connected to the next casing with centralisers and cement in order to dissipate loading and minimise resulting stresses. Where formations are sufficiently stable. It is important to appreciate that the amount of protection provided against internal pressure will only be as strong as the formation strength at the casing shoe. are usually either jetted into place or cemented in a predrilled hole. The surface casing string is cemented to surface or seabed and is the first casing on which BOPs can be mounted. Surface Casing The surface casing is installed to: • • • • Prevent poorly consolidated shallow formations from sloughing into the hole. in offshore drilling with subsea BOP's. this string may be used to install the full mud circulation system. In offshore wells.2. Protect fresh water sands from contamination from the drilling mud. They support a Temporary Guide Base which accommodates and aligns all future wellhead installations for both the drilling and production phases. the surface casing must be centralised to limit column buckling.p. Provide sacrificial protection against oxygen corrosion in the splash zone. The conductor casings are usually driven completely to depth or. they must be designed to withstand hammering loads.A. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 DRIVE. above the top of the cement. Agip Division 2. Minimise the transfer of stresses to the inner casings resulting from the settlement and rotational movement of gravity platforms. . Conductor casings. Provide centralisation for the inner casing strings which limits column buckling. 2. The surface string usually supports the wellhead and subsequent casing strings. They directly carry both the axial and bending loads imposed by the wellhead. If they are driven. rather than attempt containment.

shallow hydrocarbons. Many operating companies cement up inside the previous casing shoe for this reason and is legislated on by some regulatory authorities. For example it may be desirable to isolate: • • • • • • • Swelling gumbo shale. therefore. or the build-up section of deviated wells. The first intermediate string is the first casing providing full blow-out protection.2. Obviously the latter is intended primarily for massive reservoir sections rather than sand-shale sequences with numerous small reservoirs and subreservoirs. Similarly. High permeability sand. Brittle caving shale. loss zones. Build-up or drop-off section.p. Its setting depth is often chosen so that it also isolates troublesome formations. The designer should plan to combine many of these objectives when selecting a single casing point. water sands. it is good practice when appraising untested or deeper horizons. Caution should be taken when using liners as it is necessary to ensure the higher casing is designed for the pressures at lower depths. An intermediate casing string is. that can cause drilling problems. An intermediate string may also be set simply to reduce the overall cost of drilling and completing the well by isolating intervals which have been found to cause mechanical problems in the past. nearly always set in the transition zone above or below significant overpressures. Longer cement columns are sometimes required to prevent buckling of the casing during deeper drilling. Partly depleted reservoir that causes differential sticking. and in any cap rock below a potential severe loss zone. Over-pressured permeable stringer. It is essential to install an intermediate casing string whenever there is a risk of experiencing a kick which could cause breakdown at the previous casing shoe. A liner may be used instead of a full intermediate casing and difficult wells may actually contain several intermediate casings and/or liners. especially where there may be aquifer movement which replenishes the corrosive elements around the wellbore. The cement should cover all hydrocarbon zones and any salt or other creeping evaporites.2. to case off the known hydrocarbon bearing intervals as a contingency against the possibility of encountering a loss circulation zone. It is usually cemented up into the shoe of the conductor string and in some cases all the way to surface. .ARPO ENI S. Agip Division 2.A. Creeping salt. and/or severe losses in the open hole section. Zones containing highly corrosive formation waters are also often cemented off. Intermediate Casing IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 These are used to ensure there is adequate blow-out protection for deeper drilling and to isolate formations or hole profile changes.

Consideration must be given to production operations which will affect the temperature of the production casing and impose additional thermal stresses. produced and controlled throughout its life.g. The space required for downhole equipment e.p. liner completions.3. It is very important that the selection of the steel grade and connections for the production string are made correctly. therefore. deep zone appraisal. to facilitate proper reservoir maintenance and/or prevent the influx of undesired fluids. .: open hole (barefoot) completions.e. open hole gravel packs. quite different from those imposed during drilling. i. both the liner and casing form the production string and must be designed accordingly. It is also possible that the casing itself could be used as a conduit for maximising well deliverability (casing flow). for chemical injection or for lift gas. Potential well servicing and recompletion requirements. On exploration wells this life may amount to only a very short testing period.2. The geometry required for efficient through-tubing well intervention operations. artificial lift equipment etc.ARPO ENI S.A. The size of the production casing should be selected to meet with the desired method of completion and production. Special considerations are required where the production casing will be drilled through and may therefore suffer some damage e. In most cases. for minimising the pressure losses during frac jobs. accumulation conditions are such that the well can be cased with an open hole section below the casing for an open hole completion (Refer to the completion design manual). The loads to which a production casing is subjected are. Annulus thermal expansion can cause production casing collapse when it is cemented up into the intermediate casing. Adequate annular clearances to permit circulation at reasonable rate and pressures. Production Casing IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 This is the string through which the well will be completed. The possibility of a multiple tubing string completion. the production casing will serve to isolate the productive intervals.g. This usually impacts on the production casing design with regard to: • • • • • • Well flow potential. Agip Division 2. but on most development wells it will span a significant number of years during which many repairs and recompletions may be performed. In a liner completion. On production wells the drilling engineer must design the casing in conjunction with the completion engineer to ensure the optimum completion design is obtained. In other cases. It is essential therefore that production casing retains its integrity throughout its life. safety valves. tubing size.

Either type of liner may subsequently be tied-back to surface with a string of pipe stabbed into a liner hanger Polished Bore Receptacle (PBR). It is hung a short distance above the previous casing shoe and is usually cemented over its entire length to ensure it seals within the previous casing string.4. The need to set a retrievable bridge plug above the liner lap if the BOP stack needs to be removed. (This does not apply to completion operations when a tubing string has been run and landed. including: • • • • The risk of poor pressure integrity. Agip Division 2.A.) .ARPO ENI S. Minimise the length of reduced diameter and the possible adverse effects on drilling hydraulics.p. Minimise the length of reduced diameter production tubing and the consequent adverse effect upon well flow potential. Production liners may be installed to: • • • Reduce costs. The difficulty of obtaining a good cementation due to smaller liner to hole and liner to production casing clearances.2. Meet with rig tensional load limitations on occasions on deep wells. Drilling liners may be installed to: • • • Increase shoe strength. either across the liner lap due to poor cementation or as a result of wear to the casing from which the liner is hung off. There are a number of disadvantages to installing liners. Liner IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 A liner is a string of pipe which is installed but does not extend all the way to surface. The risk of the liner running equipment being cemented in the hole. Meet with rig tensional load limitations.

A. figure 3. i. Information is sourced from: • • Evaluation of the seismic and geological background documentation used as the decision for drilling the well. all available information should be carefully documented and considered to obtain knowledge of the various uncertainties. SELECTION OF CASING SEATS The selection of casing setting depths is one of the most critical in the well design process and is based on: • • • • • • • • • • • Total depth of well. Economy. Fracture gradients. Casing programme compatibility with planned completion programme (production well).e.b show typical examples of casing seat selections. (Company wells or scouting information). The probability of shallow gas pockets. Time limits on open hole drilling. run casing and cost of equipment. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 3.p. Casing availability (grade and dimensions). . time consumption to drill the hole.a and figure 3. When planning. The key factor to satisfactory picking of casing seats is the assessment of pore pressure and fracture pressures throughout the well.ARPO ENI S. Problem zones. Drilling data from offset wells in the area. Depth of potential prospects. Casing programme compatibility with existing wellhead systems. As the pore pressures in a formation being drilled approach the fracture pressure at the last casing seat then installation of a further string of casing is necessary. Pore pressures.

Example of Idealised Casing Seat Selection Notes to figure 3.A . a) . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 3. in practice. This example does not include any safety or trip margins. with fracture pressure (F2). d) Drilling can thus continue to depth 3. where pore pressure is P1 and the fracture pressure is F1. where the pore pressure P2 has risen to almost equal the fracture pressure (F1) at the first casing seat. which would.p. be taken into account. b) Drilling continues to depth 2. where pore pressure P3 is almost equal to the fracture pressure F2 at the previous casing seat. c) Another casing string is therefore set at this depth.A.a above: Casing is set at depth 1.ARPO ENI S.

A.B . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 3. .ARPO ENI S.p.Example Casing Seat Selection (for a typical geopressurised well using a pressure profile).

The depth should be great enough to provide a fracture gradient sufficient enough to allow drilling to the next casing setting point and to provide reasonable assurance that broaching to the surface will not occur in the event of BOP closure to contain a kick.A.3. In hard rock areas the string may be relatively shallow. but in soft rock areas deeper strings are necessary. CONDUCTOR CASING IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Setting depth is usually shallow and selected so that drilling fluid may be circulated to the mud pits while drilling the surface hole.1. Where working with subsea wellheads. near-surface gravel or shallow gas may need to be cased off shallower. An intermediate string may be necessary to case off lost circulation zones. INTERMEDIATE CASING The most predominant use of intermediate casing is to protect normally pressured formations from the effects of increased mud weight needed in deeper drilling.ARPO ENI S. Large sizes are required (usually 16ins to 30ins diameter) as necessary to accommodate the size of all subsequently required strings. The casing seat must be in an impermeable formation with sufficient fracturing resistance to allow fluid circulation to the surface. . increasing the risk of stuck pipe. or sloughing shales. the normal pressure interval below surface pipe is subjected to two detrimental effects: • • The fracture gradient may be exceeded by the mud gradient. leak-off tests are necessary and must be specified in the Drilling Programme. In some instances. salt beds. SURFACE CASING Setting depths should be in an impermeable section below any fresh water formations. 3. When a transition zone is penetrated and mud weight increased. intermediate casing may be set to allow reduction of mud weight. no there is no circulation through the conductor string to the surface. The differential between the mud column pressure and formation pressure is increased. To ensure the integrity of the surface casing seat. 3. Agip Division 3.p. particularly if it becomes necessary to close-in on a kick The result is loss of circulation and the possibility of an underground blow-out occurring. It is set deep enough to assist in stabilising the guide base to which guide lines are attached.2. In cases of pressure reversals against depth.

DRILLING LINER The setting of a drilling liner is often an economically attractive decision in deep wells as opposed to setting a full string. Also. Pore pressure changes occur substantially shallower or deeper than originally calculated or estimated. For this reason the Geological Drilling Programme should state the pore pressure requirement at which casing should be set when setting casing into a transition zone. then either the production liner or the drilling liner should be tied back to the surface as a production casing. any wear to the intermediate string is spanned prior to drilling the producing interval. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Sometimes it is necessary to alter the setting depth of the intermediate casing during drilling under certain circumstances such as when: • • Hole problems prohibit further drilling. Insufficient fracture gradient at the shoe may limit the depth of the drilling liner. 3. By doing this. .4. If the drilling liner is to be tied-back.p. there is the possibility of continuing wear of the intermediate string that must also be evaluated. then leak-off tests must be conducted and specified in the casing programme for the intermediate casing shoe within the Geological Drilling Programme (Refer to the Drilling Procedures Manual).ARPO ENI S. resulting in considerable cost savings. while drilling hole for the drilling liner. Such a decision must be carefully considered as the intermediate string must be designed for burst as if it were set to the depth of the liner. Also. the intermediate casing can be designed for a lower burst requirement. If increasing mud weight will be required.A. If a production liner is planned. If drilling is to be continued below the drilling liner then burst requirements for the intermediate string are further increased which increases the cost of the intermediate string. it is usually better to do so before drilling the hole for the production liner.

may have to be altered accordingly if depths come in too high or too low.p. but with clearances to suit standard bit sizes. and if the casing design allows. Although the above is one of the most common arrangements. thick walled casing may be necessary to provide sufficient strength. hence the casing programme. 3. it is recommended that an 81/2ins hole be the smallest diameter planned because of drilling and evaluation difficulties encountered with 6ins. figure 3. A 6ins hole size should only be planned as a contingency. For a normal exploration well. PRODUCTION CASING IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Whether production casing or a liner is installed. To cater for some completion operations. it is good practice to run standard bit sizes but in deep wells. A typical well may have 30ins drive/ structural/conductor casing. The objective and the method of identifying the correct production casing depth should also be stated in the programme. CASING AND RELATIVE HOLE SIZES In general.A.c shows the choice of casing and bit sizes available to engineers.ARPO ENI S. a sufficient amount of sump is required for fill during production or well intervention operations. Agip Division 3. etc. 20ins surface casing. Manufacturers produce oversize casing in several sizes providing strength comparable to API sizes. run out for logging tools and to accommodate lost tools or dropped TCP guns. may be costly and the effectiveness of such considerations should be seriously evaluated before commitment. for dropping TCP guns or similar reasons. the depth is determined from the geological objective. 133/8ins and 95/8ins intermediate casing and 7ins production casing/liner. Drilling extra hole. Depths.5. . The designer can sometimes solve this problem by specifying ‘special’ drift casing which will allow running of bits with diameters approaching the casing inside diameter rather than being limited to drift diameter.6. there is a multitude of different combinations of casing sizes which the operator may choose to use if he desires.

A.Casing and Bit Selection Chart .ARPO ENI S.C .p. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 3.

cementing and doglegs. limit the tool entry size). The broken lines indicate casing sizes where only the lighter weights can be used (i. lost returns.e. 5” Liner inside 6” or 61/2” hole).e.p. The flow of the chart then indicates hole sizes that may be required to set that size pipe (i. 61/8” inside 7” casing). To use the chart: 1) 2) 3) Determine the casing or liner size for the last size pipe to be installed. encompassing most weights (i. etc. An underreamer is a drilling tool.d shows the standard casing programme and figure 3. Once the hole size has been selected. Enter the chart at that point.e. 1 The broken lines indicate less common optional hole sizes used (i. used to enlarge section of hole below a restriction (situations where equipment. mud weight. Solid lines indicate commonly used bits for that size pipe and can be considered to have adequate clearance to run and cement the casing or liner (i. 5” inside 6 /8” hole. Large connection ODs.e the possible alternative.) and doglegs all aggravate the attempt to run casing and liners in low clearance situations.. figure 3. . Note: Some drilling programmes can require special tools and operations to obtain the wellbore size for the casing to be installed. 51/2” Casing inside 77/8” hole). etc.c can be used to select the casing bit sizes required to fulfil many drilling programme options. thick mud cake build-up. The selection of one of these broken paths requires special attention be given to the connection. 61/2” bit inside 75/8” casing). problem cementing areas (high water loss.e.).e.. a casing large enough to allow passage of a bit to make that hole can be selected..A. The solid lines are commonly required casing sizes. This selection process is repeated until the anticipated number of casing sizes has been reached.ARPO ENI S. such as BOP or wellhead size restrictions.a.. further standard casing and hole sizes information is shown in table 3. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The chart in figure 3.

Standard Casing Programme Figure 3.p.Alternative Casing Programme .E .ARPO ENI S.D . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 3.A.

Agip Division 3. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Standard Casing and Hole Sizes Largest Inner Casing Size Minimum Pilot Hole Size 24 20 16 20 16 13 /8 10 /4 85/8 7 /8 65/8 6 5 /2 5 1 5 3 3 Outer Casing Size Under-Reaming Under-reamed Diameter 26 22 17 /2 15 121/4 11 /2 91/2 9 8 /2 8 1 1 1 Maximum Tool OD 18 17 14 113/4 10 81/4 71/4 7 6 53/4 181/2 17 /2 14 /4 12 /4 105/8 8 /4 75/8 73/8 6 /4 6 1 3 1 3 1 13 /8 (48-68#) 113/4 9 /8 (29. . The clearance between the hole wall and the coupling OD is at least 2” on diameter.A .6.400” on diameter between the outer string drift diameter and inner coupling diameter.Recommended Casing Size Versus Hole Size Note: Recommendations above are based on: • • The minimum clearance of 0.1. Less clearance than this may create a back pressure which will dehydrate the cement to a point where it cannot be pumped.p.A.3#) 85/8 (24-32#) 85/8 (36-49#) 7 /8 7 (17-32#) 5 5 3 Table 3.ARPO ENI S.

The casings available can be classified under two specifications. tubing and drillpipe. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 4. Casing specifications. The area of use for this casing are also discussed in section 4.2. The API Forum has been in existence since 1924. . care must be taken to ensure that they are current.ARPO ENI S. and their standardisation of oilfield equipment and practices are almost universally accepted as the world standard on tubulars. it would be impossible to drill many extremely deep wells without recourse to the use of pipe manufactured outwith API specifications (non-API).1 and 4.1. It should not be interpreted from the above that only API tubulars and connections may be used in the field as some particular engineering problems are overcome by specialist solutions which are not yet addressed by API specifications. are described and discussed in sections 4. It is essential that design engineers are aware of any changes made to the API specifications. CASING SPECIFICATION The American Petroleum Institute (API) has an appointed Committee on Standardisation of tubular goods which publishes. In fact. and continually updates. Also a library of the other relevant API publications shall be available and design engineers should make themselves familiar with these documents and their contents. Similarly.2. API and non-API. a series of Specifications. performance and handling of oilfield tubular goods. Bulletins and Recommended Practices covering the manufacture. 4. many of the ‘Premium’ connections that are used in high pressure high GOR conditions are also non-API. which are convenient for field use.A. including API and its history. The properties of steel used in the manufacture of casing is fundamentally important and should be fully understood by design engineers. Non-API casing manufacturers have produced products to satisfy a demand in the industry for casing to meet with extreme conditions which the API specifications do not meet. All involved with casing design must have immediate access to the latest copy of API Bulletin 5C2 which lists the performance properties of casing. CASING SPECIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION There is a great range of casings available from suppliers from plain carbon steel for everyday mild service through exotic duplex steels for extremely sour service conditions. and to this end these properties are described in section 4. They also license manufacturers to use the API Monogram on products which meet with their published specifications therefore can be identified as complying with the standards.1 below.p. Although these are also published in many contractors' handbooks and tables. This does not mean that the published performance data is accepted as the best theoretical representation of the parameters of tubulars.

