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HANDBOOKS OF
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Edited by Professor PERCY GARDNER, Litt.D., of the University
of Oxford, and Professor FRANCIS W. KELSEY, of the University of
Michigan. With Illustrations. Ex. crown 8vo.

Greek Sculpture. By ERNEST A. GARDNER, M.A. New edition
with Appendix. Part I. Part II. Complete in one volume.
Appendix separately.

Greek and Roman Coins. By G. F. HILL, of the Coins Depart-
ment of the British Museum.
The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic. By W.
WARDE FOWLER, M.A.
A Handbook of Greek Constitutional History. By A. H. J.
GREENIDGE, M.A. With Map.
The Destruction of Ancient Rome. A Sketch of the History of the
Monuments. By Professor RODOLFO LANCIANI.
Roman Public Life. By A. H. J. GREENIDGE, M.A.
Monuments of the Early Church. By W: LOWRIE, M.A.
rammar of Greek Art. By Professor PERY GARDNER.
Life in Ancient Athens. The Socialand Public Life of a Classical
Athenian from Day to Day. By Professor T. G. TUCKER, Litt.D.
The Monuments of Christian Rome, from Constantine to the
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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

ARCHITECTURE

BY

ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D.
PROFESSOR OF ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY
IN PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1909

AU rights reserved

COPYRIGHT, 1909,
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

Set up and electrotyped. Published March, 1909.

NarfoooU
J. 8. Cashing Co. Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

tto E. C. . M.

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Tonks for much valuable assistance in reading the proofs and preparing the indexes. Priene. and Doerpfeld. But a more special acknowledgment is due to the scholars whose work has appeared in the publications of the German Government on Olympia. and to William B. 1909. Wie- gand. Puchstein. I am also indebted to Professor Harold N. Haussoullier. vii . while the more specialized works 6f Penrose. Oliver S. Fowler for a care- ful revision of the manuscript. as well as many articles published in periodicals. and IV. to Dr. Lechat. The general treatises of most assistance have been those of Boetticher. have greatly facilitated my task. to Clarence Ward for making the illustrations for Chapters I. which have furnished much material for both text and illustrations. and Magnesia. and in that of the French Government on Delphi. ALLAN MARQUAND. Durm. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. and Choisy. Koldewey. January 15. II. PREFACE IN publishing this treatise on Greek Architecture I wish to acknowledge my obligations to many writers. Pergamon. Krell. These are all recorded in the List of Abbreviations at the end of the volume and in the references given in the text. Dinsmoor for those of Chapters V and VI.

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pavements and walls. Antae. Modified ratios. . . Entablatures. Minor ratios. . . Foundations and pavements. . Walls. . . concrete and stucco. Walls. . CHAPTER III PROPORTION . Columns and entablatures. Doors. Symmet- rical ratios or proportion. metal. Ceilings and roofs. Pil- lars. ^ . . . 1 Wood. . CHAPTER IV ' DECORATION ". doorways and win- dows. . . Deco- ration of foundations. Types of ornament. . . clay. . pilasters. 146 Greek methods of decoration.' . . . win- dows. stone and marble. Columns. Entablatures. ix .. . columns and piers.. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I PAGE MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION . . Ceilings and roofs. CHAPTER II ARCHITECTURAL FORMS . 55 Foundations. ceilings and roofs.. . . . ' . . . Doors and windows. 126 Major ratios. . .

. . . . Entabla- tures. Buildings for physical culture the : palaistra. libraries. baths. . 246 Foundations and pavements. Religious monuments altars and temples. Naval architecture : ships and harbors. Water supply. Antae and pilas- ters. Walls. . Governmental : buildings : the bouleuterion and prytaneion. . 285 Towns and their defences. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . stadion. . clubs. Commercial buildings: the agora and stoa. . CHAPTER VI MONUMENTS . Doors and windows. . Buildings for domestic use: the palace and private house. 377 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 389 INDEX OF GREEK WORDS . 413 . Piers and columns. . : Mixed. . . Ceilings and roof.X TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE COMPOSITION AND STYLE . . Ionic. . Sepulchral architecture.. . . . Style Doric. . and hippodrome. and Miscellaneous. .. . . music halls. Corinthian. 405 GENERAL INDEX . . Buildings for intellectual and social purposes schools. . . : theatres.

GEEEK AECHITECTUEE v .

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GREEK ARCHITECTURE CHAPTER I MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION THE Greeks in their architecture made use of wood. and they never altogether dispensed with them. and sparingly of metal. and piles from Roman buildings and . it is neces- sary that we should consider what materials the Greeks had at their disposal and how they made use of them. fir and pine Lave survived in charred condition from the build- ings of Pompeii . decoration and the character of their monuments. little can be expected from actual remains. WOOD. clay. It is useless to discuss which of these mate- rials is tobe ranked as the earliest or most fundamental. But while we may not hope to trace the evolution of Greek architectural forms from the exclusive employment of any one material. Yet several dowels from the columns of the Parthenon are preserved in the Acropolis Museum at Athens. In regard to a material so perishable as wood. box. before we study their architectural forms. glass and other substances. oak. chestnut. As farback as we can trace their history. stucco. 1. the Greeks employed all of these materials. stone. various objects made of walnut.

those of the Greeks. from vase-paintings. The Etruscan tombs preserve for us several types of roofs which can- not have differed greatly from contemporary roofs in Greece. zu Zurich. Pliny. wooden entablatures and roofs. 361-384. or derived from. 1 2 Keller. Theophrastos. in his Etudes gpigraphiques sur V architecture grecque. especially Phrygia. Asia Minor.* describes the different kinds of trees and throws out many hints concerning their specific uses in architecture. Martha. has com- mented with technical acumen on Greek inscriptions re- lating to the Arsenal at the Peiraieus.2 GREEK ARCHITECTURE bridges still exist which have derived extraordinary strength from their position under water. reflects the knowledge possessed by Theophrastos and other Greek writers. in his Historia Naturalis. 1 More may be learned from ancient representations of wooden struc- 2 tures. in his De Architecture re- flects the technical knowledge of Greek architectural writ- ers in what he has to say in regard to the use of wood as building material. and the Erechtheion. Ch. 4 irepi QVT&V Ifropia. But more extended and detailed information is to be sought in classic literature and inscriptions. From the remains of buildings in Greece proper. Gesellsch. Among modern writings. XII. Vitruvius. 308. Bliimner's Technologic und Termino- logie der Grewerbe und Kiinste bei G-riechen und Homer deserves especial mention for its admirable treatment of the ancient technical methods. Lycia and Paph- lagonia. . in ten books. V. especially from the rock-cut tombs of Etruria and 3 and Asia Minor. 8 Perrot et Chipiez. much may be inferred concerning the use of wooden columns. while A. is rich in tombs which reveal methods of construc- tion closely related to. Choisy. VII. ant. the Wall of Athens. Mitt. H. in his History of Plants.

olive. They knew that even the same wood varied in value according to its age. ships and bridges the . keels of ships and other purposes. black or white poplar. on account of was employed with equal satisfaction above its durability. cypress. the date-palm were supposed all over the Greek world to warp in a direction directly opposed to the pressure laid upon them. or the region from which it came. in lesser degree. for curved objects. Ash. chestnut. They not only made broad distinctions. fir. in resistance to pressure or flexure. 7. and that they acted in different ways when exposed to mois- ture or dryness. Many other woods were employed by the Greek architects. They recognized that woods differed in hard- ness. The alder was found to be serviceable for foundation piles. but they applied with nice discrimination the different woods for l specific purposes. box and ebony. the pine and fir were highly valued as supports. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 3 The Greeks used a variety of woods for architectural purposes. V. Various implements were employed for wood construc- 1 Theophrastos. and the juniper. water-pipes. oak and juniper. Thus from the acacia were made roofing beams of great length rafters made from . or the season of the year when it was cut. such as the ribs of boats. cedar. several varieties of which . as also. 4. whether vertical or horizontal. or below ground. elm and walnut were also used for architectural purposes. cedar and cypress were prized for roofs and floors of houses and for ships the oak. pine. . Of these.^ durability. Theophrastos mentions as specially adapted for building purposes. door-posts. as between wood suitable for houses and wood suitable for ships. were known. wild fig. was used for thresholds.

But more complicated constructions demanded a greater variety of implements. GREEK ARCHITECTURE tion. and the time- FIG. and was differently made according to its use by oneor more persons. and his curved adze (Fig. He had his single and double ham- mer. He had various gim- lets and augers. He had his knives and chisels. which might be single or double. honored dri !. and he gauged his perpendiculars by means of a plumb-line. . He marked his straight lines with a stretched string. a linear measure. to 1 be used with a bow. He used a plane and the file. Such implements may not have been adapted for rapid workmanship. The Greek carpenter's outfit didnot differ greatly from that of to-day. The primitive architect who constructed a log cabin required but few tools. his pick hammer and his hammer for ex- tracting nails. His saw existed in several varie- ties. to which was attached a leaden weight cast in attractive form. but they answered every ordinary demand. smeared with red or white chalk. A knife or axe sufficed for his purpose. 1). a square and angle measure. a levelling implement. 1. com- passes of variouskinds. Curved adze. his axe.

We may dis- tinguish five different methods: (1) splicing. and were applied sometimes directly and sometimes through a reglet. or split or 1 sa\\ed into planks. . But it was undoubtedly employed for combining slender materials into stronger units. therefore. 1 Blumner. Nailing was accomplished either with wooden pegs. by means of wooden or metal clamps (Se/iara. TreXefclvoi. With the implements mentioned above. The torus mould- ing of the Egyptian cornice was almost invariably painted with a winding band the annuli of the Doric capital seem . Clamping. /3\7}rpa). which might be of iron. bronze or even silver. II. Dove-tailed clamps. was a method of bonding applied to wooden as well as stone construction. to represent the cord or ring which held together reeds which formed the original columns and to this day in . In the case of very heavy logs or beams. so as to form rounded logs. which separated as well as united the members to which it was applied. 300. These elements were combined in various ways so as to form fixed structures. or hewn into squared blocks or beams. But ordinarily some device was re- quired to bind the separate parts together. (4) notching. were often empj oyed. by means of withes or cords. wood for building purposes was either pared of its bark. Splicing. (5) gluing. These pegs and nails were of various forms and sizes. Greece and Italy scaffoldings are usually constructed of rounded timbers held together by cords. had perhaps a limited applica- tion. (3) clamping. resembling a double axe and called. gravity sometimes sufficed to hold them in place. or nails of metal. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 5 The methods of construction were not always the same. (2) nailing.

6 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Notching. Beams uniting to form a right angle were either mitred together or fastened by a tenon (Tre/otro/u?) and mortise (^eXowioi/). especially in early times. and which were not. The primitive sanctuary of Poseidon Hippios. wood was stillrequired for portions of the buildings. as a means of bonding wood. The principles of framing once understood. roofs. floors. on damp soil they consisted of piles. as a means of bonding. In the build- ing of houses. columns. a glue made from the hides and hoofs of cattle (ravp6ico\\a) was used. VIII. 1 near Mantineia. and other buildings. Notched timber con- struction was imitated in many of the marble tombs of Lycia. were often constructed entirely of wood. entablatures. 2 2. was known to Greek carpenters in Homeric times. Ships called for even more complicated carpentry. 10-11." doubtless by notching. 10. doors. Vitruvius. "fashioned and fitted together. and experience soon taught them which woods were. was made of oak logs. temples. windows and decorative mouldings might be of wood. where the rafters were scarfed and abutted against notches in the wall plates. and must have been employed from earliest times. the applica- tions were many. . Even when built of brick or stone. 2 iPaus. The foundations of wooden houses on dry soil were usually of stone . 9. is peculiarly adapted to wooden construction. Gluing. the foundations. Houses. For this purpose the elder. II. walls. When great adhesive strength was required. It was naturally common in the construction of roofs. built by Agamedes and Tro- phonios. elm and oak are recommended by Vitruvius. adapted to receive this treatment.

2. on which were laid the boards The girders were usually set into niches in the walls. probably by grooving. where the wooden uprights are replaced by stone (Fig. 79. were made of carefully selected materials. 2. &e/9etcr/-iaTa). Pliny. after the fashion of the European half-timbered house. . 2 3 Theophrastos. 30. when made of wood. mortised into the lower sills. when of wood. but it was an early and general practice to fill up the spaces between the uprights with rubble. eW/^X^Tcu). 1. and lasted for four hundred years. 4. 3 Door according to the tradition preserved by Pliny. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION Floors (/carft) bpofyai ) consisted of a system of girders which supported the joists (8o/coi. accord- 2 ing to Theophrastos. Doors were usually made of wood. inrep- Ovpa) and hinge posts (o-r/oo'^t^e?). This seems to be the construction indicated in Lycian tombs. V. Their sills (VTTO- rovaia. An exterior covering of boards may sometimes have been given. Walls. fastened. 3). lintels (vTre/oroWm. The boards were securely put together and FIG. 2). 1 Gsell. Floor oi' Arsenal at Peiraieus. and were then covered with clay or tiles. were constructed with corner posts (a-TaOpoi) and intervening studs (tV/otomjpe?) without braces. An interesting survival of this type of construction may be found in Roman and Byzantine walls 1 oi Algeria and Tunis. ouSo/). The doors of the Tomple of Artemis at Ephesos were made of materials which had "lain treasured up" for four generations. jambs (crTa0/W). II. XVI. but sometimes rested on independent sup- ports (Fig. and held together at the top by a wall plate.

4. GREEK ARCHITECTURE frames of wood were used not only in the ancient buildings at Troy and Tiryns. the stone bases which once bore the wooden columns still survive. At Olympia. Pausanias. The columns of the Temple of Hera at Metapontum and the stairway in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos were made of grape wood. . From the ruined palaces at Troy and Tiryns. which must have crowned many a Greek as well as Etruscan and Asiatic colonnade. have now disappeared. with air spaces between them for their preservation . 3. extending from pier to pier and fastened together probably by clamps. or of epistyles superposed once or twice. In the Arsenal at Peiraieus the wooden epistyle (eTna-rvXiov %v\i- vov) consisted of a series of single blocks. the epistyles were made of two or three beams set side by side. fl as late as the time of FIG. 1 It is not strange that the wooden entablatures. however. as directed 2 by Vitruvius. 7. although their forms have been preserved in stone and marble. Vitruvius. Frequently. 2 Pliny. but also were employed even in such perfect marble struc- tures as the Parthenon and the Propylaea. Columns and their entablatures were often of wood. 2. IV. trabes compactiles. there re- Wall of a building at Bir ggaouu. XIV. A1 s eria - mained one of the old oak columns of the Heraion and others from the house of Oinomaos.

Thus. the mutules united and kept from warping the boards of the roof. This method of construction was peculiar to countries where massive wood was scarce. wus especially current in Persia and Ionian Greece. In wooden buildings we may believe that they w( re employed as bonding members. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 9 each upper series projecting slightly beyond the series immediately below it. 4. Above the epistyle the fixed forms of the Doric and Ionic entablature preserved many reminiscences of wooden construction. The mutules and reglets in stone and mar- bio buildings cannot be satisfactorily explained except as survivals of wooden members which once served a useful purpose. Restoration of Proto-Doric Entablature. and tho reglets performed a similar service for the boards . It FIG.

1. interpenetrating roofs were always avoided and the simpler forms of roofs adopted. 4). 5). The fact that in the later Greek buildings triglyphs and dentils did not correspond in position or number to the actual ceiling beams. . The construction of roofs varied in character. II. 4. FIG.10 GREEK ARCHITECTURE above the epistyle (Fig. is of little significance. Sarcophagus from Gjolbaschi-Trysa. The pyramidal roof of the log huts of the inhabitants of Colchis. Compli- cated. 5. Sufficient proof of this is furnished by the tombs of Lycia (Fig. Triglyphs and dentils are alsomost satisfactorily explained as representing the ends of horizontal ceiling beams. 1 made by a 1 Vitruvius.

The cross-beams resisted the weight of the roof by tLeir massiveness and indisposition to flexure. the sole function of which seems to have been to support the ridge-beam (Fig. except that the . required little aid from carpentry. But it could not be applied to long spaces. These were bonded together by means of purlins (t/iaz^Te?). and upon each of these rested a block or king-post (uTro^/xa). The double colonnade carried cross-beams (/Lteo-o/^i/at). like the central nave of a temple or basilica. were quite as heavy as those we find represented in Phrygian and Etruscan tombs. Slight notches near the angles were sufficient to hold the logs together.piers. which carried the battens or sheathing (tfaAu/u/tara). Between this method of roofing and the system of employing a series of trussed frames with their ties and braces there is little difference in outward appearance. These consisted some- times of a single row of columns or . when the ridge-pole might extend from gable to gable. The hori- zontal and pent roof differed but little in construction from ordinary floors. The cross-beams in Philon's Arsenal at the Peiraieus. Supports were accordingly given to the ridge-beam at definite intervals. This consisted of a ridge-beam (icopvfyalov) and the rafters (<r0i?/a'07co6). Such a roof as this sufficed for covering small spaces. and the raking rafters seem to have been of corresponding heavi- ness. more frequently of a double row of columns. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 11 gradual contraction of the crossing timbers of the walls. Even if ridge-pieces of sufficient length could be found or put together they must needs bo of extraordinary thickness to carry the great weight of a long roof. but the gable or saddle roof demanded new methods of construction. of the fourth century. 6).

Trussed frames were possibly known to the Greeks. CLAY. 1 but they can hardly have come into general use except with the steeper sloping roofs of the Romans. . At the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. Etudes. but there is a wide dif- ference in principle. II. Pliny. Babylonians. 2 Wooden ceilings (fi/Xoyjo^at) exhibited a series of power- FJG. It is only in recent years that historians of archi- tecture have realized the extensive use made of this 1 3 Choisy. Horizontal ceilings were common in Greek buildings. 6. as in some of the Sicilian temples and possibly in a portion of the Erechtheion. 2. The ancient Egyptians. but were sometimes omitted. 147. 2 4 Ibid. CONCRETE AND STUCCO. Assyrians. n Roof construction of Arsenal at Peiraieus. XVI. Coffered wooden ceilings may be presumed for the interiors of most Greek temples. Upon these were built smaller coffers. the ceiling beams were of 4 cedar 3 and the cofferings of cypress. Persians and Phoeni- cians made use of sun-dried brick for building purposes. 13. closed by square panels. upon which smaller cross-beams were laid so as to form square coffered openings. 9. ful beams. 79.12 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Greek frames were more massive . 155. 1. Vitruvius.

VIII. Vitruvius recommends two yoars as sufficient. the palaces of Croesus at Sardes. Vitruvius 5 lays down principles as to which clays should be selected and which avoided in making bricks. were of the same material. Sun-dritid brick was preferred in the late period to stone for fortification walls. 7-8. Ibid. Vitruvius 6 mentions three sizes for Greek bricks : 1 4 Waldstein. as was proved by the fall of Mantineia.. was moulded in frames. 3.. 3. The excavations at Argos 1 and at 2 show that the walls of the Olyinpia Temple of Hera in both places were of sun-dried brick. Pans. 8. 2 5 Olympia. and the more compact. but it offered a feeble resistance to water. 6 Vitruvius. calcare- ous soils better adapted. Vitruvius. II. In their selection and preparation of clay the Greeks took great care. II. The inhabitants of Utica are said to have exposed bricks to the sun for five years before using them for building purposes. on account of its capacity for resisting the blows of the battering- 4 ram. of the A ttalids at Tralles 3 and the Palaestra at Olympia. In the Mycenaean period it was almost universally employed for the walls of palaces and private houses. Later structures. I. the time was still further reduced. such as the walls of Athens and of Mantineia. A long experience in brick building need not be assumed before one learns that the sandy soils are unfitted. The sizes of bricks differed under different circum- stances. and exposed for a long time to the sun. . II. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 13 material by the Greeks. 8. 111. 3 9-10. for brickmaking. II. of Mausolos at Halikarnassos. 1. The crude or sun-dried brick (TrXtVtfo? or TrXivOos wfitf) was made of clay mixed with straw. under a more uniform and powerful heat from the sun. 3. 31. In Egypt.

or brick. it followed as a mechanical consequence that they should be laid in regu- lar courses (crrot^ot. others heading at right angles to the face and penetrating into the body of the wall. and that their vertical joints (apfjioi a-TrtoWe?) should not be directly superposed. In earlier days the bricks differed materially in size from those classified by Vitruvius. otherwise the walls would tend to separate along the line of the joints. or they may be arranged all in the same courses and at more or less regular intervals above the stretchers. which may have reflected the methods of early Greek bricklaying.14 GEEEK ARCHITECTURE the Lydian. In the latter case the headers may occur at more or same course with less regular intervals in the the stretchers. In Etruscan stonework. In laying crude bricks of uniform sizes. In modern brickwork it is customary in England and the United States to lay a course of headers above every five or six or even ten courses of stretchers. four palms long. a foot and a half in length the . Trez'Ta&w/oo?. used in private buildings. When of greater thickness than that of a single brick. and how it varied. 7rt/3oXat). five palms in length. used in public . is not a matter of general knowledge. the bricks were laid <f>opfjLr]&bv KOI Kara /JLTJICOS. A wall may consist of bricks laid all as headers or all as stretchers. or partly of headers and partly of stretchers. The same . What the practice of the Greeks was in this regard. which corresponded to the Roman later ses- quipedalis." some of the bricks stretching in the direction of the length of the wall. " by stretchers and headers. There are many possible variations in the arrangement of courses of bricks with reference to headers and stretchers. the headers and stretchers were arranged in alternate courses. the TTpd8(Dpos.

2 4 51. 3 laid beams of wood both longitudinally and transversely in the core of their brick walls. Perrot et Chipiez.C. j In later days the same method of bonding walls of sun-dried brick was 4 employed. But the device. Choisy. Etudes. with the intervening spaces rilled in with sand or clay or rub- 2 bio. I. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 15 alternation seems to be implied in the term eVaXXaf. 501. I. A wall thus constructed could not warp or split into a series of vertical slices. JEtudes. (J Ig. effective enough for comparatively thin walls. 6. In the specifications for the walls of Athens. Choisy. 1 a 87. FIG 7 _ Brick wall bon( e d with wood. built of logs laid crosswise. . used concerning the courses of headers and stretchers in the walls of the Arsenal at the Peiraieus. The Egyptians. and probably also the Babylonians and Assyrians. In such cases the Greeks adopted a very ancient practice of substituting large bond- ing members of wood for the smaller ones of clay. 1 The device of la}ing courses of headers at regular intervals was in effect a method of bonding the face to the body of a wall. about 2200 B. Pali- sades. We find this construction also in the second prehistoric settle- ment at Troy. preceded walls built of sun-dried brick. was less efficient in bonding walls of considerable thickness. Choisy. by primitive peoples. i).

and Vitruvius 2 advises the laying transversely of olive beams into walls and foundations as frequently as possible. The sanc- tuary of the Mysian Demeter has not been identified and the Philippeion has been shown to have been made of poros and marble. . This is a decorative survival of abandoned structural methods.). I. It seems strange to us that the Greeks made little or no use of baked brick for the walls of buildings.. Philon of Byzantium 1 of transverse praises this method of bonding walls of fortresses. in his detailed descriptions of what he saw in Greece.16 GREEK ARCHITECTURE we read beams (OpavoC) of the insertion of longitudinal and beams (ev^ta-poi). II. 18. II. that the poros walls of the Philippeion were covered with stucco and painted in imitation of brick construction... 5. on the way from Mycenae to 4 Argos. It is a noteworthy circumstance. 4 Ibid. the Philippeion at Olympia. De Rochas. Sometimes mere laths are sunken into the face of a wall and the actual bonding beams omitted. 2 5 131-132. Olympia. 20. 3 Paus. *Ibid. 3 . One of these buildings was a temple within the sanctuary 3 of the Mysian Demeter. 5 We might be inclined to consider this imitation of brick- work to be a Roman decoration added several centuries after the building was constructed. . 3. Pausanias. were it not that a still earlier imitation of brickwork may be found again in Olympia. twice mentions buildings of burnt brick (7r\w/0o? OTTTT. II. on the ground that they pin together the outer and inner faces of the walls and thus increase their durability. 3. V. 10. The painted 1 De re fortificat. however. Similar building methods prevail in Greece down to the present day. 193. 36. This forms part of the decorations of the sima 6 of the sixth century Treasury of Gela. III. Vitruvius. the other.

apparently to allow the great disk to contract in the baking. 18. 8. The superiority of baked to sun-dried brick for such portions of buildings as were especially exposed to mois- ture was thoroughly appreciated by the Greeks. The problem of constructing with tiles was solved in 1 2 Vitruvius. by the Greeks. At this position. The huge acroterion that crowned the gable of the Heraion at Olympiahas a hole in the middle. II. Considerable experimentation was no doubt necessary before the conditions of baking clay were fully understood. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 17 decoration here suggests two courses of brick above the rest of the wall. including the simae. antefixes and acroteria. 191. 1 It is thus possi- ble that walls of baked bricks were used. In the case of roofing and drain tiles this exterior coating w. It is cradled on the back. hence rougher clays. Olympia.is almost a vitreous glaze. and they moulded into ornamental forms terra-cotta revetments for cornices. c . On the fine slip applied to the exterior the ornamentation was incised and painted. and yet we are amazed at the intelligence displayed by the Greeks in their earliest efforts in the manufacture of architectural terra-cottas. 2 evidently to prevent warping. baked brick would be useful as a protection from the waters of the roof and is specifically recommended by Vitruvius. II. though sparingly. The mouldings with which it is decorated are made of a finer clay applied before the baking. which were more porous and elastic. They employed terra-cotta tiles (/ce/oa/^o?) of various shapes and sizes for water conduits and drains. were used as a background. for pavements and roof covering. It was soon learned that the more compact clays were subject to crack in the baking.

Roofing tiles hooked together. . \ The joints were not cemented. the one which brought water for the use of the priests of the Heraion. . are 1 Olympia. When tiles were applied to a sloping roof some device was necessary to pre- vent the mass of tiles from sliding. This was accom- plished by hooking FIG. 8. bronze and iron were employed.18 GREEK ARCHITECTURE various ways. In bonding the terra-cotta revetments to wood or stone. II. Occasion- ally tileswere bonded together by means of a very hard lime mortar. . Terra-cotta revetments. 7. it was certainly within their power to erect buildings of baked bricks bonded by the very best of lime mortar. as eco- nomical and useful substitutes for stone and marble. This is the case in the brick portion of the oldest water conduit in Olympia. nails of copper. the tiles together. or may have preferred the time-honored method of building without mortar. Sometimes all bonding devices were avoided and the upon each other with dry joints. 174. When tiles laid the walls or covers of drains were thus constructed the superincumbent mass of earth was utilized to bond the tiles together. 8). Clamps of lead were also used. consequently there was considerable elasticity in a Greek roof (Fig. They may have distrusted the oven as a means of thoroughly and uniformly hardening bricks of clay. 1 We cannot therefore explain the absence of buildings of baked brick amongst the Greeks by their ignorance of lime mortar. . Had they felt the necessity for it. a distrust shared even by Vitruvius.

so that the lime might not injure the wooden frame. ebdfyrf) of fine cement laid upon a coarse concrete have been found in various Mycenaean palaces. Tiryns.special expedients were necessary to prevent the cracking of the cement through the expansion or contrac- 1 Borrmann. 203. ceilings and for ornamental mouldings. 214. the same methods had been employed by the Greeks during the whole course of their history. and lead- ing to the Altar of the Nymphs. columns. One of the earliest of the water conduits at Olympia. of coarse stones and lime. cornices. Pans. Delos and Athens. . antefixes and acroteria of this material are found in Greek buildings in southern Italy and Sicily. 187-203 Die . VII. floors and roofs. Vitruvius 3 lays down the rules for pavements of this kind. a central nucleus of broken potsherds and lime. When pavements of concrete were laid upon the wooden floors of a building. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 19 not confined to Etruscan and Roman buildings. They consisted of a fundamental rudus. II. 1 Concrete was used for pavements.C. and the finer stucco for covering walls. 59. a noteworthy ex- ample being that in the courtyard and in the large megaron 2 at Tiryns. 224. 1. Architektonische Terracotten. upon which was Liid the exactumpavimentum. dating from the seventh century B. With slight variations. at Olyni- pia. II. was made of a hard cement composed of lime and small pebbles. Pavements (o-rpew/iara. Frazer. Keramik in der Baukunst. 2 8 Schliemann. Friezes. When such floors were exposed to the open. and had to withstand dampness and heat and frost. in Olyrnpia... The pavements of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and of many other temples were similarly constructed. precautions were taken to spread first upon the wooden planks a layer of straw. Vitruvius. 28-51.

Mycenae and Knossos were plastered and covered with a fine stucco. as did the sandstone columns of Egypt. a covering of fine stucco. Olympia. It was not cold to the feet. The walls of the ancient palaces at Tiryns.20 GREEK ARCHITECTURE tion of its wooden support. made of marble dust or gypsum. 4. Stucco was sometimes applied. came in the classic period to be considered as signs of extravagance. and water spilled upon it readily evaporated. Stucco ornaments. VII. . II. however. if necessary. a statumen. Vitruvius recommends a second sheathing of planks at right angles to the first. a nucleus not less than a foot thick and. in giving directions for constructing cornices and vaults of stucco. The poros columns and entablatures of archaic buildings in Greece. sometimes applied to baked brick and even to marble. Vitruvius. Italy and southern Italy re- ceived. which .fragments of which still retain their polychro- matic decoration. 53. An interesting variety of concrete pavement is that described by Vitruvius 1 as used by the Greeks for winter dining rooms. 3 Vitruvius. 3. 3 Vitruvius. It was composed of ashes mixed with lime and sand. In such cases. as in the 2 Treasury of the Megarians at Olympia. 5. though in reality a cheap substitute for carved wood or stone. a double tile covering. to the surfaces of blocks of stone so that they might be more closely fitted together. composed of stones as large as a man's fist. and clay . when applied to wet plaster made a sur- face more durable than that of marble itself. should have a slight incline. After the days of Alkibiades. It was used as a covering to protect sun-dried brick and the coarse stones. opus albarium). Stucco (tfoz/ta. VII. this luxury and that of having wall paintings on stuccoed walls was widely spread. or foundation. is concerned that they should be 1 . KoviaiJLa.

Tie walls were also a source of anxiety. The most common building stone was called poros (T'WJOO? or Xt#o? TTco/at^o?). dating from the eighth or ninth century. was built. 1. until in the day of Pausanias only one of the oaken columns remained. 395. light colored 1 2 A. wooden entablatures upon stone columns were in use for centuries but inevitably Greek . the geologist.A. H. T us temple. after the first coarse plastering.th stone and marble. admirably adapted for building purposes. 1 In this connec- 2 tion. which is made to include almost all soft.C. 502-503. but also for more substantial roads and bridges. no less than three coats of fine sand mortar and three of stucco were recommended. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 21 m. and on these. says "There is : great lack of definiteness in the use of the word poros. and columns and entablature of wood. note Frazer. B. Both ancient and modern writers use the term with great laxity. was inevitable.. The substitution of stone for wood is admirably illustrated by the Heraion at Olympia. 3. In the Greek towns of southern Italy. led to a rapid development of the art of the stone-cutter and mason. Pans. . Greece was well provided w.. with walls of sun-dried brick. S. Various pre- cautions were taken to secure dry walls. lo^ic demanded entablatures and walls. Ill.ide without much overhang and as light as possible. of stone. STONE AND MARBLE. de- veloped and decadent forms. Not merely the demand for more enduring temples and civic buildings. as well as columns. The old oaken columns were here gradually replaced by stone columns whose capitals show a succession of archaic. like Mycenaean palaces. aqueducts and tombs. with the advance of civiliza- It tion.J. Washington. that a more substantial material should be substi- tuted for wood and clay. 1891.

White marble Xeu/eo?) was used sparingly in (Xiflo? the sixth and abundantly in and after the century fifth century. has the credit of having first made roofing tiles of marble. the columns of the temple have weathered very badly. ^Egina and Assos much of their original form. again a shell conglomerate. V.C. the gable sculptures and presumably the tiles. hard stucco. Anaphe. . not palpably marble or hard limestone. B. Pans. It was ren- dered practically weather-proof by a covering of fine. Byzes of Naxos in the sixth century. while those at Corinth. 3. the cornice. 10. 59-60. it is a sort of travertin^.22 GREEK ARCHITECTURE stones." When such breadth of significance is allowed. and occasionally a sandstone or some de- composed rock containing serpentine or other hydrated mineral. Poros still retain figured prominently in the chief buildings of Greece and her colonies from the eighth to the middle of the fifth century. it seems to have been first employed for decorative sculpture on such portions of buildings as were especially exposed to the weather. not surprising that so-called poros should vary greatly it is in character. Being more compact and durable than poros. some of the metopes. at the Old Temple of Athena on the Acropolis at Athens. and in some cases even later.. were of marble. 2 Parian marble was imported at Athens for architectural purposes at least a century before her own local marbles were discovered. 1 The island quarries seem to have been opened first. At Syracuse. Thus.. In the majority of cases. the remainder of the building being constructed of Peiraieus stone and local lime- stone. Tenos and Andros also fur- i 2 Wiegand.

and Laconia had several quarries of white marble. Variegated. there were also deposits of white marble at Ephesos. but the better-known varieties were the green cipollino from Karystos. Lesbos. in Arcadia. white marble was found. due. Attica and Laconia had poly- el iromatic marbles.'/eoV). Boeotia hud a marble which became white with exposure. Of Pentelic marble were built the principal Athenian buildings of the age of Pericles and succeeding centuries it was imported . Dark. more or less uniformly colored. From Thasos came the marble used in the buildings at Samothrace. In western Asia Minor. Special mention may be made of the quarries at Doliana near Tegea. polychromatic marbles. by Augustus and Domitian into Rome. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 23 nished white marble. At various points in the Poloponnesos. Mt. and in Italy at the well-known quarries of Carrara. especially at Alexandria. used at Orchomenos and at Lebadeia. to the fine grains of iron which this marble contains. In the immediate vicinity of Athens. the variegated marble from Chios (\i6os Xto?) of which the people of that island built their city walls . Pentelikon the fine grained white marble. the purple and white pavonizetto from Phrygia (\(0o<s . it is said. Laconia. in Euboea (\i6os Eu/3oi. Hymettos furnished a coarse blue-streaked marble and Mt. Melos and Chios and at Alabanda and Miletos. the surface of which in time acquires a golden sheen. though used more abundantly by the Romans. were employed by the Greeks as early as the fourth century in the palace of Mausolos al Halikarnassos and more freely in the Hellenistic period. Herakleia and Mylasa. From Laurion came the marble used in the temple at Sounion. marbles were found at Eleusis.

24 G REEK ARCHITECTURE
(

and the yellow giallo antico, from Ntmiidia
(A/009 At/Stvco'?). Besides these, Rhodes, Skyros, Lydia,
Caria, Keltis (France), and Italy possessed polychromatic
marbles. 1
-The Greek quarry, whether subterranean or not, differed
little from the quarries of Egypt. When subterranean
and large, various devices, such as piers and curved ceil-
ings, were employed to prevent the superincumbent mass
from falling in. Directions for quarrying were given by
Heron of Alexandria. 2 Like the Egyptians, the Greeks
made deep cuttings and inserted wedges. The wedges
were probably of wood their simultaneous expansion,
;

when wet, making the rift in the rock. In the quarries at
Selinous and Syracuse may be seen evidence of the cross
cuttings for quadrated blocks and the broader, circular
cutting for the drums of columns.
There were many implements used by the stone-cutter
in common with the carpenter, but he had also implements
peculiarly his own. His hammer and his chisels had to be
adapted for heavier work. He had his pick or pointer,
his smooth-edged chisel, and his toothed chisels, some

adapted for rough work and others for finer work also a ;

graving tool. For deep cutting he required a drill, and
for the final polish he used the file and Egyptian sand or
Naxian corundum. In fine jointing it was necessary
that the surfaces of the joints should be as nearly as possi-
ble absolutely plane surfaces. A
washing with nitre and
water (eKvirpwcns} made the surfaces absolutely clean.