Reference should always be made to current API specification 5C2 for casing lists and performances. API CASING CLASSIFICATION Casing is classified by: • • • • • • Outside diameter. that to increase competition. or exceeds. 4. and the performance corrected if necessary. However. the API does provide for the purchaser to specify more rigorous chemical.a. these specifications. the API tolerances have been set fairly wide. and may also request place independent inspectors to quality control the product in the plant. physical and testing requirements on orders. Length by range. Type of connection. backed up by tests to prove the performance of his product conforms to. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 When using non-API pipe. in some cases.A.p. However. Manufacturing process An example of an API table showing the parameters listed above in given in table 4. Grade of the steel. When this occurs the manufacturers claims must be critically examined by the designer or his technical advisors. the manufacturers have claimed their performance is considerably better than that calculated by the using API formulae. . Usually it will be found that the manufacturer will have used the published API formulae (Bulletin 5C3). the designer must check the methods by which the strengths have been calculated. Nominal unit weight.ARPO ENI S. It is also important to understand.2.

N.50 59.1 219.5 244.1 219.20 79.00 Col 3 Grade Grades Inc J.495 0.50 40. L.94 8.1 219.30 36.400 0. L.20 85.595 0.5 244.52 11.435 0.375 0.50 45.13 11.09 8.00 49. N.00 28.N. L. P C.64 20. K J.16 11.430 0.1 273.1 273.352 0. N.0 473.1 273.00 60.1 273.89 8. K J.40 64.1 219.352 0.00 40.P.50 51. Q H J.4 406. K C.5 244.00 54.400 0.13 12.57 13.5 244.05 11.70 16.94 10.7 339.L.p.4 406.00 47.797 0.435 0.00 44.500 0.70 59.00 36.312 0.30 42.514 0.1 273. K J.5 273.05 11.350 0. K J.350 0.92 12.00 40.545 0. Q C 90 only C 90 only C 90 only C 90 only H H J.0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 4.A.400 0.19 13.435 0.99 13.P.435 0.7 339.500 0. L.Q H J.64 20.375 0.72 8.03 10.60 32.304 0.609 0.380 0. N C.595 0. K J.00 94.438 0.672 0.5 244.00 48.K.1 273.333 0.00 106. J.50 87.5 339.90 70.70 73. N.50 61. N. L.70 14. N C.450 0.438 0. P.1 219.13 Short X X X X X Col 5 Type of Thread Long Buttress Extreme Line mm 219.297 0.264 0.71 7. P C.7 339.1 273.00 40.557 0.15 7.5 244. K J. P.1 273.7 406.5 298.K.50 94.42 8.C.1 244.03 11. K C. K Col 4 Wall Thickness ins 0.24 7. N. L.438 0.Example API Casing List .00 84.50 133.A .43 12.395 0.5 298. K H H J. N.00 72.47 17.489 0. P C.L.7 339.00 55. P P. K J.84 15.450 0.94 10.57 11.1 219. J. P C.1 219.480 0. Q H H J. N.50 60.J.06 9.00 36.70 65.07 18.40 65.5 244.00 75.11 17.1 273. L.00 68. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Col 1 Size: OD ins 8 /8 85/8 85/8 85/8 85/8 85/8 85/8 85/8 85/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 95/8 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 103/4 113/4 113/4 113/4 113/4 133/8 133/8 133/8 133/8 133/8 16 16 16 185/8 185/8 20 20 20 20 5 Col 2 Nominal Wt lbs per ft 24.00 53.1 298.00 36.46 9.0 508.00 32.472 0.00 32.89 10.4 473. L.07 18. K J. K J.13 12.05 11. K H.00 65.0 508.84 15. K.1 219.84 15. Q P. P.52 11.00 54.00 43.352 0.30 75.00 87. L.38 9. N.5 244.352 0.05 12.1 273.330 0.00 32.545 0.5 244. K C.16 11.5 298.0 508.734 0. K.797 0.50 47. P C.395 0.92 8.635 mm 6.65 10.5 244.1 273.16 10. K H.0 508.94 8.1 273.545 0.11 13.672 0. Q C 90 only C 90 only C 90 only C 90 only C 90 only H J.43 12. K J. K C.ARPO ENI S. L.75 40.734 0.Q C.5 244. K J.N.24 8.495 0.

The most common non-API grades are shown in the attached table figure 4.p. Figure 4.ARPO ENI S.a shows the API and non-API materials available and the environment in which they are recommended to be used. Agip Division 4.A. NON-API CASING IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Eni-Agip Division and Affiliates policy is to use API casings whenever feasible. Some manufacturers produce non-API casings for H2S and deep well service where API casings do not meet requirements.A.3.Casing Materials Selection .

p.5Mo Steel Modified AISI 4130 SM’ Designation SM 95G SM 125G Notes Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (medium pressure and temperature) Domain “B” Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (high pressure and temperature) Wet CO2 Corrosion Domain “C” Domain “D” 9Cr 1Mo Steel 13Cr Steel Modified AISI 420 Wet CO2 with a little H 2S Corrosion Domain “E” 22Cr 5Ni 3Mo Steel 25Cr 6Ni 3Mo Steel Wet CO2 with H 2S Corrosion Domain “F” 25Cr 35Ni 3Mo Steel 22Cr 42Ni 3Mo Steel 20Cr 35Ni 5Mo Steel Most Corrosive Environment Domain “G” 25Cr 50Ni 6Mo Steel 20Cr 58Ni 13Mo Steel 16Cr 54Ni 16Mo Steel SM 80S SM 90S SM 95S SM 85SS SM 90SS SM C100 SM C110 SM 9CR 75 SM 9CR 80 SM 9CR 95 SM 13CR 75 SM 13CR 80 SM 13CR 95 SM 22CR 65* SM 22CR 110** SM 22CR 125** SM 25CR 75* SM 25CR 110** SM 25CR 125** SM 25CR 140** SM 2535 110 SM 2535 125 SM 2242 110 SM 2242 125 SM 2035 110 SM 2035 125 SM 2550 110 SM 2550 125 SM 2550 140 SM 2060 110*** SM 2060 125*** SM 2060 140*** SM 2060 155*** SM C276 110*** SM C276 125*** SM C276 140*** Higher yield strength for sour service Quenched and tempered Quenched and tempered Duplex phase Stainless steels * Solution Treated ** Cold drawn As cold drawn As cold drawn *** Environment with free Sulphur .a) Mild Environment Domain Domain “A” API Material J 55 N 80 P 110 (Q 125) Cr or Cr-Mo Steel API L 80 C 90 T 95 1Cr 0. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Application (Refer to figure 4.ARPO ENI S.A.

Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Table 4.Example Non-API Steel Grades .A.p.B .ARPO ENI S.

but the tension test is the most common and is qualitatively characteristics of all the other types of tests. These failures are failures of the material. corrosion. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 5. sometimes called Young's modulus. A typical plot for a carbon steel is shown in figure 5. and under certain conditions of temperature. This gives rise to a dip in the general curve followed by a period of deformation at approximately constant load. STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM Tests of material performance may be conducted in many different ways. Beyond the elastic limit. As load is applied. Buckling may cause failure of the part without any failure of the material.a. the yielding phenomenon is less prominent and is correspondingly harder to measure. deformation. The material is classed as brittle. If a material sustains large amounts of plastic deformation before final fracture. Yield. known as yielding. a curious phenomenon occurs after the elastic limit. If the stress is released in the region between the elastic limit and the yield strength (see above) the material will contract along a line generally nearly straight and parallel to the original elastic line. or the ratio of stress to strain within the elastic range. It is classed as ductile material.2 percent is widely accepted in the industry). For steels used in the manufacturing of tubular goods the API specifies the yield strength as the tensile strength required to produce a total elongation of 0. it is customary to define a yield strength.5 and 0. the shattering of glass). deformation takes place before any final fracture occurs. From this. In steels. This is arbitrarily defined as the stress at which the material has a specified permanent set (the value of 0.g. the material behaves elastically.ARPO ENI S. some deformation may be sustained without permanent deformation.A.2. it is seen that the elastic deformation is approximately a straight line defined by Hooke's law. With all solid materials. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL GENERAL Failure of a material or of a structural part may occur by fracture (e. The maximum stress reached in this region is called the upper yield point and the lower part of the yielding region the lower yield point. or plastic strain occurs. .6 percent of the gauge length. the elastic deformation is accompanied by varying amounts of plastic. such as by torsion. and the slope of this line. Beyond the elastic limit. and if fracture occurs with little or no plastic deformation. leaving a permanent set. In the harder and stronger steels. 5. is the modulus of elasticity E. compression and shear. In materials that do not exhibit a marked yield point. or permanent. permanent. The action of a material under the gradually increasing extension of the tension test is usually represented by plotting apparent stress (the total load divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece) as ordinates against the apparent strain (elongation between two gauge points marked on the test piece divided by the original gauge length) as abscissae.1.p. 5. and other causes.e. wear. i.

Depending on the type or grade. and in the case of the yield point even maximum requirements (except for H 40). Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 5.A.Stress . tubing and drill pipe are laid down in API specifications 5CT and 5C2. but at the same time the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes less as it is drawn out. minimum requirements are laid down for the mechanical properties. The mechanical and chemical properties of casing. As extension continues beyond yielding. the material becomes stronger causing a rise of the curve.p.A . .Strain Diagram Similar arbitrary rules are followed with regard to the elastic limit in commercial practice. Careful practice qualifies this by designating it the ‘proportional elastic limit’. This loss of area weakens the specimen so that the curve reaches a maximum and then falls off until final fracture occurs. The stress at the maximum point is called the tensile strength (TS) or the ultimate strength of the material and is its most often quoted property.ARPO ENI S. Instead of determining the stress up to which there is no permanent set. as required by definition. it is customary to designate the end of the straight portion of the curve (by definition the proportional limit) as the elastic limit.

This is an identical process to annealing except that the steel is air cooled. Yield Strength 40. the temperature reached and the rate of cooling are the essentials of obtaining the physical properties. e. Comparison of the chemical composition shows that in general there is little difference between the various grades of steel and the difference in mechanical properties is achieved mainly through the variation heat treatment process. In the design of casing and tubing strings the minimum yield strength of the steel is taken as the basis of all strength calculations As far as chemical properties are concerned. in API 5CT only the maximum phosphorus and sulphur contents are specified. C 95 and L 80. the quality and the quantities of other alloying elements are left to the manufacturer. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The denominations of the different grades are based on the minimum yield strength.p.000psi Normalising .000psi 55. specifies the complete chemical requirements for grades C 75. The hardness of a specific alloy steel is directly proportional to the strength of that steel. In the heat treatment process.580°F) before cooling.3.g. Slow cooling provides a soft low-strength steel. 5. Min.A. API specification 5CT ‘Restricted yield strength casing and tubing’ however. The various methods of heat treatment are as follows: Annealing In this process the steel is heated above a critical temperature and cooled very slowly. • Makes structure more uniform. As an example API grades J and K55 are heated to about 860°C (1. Annealing accomplishes the following: • Refines grain structure. brittle type steel. • Improves machinability.: Grade H 40 J 55 C 75 N 80 etc.000psi 80. HEAT TREATMENT OF ALLOY STEELS The structure of a metal or alloy and its mechanical and corresponding physical properties are strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the material and heat treatment applied. usually in the furnace.000psi 75.ARPO ENI S. Rapid cooling of the steel from above the crystallisation temperature by quenching provides a hard.

usually done in water. chemical composition and mechanical properties of API tubulars. This process makes the steel tougher with only small loss in strength.260°F) depending on the grade for a specific time and cooling back to room temperature. . Agip Division Tempering IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Consists of re-heating a quenched or normalised steel to a specified temperature below the critical temperature. un-tempered quenched steels are very hard and brittle.110°F and 1. Is similar to the tempering process but is done to relieve internal stresses set up during the manufacturing process (such as in upsetting). between 600°C and 680°C (1. Is the same procedure as normalising but has rapid cooling.p. Stress relieving Quenching See the following tables for process of manufacturing. heat treatments.ARPO ENI S.A. salt water or oil.

S EW = = Seamless pipe Electric welded Pipe Table 5.150 1. Type 9 Cr and 13Cr grades may be air quenched ** Unless otherwise agreed between purchaser and manufacturer/processor *** Special requirements unique to electric welded Q 125 casing are specified in SR11.000 1.150 1. When welded Q 125 casing is furnished.150 1.100 1. the provisions of SR11 automatically in effect.p.050 1.150 1. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Tempering Temperature Min.100 1.100 - 2 3 4 621 621 621 593 593 621 621 538 566 593 593 - Note: Full length normalised.150 1.A.100 1. normalised and tempered (N&T) or quenched and tempered (Q&T) at the manufacture’s option or if so specified on the order.API Process of Manufacture and Heat Treatment .ARPO ENI S. Group Grade H 40 J 55 1 K 55 N 80 (Casing) N 80 (Tubing) C 75 C 75 C 75 C 75 C 75 C 90 C 90 C 95 L 80 L 80 L 80 P 105 P 110 Q 125 Q 125 Q 125 Q 125 Type 1 2 3 9 Cr 18 Cr 1 2 1 9 Cr 13 Cr 1 2 3 4 Process of Manufacture S or EW S or EW S or EW S or EW S or EW S or EW S or EW S or EW S S S S S or EW S or EW S S S S S or EW*** S or EW*** S or EW*** S or EW*** Heat Treatment None None Note 1 None Note 1 None Note 1 Note 1 N&T Q&T N&T Q&T* Q&T* Q&T Q&T Q&T Q&T Q&T* Q&T* Q&T or N&T** Q&T or N&T** Q&T Q&T Q&T Q&T o F o C - 1.A .

.20 NL ..010 0.45* .. .040 0.010 0. .....020 0.. Table 5.40 .. .00 0.020 ..80 may be increased to 0. .50 1... .80 8..040 0.48 0.50%. 0.. . .. 0.75 0. 0.060 0. .060 0..15 .....90 ...0 1.. 10...040 0.. . . 0. if the product is oil quenched.45 1.75 C .90 .25 0.22 0. ... .....060 0.........35 0.25 . Note: *** For Grade C ..25 . 1.0 12.60 1....99 0.. . 0.00 1.. .060 0....99 0. ....020 0.....43* 0.80 C90 C90 C95 P -105 P110 Q -125 Q -125 Q -125 Q -125 Type Carbon min max..90 1.010 0.. .. ..30 0....... . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Group 1 Grade H . .. . ...50 ... .Chemical Composition of API Tubulars ....010 0. ..... ... . Chromium.060 0. .30 0.15 ..00 1...45 0. .060 0.50 0..030 0... .....060 .... ...ARPO ENI S... .35 0..75 L ... *** ...030 0....45 ..... Nickel and Copper combined shall not exceed 0. . .99 0. 0. Molybdenum min max. 0.. . .010 0.0 .50% max.. 0.. ..80 C . Nickel max.75 C .......010 0. ..25 0..43 0.0 . ... . . Maganese min max..5 0.040 0.35 0..020 0. max. . 1.. . . .25 .. . Type 1..55 N .25 1. ..75 C .90 .. ...80 L .. 0.00 1.75 NL .38 ... .. *** ... . . 0.5 0... 0. . ... .060 0...... 1.040 0... 1.040 0... . . * The Carbon contents for C . .. 1 2 3 9Cr 13Cr 1 9Cr 13Cr 1 2 ....0 12. 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 .... ...... ... .0 ..... 1. .p... .. .. . .040 0. .... 0.90 ..020 0.. ..75... Phosphorous Sulphur Silicon max.15 0..030 0. . ..... .99 .... .. .90 1. 8...90 0..15 .... ..50 0. . .99 0..90 1. ..00 1..... .20 NL NL NL 0..10 10..0 0.55% max. .0 1... ..5 0...B . ... ...010 0.040 0.... .. . . .030 0.. ..10 ... 0.0 1. .50 0.040 0. .. ...020 0.. ...040 0.80 L .. .40 J .. . .95 may be increased to 0. Copper max...040 0. . .35 0.. Elements shown must be reported in product analysis... Chromium min max..020 0..020 0...... . . .... .A. . . max. *** ....... .. * The Carbon contents for L ...25 0..... NL No Limit. .. . 0........0 14. 0. 0.10 .99 ..75 C .75 NL NL NL .. .. if the product is oil quenched.45 .55 K .. 0. *** ...060 0...040 0..22 0. . 0... 1. ...00 1.010 0.15 0..15 0. .... 0. .060 0.. . ..0 14.60 1..0 . .. 0..

000 and above 3.000 105..80 1 L .000 95.4 25. .4 . .000 95.000 100.000 90...999 1.. Inches 1 H -40 J . ...000 105.000 80.. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Yield Strength Tensile Strength max.501 to 0.p.0 * In case of dispute..0 5. .000 125....4 25.A.2. . . .000 95.0 3 P . laboratory Rockwell C hardness tests shall be used as the referee method.ARPO ENI S.000 135.749 0.000 110.000 75..000 140.55 N ...000 95. 237 237 241 241 241 255 255 255 255 . MPa 552 552 552 758 620 620 620 655 655 655 724 724 724 724 758 931 965 1035 1035 1035 psi 60. .000 135..0 5.000 95.75 1..000 135. .749 0.90 C .000 90.. .000 95.000 105.000 MPa 414 517 655 689 655 655 655 655 655 655 690 690 690 690 724 827 862 930 930 930 Hardness Specified Wall Thickness Allowable Hardness Variation HRC Group Grade psi min.000 100..000 120.95 40. .000 75..000 80..500 or less 0.110 Q -125 Q -125 Q -125 4 0. MPa 276 379 379 552 517 517 517 552 552 552 620 620 620 620 655 724 758 860 860 860 psi max.000 95.750 and above 3...000 125..000 75.0 4.000 80. .. ..C ....3 C .501 to 0. .000 135..000 100.90 C .000 105.500 or less 0.0 6.* HRC BHN .000 95...80 C ..000 150. .0 4..000 110..000 80.000 95.. .000 75. Table 5.000 80. . .750 to 0.000 150..000 55.000 125.000 95.105 P . .90 C .000 100....000 105..000 90.55 K ..75 9Cr C .000 110.90 C .80 9 Cr L .000 80.75 13Cr L .000 90. 22 22 23 23 23 25.API Tensile and Hardness Requirements ..000 90.000 80. min..80 13 Cr C .4 25.000 150.000 2 0.000 90.000 100.000 125.000 105.000 95.000 55.000 90..

ARPO ENI S.A. Agip Division REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 134 Figure 5.Yield Strength/Tensile Strength Ratios .p.B .