For a study of marbles the reader may be referred to Lepsius,
1 :

Griechische Marmorstudien, Abh. k. p. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, 1890 ;

Bliimner, III, 26-57 Middleton, Remains of Ancient Rome, I, 14-22.
;

2
MTjxaj'tKat iVo'yaryai.

MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 25

The transportation of stone blocks from the quarry to
the building was not always an easy matter. Wagons and
sledges sufficed for smaller blocks, but special devices are
said to have been invented by Chersiphron for rolling
columns and by Metagenes for revolving epistyles to the
Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. Similar devices are
thought by Koldewey to have been used at Selinous.
Columns, or drums of columns, were dragged like a modern
roller, being held to a frame by means of small cylinders,
which served as axles. In transporting epistyles the
framework was provided with wheels. 1 To elevate the
largest blocks to their planes were
places, inclined

employed by Metagenes Ephesos but
at ordinarily, cranes
;

acd derricks sufficed. The derricks consisted of one or
more beams set on end and provided with ropes, pulle}^s
and a windlass. A derrick with two beams and one with
four beams were used during the second century restora-
tions of theTemple of Apollo near Miletos. The derricks
were stayed by means of ropes and carried pulleys. The
pulleys contained usually three wheels, but not infrequently
five or more. Windlasses of various forms were used, of
wiiich one of the most interesting, figured on a relief
from Capua, 2 is in the form of a treadmill.
Various devices were employed in preparing the blocks,
by means of the derricks.
so that they could be easily lifted
Sometimes projecting tenons were left (<wra, ay/caves), so
that the blocks could be easily caught by a sling (Fig. 9).
Sometimes, as at Akragas, grooves were cut on the outside
of the blocks into which the lifting ropes might be fitted 3 ;

sometimes a channel was cut into the heart of the block,
1 2
Blumner, III, 129, 131. Ibid., Ill, 126.
a
Durm, 80, No. 2.

26 GREEK ARCHITECTURE
l
as in the Sikyonian Treasury at Olympia ; sometimes, as
in the same Treasury at Olympia, they were lifted by
means of a gripping implement; 2 and finally, at Akra-
gas and Selinous, Olympia and Athens, the lewis was fre-
3
quently employed.

FIG. 9. Tenons for lifting drums of columns.

The stone-mason's art involved cutting the blocks
of stone (epyao-ia rov \i6ov), setting them (crwflecr*?),
and finally the various operations involved
in their

dressing. The difference between rough and finished
masonry consists chiefly in the way in which individual
units are prepared before being set in place. We may
80, No. 3.
1 2 3
Olympia, II, 43. Ibid. Dunn,

MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 27

FIG. 10. Gallery of South Wall, Tiryns.

accordingly distinguish masonry as primitive or roughly
cut, polygonal, tetragonal and sphenoidal. Primitive or
rough masonry makes use of unhewn or roughly hewn
stones (\i6oi XoyaSe?), as distinguished from close-fitting

28 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

masonry (\l6oi GVVVQ^QI). Primitive masonry occurs in
the so-called Cyclopean walls of Tiryns. In this construc-
tion the blocks were sometimes very large and again quite
small. In many cases no bonding agent was used to hold
the blocks in place. Sometimes small stories and clay
were employed to fill
up the rough joints (Fig. 10).
When unstratified rock was used, regularity in stone
setting is not to be expected, but when stratified or

roughly hewn blocks were employed, they were naturally
set in more or less horizontal courses. Besides city walls,
retaining walls and the substructures of ordinary houses,
when of stone, were usually of primitive or roughly cut
masonry. The retaining wall of the Temple of Apollo at
Delphi was made of blocks whose, joints were roughly cut

surfaces, the outlines of which are more frequently curvi-
linear than polyg-
nai ( Fi s- n
>-
Such masonry
is not altogether
primitive and pre-
sents possibilities
of great refine-

ment, but the la-
bor of fashioning
blocks with joints
FIG. 11. -Retaining wall
j>f
Temple of Apollo,
gQ
make
^^ ^
contact with
to

adjoining blocks was too great to be generally adopted..
Polygonal masonry (Xtflo? TroXvycovos) is found in all periods
and over a wide range of the Greek world. At Mycenae,
at Samikon (Fig. 12) and elsewhere, it occurs associ-
ated with more primitive masonry in the city walls and

MATERIALS AND CONSTRICTION 29

towers ;
at Rhamnous, polygonal masonry is used for
th<j cella walls of the Temple of Themis; at Knidos it
is found in the upper part of a wall, the lower por-

FIG. 12. Polygonal masonry from Samikon.

tion of which is constructed of the most regular quad-
rangular units. The Greeks of southern Italy and
Sicily avoided but it was much used in Etruria, espe-
it,
1

cially in and about Latium. 2 As opposed to the curvilinear
t} pe of masonry which we have observed at Delphi, the
joints in this class of masonry are plane surfaces which
cut each other at an angle, so that the faces of the blocks
form more or less regular polygons. From the point of view
2
1
Koldewey und Puchstein, 214. Martha, 140.

30 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

of construction, walls of polygonal masonry were in most
cases very substantial. The joints meeting each other at
varying angles left no continuous lines, horizontal or
vertical, in which the walls could be easily fractured.
From the point of view of economy, this type of masonry
was limited chiefly to districts provided with igneous
rocks. Even herethe form of the blocks did not lend
itself torapid work.
Tetragonal or quadrangular masonry (Xt'0o? TeTpdyco-
z>o9) was the type which finally came to be employed
for heavy as well as light walls. It was not a product of
we find it already in pre-Mycenaean
the classic times, for
buildings at Knossos, Phaistos and Hagia Triada in Crete,

FIG. 13. Equal coursed masonry at Magnesia.

MATERIALS AND CCisSTRUCCTION 31

as well as in constructions of the Mycenaean period at

Troy.
1
was the natural type
It for a people who were

provided with an abundant supply of stratified rock. One
consequence of the use of such rock and of the tetragonal
unit was masonry in horizontal courses (8o/xot). When
the blocks -were uniformly of the same height, the succes-
sive courses were superposed with great regularity. This
kind of masonry was called the equal-coursed (Xt#o?
tVo'So^o?) Equal-cotfrsed masonry is usually
(Fig. 13).
thought of as implying not only blocks of uniform height,
v
but also of uniform breadth, and set so as to break joints.
But other varieties of this type of masonry were em-
ployed by the Greeks. Sometimes the blocks were of
uniform height, but not of uniform length, or the joints were
some vertical' and some inclined, as in the case of the walls
of Messene or in the exterior wall of the theatre at Delos.
Even polygonal masonry might be constructed of blocks
of equal height, as, in fact, seems to have been the case
with some tornbs at Sardes 2 and elsewhere.
A further variety, known as pseudisodomum (X<$o?
Tjref&o-o'So/Lto?), usually described as composed of blocks
is

set in regular courses of at least two different heights.
3
Thus, the walls at Isionda in Pamphylia and the Agrippa
Monument at Athens (Fig. 14) are composed with great
regularity of courses, alternately high and low. The
western and eastern wall of the Great Altar at Pergamon
exhibit respectively two and three high courses set be-
tween the low ones. 4 Four high courses between two

1
Doerpfeld, Troja, 1893, 41.
Choisy, Rev. Arch., XXXII (1876), 75.
2

3
Perrot et Chipiez, VII, 330.
4 Taf
Pergamon, III, Taf. 7, . 5.

implies the use of wedge-shaped blocks. or stonework composed only partially of quadrangular blocks set in courses which maybe described as irregularly horizontal. 99. It is not to be re- garded merely anas easy method of utilizing blocks of different sizes. represents also an attempt to secure greater strength. Sphenoidal masonry (\i'0os o-^rjvoei&ris). It is a common observation that the Greeks made little or no use of this form of masonry. We see it in the dromos of the tomb of Atreus and in the foundations of the walls of Athens. but unequal. the blp^s^wej^-iis-ually^tragonal or nearly tetragonal. When they built domical chambers. such as are used in arched construction. is a common type of masonry in Greece. 64. Durin. Fig. .32 GREEK ARCHITECTURE low ones are found in the retaining wall of the Temple of Athena at Priene. laid in horizontal courses and overlapping until they met 1 2 Priene. Persian and Etruscan stonework was frequently of this type. as at Assos. or at least the appearance of it. as at Mycenae and Orchomenos. or arched portals. Regular. or as a survival of megalithic methods it . 1 Imperfectly tetragonal masonry. 2 Egyptian. by interlocking joints and irregular courses. a term which we^employ~^here for convenience of classification only. 14. stands halfway between po- Z7le y u s: r m ASripl' a lygonal and regular tetragonal masonry. Stonework of this character FIG.

. who made use of wedge-shaped blocks in constructing portals and subterranean canals.. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 33 at the top.J^ that at Kerokampi in Laconia. as at Athens and at Pergamon . as gravity suffices to hold large blocks together. derived their knowledge of all the arts almost exclusively from the Greeks. in subterranean 5 canals. 3 in niches. 28. 2 or the gate at Oinoanda. Ill. 5 Ath. the builder in stone used also cylindrical blocks for columns and sculptured blocks for capitals. Pans. 160. such as those at Athens^ and in vaulted passages.not require we<lge-shaped blocks. or the Eastern and AVcstern Gates_at Priene. Besides the blocks of the geometrical shapes above described. III. Taf. 43-44. D . The Etruscans. bases. Ziller. In megalithic masonry no specific bonding was necessary. such as the principal gate at Kekropoula in Acarnania. 6 Frazer. pi. and it is difficult for us to believe that they did not learn from them also the use of this type of masonry. It seems hardly probable that Democritus of Abdera 7 should have written out a theory of the vault unless he had been familiar with existing examples. III.. Mont Olympe. 50. 2 Priene. 9. 6-9. It would seem that^ the Greeks did make use of sphenoidal masonry. especially in the case of portals. cornices and other decorative mouldings. Taf. * Texier. however. as at Knidoj^Mbetween the buttresses of retain- ing walls. the structural character of which will receive specific attention. such as . 7 Burckhardt. friezes. in II. 107-131. 413-414. Mitt. This system of construction did . 1 pi. as in the theatre of Sikyon and for bridges. 3 Petersen und von Luschan. But in Heuzey.!.

Clay mortar (TT^XO?) was used in primi- tive masonry as a bonding device. . or of iron cased in bronze. Lime mortar is found in the socle of the wall of the Stoa of Eumenes at Pergamon. but metallic clamps were usually preferred. 1 and a very tenacious quality of it in subterranean and subaqueous construction. 225-226. as in the Temple of Athena at Pergamon. These were cylin- drical in form and mortised into cubical blocks (e/x7ro'Xm) of wood or metal. from force of habit or from choice. which being set in the drum below. Persians and Phoenicians. as. They were frequently made of iron. various devices were required to bond the stonework into a mass sufficiently strong to re- sist disturbance. and were held in place by a solder of lead . and in Greek lands were more common in the East than in the West. but it had no great tenacity. Lime mortar (a/i/Ao/copta. permitted an expansion of the dowel without injury 2 to the drum. II. But in general the Greeks.34 GREEK ARCHITECTURE small stone construction. 74. Dowels (Tro'Xot) of wood or metal were employed in bond- ing together the drums of columns. Xtflo/coXXa) was known to the Phoenicians and used occasionally by the Greeks. for example. in the drains at Olympia and in the moles of the Peiraieus. These clamps were of various shapes 1 Pergamon. Wooden clamps were sometimes used. and its value ceased when smaller building blocks prevailed. preferred dry masonry and bonded their stonework by wooden or metallic clamps. Itwas probably Greek experience that led the way down by Vitruvius for making for the rules laid mortar. Metal clamps had been used by Hittites. 2 Koldewey und Puchstein. Frequently the epTrdXia were omitted. for horizontal bonding.

This occurred in walls and also in entablatures. near Sparta. Thera and elsewhere. but it was not a prac- tical method for stonework and was soon abandoned. all of which occur in the sixth-century work and continued to be used with local variations and pre ferences through the classic period. This type of bonding occurs at Mycenae. When cornices of stone were substituted for wood. At the Amykleion. these continued to be notched to receive the rafters of the roof. The tri- glyphs were often notched so as to hold the metopes in place. Another bonding method in stone construction is that of notching. Clamps of various shapes. Stone-masons sometimes borrowed from builders in brick the old method of inserting horizontal and transverse blocks of wood. 15-18. to bond together the separate units in the construction of a wall. 15-18). founda- FIGS. fhe city walls show courses of stone bonded together by notching (Fig. The corner pieces of raking cornice of the gable were also notched the to prevent the sliding of the gable cornice. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 35 (Figs. tions are still visible where several blocks are notched into a course of larger blocks at right angles to them. 19). It was not until the Hellenistic period that mortar began to be substituted for metallic clamps. At Eretria. .

36 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Dry masonry could not have reached the perfection it did among the Greeks. When a building was erected in the rough. The unfinished temple at Segesta shows us stylobate blocks whose undressed faces still retain even the tenons by means of which the blocks were lifted to their places. Notched masonry at Eretria. The faces were only roughly dressed when put in place. The risk of damaging the edges of the blocks during the process of setting them in place was thus avoided. 19. columns whose channellings have never been executed and abaci which still retain their edge protectors (jrepiTeveia^. had they not expended great care upon dressing the faces and joints of each separate block. FIG. the upper part seems to have been dressed first and the lower part .

other at the edges. stucco was sometimes employed. occurs throughout the whole history of Greek stonework. The horizontal bed joints (jQa'cret?) and the lateral r or vertical joints ('a-TnoWe? a/>/W) were dressed so as to fit as closely as possible. Athens. the entire surface of each hori- zontal joint was dressed. the archaic and classic period this drafting shows sometimes a narrow and sometimes a wider band (Fig. but in the vertical joints an economy of efi'ort was reached by dressing only near the edges. 20. as in the Treasury of Megara at Olympia. at the Heraion. 1 Olympia. and at th e Amkyleion near Sparta. but in marble buildings the dressing was done by fine chiselling. In pre-Mycenaean masonry at Palaio- kastro in Crete. Anathyrosis from wall of Propylaia. At the Treasury of Megara. 1 Olympia. to make the rough joints smooth. In. 20). or frame- like dressing ('aw- 0i''/oa>/99). In the case of poros masonry. II. the blocks barely touch each FIG. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 37 last. This marginal drafting. . 35.

In stone and marble buildings metal clamps and dowels were em- ployed from a very early period. * Od. from the days of Homer. 2 Here we find indicated the character of the tooling. IX. 5-16. . 2 Choisy. The holes through which the lead was poured may be readily discovered upon blocks from ruined buildings. were nevertheless of importance for constructive as well as for decorative purposes. 391-393. These were usually made of iron. Iron was also occasionally used for the reenforcement of stone when insufficiently strong. 4 1 Choisy. and held in place by means of molten lead. METALS.. 274. Metals. Wrought iron-work of a high quality was used by the Greeks who. I. sometimes of bronze. An excellent example of this may be found at the Olympieion at Akragas. 8 Hittorff et Zanth. the measurements for the marginal dressing and a manifest anxiety for close-fitting joints. Koldewey und Puchstein. between the intercolumnia- tions bars of iron were employed to aid in the support of the entablature. 3 In this gigantic structure the epistyle blocks were not long enough or strong enough to bear the super- incumbent weight. 163. though not extensively used in Greek architecture.38 GREEK ARCHITECTURE The joints were carefully washed with nitre and water and then by various devices pushed into close contact before the blocks were clamped. 4. Hence. Similar care was exhibited in all Greek marble construc- tion during the classic and Hellenistic period. Etudes. 1 The extreme concern which the Greeks gave to the matter of dressing the joints iswell exhibited in the very detailed specifications for en- larging the pavement about the Temple of Zeus at Leba- deia. Fabricius. 566 . 170-211 .

p. FOUNDATIONS AND PAVEMENTS. Metal was not infrequently used for grilles (jctyttXtiSe?. as in the oculi of Ionic capitals and rosettes of ceiling cofferings in the Erechtheion. as in the Par- thenon. Bronze was sometimes used for door-sills. The ground. as in the Heraion . 2 According to Babin. whether rooky or otherwise. or for the adornment of walls.I. (frpayiJLoi). Foundations wore then laid either of sand. 1121. 8 Hittorff et Zanth. but it is very unlikely that these dated from the classic Greek period. or with moulded ornaments. Such were the gates of the Temple of Artemis at Miletos. or of imperfectly tetragonal masonry. as 1 as the Gates in Roman and Byzantine times. II. iron and of bronze were the coverings for door-posts Of and the channels or tracks in which the doors swung. in decoration. Quoted by . 2885 d. appear to have been used b} the Greeks. as in the Treasury of Syracuse at Olympia . as in the Tholos of Atreus at Mycenae. 568. 5. had first to be cleared. as in the 2 1 Perrot et Chipiez. as in the Treasury of 83 baris at Olympia or of pebbles. Doors adorned either with hammered reliefs. 3 who described Athens in 1672. the doors of the Theseion were made of iron. fit Balawat. which served as barriers in a colon- nade or to replace solid doors. The foundations of buildings varied in many ways.G. as in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos . C. or of polygonal masonry. . MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 39 appear to have known how to temper iron so as to increase itsstrength. The decoration of th'e engaged columns at the Tliolos of Atreus suggests also the prevalence of cover- ings of hammered bronze as a protection for wooden columns. PL 12. or of ashes. Kay/ce'XXoi.

according to the constructive methods employed. The filling might be of earth or of the splinters left by the stone-cutters. but later subcolumnar and intercolumnar blocks were equal.?). Foundations were sometimes concealed. Dilithic stylobates. vTToSo/jLai}. Stylobates may be classified. sometimes visible. In most buildings we may distinguish the structural foun- dations (tfeyue'Xta) placed beneath walls and columns from the mere filling (%o?J) beneath the voids. and generally of finer (/e/}?77riS&>/ia. At first the subcolumnar blocks were the larger. as megalithic. 1 This classification is . Selinous. vTrevOvvrrjpia. 1 Meg- alithic stylobates consist of huge blocks. that beneath the walls as the toichobate (rot^o/Sar?. The Temple of Athena at Pergamon exhibits a trilithic system employed by Koldewey und Puchstein. /e/^Trt?). each bearing several columns. consisted of a series of steps or platforms. It is often convenient to distinguish that portion of the krepidoma which stands beneath a row of columns as the stylobate (a-TuXo/Sar?. as in Temple C. The advantage of this system is that the columns act as cover joints and thus protect in a measure the substructure. likened to a boot /cprjTriSalov. as in the Temple of Concordia at Akragas. consist of blocks equal in length to the interaxial spacing of the column. however. dilithic and polylithic.?). consisting of one block beneath each column and one beneath each intercolumniation. Thus the base upon which a Greek temple rested consisted of the subterranean foundation (o-Te/oeo/Sari??. masonry. were more economical and became the canonical type in the classic period. masonry. monolithic. Monolithic stylobates. and that beneath the pavement as the stromatobate (o-T/otw/uaro/Sar???) . and the visible portion.40 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Treasury of Megara at Olympia or of regular tetragonal .

In the Mycenaean period they were sometimes broad enough to permit of galleries and casements within the solid portion of the walls. Poly- which no regular system was followed. The more regular kinds of pavements required regular foundations. The earliest mosaic pave- ments corresponded in technique to primitive masonry. in occur chiefly in the archaic period. But it ^ as soon discovered that walls might be more economically constructed of outer revetments of masonry and an inner .) were necessarily heavy and called for massive construction. as in the large courtyard at Tiryns . The blocks constituting the visible steps were naturally more carefully cut and finished than the core of the masonry. opus Alexandrinum. 6. like those of the peristyles and courts of temples . The usual method. In the construction of the krepidoma. and two or more steps were cut from the same block. slabs. rot^ot) varied according to circum- stances. however. as in the palace of Minos at Knossos quadrangular and square . Pavements of stone (XiOoarpwra. WALLS. llthic stylobates. were fre- quently substituted for the earlier type. irregular blocks. DOORWAYS AND WINDOWS. opus tesselatum. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 41 with one subcolumnar to two intercolumnar blocks. like those favored by the kings of Pergamon. The construc- tion of walls (Tet'%77. or of thin slabs cut irregularly in accordance with a design. megalithic methods sometimes prevailed. mosaics composed of small cubical blocks. There were cobble-stone pavements. ebdfyrf) were of various kinds. Walls of towns (T/%T. was to build up the bases in courses in which each step corresponded to a single course of masonry. the classic period. o-Tpai/JLaTa. In being composed of uncut pebbles of various colors. and marble mosaic pavements.

as well as in Greek. onal Themistoklean wall as well as the later wall of tetrag- onal masonry. Min. II. Hittite. point of view. 44. solid rows of tetragonal blocks. course of slabs of stone set on edge ('o/o^oo-rar?. At the base was or- dinarily a levelling course or socle (eu- Bvvrrjpia). 21). Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli. This wall also illustrates the type called diatonikon (Starow/coV).42 GREEK ARCHITECTURE core of earth or rubble (e/tTrXe/cToz/) Such was the polyg- . remains of which are found between the Dipylon and the Sacred Gate of Athens. Arch. of single. 4 Above 1 2 Frazer. architecture (cf. 2 Here the central space between the two revetments was too narrow to require filling. 21. II. Persian. PI. 8. * This must have been a very ancient practice. 1 The same constructive principle is seen in the much narrower walls of the Temple of Zeus at Labranda.. Lebas. p. above which was a high FIG. and may be best explained as a survival in appearance only of heavy courses of stone which in earlier days were laid at the base of crude brick walls. 39. . Diatonikon masonry. since orthostatai as revetments occur in Assyrian.?) 3 From a constructive . this did not strengthen the base of the wall. and Jewish. 195). 3 See Fig. except at the base. Pans. Koldewey. As. Walls of houses (rofyoi) were thin enough to consist.. the two faces being bonded together by tie blocks (\i0ol Sidroixoi) which penetrate the entire thickness of the wall (Fig.

in fact. are found also in many walls of regularly cut masonry. many walls had also a capital (JeTTt/cpavov. may be classed as either framed or unframed. they are built up of large blocks. the natural protectors of openings in walls of crude construction. The jointing of the wall was also related to the jointing of its capital. known as para- Pilasters. /rfyXo?). jambs (o-ra0/W. from a constructive point of view. Here the parastades are actually the ends of walls and composed of the same number of courses. One is represented in the Porch of the Maidens at Athens. Here the pilasters are single slabs of marble. Besides a base. mere revet- ments. The framed variety consisted of sill (uTToroWioz/. 7ra/9a<7Tae?) andlintel (yTrepTovaiov. OTTCU ). Not only in Troy and Tiryns and Mycenae do we . The most common type. ou&fc. In the Temple of Athena Kike and in the Erechtheion. that of the circular buildings. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 43 tlie orthostatai were laid course upon course of blocks resembling bricks and. Curved walls required specifically shaped blocks. In the classic period the jointing of these blocks was perfectly regular and definitely related to that of the orthostatai. each of which corresponds in height to that of two courses in the wall. a second type of construc- tion is exhibited. <f)\iai. virepOvpiov*). but involved no new constructive principle. Wooden frames. Doorways (dvpat^ara) and windows (dvp&es. At the Pinakotheke of the Propylaia at Athens. Wiff/oaz/m?) in the form of a frieze or cornice. bearing the same name (TrXtV^o?). show two structural types. resembling the wooden posts or boards by which the ends of crude brick walls were protected. and the projecting ends of walls shades (Trapao-rdSes) or antae. demanded wedge-shaped blocks with curved faces.

The first was to leave an opening above it. especially in for- tification walls. How- ever.44 GREEK ARCHITECTURE find evidence of doorways with wooden jambs and lintels. Door-frame at Naxos. but also in some stone buildings of the classic period. door-jambs were mere revetments. 22. excellent ex- amples. On the island of Naxos there stands a huge marble door-frame (Fig. Even the lintelwas sometimes replaced by an arch. two devices were employed to relieve the lintel. When the wall was extended above the door-frame. stone and marble frames for doorways were usually substituted for wood in stone and marble buildings. 22) whose jambs are heavy enough to serve as sup- ports of the lin- but ordinarily tel. The second device was to set the lintel itself with its planes . Of this type the gate- ways at Assos furnish several FIG. When constructed of finely jointed masonry. The city gate and the entrance to the beehive tombs at Mycenae were thus constructed. were left un- framed. Many doorways. door- ways had no need of protecting revetments.

Kopaices.v. 5. Doors were either single (TrvXafc. ic\r)6pa. 21. Daremberg . and Epidauros. In the Renaissance period they were again diminished.Xot). 6X/uWot). They were fastened by bars 5aXot. That each door. 4 et Saglio. This system flourished in 3 Greece in all periods. Later. since in this position its resistance to flexure was greater. Fig. Janua. 8 Schliemann. Heuzey et Daumet. Taf. Tiryns. and might be further subdivided by folding. arpo- <>779. Eleusis . Ovperpa*) or double (&/eXte?). tcopa)vrj. 230. as in the Arsenal at the Peiraieus. In a wall decoration from 1 the house of Sallust three superposed panels are ex- hibited . 450. should con- tain nomore than two panels seems to have been the rule throughout the classic period. Some doors in the Erechtheion seem to have been made partly of marble and partly of Eleusinian stone those of the Temple of . MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 45 of stratification posed vertically. In the Byzantine and Mediaeval period the number of panels was greatly increased. also by lock and key and were provided with door handles or knockers o Trao-rrJ/oe?. Artemis at Miletos were of bronze at Ephesos. Qatpot) clad with metal and set in metal-clad sockets (o-T/oo(/>eZ?. In their con- struction they consisted of vertical stiles (o-KrJTrrpa) with horizontal rails (&yd) enclosing rectangular panels (ru/i- Trava). When double they sometimes closed against a central post (/-teVtw-Troz/) which. Bvpai. 9. s. 4 1 2 Man. Doors revolved upon posts (afoz>e?. Schreiber. craw'Se?. poTrrpa). the temple doors were of wood. in a Roman relief in the Lateran Museum 2 we see a door with four superposed panels. PI. or wing of a door. might be of considerable depth. />to^. 254. a larger number of panellings were introduced. 281 .

23. The column (fftW. Flat blocks of regular form composed the Doric stylobate. the construc- tion ofwhich has been already considered. 27. Flat stones served as foundations for wooden columns in the palaces at Troy. but which overlooks the functional nature of the base as a distributer of the superincumbent weight over a wider surface. Tiryns and Mycenae. II. Athens. 24. the upper torus is made a part of the base. 23). as in the bases of the Erechtheion. a mode of construction whichis more economical of material.46 GREEK ARCHITECTURE 7. the entire base was seldom a part of the shaft. . Another type of base of cylindrical form existed in the Mycenaean period and became the canonic type for Ionic architecture. FIG. The column (/eafXtW. Pergamon. as in the Ionic niche in the Stoa at Pergamon. Construc- tively. and carried an entablature composed of epistyle. CEILINGS AND ROOFS. Base from Erecli. shaft and cap- ital. o-<w/<ia) was sometimes shaft of the monolithic. Stone bases existed from prehistoric times. as in the Temple of Apollo at Corinth and in some of the columns of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina. frieze and cornice. COLUMNS AND ENTABLATURES. Athens. the upper torus is constructed as a part of the shaft (Fig. as in the Temple of Athena Nike (Fig. ordinarily. 1 Occasion- ally. 1 Taf. But FIG. o-rOXo?) consisted of base. Base from Temple theion. 24). of Nike. Its varieties of form do not concern us here.

especially such as were covered with stucco. In gigantic structures like the Temple Zeus at Akragas the capitals were neces- of sarily polylithic. being functionally imperfect. as has been already indicated. . Ionic shafts were usually dowelled to their bases. In the classic and Hellenistic periods the drums were more numerous and exhibit more uniformity in respect to height. . Arch IX (1907). Doric drums were bonded together. but the use of a lathe seems probable. but in the so-called Basilica at Paestum * there are columns in which an abacus of rougher stone rests upon an echinus carved from a separate block. and Ionic drums usually by iron. See Bev. 1 An inscription recently found indicates that the so-called Basilica was probably a temple of Poseidon. in- cluding the abacus. Ke$>a\rf) was almost invariably monolithic. but the bases rest on their foundations without artificial fastening. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 47 in those of the Athena Nike at Athens. note 1. by wooden. were composed of few drums of irregular height. eirUpavov. however. The means by which the complex curves of the Doric echinus were obtained is not cer- 2 tainly known. Polylithic capitals. 2 Penrose. 167. The capital of a column (tcidtcpavov. 48. its Sometimes. The joints were dressed only near the edges. as in the Temples of Herakles at Akragas and of Athena Polias at Pergamon. The lowest drum of a Doric column ordinarily rested on stylobate without the assistance of dowels. neck and a portion of the shaft. Archaic columns. were rarely employed. echinus. The Doric capital. the columns were dowelled to their stylobates. was carved from a single block. and in Temple of the Temple of Zeus but more frequently the at Aizanoi. shaft was composed of a series of drums (o-<f)dv&v\oi) . dowels.

This precaution insured sharp profiles. was bevelled at its base. The entablature. 3 Taf. The Ionic capital. Pergamon. Selinous and in the Temple of i PL 19 354. Choisy. epistyle. before being set in place. as in the upper order of the Stoa at Pergamon. Olympia. including its abacus. at the Temple of Nike. II. is rare. as in Temple F. In order to protect the arrises of the channel- lings from injury. the capital block. The drum nearest the capital was also bevelled. frieze and cornice were constructed separately. II. A style and frieze occurs more frequently in interiors and in buildings of late date. and elsewhere. but the chan- nellings of the shaft were usually deferred until after the erection of the column. 2 Hittorff et Zanth. I. the echinus is carved as part of the capital block. volutes and echi- nus. 3 combination of epi. 81. in which all the members would appear in each block. thus producing an incised ring below the neck of the capital. as in the capitals of Temple 1 B. Selinous. frieze and cor- nice. as the interior order of the Philippeion at Olympia 2 or the niches in the Stoa at Pergamon. 26. . In the Eastern porch of the Erechtheion the echinus and decorated necking are constructively part of the shaft.48 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Grooves or channellings were carved on the lower part of the capital block before it was put in place. 27. consisting of epistyle. and artificially bonded together. The epistyle was seldom monolithic. Each of these members was in its construction more fre- quently complex than simple. and confined to small buildings. . But in the capitals of the Propylaia at Athens. was occasionally carved from the same block as the uppermost part of the shaft. The monolithic type. Ordinarily. exhibits many variations in construction.

25). Constructively. It was almost in- variably decorated. In very large build- ings. sometimes with figured decoration. Epistyle from Par- and elsewhere epistyles were constructed of two or more courses. In marble buildings Doric epistyles were usually single coursed.. It was usually. that of the Parthenon of three (Fig. Even in smaller buildings it was more economical to adopt two-coursed epistyles and thus reduce the size of the upper blocks which were of finer quality. built . in respect to depth. their crowning mouldings being carved on the epistyle blocks. -Epistyle of Temple D. single-coursed epistyles were impossible. 26) FIG. such as the Temple of Zeus at Akragas. 26. 4 III Paestum. but also had mouldings carved their crowning from separate blocks.-.built -i. 25.. The frieze rested upon the epistyle. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 49 Apollo at Corinth. SelinoUS (Fig. the frieze was a complex member. in successive epistyles up courses. Ionic epistyles. f asc i ae preserved the form of Selinous. di- vided into two or more slabs and not infrequently built up in courses. not only by their overhanging FIG. The epistyle of the Temple of Concordia at Akra- gas was composed of two such slabs. Such epistyles in large buildings were more practical than heavy monoliths. .

in the archaic period. however. undivided. these joints would be visible. In smaller buildings it was practicable to carry this fusion further still. In the Old Temple of Athena at Athens l the triglyphs were built up in courses . at Temple F. At Pergamon two triglyphs and a metope or two metopes and a triglyph were sometimes united in a single block. especially when the metopes were decorated with relief sculpture.50 GREEK ARCHITECTURE up in a variety of ways. Selinous. In its horizontal aspect the Ionic frieze was as continuous as was practicable. Wiegand. In the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum triglyphs and metopes were so loosely juxta- posed that the triglyphs have now disappeared altogether. the normal method of constructing a triglyphal frieze. . metopes. as well as triglyphs. divided into triglyphs (rplyXu^o*) and metopes and these appear in the earliest (//-eToVafc). zontal joints which were not so covered. A step in the direction of greater unity of construction is seen in the Temple of Concordia. temples to have been composed of separate blocks. However. which might be equal or unequal in height. It was. were thus constructed. Akragas. artificially bonded. The Doric frieze was. It was regarded as a girdle (Smo>/ia) encircling a building. Hence in the classic period friezes were usually on the exterior monolithic in respect to height. but in marble buildings. and which were as far as possible concealed from view. is ex- i 8. though sometimes built up in courses on the back. When covered with stucco the hori- would be concealed. except by such joints as were inevitable. often composed of at least two courses. where each triglyph was formed from the same block as the adjoining metope.

Here the metopes are relatively thin slabs which are mortised into rectangu- lar grooves cut into the sides of the triglyph blocks. in Ath. usually iindeco- rated except by a cap moulding. 27). MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 51 hi jited in the Parthenon (Fig. Mitt.. . It was in the earlier buildings set into immediate juxtaposition to the kosmophoros. especially when capped by a sculptured moulding. the frieze is FIG. In the Choragic MonumentNikias at Athens. and an antithema or back ('avr^fy/ia). Viewed in respect to depth or thickness. 222. of material and weighted the colonnade unnecessarily. 27. the kosmophoros and antithema in marble buildings were usually separated a short distance from each other. Triglyphal frieze of Parthenon. X (1885). composed of an external decorated face or kosmophoros. The construction of the cornice elcrov^ exhibited also i Doerpfeld. 1 marble of motopes were similarly mortised into poros triglyphs. with or without interlocking joints but as this involved a waste . The antithema usually consisted of two courses.

2 geison and sima. Thus. they usually arranged that the cornice block of the Doric order should carry one mutule and one via. Fig.52 GREEK ARCHITECTURE its own peculiarities. Fig. Thus. PI.. In smaller buildings a fusion was usually made of these separate members. In Doric buildings the lower cornice block was of considerable depth. Ibid. 5 Owing to the unequal divisions of the tri- 1 2 8 Priene. 72. 28). Fig. Ibid.H. J. and bound together the kosmophoros and antithema of the frieze. 4 dentils. The classic build- ers more carefully regulated the lengths of the cornice blocks. the upper block carrying the cap FIG. 117. dentils and geison. This permitted the cornice to project well beyond the face of the build- ing. 105. in early times. irregular as to length. 98. In the altar of the Temple of Athena. The upper portion of the cornice was usually built up in two or more courses. 6 ?. It frequently consisted of two or more courses of masonry.. the joints of an archaic Doric cornice might fall in the middle of a mutule. -Cornice of Temple D. The blocks composing the cornice were. 9.S. . Suppl. 3 (1900). 28. Fig. geison and sima were all composed of separate blocks.. 1 dentils ^etcrtTroSe?). Selinous. and in the Propylon at 3 Priene. such as the Temple of Athena at Priene. 5. or of the space between two mutules.. Middleton. geison and sima are all carved from one block. moulding (Fig. 113. in the Temple of Asklepios at Priene. T T -i T i i In Ionic buildings. are carved from a single block. Thus.

.Parthenon coffering. The substitution of wooden beams and rafters and pur- lins remained. Whereas wooden ceilings continued to be used for closed structures. as at Priene. the cornice blocks were only approximately uniform in length. The construction of such ceilings fol- lowed the precedents of wooden construction. FIG. gable cornices. were carved separately and fastened securely in place. 29). ' entirely of Stone Or marble. 29. The stone and marble gable . was never v constructed ^. exhibiting the large beams and cofferings closed by panels. stone and marble ceilings were often employed to cover the peristyle and other porches ex- posed to the air. . The substitution of marble for terra-cotta tiles intro- duced no new problems. as at the Theseion and the Parthe- non (Fig. while marble was substituted for terra-cotta for the roofing tiles. acroteria and simae. Later the trunnels usually. ira)po<l>ia)i except on small buildings like the Tower of the Winds. The boams were notched so as to hold the coffered blocks secure. The soffits of the Doric cornice in the form of mutules with trunnels were in early examples carved from the same block as the cornice. large slabs carried many cofferings. Sometimes. The roof (crrey?. and the mutules occasionally. Again. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 53 glyphal frieze. large and deep cofferings were built up like a series \ n -of superposed boxes.