A. but not to the final destination. min Tubing ** Total range length include * Range Length for 100% or more of carload Permissible Variation. shipped to the final destination without transfer or removal from the car. 6. Permissible length.ARPO ENI S.6. Permissible length.p. max.API Range Length In Feet . Range Casing And Liners 1 2 3 ** Total range length include * Range Length for 95% or more of carload Permissible Variation. ** By agreement between purchaser and manufacturer or processor the total range length for range 1 tubing may be 20-28ft *** 2ft pup joints may be furnished up to 3ft long by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. max. the tolerance shall apply to each car.A .3. For any carload of pipe. but not to the individual carloads. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 6. TUBULAR RANGE LENGTHS & COLOUR CODING RANGE LENGTHS The following tables provide the API tubular length ranges available. the carload tolerance shall apply to the total order.10 and 12ft Tolerance ±3ins 16-25 6 18 20-24 2 20 25-24 5 28 28-32 2 28 24-48 6 36 - * Carload tolerance shall not apply to orders of less than a carload. For any order consisting of more than a carload and shipped from the manufacturer’s facility by rail.8.1. min Pup Joint *** Lengths 2. and lengths other than those listed may be furnished by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. Table 6.4.

2. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Range Casing And Liners Total range length include * Range Length for 95% or more of carload Permissible Variation. max. 0.97 - * Carload tolerance shall not apply to orders of less than a carload shipped from the manufacturer’s or processor’s facility.A. ** By agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer or processor the total range length for range 1 tubing may be 6.52 8. 1.61m pup joints may be furnished up to 0.API Range Length in Metres .83 10. but not to the final destination in the rail cars loaded.p. max. 3.05 and 3. the carload tolerance shall apply to the total order.ARPO ENI S.62-10. Permissible length.32 0. and lengths other than those may be furnished be agreement between purchaser and manufacturer.83. the tolerance shall apply to each car.44.53 10.61 6.36 1.62 1. Table 6.B . 1.53-9.49 6.91m long by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer.61. For any carload of pipe shipped from the manufacturer’s or processor’s facility to the final destination without transfers or removal from the car.66m Tolerance ±76.75 0.10-7.10 7. Permissible length.22. min Tubing ** Total range length include * Range Length for 100% or more of carload Permissible Variation. min Pup Joint *** Lengths 0. but not to the individual carloads.61 8.2mm 1 2 3 4.88-7.53 8. For any order consisting of more than a carload and shipped by rail.53m *** 0.19.63 1.36-14.83 5.10-8.

2.p.A. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 API TUBULAR MARKING AND COLOUR CODING Markings All API tubulars are marked as per API specification 5CT.C . Table 6.1.Example Marking Code (Dalmine) .2. 6.ARPO ENI S. Agip Division 6. The following example shows the marking code.

ARPO ENI S. Colour Coding Group 1.83m) in length. or black at the manufacturer’s option One bright green band Two bright green bands One red band White White Orange . Agip Division 6. Group 4 IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 In addition to the required identification markings as specified in 6.2. 13Cr.2. A paint band encircling the centre of the coupling. • • • A paint band encircling the pipe at a distance not greater than 2ft (0. 9Cr Grade L80. For pup joints shorter than 6ft (1. 9Cr Grade C75.A. Grade C90 Grade C95 One blue band and two yellow bands One blue and one yellow band One red band and one brown band One red and one brown and two yellow bands One red and one brown and one yellow band One purple band One brown band No colour marking.2.p. each length of casing and tubing shall be colour coded by one or more of the following methods. Grade C75 One blue band Grace C75. Group 3.61m) from the coupling or box.61m) from the coupling or box.1 above. The colour and number of bands shall be as follows: Grade H 40 Grade J 55 Grade K 55 Grade N 80 Grade P 105 Grade P 110 Grade Q 125 Group 2 1) A paint band or bands encircling the pipe at a distance not greater than 2ft (0. the entire surface except the threads shall be painted. Paint entire outside surface of coupling. 13Cr Grade L80 Grade L80.

9Cr Grade C75.ARPO ENI S. Grade C90 Grade C95 Blue with two yellow bands Blue with one yellow band Red with brown band or longitudinal stripe Red with two yellow bands Red with one yellow band Purple Brown 4) For pup joints shorter than 6ft (1. 13Cr.83m) in length. Grade C75 One blue band Grade C90 Grade C95 One purple band One brown band 3) Paint entire outside surface of coupling.p. . Grace L80 Grade L80. The colour shall be as follows: Grade C75 Blue Grade C75. the entire surface except the threads shall be painted.A. 9Cr Grade L80. 13Cr. Agip Division 2) IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 A paint band or bands encircling the centre of the coupling.

Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 7. internal.A. while at the same time being subjected to wear and corrosion. this pressure vessel is a composite of steel and in conjunction with a variety of biaxially stressed rock materials. and self weight loading. ‘Lame's Equations’ and some form of yield criteria. or in having a casing that is disproportionally strong in relation to the underlying formations. The forces affecting casing design are outlined in section 7. and degree. there are four major elements to the casing design process: • • • • Definition of the loading conditions likely to be encountered throughout the life of the well. changes in all three stresses will occur due to temperature changes and from the occurrence. .1. As there is little point in designing for loads that are not encountered in the field. thermal. The inter-relationship between these loads can be analysed manually by applying a combination of Hooke's Law. The objective of the procedure is to produce a pressure vessel which can withstand a variety of external. APPROACH TO CASING DESIGN Casing design is actually a stress analysis procedure. Considering the axial stress (σa) in a string of casing. Furthermore any changes in the internal and external pressures acting on casing will induce changes in the axial stress as well as the radial (σr) and tangential (σt) stresses. Estimation of the extent to which the pipe will deteriorate through time and quantification of the impact that this will have on its strength.ARPO ENI S. In addition. Specification of the mechanical strength of the pipe. since the pipe is held or fixed at both ends.p. of any buckling effect. Estimation of the formation strength using rock and soil mechanics. During the drilling phase. This is referred to as ‘Triaxial Stress Analysis’. it is obvious that the stress due to the buoyant weight of the casing below any point of interest will be a major component of the total axial stress.

ARPO

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
7.1. WELLBORE FORCES

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Various wellbore forces affect casing design. Besides the three basic conditions (burst, collapse and axial loads or tension), these include: • • • • • • Buckling. Wellbore confining stress. Thermal and dynamic stress. Changing internal pressure caused by production or stimulation operations Changing external pressure caused by plastic formation creep. Subsidence effects and the effect of bending in crooked holes.

This list above is by no means comprehensive and research in progress may identify some other effects. The steps in the casing design process are: 1) Consider the loading factors for burst first, since burst will dictate the design for the major part of the string. 2) Next, the collapse loading should be evaluated and the string sections upgraded if necessary. 3) Once the weights, grades and section lengths have been determined to satisfy the burst and collapse loading, the tensile load can then in turn be evaluated. 4) The pipe can be upgraded as necessary as the loading is determined. 5) From all of the above, the appropriate casing connection can be determined although, if the well is to be completed and the casing exposed to long term production, consideration may be given to using a premium connection. The final step is a check on biaxial reductions in burst strength and collapse resistance caused by compression and tension loads, respectively. If these reductions show the strength of any part of the section to be less than the potential load, the section should again be upgraded. 7.2. DESIGN FACTOR (DF) The design process can only be completed if knowledge of all the anticipated forces is available. This however, is idealistic and never actually occurs, therefore some determinations are usually necessary and a degree of risk has to be present and accepted. The risk is usually associated with the assumed values and the level of the design factors applied.

ARPO

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

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The design factors are necessary to cater for: • • • • • • • Uncertainties in the determination of actual loads that the casing needs to withstand and the presence of any stress concentrations due to dynamic loads or specific well conditions. Reliability of listed properties of the various steels used in the industry and the uncertainty in the determination of the spread between ultimate strength and yield strength. Probability of the casing needing to bear the maximum load determined from the calculations. Uncertainties regarding the collapse pressure formulas. Possible damage to casing during transport and storage. Damage to the pipe body from slips, wrenches or inner defects due to cracks, pitting, etc. Rotational wear by the drill string while drilling.

The DF may vary with the capability of the steel to resist damage inflicted from handling and running equipment. The company values selected for DFs are a compromise between safety margin and economics. The use of excessively high DFs guarantees against failure but provides excessive strength and, therefore, increased cost. The use of low DFs requires accurate knowledge about the loads to be imposed on the casing as there is less margin available. Casing is generally designed to withstand stress which, in practice, it seldom encounters due to the assumptions used in calculations, whereas, production tubing has to bear pressures and tensions which are known or can be calculated with considerable accuracy. Furthermore, casing is cemented in place after installation whereas tubing is often recovered and used again. As a consequence of this, and due to the fact that tubing has to combat corrosion effects from formation fluid, a higher DF is used for tubing than casing.

ARPO

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
7.2.1. Company Design Factors

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The following table gives the DF’s are Eni-Agip’s specified design factors used in casing design calculations: Casing Grade H 40 J 55 K 55 C 75 L 80 N 80 C 90 C 95 P 110 Q 125 Burst 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.20 Table 7.A - Eni-Agip Design Factors Note: Note: The tensile DF on grade C 95 and below is 1.7, and higher than C 95 is 1.8. The tensile DF must be considerably higher than the previous factors to avoid exceeding the elastic limit and, therefore invalidating the criteria on which burst and collapse resistances are calculated. Collapse 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 Tension 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8

Use the lowest value from columns 20 through 27 of the API casing tables and divide it by the DF to obtain the joint strength for design calculations. The loading conditions are not always precisely known in casing design. columns 13 through 19.A. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Application of Design Factors The minimum performance properties of tubing and casing specified in the API bulletin are only used to determine if the chosen casing is within the DF.2. The design factors are applied as follows: Burst For the chosen casing (diameter.2.p. Section 8 describes the exact design process in detail including the determination of all the loading applied. implies that the actual physical properties and loading conditions are exactly known and that a specific margin is being allowed for safety. grade. Use only column 11 of the API casing tables and divide the value by the DF to obtain the collapse resistance for design calculations. . weight and thread) take the lowest value from API casing tables. Agip Division 7. This value then divided by the applied DF gives the internal pressure resistance of casing to be used for design calculation. It should be recognised that the Design Factor used in the context of casing string design is essentially different from the ‘Safety Factor’ used in many other engineering applications. and therefore in the context of casing design the term ‘Safety Factor’ should be avoided at all times.ARPO ENI S. Collapse Tension Note: The term ‘Safety Factor’ as used in tubing design.

e. as there is access to any of the previous casing annuli whereas this is not available with conventional subsea wellheads. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 8.1. Based on the vast amount of well data which is currently available. Once a blow-out has occurred. would either build to the blow-out zone's static shut-in pressure or cause an underground blow-out once the shut-in pressure reaches the fracture pressure of the weakest formation exposed in the open hole section. If there is a blow-out. High strength casing. especially those which are capable of exerting ultra high surface pressure (i. when shut-in at the surface.ARPO ENI S.A. DESIGN CRITERIA BURST Burst loading on the casing is induced when internal pressure exceeds external pressure. dry gas blowouts). damage to the rig. even a dry gas blow-out. alternatively the fracture pressure of the open hole below the shoe.1. Most operating companies modify this basic ‘dry gas’ design concept according to a number of other influences including: • • • • • Casing wear considerations Amount of open hole section Depth of the shoe DF applied Current BOP rating. Ultra high surface pressures can only be experienced if an actual dry gas blowout does occur.1. Access to these annuli could in turn provide a means of applying back-up pressure to a casing string. environment. a set of key design considerations are made: a) b) c) d) e) f) Blowouts. This feature is not always possible if the annulus may is either cemented to the surface or not cemented into the previous casing shoe. has no impact on the reduction of the blow-out risk.p. etc. the pressure of which equals the formation pressure of the lowest pressure zone from which the gas may have originated or. it does not always concur that the casing will is exposed to high burst pressures. Surface wellheads have an advantage over subsea wellheads during drilling operations. are very rare. . regardless of how overdesigned it may be. Design Methods The most conservative design for burst assumes the gradient of dry gas inside the casing. 8. The basis for this design criteria is that a dry gas blow-out is assumed that. regardless of how strong the casing may be. etc. thus reducing the net burst pressure being exerted on that particular string. 8. will have already commenced.

Consideration should be given to the pressure rating of the wellhead and BOP equipment which must always be equal to. The plotted pressure versus depth will produce a curve.3kg/dm 3 is normally used for this calculation.000psi (140atm). Surface Casing a) Internal Pressure 1) The wellhead burst pressure limit is arbitrary. the wellhead burst pressure limit is taken as 60% of the value obtained as the difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe and the pressure of a gas column to surface but in any case not less than 2. .2. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The key to this problem is to recognise the rare and exceptional well circumstances that may require or result in a hard dry gas shut-in. With a subsea wellhead. The use of methane for this calculation is the ‘worst case’ when the specific gravity of gas is unknown. or higher than. the pressure from bottom-hole to surface will assume different profiles according to the position of influx into the wellbore. When an oversize BOP having a capacity greater than that necessary is selected. When taking a gas kick. The Eni-Agip Drilling Engineering Department evaluated these key design considerations and have decided to use the most conservative method and to reduce the obtained results by 40%. the wellhead burst pressure limit will be 60% of the calculated surface pressure obtained as difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe with a gas column to surface.A. In any case it shall never be considered less than 2. The decision process should be based on the initial adoption of a ‘middle ground’ design. 2) 3) The bottom-hole burst pressure limit can be calculated and is equal to the predicted fracture gradient of the formation below the casing shoe.1. Company Design Procedure To evaluate the burst loading. the pressure rating of the pipe. and is generally set equal to that of the working pressure rating of the wellhead and BOP equipment but with a minimum of 140kg/cm2.p. as the specific gravities of any gases which may be encountered will usually be greater than that of methane.000psi (140atm).1. surface and bottom-hole casing burst resistance must first be established. See ‘BOP selection criteria’ in section 12. Connect the wellhead and bottom-hole burst pressure limits with a straight line to obtain the maximum internal burst load verses depth. 8.ARPO ENI S. Methane gas (CH4) with density of 0.

the external pressure is assumed to be equal to the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud. In subsea wellheads. . or in the tubing hanger. Intermediate Casing a) Internal Pressure 1) The wellhead burst pressure limit is taken as 60% of the calculated value obtained as the difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe and the pressure of a gas column to the wellhead.1 (if atm) At the shoe . The bottomhole burst pressure limit is equal to that of the predicted fracture gradient of the formation below the casing shoe. c) Net Burst Pressure The effective burst pressures are obtained by subtracting the external from internal pressure versus depth. the external from internal pressure.e.1 (if atm) Net Pressure The resultant load. hydrostatic seawater pressure should be considered. In wells with subsea wellheads: • • c) At the wellhead . With a subsea wellhead.A.Water Depth x Seawater Density x 0. at each depth. or net pressure. will be obtained by subtracting. the wellhead burst pressure limit is taken as 60% of the value obtained as the difference between the fracture pressure at the casing shoe and the pressure of a gas column to the wellhead minus the seawater pressure. 3) 4) b) External Pressure The external collapse pressure is taken to be equal to that of the formation pressure. and this pressure is applied to the top of the packer fluid (i. Agip Division b) External Pressure IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 In wells with surface wellheads.(Shoe Depth . Connect the wellhead and bottom-hole burst pressure limits with a straight line to obtain the maximum internal burst pressure. Production Casing The ‘worst case’ burst load condition on production casing occurs when a well is shut-in and there is a leak in the top of the tubing.Air Gap) x Seawater Density x 0.p. completion fluid) in the tubing-casing annulus. at the wellhead.ARPO ENI S.

A.000psi). Note: 4) Note: b) External Pressure The external pressure is taken to be equal to that of the formation pressure. at the wellhead. . c) Net Burst Pressure The resultant burst pressure is obtained by subtracting the external from internal pressure at each depth. Agip Division a) Internal Pressure 1) IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 2) 3) The wellhead burst limit is obtained as the difference between the pore pressure of the reservoir fluid and the hydrostatic pressure produced by a colum of fluid which is usually gas (density = 0. The bottom-hole pressure burst limit is obtained by adding the wellhead pressure burst limit to the annulus hydrostatic pressure exerted by the completion fluid. It is usually assumed that the completion fluid and mud on the outside of the casing remains homogeneous and retains the original density values’ however this is not actually the case.ARPO ENI S. Generally the completion fluid density is equal to. but it is also assumed that the two fluids will degrade similarly under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. With a subsea wellhead. If it is foreseen that future stimulation or hydraulic fracturing operations may be necessary.3kg/dm 3). or close to. particularly with heavy fluids. the mud weight in which casing is installed. hydrostatic seawater pressure should be considered. Actual gas/oil gradients can be used if information on these are known and available.p. assume: at the perforation depth the fracture pressure at that point and at the wellhead the fracture pressure at the perforation depth minus the hydrostatic head in the casing plus a safety margin of 70kg/cm2 (1. Connect the wellhead and bottomhole burst pressure limits with a straight line to obtain the maximum internal burst pressures.

Company Design Procedure The design of a string of casing in collapse mode consists of selecting the lowest cost pipe that has sufficient strength to meet with the desired design criteria and design factor. 8. a choice exists between a lower grade heavy pipe and a higher grade but lighter pipe. It occurs as a result of either. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Intermediate Casing and Liner If a drilling liner is to be used in the drilling of a well.p. the casing above where the liner is suspended must withstand the burst pressure that may occur while drilling below the liner.A. Additional mechanical loading imposed by plastic formation movement. these values must be used to design the intermediate casing string as well as the liner. When well testing or producing through a liner.2. Increase in external fluid pressure. The solution to this problem is to run and tie-back a string of casing from the liner top to surface. The design of the intermediate casing string is.1. 2) Tie-Back String In a high pressure well.2. No allowance is given to increased collapse resistance due to cementing. altered slightly: 1) Since the fracture pressure and mud weight may be greater or lower below the liner shoe than casing shoe. isolating the intermediate casing. Reduction in internal fluid pressure. COLLAPSE Pipe collapse will occur when the external force on a pipe exceeds the combination of the internal force plus the collapse resistance. Note : . or a combination of: • • • 8. therefore. the intermediate casing string above a liner may be unable to withstand a tubing leak at surface pressures according to the production burst criteria. Note : The reduced collapse resistance under biaxial stress (tension/collapse) should be considered. both of which provide adequate strength at similar cost.ARPO ENI S. If. the casing above the liner is part of the production string and must be designed according to this criteria. the higher grade (lighter) pipe should be chosen due to the reduction of tension loading. when making a selection.

1 (if atm).1.Water Depth x Seawater Density x 0.ARPO ENI S. it is calculated: • • c) At the wellhead .03)/dm where: Hloss dm Gp = = = depth at which circulation loss is expected (m) mud density expected at Hloss (kg/dm 2) pore pressure of thief zone (kg/cm2/10m) .1 (if atm). .(Shoe Depth .03 (kg/cm2/10m) Then H = H loss (dm . Consequently it will be assumed the casing is empty to the height (H) calculated as follows: (Hloss-H) x dm = H loss x Gp H = H loss (dm . Intermediate Casing a) Internal Pressure The worst case collapse loading occurs when a loss of circulation is encountered while drilling the next hole section with the maximum allowable mud weight. Net Collapse Pressure The resultant collapse pressure is obtained by subtracting the internal pressure from external pressure at each depth. This results in the mud level inside the casing dropping to an equilibrium level where the mud hydrostatic equals the pore pressure of the thief zone.p.03 as gradient. In offshore wells with a subsea wellhead. b) External Pressure In wells with a surface wellhead. the external pressure is assumed to be equal to that of the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud.A.usually normally pressured with 1. At the shoe .Gp)/dm If Gp = 1. Agip Division Surface Casing a) Internal Pressure IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 For wells with a surface wellhead.Air Gap) x Seawater Density x 0. In offshore wells with subsea wellheads. the internal pressure assumes that the mud level drops due to a thief zone. the casing is assumed to be completely empty.

or otherwise. c) Net Collapse Pressure The effective collapse line is obtained by subtracting the internal pressure from external at each depth. during the collapse design. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8. In wells with subsea wellheads. as is the case in exploration wells. b) External Pressure The pressure acting on the outside of casing is the pressure of mud in which casing is installed.ARPO ENI S. the mud level inside the casing is assumed to drop to an equilibrium level where the mud hydrostatic pressure equals the pore pressure of the thief zone. the casing is assumed to be half empty and the remaining part of the casing full of the heaviest mud planned to drill the next section below the shoe. Eni-Agip division and associates suggests that on wells with surface wellheads.A .Fluid Height Calculation When thief zones cannot be confirmed. .p.A. The uniform external pressure exerted by salt on the casing or cement sheath through overburden pressure. should be given a value equal to the true vertical depth of the relative point.

tubing leaks often occur and wells. or have plugged perforations or very low internal pressure values and. Agip Division Production Casing a) Internal Pressure IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Assume the casing worst case is being completely empty. Intermediate Casing and Liner 1) If a drilling liner is to be used in the drilling of a well. should be given a value equal to the true vertical depth of the relative point.A. it will be necessary run and tie-back a string of casing from the liner top to surface. . Also wells may be on artificial lift.ARPO ENI S. the casing above the liner is part of the production string and must be designed according to this criteria. that during the productive life of well. b) External Pressure Assume the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the mud in which casing is installed. It is a fact of life. 2) Tie-Back String If the intermediate string above the liner is unable to withstand the collapse pressure calculated according to production collapse criteria. The uniform external pressure exerted by salt on the casing or cement sheath through overburden pressure. c) Net Collapse Pressure In this case of the casing being empty. nevertheless in particular well situations. When well testing or producing through a liner. This must be taken into consideration in the design and the ideal solution is to design for zero pressure inside the casing which provides full safety. the net pressure is equal to the external pressure at each depth. under these circumstances. the Drilling and Completions Manager may consider that the lowest casing internal pressure is the level of a column of the lightest density producible formation fluid.p. the production casing string could be partially or completely empty. the casing above where the liner is suspended must withstand the collapse pressure that may occur while drilling below the liner. In other cases it will be the difference between external and internal pressures at each depth.

of a smaller diameter than the normal) the connection will be weaker or if flush joint pipe must be used in special circumstances. the shoulders at point of changing casing weights and. b) When landing casing in a subsea wellhead from a floater. etc.p. to a smaller degree. The DF imposed is therefore correspondingly much larger. Generally. . in order to become free. the shoulders on collars (Refer to figure 8. Agip Division 8. High internal pressure will induce tensional stresses caused by radial expansion and. Buoyancy Force The effect of buoyancy is generally assumed to be the reduction in weight of the casing string when it is suspended in a liquid compared to its weight in air. Bending.e. The tension is the weight of the pipe in air less buoyancy.ARPO ENI S. Bumping a cement plug. axial contraction. The varying parameters which can affect tensile loading leads to the estimates used for the tensile forces are more uncertain than the estimates for either burst and collapse. The areas referred to are the tube end areas. The highest tensile stresses will occur at the uppermost portion of the pipe.2. either the tensile strength of the pipe or its connection.A. as observed on the block is actually the resultant of pressure forces acting on all the exposed horizontal faces and in calculations is defined as negative as it act upwards. Tensile loads are imposed on the casing by: • • The weight of pipe itself.b). the connection used in a string of casing is stronger than the pipe body although this must always be confirmed.3. • • • • Note: 8. For situations where a connection coupling has to be special clearance. To free the pipe considerable pull may be necessary. (i. 8. Upward and downward reciprocating movements carried out where there is a tendency to become differential stuck. hence.3. TENSION General IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Tensile failure occurs if the longitudinal force exerted on a pipe exceeds. Shock loading: a) While lowering casing through unstable formations such as cavings where the casing string may get temporarily stuck before suddenly slipping through thereby inducing tensile shock loads. hence reducing the pipe weight.3.1. The buoyancy or reduction in string weight.

ARPO ENI S. the different weights per unit length of the casing must be taken into account. Note: When calculating the tension with regard to buoyancy trends.p. .A. as they have different cross-sectional areas.Casing Buoyancy Areas The forces acting on the areas of collar shoulders (F3) are for practical purposes negligible in casing design as the upward and downward facing shoulders countered each other over short distances.B . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 a) Different casing weights b) Shoulders on collars Figure 8. In the following example an average weight value is assumed since this does not substantially affect the calculations.

9 43. Refer to table 8.5kg/dm 3 The average buoyancy for the whole profile is: S = = 194.b for buoyancy factors.9 Total Casing Weight Casing Weight (kg) 0-1000 1000-2000 2000-3000 Well Depth (m) 1000 2000 3000 69. .267kg The difference (37.A.0 59.7 40.A .500 194.100 Buoyancy (kg) 150 (87.9) = Total Buoyancy 990 2. dm = 1.Buoyancy Example Calculation * Mud density.255 36.p.100 .0 69.5 Hydrostatic Head (atm (*)) 150 300 450 Cross Sectional Area (Af cm2) 87.5 64.130 33. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Well Depth (m) Size (ins) 95/8 95/8 95/8 Casing Data Unit Weight lbs/ft (kg/m) 47.900 64.6-81) = 300 (81-73.0 73.267-36.700 59.6 81.(194.ARPO ENI S.808) 37.100 x 0.9) = 450 (73.375 Table 8.375) is 892kg and thus negligible in the calculations.

825 0.822 0.600 12.837 0.391 0.367 1.103 1.103 1.1415 0.368 0.825 0.816 0.871 0.45 53.319 1.1295 0.151 1.1103 0.868 0.758 0.561 0.007 1.823 0.878 7.08 47.0825 0.1031 0.319 1.391 1.463 1. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Density Degrees API 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Specific Gravity 0.849 0.328 0.1391 0.487 1.457 0.819 0.079 1.347 0.446 0.664 0.63 64.31 48.78 85.904 0.0852 0.400 10.985 1.786 8.540 0.0876 0.592 0.127 1.585 0.000 1.271 1.688 0.800 12.800 9.343 1.75 97.343 1.559 1.535 1.33 65.803 0.200 9.696 kg/sp cm/m 0.800 11.876 0.831 0.865 0.900 0.903 0.487 1.897 0.1487 0.00 58.467 0.800 13.1535 0.797 0.337 8.23 62.779 0.127 1.367 1.055 1.488 0.00 10.199 1.846 0.876 0.498 0.633 0.477 0.794 BF = 1 − ρm / ρs BF = Buoyancy Factor ρm = Mud Density Fluid Density Pressure and Buoyancy Factors(60oF) (Continued Over Page) .223 1.76 91.336 0.079 1.031 1.0965 0.511 1.304 7.379 0.1247 0.64 56.400 8.1199 0.415 1.825 0.529 0.74 100.680 0.1439 0.00 11.400 9.433 0.23 g/cc 0.29 80.1463 0.1007 0.75 94.200 13.559 1.1319 0.400 11.654 0.0758 0.675 0.000 1.500 11.801 0.607 lbs/gal 6.662 0.683 6.223 1.849 0.400 12.519 0.27 86.1127 0.904 0.810 0.439 1.151 1.62 49.175 1.200 11.884 0.24 60.439 1.840 0.28 83.800 0.1343 0.399 lbs/cu ft 46.1367 0.738 0.613 0.27 89.583 1.571 0.32 68.779 0.247 1.1271 0.085 7.933 0.905 0.581 0.675 0.1223 0.965 1.26 92.904 0.271 1.828 0.199 1.418 0.612 0.000 12.77 88.295 1.0649 0.175 1.1000 0.800 9.ARPO ENI S.200 12.607 ρs = Steel Density Fluid Head psi/ft 0.295 1.30 77.872 0.435 0.1079 0.550 0.537 7.320 0.052 8.800 10.31 71.1583 0.0738 0.834 0.36 62.38 58.007 1.1607 Buoyancy Factor* 0.1175 0.0933 0.843 0.535 1.600 8.511 1.25 95.82 67.000 13.357 0.644 0.765 0.499 6.463 1.602 0.247 1.583 1.A.806 0.325 6.055 1.99 51.391 1.82 70.404 0.1511 0.0801 0.79 79.856 .000 9.848 0.738 0.1055 0.933 0.78 82.24 98.160 6.0779 0.415 1.801 0.600 10.894 0.81 73.1559 0.859 0.80 75.509 0.1151 0.031 1.p.30 74.891 0.200 10.

1799 0.600 15.862 0.791 0.703 1.967 1.400 18.751 0.200 17.799 1.1655 0.770 0.2207 0.19 119.B .727 0.399 14.54 136.1547 0.863 0.655 1.326 2.231 2.028 1.768 0.919 1.789 0.374 2.718 0. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Density Degrees API Specific Gravity 1.23 104.2087 0.18 122.751 1.895 1.736 .2111 0.792 0.71 109.2326 0.800 15.231 2.399 15.1919 0.85 kg/l .2015 0.800 18.2374 0.788 0.600 13.757 0.823 1.871 1.255 2.967 1.903 0.773 0.400 17.600 17.727 1.991 2.p. Applicable only when tubing or casing is completely filled with fluid.851 0.039 2.350 2.183 2.067 2.1967 0.Buoyant Force Buoyancy Force = Weight in Air x Mud Density Steel Density  Steel Density − Mud Density   Wieght in Air    Steel Density   Table 8.895 1.800 14.015 2.699 0.72 106.631 1.207 2.755 0.935 0.11 149.955 0.2063 0.679 1.799 1.063 2.72 0.1895 0.2231 0.696 0.764 0.761 0.0733 0.12 146.706 0.255 2.000 16.823 1.724 0.70 115.2183 2.038 kg/sp cm/m 0.16 128.955 0.007 1.18 131.776 0.000 18.200 18.22 107.68 124.727 1.712 0.914 0.278 2.17 125.785 0.782 0.65 133.2183 0.754 0.872 0.000 lbs/cu ft 101.015 2.2135 0.918 1.600 14.350 2.159 .708 0.1775 0.71 112.976 0.748 0.2398 Buoyancy Factor* 0.779 0.847 1.847 1.398 lbs/gal 13.159 2.400 16.14 137.111 2.600 18.Fluid Density Pressure and Buoyancy Factors(60oF) Apparent Weight = Apparent Weight = Weight in Air x Buoyancy Factors Steel Density = 7.400 19.775 1.991 2.943 1.2278 0.278 2.943 1.200 16.924 0.111 2.135 2.820 0.ARPO ENI S.893 0.945 0.1579 0.800 20.987 1.1823 0.831 0.703 1.2255 0.2350 0.841 0.730 0.600 19.15 134.751 1.767 0.64 139.1943 0.727 0.326 2.135 2.000 14.087 2.799 0.200 15.1871 0.63 142.21 110.200 14.68 121. Apparent Weight = Weight in Air .20 116.61 148.715 0.61 g/cc 1.398 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.207 2.679 1.745 0.871 1.716 0.A.631 1.779 0.20 113.1831 0.000 15.748 0.1727 0.800 19.600 16.063 2.693 Buoyancy factor is used is used compensate for loss of weight when steel tubulars are immersed in fluid.737 0.66 130.1703 0.610 0.13 140.039 2.800 17.018 1.2039 0.800 16.73 103.1751 0.739 0.89 118.742 0.775 1.2159 0.655 1.000 19.374 2.1991 0.12 145.67 127.000 17.

782 = 250. Note: Example: 95/8" 43. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Company Design Procedure 1) 2) Calculate the casing string weight in air. the total tensile load line may be constructed graphically. Agip Division 8.p. As seen with the previous case.39 x 180 = 69. Note: 8.000 x 0.500kg Add the additional load due to bumping the cement plug to the casing string weight in mud.3.910kg A calculation of this kind is an approximation only because the assumption has been made that: • • No buoyancy changes occur during cementing. Once the magnitude and location of the forces are determined.39cm2 = 388. Calculate the casing string weight in mud by multiplying the previous weight by the buoyancy factor (BF) in accordance with the mud weight in use.782 = 195. which justifies the preference for the simpler approximation method.000kg = 1.500kg = 54. . This pull load is calculated by multiplying the expected bump-plug pressure by the inside area of the casing. Ai Additional pull load = 180kg/cm2 = 388.70kg/dm 3 = 0. More than one section of the casing string may be loaded in compression. This calculation includes the use of temperature data.5 lbs/ft casing Pressure when at bumping plug Inside casing area.A. the differences in the calculated values are quite small. Example: Weight of casing in air Mud weight Buoyancy factor Weight of casing in mud Buoyancy force 3) = 250.3.ARPO ENI S. Example Hook Load During Cementing The following is an example of casing load and therefore hook load when conducting a casing cement job. The pressure is applied only at the bottom and not where there are changes in section.4.3.

28cm2 176.800m 1.p.02cm2 65oC 95oC 95.55kg/m 5.ARPO ENI S.250m 7ins P 110 38lbs/ft 56.898ins 4050m 1.9 oC 52t -28t 207t .4oC 103.A.3oC 27.93kg/l 2.16kg/l 140kg/cm2 4400m 248.0oC 229t 162t 196t 0t 195t 158t -3t 0t 75.5oC 120. Agip Division Example Data IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Estimated top of cement Cemented length of casing Casing size Steel grade Weight (imperial) Weight (metric) Internal diameter Casing shoe depth Mud weight during cementing operation Average cement slurry density Expected mud weight at end of next phase Estimated bump plug pressure Next phase total depth Calculation of Cross-Sectional Areas Casing external area Casing internal area Cross-sectional area Input Temperature Data Average flowing temperature at casing shoe Average static temperature at casing shoe Estimated flowing temperature at next phase depth Estimated static temperature at next phase depth Estimated Total Hook Load (at end of cement operation) Weight of casing in air Internal fluid weight plus bump plug Buoyancy effect Back pressure Total load at the end of cementing Total Hang-Off Weight Weight in air of uncemented casing Stress due to the variation in internal pressure Stress due to the variation in external pressure Delta T m1 at casing shoe Delta T m1 at end of next phase Average delta T Stress due to temperature variations Critical shock load If negative ignore) Total required hang-off load 2.26cm2 72.00kg/l 2.

p. to prevent any tendency of the casing to buckle above the freeze point. .ARPO ENI S. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Guidelines For Landing The Casing The load conditions in the casing do not consider the additional axial stress placed in the casing when it is landed. In neutral point of axial strength at the freeze point. The API have identified four common methods for landing casing: • • • • In tension which was present when cement displacement was completed. The second option is used when excessive mud weights are anticipated. In tension at the freeze point. which is generally considered to be at the top of the cement. API recommendation is to land the casing with the same tension at the end of the displacement in all wells where the mud density does not exceed 12.5ppg (1.50kg/l) in the next section. Casing practices make it difficult to estimated the various stresses when it is landed in the wellhead. In compression at the freeze point.A.

BIAXIAL STRESS General IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 When the entire casing string has been designed for burst. 8.A.p. the strength reductions can be calculated using the ‘Holmquist & Nadai’ ellipse. see figure 8. As can be seen from figure 8. In principle collapse resistance is reduced or increased when subjected to axial tension or compression loading.1. collapse and tension. . the reduction in burst resistance needs to be applied due to biaxial loading. and the weights. increasing tension reduces collapse resistance where it eventually reaches zero under full tensile yield stress. The total tensile load.4. the upper section of casing string may need to be upgraded. After these calculations. the biaxial effects of axial stress on collapse resistance are insignificant.ARPO ENI S. Effects On Collapse Resistance The collapse strength of casing is seriously affected by axial load.4. section lengths and coupling types are known. The adverse effects of tension on collapse resistance usually affects the upper portion of a casing string which is under tension reducing the collapse resistance of the pipe. Note: Fortunately for instances. 8. which is tensile loading versus depth.c. By noting the magnitude of tension (positive) or compression (negative) loads at the top and bottom of each section length of casing. Agip Division 8. but the correction adopted by the API (API Bulletin 5C3) is only valid for D/t ratios of about 15 or less.c Note: The effects of axial stress on burst resistance are negligible for the majority of wells. grades. is used to evaluate the effect of biaxial loading and can be shown graphically.2.4.

Ellipse of Biaxial Yield Stress .p.ARPO ENI S.C .A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.

9 1 1. Calculate the ratio (X) of the actual applied stress to yield strength of the casing.6 0. Agip Division 8.1 . IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Company Design Procedure The value for the percentage reduction of rated collapse strength is determined as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Determine the total tensile load.1 0. without tensile loads to obtain the reduced collapse resistance value.8 0.2 0.7 0. Multiply the collapse resistance by the percentage (Y).ARPO ENI S.6 0.figure 8.3 0. This is the collapse pressure which the casing can withstand at the top of the string.1 Y= Collapsresistence with tensile load Collapse resistence without tensile load 0.D .5 0.9 1 1.7 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.Stress Curve Factors X= 0 0 0. Refer to .A.4 Tensile load Pipe body yield strength 0.p.4 0.3.4. Figure 8.d and curve ‘effect of tension on collapse resistance’ and find the corresponding percentage collapse rating (Y).