54 GREEK ARCHITECTURE cornice. which resisted the thrust of the cornice (Fig. At the apex of the gable ('aero?. . T. the cornice block was cut to a saddle. 30. must have given the early architects some anxiety lest the blocks should slide down the inclined wall of the tym- panon. aera^ta). . however. and at the lower extremities of the saddle large blocks FIG. 30). Acroterion block of the were horizontally posed Parthenon. In some cases this danger was averted by building portions of the cornice into the tympanon wall. j -j_i and weighted with acro- teria.

like the Heraion at Olympia. although it may be noted that foundation walls are usually thicker at the base than at the summit. 150. in Ath. Palaces of the Mycenaean age. as well as the oldest temples. had continuous foundations. Mitt. each column had its own special foundation. FOUNDATIONS. butcolonnades did not require interior them. I. In plan. Column foundations. 1 already exhibit the distinction between structural foundations (0e/*eXta) placed beneath walls and columns. VIII (1883). CHAPTER II ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 1. being usually of greater thickness than the wall founda- tions in the same buildings. Taf. Exterior peristyles. as well as in the Hellenistic porticos at Athens and 2 Pergamon. 1 Olympia. In the case of Philon's Arsenal at the Peiraieus. or stylobates (aruXo/Scmu).. 18. . they were rarely continuous structures like those of the pyramids of Egypt or the ziggurats of Babylonia. 2D oerpfeld. espe- cially when provided with a series of steps. dif- fered sometimesin size from the wall foundations. nevertheless temples show continuous foundations for interior colonnades throughout the whole history of Greek {Architecture. and the mere filling (%o?7) beneath the voids. The form of subterranean founda- tions (crTepeo/Sarat) vary chiefly in their plan.

been desig- nated by Koldewey 1 as the toichobate. consequently. however. the krepidoma was not a stairway. as in the later Heraion at Argos 2 and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. but a visible foundation. toichobates or teicliobates (rot^o- Te^o/Sarat). 3 but more frequently either the entire front or the central portion of the front of the krepidoma was converted into a practical stairway by the introduction of steps of con- venient height. stepped base.56 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Wall foundations. The Temple of Hera at 2 Koldewey und Puchstein. This may be identical with the base or socle of the superstructure. the form and proportions of which were not determined by considerations of mere practical convenience. I. and its constituent blocks as vTro/Barfipes. extended in many cases above ground /3ctrat. were the steps of the krepidoma low enough to be used as stairs. as in Stratos (Fig. 1 PI. For this purpose sometimes a ramp was constructed in front of the temple. this socle becomes the base for the wall and has. As a whole. 31). 203. as in the ziggurats of Mesopotamia. The number of steps or platforms composing the krepidoma was not uniformly the same. Waldstein.) /cprjTrfc). 17. or \i6oi Paapiaioi. KprjTriSalov. Rarely. Olympia. the krepidoma (#/)7?7rtSa)/Aa. On account of its smoothed and levelled character it was known as the ev8vvm}pa. There was no sacred number of platforms. A second and more marked form is the high. . Viewed in elevation. A socle of this nature was designed for Philon's Arsenal. 9. The simplest method of giving emphasis to the foundation is to leave visible the uppermost course. upon which Greek temples usually rested. 3 Taf. and were variously fashioned.

Taf. the so-called Temple of Theseus at Athens had a krepi- doma of two steps . Temple D at Selinous had a krepidoma of four 1 isteps and the old Greek Temple at Pompeii one of five steps. 2. displayed three steps and was accordingly known as the rpipaaiJios. that of the Temple of Apollo Smintheus in the Troad had eleven steps. the common type. Ion. FIG. the number of steps on the side toward 2 iVon Duhn. 31. When a temple was placed 2 upon a hillside. PI. Ant. IV. Alarger steps was sometimes number of reached. 26. exemplified in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and in the Parthenon. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 57 Olympia and the Old Temple of Athena at Athens had ench a krepidoma consisting of a single step or platform . . Base of Temple at Stratos in Akarnania..

58 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the lower level of the hill was.. as at Corinth. greater than the number on the upper level. A third form of visible foundation for buildings. to follow the boundary line of a regular polygon which large enough to be considered the arc of is a circle. Arch. restricted to the long sides more frequently. VI (1897). 2 8 Pergamon. it occurs both in the long and in the short sides of the krepidoma. the podium. 481. 1 Goodyear. 303. such as the Temple of Athena at Pergamon and in the Maison Carree at Nimes. 3 it was. This curvature of horizontal surfaces is found in the Temple of Apollo at Corinth and in the so-called Temple of Poseidon at Paestum in many buildings of .. the lower steps might well be designated the substylobates.. may be seen in the Temple of Despoina at Doerpfeld. 2 at Corinth. Mitt. in these cases. Rec. it . 1 In some was confined to the fagades cases. in others. at all. and Roman buildings. From the point of view of elevation. as in the Temple Athenaofat Pergamdn. such as the Theselon. That this curvature was intentional seems to be proved by its occurrence in the rock-cut base of the Temple of Apollo and by its survival in Mediaeval architecture. II. the Parthenon and the Propylaia at Athens and in a few Hellenistic . . Aninteresting peculiarity in the krepidoma of some Greek temples is its convex character. when found . XI (1886). The apparently horizontal edges of the stylobate and lower steps are found. 23. the krepidoma may be considered as composed of the stylobate or upper step and of one or more lower steps. in Ath. naturally. If a term were needed to distinguish these from the stylobate on the one hand and the invisible stereobate on the other. the classic period.

1 Tombs. the body or die. were FIG. . 161. 32). III. base mould- ing. Such was also the dis- position of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates at Athens. such as the Mausoleion at Halikarnassos. 4. sometimes set upon lofty podia. the podium may be described from the base upward as consisting of the plinth. The pseudo-peripteral Temple of Z<3us at Akragas is set upon a base which may be described as a compromise between a podium and a stepped krepidoma. and some- 1 imes a lysis to connect the podium with the superstructure. 2 According to Vitruvius. the cap or cornice moulding. 5. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 59 Lykosoura (Fig. Vitruvius. 32. Podium of Temple of Despoina at Lykosoura. The refinements of curvature which were introduced into the krepidoma seem also to have been applied to 2 i Koldewey und Puchstein.

60 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

The pedestal for the statue of Kyniskos (Fig. seen in clear profile against the sky. FIG. 1895. are of archaeological. This is the case with the podium of the Maison Carree at Nimes. in Jhb. In the case of a long low podium. 101 ff.A. forexample. is a good 2 1 Basile. Both of the latter types are displayed in the founda- tions of the Altar of Zeus at Akragas. as. found at Olympia. II. are distinctly curved (Fig. lines. 34) by Polykleitos the elder. interest. 154. The die of the podium of the so-called Tomb of 1 Thoron at not only diminishes in breadth from Akragas base to summit. the stepped rectangular base erected by a certain Praxiteles at Olympia about 500 B. which shows a convex curvature in plan. 43. 1-12. 34. such bases were usually devoid of mouldings. Cf. 3 Koldewey und Puchstein. 3 Parallel in form and development to temple bases were the bases of statues and other votive offerings. however. 4 In the archaic period. rather than architectural. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 61 podia. It is. and the stepped circular base for the statue of Nestor by Onatas. 4 Olympia. were constructed some- times as a series of piers and sometimes as continuous series of parallel walls. . rather than by the vertical.. have been de- scribed by Purgold.J.. not uninter- esting to observe that pavement foundations. profiled bases began to appear. IX (1894). 2 The form of pavement foundations (o-r/ow/iaTo/Sarat).C. but its outer angles. 33). Wernicke. the eye would be attracted by the horizontal. A series of these bases (/3a0pa). During the fifth century. 144-161. in A. Goodyear.. when not a formless mass of rubble or sand. however. being concealed from view.

WALLS. 36). 36. That of the statue of Nike (Fig. Base of Roman statue. 35) by Paionios.62 GREEK ARCHITECTURE example. During the Roman period the basal and crowning mouldings of such pedestals were frequently constructed from the same block as the central die (Fig. exhibits a predilection for more graceful mould- ings during the latter half of the fifth century. FIG. Some walls . Base of statue of Nike. The forms of walls may be considered in respect to plan. 2. the mouldings became more complicated in form. profile or front elevation. 35. Later FIG.

where an irregular space was enclosed by a wall which fol- lows the natural conformation of the ground. circles or ellipses. For other examples. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 63 were extremely irregular in plan. rectangles. 77. II. Bee. to give relief to the parastades. V] (1897). Walls of slight curvature have been 1 Olympia. polygons. the rectangle was preferred by the Greeks. The beehive tombs of the Mycenaean period. As a matter of fact. Boetticher. the Philippeion of Olympia. XXX 2 Rev. squares. Boetticher 3 declares that thisVas done for economical purposes. Polygons. in 1875. Such was the form of the megaron of the Mjcenaean palace. in other buildings. but were bent in at the extremities. like that of Tiryns.. are well-known examples of buildings with walls disposed on a circular plan. or agreeable. de VArch. 482.. They were built in straight lines. the Tholos of Epidauros. 360-374. . the long cella walls were not set in straight lines. This was the case in the fortificationwalls of an acropolis. Mitt. quoted by Goodyear in Arch. 195. Burnouf 2 pointed out. and the almost Universal form of temples and of domestic buildings. The logical sequence to this is that the walls should also show curvature in plan. The South Wing of the Bouleuterion at Olympia l is a notable example of walls which follow the plan of an ellipse. The circular disposition of walls was not avoided when useful. but on a slightly curved plan. are rare. In buildings which show great refinements of curvature it might be expected that some curvature in plan would be found. however. Normally. as in fortifica- tions. see Pfuhl in Ath. walls were regular in plan. that the columns of the Parthenon were not set in straight lines. like that of the Tower of the Winds. (1(>05).Of these forms. the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.

1. Architects. curved in profile. 294. 3 appear at an early period in the palace at Arne in Boeotia..64 GREEK ARCHITECTURE pointed out by Professor Goodyear in the case of the Maison Carre*e at Nimes and in some Mediaeval and Renaissance Italian churches. 2 and 4 1 Goodyear in . fortification walls sometimes were provided with towers or bastions in places where they could serve no useful purpose. but were more common in later times. XIV (1904). 62.C. Br.I. The walls and an- tae of the Propylaia at Athens exhibit similar peculiarities. inclined. apparently of the time of Augustus. Terrace walls and fortification walls were some- times inclined for obvious reasons. escarped. They may be vertical. wall of A a tomb. being almost universal. . Vol. 4 Brooklyn Museum Memoir. 3 A. The tympana of the gables also lean inward. Fig. In elevation walls exhibit a variety of forms. 38. Nos. de Bidder. 2 . incline towards the interior of the building. It may also be noted that the Greeks did not admire unbroken regularity. although having nearly the same thickness above as below. need no special considera- tion. But the inclination of walls towards or away from the centre of a building is a remarkable disposition found in some of the buildings of the classic period.H. Beilage 24 Pernier. 1 which appear to have de- rived this refinement from Byzantine sources. in B. In the case of the Parthenon. No.. J. 347. XVIII (1894). the side walls. Mon. Hence. Ant. may be seen on the Appian Way. stepped. 13. * Penrose.E. built upon a wave-like plan. or walls were broken by vertical or horizontal retreats where they had 2 Colonnettes and pilasters only a decorative significance.and with or without base and cornice. Doerpfeld. and that continuous walls without breaks appeared monotonous. Vertical walls. 3d series. XV.

is found in prehistoric and Mycenaean FIG. 37. This form of wall was used in Egyptian fortresses and wiis' intended to strengthen the walls at the" point where they were likely to suffer most. Pergamon. in the earliest walls of Athens and elsewhere. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 65 of walls with an outward slope at the base. It also had the effect of making missiles dropped from the top of the . Troy. Acropolis wall showing set-backs.

but later. towers and spires with an entasis were not uncommon. it must have been exceedingly rare . This form of wall presents the appearance of great stability and strength. A noteworthy outgrowth of this practice may be seen in the apsidal wall of the Byzantine church at Olympia (Fig. VII (1897). or walls with an entasis. We have already observed in the base of the so-called Tomb of Theron at Akragas an example of a wall surface with curved pro- sidai wail of ^ e an ^ "> we are inclined to ask whether pul- Byzantine vinated walls. Walls which in elevation show a series of horizontal set-backs were far from rare. Arch. 63-96. 1 Goodyear.66 GREEK ARCHITECTURE waUjttcqchet into the face of an attacking party. in the Byzantine and Mediaeval periods. Thus the orthostatai were not flush with the sdcle but were set back. do not occur sometimes in the case of peripteral buildings. Pergamon (Fig. Given a portico lined on one side with a row of columns all of whose shafts have curved profiles. walls. . Rec. But for some reason it did not appeal stronglyTo the builders of fortifications in Greece and in the historic period it was seldom employed. like those at Olympia. This was not confined to terrace and city walls.. 38). would not a perfectly vertical or inclined wall produce a sharp con- trast which would invite softening by the introduction of a corresponding or a reverse curvature ? If such an entasis ever occurred in the walls of a Greek portico. of stoae and other buildings. almost universally exhibited on the exterior a series of set-backs. and the body of the wall was set back of the orthostatai. but walls of treasuries and temples. 37) and Pompeii.

Below this we sometimes find the crown of the stereobate left visible. This wall base. and a body of polyg- onal. projecting mould- FIG. . the base. The walls Knidos. was usually absent. each one of which in more primitive times served the same practical. especially in Doric buildings. and. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 67 A final modification in the forms of walls arose when they were given a base. or wall crown. was usually present. as when fortification walls of sun-dried brick were set upon continuous bases of stone and capped with variously formed battlements. 39). Walls of temples and other build- ings were usually provided with both base and crown. if not a practical. PL 160. body and capital. analogous to column bases were at Peiraieus. was usually set upon a socle or plinth (evOvvrrjpia^. Thus the toichobate became a complicated combination of simpler members. In Ionic buildings. end. The orthostatai were set off from the vertical face of the wal] (Fig. still further emphasizing the base of the walls (Figs. Sometimes utility dictated such forms. The epikranitis (eVt/e/oaw-m). 39. masonry and a rectangular crowning moulding. but some kind of a cap or crown was regarded as a formal. necessity. formed a more or less visible base. car\ed beneath the orthostatai. have a base of tetragonal. 40. even when the entire wall was covered with stucco. 1 although composed entirely of of stone. III. In fortification walls made entirely of stone. or aesthetic. like that of the columns. It varied in form 1 Texier. Arsenal Wall ings. 41). as a visible form.

42). Wall crown of Temple of Zeus. Wall crown from FIG. building at the Marmo- ria.68 GREEK ARCHITECTURE from a plain rectangular abacus moulding. Delphi. In the Temple of Athena Nike. Delphi. FIG. Wall of Treasury FIG. buildings in classic as well as Hellenistic times. Wall of circular of Phocaeans. 40. 43. the wall crown consisted of a painted platband broken into two fasciae and sur- . as in the Treasury of the Megarians. Olympia. Erechtheion. Athens. or a plain beak moulding. to the Temple rich mouldings which crowned the cella walls of Ionic FIG. 42. 41. as in the of Zeus at Olympia (Fig.

a matter of mere conjecture. therefore. or projecting mouldings. . PI. Conze-Hauser-Niemann. and hence were known as TrapacrrdSe^. So striking and uni- versal. These projecting wall ends frequently formed the side walls of a porch. 1 at Aizanoi. C. therefore. Butler. at Samothrace. at present. or for no other purpose than pure decoration. 260.. Their forms. 3.were derived in part from wall and in part from column forms. Taf . had no formal value. What form may have been capital of antae and gilasters to the and in given body the Mycenaean period is. 23 Arsinoeion E. Arch. 194. 43) was equally emphatic with an elaborately carved neck and cornice moulding. 2 H. Temple I. a superincumbent entablature. 244.g. Pilasters and engaged columns derived their forms from the same sources. The projecting ends of walls were often used as columns to carry. In such cases the anta base was a mere terminus of the wall base. is in accordance with the Greek spirit. . In the Mycenaean period anta bases appear sometimes to have been flush with the wall (Fig. Min. The use of string courses. I. 238. The wall crown of the Erechtheion (Fig. 44) and. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 69 mounted by a series of projecting mouldings. Sometimes it was given a slight projection (Fig. or to assist in carrying. 54. PARASTADES OR ANTAE. 45). however. Lebas. although ancient 1 examples may be 'few in number. As. are these string courses in Central-Syrian 2 architecture and in Greek and Asiatic buildings of the present day as to make it highly probable that they were employed also by the ancient Greeks. to indicate on the exterior of buildings the position of the upper floors.

Olympia. did not express its character as a wall terminus. as in the beyond Enneastylos (the so-called Basilica) at Paestum (Fig. 44. 49). Anta from the Heraion. It also became more closely assimilated to the wall in construction and in decoration. Plan of Anta from Troy. Again. while they recognized the function of the anta as a support. 45. In the latter instance. Temple Dat Selinous (Fig. 46). Plan of FIG. The classic form occurs in the so-called Temple of Poseidon at Paestum (Fig. as in the Heraion at Olympia (Fig. 47). Anta from Tiryns. 48).70 GREEK ARCHITECTURE A study of the plans of antae of the archaic period will show sometimes. as in the case of L FIG. Sometimes it was a cubical block projecting the wall. and in buildings of the classic period generally. and more thoroughly developed in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (Fig. . 46. Plan of FIG. But these forms. the form imitates a column. a form approximating the Mycenaean type. 50). the anta is considerably narrower on the side where it unites with the exterior of the cella wall.

Plan of FIG. while those of the Temple of Athena Nike (Fig. Olympia. Plan of Anta from the En. Olympia. D. Plan of Anta from Temple and taenia. Plan of (Fig. 50. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 71 III the Hellenistic period. of Poseidon. moulding Stadion. 47. similar to that of the walls. the anta bases of the Enneastylos at Faestum have the form of a rectangular plinth. we often find a reversion to the earlier type. Paes- tum. . 1 Anta bases derived their forms sometimes from the wall L FIG. bases. 52) have a wave FIG. Anta base from the of Zeus. 48. those of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have socles and orthostatai . Paestum. Plan of FIG. sometimes from those of the columns. Anta from Temple Anta from Temple neastylos. 54) have mouldings and orthostatai similar to those Koldewey und Puchstein. Thus. 53) and of the Erechtheion (Fig. 49. Selinous. those of the Theseion FIO. 210. 51.

53. section. Athens. . I. and the remainder of circular. Anta base from FIG. as in the portal FIG. PI. from the Enneastylos. resulted. 1 a composite form 2 FIG. 55. of the Stadion at or in the peribolos of Olympia (Fig. Armenie. a portion of which is of rectangular. Anta base from the FIG. When the end of a wall and a colonnade occur in the same plane. Temple of Nike. 66. Athens. 54. The body (<rw/*a) of the anta shows also the influence i Texier. 52. Anta capital the Erechtheion. 51) the Temple of Artemis at Kangovar. Paestum. Anta base from the Theseion.72 GEEEK ARCHITECTURE of the columns and of the walls.

Its structure has already re- ceived attention. The neck would appear to be the least important member and. the Propylaia. al- though its absence would hardly be felt. as in the case of the Enneastylos at Paestum. jtnd on the narrow side of the anta disappeared alto- gether. 57. The capitals of antae had characteristic forms. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 73 of both column and wall. Anta capital from Temple G. 56. it was almost inva- riably present. ]n the archaic period. but in the classic period they were less strongly marked. these characters were sometimes very strong. 55). more or less similar to the crowning mouldings of walls. Athens. Even in the archaic period the anta was . si kymation (fcv/jLanov*) and an abacus (a/3af). One of the earliest forms may be seen in the Enneastylos at Paestum (Fig. The body of the anta usually diminishes in width from base to summit so as to form a trapezoid with curved sides or entasis (eWa<m).rowned with a capital suggestive of a wall cornice. which recalls the well-known form of . Anta capital from FIG. The form shows columnar influence in having diminution and entasis. FIG. They may be considered as consisting of a neck (uTrorjoa^Xtoz/). Selinous.

the Athenian Propylaia (Fig. Doric buildings of the fifth century. 2 From this early type was evolved the characteristic Doric anta capital with its broad neck. 57) and the Temple of Poseidon at Sounion (Fig. VIII (1883). Temple at G Selinous (Fig. platband and ovolo. at Priene. V FIG. Anta capital from FIG. Anta capital from Temple of Poseidon. Figs. The Ionic anta capital differed from the Doric in the richness of its superposed mouldings. The anta capitals of Asia Minor sometimes show 3 different forms for front and sides. Here the roundel.show semi-Ionic forms. 64. 272-27a Priene. the face of the anta shows a superposed series of roundel. cyma reversa. 58). Taf. whereas the side exhibits only a small roundel and a high but shallow 1 Ath. the Temple of Nike. 65. Thus. 58. Mitt. its beak moulding and its abacus.74 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the Egyptian cornice. especially those under Attic influence. 56) affords a typical example. Similar forms are found at Tegea 1 and upon Athenian stelae. examples of which may be seen in the Parthenon. 14. Athens.. the cyma reversa and the ovolo play the principal roles. . 3 2 Jhb ^ m (1888). 59. Sounion.

the Theatre at Epidauros. in. It was given the form of a cyma recta. while their addition of an ovolo moulding links the anta also with the column. of the anta with the walls is shown by the similarity of _ their mouldings. the unity of columns. the _____ necking is treated as the dominant factor of the capital. Anta capital from FIG. Miletos. or shortly before. In these examples. The affinity S FIG.. . 5i FlG . 62 capital Lhis step appears to have been taken from the Tem pie of 1 or the first time Apollo. n . above which the ovolo moulding appears as a part C'f the abacus. the independ- ence of the anta capital was preserved. 61). Anta capital from the Erechtheion. 60). 61. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 75 cavetto. 60. In the Erechtheion (Fig. 59) illustrates of the theory of the mouldings of anta capitals. They show no influence of the char- acteristic spirals of the column capital. The Temple Athena Nike (Fig. antae and walls is carried a step farther and the ovolo moulding appears also in the crowning mouldings of the walls. . In the portals of the theatre at Epidauros (Fig.

63) seem to have been set 4 vertically.v. Daremberg 2 Heuzey. Thus the jambs of the small northern doorway at Mycenae (Fig. Mont Olympe. The forms doorways of 1 (OvptoiACLTa) were determined by material as well as by aesthetic demands. throughout 1 et Saglio. these openings generally have their sides parallel and at right angles to the adjoining walls. others doubly splayed. sometimes at an inclination toward each other. sometimes vertically. Some are set at right angles to the wall. 4.05 m. From very early days. noted by Blouet. Some are splayed simply. may be disregarded. In the Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi. door jambs (crra^/W ) were posed. Janua. 62). 3 De Rochas. This was doubtless a very general method for ordinary doors and windows. . 65. 75. The tower windows of the defences of Herakleia near Miletos 3 show considerable variety in plan. But regularity in wall construction necessitated regularity in the openings. but occasionally the 2 openings are set at an angle. * The slight inclination of 0. the anta capitals are still more closely related to capitals of columns. in the pilaster capitals of the Temple of Apollo near Miletos (Fig. 16. s. as they exhibit the ovolo as well as lateral volutes. DOORS AND WINDOWS. especially in monumental constructions. PI. In elevation. PI. others pierce the wall at an angle. as at Oiniadai in Akarnania. In plan.76 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the Hellenistic period. But inclined jambs also occur. Crude and irregular openings occur in early and in unimportant walls. 450. the form varies in accordance with the pose of the jambs and the method of crowning the open- ing. II.

tombs of the archaic and classic period. FIG. Vitruvius. . 63. Occasionally the inclined jambs were not 1 2 6. Doorway of tomb at Orchomenos. An opening of this character is found in the north wall at Mycenae.. and are rec- 2 ognized by Vitruvius as a characteristic feature of Ionic as well as of Doric architecture. 64. 1 A later example of such a triangular doorway is found at Elaios in Aetolia (Fig. Schliemann. Fig. FIG. as may be seen in the Lion Gate at Mycenae and in the tomb at Orchomenos (Fig. Fig. Fig. 67. 66. portion of the opening. But ordinarily. IV. 20. 64). Gateway at Oiniadai. 65. 66. Gateway at Oiniadai. Vi- truvius directed that the opening be not trapezoidal but rectangular. 63. This relieved the lintel without narrowing the lower or more useful FIG. 65. leaving the opening of trapezoidal form. 65) they are found in temples and . the inclined jambs were truncated by a lintel (yTrepOvpa). Fig. Fig. 64. Doorways of trapezoidal form are a marked feature of Mycenaean architecture. 67. When doorways were more than thirty feet in height. Gateway of Elaios. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 77 all periods. FIG. Myken. Fig. Occasionally the jambs were continued until they met and enclosed an opening of triangular form. The Hellenistic Greeks appear to have seen in this form a device for giving greater apparent height to doorways. FIG. Gateway at Mycenae.

Many in number are the forms resulting from varia- tions in the method of crowning the opening. where the jambs are inclined toward each other. 67). as at Assos (Fig. as in the towers at Samo- thrace and at Andros. Fig. Fig. In private houses. FIG. 71). Gateway at Assos. But the crown of the opening might be triangular. FIG. 68. 70). . In fortresses they were often narrow loopholes. Gateway at Phigaleia. FIG. or a round arch. as may be 1 Daremberg et Saglio. as at Phigaleia (Fig.78 GREEK ARCHITECTURE continuous but broken. Fig. 69. as in one of the gateways at Oiniadai (Fig. FIG. Gateway at Oiniadai. 69). method consisted in the adoption of a lintel which closed the opening with a rectilinear and horizontal line. A very unusual form occurs in two of the gateways at Oiniadai (Fig. 72. 68) or trapezoidal. as at Mes- sene (Fig. 70. 68. 71. as at Oiniadai (Fig. The forms of windows 1 (0vpSe?) may be said to repeat in general the forms of doorways. The usual FIG. Fenestra. 72). Fig. 71. as at ' Assos (Fig. not in straight lines. 66). or a pointed arch. Gateway at Assos. s. or a jogged rectangle. 70. but in gentle curves. 72.v. 69. Fig. Gateway at Messene.

47-71. in the Temple of Athena Nike at Athens 5 and in the theatre at Epidauros. architects as concerned with a single type of support. 205. 5 Gardner. 4 <3avvadias. Temple of Concordia. 73). Thus the tetragonal the Akragas. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 79 judged from vase-paintings. composite pil- lars and supports of anthropomor- phic form. 135. which we may indicate while considering in detail the forms of their bases. PI. 6 Cavvadias. 373. In temples the trapezoidal form was sometimes used. 3. as in the west windows of the Erechtheion. rectangles divided by a central support. Fig. they were nearly square. Oh. PI. Lechat. 7. Thn same true of the octagonal piers in the Abaton is at Epidauros. the column . Each type presented spe- cial problems. but not infrequently they employed also tetragonal piers. PILLARS. 4. Stevens. 4 . but an. X (1906). We are accus- tomed to think of Greek. 157) is probably wrong in assigning these windows to tlie Middle Ages. 3 . COLUMNS AND PIERS. shafts of Choragic Monument of Thrasyllos are like the columns 3 of the Doric type in having no independent bases. may form be seen in the openings to the roof of the Temple of Concordia at Akragas (Fig. or long. II.. Thebases of piers do not differ FlG 73. 2 liussell Sturgis (I. . 5. 6 the piers which divide the doorways have base mouldings 1 The west windows are of Roman origin. A. 1 very unusual. 4 On the other hand. Window from essentially from those of columns. but the windows of the east wall were also trapezoidal. 8 Stuart and Revett. A 2 ciert. Lechat.A.J. shafts and capitals. PI..

Taf. The general forms of column bases (/3ac-et?) are redu- cible to those of tetragonal. 2 Bases of circular plan (<77reZ/oat. 70. 54-55 . was less appropriate as a base for columns. In Mycenaean buildings. however. Furtwangler urid Reichhold. 2 Haussoullier. Taf. A later development of this type may be seen in the dodecagonal plinths occurring in two of the bases from the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. In such cases similarity of form in the bases of shafts and antae contributed somewhat to the general harmony. A similar base occurs in 1 Mon. 11-12. inecl. we find low cylin- drical bases of simple form. In the case of prostyle and peripteral porches. The tetragonal plinth. though in har- mony with the forms of the pier. polygonal circular plan. but it blocked the passageways with its sharp angles. did not survive except as a factor in some composite bases. is sug- gested by the temple and fountain figured on the Fran- 1 QOIS vase. Another method of adapting the rectangular plinth to closely spaced colonnades was to chamfer its angles. thus transforming the tetragonal into an octagonal plinth. as a column base. and differ from them only in plan. The filling of the intercolurnnar spaces with similar plinths up obviated this inconvenience. IV.80 GREEK ARCHITECTURE corresponding to those of the adjacent Ionic columns or engaged columns. and its edges were easily fractured. That it may have been used for this purpose. therefore. r/oo^i'Xot) constitute the normal form for columns.and Thetetragonal plinth (Tr\iv6o<$ rer/oc^a^o?). Their forms may be simple or composite. the tetragonal base was not only aesthetically less justifiable. This method may have been employed in some early buildings of Asia Minor. especially for porches in antis. . however.

1 wit an i Here the base is the frustum of a cone of the form common in Egypt. II (1886). Tradition and reason combined to commend this form to the Greeks. 75). decorated with palmettes and lotuses in the upper half of two bases from the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. constituted a third type. Egyptians and Asiatics found sharp edges and rectilinear profiles impractical and inharmonious. and substituted for them bases with rounded edges and curved profiles. 1 Clarke. Low Doric base from Greek Temple at FIG. Labrouste. 267. 75.'ibrouste 2 for the shaft of a column in the porch of the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum. . It occurs. also. and in connection independent Doric shaft found at Assos. L. Base from Pompeii. Such a base was published by FIG. Naukratis.A. 3 A convex moulding of semicircular or other torus. In the Apollonion at Naukratis the cone in the upper half of a composite base receives unusual promi- nence (Fig. 74.J. in A. or curvilinear profile.. 68. The cylinder probably also occurred as a simple form in early Greek architecture. 2 8 Haussoullier. PL 12. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 81 the Greek Temple at Pompeii (Fig. 74).

36. Lesbos. more 1 _ 1 frequently. 24. Figs. as in the Erechtheion. and also of composite. 76). the curve resembles a regular echinus 4 and is strongest near the top . 33. Ephesos. Sometimes. 1 simple torus A forms the base of an archaic column found at Kolum- dado (Fig. again. as in the archaic Temple of Artemis at Ephesos (Fig. and f Dion y sos So^ form passed into Roman and > in this later The cyma. 77). 78). Base from the curve was semicircular in profile. form are represented on Mycenaean gems.S. . XXI (1901). and is like an inverted echinus . temis. in J. 77. 78.H. Base from archaic Temple of Ar- Kolumdado. or architecture. and in the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia. curvature of the moulding is strongest near the base. The forms of convex base mouldings are by no means FIG. Base from FIG. wave moulding. 76.82 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Convex bases of simple.. the FIG. invariably the same. as in the Srnintheion and in the Temple at Teos (Fig. It occurs in one of the mouldings of the base of the Corinthian column at Phiga- i Evans. 40. was used occasionally in columnar as well as in mural base mouldings.

1 and in an independent support found in the Temple of Dionysos Bresaios in the island of Lesbos (Fig.. A double scotia was carved in the bases of the archaic Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. in J. 79). Mitt.. and from this source have been carried eastward to Per- sepolis. consequently.re. Stronger shadows were produced by doubling and deepening the scotia. the trochilos was known also as th(3 scoria (OTKOTLO). was produced a strip of shadow which threw into stronger relief the rounded torus. X (1889). Antiq. The decoration and the complication of these forms by the addition of subsidiary mouldings need not concern us here. Asiatic-Ionic and the Attic-Ionic. as we have already observed. 2 Petersen. I. 15. Hogarth. On account of this form and function. and became later FIG 79 _ Base from ^ much more common than the simple the Temple of Dio- forms. . V (1890). 9 Ion. Pis. 3 the scotia was profiled to a shallow arc of a circle. Les- classes. PI. 4 and continued to be popular in Asia Minor iCockerell. It may have figured more prominently in the archaic period in Ionian Greece. 1 Murray. 3-5. 8 . the bos. 187-188. They fall into two n y sos Bresaios. The trochilos was seldom left with a plane surface 2 as in the Lokroi. Composite circular bases were.S. 3-4. V. In tho Temple of Hera at Samos.H. but was formed with a Temple at concave profile so as to contrast with the convex torus.. in E'dm. Pis. Many experiments were doubtless necessary before the form of this curve became fixed. The Asiatic-Ionic type consists of a torus set upon a truncated cone or cylinder called the trochilos (r/oo^tXo?). Ch. represented on JVtycenaean gems. H(. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 83 leia.

in the Temple of Apollo 1 Iwanoff . The Attic-Ionic base of the classic period consisted of an upper and lower torus separated by a scotia.84 GREEK ARCHITECTURE in the fourth century. the curves are shallower toward the top and base of the trochilos and sharper near the middle. 1 Mnesikles. Priene. The canonical order of the Propylaia. the was dis. Athens. 14. 81. type appeared first in the Erech- theion. A typical example is found in the bases of the Temple of Athena at Priene (Fig. Base from the FIG. 80). The deepening of the scotia also received attention. 82). 80. Attic architects of the fifth century were seeking for a normal type of base. Athena. scotia proportionately high and shallow. In the bases of the inner order of the Propylaia. and Iktinos. -Base from inner ellipse (Fig. 82. In the Temple of Athena Nike. where FIG. in the Propylaia at Athens (Fig. I.it was profiled to an FIG. 81). . Taf. where the scotia showed the curve of a two-centred arc. Base from pronaos of the Temple of the Erechtheion.

Base from the cylindrical. 83). somewhat timidly. composite or anthropo.the classic types. tetragonal or polygonal. Ionic base and Pergamon. of immemorial antiquity in Egypt. the lower torus was omitted and the plinth became a pedestal with base and crown mouldings (Fig. 84. torus upon a plinth (Fig. placed beneath it a plinth or pedestal. 84) in the Leonidaion at . 83. In monuments of the classic period. where thQ curves of the torus mouldings are especially noteworthy (Fig. and are likely to vary from . the forms of bases have less interesting profiles. A base of considerable beauty is that of the Monument of Lysicrates. Tetragonal. The shaft or body (crw/>ta. Olympia. In the Hellenistic period. seem to have felt that an additional plinth was required at the base. r J ' FIG. Athens. as we have already * indicated. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 85 at Phigaleia. FIG. in the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon. Base from Choragic Monument of verted cyma and Lysicrates. the base consisted of an in. free-standing supports. Thus. as in . 85. This they added. occur also in Greece. Its form may be. Olympia. morphic. tcav\(ov) oi the portion compre- a support is hended between its base and capital. Leonidaion. 85). Base from the use of the Attic- Temple of Dionysos. The Romans made frequent 'i a.

Atlantes or Telamones. 62. VIII. Figs. 390. II. where the inter- columniations were filled with pinakes. the entire fig- ure. 1 or of a composite type. Octagonal shafts appear to have been em- ployed at Bolymnos. at Troizen. In such cases. however. 4 Koldewey und Puchstein. Above the head is the crown or capital. was treated as the shaft. in colonnades. or in the Choragic Monu- ment of Thrasyllos at Athens. do not call for special remark. as. for example.86 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the Temple of Athena Nike. 8 See Fig. as would naturally be the case in any country where the made of wood. Perrot et Chipiez. the shafts were either oblong in plan with rounded ends. PI. slender. 143. 104. Kapvaribes. or in the proskenia of theatres. called for a modification of the cylindrical form. Doerpfeld und Reisch. Various applications earliest shafts w^ere of the column. or more accurately. The Treasury of the Siphnians at Delphi had similar shafts. 221. and show at least one columnar character. 141. entasis and apophyge. truncated conical shafts constitute by far the largest class. they show refinements of form derived from the column. of which we have an archaic type in the Treasury of the Knidians at Delphi. as in the theatre at Oropos' 2 Anthropomorphic shafts (icavrjtydpoi. occur in the Olympieion at Akragas. where the intercolumniations were partially filled in with balus- trades. 3 and a classic ex- ample in the Porch of the Maidens of the Erechtheion.. reXa/iw^e?). as in the Stoa at Pergamon. at Epidauros and at Delos. Cylindrical. including the head. or in the Propylaia at Priene. Three formal modifications of cylindrical shafts call for special mention : their diminution. arXa^re?. 8. 1 2 Pergamon. . 4 sculptured in relief. In these cases. that of diminution. icopai.

208. Dunn. and has not been conclusively established even as a general 3 In the archaic characteristic of Mycenaean architecture. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 87 By the diminution of a shaft is understood its decrease in diameter from one end to the other. 2 rerrot et Chipiez. 86. At Tiryns. Pictorial and sculptural evidence from Crete 1 and Attica 2 sometimes indicate the same peculiarity.. FIG. 202. Jhb. the small diameter of the column bases as compared with the wide architraves. nor as a survival in Greek. 86). Shaft in relief from standing columns. and of have long since disappeared. It lias been almost the universal practice for architects from time immemorial to the present day to provide columns with diameters greater at the base than at the summit. . In the Mycenaean period. in J. however. architecture. columns were made wood. 41-84. This tapering from base to summit is analogous to the natural tapering of wooden shafts. VI. 193. such a diminution ' . 87). however. Arch. . X (1907).H. In free. List. Oest. and at Mycenae the contemporary relief representations columns of in the Lions' Gate and on the fagades of the two principal tholoi.S.. Doric shafts show a strong diminution from base to summit (Fig.. It also breaks the mechanical effect produced by a perfect cylinder and increases the apparent stability of a column. is found neither as a precedent in Egyptian.. The columns thus acquired apparent 1 Evans. Figs. Lions' Gate. XXI (1901). . have led archaeologists to believe that Mycenaean shafts diminished from summit to base (Fig. Mycenae. period.

In the classic and Hellenistic periods. Greek shafts had curved profiles. so as to form curved profiles. 49. 88). but in general. the diminution of shafts varied inversely with their height. Metapontum. as in the 2 Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia. The second modification of the Greek shaft was its en- tasis (eWatm). 87. other ideals prevailed and both Doric and Ionic shafts were less conical and more cylindrical in form (Fig. By this is meant that the vertical out- lines of the shaft were pulled in at the extremities. Athens. 3. Cockerell. i 2 8 Vitruvius. 1 FIG. Shaft from FIG. high shafts requiring less diminution than low ones. -Shaft from Tavola del Pala. the shafts appear to be devoid of 3 entasis. 107. III. According to Vitruvius. 12. Penrose. and in the Temple of Athena Nike at Athens. 88. the Propylaia. dini. .88 GREEK ARCHITECTURE stability in the same manner as did the walls. In a very few instances.

as in the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. 2 Penrose. as in the Enneastylos and the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum. in various ways. the curve was very pronounced . In the Parthenon. in the Erechtheion and in classicand post-classic buildings in general. hence the profile of the shaft exhibits a curve corresponding to one arm of a hyperbola. Possibly the convex form passed over into stone architecture from a primitive reed-bundle column. Heliodorus Damianus of Larissa 3 declared that a cylindrical column would appear to be concave and therefore must be made convex. is This symmetrical character in the curve of the entasis was emphasized by Roman and Renaissance architects. similar curvature found above and below the vertex. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 89 Sometimes. 52. however.J. 4 which would exhibit a similarly curved outline produced by superincumbent pressure. In order to secure this delicate curve in the profile of the mould or templet was probably necessary. witli- 1 Haussoullier. as well as in classic buildings like the Parthenon and Erechtheion. XIV. 40. and smooth shafts more than those of rough surface.A. Possibly it was to correct an optical effect. and thereby much of the charm of the curved profile was lost. a full-sized What led the Greeks to this refinement is not obvious. 75. the vertex of the curve falls below the stylobate . VI (1890). the vertex of the curve occurs above the base of the column hence a . It was ex- tremely delicate in some archaic examples like the Temple of Apollo at Corinth. As a geometrical form.. 3 De Opticis. . Tall shafts required a greater amount of entasis than short ones. shaft. * A. it was confined to the upper two-thirds of the shaft. The nature of the curve has been shown by Penrose 2 to be the hyperbola. applied. In the Propylaia. 1 again.

90 GREEK ARCHITECTURE out any indication of its origin. The astragal. but reappear in some columns of the Hellenistic period. 141. 14. it entered into Greek architecture as a characteristic feature of the shaft. as in the three- quarter columns in the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia. the apophyge was very exaggerated (Fig. . con- " sisting of a fillet or roundel. in the shaft of the stone candela- brum found in the Megaron at Phaestos. 89). served to break the IDC contrast between the vertical line of the shaft and the horizontal line of its base or capital (Fig. In the archaic period. XIII (1903)..Ant. it occurs in the earliest period. ( e' Athens These characters seem to have originated with the Ionian Greeks and were applied by them not only to shafts of columns. but also to walls. 1 also in represen- 2 tations of shafts on a Mycenaean cylinder. XXI (1901). Ordinarily it was so delicate as not to attract attention. In some cases. The apophyge. as. ^ ne extremities of the shaft and aided Apophyge on shaft from the the apophyge in its transitional function. aTrdcfrvais. perhaps as Achaean survivals. a short but sharply curved expansion of the shaft at its extremities. emphasized (~~ FIG. friezes and even to the abaci of capitals.#. at the extremity of the shafts of the Enneastylos and the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum. a7ro'#eo-9). The curve was ordinarily a hyperbola. The third modification of the shaft was itsapophyge or apothesis (a7ro<i"y?7. and astragal (acTTpd<ya\o^. *Mon. if not earlier. They are found. 89. In Doric columns of the best period they were usually absent. 90). for example.&. 2 /.

2 treated as belonging to the shaft rather than to the capital. Convex Temple of Apollo. and in the archaic capital from Neandreia (Fig. Phigaleia. 2 Petersen. 90. from Temple D. Selinous. FIG. necking on capital. It occurs at Mycenae as a concave moulding sharply dis- tinguished from the principal member of the capital and also from the cylindrical shaft. /ee</>a\atoz/). 91). 202. Asia Minor and Etruria. a neck. and in some cases. in Horn. common in the repeated roundels in capitals from Assyria. a principal moulding and a plinth or abacus. 8 Perrot et Chipiez. consisted of three parts. PI. Naukratis. the shaft. 92). as at Naukratis 1 and Lokroi. 92. 3 appear also in capitals represented on Mycenaean ivories. VI. Concave on shafts from the necking on capital. The neck (r/oa^Xo? or Tpa%rf\iov was probably the earlier. from Neandreia. . A concave necking reap- pears in many archaic capitals at Paestum and Selinous (Fig. ice<j>a\k t Kio/cpavov. Figs. V (1890). or crowning member of the pier or column. 3. In most cases it formed a part of the capital block. The kymation or echinus of the Ionic capital and the annul! 1 Petrie. 204. Mitt. 192-193.. I. Convex neckings. Apophyge FIG. vTrorpaxfaiov the later designation) was nearest FCG. 91. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 91 The capital (eirUpavov.

269. 5. neither concave ( nor convex. 1)4. PI. or polygonal. 334-342. The essential rectangularity of the Ionic capital is most 1 Hittorff et Zanth. 93). composite or miscellaneous. Rectan- gular blocks were also used to crown columns. A platband. Figs.. or polyg. Square. FIG. Archaic capital from Delos. Erechtheion. 93. 8. Ill. . Jhb. Two or three such blocks superposed would seem to have supplied the gen- eral masses of the Greek 1 capital. circular. so as to make the transition to the rectangular entablature less abrupt. shafts were given square. 2 Borrmann. The neck of the capital disappeared during the classic period.92 GREEK ARCHITECTURE of the Doric echinus are such neckings absorbed into the body of the capital. 82. the plans of which were rectangular. Plat- band necking on n ^ y^ruvian orders an important part capital from the of the Capital. 2 onal. occurs in the capitals of the Erechtheion (Fig. 2. Rectangular blocks served as capitals for polygonal shafts in the porches of Egyptian tombs at Benihassan. probably because it weakened the appearance of strength required for the c i support of the entablature. capitals. In the Hel- I lenistic period it reappeared and became FIG. xhe principal moulding of the capital received a variety of forms.

PL 53. and was carved with the egg and dart orn ament. in the Hellenistic period.. . 1 Perrot et Chipiez.\ drieal form with slightly raised edges (Fig. or body of the capital. retains in great measure the rectangular form on the front and back. until.. but in the fully developed capital it had an elliptical or quarter round profile. but to a shaft capped by a large ring moulding. as it was fashioned from a rectangu- lar block applied. was gradually raised. Its position. 95. 95). In an archaic capital from Athens 1 the principal moulding. FIG. Tho face of the normal Ionic cap- ital was somewhat complicated. In some archaic examples it was undercut like a beak moulding (Fig. not directly to the cylindrical shaft. which in Oriental examples decorated the shaft. 94). which in archaic times was near the shaft. Archaic capital from Athens. VII. . but on the sides assumes a cylin. and is known as the echinus of the capital. in which a single" rectangular block has been but slightly modified in form.' . 96). 4. in Ionic architecture was absorbed into the capital. This ring mould- ing. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 93 eviclent in an archaic example from Delos (Fig.

and a quadrangular block. Thus the Ionic capital seems to be a fusion of two elements.. In all cases we per- ceive a more or less strongly marked trace of an original rec- tangular block. The form of the pulvinus on the side of the Ionic A. and at Palatitza. PI. Mau. Epidauros. cult in the case of buildings with peristyles. IV (1888).J. in which rectangularity is to be recognized in the plan rather than in the face of the capital. 1 At 2 Phigaleia. 239. in A. are exceptional ex- 6 amples. 10. . The unusual form of capital found at Neandreia 5 in the Troad. 16. Fig. 1 2 3 Heuzey. 228) the spirals spring from the centre of the capital block and are developed diagonally.. especially if of circular plan.A. capitals of engaged columns show the spiral motive applied to the three sides of the capital.J. amd at Kolumdado in Lesbos. 96. 4 This rectangular- ity of the Ionic capital made its application diffi- FIG. 5 6 Clarke. Taf. GREEK ARCHITECTURE it was set above the level of the centre of the spirals. This form may be described as transitional between a capital of rectangular and one of circular type. In the capitals from the south entrance of the Palaistra at Olympia 4 (Fig. and at Pompeii 3 free standing columns exhibit the spiral motive on four sides of the capital. II (1880).A. Archaic capital from Athens. an annular moulding or echinus. Koldewey. 43. 3.

the form of the pulvinus preserved a cylindrical FIG. as at Priene (Fig. Pulvinus of capital FIG. as well as in the examples cited from Delos and Athens. 97). . in Etruria and in the column of the Naxians at Delphi. in form resembling a spool (Fig. Olympia. Pulvinus of cap- from the Temple of Apollo. 99. Pulvinus of FIG. Oc- 1 casionally. FIG. 100). side of the capital lost its bolster shape and resembled 1 Taf. which seemed to compress the centre of the pulvinus. Miletos. 98. as at Miletos (Fig. aspect. 99). But at Athens archaic examples are found in which the pulvinus was given a concave profile. Athena. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 95 capital also taxed the ingenuity of the architects. In Lycia. a band. and sometimes had on either side curves of double curvature. 100. II. 74. Olympia. or girdle. Pulvinus of cap- archaic capital from ital from the Temple of Athens. ital from the Palaistra. 97. th<. Priene. 98). This form was further modified by the lalteus (Bco-fws or %a>vrf). as in the Palaistra at Olympia (Fig.

103. Paestum. tial part of the FIG. frustum of a cone furnished also an appropriate capital. Asecond solution for the principal moulding of the capital was to construct it on a circular plan. and many types of capitals arose from a modification of its form. starting-point. Conical capital from the Heraion.96 GREEK ARCHITECTURE flowers interlocked by their stems. Instead of a rectangular block. By rounding off its sharp edges the slightly rounded profile of the torus capital of the Tomb of Atreus at Mycenae was produced. In the normal Doric capital the cone was given a convex profile. from the Heraion. At this stage of development the form was certainly far removed from that of a rectangular block. Echinus capital FIG. . Temple of Poseidon. 102. 101. 101). FIG. Hellenistic capitals were frequently of this form (Fig. a cylindrical drum was selected as a X. Samos. The echinus of the capitals of the so-called Temple Poseidon at Paestum appears to have been of constructed of three arcs of circles (Fig. Olympia. 103) that of . \^ normal The lOlllC capital. 102). An echinus appears to have served as the principal moulding of the capitals at the Heraion at Samos (Fig. and be- came an essen- Echinus of capital from the _ x.

FIG. Echinus of capital from Parthenon. 5 At a later period this general form was employed in the Olympieion. 257. 105. 48. 8-9. but such superfine prod- ucts of curvature were \ by no means universal and led to the abandon- meat of curved for straight profiles. like that of the calyx capitals of Egypt. 104. Penrose. . and the hyperbola was at Aegina and elsewhere. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 97 the Theseion. 258. ^ / tecture in the classic pe. and the Tower of 1 2 3 Reinhardt. the Theatre of Dionysos. was introduced also into Greek archi. Fig. 91. of five arcs of circles and a straight line. 1 The parabola furnished the form for the earlier capitals 2 at Corinth and Metapontum. 104). the profiles of the echinus of the Parthenon capitals a succession of curves of three different kinds (Fig. in the Corinthian ' capital at Phigaleia 4 and in the Tholos at Epidauros. Penrose finds in at 3 employed i FIG. Bell-shaped capital from Tower of the Winds Athens " riod. The concave profile. 4 See 6 See Fig. Cockerell.

but when used for columns 1 Pergamon. II. the abacus (a/3af. as. in__the capital of an archaic votive column from the Acropolis at Athens (Fig. ir\lvdo). A marked \ 7 FIG. Pergamon. which it was the crown. according to the nature of the capital. might. 107) and in the Greek gym- nasium at Pergamon. 107. at Magnesia on the Maeander. 106). Erechtheion. 1 The profile of such capitals was usually slightly convex at the base> thus suggesting the cyma recta (Fig. Plan of abacus of corner col. be in umn. Taf. in the Temple of Dionysos (Fig. 106. Olympia. 108. Cyma recta moulding FIG. Dionysos. 24. 105).98 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the Winds at Athens. p} an rO und or square or of polygonal. and in the Leonidaion. for ex- ample. in the case of FIG. The uppermost mem- ber of the capital. . cyma recta appears as the principal moulding!. in the Gymnasium Gate at Olympia. and in the Stoa of Eumenes at Pergaraon. isolated columns. Cyma recta moulding on on capital from the Temple of votive column. Athens. It occurs not infrequently at a late period.

ittook at the angles a slightly scalloped form (Fig. Plan of abacus of Monu- rectilinear outline prevailed ment of Lysicrates. Abacus of the Erech- FIG. in the Temple of Athena at Priene and elsewhere. 111. is found in the Erechtheion (Fig. ] 12. the scal- loped abacus became the normal form (Fig. it received a rectangular plan. When all four volutes were diago- nally posed. In profile. 110). but curvilinear profiles were preferred for the Ionic. 113. Abacus of Monument leion at Halikaruassos. FIG. An elliptical or hyperbolic outline. 109. This form was modified in the case of a corner Ionic capital. Athens. Abacus of the Parthenon. Abacus of the Mauso. The cavetto occurs frequently. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 99 which supported entablatures. the abacus re- ceivod various forms. as was the case with some Ionic and all Corinthian capitals. 3 10. like the Doric echinus. 109). the Propylaia and FIG. theion. A FIG. of Lysicrates. 112). in the Doric abacus (Fig. Athens. 108). nassos (Fig. a cyma reversa was preferred in Asia Minor at the Mausoleum at Halikar- FIG. in other Ionic capitals of the classic period . Ill). In order to cover the diagonally posed corner volute. as in the .

however. 115). in Winckelmannsprogramme. 1 2 Koldewey. form.100 GREEK ARCHITECTURE abaci of the Monument of Lysicrates (Fig. The superposition of one form upon another produced also the capitals which crown the heads of the Caryatids of the Treasury of the Knidians at Delphi. . 2 In fact. Complex forms of capitals. A . / The superposition of the rec. Athens. 114. Abacus of the Leoni- was not always a happy com. Ingenious as was this combination of forms it was too complex to appeal strongly to the practical minded Romans. daion ol y ' mPia - bination. sometimes the volutes suffered from the combination. In some pilaster capitals from Cyprus the abacus derives its x form from Ionic or Persian w^^ ^ epistyles and is divided into Abacus of the oiym- FIG. were sometimes preferred. These offered abundant choice for all ordinary purposes. 114). 115. See Fig. . but a complex. and in the Leonidaion at Olympia (Fig. the normal V Ionic capital itself was not a \ simple. Beneath the pulvinus the echinus had to be flattened or omitted. a series of horizontal steps or pieion. WQhave thus far considered the varieties of capitals of simple form. in the Temple of Apollo at Neandreia 1 is found a capital which resembles the superposed capitals from Egypt and Persepolis. : tangular block with its lateral ^ volutes upon a circular echinus FIG. The juncture of echinus and volutes left an awkward corner which was covered by a half palmette. fasciae. 113) and the Olympieion at Athens (Fig. Thus. on the other hand. 34. 221. 51. No.

or other rectangular build- ings surrounded by a peristyle. A new problem was presented when the peristyle extended around an open court. 74. instead of on opposite. as in market-places and private houses. As this presented a form not altogether agreeable. Sicily and in southern Italy. Fig. In the Pergamon Museum at Berlin there is an interesting triplex Doric capital which crowned a clustered shaft. Clustered columns with corresponding capitals were rare. sides of the capital. we may well un- derstand that the circular types of capitals were preferred for such courts. the half column and square pier were not infrequently combined. when the Ionic order is used. . appears not to have been the case with the Philippeion at Olympia. Various cases arose. In Macedonia. however. to which it was ill adapted. required a modification of tho corner capitals so that the volutes might appear on ad- joining. each of which presented peculiar difficulties. The principal opening of the colonnade in front of the Temple of Isis at 1 Pompeii was between two massive piers with lateral at- 1 Mau. the pulvinus was often omitted and a four-faced capital formed with allthe volutes posed diagonally. In Ionia and in Greece this was usually accomplished by twisting the corner volutes into a diagonal position. Temples. angle. gave rise to new complex foims. akhough. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 101 The application of the Ionic type of capital to peristyles. Here. not an external. or that the awkward angle was avoided by the use of the square pillar with a rectangular capital. juxtaposed volutes form a reentrant. in the case of antae. This. [n the case of circular buildings with peristyles we might expect that the forms of capitals would be modified to a somewhat trapezoidal shape.

8 B. at Delos there are columns of which one side is channelled and the other plain. 16. while the capitals of the plain sides consist of the irpo- TQfjLal of bulls. crown shafts. 2 B. or Macellum. The channelled sides have echinus capitals. 504-505. or series of beams. A logical evolution led to the substitution of human. in the Parthenon. 6. 9. where heads of Zeus and Apollo. near the the- 2 two busts of lions as well as two busts of bulls atre. frieze and geison or cornice. we find a different modification. probably also of Hera and Artemis. Thus. however. which rested upon and united a row of columns. 8. 7. .102 GREEK ARCHITECTURE tached columns. In the long Stoa. In a private house at Delos. assume the position usually occupied by spirals.H. for geometric. epistyle. . ENTABLATURES. VIII (1884).H. floral and animal forms in the capitals of columns. This stage was reached in the capitals from the fagade of the Temple of the Didymaeaii Apollo near 3 Miletos. Here the face iBlouet.C. XIX (1895).. The entablature (eirifioXtf) usu- ally consisted of three parts. the long surfaces of which fall in horizontal and vertical planes. the upper and lower surfaces were curved in a vertical plane to harmonize with the upward curvature of the stylobate. III. PL 17.. The epistyle (eina-rvXiov) was the beam. capitals of such complex piers had The 1 complex capitals. Its gen- eral form was that of a parallelopipedon. Pis. PI. the opposite sides of which are channelled and probably had echinus capitals. and which originally supported the ceiling beams. In the more refined buildings of the classic period these surfaces were sometimes intentionally modified in form. 3 Haussoullier. In the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum.C.

XXI (1907). In general. however. as in the exterior order of the Temple on the 3 Ilissos. 331. chiefly as an inheritance from methods of construction in wood.. 1 the In the Temple of Herakles at Cori. as Perrot 5 has suggested. I. as in the Pliilippeion at Olympia. 10. These banded epistyles suggest the superposition of smaller beams where the stronger unit was either difficult to obtain or not wanted. Perrot et Chipiez. Occasionally. The epistyle received other modifications of form. Goodyear. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 103 of the epistyle was curved outward. Doric epistyles usually. The face of the epistyle. 4 the inner face of the epistyle of the pre-Roman temple has four fasciae. and Ionic epistyles oc- casionally.J. Arch. it was in form a regular parallelopipedon. X (1895). 400. presented an unbroken face. and to pre- vent disaster in case of warping of the principal beams. in A. The crowning moulding was originally not a mere ornament but served a useful purpose. These may be considered separately according to their appearance upon the frdnt. VI. a board designed to bind together the separate members of the epistyle and frieze. Pt. Pis. But Ionic epi- styles were generally banded or broken into a succession of three overlapping fasciae. 1-6. At Suweda. as was the case in Temple of Medinet Habu in Egypt. iPennethorne. rear or soffit of the epistyle. in Syria. 2 8 Stuart and Revett. where it was crowned by one or more mould- ings.A. Bee. In wooden buildings it was probably. when representing colossal wooden beams. presented an unbroken face. 3. . 2. Ch. 712. .. the epistyle showed only two fasciae. except at the top. PL 1 Goodyear. 4 6 Butler. 2 the epistyle was curved inward in plan.

background. 116).104 GREEK ARCHITECTURE In the Old Temple of Athena at Athens it projected above the upper level of the epistyle block. In rigidly Doric buildings it showed FIG. Crowning FIG. they are attached to the background and in form are either cylin- . from their resemblance to rain drops known to theRomans as guttae. 117. 117). and taper downwards (Fig. Athens. a rectangular profile and was known as the taenia or fillet-shaped moulding. r/Xot). as if it were also required to prevent the triglyphs from sliding forward (Fig. Of similar rectangular form were the regulae or reglets (/cai>oW<?). Moulding of Epistyle. Temple C. In Temple C at Moulding of Epistyle. 116. dia. Crowning FIG. incline forwards. The form of the moulding which crowns the epistyle varied considerably. Moulding of Epistyle Old Temple of Athena. however. 118. Selinous. The trunnels FIG. Usually. of Temple of Concor- Athens. Selinous they are detached from the Propyiaia. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle. 119' -crowning also varied in form. Akragas. which were placed beneath it in line with the triglyphs and which were apparently held in place by large wooden trunnels (ydpfai.

and on the inner face with an ovolo between be id and fillet. 120. 1 See Fig. of Tholos at Epi. Temp. 2 and the Treasury of Syracuse at Olympia. Dion. curved mouldings need not FIG. as a rule. such as the Tern- 4 phi of Dionysos at Pergamon. 2 4 Olympia. or abacus moulding. 1 appears in a modified form. dauros. crown the epistyle. Magnesia. I. 117. Crowning FIG. Taf. In late Doric buildings. beneath which the regulae have the curved form of a cyma reversa. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 105 drical (Fig. Selinous. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle Moulding of Epistyle Moulding of Epistyle of Temple of Nike. Perg. In this case the epistyle was crowned by a rectangular taenia. Here. In Ionic buildings. the epistyle was crowned with a cyma reversa between a bead moulding and a fillet. or the cyma reversa. 118) or taper upwards. terminated by bead or fillet mouldings (Figs. Here we find convex and concave mouldings. like the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum. on the outer face. . 3 the epistyle may be crowned with curved mouldings.. where it has a roundel moulding imbedded in it. as in the Temple C. Bohn. surprise us. 120-122). curved mouldings. Crowning FIG. In Ionic epistyles of the classic period multiple 3 Koldewey und Puch stein. temis. sometimes with a cu rved profile (Fig. 122. of the Temple of Ar- Athens. 119) The taenia moulding occasionally . 19. Even in an archaic Doric building. 34. 6-7. 121.

Antithema of Epistyle.106 GREEK ARCHITECTURE mouldings already appear. the epistyle and frieze were sep- arated from each other by mouldings. In Doric buildings the massive epistyle usually retained the same height as in the outer face. 123. the antithema of the frieze was set back. Taf. and was combined with the antithema of the frieze "so as to present the appearance of a low wall rather than an entablature. was not a replica of the outer face. or rear of the epistyle. Paestum. In Roman and Early Christian archi- tecture they sometimes absorbed the entire face of the architrave and all the trace of a massive beam or even of a banded epistyle disappeared. 3 the frieze was flush with the epistyle. and the wall-like appearance emphasized. . 16. 39. 11. 2 p en rose. Olympia. for the sake of variety. The separating mouldings. 1 The antithema (avTiOrma). as in the bead and ovolo of the Temple of Athena at Priene. In the case of the 2 Parthenon. I. thus giving the epistyle a slight salience. PI. At Sounion. and thus the inner face was more or less a reflection of the exterior. and perhaps 1 Butler. but in general these mouldings were not only strikingly decorated. but complex in form. Temple of Demeter. Rhamnous and elsewhere. simple mouldings were occasionally employed. but in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. FIG. In later buildings.

or fasciae. the Temple of Artemis at Magnesia and the Temple of 125. in the . was to bring these broad surfaces into closer ling. the panelling was effected in such a way as to divert the attention from the joints. In Ionic buildings the ceiling beams rested di- rectly upon the inner block of the epistyle. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 107 owing to the different conditions in regard to light. The antithema of the epistyle WHS accordingly formed so as to present two bands. FIG. 123). Antithema of Epistyle near MiletOS (Fig. Mag- 125) ^ where ^ epigtyles consisted of two juxtaposed blocks. The under surface or soffit of the epistyle was. which did not reach the same height as the exterior block. instead of three. At the Temple of Athena at Priene. 124) that the com- bined frieze and epistyle of the inner face equalled in height the epistyle alone of the exterior. harmony with the coffered ceilings. Consequently. It remained so in Greece proper even when the epistyle was constructed of two or three juxta- posed blocks. Antithema of Epistyle from the ol y ra P ieion Athens - The process of diminishing > the height of the epistyle on its reverse face was carried so far in the Olympieion at Athens (Fig. however. In the architecture of Asia Minor. The main object of the panel- however. in the earlier and simpler varieties of Greek architecture. Apollo the Temple of Artemis. the soffit of the epistyle was frequently panelled. a plane surface. 124. were gi yen profiles different from those of the exterior (Fig.

as in the Ionic. Similar panellings were sunk in the soffits of archivolts. triglyphs and dentils ceased to be structural and were mere decorative forms. when with fig- ured sculpture as a>o$o/>o9. geometric or floral designs as Koo-fiofyopos . . It had a visible front and back. was sunk in the middle block regardless of the joints on either side. Durm. sometimes modified by a slight curvature in plan or elevation. The second member of the entablature was the frieze. In the Doric temple. Once estab- lished. connected with the epistyle by a taenia or other moulding which served as a base for the frieze as well as a crown for the epistyle. 293. but on the frieze. Hence. when continuous. It was. this form of epistyle soffit survived in Orient and Occident alike. Its function differed from that of the epistyle in being 1 2 Koldewey. known from its crowning function as OpLytcds or and from its encircling character as Btd^co^a or When divided into triglyphs and metopes it was known as or rpij\vcf)ovi when continuously decorated with Tpij\v(j)o(. moreover. in spite of their being crossed at inter- vals by the joints of the voussoirs. the actual ceil- ing beams were raised so as to rest. It had its own crowning moulding. 1 the panelling seems to have been in- troduced without regard to the intervening joint.108 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Temple at Messa. and in 2 the Olympieion at Athens. but no soffit. it was treated as a second epistyle to elevate the ceiling structure. The general form of the frieze agreed with that of the epistyle in being a regular parallelopipedon. or as a covering to hide it from view. 0)^0/009. The divided frieze may be conceived as suggesting the ceiling beams by means of its triglyphs or dentils . not on the epistyle. 21. Taf.

. 10. Paestum. The channellings of the archaic period were terminated with a pointed 1 Boetticher. 127. As a decoration it matters little whether it corresponds or not with the actual position FIG. 74. considered as having two whole and two -half channellings. Eom. 209. Etr. channelling was usually triangular in plan (Fig. Hence we may classify the forms of friezes as : (a) Those which symbolize the ceiling beams. PI. Semicircular grooves. 5 Cf Tomb at Norchia. 4. . Triangular FIG. 206. as it enables us to 4 designate as monoglyphs. 68.. Koldewey und Puchstein. Tiryns. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 109 more closely related to ceiling and roof. Apollo. F IG . Temple of grooves. 127). 126). oi:the ceiling beams. 3 The latter in- terpretation is the more convenient. Schliemann. Temple of Poseidon. forms which exhibit a smaller or larger number The form of the of channellings. tetraglyphs. or because the channels were triangular in 2 or because each triglyph may be shape. . Durm. Triglyph 5 6 from triglyphs and Treas- tb e diglyphs. 128. 6 Cf Temple E. 3 L aloux. Bank. Selinous. The Doric triglyphon (rpiyXvfov) may be regarded as of the former class. Nor need we concern ourselves as to whether the name originated because each free standing triglyph was channelled on three 1 sides. *Cf. Fig. 126. (5) Those which do not symbolize the ceiling beams. 2 Krell. Metapontum. al- though semicircular in the triglyphs of the Temple of Apollo at Metapontum (Fig.

The influence of the scotia of the Egyptian cornice is perhaps to be seen in the slightly curved face of the Doric 2 triglyphs of the Temple C. terminations of the channelling call to at Epidauros. a rectilinear termi- nation prevailed (Fig. 132). 390. we have but to go a step farther to see in the channelling an indication that such beams were often composite in character. 130. Athens. No. 132. 130. 393. . 2 Photograph. Triglyph crown. . Triglyph from Temple C. 129. of Concord! a. by G. _ _. But if we are right in assuming that triglyphs symbolize the ends of ceiling beams. In the Tholos at Epidauros and in Hellenistic triglyphs. The origin and significance FIG. of triglyphal channelling is not self-evident. laia. from the Temple Selinous. Akragas. Figs. in the classic period with a depressed arch (Figs. The vertical bars between the grooves are known as shanks 1 Perrot et Chipiez. The semicircular and pointed from the Tholos. being made up of two or three narrow beams in close juxtaposition. 155. . I. Palermo. Incorpora. 128) or round arch (Fig. which may not have been without influence in the formation of the early Doric types. 131). 131.110 GREEK ARCHITECTURE (Fig. Their independence. was emphasized by chamfering their exposed joints arid their union by the abacus FIG. from the Propy. mind well established forms of decoration 1 in Egyptian cornices. Selinous. Triglyph FIG. Triglyph FIG. 129).

the concavity occurs at the base of the frieze. Frieze in tombs at Myra and Mylasa and in of Stoa of Ha. It was frequently lower and crowned by different mouldings. possibly for the first time. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 111 The second variety of frieze retained in its decora- tion no reference to roof or ceiling structure. The body of the frieze was rectilinear in profile until the end of the classic period.. Friezes with curved profiles be. mi .. Then curved FIG. The antithema of the frieze seldom duplicated the face of the frieze. Ill. timidly. ma ny monuments of Syria. the face of the frieze was sharply concave at the top. 6. 135). Frieze from the came very popular under the Byzantine Temple of Zeus.FIQ 135 _ Convex where. FIG.. Frieze and pulvinated friezes abound. The crowning moulding might be a simple < taenia. Athens. /6id. PI. IV. PI. 133. a Lesbian cyma or a scotia. 2 6. m Ihe cyma recta appeared -. Ch. Fropylon before the Temple of Athena at Friene (Fig. 134). . in the Tholos at Epidauros (Fig.. 133).. A convex frieze occurs at the Temple of Zeus at Labranda (Fig. 9. Labranda. and in the Tower of the Winds at Athens. 3. In the of the Propyion. 136). but no independent base moulding. . empire. . and in the Baths of Diocletian at Rome. In the Stoa of Hadrian at Athens S (Fig. Ch. It had its crowning mouldings. The crowning member of the entablature is the cornice 1 Stuart and Kevett. More pronounced cymas are found at Palai- 1 2 opolis in Andrds. separated by a taenia and astragal. 134. at Salonica and else. drian. but usually consisted of an echinus.

But recta Frieze from Greek cornices were seldom as simple as the Thoios at thi Th usuall J exhibited some re- Epidauros. The main body of the cornice was usually a strongly marked platband in archaic and classic cor- nices. which is found in almost every structure of the Doric order. brackets or panels. thus also receive a rational explana- tion. and were pro- vided with a crowning moulding (a/cpoyeicriov). 137. marked A 1 2 Olympia. which occur so invariably FIG. See Fig< 4< . I. Cornice with mutules from the Temple of Zeus. Taf . 2 The narrow bands above and below the mutules. dentils. in the Doric cornice. The cornice with mutules. merely a platband with- FIG 136 Cyma modification at base or summit. as does also the crowning moulding.112 GREEK ARCHITECTURE It is distinguished by its pronounced overhang. Olympia. Over the side walls of the Treasury of the 1 Megarians at Olympia projected a cornice of simplest form. The mutules are apparently survivals of wooden forms. minder of the carpentry ot the roof. 38. is not easy to explain. such as mutules. and devices for checking and controlling the rainfall its on the roof. though narrow and unimportant in many cornices of a late period. and probably represent boards which served as cover joints beneath the sheathing of the roof.

as in C at FIG. 139. the mutules. typical Doric cornice. shows. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 113 character of this type of cornice is the downward and outward inclination of the mutules. Temple Telmessos. /cXi^oTroSe?) was characteristic of Ionic buildings of Asia Minor (Fig. and even the trunnels. The cornice with dentils (^ettr^TroSe?. an indication that it was formed in a country where pitched roofs were com- mon. The antithema. A _ FIG. Cornices in which the mutules are posed horizon- tally do not occur prior to the Hellenistic period. Dentil frieze from Tomb of Amyntas. Selinous. by its form. 138) . was variously adjusted so as to unite with the horizontal ceiling beams or sloping rafters of the roof. 137). [~~ . were shaped so as to throw the drip outward as far as possible.md the unit- ing surface is sharply under- cut. a careful pro- tection of lower surfaces by means of crowning drip mouldings. So m e- times. Cornice with dentils from Priene. Thus. or back of the cornice. 138. a sharply pointed beak moulding caps the principal platband. as in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (Fig. This again overhangs the nar- row band above the mutules.

Their appearance also in the raking cornice (/cardyeio-ov^ of the gable strength- ened the association with the cornice. Cornice with coffering from the Temple of Demeter. a When. found on the gable of the Temple of Demeter at Paestum (Fig. kosmophoros or a zophoros was intro- duced above the epistyle. Athens. 141). The cornice with brackets or consoles. much used by Roman and Byzantine architects.114 GREEK ARCHITECTURE where. the dentils became the crowning moulding of the frieze. 140. 139). their construction and diminished size imply. however. The cornice with cofferings. the bed mould or supports of the cornice. 140). the dentil band was sometimes important enough to be ranked as a frieze (Fig. 141. or. Paestum. the dentils FIG. In this case. as their Greek name. as we have seen. occurs in the interior of the Tower of the Winds at Athens (Fig. . constitutes a fourth type less widely spread. FIG. Cornice with consoles from interior of Tower of Winds. appear as supports for the cap moulding of the cornice a very unusual disposition.

. 143). such as that of the Erech- theion (Fig. Cornice of Erechtheion. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 115 There remains the cornice which is devoid of all still reminiscences of carpentry. and on the Treasury of Gela at Olympia (Fig. 143. Athens. the cyma reversa was commonly substituted for the egg and dart. 1 The crowning mouldings of the geison in the Erechtheion are a carved egg and dart over the bead and reel. 142) and other Attic-Ionic buildings. Subdivided cornice from the Treasury of Gela. This cornice is characterized by simplicity and. 142. near Selinous. Complex or subdivided cornices are found on the ar- FIG. 51. The front horizontal cornice of the 1 Penrose. Curvature of lines and surfaces is observable in some Greek cornices. chaic Temple of Demeter at Gaggera. great delicacy of form. at the same FIG. In the Hellenistic period in Asia Mi- nor. especially in the hyperbolic surface of its soffit. time. Olympia.