4.1kg/dm 3.750 x 47.A. Collapse resistance without tensile load Pipe body yield strength Buoyancy factor Weight in air of casing Weight in mud of casing x= = 8.695 Pipe Body Yield Strength 338 From the curve or stress curve factors in figure 8.4.695 then Y = 0.859 = 235t Weight in mud of casing 235 = = 0. 32lbs/ft (4 kg/m).62 = 274 t 1000 . = 274 x 0.445 Refer to figure 8.p.610psi (605kg/cm2) = 745.ARPO ENI S.750m and a mud weight of 1. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Example Collapse Caclulation Determine the collapse resistance of 7".445 and the collapse resistance against tensile load can be determined: Collapse resistance under load = Nominal Collapse Rating x 0. BTR casing with the shoe at a depth of 5. . N80. if X = 0.e for a graphical representation of this calculation. Agip Division 8.000lbs (338t) = 0.g.859 = 5.

Graphical Representation .A.p.E .ARPO ENI S. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.

BENDING General IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 When calculating tensile loading. Since bending load increases the total tensile load. assuming the pipe is not already under tension (Refer to figure 8. it must be deducted from the usable rated tensile strength of the pipe. if applicable. Figure 8. build-ups and drop-offs.5. Agip Division 8. The bending of the pipe causes additional stress in the walls of the pipe. This bending causes tension on the outside of the pipe and in compression on the inside of the bend.f).ARPO ENI S. the effect of bending must also be considered. 8.5.p.1. .F .Bending Stress Bending is caused by any deviation in the wellbore resulting from side tracks.A.

8. 8.B Obtaining MB = σ= θ × E× D 2×L .52 x α x D x Af where: α D Af TB = = = = Rate of build-up or drop off (degrees per 30m) Outside diameter of casing (ins) Cross-section area of casing (cm2) Additional tension (kg) Eq. Agip Division 8.2. equation 1) becomes: L Eq.p.C MB × D 2×J Eq.ARPO ENI S. the following formula should be used: TB = 15.5.A. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Determination Of Bending Effect For determination of the effect of bending.D = = = = = = MB × L E×J Bending moment (MB = E x J/R) (kg x cm) Outside diameter of casing (cm) Inertia moment (cm4) Bending stress (kg/cm2) Bending stiffness (kg x cm2) Radius of curvature (cm) Eq. 8.A The formula is obtained from the two following equations: σ= where: MB D J σ ExJ R θ= where: MB L E J θ = = = = = Bending moment (kg x cm) Arch length (cm) Modulus of elasticity (kg/cm2) Inertia moment (cm4) Change in angle of deviation (radians) θ ×E × J from equation 2). 8.

This means the value of the bending load increases with the square of the pipe diameter for any given value of build-up/drop-off rate.1 x 10 6 ) (25 x 4) x D x Af x 2 x 180 30 x 100 TB = 15. the weight of casing is approximately proportional to its diameter. 8.000Kg/m m2 = 2.E Eq. we obtain the final form of the equation for ‘TB’ as follows: TB Af θ × E × D × Af TB = 2× L σ= 180 × 30 π×α 1 L= R π × α × E × D × Af TB = 180 × 2 × 30 R= E = 21.F Eq.25 to 0. joint tension strength rises a little less than the direct ratio. by using the more current units giving the build-up or drop-off angles in degrees/30m.52 x α = = = = Square inches Degrees/100ft 218 x α x D x Af (lbs) or 63 x α x D x W (lbs) Casing weight (lbs/ft) Eq.A.60ins). The result is that bending is a much more severe problem with large diameter casing than with smaller sizes.ARPO ENI S. 8. 8.1 x 106kg/cm2 TB = π x α x (2. At the same time.p.G When: Af α TB W Note: Since most casing has a relatively narrow range of wall thickness (from 0. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Then. .

The section which is ultimately set through a bend must have the bending load deducted from its usable strength up to the top of the bend. From that point up to the top of the section the full usable strength can be used.52 x 3 x 13. BTR Directional well with casing shoe at 2. See figure 8.558.g for the graphical representation of the example.14kg/m).5.ARPO ENI S.14 x 2. 5) Total tension in the casing at 300m = 156 + 83 = 239t Tension in the casing at 600m (MD) =129t.3.375 x 133.000 = 214t Casing weight in mud (Wm) Wm = 214 x 0.000lbs (707t) Design factor : 1. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Company Design Procedure Since bending load.859 = 184t Additional tension due to the bending effect (TB) TB = 15.p. Total tension in the casing at 600m (MD) = 129 + 83 = 212t. in effect. Example Bending Calculation Data: • • • • • • • • Casing: OD 133/8". 4) 5) 6) 7) Tension in the casing at 300m(TVD)=156 t. it must be deducted from the usable strength rating of each section of pipe that passes the point of bending.5.1kg/dm 3 Pipe body yield strength: 1. 72lbs/ft (107.441kg = 83t This stress will be added to the tensile stress already existing on the curved section of hole.A. C75.4. 8.000m (MD) Kick-off point at 300m Build-up rate: 3°/30m Maximum angle: 30° Mud weight : 1. Agip Division 8.7 Calculation: 1) 2) 3) Casing weight in air (Wa) Wa = 107. . increases tensile load at the point applied.99 = 83.

G .Bending Load Example .ARPO ENI S.p. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.A.

6.A.Casing Wear The major factors affecting casing wear are: • • • • • • Rotary speed. wear will be over the buildup and drop off sections. The location and magnitude of volumetric wear in the casing string can be estimated by calculating the energy imparted from the rotating tool joints to the casing at different casing points and dividing this by the amount of energy required to wear away a unit volume of the casing. consideration of wear allowances can be restricted to deviated wells with the most likely wear spot at the kick-off point where burst reduction will be the greatest consideration. Figure 8. However.H . Casing wear factor. Severity of dog legs. For most purposes. Agip Division 8. In deviated wells.ARPO ENI S. 8. Drilling rate. casing wear is usually in the first few joints below the wellhead or intervals with a high dogleg severity. In a vertical well .p. . CASING WEAR General IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 There is no reliable method of predicting casing wear and defining the reduction in casing properties due to the reduction in casing performance through decreases in burst and collapse values which are proportional to the reduction in wall thickness. Tool joint lateral load and diameter.1. Inclination of the hole. The percentage casing wear at each point along the casing is then calculated from the volumetric wear.6. theoretical predictions may be made as described in this section.

Note: The chemical action of gases such as H2S.ARPO ENI S. 8. Volumetric wear is proportional to an empirical ‘wear factor’ which is defined as the coefficient of friction divided by the volume of casing material removed per unit of energy input. The wear factor depends upon several variables including : • • • • • Mud properties. Drill solids. Tool joint roughness.I . thus. 8. 8.p. 8.H The frictional energy imparted to the casing by the rotating tool joint equals: Energy Input Per Foot = Friction Force Per Foot x Sliding Distance where: Friction Force Per Foot = Friction Factor x Tool Joint Lateral Load Per Foot Sliding Distance = n x TJ Diameter x Rotary Speed x Contact Time and Tool Joint Contact Time = where: S TJL P DPJL = = = = Drilling distance(ft) Tool joint length (ins) Rate of penetration (ft/hr) Drill pipe joint length (ft) S x TJL DPJL Eq. contributes significantly to the rate of wear.A. Energy Input Per Foot Specific Energy Eq. Volumetric Wear Rate The volume of casing worn away by the rotating tool joint equals: V= where: V Specific Energy = = Wear volume per foot The amount of energy required to wear away a unit volume of casing material.2.6. Lubricants. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Eni-Agip acceptable casing wear limit is </= 7%. Tool joint hardness. CO2 and 02 tends to reduce the surface hardness of steel and.J Eq.

8.ARPO ENI S. .l shows that the Wear Volume ’V’ equals: v= where: V F L D N S P = = = = = = = Wear volume per foot (in3/ft) Wear factor (ins 2/lbs) Lateral load on drill pipe per foot (lbs/ft) Tool joint diameter (ins) Rotary speed (RPM) Drilling distance (ft) Penetration rate (ft/hr) 60 x π x F x L x D x N x S P Eq. 8.L The tool joint and drill pipe lengths do not appear in Equation 6 because they do not effect the amount of casing wear in the linear model. because grooves become wider as the wear depth increases.A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The lateral load on the drill pipe equals: L= where: L TJL DPJL = Drill pipe lateral load per foot TJLLPF = Tool joint lateral load (lbs/ft) = Tool joint length (ins) = Drill pipe joint length (ft) TJLLPF x TJL DPJL Eq.M Eq. 8.h-eq. 8. Note: Wear volume increases non-linearly against wear depth.K The Wear Factor controlling the wear efficiency is defined as: Wear Factor = Friction Factor/Specific Energy Combining eq. 8.p.

p. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.A.I .Wear Rate .ARPO ENI S.

K .6. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Factors Affecting Casing Wear (Example) Figure 8. Agip Division 8.p.Factors Affecting Casing Wear .J .Example Well Figure 8.3.ARPO ENI S.A.

Wellbore Displacement Figure 8.L .M .A.Factors Affecting Casing Wear .ARPO ENI S. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.p.

p.O .ARPO ENI S.Affect of Tool Joint Diameter on Casing Wear Figure 8.N .A.Casing Wear . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.

Lateral Forces in Actual Well . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.Q .A.Lateral Tool Joint Loads in Smooth Ideal Well Figure 8.p.ARPO ENI S.P .

Casing wear is increased tenfold when the mud is weighted with drill solids instead of barite.6.ARPO ENI S. (F = 10 to 30) because there are no solids to prevent the sliding metals surfaces from coming into contact and causing galling wear.5 to 5 5 to 10 10 to 30 10 to 30 20 to 50 50 to 150 200 to 400 Table 8. Water (without solids) causes high wear.p. bentonite and barite. This shows the importance of having good solids control when running heavily weighted muds. When tool joints have rough hardbanding.0). (F = 0. (F = 5 to 10).5 to 1 0. casing wear is minimised when the mud consists of water.5 to 1. In this case.C .d gives comparisons of casing wear with twelve different hardmetal materials tested in the DEA-42 project. In extreme cases.Typical Casing Wear Factors When tool joints are smooth. the surface can weld together resulting in chunks of metal being torn from the surfaces. the rough tool joints tend to machine away the casing in even larger pieces (similar to the cutting action of a mill) resulting in rapid failure of the casing. Wear Factors Drilling Fluid Water+Betonite+Barite Water+Betonite+Lubricant (2%) Water+Betonite+Drill Solids Water Water+Betonite Water+Betonite+Barite Water+Betonite+Barite Water+Betonite+Barite IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Tool Joint Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Slightly Rough Rough Very Rough Wear Factor (F) (10-1 psi-l) 0. table 8. . the wear is controlled primarily by the roughness of the tool joint and is almost independent of the mud properties.4. The small particles of barite appear to act as ball bearings and prevents the tool joint and casing materials from coming into intimate contact. Agip Division 8.A.

ARPO ENI S.15 0.8 21.15 0.65 2.15 0.24 0.014 27.95 5.29 0.27 2.020 5.7 9.2 18.9 7.3 1.8 7.21 0.6 1417 10.24 2.06 0.5 4.7 6.8 7.19 1.A.14 0.9 4.6 9.21 0.043 Casing Wear.DEA-42 Comparable Tool Joint Hardmetal Test Results (N 80 with 3.43 1.6 17.20 0.016 0.17 0.32 0.12 0.000ft/lbs load and Water Based Mud) .0 5.74 Friction Factor 0.19 0. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Tool Joint Smooth Steel Rough Tungsten Carbide Smooth Tungsten Carbide Hughes Smooth X Drilco Sphere Agip Tungsten Carbide Agip Austenite Aluminium Bronze Armacor-M Arnco-200X Colmonoy 5 Triboloy-800 Duocor Stellite 6 Polished Chrome BP-1 BP-2 Tool Joint Wear (Open Hole) 0.21 Remarks AISI Steel 4145 Mesh size 14/24 (20 min test) Mesh size 14/24 (field worn surface) Tungsten Carbide (spherical granules) Tungsten Carbide (spherical) Low vibration Low vibration High friction Amorphous material Chromium Carbide Nickle base Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Carbide Cobal base Sensitive in salt mud Steel machine ground smooth Steel hand ground finish 0.6 10.018 0.53 6.027 0.2 75 Wear Factor 5.6 1.p.6 Table 8.2 9.19 0. % 18.15 0.1 1.2 14.18 0.D .5 0.3 2.

c and table 8. These limited tests indicate that casing wear rates are nearly identical for oil based and water based muds. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 figure 8.s). Shell (Bol. the rubber protectors (F = 1 to 10) can reduce casing wear by 95 to 99 percent.Effect of Hardmetal Roughness on Casing Wear Drilling Fluid Water+Betonite+Barite Water Tool Joint Rubber Protector Rubber Protector Wear Factor (10-1 psi-l) 1 to 2 4 to 10 Table 8.E .R . .e show that drill pipe rubber protectors (F= 1 to 10) will reduce casing wear under all conditions except when using smooth tool joints with water base mud weighted with barite. (F = 0. In applications where very rough hard metal tool joints (F= 200 to 400) are being used.Typical Casing Wear Factors (Shell-Bradley. 1975) The data given in table 8. Limited casing wear data for oil based muds is also available.r below shows casing wear versus tool joint passes.p.5 to 1.0). The barite apparently acts as ball bearings and keeps the sliding metal surfaces from coming into contact with each other and causing galling wear as already described in the previous section.ARPO ENI S. Figure 8.A. 1985) found that the addition of barite to the mud significantly reduces casing wear (Refer to figure 8.

A.t below). Shell (Bol.Effect of Barite on Casing Wear (Bol.S .p. 1985) conducted tests which showed that a 10ppg mud weighted with drill solids produced significantly more casing wear then a 10ppg mud weighted with barite (Refer to figure 8.ARPO ENI S. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8. . 1985) The barite reduced the wear factor from 25 using no barite to 1 to 2 with barite.

0 with barite.ARPO ENI S. 1985) conducted tests with muds weighted with different weighting materials and found that weighting materials significantly reduce casing wear. the wear factor ranged from 5 to 10 with drill solids compared to 0.Effects of Barite on Casing Wear With lateral loads of 900 to 1.800lbs (4 to 8kN). 1985) .A.T . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.Effect of Weighting Materials on Casing Wear (Bol.p. Apparently the small diameter of the barite contributed to this reduced wear.U . Shell (Bol.5 to 1. Figure 8.

6). produced less wear than all of the other weighting materials except barite. The addition of silica sand to the bentonite and water reduced the casing wear in half. This is apparently due to the small size of the iron oxide weighting particles. Shell (Bol.p. This shows the importance of having good solids control when using heavily weighted muds. 1985) found that the addition of 2% lubricant to an unweighted mud consisting of water and bentonite significantly reduced casing wear refer to figure 8.Effect of Weighting Material on Casing Wear Factor (Bol.8 Tool Joint Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Weighting Material Barite Barite Iron Oxide Drill Solid Sand None Wear Factor (10-l0psi-1 ) 0. .F . 1985) Weighting materials were found to reduce casing wear in all cases. Oil based and water based muds weighted with barite produced minimal wear (F = 0.A.v. which is often considered very abrasive.2 0.8 to 1.8 to 1.6 3 to 4 5 to 11 11 to 13 22 to 27 Table 8.9 to 1. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Drilling Fluid Oil+Bentonite Water+Bentonite Water+Bentonite Water+Betontite Water+Betontite Water+Betontite Mud Weight (lbs/gal) 10 10 10 10 10 8. Drill solids (F = 5 to 11) produced less wear than silica sand. when no weighting material was present to act as a buffer between the tool joint and the casing.ARPO ENI S. (F = 11 to 13). These tests indicate that the size of the weighting particles may be more important than the composition of the particles. Iron oxide (F = 3 to 4). Wear was greatest (F= 22 to 27).

Detection Of Casing Wear Detecting casing wear can be achieved by two methods: • • Use of magnets in the mud flow return. These tests show that lubricants may be useful in wells where casing wear may be a problem. Keeping doglegs to a minimum.A. . 8. Using rubber drill pipe casing protectors.6. 8.ARPO ENI S. Running a caliper survey after setting the casing to provide a base log.6. Using oil based mud. Casing Wear Reduction If there are fears about casing wear.800lbs lateral load (8kN) on the tool joint to between 30 to 0.5 with 900lbs load (4kN).6. Keeping sand content low. including: • • • • • • Using down hole motors and turbines. it stands to reason practices to reduce it should be considered.V .p. A wear log can then be run at any time throughout the life of the next section. Using drill pipe without hard facing.Effect of Lubricant on Casing Wear The addition of 2% lubricant reduced the wear factor with the bentonite mud from between 30 to 5 with 1. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.5.

it is recommended that wear allowances be considered only in cases where the burst (or collapse) resistance of the casing at the wear point will be approached during the anticipated operating time in the string.ARPO ENI S. In the vertical wells. Since wear estimates are order of magnitude calculations.7. 3) 4) If the allowable operating time is less than the anticipated operating time. wear points may also develop at the top of cement if buckling occurs but unless there are known sudden changes in formation dip. . from the allowable loss in wall thickness and the rate of wear. In any given situation whether option a) or b) is exercised will be dependent upon a number of factors. consideration of wear allowances can be restricted to deviated wells. Agip Division 8. either: a) b) Include a wear allowance or Monitor casing wear during drilling. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Wear Allowance In Casing Design With the design loads recommended it is highly unlikely that a reduction in collapse resistance due to wear will be critical at shallow depths or similarly that the reduction in burst resistance will be critical at the lower end of the casing string. it may well prove cost effective to run a base caliper survey to re-survey the casing prior to entering a hydrocarbon bearing zone (or pressure test the casing to the equivalent of the burst pressures anticipated from the zone) than to run heavy walled casing through all the anticipated wear sections. For most purposes.A.p. which could cause a large ‘drilled dogleg’. If the allowable operating time is greater than the anticipated operating time (say estimated 50 days allowable versus estimated 20 days operating) do not include a wear allowance. At the wear points. wear is likely to be small and uniformly spread over the entire length of the string. The recommended procedure is therefore: 1) 2) Conduct the casing design.6. Estimate the wear rate in terms of loss of wall thickness per operating day. The most likely wear points in a deviated wells are at the kick-off point and near surface in the vertical portion where buckling may occur (particularly at the top of cement). the allowable operating time in the string. with the most likely wear point at the kick-off point where burst reduction will be the prime consideration. and commission an intermediate string if the worn casing strength approaches the design loads. including the appropriate Design Factor applied. Calculate. If the allowable operating time and the anticipated operating time are about the same. In marginal cases. many of which are beyond the scope of routine casing design. calculate the allowable reduction in wall thickness so that the burst (or collapse) resistance of the casing just equals the burst (or collapse) load. use heavier casing (or increases the grade) 100m above and to 60m below the wear point until the allowable operating time exceeds the anticipated operating time.