10. PI.J. Coffered and without. X (1895). attempted also in cornices probably not. in some cases was ex- tended to the en- tablature also. Thus the cornice of the Temple Castor of and Pollux at Rome 8 was sharply concave at the summit. d'Espouy. from the Temple of Apollo. such as was in- troduced into late FIG. A.. 2 Penrose. iBurckhardt. however. Ionic f riezes. 90. those of the Parthenon 2 and other build- ings curve in the vertical plane. Sometimes. Thus the curva- ture. as at Corinth. 22. Cicerone I. 4. ceilings with. Phigaleia. Goodyear.A. this cur- vature seems to have been ap- plied to the fagade only. . before the Roman period. observable in the bases of many Greek temples. whereas the at Segesta curves Temple of Poseidon 1 at lateral cornices of the so-called Paestum have a distinct outward curve in plan. .116 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Temple inward in plan. 144. A curved profile. was beams..

ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 117 while that of the Temple of Concord showed in profile a cyma recta. In Hellenistic and Roman buildings. Greek ceilings (opofyai) may be formally classified as those which consist of a net- work of closely juxtaposed panels or coffers (TrXatcrta re- rpdycova. So/eot'). 146. and that the types which omitted the indication of lattice-work or of ceiling beams were of later date. the large ceiling beams were treated like epistyles with overlapping fasciae (Figs. We may readily believe that the earliest type was that which represented most clearly the actual con- struction. The round logs of prehis- toric buildings seem to have left no impress on the ceil- ing forms of classic times. of Apollo at Phigaleia (Fig. but squared ceiling beams survive throughout the whole history of Greek architecture. and those which exhibit also the large hori-' zontal beams (<7eX$e9. CEILINGS AND ROOFS. 7. . 146-147). the only modification being the cap moulding and a socket to support the coffers (Fig.Ceiling beam from the Templee of Apollo. . (f>arvo)/jLara) sepa- rated by narrow lath-like bands (<rT/>a)Ti}/)9). Through the classic period r these beams were quadrangu- lar inform. Both types may be seen in die peristyle of the Temple FIG. Miletos. 144). 145 Ceiling beam from Par- thenon. 145).

147. of the Theseion. were larger and deeper than Doric cofferings. In the Parthenon. and show soffits either plain or with a central astragal. J. for example. and many Hel- lenistic. or smaller ceiling bands. in the vault of the 2 triumphal arch at Orange. and. V (1901). Aizani. and complex in some classic (Fig.118 GREEK ARCHITECTURE The stroteres. in general.. France. 149). . occur with or without cap mouldings. as. The Temple of Athena at Priene offers an excellent example. 148. 1 some of these panels were arranged so that they could be removed. Roman cofferings were sometimes very elaborate in design. buildings. The cofferings varied in depth. 37-50. i Bates. Athens. the cofferings FIG. 150) and elsewhere. 14. but rhorn- boidal cofferings are found in the Temple of Apollo FIG. were terminated by a slightly curved surface ovpavlffK&f). 148). Cof- ferings were usually of square form. Ionic cofferings were richly profiled with a succession of mouldings. The were usually terminated coffers by horizontal panels (-TrtVa/ee?. peion at Qlympia (Fig.A. in the Philip- of Zeus. Cofferings from the Thesion. being simple in early and classic examples (Fig. /eaXu/i/Acma) In the case . PI. in A. Ceiling beam from the Temple at Phigaleia. 2 Caristie.

dating FIG. turning. Cofferings from the Temple of Athena. Taf. pointed or round arched. 149. Cofferings from the Philippeion. It did not occur to the architect to cover his stairway with a raking vault. apparently from the period of the Attalids... The galleries at Tiryns and the tombs at Mycenae furnish early examples of tri- FIG. Prieiie. is an example of a vaulted winding stairway. as would have been done by an Assyrian or a Roman builder. 130-137. As with portals and window openings. Of round-arched vaults the most instructive examples are to be found at Perga- mon. angular and pointed passages. . ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 119 The forms form of the of vaults varied according to the spaces covered. He made five horizontal barrel vaults. 11-13. leading to the middle terrace of the gymna- sium. XXIX (1904). in Ath. i Doerpfeld. 1 Here. 150. Olympia. ohe forms of long passages might be triangular or trape- zoidal. Mitt.

I. as in the Tower of the Winds at Athens. 4 Circular buildings were sometimes covered by vaults. one of which penetrates without crossing the other. I. result- 1 ing in half a bay of a quadripartite. was almost entirely avoided by the device of making each successive vault spring from a higher level. Taf. I. as in theTomb at Mylasa. once at an acute. 1 3 Choisy. and a series of marble slabs were set on end con- verging toward a common centre. as was the case with the Mycenaean tholoi and the inner chambers of the great tombs at Halikarnassos and at Knidos. intersecting cloister vaults were 2 avoided by a system of construction reminding one of the pyramidal Colchian roofs described by Vitruvius. a polygonal dome was avoided. and once at an obtuse. or vaults which turn an angle. Here two barrel- vaulted passages of the same height meet at right angles. When stone roofs for square spaces were undertaken. II. Fig. 5 is as yet an unsettled problem.120 GREEK ARCHITECTURE twice at right angles. Whether the semi-dome which crowned Roman exedrae and the apses of early Christian churches had also its prototype in Greek apsidal buildings. Even more important as a prototype of Roman and mediaeval vaulting systems are the vaults found within a mound known as the Tomb of Telephos just outside the city of Pergamon. angle. 24-25. Hemispherical domes were avoided. like the Doric Temple at Samothrace. where the blocks of stone were laid in horizontal courses so as to form highly-pointed domes. 1. 8 Couze-Hauser-Niemann. 17-20. Antiq. 3 When a small polygonal space was to be roofed with stone. like the roof of a Phrygian hut. The difficulty of constructing vaults which interpenetrate. 6. returning upon itself at a higher level. 4. 5. 518... Pis. cross-groined vault. Vitruvius. . 2 Ion. II. 1. * Ibid.

and must be considered separately. it was con- structed so as to present a coffered form. When concealed from view by horizontal ceilings. areyrj) was in many build- (e7r&>/>o</ua ings. conical and other types of roofs are found as covers for porches. was hidden by a covering of clay . The cover tiles were sometimes curved. 246. The forms of these tiles varied considerably. but when exposed to view. was applied also to palaces and civic build- ings. Never- theless. as in the Heraion at Olympia (Fig. 151. fcimes slightly curved. quite distinct from the horizontal ceilings. The gable roof. the gable roof 2 was likened to an eagle (aero?. 151). if horizontal. pyramidal. The construction of the roof. 147-152. aerco/^a). . 2 Boetticher. but were more frequently flat with raised edges. Etudes. Pent. Roof tiles from the Heraion. The FIG. by tiles of terra-cotta or marble. if peaked. uhe appearance of the roof from the interior of buildings could be neglected. Olympia. holds that the Eastern cella of the Erech- 1 theion had no horizontal ceiling. as in the Heraion Choisy. the rain tiles and the cover tiles (tfaXv7TT7}/oe?). or winged thing (Trrepvyiov) with two wings (trTepvyes) . two kinds were always em- ployed. 1 In its outer aspect. tombs and honorary monu- ments. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 121 The roof also 0/00^17. rain tiles were some. in form as well as construction. almost universally employed for temples.

but in the classic period were more frequently triangular. tiles (Fig. 155). or represented animal or human heads. 152) . 153) and the Erechtheion. Olympia. In the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. as in the Temple of Zeus. These varied in profile. to the roof. known as ante- fixes. usually decorated with anthemia. which faced in two directions. the Parthenon (Fig. In cases of pyramidal. later with saddle back. These either reflected the semicircular and tri- angular forms of the cover tiles. or were formed to imitate a lotus flower or a palmette. 152. the forms of these tiles were modified in form.122 GREEK ARCHITECTURE and in the Treasury of Gela at Olympia (Fig. properly. The ridge of the roof was provided with half round. and show either rectilinear or convex . The simae (cn^ai) belong. Olympia. con- ical and intersecting roofs. At FlG 153 ' ' ~ Rocl tiles flom lhe Parthenon - the lower extremities of the line of cover tiles a terminus was formed by similar decorative tiles. the roof consists of a solid block of marble carved on its upper surface to imitate tiles of a scale or leaf pattern (Fig. Roof tiles from the necessarily Treasury of Gela. 154).

Imitation roof tiles from FIG. (\6ovroK6(j)a\oi. 154. Aegina. or the doubly curved cyma reversa or cyma recta (Figs 156-159). and rarely more than a short distance from the cornices of . Sima of the Treasury of Gela. Ridge tile the Monument of Lysicrates. mouldings were associated subordinate base or cap mould- ings of varied profiles. arranged at intervals. Athena. Sima of the Temple of Aphaia. Sima of the Temple of FIG. sometimes simple pipe stems (Fig. FIG. Aphaia. from the Temple of Athens. more frequently in the form of lion heads FIG. 15t>. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 123 or concave profiles. Aegina. 155. Sima of the Parthenon. 158. 160). With these principal FIG. seldom dog heads or other symbols. Olympia. 159. Priene. Water spouts (vBpoppoa) were Fia.\ Simae are found invariably on the raking cornices. 157.

Ordinarily the form of the gable front was a rectilinear triangle. 28. 2 the gable cornices were curved 1 2 Penrose. In the so-called Temple of Poseidon at Paestum. it necessarily modi- fied the gable form. . and by the presence of a crowning sima. 73. the pediment had a delicate vertical curvature. Sima with water spout. once introduced. called a tympanum (jv^Travov). the raking FIG. 161. or Karaiena) of the roof. Above the tympanum were the projecting cornices (ryela-a aleria^ FIG. Central acroterion from the Heraion. No. but the refinement of curved surfaces was not limited to krepi- domas and entab- latures and. In the classic period these were distinguished from the horizontal cornices by the absence of mutules and dentils.124 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the long sides. and was pro- vided with a crowning mould- ing of its own. They occur very seldom on the hori- zontal cornices of the pediments. cornices as well as Olympia. raking Athens Museum. The gable roof was terminated at each end by a trian- gular wall. Brooklyn Institute photograph. 160. Thus. in the so-called The- 1 seion. The tympanum was back so as to provide a set suitable base or pediment for gable sculptures.

The general form of the gable front was also modified by the emphasis laid upon the extremities. in their earliest forms. grif- iins. symbolized the ridge-pole (Fig. (a/cpwrrjpia). . Lateral acroterion from the Old Temple of Athena. In later times. ornaments which. 161) and wall plate (Fig. Athens. etc. were substituted for the early geometric forms. tripods. ARCHITECTURAL FORMS 125 inwards towards the roof of the building. ]62) of wooden buildings. 162. Here were placed acroteria FIG.. victories.

and then of the minor. ratios. Even in these primary measurements con- siderable variety of practice prevailed. 126 . 1 MAJOR RATIOS. 1.. decoration and composition. Unfortunately. This treatment of the proportions of various classes of buildings implies the establishment first of the major or fundamental. Koldewey und Puchstein. until in the Hellenistic period there were many architects who sought in their buildings and by their writings to establish the true canons of proportion. 229. the peristyle. then those of the surrounding peristyle. This tendency to make an exact science of architecture increased rapidly. In considering temple architecture . but laid special emphasis on proportion. In laying out a 2 temple. In many Sicilian temples cella and peristyle were not harmoniously adjusted. CHAPTER III PROPORTION GREEK architects concerned themselves not only with forms. hence their measurements were in great measure independent of each 2 1 Vitruvius. or subsidiary. He us that they meant by propor- tells tion a harmony of ratios of the parts with the whole. those of the facade and sides of . and we are largely dependent upon Vitruvius 1 to acquaint us with Greek conceptions of proportion. Ill. the major ratios in plan are those of the temple base and of the cella in elevation. these books are not preserved to us. Koldewey and Puchstein tell us that the measure- ments of the cella were first determined.

VII. . Regulations for the subdivision of by Vitruvius. 8 * Schultz. 10. There is little reason to believe that the rectangle w ith known "golden section" r a ratio as the figured either theoretically or practically in the stylobate 3 plans of Greek temples. . Hellenistic stylobates meas- ured about 2:1. In the archaic period it often approximated the ratio 3:1. 551. 2 Perrot et Chipiez. IV. and the measurements of the temple base and of the peristyle were consequently quite as im- portant as those of the cella. 1. and this seems to have furnished the standards in Hellenistic and Roman times. so frequent that Perrot hesitates to assign to the general proportions of the plan of . 111-116 Lloyd-Cockerell. PROPORTION 127 other. 63-94. classic stylobates showed usually a more contracted rectangle of about 2. who assigns to the naos the cella are given 4 a length equivalent to one and a quarter times the breadth of the cella. 4. 2 however. Exceptions to this general rule were. The plan of the temple cella varied like that of the stylobate.50:1. Vitruvius. from a long rectangle to one whose length was double its breadth. and to the combined depth of 1 Lloyd-Penrose. .a temple any chrono- logical value. in other cases it was derived from the stylobate and occasionally from the axes of the corner columns. From a study of the pro- 1 portions of classical temples it may be gathered that the fundamental ratio was sometimes taken from the rectangle made by the lowest step of the krepidoma. In the classical period this adjustment became more imperative. The stylobate rectangle shows various forms. The most convenient bfisis for exact measurement was the stylobate.

nor more than one- That is to say. were also usually excluded. The variations due to differ- ences of style or period were less important. the gable. were usually made up of therefore. not being factors of the side elevation of a temple. may be recognized in the facades of most tetrastyle temples of all periods. Measured thus the general proportions of the fagade of Greek temples varied from a square to long rectangles. 1 2 Basilicas. they have much the half. 393-401. In elevations the fundamental ratios seem to 'have been variously constituted.according to Vitruvius. and eighteen for Doric. then the length of the front stylobate seems to have been about fourteen for Ionic. When the stylobate was taken as the base of the rectangle. as a major ratio. and of the height of the order on the other. If ten units be arbitra- rily established as the measure of the height of the columns and entablature. twenty- two for decastyles and thirty-six for dodecastyles. The square. 1. 2 Vitruvius. The gable and the sima of the cornice. about twenty for octostyles. V. For example. their length. . or rear porch. same dimensions as the stylobates of temples. the krepidoma. the krepidoma was naturally excluded. These variations depended chiefly upon the number of columns to be exhibited in front. or the sima of the cornice might be included or excluded from the computation. should exhibit a breadth of not less than one-third. The 1 These measurements are deduced from the measurements given by Hittorff et Zanth. 4. In the case of elevations. hexastyles. and the opisthodomos.128 GREEK ARCHITECTURE pronaos. or front porch. three quarters of the cella breadth. the fundamental ratios the breadth or length of the stylobate on the one hand.

(1) atria having a breadth equal to two-thirds of their length. It isnoteworthy that these differ from those of {he temple and basilica. . 7 51. . with the ratio of two units in depth to three in breadth before an oikos which is almost uniformly a perfect square. Hellenistic houses excavated at Priene 4 exhibit a prostas. 3 Mau.. one-fifth being taken for each of the side aisles and three- fij'ths for the central nave. 2 5 Ibid. 7. 24. 5 In the theatre the oi'chestra was the starting-point for other measurements. 3. Circular buildings offered a somewhat different prob- lem. In the case of the tholos the dimensions were taken from the diameter of the cella. By inscribing within the inside of the orchestra triangles 6 squares or a pentagon. Oemichen. (3) those the breadth of which is the side of a square. and 7 or Oemichen in modern. 1 4 Vitruvius. The elevation follows from tl e ground plan. 3. Priene. PROPORTION 129 breadtli of the basilica is further divided into fifths . Ibid ^ V. Vitruvius 2 describes three varieties. The atria of Pompeian houses are found by Mau 3 to harmonize fairly well with these recommendations of Vitruvius. or porch. (2) those with a breadth equal to three-fifths of their length. 247. V. Vitruvius in ancient. the height of the columns being made equal to the breadth of the aisles. the diagonal of which furnishes the length. 9. Vitruvius. VI. 6 V. times deduced the positions of the staircases of the theatron and the walls of the skene. 6. 290. IV. The fundamental ratios of the stoa are similarly determined. 8. 1 In the case of the private house the atrium furnished the fundamental measurements.

We may now consider some of the minor ratios. Wall expressed in the relation of the thickness ratios. Ibid ^ 83 . in Doric temples the cella walls were given a height from nine to ten and a half times their breadth. A long period of experimentation must be assumed be- fore Vitruvius 3 could lay down his rules for Doric. 75. Ionic and Attic doorways. In the composition of temples it was convenient that the antae of walls should be equal in breadth to the diameter of adjacent columns. In 1 2 3 Durrn. to the height. style and other considerations. 6. 1 Doorway ratios received much attention. Column ratios naturally demanded most attention.130 GREEK ARCHITECTURE 2. As columns formed a striking feature in Greek buildings we may well believe that the relation of the height of the column to the total height of a building figured more or less prominently in the architect's calculations. and in Ionic temples from eleven and a half to thirteen. and give the proper dimensions for their openings. not so much with relation to the floor space within 2 as to mere form. The Vitruvian dimensions indicate a preference for slenderer openings. their general dimensions were slenderer. their framework. Hence the walls themselves were usually less than a column diameter in thickness. being higher than the columns. . MINOR RATIOS. and. their diminution and even for the panelling. Uprights and crosspieces of the doors themselves. Vitruvius. In stone and marble buildings the walls were naturally thinner than when crude brick was employed. Thus. IV. were conditioned by technique. 239. The height of the doorways of the Arsenal at Peiraieus were one and a half times their breadth.

This general transformation of taste is evident in spite of the Greek love of variety. and in the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon one-fifth. wore not tolerated in later days. A more general ratio to be observed was that of the column to its entablature. In countries such as Sicily and southern Italy. 1 Lloyd-Cockerell. 2 Some of the difficulties in accepting the proportions of buildings as an index of their date are considered in A.. which makes it impossible to apply the rule mechanically so as to establish an exact 2 chronological series. W.A. In Hellenistic buildings the column was a still larger fraction of the total height. 66. The taste of the period also played its part in framing these ratios." Thus the relation of the column height to the remainder of the height of the fagade in the case of the Theseion is that of five to four. entablature and stylobate and that the excess shall be equal to one aliquot part that is their common measure. IX (1894). PROPOKTION 131 archaic buildings the column was less than half the total height. This varied according to locality. In the Temple of Apollo at Corinth the entablature is more than one-half the height of the columns. . In the classic period W. columns and their entab- latures remained throughout all periods heavier than in Greece proper. Heavy entablatures. seven to six. 521-532. in the Parthenon. subject to earthquakes and provided with friable building material. characteristic of the archaic period. Lloyd finds l u . in the Parthenon it is about one-third. in the Temple of Zeus at Nemea one-fourth. ten to nine. Buildings of the Doric style were nor- mally more massive than those of the Ionic.J.m affection for the rule that the height of the column shall exceed the joint height of pediment. at Phigaleia. style and period.

Kolde- wey has shown that both in Sicily and southern Italy there l was a constant tendency in the archaic period to widen the intercolumniation. These proportions show a taste for wider intercolumniations than were favored in ear- lier days. III. when very wide intercolumniations were used. It maybe further noticed that not merely the linear ratio of column diameter to intercolumniation. Those of friable stone were at first more closely set than was necessary. and araiostyle (a/oatoo-TuXo?) when more than three diameters. and in the classic period a taste for more closely spaced columns. . For example. Colonnades of wood permitted of wider interco- lumniation than those of stone. Koldewey und Puchstein. Vitruvius. the colonnades of the mar- ket-place were much more widely spaced than those of the temples. 3. correspondingly heavy columns should be employed. Here also various considerations deter- mined whether the intercolumniations should be relatively wide or narrow. Vitruvius 2 preserves to us the names of several ratios of this sort derived from late Greek writers. systyle (<n*rn/Xo?) when two diameters. eustyle (e&TTfXo?) when they reached two and a quarter diameters. Judged by this standard the Parthenon inter- columniations would be too narrow to be classed even as pyknostyle. In other words the relation of mass to void was considered. Experience proved that.132 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Another characteristic ratio is that of the column to the intercolumriiation. The ratio was called pyknostyle (Tru/c^oWuXo?) when the intercolumniations measured one and one-half times the lower diameter of the column. diastyle (Stao-ruXo?) when three diameters. 1 2 230. but the ratio of intercolumniation to column height was an im- portant factor in Greek proportions.

47. 5. 10. in the Theseion.85. 4. Pis. in Temple C. These proportions imply a taste for the slender columns prevalent in the Hellenistic period. 9. as in Temples C and D. nine and one-half. in the Parthenon. See the plates in Krell. 6. those of the Temple of Athena at Priene. for eustyle and sy style. The columns of the Temple of Athena Nike measure 7. In establishing the normal ratio of the capitals and bases of columns there was the same tendency from heavy The Greeks began by giving too much to lighter forms. The ratio of column height to col- umn thickness was an obvious ratio. 5. measured in terms of the lower diameter. 3 the echinus was relatively jow and had an excessive overhang. 9. in the Temple of Zeus at Nemea. for diastyle. This is shown most 2 clearly in tracing the history of the Doric echinus. in the Temple of Apollo at 1 2 Vitruvius. was in the Temple of Apollo at Corinth. Thus.81. 4.598 and in the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon.62. in the so-called Tem- ple of Poseidon at Paestum. nine lower diameters. 3. 5. .32. those of the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. the height of Doric col- umns. In oarly examples. PROPORTION 133 by Vitruvius for temples was that 1 The rule formulated for araiostyle temples the columns should be eight lower diameters in height. eight and one-half lower diameters. of individual variation the prevailing taste progressed from heavy to lighter forms. III. and for pyknostyle ten lower diameters. easily manipulated so ' as to produce a desired In spite of many examples effect. much height to capitals and bases. Selinous and in the two temples at Metapontum. Ionic columns similarly became slenderer. 3 De Luynes. ten lower diameters.575 lower diameters. and projection or too onded by almost effacing them. Seli- nous.

But the striking fact in reference to the height of the Doric capital is its relation to the height of the shaft.20. in the Parthenon. one to 12. the older forms of capitals as exemplified at Neandreia and in the early capitals from the Acropolis at Athens were heavy.902.38. such as the pro- jection of the pulvinus and of the oculus.. in the Ionic order. In the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina the echinus was related to the abacus as 1. They were de- signed to support a heavy entablature. often exceeded the echinus in height in the early and late periods. Thus it appears that the Doric capital as the functional crown of the column gradually diminished in importance. one to 27. In the Temple of Zeus at Nemea and the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon the echinus was a slight moulding having very little and almost no overhang. in Temple C.32 to one. at Segesta. and in the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon it is about one to 30. at the Temple of Apollo at Delos. and the width of . and became a merely decorative crown.one to 14.49. Lighter forms prevailed in the classic period.12. one to 8. in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia as 1. Selinous. Much care was expended on the proper ratios of the details of the Ionic capital.41 to one. which height.80. one to 9. in the Theseion. At Corinth the ratio is that of one to 7. was less significant in the classical period. in the Parthenon the echinus began again to be too low and had but little overhang. In the Hellenistic period the spiral band was sometimes so narrow as to lose all significance as a functional support. The abacus. The Ionic abacus also diminished in importance. one to 11. in theTemple of Zeus at Nemea. Similarly.134 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Corinth and in the splendid capitals of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina the echinus gained in height and lost in overhang.25.

. The it height of the two types of bases he subdivides as follows: ATTIC-IONIC ASIATIC-IONIC .. and that of the beneath should be a plinth of one-half this height. Some of these ratios are considered by Vitruvius. In the 4 Temple of Artemis at Magnesia the bases of the Attic- Ionic form present essentially the Vitruvian proportions. Lofty. 1 Bases of columns were about equal in height to the cap- itals and varied accordingly. . Vitru- nus 2 assumes that the base should measure in height one- third lower diameter of the column. however. classic and even in the Hellenistic period that it is difficult to lay down general rules. Upper torus f Torus . In the Temple of Athena at Priene 3 there are bases of the Asiatic-Ionic form with somewhat heavier torus mouldings. III. Asiatic-Ionic bases exhibited forms. The ratios of shafts. Priene. the ratio of torus to the rest being nearly two to three instead of three to four. ' Lower torus f Lower trochilos . .. apart from their capitals and bases. The form of bases varied so much in the early.. PROPORTION 135 the channels. was toward the so-called Attic-Ionic. need not detain us long. 50. or Corinthian. clumsy bases are likely to belong to the early period and bases of insig- nificant height to the later period. -f- Scotia f Upper trochilos . . base with two torus mouldings separated by a scotia. . . . The general tendency.. 5. ." -J* Proportions similar to these we find in late classic and Hellenistic buildings. The tendency toward slenderer i 2 3 4 Vitruvius. . 92. Ibid.. Magnesia. the most common of which was a many single torus set on a double trochilos or scotia.

Diminution is a quality in shafts which shows considerable variation within the same period nevertheless. 1 give the ratios of some Athenian columns. a strong diminution . Ionic shafts are even more cylindrical through- out their entire history. taken from Penrose. In considering the forms of shafts we noticed that the conical shaft of the early period was abandoned for a more cylindrical shaft in the later period. . In the Ionic style the entasis was more delicate than in the Doric. It is more difficult to generalize in the matter of the entasis of shafts. The following table. which show a diminution of only one-fifth of the lower diameter. especially in Sicily and southern Italy. would be more normal for an early period than the almost cylindrical shafts such as those at Nemea. In the Doric style the entasis seems to be strong in early examples. -L. Their diminutions vary from one-sixth to one-eighth of the lower diameters. High columns demanded a stronger entasis than low ones. like that of the columns at Corinth. Later the more nearly cylindrical shaft has correspond- ingly less entasis.of the lower diameter.136 GREEK ARCHITECTURE columns was chiefly a change in the proportions of the shaft and may be expressed in essentially the same ratios.

but at the Temple of Artemis at Magnesia and the Temple of Apollo near Miletos the two upper fasciae were of equal height . 5. They were rarely all equal in height. 123. middle and upper fasciae the ratios of three. was often more massive than frieze or cornice. as at Priene. but does not suppose that the Greek architects made use of such formulae. cornice with its sima. the tendency was to subdivide the en- tablature into three equal parts epistyle. III. PROPORTION 137 Penrose l proposes a mathematical formula for calculat- ing the amount of entasis in any proposed case. In the Ionic and late Doric styles it was usually subdivided into three superposed Considerable variety characterized fasciae. . the ratios of these fasciae to each other. corona and sima' on the other. When the frieze was added. frieze and the . The special ratios of the entablature concern its verti- cal and its horizontal divisions. This practice became crystallized in the regulation of Vitruvius^ giving to the lower. The Doric frieze in early Sicilian temples was slightly 1 2 Penrose. the entablature was divided verti- cally into two equal parts. at the Porch of the Maidens of the Erechtheion the two lower fasciae were equal in height. When the frieze was absent. In some buildings of the classic period. each fascia was given slightly greater height and projection than the one below it. the epistyle on the one hand. The epistyle. Vitruvius. and dentils. as the Temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion. and to the crowning moulding one-seventh of the total height of the epistyle. four and five. having a heavier burden to carry. 10. as theAthena at Temple of Priene. and in some later buildings.

. d'Espouy. 10. was related to that of the frieze at Corinth and in Temple C. that an unsculptured frieze should be in height one-fourth lower than the epistyle.138 GREEK ARCHITECTURE inferior in height to the epistyle. as. served chiefly to increase the height of the entablature. Selinous. its individual importance increased. in the Temple of Herakles at Cori. 3 The cornice was a member which varied greatly in its proportions. PL 35. The Ionic frieze. The ratio of triglyph breadth to metope breadth was approximate equality in early temples. but if sculptured it should be one-fourth higher than the epistyle. In Temple C. as one to two and a half at . 4. The metopes were normally : of the col- square. 5. When decorated. at Aegina and in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Selinous. Ibid. IV. Vitruvius further subdivides the breadth of the triglyphs into six parts. heavy forms to 1 slenderer ones until the norm was set by Vitruvius of breadth height : 1 = 1 J. 1 2 3 Vitruvius. Hence the regula- 2 tion expressed by Vitruvius. of which three are taken by the two full and two half grooves and three by the interven- ing shanks (wpot). reckoned without the sima. Ill. . Aegina and at Athens. Its height. as one to one and a half . Selinous. it was nine to ten in Temple D. The normal relation was as one to one and a half. though often modified by the spacing umns. At Aegina and in the Theseion they are related to the metopes as five to eight. for example. but equal to it at Cor- inth. when without decoration. The dimensions of the triglyphs varied considerably from low. In late Hellenistic buildings the frieze was fre- quently given such importance that the slender epistyle was rendered insignificant.. 3. eight to nine. Later the triglyphs became rela- tively slenderer.

and in 1 Vitruvius. The amount of pro- jection was also controlled by the architect. that of one to seven. Gable ratios varied within comparatively narrow limits. In Doric and in Attic-Ionic buildings the projection of the cornice 4 was more abrupt. therefore. the cornice of the Asklepieion was relatively heavier than that of the neighboring Temple of Athena. The Greeks. He did not feel with Vitruvius 1 that all projecting members were more agreeable when the amount of their pro- jection was equal to their height. cornices became elaborately decorated. made use of cornices to produce an effect. 11. at Priene. and the so-called Temple of Poseidon at Paestum. as in the Temple of Concordia at Akragas. owing to its dentils. III. The relation of height to breadth was in many early examples. in the Doric order gradually diminished in importance. The architects of the classic period preferred a ratio ofabout one to eight. . Selinous. as may be seen in the gables of the Temples of Zeus at Olympia. Under the Roinans. In the Ionic order of Asia Minor the dentils were an important feature of the entablature. PROPORTION 139 Nemea as one to three. The Asiatic-Ionic cornice. The cornice. In Athens they were usually omitted and the geison assumed greater importance. The projection of cornices varied in appearance and effect. as Temples D and F. in somewhat the same manner as the Florentines. Thus. In the Temple of Zeus at Nemea the low cornice projected as much as twice its height. projected gradually from the face of the building. the Theseion and the Parthenon. In some cases the slope was made still gentler. and increased both in height and in projection. 5.

1 should be one-eighth higher than the geison. Sophist. 44. appear to vary when- ever the spectator shifts his point of view. will. if seen from near at hand. To the geison was given relatively the same height as in the horizontal cornice. for example. will appear to be smaller than they really are. As compared with the gables of Northern countries those of Greek buildings were relatively low. however excellent they may be in an architectural draw- ing. . must be designed to be seen best from a given standpoint. Those parts which lie high above the spectator. It is evident that fixed ratios. The proper dimensions of the raking cornice also exer- cised the attention of the Greek architect. This rule laid down by Plato 2 was carried 1 2 Vitravius. at Priene. frequently higher than this. and the sima. as. if it is neces- sary that they should conform to some agreeable ratio. which. Consequently. it follows that the ratios of the parts of a building will de- pend on the proximity of the viewpoint. MODIFIED RATIOS. Plato. So varied. In the Temple of Demeter at Eleusis the ratio was one to ten. like a picture or a statue. building. Granting this. III. A therefore. or the angle at which they are seen. This was com- posed of two parts. To this was super- added the sima. the platband or geison proper. where the ratio of height to breadth was one to nine. 12.140 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the Erechtheion. they should be enlarged according to the height of the building or the steepness of the angle from which they are to be seen. The Ionic sima was. however. 5. according to Vitruvius. was the practice at every period that the slope of the gable has for us little or no chronological significance. in an actual building. however. 3.

Ill. We have thus far considejed the general or major ratios and the spe- cific or minor ratios. 52 ff.. On examining the measurements of the so-called Temple of Poseidon at Paestum Aures was much impressed by the preponder- ance of odd numbers and of square numbers which re- sulted from assuming the common measure of the building 1 * Pennethorne. 6. SYMMETRICAL RATIOS OR PROPORTION. Aures. : traction for doorways less than sixteen feet in height should equal one-third of the breadth of the door-posts . 3. 2 5 Vitruvius. Ibid. rules for the guidance of such modi- fications were already laid down. /^. Ill. It now remains to consider how these were brought into relation with each other and harmo- nized.jambs were parallel. one-fourth the breadth of the door-post for doors from twenty-five . 8 e Ibid. the Greeks admired a door opening narrower at the top than at the base. The Vitruvian 2 regulations for door openings are as follows the con. 5. 4. PROPORTION 141 out by Greek architects.. 8.. and of the epistyle. sculptors and carvers of inscrip- tions. IV. 12. 3 of the height of the 4 5 abacus. 1. 96-103. Similar rules were given to regulate the diminution of the shafts of columns. 5-7. One method elaborately defended by Aures 6 we may describe as the mystical method. III. and for doors more than thirty feet high there should be no contraction. . That Greek architects were obliged thus to modify theoretical ratios has been shown by Pennethorne. 5. to thirty feet high one-eighth the breadth of the door-post . 1 By the time of Vitruvius. and it is evident that a very high door opening from a near standpoint would appear to contract toward the top even if the door. for doors from sixteen to twenty-five feet high. For example.

He does not. When we consider the mathematical knowledge displayed by Greek architects of the hyperbola. The most comprehensive of these was made by W. A second method of explaining the harmony of Greek proportions we may call the mathematical method. appear in even numbers.142 GREEK ARCHITECTURE to be the mean or average diameter of the columns. 4 Schultz observes that the plans. 1. 4 Schultz. it seems easy to suppose that some at least 1 Virgil. We may remark further that some other modulus would have shown a preponderance of even numbers and that many of the prominent features of this temple. De Die Natali. Epitoma Eei Militaris. Vari- ous attempts have been made to explain the harmony of Greek architectural proportions by mathematical means. Even if it could be proved that the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum exhibited an intentional preference for odd numbers. fagades and details of most Greek buildings involve a very general use of the rectangle. He then cites five Greek temples as examples of these proportions. for example. 2 Vegetius. that the Greeks distinguished ten different kinds of proportion and that these proportions may in various ways be applied to rectangles. 3 Censorinus. . 75. cite any Greek or Latin authority in favor of selecting the mean diameter as a modulus. XIV. 8. 8. Schultz. however. 11. as. He 2 quotes Virgil and Vegetius in upholding the impor- 1 tance of odd numbers and Censorinus 3 for square num- bers. the parabola and other curves. EcL. it is very unlikely that such a preference should have entered into the plans of Greek architects in general. III. the number of columns on the fagade. 15 ff.

3 One of these parts was taken for the lower diameter of the columns two and a quarter for the intercolumniations . III. the building were to be a Doric tetrastylos 1 Vitruvius. this major dimension was to be divided into eleven and one-half equal parts if an Ionic . nine and a half for the column heights. " 16 is symmetrical with 24 in having 4 as a common measure. and so on. hexastylos eustylos. and cited as an example. . into twenty-four and a half parts./j. A third method we may call the architectural method." 3 7. II. III. 2 When the plan of a temple had been roughly sketched Vitruvius proceeds to derive the modulus (eV/3aTT??) or common measure from the breadth of the stylobate. for example. irepl arb^uv ypa/j. PROPORTION 143 of these ten formulae known to Greek mathematicians might have found their way into architectural plans. If. 3. However. He thus defines pro- portion . 1. the temple were to be an Ionic tetrastylos eustylos. . 2 defined symmetrical Aristotle.* Proportio est ratae* partis membrorum in omni opere totiusque commodulatio. . It is best illustrated by Vitruvius. stylos eustylos. If. Vitruvius. however. Proportion (ai/aXoyia). consists in the common measurements subsist- ing between the whole arid its separate parts.u>v 7rept'0/>a<ris. the general history of Greek architecture in- dicates that continued experimentation rather than the introduction of mathematical formulae was what led finally to normal or satisfactory proportions. but also between every member of a building and its constituent parts. This signifies not merely such a relationship between what we have styled the major and minor ratios. therefore. 1. into eighteen parts if an Ionic octo. quantities as those having a common measure.

IV. however. and two and a sixth. 3-4. the column . Ibid. Ibid. IV. . into .. and breadth of the panels (tympana) from the breadth of the . diameter of the oculus of an Ionic capital gives the amount of projection for the echinus. 3. breadth of the capital. if forty-two parts. This method of passing from one modulus to another is no- where more clearly expressed by Vitruvius 4 than in his description of the Ionic doorway. that Vitruvius was not accustomed consciously to consider every detail of a building as a fraction or mul- tiple of this common measure or modulus. Ionic epistyle is taken as a modulus for the geison 2 the . Ill. panels is determined the height of the rails (impages). 3-4. III. He compared adjacent parts of a building and stated their ratios to each other in such a way as to give the impres- sion that not one but many moduli were used in deter- mining the proportions of a building. heights one. 2 * ibid. the height. 6-7. for example. the .. 3 and so on. and from the height of the rails is derived the breadth of the 1 8 Vitruvius. 5. 5. the stylobate should be divided into frontal twenty-seven parts a Doric hexastylos diastylos. From the temple height is derived the height of the doorway from the . the heights of mouldings are stated as fractions of the members to which they belong the middle fascia of an . He would not have said that the beak moulding of the cornice was such and such a fraction of the lower diameter of the column. 11. 1 It may be observed. and so on. 6.144 GREEK ARCHITECTURE diastylos. Two of these parts should constitute the lower diameter of the columns fourteen. doorway height is derived the doorway breadth and also the breadth of door-jambs. Thus. From the doorway breadth is derived the breadth of the stiles (scapi cardinales).

PROPORTION 145 From the breadth of the door-jamb inner stiles (scapi). the overdoor (hyperthyrum) and the dimensions of the cornice brackets {ancones). but also the height of the lintel (supercilium). From this example we see that though each member of the door- way is regarded as a modulus or measure of its immediate neighbor. This illustrates the Vitruvian conception of proportion and there is every reason to believe that the standpoint of the Greek authors from whom he derived his inspiration was not essentially different. nevertheless all are connected with each other and with the large dimension of the whole by a common measure. . (antipagmentum) derived is not only the height of its ter- minal moulding (cymatium).

indeed. The greater part of it. abandoned. on the other hand. this superficial dressing was. CHAPTER IV DECORATION THE preceding chapters have already dealt with many features of Greek architecture. like the Egyptians. 1. The Greeks. mutules and den- tils as revealing the building methods of the carpenter . but. in great measure. In the perfected marble buildings of the classic period. Of such a nature were the stucco coverings of roughly constructed walls and columns. like Oriental ornamentation. was not structural but applied. there remains so much else that added charm to Greek buildings that we find it convenient to consider this sur- plus in a chapter by itself. devices to conceal poor construction were equally abundant. GREEK METHODS OF DECORATION. 146 . however. We may. point to triglyphs. in a broad sense. But after the refinements of construction and of architectural forms and proportions. terra- cotta revetments of cornices. which. which were not substantial enough to resist the snow and rain. and revetments of wood which concealed the rougher members of the entablature and roof. Greek architectural decoration would be condemned from the start. If we should insist that all architectural decoration should spring from construction. Assyrians and Persians. might be classed as decoration.

the background was cut away. sombre colors prevailed in the classic. 297 2 . striking contrasts were sought for. as in champ- 1 leve enamels. thus the amount of weathering affords a clew as to which pigments were originally employed in a given design. Hawara. the encaustic method was preferred. 5 The range of colors employed was not great. Reds were used freely in the classic period.. also Hittorff et Zanth. . before the stucco hardened. In some cases. quoted by Murray. Hdbk. as in a cornice from Temple F. as in fresco painting. In buildings covered with stucco the design was either scratched with a stylus and the coloring applied. Cros et Henry. 4 6 Fenger. the design was carefully carved so as to separate the colors. II. relied upon polychromy to give added charm. Upon marble. the contrast between smooth and weathered surfaces has some- times preserved schemes of decoration long after the colors themselves have vanished. 23. as in cloi- sonne enamels. as in the ceiling at Orchomenos. in other cases. 55. in the Hellenistic period. 4 It has also been observed that different pigments vary in the amount of protection they give when applied to marble or stucco . where the colors were likely to overrun. Some colors served to preserve the surface of the stucco or marble. 46. replacing the 1 See Fig. others had the opposite effect. 183. . 397. at Selinous. Hence. Olympia. the color scale was enlarged by a more frequent employment of the half tones and of gilding. 18. PI. but more frequently easier methods were adopted. or the slower encaustic method 2 was employed in which the coloring matter was mixed with wax and applied hot with a brush 3 or spatula. DECORATION 147 not satisfied with monochromatic effects in architecture. In the archaic period. 3 Petrie.

usually two or three. and only in exceptional cases and at a late period was an attempt made to produce the effect of relief by means of shadows. but in almost every ornamental detail. where also gold was some- times employed. cornices and roofs with their simae. Such contrasts were shown not only in the large members. Yellow and green were selected for the ornamentation of mouldings. ranging from ultramarine through a medium shade to a light one. Not only mouldings. decora- tion by sculpture for Ionic. but also columns. 1 Color harmonies and the subor- dination of tones were not carried very far. were decorated with sculptured ornament. II. In their application strong contrasts rather than delicate gradations were preferred. antefixes and acroteria. 113. of the classic period made brilliant contrasts on the white marble buildings. capi- tals. Taf. but the colors employed in the archaic period harmonized well with the dark red tiles of the roofs while the brighter colors . 4. friezes. Decoration by painting was preferred for Doric. architecture. were also abundant. were employed with rhythmical sequence. In the early 1 Olympia. where the Doric were shaped into the desired form and received in addition a painted ornament. such as the blue triglyphs which project clearly from the red or white metopes. All of these colors were chiefly derived from earths and minerals. as well as entablatures with their epistyles. Blues.148 GREEK ARCHITECTURE brownish reds which prevailed earlier. while the Ionic were seldom left without some kind of carved decoration. This was especially true in the case of mouldings. The color was applied in flat masses. shafts. . with their bases. A few colors only. Blacks and whites were used sparingly. 185.

squares. lozenges. executed in low relief. as in the poros reliefs from the Acropolis at Athens. . They are colored in regular order. however. polygons. The types of orna- ment applied to the decoration of architectural forms by the Greeks are surprisingly few. if not altogether. circles or scrolls. which was usually lacking in the workmanship of the later period. in the round shallower recesses. In the classic peripd ornamental details show a beauty of form and charm in composition. I. in their arrangement. white. violet. dia- pered patterns composed of squares. such as rectangles. platbands. Even pedirnental sculpture was some- dmes. TYPES OF GREEK ORNAMENT. Taf . deep recesses ike the triangular gable were decorated with sculptures nearly. Taf. . These include closed patterns. scrolls and braids . with sculptures in half relief. Squares of blue glass occur in the alabaster frieze from Tiryns. polygons. Lozenges were painted on the terra- cotta plaques from the cornice of the Treasury of Gela at 3 and carved in the Olympia. with low relief. running patterns^ such as zigzags. black. and. ceiling of the Philippeion i Wiegand. 3 Olympia. 41. ovals and ovoids . likemetopes. form a steplike pattern. . 1 Rectangles are used in an interesting way in the decoration of the gable acroterion of the Heraion at 2 Olympia. Usually. 2. * See Fig 2 93. floral. as geometric. Geometrical types reached their highest development in the archaic period. in general. They may be classed. circles and disks. 9. Red and cream-colored squares in diapered pattern decorate a sima and acroterion from the Acropolis at Athens. zoomorphic and anthro- pomorphic. rec- tilinear and curvilinear maeanders. DECORATION 149 period this decoration was and closely related to flat minted ornament. black.

Taf. 164). . Olympia. 163). II. 165). horizontal surfaces. Disks showing FIG. if we may judge from the splendid 1 pavement ia Nero's palace at Olympia. 164. also egg and dart.150 GREEK ARCHITECTURE (Fig. 103. the flat side decorated the lintel of the Tholos of Atreus. as well as on long. ornament. and the epistyle of the Porch of the Maidens in the Erechtheion . Oval or ovoid forms are seen in the beads of these mould- ings and in the egg and dart ornament (Fig. Bead and reel. 108-110. Polygons were a frequent motive in Greek mosaic pavements. disks in profile occur with but slight vari- ation in form in the bead and reel FIG. Lozenge decoration of ceiling of the Philippeion. decorated the shaft and capital from the Tholos of Atreus (Fig. separated by a running pattern of spirals. Elaborately carved and ornamented zigzags. Painted zigzags ornament an ar- 1 Olympia. Running patterns were applied on short and vertical.

166. More compli- cated is the maeander of the wall cornice of the Treasury FIG. The continuous pattern may be simple (Figs. II. 2 Taf. 1 See Fig. Mycenae. Olympia. DECORATION 151 ohaic sima from the Acropolis at Athens. are usually com- posed of two running bands (Fig. 168). and cornices. as on the great acroterion of the Heraion at Olympia (Fig. 166). of Sikyon (Fig. of Atreus. The rectilinear maeander sorpetimes appears as a disconnected pattern. or stars. 167. . but deco- rates also platbands in the bases of col- umns. The scroll pattern may be discontinuous. Maeander from the Treasury of Gela. 113. 1 The recti- linear maeander (/Waz'S/ao?) occurs in many forms and applications. Maeanders with squares. 165.a ceil- ing decoration (/coV/no? rt? opofa/cds) as defined by Hesychios. or enlivened with ornamental squares or stars set at rhythmical intervals. and enclosing two rows of checkered squares. pattern. as in cornice of the Treasury of Gela (Fig. 171). or rosettes. Olympia. It is not merely . or running. 170) and that over the Panathenaic frieze of the Parthenon^ composed of three running bands. abaci of capitals. but more frequently as . Zigzag orna- 2 ment from the Tholos Olympia. 169).i continuous. as in cornices from Ephesos and from FIG. 296.

152 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

56. Petrie. periods. single-band variety occurs on the raking cornices from the Old Temple of Athena at Athens (Fig. such as that painted on the hearth of the Megaron at Mycenae (Fig. 172. 171.late Hellenistic. 172). how- ever.ingles in Greek scrolls are common in Egyptian de- 1 signs. ___________________________________ gcroll pattern _ from Olympia> . . which is found in all periods of Greek art. The scroll was exceed- FlG from Mycenae. Branching scrolls occur in the necking of capi- tals from the Erech- theion (Fig. Such complicated scroll patterns. were seldom used in architectural decoration before the FIG. is the guilloche or braid pattern. Roman. and theion. Athens. and on a sima from ingly Egyptian Middle Empires popular and even . Figs. 50. Another running pattern. Scroll pattern from the Erech. Pis. art New the little palmettes which sometimes fill the FIG. 1 Prisse d'Avennes. 27-30 . This pattern might well be desig- nated a curvilinear maeander. 175). A discon- tinuous. of the in Scroll pattern Olympia (Fig. 173). DECORATION 153 or continuous. 174).

. were used to decorate broad surfaces like pavements and FIG. was more common. 177). Triple- coursed braids occur on the upper torus mouldings of the FIG. Even a three- FIG. even in the archaic period. 176. 182. 1 Diapered patterns.154 GREEK ARCHITECTURE The two-band type. Braid pattern from Athens. 3 and were probably repre- 1 See Fig. 2 Olympia.. 178). composed of the preceding elements. ceilings. octagons. Taf. band braid arranged in two courses was found among the archaic fragments from the Acropolis (Fig. 175. hexagons. however. II. column bases of the North Porch of the Erechtheion. Braid pattern from Athems. 108-110. 177. Intersecting squares. Braid pattern from Athens. 208. cir- cles and other designs are found in the mosaic pavements from the Roman baths near the Kronion 2 and from the Palace of Nero at Olympia. 176. The Acropolis of Athens again fur- nishes excellent examples (Figs. Ibid.

Pis. 27-30. Ceiling from Tholos at Orchomenos. 179). and included various forms of leaves. Diapered spirals are found in the well-known carved ceiling of the Tholos at FIG. flowers and fruit. Braid pattern from Athens. 179. The archaic and classic i Prisse d'Aveimes. Orchomenos (Fig. istic of Greek ornamentation. 178. stems. for which Egyptian ceilings 1 undoubtedly furnished the inspiration. . DECORATION 155 sented earlier in Greek pavements. Conventionalized floral types were even more character- FIG.

Only the central spine suggests the leaf origin (Fig. Occasionally. . the leaves FIG. Thus. the ends of which were slightly rounded. 180. as in some bases from the Temple of Apollo near Miletos and the Artemision at Magnesia and long. Identification in such cases is.156 GREEK AKCH1TECTUKE types of leaf decoration were so conventionalized as to little of nature. the leaves were usually colored alternately red and blue. at Khamnous. suggest therefore. 180). It con- sisted of broad. were also used. 181).B. idle speculation. 181. in the South East " building at Olympia (Fig. Doric leaf pattern from the Temple of Themis. This type of ornament was imported from 1 Egypt to Crete in the pre-Mycenaean period. lanpeolate leaves were used in the . as in a terra-cotta cornice from Olympia (Fig. capitalsfrom the Theatre of Dionysos and in the Tower of the Winds at Athens. like those of the laurel. flat leaves. The most common and char- acteristic Doric leaf ornament was that which decorated FIG. In the classic period. were terminated with a strongly rounded arch. the beak mouldings of anta capitals and cornices. More pointed leaves. 182) and elsewhere the " eggs 1 G. The so-called " egg and dart " was also treated as a leaf motive.. Doric leal pattern from Olympia.A. 105. XXXVII (1907).

A. 2 Fragment 72 : . and the " darts repre- sent lanceolate leaves. Athens. DECORATION 157 " are painted with a central spine. A characteristic decoration in Ionic architecture is the heart-shaped "leaf and dart" upon mouldings having the form of the cyma re versa. With the development of plastic forms a leaf. Other forms of leaves the olive. -Egg and dart pattern from Whether sculptured or Olympia. 1 Aischylos alludes to this when he speaks of the Lesbian cyma with its 2 ' triangular rhythms. painted. leaves occur occasionally. ^o. . . 183. 183). 182. ivy and grape FIG. X (1906). iv rpiyAvois . 282-288. popularly identified as the acanthus. 1 A. this ornament seldom lost its central spine (Fig.. Ionic leaf pattern from the Acropolis Museum. the oak with its acorns.J.

Strong. and in the decoration of the mouldings of the door of the North Porch.158 GREEK ARCHITECTURE gradually assumed a permanent place in Greek decoration. IV. 184. but also in a wall frieze and in a sima. Polykleitos. whether employed to support the volutes of the capitals or to serve as the basis for scroll ornament. 2 Greek artists under Trajan continued to employ this type of decoration with great skill. the younger. Stems (cauliculi) entered into the acanthus decoration with increasing complexity. and reached a climax in the elaborate acroteria of the Ionic Temple and Trajan's Temple at Pergamon. It became the favorite type of decoration for capitals of columns. 40. In the Hellenistic art of Asia Minor and in the Imperial temples of Rome the acanthus reached the climax of its development. note 1. 15. 3 Pergamon. employed it in a bolder way in the Tholos at Epidauros. An acanthus frieze of striking characteris supposed to have once adorned the Temple of the Sun at Rome. V. PI. Taf. 63 . PI. 18. Taf. Iktinos used it in the capital of a column at Phigaleia. timidly employed. Middleton. 3 1 2 d'Espouy. It appeared. is the acanthus scroll work on the Ara Pacis Augustae at Rome. elaborate. and was frequently used to deco- rate the friezes of temples. 1 More Rosette pattern from FIG. not only in the capi- tals of columns. . and yet exceedingly Tiryns. II. in the necks of the col- umns and in the raking sima of the Erechtheion. 184. beautiful.

185. 186. In the archaic period it was F io. as may be seen in the carved ornamentation from Tiryns (Fig. The better artists of the classic produced period richer forms of rosettes. 5. either by the lotus. DECORATION 159 The was a common type in Greek architec- rosette tural ornament. Figs. -. C*W iyT > Closely associated with the rosette are the palmette and the lotus. -Rosette pattern from Athens. 184).-. as in the terra-cotta fragments from the Acropo- lis at Athens (Fig. It was strongly conventionalized even in the Mycenaean period. treated with great sever- ity. 185).. From a later period are the terra-cotta rosettes found in front of the Bouleuterion at Olympia FIG. such as those which decorate the North Portal of the Erech- theion and the metopes of the Tholos at Epidauros (Fig. or the daisy. These two 1 Goodyear. 6. . and Phaistos. or some com- posite flower with radiating petals. i QFTN dauros. Mycenae. 186). It seems to have been suggested by some form in the floral 1 world.Orcho- menos. Rosette pattern from Epi.

1 Some- times the two forms are so much alike that it is difficult to distinguish them.160 GREEK ARCHITECTURE patterns were so conventionalized as to make their identi- fication with specific flowers doubtful. the epikranitis. but as both were used at a very early date in Egypt it is possible that they were suggested by the Egyptian lotus. these patterns stately and graceful. Here the petals show not only a double curve in a flat plane. The patterns were sometimes juxtaposed. as. and the sima decoration of the Erechtheion. in general. and the column necking. witness the antefixes of the Parthenon. and in lotuses the sepals. Rosette pattern from oiym. 1 2 Goodyear. but are curved outward into a third dimension of space. 189). Classic artists made FIG. but not connected. are most strongly marked. by curved stems or bands. 188). 9. the slender. Wiegand. as on some simae from the Acropolis at Athens 2 but usually they were united to each other . 115-119. Archaic examples strongly resembled Egyptian proto- types. In the Hellenistic period. As and lotus exhibited a running design the palmette many forms. in palmettes the petals. grace- ful antefixes of the Leonidaion at Olympia (Fig. as on a sima from one of the Treasuries at Olympia (Fig. but. the favorite type of palmette shows S-shaped petals. 187. Taf. The normal juncture. . for example.

ing of an ar- chaic. The sima from Temple C. was a current spiral. 188. FIG. The Greeks did not. anta found near the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. PI. where we should expect to find the pat- terns set up- right. as we see it in examples of this ornament from the Erechtheion. varied consider- ably in plastic character as well as in linear treatment. or lotuses to palmettes. This design was nat- urally adapted for the orna- mentation of crowning mem- bers. The cornice 1 Haussoullier. Palmette pattern from the Leonidaion. DECORATION 161 however. Selinous. 190). on the central mould. palmettes to palmettes. The uniting bands. for example. as. 1 A popular variety was the form in which the patterns were set base to base. hesi- tate to use it as a pendent motive. however. 18. lotuses opposed to lotuses. furnishes an early ex- ample of the alternating variety (Fig. as well as the floral patterns. or early classic. K .

man decoration the acanthus was sometimes used as a running pattern 3 resembling the palmette and lotus. of acorns. but at the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. 3 d'Espouy. PL 62. The introduction on the smaller of flowers. 297. Palmette and lotus pattern from Temple intervals In Po C. 14. 2 where the FIG. Palmette and lotus pattern from Olympia. PI. Selinous. as those tendrils of the Erechtheion neck ornament. 1 presents a more developed example of nearly classic design.162 GREEK ARCHITECTURE from Temple F. 2 Haussoullier. Or- dinarily it is the same type of lotus and palmette that recurs in the de- sign. as in the over-door of the Temple of Rome and Augustus See Fig. 189. A late example may be seen at the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. torus of one of the column bases is thus decorated. . Selinous. liM). sev- eral different types were intro- duced and re- peated at wide FIG.

Taf. II. decorative supports in the Temple of Zeus at Akragas. which passed from Egyptian into Mycenaean art and became a common motive in Hellenistic and Roman decoration. Zoomorphic designs did not figure largely in Greek decoration. or garlands of fruit and flowers. On the archaic sculptures from the Acro- polis at Athens we find eagle feathers and serpent scales 1 represented by the same pattern. Entire animals were sometimes employed as ornament. DECORATION 163 at Ancyra. as in the base of the Column of Trajan at Rome. Human masks also were employed decoratively. 3-5. 4 5 Pergamon. or ox heads. which served as . seldom occurred before the Hellenistic or Roman period. 4 or the griffins which capped the gable ends of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina. Such were the bucraiiia. which stood as columns in the Treasury of the Knidians at Delphi. grapes. or of pine cones. Taf. This was also employed 2 upon the echinus of an archaic Athenian capital. 29. 221. 1-3. as in the archaic temple antefixes for the Greek cities of southern Italy (Fig. used as water spouts and as mere decoration on the simae of Greek temples of every period. Wiegand. See Fig. or Giants. Durra. In the Hellenistic period human bodies or masks were associated with acanthus foliage. . But animal heads were more commonly em- ployed in this way. 191). as the eagles beneath the raking cornice of the old Athena Temple on the Acropolis. as in the 1 2 3 Wiegand. 5 and the Porch of the Maidens at Athens and the Telamones. 91. Anthropomorphic decoration is exemplified by the Maidens (KO'JCXM). of olives. the eagles and the owls on 3 the frieze of the Propylaia at Pergarnon. also the lion heads. Taf.

PI. Some- times. ous products of art and industry. . A. To treat of these adequately would be to write the history of Greek sculpture and painting. Mythological motives abound in Greek decoration. for pediments. wall paintings. and pictorial reliefs exhibited mythological compositions almost exclusively. friezes. but frequently they seem to be quite irrelevant. candelabra. but became much more common under the Romans. photographs. M. 1 2 Alinari Haussoullier. 191. as in the Parthenon and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. such as vases.J. VIII (1893). and imaginary architecture entered into Hellen- isticdecoration. 6342-6345.. metopes. the subjects selected were more or less closely associated with the divinity to whom the temple was ded- 3 icated. 3 Tarbell and Bates. Archaic autefix in A. 16.A. Nos. 1 This type of decoration reached its climax in the beautful reliefs from Trajan's Forum. private collection. 2 Vari- FIG. trophies. 18-27.164 GREEK ARCHITECTURE decoration of the Artemision at Magnesia and of the Temple of Apollo near Miletos.

It is important. then of roofs and ceilings. In archaic and classic buildings a severe type of krepidoma prevailed. but also with the principles by which he was guided In the decoration of each architectural detail. Lapiths and Centaurs. Such subjects as the Labors of Herakles. It is sometimes assumed that Greek decoration never failed in being properly adapted to architectural forms. then of piers and columns and their entab- latures. consisted of a stepped krepidoma or of a raised podium. contests of Gods and Giants. DECORATION 165 As with geometrical and floral ornament. DECORATION OF FOUNDATIONS. treating first of foundations and walls with their openings. therefore. so here certain fixed types became popular and were repeated as pure decoration. that we should be acquainted not merely with the motives which make up the repertoire of the Greek decorator. of Theseus. The foundations Greek building. or Greeks and Amazons. 3. In the wings of the Propylaia at Athens. 192). each step was . were frequently used with as little regard to significance as was the palmette or the lotus. AND WALLS. which was left undec- orated. beneath the three-stepped krepidomas and to mark their separation from the supporting walls below. 193) the process of individualization was carried still . separated from the other by deep lines of shadow. but a study in detail of the application of Greek ornament will disprove this assumption. produced by undercutting the lower edge of each step. In the Philippeion (Fig. when more than a of a mere projecting socle. as in the Leonidaion at Olympia (Fig. we find a dark course of Eleusinian stone but in later buildings. We may follow the same order as in our consideration of archi- tectural forms. PAVEMENTS.

for not only were the edges of each step undercut. In the podium of the Monument of Lysicrates each course of blocks composing the die had a marginal drafting at its base which served to decorate it by series of horizontal lines of shadow. 177. . The FIG. In Greek temples marble pavements were laid so as to emphasize the front. Steps from the Leonidaion. the Olympia. podium of the Mauso. 194) and Hagia Triada large slabs of gypsum were so arranged and separated by lines of red stucco as to form a regular design . FIG. or the long sides. and thus weakened its appearance as a foundation. at Phaistos (Fig. At Tiryns and Mycenae pavements of concrete were ornamented with scratched lines forming geometrical patterns. Steps from the Philippeion. 192. Olympia. This produced " the effect of breaking each step into a series of inde- : pendent blocks. base and crowning mould- ings sometimes received the principal decoration. Pavements were decorated in various ways. 111 the case of podia. leion at Halikarnassos and thatof the Great Altar at Pergamon were decorated with sculptured friezes and with elaborate base and cornice mouldings.160 GREEK ARCHITECTURE farther. at Priene l pebbles laid alternately flat and on edge were arranged in regular patterns. 193. but each block had a complete anathyrosis. or to 1 Priene.

These channels are carved on either side in- to fasciae. curved channels sunk in the pavement (Figs. by base. Taf. by the concealment of by the emphasis of structure. Walls were decorated in va- FIG 195. Anunusual kind of deco- ration is found in the Temple of Athena at Priene. . 180. Pompeian mosaics sometimes exhibited elaborate pictorial compositions. DECORATION 167 give all sides of the peristasis equal importance. that in the pronaos of the Zeus temple at Olympia. 105 . 1 with its geometric and floral borders. The earliest of these. 195. Pis. Roman period. 196). which add charm to the otherwise awk- ward clefts in the pavement. and crowning mouldings. Pavement from the palace inward and were guided by at Phaistos. I. central structure. Blouet. and by wall pictures. Here the doors to the naos swing- FIG. Highly decorative and figured mosaic pavements did not appeal- before the Hellenistic or the. 194. Door-tracks from the Temple of Atheiia rious ways : by Priene. 63-64. breaks in the continuity of their surface. Wall 1 Olympia. suggests the pattern of a rug. II.

In the pre-Mycenaean palace at Knossos. In fortifications bastions and towers served to break this monotony. PI. In the wall of the Lele- ges near lassos in 1 Caria. continuously unbroken. and else- where. the palace of Mausolos and the public buildings of Alexandria. 147. A second method of decorating walls was to conceal their structure. the walls were jointed as finely as possible so as to produce the effect of a monolithic mass. Mycenae. Profile of door-tracks from the Temple of Athena. are wearisome from if their monotony. the con- tinuity of the wall was broken by vertical set-backs. But at Troy. decorated t{ie^faga3e~of the Tholos of Atreus at Mycenae. Priene. but more deco- rative. In buildings of the classic period. are the pilasters set at rhythmical intervals around the hypaethral courts of the Temple of Apollo near Mile- tos. in which the actual con- 1 Texier. III. marble revetments were imitated in painted stucco. varied in color or pattern. as well as in Hellenistic and Roman private houses at Delos and Pompeii. FIG. the vertical set-backs are so slight as to serve no useful purpose beyond that of breaking the monotony of the continuous walls. as well as elsewhere. at Halikarnassos. . Marble revet- ments. stucco revetments concealed poorly constructed walls and served as a ground for superficial ornamentation. Horizontal set-backs similarly broke the monotony of continuously vertical walls. In Greece.168 GREEK ARCHITECTURE surfaces. 196. Similar to these. deep enough to have been useful in flanking an enemy.

were composed of blocks which were carefully dressed at the borders. at Priene (Fig. 197). half-timbered construction. DECORATION 169 struction from relatively small blocks was concealed from view. which portray the oldest Erechtheion. and elsewhere the vertical joints were very strongly emphasized and the faces of the blocks slightly rounded. In some of these empha- sis is given to the regular courses of masonry set in hori- zontal courses with alternating joints others represent . But for finely constructed walls smoothly dressed blocks without mar- ginal draftings were preferred. however. marginal draftings were left for aesthetic effect. A third type of wall decoration consisted in the empha- sis of structure. . and^cTOwning mouldings. as in the Propylaia at Athens. A similar emphasis of struc- ture is exhibited in the archaic fragments from the 2 Acropolis. 14. Taf. 1 which picture several types of houses. In the pedestal of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates only the horizontal joints have marginal draftings. In later buildings. Wall basesTusually presented a jjocle anoortliostatai.. Here walls are represented in which every block is marked by a complete anathyrosis. A fourth method of wall decoration consisted in the adornment of the base. In some cases where these still persist. from Kriossos. 14-22. In the Museum at Caridia there are a number of small glazed plaques.S. heavy walls. VIII (1901-1902).A. At Magnesia on the Maeander. who did not hesitate in some cases to point their walls with gold. 2 1 B. the walls may be considered as unfinished. such as those of fortresses. An extreme limit was reached by the Byzantines. In the classic period. Wiegand. body.

1 10. 17. as in the Erechtheion. decorated with a horizontal band of black stone.170 GREEK ARCHITECTURE wluch'TO have considered as formal^cliaxacters. VIII. The white marble town walls of Thasos 2 were. 2 Perrot et Chipiez. were usually a series of mouldings. in buildings of the Ionic order. Le Temple <f Athena Pronaia. Homolle. anta and column bases were emphasized by more richly decorated mouldings. . These mouldings in the Treasury of the Phocaeans at Delphi and in the 1 Temple of Athena FIG. But the broad. Wall from Friene. Nike at Athens. To the present day. almost unbroken surface of the orthostatai contrasted with the detailed play of lines in the masonry above ajia^tfi^s^be- came a part of the wall decoration. In other cases. Beneath the orthostatai. a dado is an aes- thetic rather than a practical neces- sity. li)7. repeated the deco- ration as well as form of the base moulding^ "oPlhe columns. The body of walls in archaic and classic buildings was seldom broken by string courses. however.

and a beak moulding with the usual Doric leaf pattern. Above the well-known sculp- tured frieze was a cyma re versa decorated with the Les- bian leaf and dart. Epikranitis from the Temple of Aphaia. 30. the triglyphal frieze and cornice with mutules was continued around the outer walls of the cella. In the Treasury of Sikyon at Olympia. In the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Fig. which is a vaos ev Trapao-rdcTiv. The epikranitis of the exterior of the cella walls of the Parthenon (Fig. . highly decorated than those of the base. DECORATION 171 and in the Pinakotheke of the Propylaia at Athens. In some Ionic buildings. Aegina. 1 TKe crowning mouldings of walls were usually more FIG. as in the fagade of the Temple of Zeus at AizaTioi. above this a broad platband ornamented with a double-coursed maeander. the blue Eleusinian stone of the window-sills was continued along the side walls. At a later period architects more frequently broke the monotony of^Y-ertical walls by string courses. 199) was more complicated. PI. iTexier. 198) the platband was adorned with a scroll and lotus pattern of severe but interesting design. I. 198. while the interior walls were capped by a platband surmounted with a beak moulding.

Athenaios. Deipnos. An unusual. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods. surmounted by painted or carved mouldings. In all these examples the real epikranitis con- FIG.172 GREEK ARCHITECTURE like the Temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion. sisted of a decorated platband. this band with its decoration served an aesthetic purpose of a similar character.. as in the Augusteum Ancyra. The platband would seem to repre- sent the wall plates which bound together the studs and corner posts of a frame building. frieze. but not altogether at successful. 199. an entire entablature with epistyle. the platband of the epikranitis was often decorated with some form of acanthus scroll. Epikranitis from the Parthenon. . and cornice was continued around the building above the regular epi- kranitis. A fifthmethod of wall decoration was by means of color. type of decoration was adopted in the temple of Mars Ultor at Rome. 52. In the Thalamegos of Ptolemy Philopator 2 the 1 2 d'Espouy. PI. 206. In stone and marble buildings. 1 where the epikranitis imitates a coffered ceiling. V.

1 Bohn-Schuchhardt. But decorative forms were also given to door and window-frames. pilasters. 1 jambs and lintels were left with- out special decoration. 24. Where severity of treatment was required. . DECORATION OF DOORS. as in the tomb of Atreus at Mycenae or in the entrance to the theatre at Aizanoi. a means not only of protecting but also of decorating wall openings. and cornices. and jambs set flush with the walls or slightly projecting were.and light-colored alabaster. from time immemo- rial. palaces. 17. and other artists of lost. but the paintings of a later period the classic period are which have survived from Pompeii and Herculanetim were designed to imitate marble walls. as a rule. lintels. AND PILASTERS. market-places. as in the agora at Aegae. and temples affordedT^an excellent field for the display of the painter's art. Mikon. The palace of Mausolos at Halikarnassos was ornamented with polychro- matic marble revetments. ANTAE. Sometimes jambs and lintels were recessed by a series of successive fasciae (/eo/ocrafc). or to pi^duce^anja^^^chitectural effects. The figured wall paintings of Polygnotos. or other such scenes. harmonized well with the character of the building they were intended to decorate. WINDOWS. The palaces at Knossos. or to portray historical. Figs. Lintels projecting beyond the jambs were used by the Greeks of Asia Minor. Doors and windows were sometimes left as mere openings without decoration. mythological. DECORATION 173 walls of the dining hall were decorated with alternate bands of dark. 16. This is especially true of the gateways and windows of well-constructed fortifi- cations. The stuccoed walls of private houses. Tiryns. and Mycenae have preserved interesting examples from the earliest period. But sills. These paint- ings. 4.

Richly carved deco- ration characterized the North Door of the Erechtheion FIG. where they are emphasized by terminal mouldings. was thus decorated. 200). (Fig. perhaps. . The second fascia had a more noteworthy decoration in the acanthus leaf and dart carved upon its cyma reversa moulding. . They occur in the western windows of the Erechtheion (Fig. and windows were provided with hoods 1 Vitruvius. as well as the lintel. Western window. Here the outermost fascia was framed by bead and reel mould- ings and decorated by a series of rosettes.174 GREEK ARCHITECTURE as well as by the Etruscans. 2. They are prescribed by Vitruvius. 200. Porches were often built in front of doorways opening on thoroughfares. 6._. IV. Doorways recessed with a series of fasciae occur so frequently on the facades of Lycian tombs as to lead us to believe that wooden doorways of houses and public buildings were similarly constructed from the light timber which alone was available in that country. Erechtheion. This is. the earliest example of this type of decoration. 1 In a rock-cut tomb at Antiphellos. 201). The doorways of the Parthenon and those of the Propylaia at Athens seem to have been decorated with bronze revetments. the sill.

. North door of the Erechthelon. 201. DECORATION 175 FIG.

1 hence also door cornices resting on consoles or brackets (Tra/oam?. 3 by mouldings. 5 4 We may well believe that. PI. Their bases. as in the Pinakotheke on the Acropolis at Athens. 6 Antae. and in the Treasury of the Phocaeans 1 4 Bolm. PI. ayica)v. 9. and that. A word may be said about the decoration of the doors themselves. As already noticed.were plain socles and orthosta- tai. hence followed nat- urally the columnar decoration of doorways. in the Doric order. 174. Verr. as in the 2 Temple of Herakles at Cori. Taf. Cicero. these were constructed which were surrounded so as to exhibit a series of panels. even in the archaic period. in the classic and Hellenistic periods. and engaged columns received a deco- ration related to that of the walls or columns. as in the North Porch of the Erechtheion. decorated bronze doors continued to be used. 56. 56. III. 3 6 Texier. 169. Taf. When a cornice with consoles was applied to a door-frame the lintel of which project 3d beyond the jambs. and chryselephantine doors are recorded for the Temple of Athena at Syracuse. and decorated by such symbols as bolts. In the Ionic order they received decorative mould- ings similar to those of the walls in the Temple of Athena Nike at Athens. . lion heads (\eovTOKefya\aC). and of windows. Doors of carved wood. tem- ple doorways were sheathed with figured bronze reliefs of similar character to those known as Argive reliefs.176 GREEK ARCHITECTURE as a protection from sun or rain. III. the effect was less pleas- ing. Texier. IV. pilasters. ofc). Ibid. or Gorgon heads (Topydveia). 2 5 Mauch. as in the Tholos of Atreus. and of marquetry were also probably employed by the Greeks.

on the other hand. in the monument of Philopappos at 1 Athens. PI. of but ordinarily they were decorated with channellings. with this inter- esting distinction the pilaster bases have flowers in the centre and at the corners. Thus. The shafts of antae and pilasters. 202. they are ornamented to correspond not with the walls but with the columns. in the early period. In later times they often had an independent deco- ration. obviously in imitation metal sheathing. were deco- rated as Avails or wall coverings. their decora- tion contrasted with that of the walls. Sometimes. Tomb of Atreus at Mycenae were decorated with elaborate zigzags. this decoration consisted of a platband 1 Stuart and Revett. V. Thus. for ex- ample. Engaged columns in the FIG. and show a similar triple braid. The capitals of antae and pilasters in the earlier periods were decorated to correspond with the epikranitis of the wall. DECORATION 177 at Delphi. III. In general. they were panelled. Ch. 3. in the North Porch of the Erechtheipn. but as a rule they were channelled. . Anta capital from Aegina.

given some form of sculptured ornament: rosettes in the Propylon of the Stoa at Pergamon 2 palmettes and lotus flowers in . the Temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion 3 scroll . Even the crowning moulding of the abacus was provided with sculptured ornament.178 GREEK ARCHITECTURE surmounted by a cornice moulding. II. In Attic build- ))((. In the Ionic order the FIG. PI. for example. Ch. work in the theatre at Miletos. 184. In the Doric order the platband was usually left undecorated. in the Parthenon (Fig. as in the rep- resentative series of buildings at Olympia. The abacus in the Doric order was usually un- decorated. 1 The crown- ing moulding was painted with the Doric leaf pattern. II. Anta from the Par- capital neck of the capital was thenon. 2 See F ig. 203. as. 1 Olympia. ings. Above the neck a series of mouldings was also carved. 202). but in the Ionic it received crown- ing mouldings. 203) or in the temple at Sounion. . mouldings with carved decoration were placed beneath the painted beak mouldings. II. 18. ___ A typical instance is that of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Fig. 3 Stuart and Revett. 205.

the acanthus and winged genii dominate the decoration of .FIG. 205. 204) the pilaster capitals had un- developed vo- lutes. necting bands were decorated with olive leaf. and FIG. The central space between the volutes was filled with an acanthus scroll between two griffins. of lutes Miletos. 205) are fully developed volutes and echinus. The channelled vo- and con. 206). On the anta capitals of the Propylon of the Stoa at Pergamon (Fig. Anta capital from the Propylon at Pergamon. In theTemple of Apollo near Miletos (Fig. capitals of antae and pilasters were frequently assimilated in decoration to the capitals of columns. DECORATION 179 In the Hellenistic period. Pilaster capital from the Temple Apollo. 204. and rosettes. In the Augusteum at Ancyra (Fig. or scale ornament. the abacus capped with an egg and dart moulding.