In any event. Option b) Requires a base caliper survey to be run immediately after installing the casing string. However.ARPO ENI S. eventually leading to a reduction in overall wear rates. in a vertical well. In deviated wells. The normal procedure to cater for possible wear when designing casing is to select the next casing grade or wall thickness.6. 8. In most cases. and an intermediate string has to be commissioned early. but it may be too high. valuable data on casing wear in the area will be obtained and field practices may be improved as result of the attention paid to wear. conditions as drilling proceeds may indicate that the design loads assumed are not going to be encountered and the reduction in casing strength is acceptable. casing wear is usually in the first few joints below the wellhead or intervals with a high dog-leg severity. it may be justified. therefore. the deeper objectives of the well may not be reached.p. given the gross uncertainties inherent in wear estimations. Consideration should be given to increasing the grade or wall thickness of the first few joints below the wellhead. Again the casing over these depths can be of a higher grade or heavier wall thickness. option b) is preferred. particularly in remote locations. wear will be over the build-up and drop-off sections. However. If wear is proven to have occurred.A. Agip Division Option a) IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Is the conservative approach. in rank wildcats. . followed by runs at discrete intervals during the drilling phase. Because the reduction in burst and collapse rating is directly proportional to wall thickness the revised theoretical value may be calculated.8. Company Design Procedure There is no reliable method of predicting casing wear and defining the corresponding reduction in casing performance.

Running casing in salt sections is rather a cementing problem than a casing design problem. differential sticking in porous zones. are the prime factors to be considered. Agip Division 8. External Loading Due To Salt Flow Traditional analyses of casing response to external loading are not adequate when considering all of the possible effects caused by salt formation flow.2. hole enlargement and the well's overall casing programme. There are other factors that have to not be under evaluated such as: • • • Control of gas flows from porous zones interbedded in the salt. the designer should plan for non-uniform salt loading.7.7. The problem of salt formations has to be assessed on an individual well to well and/or area to area basis.p. This technique is probably the most reliable and safest approach for preventing casing collapse but is probably not necessary for the majority of salt sections. obtaining the best possible cement job.1. Shale sloughing from interbedded or boundary shales. SALT SECTIONS General IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Salt formations often exhibit plastic flow properties which can cause exceedingly high loads on casing. In some cases. mud problems from salt contamination. 8. The rate of salt flow is a function of its composition. using casing with higher than normal collapse ratings and possibly two strings of casing through the salt section. 8. Non-uniform or non symmetric external loading.ARPO ENI S.A.7. Asymmetrical formation loading. With regards to trouble free drilling. temperature. depth or overburden pressure and also probably influenced by how it is bedded or interbedded with other formations. The objectives for drilling through salt zones should be: a) b) To achieve trouble free drilling. . sticking due to salt flow. Abnormal pressure due to entrapment of pressure by salt. Prevent casing collapse during the drilling and the production life of the well. Three additional factors have to be analysed for casing design in areas where there is salt flow: a) b) c) Uniform external loading. two strings may be more advantageous as experience has demonstrated that it is not practical to design a casing string to resist collapse. To prevent casing collapse.

Uniform External Loading If there is a possibility of salt loading.p. other solids or a fluid. For production casing.x.A. such actions are usually not possible. Agip Division Uniform External Loads IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.W . either. The first group of precautions may be classified under the general heading of filling the casing internally. with gravel.ARPO ENI S. The benefits gained from running such a liner are substantial. The alternative is to run a scab liner inside the casing opposite the suspect formation and cement the annulus between the two casing strings refer to figure 8. several remedial actions may be taken. .

Casing With Liner Installed and Cemented .X .ARPO ENI S.A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.p.

However.Y . reduce the casing cross-sectional integrity. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Another source of non-uniform loading is bending of the casing as a result of curvature of the wellbore.Non-Uniform Loading In the lower portion of the figure. the structural benefits of using concentric casing strings are substantial. Problems may be observed before final catastrophic failure of the cross section e. thus.p.y below). Now assume that the casing is gradually bent by an additional external force as for example due to salt flowing (Refer to figure 8. the ovality of the cross section may be sufficient enough to result in restrictions in the casing that will prohibit the passage of bits or production equipment.g.ARPO ENI S. Subsequent formation movement above the frozen point will cause severe bending loads and. . even in the presence of non-uniform external loads.A. Above this point of contact. Figure 8. Consider an initially straight casing length under external pressure and axial loads that are insufficient to result in collapse. the flowing formation has come in contact with the casing thus restricting its movement. additional flow of the formation is depicted as being in progress.

If for some reason cement placement results in only a partial sheath around the casing.z below). the remainder of the annulus being filled with mud. Figure 8.p. In fact. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Asymmetrical Formation Loads For straight casing the most severe loading situation that could be expected from the salt environment is 'point loading’.ARPO ENI S.Z . subsequent movement of the salt formation will result (Refer to figure 8.Point Loading . The result of point loading is devastating leading to complete casing collapse. no casing is strong enough to resist point loading in its extremist form.A.

IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Company Design Procedure In designing casing for any application. Proper cement placement opposite a salt section is often difficult due to washout.A. If the casing is poorly cemented the collapse effect may be very high. If the pipe is well cemented. Conclusions: • • • Running casing in salt sections is rather a cementing problem than a casing problem. Agip Division 8. In this case. certain guidelines can be considered: • • • • • For production casing exposed to salt formations.aa). Any beneficial effects of the cement sheath should be ignored during design of the casing. additional axial forces due to hole curvature should be considered when determining the collapse resistance of the casing.p.ARPO ENI S. the accepted design load is the one for which the casing is subjected to the greatest conceivable loads. . The uniform external pressure exerted by salt on the casing (or cement sheath) due to overburden pressure should be given a value equal to the true vertical depth to the point in question. it is sufficient to design for collapse load in the traditional mode (overburden pressure/design factor).7. If the wellbore is deviated. assume the casing will be always evacuated at some point during the well life. In the particular case of casing design opposite salt formations. it may help to run heavier wall casing (Refer to figure 8.3.

ARPO ENI S.AA .A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 8.High Collapse Resistance Casing For Deep Wells .p.

if there is any likelihood of a sour corrosive influx occurring. 9. Use of high alkaline mud to neutralise the H2S gas.1.A. However. Use of inhibitors and/or scavengers. Exploration and Appraisal Wells Routine measures to be taken during drilling include: • • • Use of casing and wellhead equipment with a metallurgy suitable for sour service. consideration should be given to setting a sour service casing string before drilling into the reservoir. The BOP stack and wellhead components must also be suitable for sour service. should be designed to withstand such an environment. the production casing should be cathodically protected (either cathodically or by selecting a casing grade suitable for the expected corrosion environment).p. These measures will provide a degree of short term protection necessary to control corrosion of the casing in the hole during the drilling phase. Development Wells Casing corrosion considerations for development wells can be confined to the production casing only.1.1. 9. during routine completion/workover operations or in the event of a tubing or wellhead leak. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 9.1. • Internal corrosion The well should be designed to contain any corrosive fluids (produced or injected) within the tubing string by using premium connections. Any part of the production casing that is likely to be exposed to the corrosive environment. They should not be produced through the casing/tubing annulus.ARPO ENI S. it is accepted that tubing leaks and pressured annuli are a fact of life and as such.2. . • External corrosion Where the likelihood of external corrosion due to electrochemical activity is high and the consequences of such corrosion are serious. 9. production casing strings are considered to be subject to corrosive environments when designing casing for a well where hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or carbon dioxide (CO2) laden reservoir fluids can be expected. CORROSION GENERAL A production well design should attempt to contain produced corrosive fluids within tubing. During the drilling phase.

Pressure increases the solubility to lower the pH. Attack due to the presence of dissolved hydrogen sulphide is referred to as ‘sour’ corrosion.p. In the presence of water.3. corrosion is an electrolytic process where electrical current flows during the corrosion process. The combination of H2S and CO2 is more aggressive than H2S alone and is frequently found in oilfield environments. decreases the pH of the water and increase its corrosivity. Using the partial pressure of carbon dioxide as a yardstick to predict corrosion. • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Hydrogen sulphide is very soluble in water and when dissolved behaves as a weak acid and usually causes pitting.0ppm. The important factors governing the solubility of carbon dioxide are pressure. Other serious problems which may result from H S corrosion are hydrogen blistering 2 and sulphide stress cracking.1. .ARPO ENI S. Partial pressure 3-30psi may indicate high corrosion risk. if any. but usually also results in pitting. • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) When carbon dioxide dissolves in water. or in any combination may be a contributing factor to the initiation and perpetuation of corrosion: • Oxygen (O2) Oxygen dissolved in water drastically increases its corrosivity potential. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Contributing Factors to Corrosion Most corrosion problems which occur in oilfield production operations are due to the presence of water. it forms carbonic acid. The solubility of oxygen in water is a function of pressure. Agip Division 9. of the following conditions alone. Oxygen usually causes pitting in steels. To have a flow of current. there must be a generating or voltage source in a completed electrical circuit. It can cause severe corrosion at very low concentrations of less than 1. Partial pressure <3psi generally is considered non corrosive. Whether it may be present in large amounts or in extremely small quantities. temperature decreases the solubility to raise the pH. It should be pointed out that H2S also can be generated by introduced micro-organisms. It is not as corrosive as oxygen. it is necessary to the corrosion process.A. the following relationships have been found: Partial pressure >30psi usually indicates high corrosion risk. temperature and chloride content. Oxygen is less soluble in salt water than in fresh water. The existence. Corrosion primarily caused by dissolved carbon dioxide is commonly called ‘sweet’ corrosion. temperature and composition of the water.

Evaluation of the SSC problem depends on the type of well being investigated. this may in turn increase the corrosivity of the solution. • • Velocity of fluids within the environment Stagnant or low velocity fluids usually give low corrosion rates.1. the primary importance of pressure is its effect on dissolved gases. corrosion. CO2 and ClCorrosion in injection wells and the effects of pH and souring are not included. 9.p. two separate cases need to be considered. 9. The procedure adopted to evaluate the corrosivity of the produced fluid and the methodology used to calculate the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 will be illustrated in the following subsections. Pressure Pressure affects the rates of chemical reactions and corrosion reactions are no exception. e. impingement or cavitation. More gas goes into solution as the pressure is increased. Higher temperatures. In oilfield systems. vertical and deviated wells: a) In vertical oil wells.2. therefore knowledge of temperature gradients is very useful in the choice of the tubular materials since differing materials can be chosen for various depths.A. Agip Division • IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Temperature Like most chemical reactions. High velocities and/or the presence of suspended solids or gas bubbles can lead to erosion.2. The H2S comes into contact with H2O which is an + essential element in this form of corrosion by freeing the H ion. FORMS OF CORROSION The following forms of corrosion are addressed in this manual: Corrosion caused by H2S (SSC) Corrosion caused by CO2 and ClCorrosion caused by combinations of H2S. Corrosion rates usually increase with velocity as the corrosion scale is removed from the casing exposing fresh metal for further corrosion. . above 80°C inhibit the SSC phenomenon. In oil wells. generally corrosion occurs only when the water cut becomes higher than 15% which is the ‘threshold’ or commonly defined as the ‘critical level’ and it is necessary to analyse the water cut profile throughout the producing life of the well. corrosion rates generally increase with increasing temperature. but pitting is more likely. Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) The SSC phenomenon is occurs usually at temperatures of below 80°C and with the presence of stress in the material.ARPO ENI S. In gas wells.g. gas saturation with water will produce condensate water and therefore create the conditions for SSC.

Agip Division b) IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 In highly deviated wells (i. is not known or the values obtained are not reliable.0035 atm and SBHP >4. Otherwise the basic method is used. the potential for SSC occurring is evaluated by studying the water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile. The following formulae are used to calculate the value of pH2S (partial pressure of H S) in 2 both the cases of gas (or condensate gas) wells or oil wells. because the wellhead and bottom-hole pressures are higher than the bubble point pressure (Pb) at reservoir temperature. is termed undersaturated. deviations >80o). Undersaturated Oil In an oil in which the gas remains dissolved.: Water cut >15% for vertical wells Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (>80o) or if the GOR >800 Nm 3/m 3 The pH2S calculation is different for undersaturated and oversaturated oil.5 atm. Firstly. If the conditions specified above are verified then the pH2S can be calculated. even if in very small quantities.p. Oil Bearing Well The problem of SSC exists when there is wetting water. Gas Or Condensate Gas Well H2S partial pressure is calculated by: pH2S = SBHP x Y(H2S)/100 where: SBHP pH2S = = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of H2S Partial H2S pressure [atm] Y(H2S) = SSC is triggered at pH2S >0. . the risk of corrosion by H2S is higher since the water. the pH2S is calculated using both methods and the higher of the two results is taken as the a reliable value. i.ARPO ENI S. deposits on the surface of the tubulars and so the problem can be likened to the gas well case where the critical threshold for the water cut drops to 1% (WC >1%). In this case the pH2S is calculated in two ways: • • Basic method. If the quantity of H2S in gas at the bubble point pressure [mole fraction = Y(H2S)]. Material balance method.e.e.A.

The following algorithm is used to calculate the pH2S: pH2S is calculated at the separator (pH2Ssep): pH2Ssep = (Psep x H2Ssep)/106 where: Psep = Absolute mean pressure at which the separator works (from tests) in atm Mean H2S value in the separator gas (generally measured in ppm) Eq. Agip Division Basic Method IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 This method is used.A H2Ssep = .000ppm) and the water cut value from is lower than 5% (this method cannot be used when the WC values are higher).A. The value of H2S in ppm to be used in the calculation must also be from stable flowing conditions. without comparison with the other method.ARPO ENI S. molar fraction in the separated gas at bubble point pressure (Pb) is higher than 2%. is generally lower than the actual value under stabilised conditions. Note: H2S sampled in short production tests. when the H S value in the 2 separated gas at bubble point conditions is known and is reliable or if Y(H2S).p. The pH2S is calculated by: pH2S = Pb x Y(H2S)/100 where: Pb = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature [atm] Mole fraction in the separated gas at bubble point (from PVT data if extrapolated) Partial H2S pressure [atm] Y(H2S) = pH2S = Material Balance Method This method is used when data from production testing is available and/or when the quantity of H2S is very small (<2. 9.

ARPO ENI S.6) total number of moles of the liquid phase in the reservoir Henry constant for the reservoir temperature and reservoir oil. 6 − PMres 23.6 = = Gas oil ratio Nm 3/m 3 (from production tests) Conversion factor Eq. (See procedure for calculating Henry constant) Eq.6 x H2Ssep/106) where: GOR 23.D The pH2S is calculated at reservoir conditions: pH2S = (([H2S]oil + [H2S]gas)/K ) x H2 where: K H2 = = (γ x 1000/ PM + GOR/23.E . (See Procedure for calculating Henry constant) Mean molecular weight of the produced oil Specific weight g/l of the produced oil Eq.A.p. 9. PM : PM = γ 1000 GOR γ 1000 + (d 29) GOR 23. 6 Eq.C PM γ The quantity of H2S in the gas in equilibrium is calculated (per litre of oil): [H2S]gas = (GOR/23. 9. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The mean molecular weight of the produced oil. 9.B where: PM res = Ci Mi d = = = mean molecular weight of the reservoir oil = Mole% of the ith component of the reservoir oil  n    ∑ CiMi  / 100    i = 1  Molecular weight of the ith component of the reservoir oil Density of the gas at separator conditions referred to air =1 The quantity of H2S in moles/litre dissolved in the separator oil is calculated: [H2S]oil = (pH2Ssep/H1 x (γ x 1000)/ PM ) where: H1 = = = Henry constant of the produced oil at separator temperature (atm/Mole fraction). 9.

63 atm. the H(t) curve of propyl benzene is used. H2S corrosion can occur at either the wellhead or bottom-hole without distinction. Given FTHT. the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene is used.ARPO ENI S. There is SSC potential if pH2S >0. the H(t) curve of heptane is used. Procedure For Calculating Henry Constant The value of the Henry constant is a function of the temperature measured at the separator. using temperature measured at the separator.a which represents the functions H(t) for the three types of oils: • • • Heptane PM N-propyl benzene PM Methylnaphthalene PM = = = 100 120 142 Remarks On The H1 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the produced oil PM using the formula in eq. wellhead flowing temperature. The mapping method can be applied for temperatures at the separator of between 20°C and 200°C. the H1 value is interpolated linearly on the chosen curve(s). If 100 < PM < 120. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 In general.0035 atm and STHP >18. If 120 < PM < 142 the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of heptane and the H(t) curve of propyl benzene. For this purpose the temperature values immediately before and after the temperature studied are taken into consideration. Comments On The H2 Calculation Having calculated the molecular weight of the reservoir oil PM res.b. . H2 is measured in a similar way as H1. the reference curve is chosen (given by points) to calculate the Henry constant on the basis of the following value thresholds: • • • • • • If PM > 142. 9. If PM = 120.A. the mean value is calculated using the H(t) curve of propyl benzene and the H(t) curve of methylnaphthalene.p. Given the diagram in figure 9. If PM < 100.

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Henry atm/Y[H 2 S]

120

110

100

90

methylnaphthalene PM = 142
80

N-propylbenzene PM = 120 heptane PM = 100

70

60

50

40

30

20 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

T C°

Figure 9.A - H(t) Reference Curves Oversaturated Oil Oil is considered oversaturated when the gas in the fluid separates because the pressure of the system is lower than the bubble point pressure. Two situations can arise: Case A FTHP < Pb FBHP > Pb Case B FTHP < Pb FBHP < Pb

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Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: 1) 2) Calculation is of the partial pressure in the reservoir: In this case pH2S is calculated in the way described for undersaturated oil. Calculation is of the partial pressure at the wellhead, i.e. when FTHP <Pb: The data result from the production conditions and only the basic method is used.