FIG. CuilUume del. 206. - I % 1 nuimlu from Ancyra. Auta capital . 180 GREEK ARCHITECTURE E.

80. 5. The torus mouldings of column bases were usually left plain. and capitals all shared in furnishing decorative charm. Columns varied not merely in form. shafts. but also in decoration. The earliest architects of the Temple of Hera at Samos (Fig. and their bases. 207). and those of the 1 See Fig. rated. Column base from early and late Temple of Hera at Samos. DECORATION 181 the anta capitals. 207. DECORATION OF COLUMNS. but in Asiatic Greece were often deco- FIG. while the bases of the peristyle are channelled only on the lower half of their torus mouldings. connecting them not only with the cap- itals of the columns but also with the epikranitis of the wall. In the Temple of Athena at Priene * those bases which are protected from the weather have their mould- ings decorated with horizontal channellings. .

1 Hermogenes used the scale. 208). and. channelled the upper as well as the lower half of the torus mouldings. Column base from North Porch of Erechtheion. or laurel leaf. IV (1905). Ancient Athens. even for the exterior order. This type of decoration must have appealed strongly to the Greeks of Asia Minor.and the architects of the facade of the Temple of Apollo near Miletos 2 employed a series of different 1 E. Gardner. 208. 3-15. These may have been rendered still more effective by the insertion of enamel. were less practical in their methods. 369.182 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Temple of Nike and the Erechtheion at Athens. which on the two columns at the angles was formed by concave bands. . pat- FIG. for it was employed there for several cen- turies. A. The horizontal channelling emphasized the base as distinct from the vertical support. tern to decorate bases of the Artemis at Mag- Temple of nesia. 2 Records of the Past. and on the remaining bases of the porch by convex bands (Fig. In the column bases of the North Porch of the Erechtheion the upper toruses were decorated with a braid ornament.

II. In some cases. the channelling was carried completely around the 1 Frazer. 209. The shafts of columns were sometimes left undecorated. as at Segesta. In most cases. as in the Arsenal at the Peiraieus.. In FIG. this is evidently to be ac- counted for by the unfinished state of the buildings. 1 considera- tions of economy dispensed with decoration as unnecessary. Column base from the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. . 209). 16. Paws. other cases. Channelling (/oa/3&<n9) was almost the exclusive type of decoration employed by Greek architects column for shafts from the earliest to the latest period. DECORATION 183 motives to decorate the column bases of that temple (Fig.

184 GREEK ARCHITECTURE shaft. Greek columns were not perfect cylinders.. Denkm. 54. but more freedom was displayed both in the earlier and later periods. for example. 2. Private houses of the Hellenistic and Roman period at Delos. however. 13. sometimes confined to the front or visible sides of shafts. but exhibited the qualities of diminution and entasis. PI. . Hell. In the columns of the so-called Temple Demeter at Paestum 4 they were elliptical. Priene. The number of channellings soon became fixed at twenty for Doric. 1. IV. 5. Beliefb. 9 III. 19. Ill. and Pompeii bear witness to the growing tendency to leave the lower portion of shafts unchannelled. Byz. as in the Stoa of Attalos at Athens. which became a favorite type for the columns of Christian churches of all periods. Taf. The technical execution of channellings required considerable skill. and sometimes to the upper portion of shafts. Figs. Vitruvius 3 lays down rules for the designing of Doric and Ionic channellings. hence the form and width of the channelling varied from the base to the summit of the shaft. The Greeks of the classic period preferred channellings which followed the vertical line of the shaft. and twenty-four for Ionic columns but there were many exceptions to this . in the Treasury of the Megarians at Olympia. But Greek channellings were not always circular.. . in both cases assuming them to be of circular section. A Hellenistic relief in the Naples Museum 1 and a sarcophagus from Asia Minor 2 may be cited as examples of spiral channellings. 8 Vitruvius. 4 Koldewey and Puchstein. 2 Strzygowski. as. 14. 5 Cockerell. 3. and of in the columns of the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia 5 they take the form of a three-centred arch. It was. 1 Schreiber.

or fillet mouldings. 267. in Doric buildings. Mitt. 210) the channellings _ terminate on the shaft against a fillet. Some late Ionic buildings. as in Doric columns of the classic period in general. Pans. III. The termination of the chan- nelling at the upper and lower ends of the shaft exer- cised the ingenuity of Greek architects. 3 The shallow channellings of Doric oolumns were separated from each other by sharp arrises. Archaic Ionic columns. Ath. Other columns FIG. sixteen at Syracuse and at Sounion.. In the angle columns of the so-called Temple of-Demeter at Paestum (Fig. 210. DECORATION 185 rule. In later columns. note 31. Similarly. 2 Frazer. as those of the Stoa at Pergamon (Fig. . 1 Hogarth. 284. Paestum. as the Leonidaion at Olympia. and twelve at Tegea. and a small leaf ornament between the channellings. IV. and the deeper channellings of the Ionic order by flat arrises. 3. 1 had as many as forty-four channel- lings. VIII (1883). such as those of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. the channel- lings are carried through the neck of the capital and die away with an almost horizontal contour against the annuli.. have columns with only twenty channellings. Column channellings ' the Tem le of Demeter qf the same temple have chan. The ratio of the width of the channelling to the separating arris 4 varied from 3:1 to 5:1. In the Parthenon (Fig. 2 eighteen at Orchomenos in Arcadia. examples might be cited of twenty-eight and twenty-four channellings at Paestum. 226. becoming shallower as they ascend and having a flat elliptical contour. Marini. - nellings which die away against a roundel moulding. 211).

the channellings do not become shallower. Incorpora. in late buildings. but are car- ried abruptly against the annuli of the capital. The channellings themselves. by G. '211! channellings from the Parthenon. Late FIG. In Ionic and Corinthian col- umns the channellings terminate usually in a semicircular contour and die away before or after the apophyge of -Column the shaft begins. sometimes received special decoration. per f ec tly Egyptians had channelled columns a thousand years before we find them at Mycenae. frequently exhibit channellings with abrupt terminations like those of the Stoa at Pergamon. such as those of the Forum Trian- gulare at Pompeii. as. columns. Palermo. O1* disks FIG. The the Temple of Zeus. 1 Even the arrises were decorated in the Erech- theion (Fig. -Column channellings from evident. Photograph No. 213). 238. 213. 214) by an added moulding at the crown. What the origin of the Greek channelling may have been is not *'IG. 1 .186 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE 212). 212. Column chaimellings from Perg amon - at the gymnasium at Solunto. for example. Aizanoi. small vases at the Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi (Fig.

1895. 1-4. when they become visi- ble. 2 4 Vitruvius. 15. and the 5 support of a tripod from Plataia exhibit spiral windings. Uhde. and to avoid the appearance of flatness and of variable proportions. 4. NIC.v. 10. and that the -. the object of channelling is to make columns appear slenderer. To l describe it Aristotle used the word joa/38o><m. 5 Daremberg et Saglio. by means nellings. 1 3 135-136. Eth. the channelled columns with their play of light and shade have a greater charm than the polygonal shafts with flat faces. Column channelling from the broader. 4. . Donarium. an archaic poros shaft 4 in the Acropolis Museum. which emphasizes their continuous vertical character. IV. These verti- cal lines counteract the effect of the horizontal joints of the drums.1 FIG. Belger in Arch. Fig. columns might be made to appear L~ of chan- W 1 i . Other modes of decorating the shafts of columns occur exceptionally. to which an unchannelled shaft is 3 subject when variously lighted. Anz. Mycenaean gems. 2529. Vitruvius 2 reasoned that. According to modern writers. DECORATION 187 At the tombs of Benihassan. I. The Greeks also were not blind to the aesthetic effects of channelling.. 2. j_i 214. s. Erechtheion. but deserve mention. slenderer columns of an inner order might in this way be made apparently equal to those of the exterior.

as in the columnae caelatae of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. as in ordinary channellings. Athens.188 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the broad portions of which are convex and not con- cave. they were Jn actual uge Qver ft ^. . a partial channelling was attempted. and of the P) ^~~^ " were not uncommon in Pompeii. and the arrises become the central spines of a lanceolate leaf or- nament. 215). -Channellings from the Tower of the columns occur in Egypt and that Winds. 8. 206. Chan- nelling was usually carried from the base to the top of the shaft. even in the archaic period.S.H. V. it seems strange that reeded columns do not occur more frequently in Greek architecture. 216) the channellings at the top of the shaft die away. occur on the lower portion of the en- gaged columns in the interior of the Hi 111 Tower Winds (Fig. Athenaios 2 tells us that the shafts in 1 Murray in J.^ part of the Orient. In the columns of the Choragic Monu- ment of Lysicrates (Fig. When we consider the frequency with which reed bundle FIG. but. The same method of decoration was employed in the fourth-century restoration of that temple (Fig. 1 where the lowest drums were sculptured with figured decorations. Convex flutings also . 217). X (1889). 2 Deipnos... 215.

Ephesos. Sculptured Drums fron the Temple of Artemis. with black. which. DECORATION 189 the dining hall of the Thalamegos of Ptolemy Philopator were built up with drums of white marble alternating FIG. constitute the beginnings of a system of decoration which later Byzantine and Italian artists de- . with the similarly decorated walls in the same hall. 217.

rich red. 2 Daremberget Saglio. 5 A common decoration of the Doric shaft consisted in the incised annuli at the upper end of the shaft. 184. as exemplified in Pompeii and in Byzantine churches. The present rusty coloring of Pentelic marble shafts is insufficient evidence to lead us to believe with 3 Semper that they were originally painted a warm. This coloring matter fused with wax served to protect the surface of the marble and perhaps also give to it the appearance of ivory.190 GREEK ARCHITECTURE veloped into a national style. 44-45. was in all probability found in Greek buildings of the Hellen- istic period. II. Athenaios 1 also makes mention of shafts decorated with inlaid marble or precious stones. An elementary example occurs in the columns of Temple D at Selinous (Fig. 1346.v.. Carved or painted tablets (o-ruXoTrtm/aa) decorated the columns of the Temple of Apollo at Kyzikos. is probable in some instances. 218). On the other hand. Coluinna.. * e Hittorff. 514. there appears to be substantial evidence that the earliest marble columns. XII. s. Bemerk. Vorlauf. were covered with a thin 4 coating of color. Semper. 2 These later instances of polychromatic shafts raise the question how far shafts of columns were colored in earlier times. as Kugler believed. . The shafts of the pro- skenion of the theatre at Priene were painted red. 8 48. while those of the Palaistra at Olympia were probably yellow. The decoration of columns and piers with mosaic. Olympia. That the stuccoed shafts of the archaic period and the marble shafts of the classic period were left white. and even those of the Theseion and the Parthenon. Here the lower end of the cap- ital block was chamfered so as to protect the arrises of iDeipnos.

218. In the Hellen- istic period. Olympia. The shafts of square pillars in the earlier periods. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods. their decoration was usually borrowed from that . curved surfaces are employed in the construction of the annuli. Annuli from FIG. These annuli were usually composed of two plane surfaces meeting at an angle. as in the Choragic Monument of Thrasyllos at Athens. 220. Paestum. this feature of the Doric shaft disappears altogether. were left undecorated. Selinous. or separated by a fillet moulding. 219. The ornamental character of this incision was recognized jit once and the number of annuli increased. In the FIG. Treasury of Gela at Olympia (Fig. In the Temple of Apollo I at Phigaleia (Fig. Annuli from Phigaleia. 219) the shafts have i'our ofthese incised annuli the temples of Poseidon at . reduced the number of annuli to one and were content with plane surfaces. 220). of Apollo at Corinth. and several of the treas- uries of Olympia show three incised annuli. Incised annulus the Treasury of Gela. The architects of the Parthenon and of the Propylaia FIG. DECORATION 191 i:he channelling from injury when being set in place. and of 7 Aphaia at Aegina. from Temple D.

the broad draperies and the 1 Ion. and were described by Vitruvius 3 as Caryat- ides.Kanephoros from Knidian Treas- Ch IX' ' Pls 6~ 13 ' ' 3 ury. 1. PI. Delphi. 24. 2 Stuart and Revett. The heavy neck. The Treasuries of Knidos (Fig. . II. FIG. 221) and of Siphnos at Del- phi present this type in its earliest and most characteristic form. Antiq. 2 Anthropomorphic supports were usually in the form of maidens (icopai) bearing baskets or other burdens on their heads (/cavrjcfrdpoi). partial or com- plete. as in the Tomb at Mylasa. 5. 221. rein- forced by the hanging locks of hair. was the normal type.. Chan- nelling. . III. 1 Figures in high relief decorated the piers of the upper story of the so-called Incantada at Thessa- lonica. I. Vitruvius. 192 GREEK ARCHITECTURE of the columns.

204. Photograph by Bonfils. No. Fig. 222) the slightly concave neck was decorated by a series of round-headed 2 the leaves. and. similar devices were employed. In the Mycenaean capital from the Tomb of Atreus (Fig. FIG. Capitals columns were decorated upon the neck. Neck of. capital from Mycenae. 222. In the Porch of the Maidens of the Erechtheion. o . did not constitute an invariable part of the Greek capital. Neck mouldings. and in an ivory colonnette from Mycenae i 2 Perrot et Chipiez. in rigid pose. reXa/^e?). crouching. 527. VI. at the Olympieion at Akragas. DECORATION 193 rigid pose gave the female form apparent strength to support its heavy burden. beneath the Neronian stage platform in the Theatre of 1 Dionysos at Athens. They varied in form. as we have seen. and abacus. of principal moulding. Male figures appear also as supports (arXaz/re?. and their decoration was determined by no fixed canon.

.194 GREEK ARCHITECTURE channellings were carried through the neck to the prin- cipal moulding. V (1890). 224. PI. Rosettes decorate the neck of a capital in the Museum. Painted zigzags decorated the neck of an archaic capital at Delos. The archaic columns of the Enneastylos and the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum (Figs. Neck of capital from FIG. Detailbuch. Neck of capital from Paestum. 2 Petersen in Bom. In the theatre at Aizanoi 3 the necks of the capitals were deco- rated with acanthus scrolls. In the Monument FIG. 3 Texier and Pullan. of Lysicrates at Athens the leaves of the neck are lanceo- late. at Naukra'tis (Fig. 193. 223. the lotus and palmette alter- nate at Lokroi 2 and in the Erechtheion. 226) and in the Theatre of Lao- dikeia the high neck forms the principal moulding of the capital and is decorated with palmettes having al- ternately inward. of Naples l . . 6. 223. At Magnesia on the Maeander (Fig.and outward-curving petals. 225) . garlands of lotus buds and flowers. Mitt. Taf. 20. Paestum. In Roman 1 Mauch. 224) show deeply concave necks decorated with flat arched or rectilinearly terminated leaves which sometimes show spikes between their rounded ends and sometimes curve over to form a bead moulding.

227). 225. the rec- tangular form was emphasized by the decoration. Capitals deco- rated with spirals were used by the Egyptians. Neck of capital from Naukratis. either of rectangular or circular section. now in the Museum at Candia. and Persians. and probably also ians. Rectangular capitals were formed chiefly under Ionic influ- ence. Hittites. and the sides with the pul- vinus. by the Mycenaeans. This type of decoration seems to have been derived from a floral prototype. all of which FIG. the faces were decorated with spirals. Originally. The chief moulding of the capital was. concealed the essen- tialrectangularity of the capital block. as we have noted. as in a capital rep- resented on a vase from Hagia Triada (Fig. But al- most universally the sharp angles of the rectangular block were rounded. possibly that . DECORATION 195 buildings undecorated necks were not uncommon and became typical of the so-called Tuscan order. Assyr- Phoenicians.

Capitals from Neandreia. Lesbos. 2 A great variety of spiral forms are found on Greek cap- itals. 1 Many fanciful derivations have been suggested.196 GREEK ARCHITECTURE of the Egyptian lotus. OOP QO ooooo .

was raised so high as to give their channels at the start a downward slope. DECORATION 197 spirals. These 1 Bates in Harvard Studies. Egyptian examples. as ex- emplified in the capitals of the Temple of Athena Nike and the Propylaia at Athens (Fig. Capital from Phigaleia. or leaf. 230). The spirals henceforth became united in the centre. the sagging moulding has almost disappeared. seemed to have been an obstacle in the development of the Ionic cap- ital and was con- sequently given up. the united spirals are bounded above by horizontal. X (1899). 230. 231). This flower. In the Mau- FIG. 1 In these examples it will be noticed that palmettes cover the angles where the sagging moulding meets the spirals. 31. as on the capitals from the Temple of A polio at Phigaleia FlG 229 _ Capital from Delos> (Fig. Their springing point in a few cases. . which occurs in pattern. and below by sagging mould- ings resembling festoons (e^Kapira). soleion at Halikarnassos. But in the normal classic type.

Capital from the Philippeion. for example. Maeander (Fig. in the . rated by sharp cuttings. Athens. 231. as. Olympia. Thus. In most Hellenistic capitals.198 GREEK ARCHITECTURE palmettes decorate an awkward corner without violat- ing the very ancient tradition. this moulding was omitted. as at Magnesia on the FIG. 233) and at Teos. even the effect of horizontality is not so strong in reality as it appears in line draw- ings. A horizontal instead of a sagging mould- ^ ======= ====s=== _^ ing is seen in some cap- itals. and had no visible bond of union. in the ceiling at Orchomenos. A more elaborate type of spiral decoration was devised by subdivision of the volutes. as in those of the Philippeion at Olympia (Fig. Capital from the Propylaia. since the eggs and darts of the echinus were sepa- FIG. 232). 232. which associated angle flowers with spirals.

35. But superposed spiral forms. DECORATION 199 Nereid Monument Xanthos. 2 do not seem to have been favored by the Greeks. Fig. North Porch of the Erechtheion (Fig. 1 the channel (canalis) of at the capital is subdivided into double-ranged channels which wind spirally until they meet at the central oculus. capital from Megara Hyblaea (Fig. Cap. 50. 235). In the capitals of the ^========!=======:i=====. 233. then into two the channelling^ and dividing mouldings showing a subor- dination which can only be appreciated by close observa- tion of the original or of a cast. Ion. 80. such as those which occur upon Assyrian and Persian monuments. Another type of capital resulted from the application of the double scroll. . 234. 2 Reber. 234) there is a subdivision into four channels which die away into three and FIG. 19. as in a FIG. . Figs. Capital from the Erechtheion. -Capital from Magnesia. Considerable variety in the effect of spiral capitals re- 1 Puchstein.

Thus in the Erechtheion it was decorated by subordinate mouldings. The effect also varied according to the form given the terminal mouldings. In the enriched type of Ionic capitals the FIG. . 2 Olympia. the channel was convex in . 235. II. but in the later temple. In Roman capi- Maria in Trastevere 2 at Rome. from Samothrace. . as its name implies. 236. In Hellenistic capitals. Li 3 a pl ane surface. . it was decorated with an acanthus scroll. the from Megara Hyblaea roundel was used. we find a roundel set upon a fillet. Pilaster capital . as at Ephesos and Neandreia. Taf.200 GREEK ARCHITECTURE suited from the manner of treating the channel and the edges of the spiral band. In some archaic examples. In the Erechtheion these mouldings were subdivided by a triangular incision. such as those of the Ptolemaion at Samothrace (Fig. Channel itself was Or- namented. .1 j -. was concave. Haussoullier. and double or duplex fillets in the Palaistra at 1 Olympia. ld tem P le at ^pheSOS a plain -. 236). or relatively deep. as in S. ordinarily it Sometimes it was shallow. as in the Mauso- leion at Halikarnassos. the acanthus tals. or the Temple of the Apollo Smintheus in the Troad. 172. 74. Flat fillets were employed in the Temple of Artemis at Magnesia and in many later buildings. In FIG. Capital . others. -. -r. . and frequently elsewhere. as in the Temple of Nike at Athens. from Athens and Delos.

A. It would be interesting to know how the Greeks designed their spirals. note 57. see Marjni. Penrose 5 has shown that they may be formed with mathematical accuracy by unwinding a string from a cylinder. 5. Cook. given by Archimedes. while that of Vitruvius 3 produces a spiral of but two revolutions. 21-30. Spirals. A survey of a collection of Ionic capitals. I. 4 Building News. In the archaic and classic periods these spirals were probably drawn free hand.L Br. For a re'sume' of various methods of designing spirals. PL 7. 139. 179. Ban- ister Fletcher 4 has suggested that spirals similar to those of the Ionic capital may be drawn by unwinding a cord from the convolutions of a spiral sea shell. and that their stems were carried in spiral windings to the oculus. But in some capitals from the archaic temple at Ephesos 1 a large rosette took the place of spirals and disk. 5 JM. In the capitals of the North Porch of the Erech- theion oculi of bronze were probably employed. 1902. VII (1903). 2 is an ideal rather than practical method. III. The treatment of the oculus also modified the charm of the capital. and in a capital found in the Erechtheioii a rosette was carved upon an oculus of nor- mal size. In the Hellenistic 1 Hogarth. 2 Ilepi MKWV. X (1903). The method of describing a spiral. will show very great variety in respect to the point where the terminal moulding reaches the oculus. Pennethorne.. Aug.J. 187. such as those illustrated in Puchstein's Das lonisohe Capitell. . 22. Cf. including the volutes. 3 Vitruvius. It is possible also that half palmettes of bronze were used in the angles of the spirals. Architects. 462.A. This was usually an unornamented circular disk. DECORATION 201 leaf sometimes ornamented the channel in its entire course. In some capitals of the fagade of the Temple of Apollo at Miletos heads of divini- ties were substituted for volutes.

Ibid. One archaic capital from the Acropolis 2 shows a platband decorated with a maeander set between two egg and dart 3 mouldings another. Fig. The capitals of the Erechtheion show a braid set above an egg and dart and a bead and reel.202 GREEK ARCHITECTURE period. no decoration at the base was required. But when they sprang from a higher level. 1 2 3 Priene. the base of the capital was ornamented with a horizontal band. Puchstein. . as the endeavor to bring the ter- minal moulding to a vanishing point above the oculus is quite evident. 1 shows three windings on one and four on the other volute. Our consideration of the Ionic capital is not complete without a word concerning the decoration of its base. as in the capitals from Neandreia. scale pattern above a cyma reversa with the Ionic leaf and dart. who placed at the base of the capital an echinus moulding carved with the egg and dart. the use of some mechanical method of producing spirals seems probable. With singular persistence the egg and dart has continued to be the characteristic decoration of this moulding throughout its entire history. Fig. from the North Por- tico of the Agora at Priene. Considerable difference. may be observed between the refined forms of the egg and dart ornament in Athenian capitals and the mechanical treatment which of the classic period was only too common in later days. An exceptional example. The number of windings was usually more than two. which Athenian designers elaborated into a series of superposed mouldings of varying profile and decoration.. 195. 4. a quarter round decorated with the . 7. however. 194. Figs. When the spirals sprang vertically from the shaft. A simpler and broader effect was preferred by the architects of the Propylaia and of the Temple of Athena Nike.

were deco- rated with vertical channellings separated by roundel mouldings. . Other archaic Ionic capitals. but more richly decorated. DECORATION 203 The side of the Ionic capital.. and. at Delphi (Fig. . decoration. FIG. . 238. -Puivinus decoration o f rou ndels. When the plain from the Erechtheion. on either side of the centre. 238) were similarly. 239. or with some form of leaf . Pulvinus decoration At Magnesia (Fig. Pulvinus decoration from those of the old temple Delphi. 239) the from Magnesia. in having bead and reel in place FIG. this was decorated with vertical channellings. The Erechtheion cap-' 3 itals (Fig. form and decoration of the pulvinus suggests two calyx capitals set base to base. was variously treated. such as that of the column ' of the Naxians . formed more or less like a bolster (pulvinus). 237. at Ephesos. This kind of decoration brought the capitals into harmony with the decoration of the shaft and bases of the columns. At Lokroi it was decorated with pen- dent lanceolate leaf or scale ornament. or FIG. decr/uo?). 237). pulvinus was formed like a compressed bolster by means of a central belt (Swi/. lanceolate leaves were often arranged horizontally to emphasize the independence of the capital.

Taf. Y-*~\ then ^~V ^- sides of the pulvinus. 128. . A special r t} pe of decoration found at Pergamon FIG. The extreme limit of FIG. (Fig. 242). (Fig. The great altar at Pergamon furnishes _ examples of studied variety in pulvinus decoration. Pulvinus decoration from Pergamon. 130. 2 At Salamis in Cyprus (Fig. III. 241. Figs. Pulvinus decoration from Priene. 12. r I ital.204 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Acanthus leaves were sometimes substituted for the lanceolate leaves. their curved wings taking the place of volutes. The next stage in decoration was the substituting of ani- mal for floral types. This occurred in the corner capitals of the Agora at Magnesia on the Maeander. When the principal moulding of the capital was not 1 2 Pergamon. This appears to represent a feeling on the part of the architect that the decoration of the side of the capital by means of exclusively horizontal lines emphasized too strongly the independence of the cap. consisted in carrying the belt above the pulvinus until it reached the abacus. 240). 241) a branching V on-m~kll scroll n ornamented r\Y\4-f\r\ *-\ni. In the capitals of the propylon at Prierie . 243) the heads of winged bulls formed the sides of the capitals. 240. and also at Olympia. floral ornament applied to the pulvinus may be seen in the capitals from the Ionic Temple on the theatre terrace at Pergamon (Fig. a thunder- bolt 1 being sometimes substi- tuted for geometrical or floral ornament. Magnesia.

torus mouldings of the capitals of the Tholos of Atreus . 242. 243. Pulvinus decoration from Ionic Temple. Thus the FIG. or other profiles. Pergamon. concave. DECORATION 205 rectangular but of circular section and showed convex. FIG. Pulvinus decoration from Salamis. Cyprus. the decoration was modified to some extent by the form of the moulding.

as in the columns of the Heraion at Samos (Fig. on an early stele capital It from Athens.. 244. are also found on these 1 Borrmann in Jhb. having less re- gard to the form of the moulding. Capital from the Heraion. 1 Other types of ornament. When this moulding had a curved profile varying from an hyperbola FIG. 244). .206 GREEK ARCHITECTURE were decorated with rhomboids enclosing spirals a type of decoration which brought the capitals into close har- mony with the decoration of the shafts. to a straight line. Ill (1888). it was usually painted or carved with the egg and dart. 274. does occur. Samos. The egg and dart was so common a decoration of the echinus moulding in general that we might expect to find it also on the echinus of the Doric capital. in fact.

Temple C. Selinous (Fig. Boetticher 1 claims to have seen an egg and dart painted on the capitals of the Theseion.. is uncertain. have been unable to find any traces of painting even on the protected sides of these capi- tals. 246). Whether such ornaments were ever applied to larger capitals such as those of a temple. or stoa. 245). The earliest archaic capitals. On any other hypothesis. it is difficult to explain the raised annuli that decorate the base of the capital. broad bands in archaic capitals. 1 8 291. 248). triangular in Temple D. however. Although the Egyptian analo- gies are not very close. Were this the case. and the German excavators at Olympia 2 found no such decoration there. or none at all. in fact. Selinous (Fig. 3 Choisy considers them reminiscences of the original blocking out the capital. alternately red and blue. 71. 52. show three or four raised an- nuli. . applied to the separating incisions. as. Boetticher. Choisy. however. By means of color. the scale ornament and capitals. 184. and later capitals frequently show a smaller number of annuli. and a series of annuli as a later development.A. in the earlier Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Fig. palmettes enclosed in scrolls. we should expect to find simple.J. it would be interesting to believe that the Doric capital was of Egyptian origin. 247) and in the Parthenon (Fig. II. 4 A. 2 Olympia. I. the incisions were semicircular in section in . Thus. DECORATION 207 stele for example. Other observers. the annuli were made to stand out in clearer relief. They were also emphasized by the varied formation of the separating in- cisions. .reminding us of those which occur at the summit of the shaft or the base of the capital of Egyptian columns 4 . VI (1890). and Semper verified his observations.

208 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

curved in the upper half, and straight in the lower. Cruder
methods of indicating the annuli are
found in many capitals from Olympia
(Fig. 249). In later examples, as in the
interior order
of the Tower
FIG. 245. Annuli from
Winds, of the
Old Temple, Aegina.
and in the
Gate of the Agora at Athens (Fig.
250), the
annuli were
sometimes FIG. 246. Annuli from
Temple C, Selinous.
applied be-
low the echinus. The number
was by no means constant. They
FIG. 247. Annuli from varied from one to five, 1 but four
Temple D, Selinous.
may be considered the normal
number. In the examples thus far considered the an-

FIG. 248. Annuli from the Par- FIG. 249. Annuli from Olympia.
thenon.

nuli were formed like fillet mouldings. Occasionally,
i
Olympia, II, Taf. 88, 5, 9.

DECORATION 209

"aowever, we find other forms. In one of the capitals
from Paestum 1
the annul! consisted of roundel mould-

ings at Cadacchio (Fig. 251), of a fillet, a cyma recta,
;

and a quarter round. At Paestum, in
one of the capitals from the Temple
of Demeter, a cyma recta decorated
with upright leaves took the place of
simpler annuli in a second, a triple
;

braid ; in a third, a frieze of lotus flowers
2
and rosettes ;
and in a fourth, lotus
3
flowers alternating with, palmettes.
Such highly decorative substitutes for
the annuli were, however, exceedingly FlG 250. An nun
rare. When the channellings of the from Agora Gate,
Ath(
shaft were carried through the neck of
the capital it was a great practical convenience that they
should end against a hor-
izontal annulus rather
than die away on the
conical surface of the
echinus. This, perhaps,
accounts for the extraor-
dinary persistence of

:
the annuli in the Doric
capital. The decoration
of capitals of concave

v profile campanif orm or
FIG. 251. - Annuli from Cadacchio. ill Some
calyx capitals
Egyptian prototypes (Fig. 252). Thus
cases closely follows
the well-known capital from the Theatre of Dionysos in
1 2 See Fig. 224.
Puchstein, 49, Fig. 41, 3.
3 See Fig. 223.

210 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

FIG. 252. Capital from Thebes, FIG. 253. Capital from the Theatre of Dio-
XVIII dyn., Egypt. nysos, Athens.

Athens (Fig. 253), seems to be a translation of Egyptian
intoGreek floral forms. Similarly, some of the capitals

FIG. 254. Capital from the Stoa of Eumenes, Pergamon.

DECORATION 211

from the Stoa of Eumenes at Pergamon (Fig. 254) recall the
Egyptian palm-leaf capital
(Fig. 255). Even for the
more usual type with acan-
thus decoration Egyptian
prototypes may be cited.
A Theban wall painting of
the XIX
dynasty (Fig.
256) exhibits a calyx cap-
ital with angular volutes,

and a row of pointed leaves
at the base a type of cap-
italwhich, in the Ptolemaic
period, was elaborated into
very complicated forms. S ^-)
The earliest Greek capital
With analogous decoration FlG - 255. -Capital from El Bersheh,
Egypt.
was found in the interior of
the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia (Fig. 257). It had

FIG. 256. Capital from Thebes,
XIX dyn., Egypt. FIG. 257. Capital from Phigaleia.

small angular volutes, large central spirals and palmette,

212 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

and a double row of acanthus leaves at the base. In the
Tholos at Epidauros (Fig. 258) the angular volutes were
almost completely detached from the central bell of the
capital, the central spirals made smaller, the central flower
.
raised until it

touched the
abacus, and more
space allotted to
the acanthus
decoration, which
in this case con-
sisted of a row
of alternately
high and low
leaves. The cap-
itals of the Monu-
ment of Lysi-
crates in Athens

(Fig. 259) were
still more highly
developed. In
FIG. 258. Capital from the Tholos at Epidauros.
this case the cen-
tral bellwas hidden by elaborate spiral, acanthus, and floral
decoration, resembling applied metal work. In the half
capitals in the Philippeion at Olympia (Fig. 260) the
central spirals arid flower were given up, the acanthus
leaves were multiplied, and for the first time appear cornu-

copia-like, channelled cauliculi from which the volutes
spring. In the normal Corinthian capital, exemplified in
the Olympieion at Athens (Fig. 261), the central spirals and
flower reappear the flower being raised to the summit of
abacus and both rows of the acanthus leaves are strongly
curled at the top.

DECORATION 213

Capitals whose principal moulding shows the form of
a cyma recta were decorated in various ways. That of
the Votive Column of Aischines at Athens (Fig. 262) was
decorated with the Doric leaf ornament, and with a similar
series of pendent leaves on the moulding above it. The

FIG. 259. Capital from tne Monument of Lysicrates, Athens.

leaves were colored alternately red and a dark gray. In
the capital of another votive column at Athens (Fig. 263)
the double curvature of the cyma recta would appear
to have influenced the decoration, of which the
painted
But this
upper half is upright and the lower pendent.
influence was not felt in every case. Near the Temple of
Artemis at Magnesia a capital of this form was found

214 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

decorated with a single series of upright palmettes. The
larger capitals of this form, like those of the Leonidaion
at Olympia, and those of the gymnasium at Pergamon,

appear to have been undecorated.
The abacus of the Greek capital was often left undeco-
rated. This severe simplicity was all but universal in
Doric architecture
^^~ 7* of the archaic and
classic periods.
Occasionally, how-
ever, some simple
ornament was
given to the face
of the abacus, as,
for example, in an
archaic capital at
Olympia (Fig-
264), where the
abacus shows four
incised annuli, a
decoration which
brought it into
FIG. 260. Capital from the Philippeion, Olympia. , . .
, , ,

harmony with the
decoration of the echinus and the shaft; or in the anta
capitals of the Enneastylos at Paestum, where the abacus
blocks were surrounded by a small fillet moulding; or
in the capitals of votive stelae at Athens (Fig. 265),
where painted maeanders were not unusual in Doric as
well as Ionic capitals. In capitals of the Ionic style the
abacus was ornamented by the modification of its profile
through the addition of mouldings, or by carved or painted
ornament. The variations in profile we have already con-

DECORATION 215

FIG. 261. Capital from the Olympieion, Athens.

sidered in a previous chapter. In Attic-Ionic capitals
the abacus was given the form of an echinus carved with
the egg and dart ornament. This echiniform abacus with

FIG. 262. Capital from the votive offering of Aischiues.

as in the Temple . 265. as in the Leonidaion at Olympia. The latter type of abacus with its decora- tion was used also at Priene. More complicated types of abaci. the Maeander. M. Capital from the votive offering of Evenor. and elsewhere. No. so frequently as to entitle it to rank as the normal Ionic abacus. left without further decoration sometimes. however. Mus. were sometimes. 264. 263. 1 Br. Abacus from Olympia. consisting of a series of mouldings. Magnesia on FIG. Other capitals from this temple had an abacus FIG. 216 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE the carved egg and dart appears to have capped some of the columns of the Old Temple of Artemis at 1 Ephesos. Halikarnassos. . with a cyma reversa profile decorated with the Lesbian leaf and dart. Abacus from Athens. 2727. FIG. Photograph by A.