Basic Method pH2S = STHP x Y(H2S) / 100 where: STHP Y(H2S) = static tubing head pressure [atm] = mole fraction in separated gas at STHP pressure and wellhead temperature

pH2S = partial H2S pressure [atm] The SSC phenomenon is triggered off at the wellhead if pH2S >0.0035 atm and STHP >18.63 atm. Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of partial pressure in the reservoir: In the reservoir the gas is already separated, FBHP <Pb, calculation of pH2S can be approximated on the basis of the following: • the PVTs are reliable, Y(H2S) >0.2%, the partial pressure is calculated as: pH2S = Y(H2S)(1) x FBHP where: Y(H2S) = molar fraction in gas separated at FBHP and at reservoir temperature (from PVT) • the PVTs are not reliable, the material balance method can be used as in the case of undersaturated oil; these are the worst conditions. The error made can be high when Pb >FBHP.

Calculation Of Partial Pressure At Wellhead The calculation method is that used for case A (FTHP <Pb)(2) Notes:
(1)

If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the gas under static conditions is not known, the 2 corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. If the percentage (ppm) of H S in the separated gas under static conditions is not 2 known, the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead.

(2)

ARPO

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division
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Corrosion Caused By CO2 And ClIn the presence of water, CO2 gives rise to a corrosion form which is different to those caused by the presence of H2S. It also occurs only if the partial pressure of CO2 exceeds a particular threshold. As in the case of SSC, the possibility that corrosions exist in water cut values combined with the type of well and deviation profile, is evaluated. If the conditions described in section 9.2.1 exist, then the pCO2 is then calculated. Gas Or Condensate Gas Wells The partial pressure is calculated: pCO2 = SBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: SBHP pCO2 = = Static bottom-hole pressure [atm] Mole fraction of CO2 Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Y(CO2) =

Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.2 atm. Oil Bearing Wells The problem exists where there is wetting water; i.e.: • • Water cut >15% for vertical wells. Water cut >1% for horizontal or highly deviated wells (> 80 degrees).

Undersaturated Oil Wells The partial pressure of CO2 is calculated: pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb = Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature Mole fraction of CO2 in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) Partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Y(CO2) = pCO2 =

Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.2 atm. The pCO2 values calculated in this way are used to evaluate the corrosion at bottom hole and wellhead; i.e. pCO2 at wellhead is assumed as corresponding to reservoir conditions.

the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. Two situations may arise: Case A FTHP <Pb FBHP >Pb Case B FTHP <Pb FBHP <Pb Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case A: Calculation of pCO2 in reservoir conditions: FBHP >Pb pCO2 is calculated in the same way as undersaturated oil wells earlier in this section. Calculation Of PCO2 At Wellhead: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: pCO2 Y(CO2) STHP = partial pressure of CO2 [atm] = mole fraction in separated gas at STHP (3) = static tubing head pressure [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0.ARPO ENI S.2 atm.A. Note: (3) If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under static conditions is not known.p.2 atm. pCO2 = Pb x Y(CO2)/100 where: Pb Y(CO2) pCO2 = bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature = mole fraction in separated gas at bubble point pressure (from the PVTs) = partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Corrosion occurs if pCO2 >0. Agip Division Oversaturated Oil IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 106 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The oil is considered oversaturated when the gas separates in the fluid because the pressure of the system is lower than bubble point pressure. .

Corrosion Caused By H2S. Note: (4) If the percentage (ppm) of CO2 in the gas under flowing/static conditions is not known. the corresponding value in reservoir conditions is assumed as being partial pressure at the wellhead. . 9.p. In this case the problem is much more complex and the choice of suitable material is more delicate. The phenomenon is diagnosed by calculating the partial pressures of H2S and CO2 and comparing them with the respective thresholds. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 107 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Calculation Of Partial Pressure In Case B: Calculation of pCO2 at reservoir conditions: pCO2 = FBHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: FBHP Y(CO2) pCO2 = flowing bottom-hole pressure [atm] = mole fraction in separated gas at pressure FBHP (from the PVTs) = partial pressure of CO2 [atm] Calculation Of pCO2 At Wellhead: The calculation method is the same as the one used in the wellhead conditions in case A: pCO2 = STHP x Y(CO2)/100 where: pCO2 Y(CO2) STHP = partial pressure of CO2 [atm] = mole fraction in separated gas at STHP (4) = static tubing head pressure [atm] There is corrosion if pCO2 >0.3.2 atm.2. CO2 And ClIt is possible to encounter H2S and CO2 besides Cl-.A.ARPO ENI S.

Refer to table 9.a below.p.Counter Measures to Prevent Corrosion .3. Agip Division 9.ARPO ENI S.A. Measure Control of the environment • • • • • • • • • Means pH Temperature Pressure Chloride concentration CO2 concentration H2S concentration H2O concentration Flow rate Inhibitors Surface treatment • Plastic coating • Plating Improvement of the corrosion resistivity of the Addition of the alloying elements micro structure steel Table 9. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 108 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES Corrosion control measures may involve the use of one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cathodic protection Chemical inhibition Chemical control Oxygen scavengers Chemical sulphide scavengers pH adjustment Deposit control Coatings Non metallic materials or metallurgical Control Stress reduction Elimination of sharp bends Elimination of shock loads and vibration Improved handling procedures Corrosion allowances in design Improved welding procedures Organisation of repair operations.A .

and sulphur are added in small amounts for other properties in some grades.08% to 1. CORROSION INHIBITORS IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 An inhibitor is a substance which retards or slows down a chemical reaction. There are many techniques used to apply corrosion inhibitors in oil and gas wells: • • • • • • 9.1. extended batch) Continuous treatment Squeeze treatment Atomised inhibitor squeeze . selenium. silicon. cooling waters. . Thus. The only grade of oilfield tubular used in this category is 13Cr. Stainless steels are strongly magnetic whatever the heat treatment condition.ARPO ENI S. decreases the rate of attack by the environmental on a metal. The carbon content ranges from 0. The most important characteristic that distinguishes these steels from other grades is their response to heat treatment.A. a corrosion inhibitor is a substance which. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steel is usually used in applications for production tubing.10% and other elements such as nickel. the microstructure of these steels is martensitic. although some chromium content may be as high as 18%. The most common types contain around 12% chromium.weighted liquids Capsules Sticks. steam or other environments.5. an iron alloy usually must contain at least 12% chromium in volume. Martensitic Stainless Steels The martensitic stainless steels contain chromium as their principal alloying element. Batch treatment (tubing displacement. standard batch.4. Agip Division 9.p. To be classed as a stainless steel. The martensitic stainless steels are hardened by the same heat treatment procedures used to harden carbon and alloy steels. molybdenum. however it is occasionally used for production casing or tubing below the packer depth. metallurgical structure and mechanical properties these are: 9. Corrosion inhibitors are commonly added in small amounts to acids. either continuously or intermittently to prevent serious corrosion.5. The main reason for the development of stainless steel is its resistance to corrosion. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to the ability of the chromium to passivate the surface of the alloy. columbium. As their name indicates. when added to an environment. Stainless steels may be divided into four distinct classes on the basis of their chemical content. The most commonly used of the martensitic stainless steels is AISI Type 410. The martensitic stainless steels are included in the ‘400’ series of stainless steels.

5. the principal types being 405. 316 high Cr and Ni which may include Mo. The chromium contents of ferritic stainless steels is normally higher than that of the martensitic. 9. Austenitic stainless steels are grouped in the ‘300’ series. and 347 stabilised for welding and corrosion resistance.3. which are also strongly magnetic. the most common being 304.A.2. with other elements added for particular reasons. is the ferritic stainless steels. and 436. Ferritic stainless steels are also part of the ‘400’ series.4. but their strength is lower than martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. Austenitic Stainless Steels The austenitic stainless steels have two principal alloying elements. They combine the high strength of the martensitic stainless steels with the good corrosion resistance properties of the austenitic stainless steels. Others commonly used are 303 free machining. . Their micro-structure consists essentially of austenite which is face cantered cubic iron or an iron alloy based on this structure. and there is a wide variety of compositions available.b for the various compositions of stainless steels. These are most commonly used for component parts in downhole and surface tools and not as oilfield tubulars. 430. These steels are widely used in the oilfield for fittings and control lines. 9. Agip Division 9. The distinguishing characteristic of the precipitation hardened stainless steel is that through specific heat treatments at relatively low temperatures. The chromium content ranges between 13% to 27% but are not able to be hardened by heat treatment. and the carbon content is generally lower. Most were developed as proprietary alloys. Ferritic Stainless Steels IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The second class of stainless steels.5. the steels can be hardened to varying strength levels. They are not able to be hardened by heat treatment although they are hardenable to some extent by cold working and are generally non-magnetic. Precipitation in alloys is analogous to precipitation as rain or snow. Austenitic stainless steels generally have the highest corrosion resistance of any of the stainless steels. They are used principally for their temperature properties. Ferrite is simply body cantered cubic iron or an alloy based on this structure. which contain various amounts of chromium and nickel.5. Most can be formed and machined before the final heat treatment and the finished product being hardened. but due to its low strength is not used for well tubulars. and may range up to as high as 25% chromium and 20% nickel.ARPO ENI S. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels The most recent development in stainless steel is a general class known as ‘precipitation hardened stainless steels’. which are similar to the martensitic stainless steels in that they have chromium as the principal alloying element. They contain a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Refer to figure 9. stainless steel. chromium and nickel. The microstructure of the ferritic stainless steels consists of ferrite.p.

5.5. Duplex Stainless Steel .ARPO ENI S.Stainless Steel Compositions 9.p.A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 9.B.

The resulting steel has properties that are normally found in both phases: the ferrite promotes increased yield strength and resistance to chloride and hydrogen sulphide corrosion cracking. ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel consists of between 40-70% ferrite and has a typical composition of 22% Cr-5. .p. This gap is attempted to be filled with ‘Super 13CR’ tubing being developed. As a general note. while the austenite phase improves workability and weldability.5% Ni-3% Mo-0.A. there is a large gap between the 13CR and Duplex Stainless Steels used as tubulars for their good anti-corrosion properties.ARPO ENI S. This material is used extensively for tubulars used in severe CO2 and H2S conditions. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 112 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 In general.14% N.

2< pCO2S max <100 0.1 0.<50. T95-1 L80-Mod.000 Cl. H2S And Cl Conditions Material 0.<50.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. C90-1.>50.000 Cl.000 Cl.000 13% Cr 22% Cr 25% Cr-SA Alternately 25% Cr OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 . CASING FOR SOUR SERVICE OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Oil Wells Conditions Material Alternately L80-Mod. K55.005 0.005 0.0035< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. K55.>50. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By CO2 And Cl Conditions Material 0.1 pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.<50.005< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.1 pH2S max < 0.000 Cl.000 Cl. C90-1.2< pCO2S max <100 0.1< pH2S max <1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.0035< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.<50.1 FBHT >80oC FBHT <80oC J55.0035< pH2S max < 0.<50.005 0.1 0.000 Cl.A. N80.2< pCO2S max <100 FBHT <150oC o 150 C< FBHT <200oC 200oC< FBHT <250oC Cl.000 Cl. C90-1. T95-1 OCTG Materials For Corrosion By H2S Only In Gas Wells Conditions Material 0. T95-1 0.000 13% Cr-80KSI Max 22% Cr CW 25% Cr CW 22% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 25% Cr 25% Cr CW 28% Cr 22% Cr SA 25% Cr SA 28% Cr 28% Cr Alternately 22% Cr 25% Cr 22% Cr.0035< pH2S max < 0.1< pH2S max <1 0.000 Cl.<20.ARPO ENI S. C90-1.<50. T95-1 L80-Mod. T95-1 L80-Mod. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 9.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max >1 FBHT <150oC FBHT <200oC 150oC< FBHT <200oC 200oC< FBHT <250oC 200oC< FBHT <250oC FBHT <250oC FBHT <250oC 200oC< FBHT <250oC FBHT <200oC FBHT <250oC FBHT <200oC Cl.000 Cl.0035< pH2S max < 0.005< pH2S max <0.2< pCO2S max <100e pH2S max <0.0035< pH2S max < 0.<50.000 Cl.0035< pH2S max <0.1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0.<50.1< pH2S max <1 0. K55.OCTG Materials for Sour Service . C95.1 0.2< pCO2S max <100e 0. 25% Cr Incoloy 825 28% Cr Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Incoloy 825 Table 9. N80-2.005< pH2S max <0.005 0. P110 J55.B . C90-1. N80 L80 L80 Mod. C95 L80 Alternately L80-Mod. C90-1.6.005 0.1 FBHT >80 C 60oC< FBHT >80oC FBHT >80oC o J55.p.>50.0035< pH2S max < 0.0035< pH2S max < 0.1 0.

g. Inhibitor injection. all markings must be paint stencilled or hot die stamped. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS When ordering tubulars for sour service. must be submitted. Cold die stamping is prohibited. All sour service casing should be inspected using non-destructive testing or impact tests only. The couplings must have the same heat treatment as the pipe body. 6) 7) Note: The casing should also meet the following criteria: • • The steel used in the manufacture of the casing should have been quenched and tempered. and will have no influence on material selection for the casing.7.8. normalising and tempering).1. wells producing CO2 partial pressure higher than 20psi requires inhibition to limit corrosion. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Downgraded grade N80.8. Shell modified API thread compound must be used. 9. • • In exploration wells. the presence of CO2 may lead to corrosion on those parts coming in contact with CO2 which normally means the production tubing and part of the production casing below the packer. P105 or P110 tubulars are not acceptable for orders for J55 or K55 casing. resistant to corrosion. In producing wells.p. Recommendations for casing to be used for sour service must be specified according to the API 5CT for restricted yield strength casings. The pipe must be tested to the alternative test pressure (see API Bulletins 5A and 5AC). (This treatment is superior to tubulars heated/treated by other methods e. .A. together with all the check analyses performed. the following specifications should be included. Three copies of a report showing the physical properties of the goods supplied and the results of hardness tests (Refer to step 3 above) must be submitted. Generally. generally the presence of CO2 in the formation causes little problems.ARPO ENI S. if using carbon steel casing. as per API Specification 5CT. 9. Corrosion may be limited by: • • The selection of high alloy chromium steels. COMPANY DESIGN PROCEDURE CO2 Corrosion The following guidelines should be used for the appropriate corrosive environment. in addition to those given in the above table. Agip Division 9. Three copies of the report providing the ladle analysis of each heat used in the manufacture of the goods shipped.

8. H2S Corrosion IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 In exploration wells.Sour Gas Systems Figure 9.Sour Multiphase Systems . Refer to figure 9. casing and tubing material will be selected according to the amount of H2S and other corrosive media present. Agip Division 9. In producing wells. if there is high probability of encountering H2S.p.d for partial pressure limits.D .A.ARPO ENI S.2. consideration should be given to limit casing and wellhead yield strength according to API 5CT and ‘NACE’ standard MR-01-75.c and figure 9.C . Figure 9.

p.A. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 9.E .Sumitomo Metals .ARPO ENI S.

5Mo Steel Modified AISI 4130 SM’ Designation SM 95G SM 125G Notes Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (medium pressure and temperature) Domain “B” Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (high pressure and temperature) Wet CO2 Corrosion Domain “C” Domain “D” 9Cr 1Mo Steel 13Cr Steel Modified AISI 420 Wet CO2 with a little H 2S Corrosion Domain “E” 22Cr 5Ni 3Mo Steel 25Cr 6Ni 3Mo Steel Wet CO2 with H 2S Corrosion Domain “F” 25C -35Ni 3Mo Steel 22Cr 42N -3Mo Steel 20Cr 35Ni 5Mo Steel Most Corrosive Environment Domain “G” 25Cr 50Ni 6Mo Steel 20Cr 58Ni 13Mo Steel 16Cr 54Ni 16Mo Steel SM 80S SM 90S SM 95S SM 85SS SM 90SS SM C100 SM C110 SM 9CR 75 SM 9CR 80 SM 9CR 95 SM 13CR 75 SM 13CR 80 SM 13CR 95 SM 22CR 65* SM 22CR 110** SM 22CR 125** SM 25CR 75* SM 25CR 110** SM 25CR 125** SM 25CR 140** SM 2535-110 SM 2535-125 SM 2242-110 SM 2242-125 SM 2035-110 SM 2035-125 SM 2550-110 SM 2550-125 SM 2550-140 SM 2060-110*** SM 2060-125*** SM 2060-140*** SM 2060-155*** SM C276-110*** SM C276-125*** SM C276-140*** Higher yield strength for sour service Quenched and tempered Quenched and tempered Duplex phase Stainless steels * Solution Treated ** Cold drawn As cold drawn As cold drawn *** Environment with free Sulphur . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Application (Refer to figure 9.p.A.e) Mild Environment Domain Domain “A” API Material J 55 N 80 P 110 (Q 125) Cr or Cr Mo Steel API L 80 C 90 T 95 1Cr 0.ARPO ENI S.

a for reduction in yield strength.1.Temperature Effects . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 10.p.A . a gradient of 3°C/100m is to be used. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE For deep wells. Figure .2 = Yield strength as per ISO normative with permanent deformation of 0.A. where: K0. Use the values in figure .A10.ARPO ENI S. 10.a10.2%. It no information is available on temperature gradients in the area. reduction in yield strength must be considered due to the effect on steel by the temperature.

b below) Figure 10. (Refer to figure 10.p.2. Agip Division 10.Arctic Service .B .A. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE Operations at low temperatures require tubulars made from steel with high ductility at low temperatures to prevent brittle failures during transport and handling.ARPO ENI S.

1. This is particularly important when reciprocating pipe during the cementing procedure. = = = = Shock load (lbs x ins 2) Peak velocity when running (ins/sec) Cross-sectional area (ins 2) Speed of sound in steel (lbs x sec/ins) SAFE ALLOWABLE TENSILE LOAD A safe allowable pull on the pipe should be calculated. CEMENTING CONSIDERATIONS 11. salt flows. stipulated during the casing string design process and specified in the Geological Drilling Programme or communicated to the well site prior to running casing. Either of the above will cause a stress wave to be created which will travel through the casing at the speed of sound. 11. Casing Support The cement sheath can protect the casing against several types of potential downhole damage including: • • • Deformation through perforating gun detonations.g. etc. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 11. LOAD CONDITIONS When running casing.ARPO ENI S.: if the spider accidentally closes or the slips are kicked-in when the pipe is moving or the pipe hits a bridge).7).000lbs (45tons over the weight of the string in the mud as part of the casing string design).p.2. This effect is quantified as follows: SL = 150 x V x Af where: SL V Af 150 11. . The application of the pulling load should only be considered as an emergency measure to retrieve the casing string from the wellbore. Sudden acceleration forces (e.2. It is normal to incorporate an overpull contingency of 100. shock loads are exerted on the pipe due to: • • Sudden deceleration forces (e. The loss of the bottom joint on surface or intermediate strings during drilling. Formation movement.A.1. (Refer to previous section 8.: picking the pipe out of the slips or if the casing momentarily hangs up on a ledge then freed).g.

000psi’ before the pumps are able to be shut down. with mud above. doglegs and certain sand control failures. After considering this issue.p.Mw) x D + 1. Cementing Loads As a cement slurry is pumped into the casing. The maximum weight of the string occurs when the cement reaches the casing shoe or when the top cement plug is released.2. the cement sheath may contribute to problems. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 However. this remaining margin may be so small to prevent reciprocation and.A. the worst case situation is assumed as follows: • • • The mud weight in the annulus is the lowest planned for the section. the following aspects also need to be noted: • • Adding resistance to casing collapse for design purposes is questionable. hence stretching of the pipe. the weight indicator increases to a maximum when mud has been displaced from the casing by the full amount of cement. 11. In fault slippage zones.000] x Ai where: CCL Cw Mw D Ai 1. The shoe instantaneously plugs off just as the cement reaches it and the pressure rises to a value of approximately ‘1.2. The inside of the casing is full of cement slurry.000 = = = = = = Cementing contribution load (lbs) Cement weight (psi/ft) Outside mud weight (psi/ft) Length over which Cw & Mw act(ft) Internal area of casing (ins 2) Pressure increment (psi) .ARPO ENI S. For design calculation. If reciprocation is contemplated. The load in this situation is calculated as follows: CCL = [(Cw . the design engineer may decide that a higher allowable pull contingency is required. This weight increase can approach the remaining allowable pull margin of the string.

If there is any doubt. Buckling cannot occur where the casing is supported by cement. inside and outside the casing.p. the differential pressure due to a difference in fluid level and/or fluid density. while temperature and pressure changes are primarily the mechanisms that cause the initial buckling.1. Tensile loads on the casing string.ARPO ENI S.4. After having drilled out a DV collar. 11. Consideration should be taken on the maximum allowable tensile strength of the casing thread considering the relevant tensile design factor. shall be taken into account. All these factors are interrelated but the first three are generally considered major contributors to buckling. The test pressure shall be held and remain stable for at least 10-15 mins The test pressure and method for each well are determined on an individual basis and shall be included in the Geological and Drilling Programme. .3. The leading criteria for pressure testing will be the maximum anticipated wellhead pressure. Agip Division 11. Factors responsible for buckling and the degree of buckling are: • • • • • Length of casing. 11. Changed pressure conditions across the pipe. with a sufficient drawdown to test the liner top to the most severe negative differential pressure that will exist during the life of the well.A. BUCKLING AND COMPRESSIVE LOADING The following buckling and compressive loads must also be considered. an inflow test could be carried out.4. In all cases the test pressure will be no higher than 70% of API minimum internal yield pressure of the weakest casing in the string or to 70% of the BOP WP. When establishing an internal casing pressure test. Temperature increases downhole. Hole size and degree of washout. A cemented liner overlap will be positively tested applying a pressure greater than the lea-off pressure of the previous casing. supported by cement. When testing blind/shear rams of the BOP stack against the casing. PRESSURE TESTING IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Casing pressure tests will be carried out according to the pressure stated in the drilling programme. Each casing shall be pressure tested at the following times: • • • When cement plug bumps on bottom with a pressure stated in the drilling programme. Buckling Buckling is a failure of stability which can occur at stress levels well below the yield stress of the material.

2.p. Pre-tensioning the casing after landing. for the majority of wells. Internal surface pressure is increased. Buckling of long. the total compressive load is the buoyant load of the intermediate casings. in vertical wells. Rigidly centralising the casing below the neutral point.e. the buckling calculation is only required on the small percentage of deep vertical wells in which the mud density is to be raised during the drilling of the next open hole section. Casing is landed with less than full hanging weight. 11. Thus. When discussing compressive loads it is convenient to consider three types of well where: a) b) c) The wellhead is at ground level or at the seabed. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 A buckling potential may exist in the uncemented portion of a string of casing. the tubing to production packer overpull and the weight of the wellhead. buckling is not a major design problem. can be prevented by: • • • • Cementing the casing up above the neutral point.: platform wells).ARPO ENI S. . In most well designs.4. The mudline suspension takes the weight of the casing at the seabed. uncemented portions of the casing string. Provided that all casing strings can be landed with full hanging weight. Limiting the increase in mud density used after drilling out the casing.A. if the: • • • • • Internal mud density is increased. Restricting length changes that would occur as the result of increasing downhole temperatures. This outer casing is usually the conductor or surface casing. Annular fluid removed or its density reduced. This condition occurs when casing strings are anchored firmly at both ends with an unsupported interval between. This compressive load is carried by the outer casing string. Compressive Loads Compressive loads can occur in casing strings as a result of: • • Landing inner strings within or on top of an outer string. The wellhead is above seabed (i. but the wellhead is above seabed. Temperature of the casing increases.

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Wellhead at Ground Level or at Seabed When the surface casing (i.e.: 20ins or 185/8ins) is cemented to the surface or seabed it can be considered as a rigid foundation capable of carrying the total buoyant weight of the inner strings, the wellhead and any tubing to packer load. If the surface casing is not cemented to surface the uncemented portion will compress in the elastic manner until either the yield is exceeded or buckling occurs (if the unsupported length exceeds a critical length). From this, it is obvious that surface casing should and must be cemented to surface. The surface casing string must be designed to carry the compressive loads placed upon it. No compressive load is carried by the inner strings. Buckling may be ignored if the surface casing is completely cemented to the base of the wellhead. Wellhead above Sea Level (Platform Wells, No Mudline Suspension) Compressive loads in surface strings on wells in which the wellheads is above sea level, can lead to buckling in the free-standing portion of the well. To prevent buckling, every joint of the surface casing must be centralised within the previous string (usually a free standing 30ins or 26ins string) or restrained by a wellhead jacket. The surface casing must be designed for compression loads as outlined in a) above. For every new platform, a full structural analysis should be commissioned. This analysis must assess the adequacy of the conductor/surface casing design for buckling resistance. Mudline Suspension In this case, the weight of the casing strings is taken at the seabed. The surface casing must be designed and cemented as outlined in a) above. The tieback strings above the mudline suspension hanger may be subject to some degree of buckling. Most wellhead hook-ups can be safely supported on a 20ins x 133lbs/ft casing string in water depths up to 300ft (92m). However, if buckling may be suspected to occur in the tied back surface string a full structural analysis should be commissioned. The structural analysis may be carried out by companies involved in the supply of conductors. The analysis is in effect a Riser Tensioner Analysis as is evaluated for semi-submersibles and it takes into account the effect of waves, current and the weight of the pipe in the free standing mode.

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Compressive Loads Due to Temperature Temperature rises in the uncemented portion of a casing string will give rise to axially compressive forces in the string, if the casing is constrained. However, the compressive forces will relieve the tensional forces in the casing and need not be considered in the design unless buckling occurs. Therefore, except in extreme cases such as thermal recovery wells, temperature loads need only be assessed in casing strings on which buckling may occur and need only be treated in this context. Decrease in Temperature a) Drilling Phase: It is highly unlikely that any routine operation (other than extensive reverse circulation) will cause a long term temperature decrease in the uncemented portion of a casing string, thus, no loading applies. b) Production Phase: Temperature induced stresses are of no consequence in the outer strings of casing and attention need only be paid to the production string. Producers are normally subjected to temperature increases under operating conditions and the compressive load induced should be treated in the context of buckling. The tensile loads induced by cooling in high volume injection wells, or in producers during high volume stimulation treatments or emergency squeeze kills, must be taken into account. It should be added to the axial load and included in the design load if the occurrence of such loading is anticipated

ARPO

ENI S.p.A. Agip Division

IDENTIFICATION CODE

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REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0

12.

PRESSURE RATING OF BOP EQUIPMENT
This section includes design criteria for BOP equipment which are extracted from the Well Control Policy Manual. The prime considerations, when selecting and procuring pressure control equipment, are the safety of the personnel, rig and maintaining the integrity of the wellbore. In order to assure this safety requirement, several factors need to be considered. Note: It should be realised that each drilling area may have local regulations unique to that particular area which exceed the general requirements stated in this section, or indeed the Eni-Agip Well Control Policy Manual. In addition, the various operating companies and their contractors may also vary from these general requirements, if dictated by individual company policy and philosophy providing they are not less stringent than described herein.

The anticipated formation pressure is the governing parameter which dictates the casing depth, casing selection, BOP selection and pressure rating of the BOP equipment as described previously in section 2. The weakest element within any pressure control system determines the maximum pressure that can be safely controlled. Individual elements of the pressure control system may exceed the assembly WP, and under no circumstances should components be used which are less than the assembly WP. For instance, a 10,000psi choke may be rigged up with a 2,000psi BOP stack in anticipation of its later use when the 10,000psi BOP stack is nippled up for a subsequent string of casing. The equipment in the well control system which has the lowest pressure rating will set the rating for entire system e.g. 2,000psi stack and 10,000psi choke manifold would be rated to only 2,000psi WP. Since the well control system must be able to contain any anticipated formation pressures that may be encountered, the maximum anticipated surface pressures must first be calculated. Many different methods are available to determine the maximum casing pressures which may be encountered during a kick as described in section 2. 12.1. BOP SELECTION CRITERIA Blow-out preventer equipment configurations shall consist of an annular preventer and a specified number of ram type preventers. The working pressure of any blow-out preventer shall exceed the maximum anticipated surface pressure to which it may be subjected.

The co-ordinates in the graph are depth and pressure and comprises two groups of lines respectively.23 2. Overburden Gradient (kg/cm2/10m) 2.A . drilling pressure values and the size of BOP to be used should be obtained which is given in table 12.a below. This pressure is: Pmax = where: H Gf Dg = = = Casing shoe depth (m) Fracture gradient of the casing shoe (kg/cm2/10m) Gas density.000 Casing (ins) 20 13 /8 9 /8 7 5 3 Shoe Depth (m) 750 2.30 1.A.18 2. occurs when the well is full of gas and the fracture pressure has been reached at the shoe of the last casing run.620 4. one representing the BOPs to be used while drilling and the other the BOPs to be used during well testing.03 1. the maximum test. Pmax.3(kg/dm 3) H (Gr . This value is also adopted by many other companies as the realistic criterion of choice. This hypothesis however is completely unrealistic in the drilling design. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 The graph illustrated in the attached figure 12.a has been prepared to enable the first approximation of the BOP rating necessary for use in drilling an exploration well.1.BOP Selection Example Data The maximum theoretical stress possible at the casing head. the setting depths of the various casings and the relative pore pressure gradients must be found or determined during the design phase.42 2. . Each group outlines the different solutions available to the various pore pressure gradients. To use the graph. From the diagram shown in table 12.29 BOP Drilling (psi) 2.70 2. assumed = 0.000 10.830 Table 12.000 5. Example: The casing program assumes that a well test will be carried out at the shoe of 7” casing. Gradient (kg/cm2/10m) 1.200 4.a.83 2. for which 60% of the pressure Pmax will be used as limit value according to company policy in ‘burst design criteria’.Dg ) (Kg/cm2 ) 10 In the case of a well test.00 Fracture Gradient (kg/cm2/10m) 1.ARPO ENI S. this pressure roughly corresponds to the limit value required for pumping gas into the formation and is thus actually attainable in practice. section 8.01 2.p.36 2.43 Pore Press.000 / Size Production Test (psi) / / / 15.

p.A.A .BOP Selection Example . Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Figure 12.ARPO ENI S.

kg/cm2 Density of the influx Top Influx Pressure Pore gradient Hight of the mud below the influx Fracture pressure . The most dangerous situation is when the top of the kick reaches the casing shoe.p. Agip Division 12. IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 KICK TOLERANCE Kick tolerance is the term used to define the maximum kick volume which can be safely controlled by any well control method with constant BHP without fracturing the formation below the last casing shoe.A.2. m Shoe Depth Formation fracture gradient at shoe.ARPO ENI S. m Height of influx. kg/ltr Formation pressure at total depth. This is calculated with the following formula: Ptop = Gp × H − (Gi × Hi + Gm × Hm ) 10 Gmx (H −Hs −Hi )x Gi xHi = Gfr xHs 10 10 10 Ptop < Pfr PP− Hi = [HS (Gf r − Gm ) + Gm × H − 10 × PP ] Gm − Gi Vshoe = Ca x Hi V1 x P1 = P2 X V2 V1bottom x Pp = Vshoe x Pfr where: Ca H Hi HS Gfr Gm PP Gi Ptop Gp Hm Pfr = = = = = = = = = = = = Annular capacity below the shoe. kg/cm2/10m Mud weight. m Total depth.

ARPO ENI S.ABBREVIATIONS API BG BHA BHP BHT BOP BPD BPM BSW BUR BWOC BWOW CBL CCD CCL CET CGR CP CRA CW DC DHM DLP DLS D&CM DOB DOBC DOR DP DST DV ECD ECP EMS EMW EOC ESD ESP FBHP FBHT FPI/BO FTHP FTHT GLR GMS American Petroleum Institute Background gas Bottom Hole Assembly Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom hole temperature Blow Out Preventer Barrel Per Day Barrels Per Minute Base Sediment and Water Build Up Rate By Weight Of Cement By Weight Of Water Cement Bond Log Centre to Centre Distance Casing Collar Locator Cement Evaluation Tool Condensate Gas Ratio Conductor Pipe Corrosion Resistant Alloy Current Well Drill Collar Down Hole Motor Dog Leg Potential Dog Leg Severity Drilling & Completion Manager Diesel Oil Bentonite Diesel Oil Bentonite Cement Drop Off Rate Drill Pipe Drill Stem Test DV Collar Equivalent Circulation Density External Casing Packer Electronic Multi Shot Equivalent Mud Weight End Of Curvature Electric Shut-Down System Electrical Submersible Pump Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure Flowing Bottom Hole Temperature Free Point Indicator / Back Off Flowing Tubing Head Pressure Flowing Tubing Head Temperature Gas Liquid Ratio Gyro Multi Shot .A.p. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Appendix A .

Agip Division GOC GOR GPM GPS GR GSS HAZOP HHP HP/HT HW/HWDP IADC ID IPR JAM KMW KOP LAT LCM LCP LEL LOT LQC LWD MAASP MD MLS MMS MODU MOP MPI MSL MSS MW MWD NACE NDT NMDC NSG NTU OBM OD OH OIM OMW ORP OWC P&A IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Gas Oil Contact Gas Oil Ratio Gallon (US) per Minute Global Positioning System Gamma Ray Gyro Single Shot Hazard and Operability Hydraulic Horsepower High Pressure .ARPO ENI S.p.A.High Temperature Heavy Weight Drill Pipe International Drilling Contractor Inside Diameter Inflow Performance Relationship Joint Make-up Torque Analyser Kill mud weight Kick Off Point Lowest Astronomical Tide Lost Circulation Materials Lower Circulation Position (GP) Lower Explosive Limit Leak Off Test Log Quality Control Log While Drilling Max Allowable Annular Surface Pressure Measured Depth Mudline Suspension Magnetic Multi Shot Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Margin of Overpull Magnetic Particle Inspection Mean Sea Level Magnetic Single Shot Mud Weight Measurement While Drilling National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non Destructive Test Non Magnetic Drill Collar North Seeking Gyro Nephelometric Turbidity Unit Oil Based Mud Outside Diameter Open Hole Offshore Installation Manager Original Mud weight Origin Reference Point Oil Water Contact Plugged & Abandoned .

Quality Control Repeat Formation Test Rotary Kelly Bushing Radius of Exposure Rate Of Penetration Radios Of Uncertainty Remote Operated Vehicle Revolutions Per Minute Rotary Table High Resolution Dipmeter Serial Number Static Bottom-hole Pressure Static Bottom-hole Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking Separation Distance Senior Drilling Engineer Safety Factor Specific Gravity Shut-in Casing Pressure Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure Stroke per Minute Separation Ratio Surface Readout Gyro Sulphide Stress Cracking Short trip gas Tubing Conveyed Perforations Total Depth Temporary Guide Base Top of Cement Top of Liner True Vertical Depth Target Well Uncertainty Area Ratio Under Reamer .ARPO ENI S.p.A. Agip Division PBR PCG PDC PDM PGB PI PLT ppb ppg ppm PV PVT Q Q/A Q/C RFT RKB ROE ROP ROU ROV RPM RT S (HDT) S/N SBHP SBHT SCC SD SDE SF SG SICP SIDPP SPM SR SRG SSC STG TCP TD TGB TOC TOL TVD TW UAR UR IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Polished Bore Receptacle Pipe Connection Gas Polycrystalline Diamond Cutter Positive Displacement Motor Permanent Guide Base Productivity Index Production Logging Tool Pounds per Barrel Pounds per Gallon Part Per Million Plastic Viscosity Pressure Volume Temperature Flow Rate Quality Assurance.

ARPO ENI S. Agip Division VBR VDL VSP W/L WBM WC WL WOB WOC WOW WP YP IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Variable Bore Rams (BOP) Variable Density Log Velocity Seismic Profile Wire Line Water Base Mud Water Cut Water Loss Weight On Bit Wait On Cement Wait On Weather Working Pressure Yield Point .A.p.

ARPO ENI S.A. 1985) NACE Standard MR-01-75 Sumitomo Metals Literature STAP Number STAP-P-1-M-6140 STAP-P-1-M-6100 STAP-P-1-M-6130 STAP-P-1-M-6160 STAP-P-1-M-6150 .BIBLIOGRAPHY Document: Drilling Procedures Manual Drilling Design Manual Overpressure Manual Drilling Fluids Manual Well Control Policy Manual API Specification 5C Holmquist & Nadai Shell (Bol.p. Agip Division IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 134 REVISION STAP-P-1-M-6110 0 Appendix B .

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