61. Butler. DECORATION 217 of Zeus at Labranda and in the peribolos of the Temple of Aphrodite at Aphrodisias (Fig. 2 Taylor and Cresy. 5. 266). II. 86. little or no decoration. frieze. 3 if may have been we accept as evidence the fragments of vases with archi- tectural decoration. In the pre-Roman temple at Suweda in Syria. 4. * . \ and in other ' Roman build- FIG. Shields were hung up on the epistyles of the temples at Delphi. The entab- lature had its specific decoration on epistyle. PI. as we might expect. Abacus from Aphrodisias. 330 De Vogii6. 2 the lowest band of the epistyle was decorated with oblique squares enclosing rosettes and surrounded by small disks. The fragments from the facade of the tomb of Atreus make it probable that the wooden epistyles of Mycenaean 1 palaces were covered with geometric ornamentation. which pos- sibly were to have been carved as rosettes. Olympia. Disks. PI. as in the Temple of " HT. and cornice. The central band of the epistyle of the Temple of Jupiter Stator in Rome 4 was decorated with 1 3 Perrot et Chipiez. however. 266. . PI. Taf. mgs. Kekule". 6. as a rule. II. was finally applied to the decoration of the abacus. used at a late period in Sicily. was not invariably the case. The face of the epistyle received. The acanthus scroll. all of the mouldings were decorated. decorated the uppermost band of the epistyle of the Porch of the Maidens at Athens. 'V 1 Minerva in the /^ Roman Forum. Floral motives. such as running palmette and vine patterns. This. DECORATION OF THE ENTABLATURE. and at Athens. VI.

Borrmann. 6.218 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE a beautiful running lotus and palmette pattern. . or bands.267) the central fascia was capped with a cyma re- versa decorated with a modified form of the Lesbian leaf and dart. hanging 1 Smith and Porcher. Mytho- logical subjects carved in low relief were employed to decorate the epistyle of the archaic temple at Assos. ment. On the arch of Septimius Severus in Rome the acanthus decorated a similar moulding. . or both. 1338-1339 Wiegand. A similar decoration appears to have prevailed generally in Doric architecture of the archaic and classic periods. Epistyle from Myra. In the temples of Zeus at Magnesia and at Aizanoi. in tombs of the Doric style the Cyrenaica. Thus. and in the of Aphrodite at Temple Aphrodisias. in Ionic and Corinthian epi- styles were frequently capped with ornamental mouldings. 37 Beechey. 2 Cf. 443. 267. 57 . Hittorff. or carved orna- FIG. PI. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods the fasciae. Fenger. each fascia was capped with the bead and reel. 13 . PI. . The crowning moulding of the epistyle was decorated with color. In the theatre at Myra (Fig. 1 the epistyle was in crowned by a red taenia with blue regulae and guttae. 268) was painted a double maeander. 2 On the taenia of the Parthenon epistyle (Fig. and on the regulae.

and the cyma reversa of the Erechtheion. were used in the Great Altar at Perga- mon (Fig. DECORATION 219 palmettes and lotus flowers. or of Apollo near Miletos. In richly decorated Roman temples. 63. 269). and of the Tholos at Epidauros. In the theatre at Myra the cavetto was ornamented with a vine pattern. d'Espouy. such as the Temple of Artemis at Magnesia. The soffit of the epistyle was left undecorated during i PI. 268. Epistyle from the Parthenon. A series of superposed mouldings. Thus the echinus moulding which crowned the epistyle of the Temple of Athena at Priene was carved with the egg and dart. Double-coursed ornament was used in the crowning mouldings of epistyles in Hellenistic buildings. In these cases there was an echinus moulding carved with an egg and dart and a cavetto decorated with the lotus and palmette. with FIG. such as the Temple of the Sun at Rome. the Lesbian leaf and dart. 1 the acanthus scroll orna- mented the cavetto. . Ionic epistyles were crowned with curved mouldings usually decorated with carved ornament. richly decorated.

in the Ionic temple on the Theatre terrace. 271). d'Espouy. 270). the panel was pulvinated and deco- rated with a scale or laurel leaf pattern surrounded by a bead and reel (Fig. it was usually ornamented with panel- lings. which were surrounded by decorative mouldings. Its deco- from the altar at Per- rat i on was influenced by the ex- terior face of the epistyle. 269. Magnesia. Thus. at Pergamon. . in the Temple Artemis at Magnesia of (Fig.220 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the archaic. and most of the classic period. 270. 272). When the exterior face was highly decorated with bead and FIG. The antithema of the epistyle FIG. Epistyle crowu calls for little comment. a bead and reel mould- ing was used at Priene (Fig. 94. Epistyle soffit. In later Ionic. . Still more com- plicated was the soffit decoration of the epistyle in the Temple of 1 Serapis at Pozzuoli. and in Roman buildings. a Lesbian leaf and dart over a bead and reel. reel or other carved mouldings to mark its successive i PI.

.J. Priene. 108. how- ever. . VIII (1904). similar the antithema. In the Doric frieze. afforded an inviting field for the decorator. 1903. decoration. A.. the Gor- goneion. Epistyle soffit. 272. The Doric frieze called for interrupted. and two women facing each other. received a FIG. Arch. At Ther- mon in Aetolia 1 have been FIG. when differ- ing in profile from those on the exterior. Framed as they usually i-Eph. Their square surfaces. DECORATION 221 mouldings are likely to be found on fasciae. The decoration of the frieze was conditioned by its form. different decoration. the metopes were frequently left undecorated. 271. In such cases harmony with the ceiling mouldings seems to have been the determining factor. the Ionic for continuous. The crowning mouldings.A. exhibiting a plain white sur- face of stucco or marble. Epistyle soffit from Per- found fragments of a terra- cotta frieze of the archaic period in which the metopes were painted with such subjects as Perseus. three divinities enthroned (Fig. or uninterrupted. 273). 71-95.

In the Treasury of the Athenians at Delphi there is a broad band at the top. ing of broad bands at the summit and base. 1 or cyma 1 Penrose. Metope decoration from Thermon. 273. 274). . metopes were bet- ter adapted for sculptural decoration. and narrow ones at the sides. The metopes from the temple at Assos exhibited a broad band at both top and bottom. As examples of such box-like metopes may be cited well-known Perseus.222 GREEK ARCHITECTURE were by strongly projecting triglyphs. now in the Museum at Pa- lermo. This abacus was sometimes enriched by mouldings in the form of an echinus. half round. consist- FIG. In later periods metopes had no individual frame- work beyond an abacus or crowning moulding. They themselves were sometimes provided with individual frames. PI. and the Apollo metopes from Selinous. and a narrow one at the bottom of the metopes (Fig. 17. Herakles. a bead and reel.

1 and occasionally adorned with under- cuttings and minor mouldings at its base. Fig. PI. the metope was often carved with decoration more or less elaborate. as in i Cockerell. 274. Delphi. The face of FIG. Metope from the Treasury of the Athenians. 2. A very simple pattern consisted of a narrow band of Doric leaves immediately below the abacus. DECORATION 223 reversa and cavetto. 8. .

or the beautiful rosettes on the metopes of the Tholos at Epidauros. Contests of Gods and Giants. Disconnected subjects seem to have occurred in some archaic buildings. Other contests were added in the decoration of the thirty metopes of the Treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. To these the labors of Theseus formed a natural supple- ment in the metopes of the peristyle of the so-called Theseion at Athens. -Metope from the old early per iod the standard Temple of Athena. arid other 1 Paus. Athens. Symbols such as bucrania and tripods deco- rated the metopes at the thea- tre of Delos. 275). method of metopal deco- ration. Possibly this was a reminiscence of a decora- tion common in Egyptian cornices. but an effort was usually made to present some unity of design. 10. V. Lapiths and Centaurs. . 5. and are best exemplified in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Greeks and Amazons. The twelve labors of Herakles were admirably adapted to fill the twelve metopes of the prodomos and opisthodomos of a hexastyle temple. . _ . 275. Other conventional floral patterns were used. But figured sculpture with mythological subjects treated in high relief became at an FIG.224 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE the Old Temple of Athena on the Acropolis at Athens (Fig. and shields were placed by Mummius upon twenty-one of the met- opes of the Temple of Zeus 1 at Olympia. such as the horizontal palmettes on the alabaster frieze from Tiryns.

in Temple C. Perg. The abacus was also sometimes decorated by scroll-work. 7. decoration. Similarly. and grooves. 27(5. the narrow bands which separated the metopes were adorned with rosettes. at Metapontum. a similar emphasis was obtained by means of a projecting fillet moulding. DECORATION 225 subjects decorated the ninety-two metopes of the Par- thenon. or other motives. Selinous (Fig. as in the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon. Triglyph from Temple C. 276) were framed by narrow fillets which terminated at the summit l in an ogee arch. 2 The shanks (fjLrjpoi*) were carved. it was usually left undecorated except by the formal characters of abacus. 127. were often emphasized by additional FIG. Triglyphs were decorated from the earliest period. In the Temple of Apollo at Metapontum the grooves were emphasized by an incised cutting which was possibly filled with coloring matter in contrast with that of the grooves. and by a coat- ing of blue paint. Selinous. whereas. Thus the grooves of the corner triglyph of Temple C. however. The terminal half-grooves were some- times decorated at the summit not only with deep under- cutting but also by an acanthus leaf or other ornament. Seli- of the triglyphs nous. Temp. The various parts of triglyphs. . When this member xe- eeived the form of a triglyph. and in late buildings by 1 2 See Fig. Bohn. at Thermon. Thus the portions of the alabaster frieze at Tiryns which corresponded to triglyphs were decorated with rosettes.. to a convex surface in contrast with the flat fillets which surrounded the grooves. Dion.

118. presented not only a variety of forms but also of decoration. III.226 GREEK ARCHITECTURE crowning mouldings. Thus. PI. in a portico at Delos. protomoi 1 of oxen over-decorated the triglyphs. 3. III. During the Hellenistic and Roman periods superficial decoration was occasionally applied to triglyphs in such a way as to obscure rather than to em- phasize their form. Frieze from Knossos. Ch. Conventionalized floral ornament figured more 2 J Blouet. Often the form alone sufficed withits rigid planes or curved surfaces and crowning mouldings. But the Ionic love of decoration found in the continuous frieze a suitable field for running FIG. 3 or the Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi. or mythological. floral. PL 7. or continuous frieze. The Ionic. . such. as that of the Incantada at Thessalonica. IX. ornament. 277. 8 Stuart and Revett. whether geometrical. Durm. and in the Propylaia of Appius Claudius Pulcher at Eleusis 2 the character of the triglyphs was hidden from view by various emblems of Demeter's worship. Essentially geometric in type was the round-headed leaf and dart ornament found in late friezes.

278. 278). The continuous character of the FIG. as in the Propylaia of the Temple of Athena at Pergamon (Fig. notably . This type of decora- tion was further developed in many Roman friezes. DECOHATION 227 frequently. 279. or branching scroll. Ionic frieze was emphasizedstill better by the vine pattern. Anthemia FIG. Pergauiou. as did palmettes the alabaster frieze at Tiryns. 279). Frieze from the Stoa at Pergamon. of four different kinds were rhythmically arranged on the frieze of an Ionic niche in the Stoa of Athena Polias at Pergamon (Fig. 277). Frieze from the Propylon. Rosettes and lotus flowers decorated a border or frieze of the southern Propylaia at Knossos (Fig.

Magnesia) or Greeks and Persians (Athena Nike). 280) again furnishes an appropri- ate illustration. Lapiths and Centaurs (The Theseion. occur not in- frequently in combination with garlands. Vigorous scenes of conflict were represented in Ionic as well as in Doric friezes. Local legends.228 GREEK ARCHITECTURE that of the Temple of the Sun at Rome. The Propylaia at Pergamon (Fig. Frieze from the Propylon. (N) contests of Gods and Giants. and lingered through the classic into the Hellenistic period. eagles. Zoomorphic types. But in the archaic and classic periods FIG. owls. bucrania. . were well adapted for the decoration of a continuous frieze. mythological subjects were preferred. and Phigaleia). and (S) the rape of the daughters of Leukippos by the Dioskouroi (Fig. Pergamon. Such subjects as the contests of Gods and Giants (Delphi. Pergamon). 280. such as griffins. in the Treasury of the Knidians at Delphi the subjects are (E) the conflict of Greeks and Trojans : over the body of Euphorbos. (W) the apotheosis of Her- akles. 281). Greeks and Amazons (Phigaleia. Thus.

Frieze from the Treasury of the Knidians. The figured procession was con- structed so as to ornament appropriately each wall of the cella. 281. The unity of the frieze was also some- times marked by the introduction of an astragal or other moulding common to both triglyphs and metopes. Both Doric and Ionic friezes were provided with crown- ing mouldings. Delphi. The . The finest ex- ample of an Ionic frieze is the frieze surrounding the exterior of the cella of the Parthenon. DECOEATION 229 such as the Destruction of theTyrrhenian Robbers (Choragic Monument of Lysicrates) and the Story of Telephos (Pergamon) occur sporadically. In Doric buildings the triglyphs and metopes were usually crowned with platbands. four inches in height and five hundred and twenty-two feet eight inches long. Here a single subject the Panathenaic Procession was developed upon four sides of the building in a frieze but three feet FIG. which dif- fered in height and thus emphasized the regular divisions of the frieze.

284. 284). it was decorated with a simple maeander.230 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE Panathenaic frieze of the Parthenon was crowned by a broad platband set between an Ionic cyma reversa and a Doric beak moulding (Fig. Cap mould. ing of frieze. 283). was usually capped by FIG. Fenger. the cap moulding of the frieze was often identical with the bed moulding This in the Erechtheion con- of the cornice.simpler mouldings. 283. 1 2 Wiegand. Penrose. 2. Erech- nassos. Halikar. Cap mould- ing of frieze. or a cyma reversa with Lesbian leaf decoration. 1. then the overhanging geison. in the Parthenon. . 282. in porches and peristyles. as in the Erechtheion (Fig. -Cap mould. The antithema of the frieze. theion. The bed mould- ing in the Old Temple of Athena 1 was a platband FIG. Ionic order the crowning moulding V\ of the friezeshowed carved decoration. ings of frieze. Taf. 1 . In treating of the decoration of the on * cornice we may consider first the bed moulding. In buildings of the . This was either an echinus carved with the egg and dart. Taf. sisted of a cyma reversa carved with the Lesbian leaf. 282). Par. In Attic Ionic buildings. 2 painted red. as in the Mausoleion at Halikarnassos (Fig. FIG. PI.

as at Priene (Fig. This led to very elaborate decora- tion of the inter-dentils FIG. as in the Smintheion. PI. Priene. with its 2 Ion. IV. 286). in Roman buildings. * IT.. 29.. 285. The cap mouldings of the dentils varied con- siderably. but in the Temple of Apollo near Miletos (Fig. Sometimes. The decoration of the cornice varied. Taylor and Cresy. the Maidens of the Erechtheion. DECORATION 231 In Asia Minor a row of dentils usually intervened between the frieze and cornice. -Dentils and inter-dentils. an echinus moulding carved with the egg and dart in the Porch of . 1 The faces of the dentils were usually undecorated. elsewhere. Pis. band at Priene and . and its crowning mould- ing became the bed moulding of the cornice. 81. a cyma reversa carved with Lesbian leaves. Dentils from Priene. dentils dentils but the were inter- were sometimes left UUIU broken at the top by a cross band. This was notably the case in the Temple of Athena at Priene (Fig. 2 the prominent most moulding was a plat- FIG. The soffits. naturally. . 113. 285). ^_ of the plain. 287) lotuses and palmettes of varied design deco- rated the dentil fronts. Antiq. 286.

1338-1339. while the enclosed surface was decorated with a black maeander on a yellow ground. red. or viae. 287. afforded an important field for decoration. that of the Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon 3 with sculp- tured lozenges. 2 See Fig. the latter were almost universally painted blue. When showing a series of mutules. The soffit of the cor- nice of the Treasury of the Knidians at Delphi was beauti- fully decorated with a carved palmette and lotus pattern . Perg. their trunnels red. -Dentils from the Temple of Apollo nearMiletos. or black. and the intervening spaces. 55. Taf. Dion. 288). and yellow. Temp. each with a central rosette.at The roundels were painted FIG. bounded by roundel mouldings. as in the so-called Temple of Demeter at Paestum. appears in the terra-cotta sheathing of the upper part of the corona of the Treasury of Gela 2 Olympia.. * Borrmann. the panels were doubtless painted so 1 Wiegand. a double anthemion decorated the viae of the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros (Fig. 289. A succession of alternat- ing eagles and palmettes decorated it on the raking cornice of the Old Temple of Athena at Athens. being visible from below. 3 Bohn. 1 An un- broken soffit. The soffit. In addi- tion to simple color. wkh al ternate bands of red.232 GREEK ARCHITECTURE form. 6 . . or 4 white. Cornices with interrupted soffits received marked decoration. When coffered. On the other hand the soffits of Ionic cornices were often left undeco- rated. 1. Collignon et Poutremoli.

Almost no decoration was applied to the consoles and panels of the interior cornice of the Tower of the Winds at Athens. and the blue mutules iReinach-Lebas. Cornice soffit from Epidauros. was . I. 1 at Aizanoi the scroll-shaped consoles were decorated with carved acanthus and the deep panels with rosettes in high relief a species of cornice decoration which became common in Roman architecture. Arch. were decorated. .. painted with Doric leaves (Fig. 290). they. but in the Temple of Zeus o o ao o o oo o o o o o o o o o o FIG. Classic cornices usually discarded this luxuriance of decoration. This was notably the case when terra-cotta sheathing was used. As. Min. DECORATION 233 as to harmonize with the ceiling cofferings. Thus. The typical Doric cornice was a broad white band having no central ornament its beak moulding. When con- soles also were added. The face of the cornice in the archaic period was some- times highly decorated. the decoration consisted of a painted braid ornament of complex type bounded by roundel mouldings wound with painted bands. 288. 32. however. in the Treasury of Gela at Olympia (Fig. as well as the panels. PI. 289).

OF CEILINGS AND ROOFS. reeds. 289. Cornice from the Treasury of Gela. or other ornament. Wooden ceiling beams were . 291). --The DECORATION decoration ofGreek ceilings was concerned with the beams and the cofferings. flutings. Only in Roman times was FIG.234 GREEK ARCHITECTURE on had their sides painted red. The Ionic cor- its soffit nicewas equally simple. Olympia. being adorned only with carved cap mouldings (Fig. 7. the face of the cornice decorated with carved maeanclers.

290. DECORATION 235 doubtless decorated with painted ornament. 292. and mediaeval churches. . This we may infer from the ceilings of a later period in Byzantine a I L FIG. and from the general demands mmmmmmmm FIG. Erechtheion. 291. Cornice crown from the FIG. Cornice crown from the Parthenon. Ceiling cofferiugs from the Parthenon.

292) and Erechtheion by a painted maeander. The Parthenon and the Propylaia show doubly recessed coffers with decorated mouldings surrounding the central plate. Choisy. The central plates of the Erech- theion cofferings were decorated by some attached orna- 3 ment probably rosettes of bronze. This association of the maeander with ceiling decoration 1 is thought by Boetticher to explain the definition of fjiaiavSpos by Hesychios as /cocr/zo? ns bpofyicos . or ovpavivicos. A noteworthy example is that of the Temple of Athena at Priene. carved with an egg and dart. and a 1 3 Boetticher. and hence called ovpavos. The recessed cofferings were ornamented in various ways. in their soffits. 2 4 Penrose. anthemia of beautiful design. to break up the sides into fasciae sometimes enriched with astragals. The Theseion affords a simple example. . The soffits of the coffers each present a single star. tftudes.236 GREEK ARCHITECTURE of polychromatic architecture. a cyma recta with the palmette and lotus. 152. The usual method of deco- rating ceiling beams was to sink. Some of the plates of cofferings from the Propylaia still show stars . These are charmingly 2 published by Penrose. The surrounding moulding was painted with the egg and dart. Priene. painted probably in gold against a blue ground. 90. others. in the Parthe- non (Fig. panels framed with ornamental mouldings. 131. The divisions between the cofferings were ornamented in the Theseion by a bead and reel moulding. Coffered ceilings in Asia Minor were sometimes triply or quadruply re- cessed. 25. and framed by mouldings of varied form and carved ornament. and to crown them with decorative mouldings. PI. 10. 4 where the coffers were framed by an echinus moulding. Taf.

whose bodies terminated in the tail of a serpent. 7 Lechat. 4 Ross-Schaubert-Hansen. DECORATION 237 cyma reversa with the leaf and dart. ivory. Tritons. 2 5 59. and decorated with : Doric leaf pattern. Fig. The 1 Athenaios. Wiegand. these examples from Athens the difficulty of archaic filling the narrow corners of the gable was solved by the introduction of composite creatures like the Hydra. Be- neath the raking cornice the tympanum had its own crowning moulding concave in form. a beak moulding. gold. Chs. Attique. Priene.. but the deeper gables of Doric buildings allowed free standing figures. probably decorated with a cyma Lesbian leaf pattern. 3 at Aegina . PI. 148. or by mythological sculpture in low or high relief. in the Temple of Athena Nike . 204 d. The Romans went a step further and ornamented by permanent carving the central plate as well as its surrounding mouldings. Magnesia. 6 . reversa. . V. 6 8 Cockerell. Taf. and 1 precious stones were employed in the decoration. The triangular gable invited special treatment. which occurs at the gable front of the Stoa at Priene. The face of the tympanum was 6 ornamented sometimes by a simple motive. The shallow gables of Ionic temples were usually devoid of sculpture. or fish. or Typhon. 191. decorated with Doric leaves. 33. Fig.Furtwangler. Deipnos. where cedar and cypress. 6. Sacred Stoa at Priene. Possibly the most elaborately decorated ceilings of an- tiquity were those of the vavs 0a\a/4i?y0? of Ptolemy Philopator. in one of the poros buildings on the 2 Acropolis . 12. Taf. such as a round shield. II-III. Taf. 4 an echinus moulding carved with the egg and dart at Mag- 5 nesia on the Maeander a group of mouldings in the . Sc. 7 In as in the poros buildings on the Acropolis at Athens.

238 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

where bal- ance and symmetry were preserved without being crudely obvious. gable The acrot^ria (aKp(0Tr)pia) at the extremities of the received FIG. Aegina. . The climax of pedimental com- position was reached in the pedi- ments of the Par- thenon. special decoration. The earliest types were perhaps circular disks repre- senting the ends of ridge-pole and wall-plates. Reclin- ing figures occupy the corners of the pediments at Aegina and Olym- pia. DECORATION 239 subjects selected were usually mythological in character. II. Arch. Inst. 294. Oesterr. t Acroterion from the Temple of Aphaia.. 1-51. 1 The most notable early example is that found in the Heraion 1 Beimdorf in Jhb. The triangular space to be deco- rated led to pyram- idal compositions in which the in- terest culminates in the centre of the pediment. but not necessarily related to the divinity to whom the temple was dedicated.

91. 294) had. For this type other ornamental forms were substituted. The marble antefixes of the Parthenon (Fig. It was usually subdivided into a broad central band. figures of griffins. by ornamental tiles usually in the form of anthemia (/eaXi>7rT?)/je9 avOeficoroi). 4. a base mould- * Paus y. and. 293). Taf. Taf. 16. II. with a cap. an elaborate palmette scroll flanked by figures of maidens. The sima. Acroterium. s. bronze of A the time of Caligula 3 indicates that the Romans did not hesitate to place a quadriga over the apex of a temple gable. as the crown of the horizontal cornice or of the raking gable. More complex acroteria of this type crowned the summits of the Ionic temple and the Traianeum at Pergamon. 4 3 Daremberg et Saglio. . . .240 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE at Olympia (Fig. on the ridge and at the eaves. 10. In later days Renaissance architects sometimes went further still and filled the space between the central and lateral acroteria with ornament. Olympia. Mounted Nereids crowned the lower ends of the gable of the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros. The excavations at 4 Olympia brought to light many such terra-cotta ante- fixes of various periods. The Etruscans and Romans often substituted heads of divinities and masks for the simpler anthemion. i Pergamon. IV. 1 The Temple of Zeus at Olympia had a 2 figure of Nike at the apex. 295) furnish fine examples of this type. afforded an attractive field for deco- ration. Similarly the long lines of cover tiles (/ea\t>7rn}/oe?) were decorated at their extremities. and vases at the lower angles. The Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Fig. at its apex. at the lower extremities of the gable.v. which is decorated by con- centric bands of geometric ornament. 40 V. 2. and frequently also. Taf.

for all periods was the lion head. In the archaic period more complicated methods prevailed. . The waterspouts of horizontal cor- FIG. 295. Doric simae of the archaic and classic periods were decorated with painted. DECORATION 241 ing. nices were seldom left unornamented. however. the decoration being partitioned into a series of superposed bands. Antefix from the Parthenon. In the Treasury of Gela at Olympia the ends of the waterspouts were decorated as rosettes. The more common type.

Selinous . rated with conventionalized lotuses and palmettes. Athens. Sima and cornice from Temple F. 2%. The flat-faced FIG.concave. Selinous. Sima of old Temple of Athena. . 296) was deco- FIG. a type of ornament which. con- vex. The same running patterns were applied almost indifferently to flat. or doubly curved surfaces.242 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Ionic simae with carved ornament. sim a of the Old Temple of Athena on the Acropolis (Fig. But the form of the sima had comparatively little influence in determining the character of the decoration. in the cornice from Temple F. T ^\^J. 297.

where they are decorated with carved acanthus scrolls. rated with an unusual form of a conventionalized leaf pattern. 289. The concave section of the sima from the Treasury of Gela 1 was deco. ^ IG> ^^ Sima from the Propylaia. Athens. 298. 297). . while in that of the Bouleuterion the old Doric Leaf pattern still survived. Epidauros (Fig. developed into more stately and graceful forms. 298). and in several of the later buildings at Olympia. Flat-faced simae occur also in the Tholos at FIG. DECORATION 243 (Fig. Sima from Epidauros. The convex sima of the Pro- See Fig.

300. The transition from the echinus curve to the cyma re versa FIG. FIG. Sima from Olympia. 301. Sima from Olympia.244 GREEK ARCHITECTURE pylaia at Athens (Fig. while the principal moulding was decorated with lotuses and . whereas in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (Fig. and elsewhere the lotus and palmette pattern prevailed. was an easy one. 299) was decorated with an in- cised and painted egg and dart ornament. At Olympia several simae retain at the base a platband ornamented with the maeander. in the Parthenon. 300).

Furtwa"ngler.md acanthus ornament. PI. 33. 302) and elsewhere. however. The waterspouts of the classic and Hellenistic periods were usually lion-headed (\eovro K$>a\oi). heads in the Temple of Athena at Priene (Fig. We find it deco- FIG. Roman architects preferred the cyma recta form for simae. In the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina l the lotus arid palmette pattern was confined to the upper part of the curved surface of a fully developed cyma reversa. 301). 302. and retained the lion heads . rated with the Doric leaf pattern in an early sima from one of the treasuries at Olympia (Fig. DECORATION 245 palmettes. Cockerell. The type of curve. Sima from Priene. 13 . . 1 2 See Fig. with the palmette and lotus above the door of the North Porch of the Erechtheion 2 and with the acanthus scroll and lion . which was destined to become normal for simae was the cyma recta. although dog- headed spouts {Kvvoice<f>a\oi) occur at the Temple of Artemis at Epidauros. Taf. 201. 53.

CHAPTER V COMPOSITION AND STYLE THUS far we have considered the various architectural elements in respect to their technique. the love of regularity and harmony exhibited in the jointing system of the krepidoma 246 . though sometimes partially exposed to view. and decoration. It is not always remembered that more than elementary composition was involved in the construction of foundations and pave- ments. 1. as in the Heraion at Olympia and Tem- ples C and D at Selinous. irregularity of construction was condoned. and to the formation of various styles. In the classic period. In the earlier buildings. forms. Hence we find in such build- ings as the Parthenon. the vertical joints of the lower steps of the krepidoma stand in no regular relation to those of the stylobate. proportions. however. Here. dilithic stylobates were introduced. FOUNDATIONS AND PAVEMENTS. When. greater regularity was required in the jointing of the krepidoma. This is especially the case in adjusting the construction of the stylobate to its substructure. or the Temple of Concordia at Akragas. was usually invisible. especially in the early period. In this chapter we confine our attention to the manner in which these elements are combined. Below the krepi- doma the stereobate. later. a perfect harmony between the joints of the stylobate and those of the lower steps.

172. but on a convex foundation. In peristyles the jointing system of the pavement was gradually brought into regular relation with that of the stylobate (Fig. and stereobate showing a perfectly regular system of alternat- ing joints. 303) on the one side and Koldewey und Puchstein. stylobate blocks were not all equal in length. we begin to realize that the jointing system of the base of a classic temple required mathematical calculations of no mean order. Composition of stylobate and pavement blocks in tbe Temple of Concordia. When we take into consideration that the FIG. Thus Temple in the of Concordia at Akragas l we find no than seven less courses of masonry of the stylobate. . Pavements adjustment to their also required proper surroundings. sub-stylobate. Akragas. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 247 was extended also to the stereobate. 303. and that they were not set in a horizontal plane. but were cut to suit the spacing of the columns.

304. Pavements had also to be adjusted i Ton. most of the blocks were laid in the same direction as the temple axis in Temple D they were . but differently from the northern and southern porti- coes. Front and lateral pavement of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Usually the east- ern and western porticoes re- ceived special at- tention. 304) they were paved alike. Hence it is evident that some skill in composition was required in laying the paving blocks of peristyles. Thus in Temple C. laid regularly at right angles to the axis of the temple. In the Temple FIG. In the Temple of Zeus atOlympia (Fig. . Antiq. Selinous.248 GREEK ARCHITECTURE that of the wall on the other.. In the Parthenon they were paved in contrast to each other. The paving blocks were usually laid according to some system. PI. as well as to the pavements of the long sides. of Dionysos at Teos 1 similar blocks were used on all four sides and laid in the direction of the axis of each portico. IV. 22.

2. as may be seen in the North Portico of the Agora at Priene. When walls of regular cut This masonry meet. the angles of a curved platform must have presented a problem which required some kind of practi- cal adjustment. when exposed. for example. nevertheless. piers. that of combining one wall with another. It is safe to say that Greek temple pavements never exhibited this peculiarity . Comer blocks of . columns. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 249 as to level. and pilasters. a method employed by Philon in the Arsenal of the 1 Priene. the use of interpenetration was sometimes effected by quoin blocks (\i6oi ycowaioi). they were laid so as to carry off the rainfall by a gentle slope.-IT 'i i 11 L. were in different arcs. was FIG. Such independence. When under cover. cut so as to turn the corner. When the Temple of stylobate of was curved. the pavement would correspond in level to the surface of a great dome but when the front and lateral curvatures . 3 the Arsenal at the Pei- ill suited to walls constructed of "J^ cut stone. and the front and a temple lateral stylobates followed the arcs of the same circle. however. 203. they usually interpenetrate. with surfaces sinking at the angles so as to form a channel. the level of the pavement would correspond to the ex- trados of a huge cross-vault. or with towers. in the Parthenon. WALLS. . was solved in primitive masonry by makirg the two walls meet without interpenetration. as. The simplest problem. 305. 1 or in the platform of the Athena in the same town. Walls may be combined with other walls. they could be laid hori- zontally.

piers. 5. 305). the principle in fortification that it is bad construction to bond to- gether towers and curtain walls. in the chapter on technique. I. either with or without notching (Fig.Notched corner . 4. and pilasters we have already observed. 203. however. 306). 306. 4 Koldewey und Puchstein. The ancient method of projecting the towers at right the walls angles to was frequently practised. the juncture of two walls was some- times emphasized by angle pi- lasters. on account of the dispar- ity of form and structure. the corner blocks were superposed alternately in the direction of the two walls. such as the Ionic Temple on the theatre terrace at Pergamon. Philon suggested that 3 they be set obliquely to the curtain wall . Vitruvius. blocks from Pergamon. the 1 Pergamon. 43. . The relation of towers to the curtain walls seems to have been a matter of ex- periment. In the combination of walls with columns.250 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Peiraieus (Fig. In late Greek and in Roman buildings. . but not thoroughly approved. that round or polygonal towers be substituted for those of square form. Here it remains for us to describe the way in which walls were related to the columns in peripteral buildings. as Koldewey and Puchstein have shown. 197. "~ Philon of Byzantium J 2 lays J down FIG. Vitruvius. Taf. the tendency to replace independence of con- struction by interpenetration. inter- penetration was impracticable. 27-33. Usually. 1 In the composition of walls with towers. Early in the archaic 4 period. IV. 2 De Rochas.

. to each other. the cella walls and the columns of the peristyle were placed with Strict reference FIG. teros columns in the Parthenon. and the faces of the antae are in line with the axes of the third lateral columns. but the columns of the pronaos and the opis- thodomos. Relation of the pronuos and perip- . have no definite re- lation to the perip- teros(Fig. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 251 cella walls were placed without regard to the columns of the peristyle. form. such as the Temple of Athena at Priene. ANTAE AND PILASTERS. which arose from their association with colonnades. 3. In later buildings. Later an alignment of the columns with the cella walls was effected for the front colonnade. In the Parthenon the outer walls of the cella are in line with the axes of the col- umns adjoining the angle columns. 307. and decoration of antae and pilasters. When an anta became part of the composition of a wall with a row of columns. and still later for the lateral columns. 307). a complex anta was produced. It remains here to add a few remarks concerning complex antae. though regularly placed with reference to the cella. In earlier chapters we have noted various modifications of the structure.

252 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

which represented the termination of both wall and colon-
nade. The shaft of such an anta was, in part, a flat pi-
laster and, in part, an engaged column. This duplex form
well expressed its double function. Then arose the prob-
lem of forming appropriate bases and capitals for complex
antae. At the entrance to the
stadion at Olympia a complex
shaft has an unbroken base and
a single capital (Fig. 308). A
second type may be seen in the
peribolos of the temple at Kan-
go var (Fig. 309), where each
portion of the anta capital has its
own capital, and the base mould-
ings are broken about the rectan-
gular and semicircular portions
of the complex shaft in a way
which foreshadows the bases of
Gothic piers.
A second problem in the com-
position of antae consisted in the
establishment of their planes in
1
('
'

elevation. Penrose has ob-
FIG. 308. Complex pilasters served, in the case of the Par-
from the Stadion Gate, oiym- t
henon, that the antae are given
a forward inclination. Hence,
of the three planes in the elevation of the Parthenon
antae, the front slopes outward, the side toward the
pronaos is vertical, and the side toward the peristyle
has the same inward slope as the cella wall. The
forward inclination is explained, in part, as a struc-
1
Penrose, 106.

COMPOSITION AND STYLE 253

tural permitting a shorter ceiling beam, and,
device
in on the aesthetic ground of producing, with
part,
the inward slope of the outer columns, a pyramidal
effect. In any event, antae with only one side posed
vertically show how their form was modified to suit
their surroundings.
4. DOORS AND WINDOWS. Having described the
structure, forms, proportions, and decoration of doors
and windows, little remains to
be said concerning their com-
position in Greek
buildings.
Balance in composition was con-
sidered of great importance. The
entrance to a Greek temple was
in the central axis of the build-

ing windows, as in the Pina-
;

kotheke of the Propylaia, 1 or in
the east wall of the Erech-
2
theion, equally balanced
were
on either side of a central door-
way. When a series of open-
ings or occurred, the
niches ,..: ,..^

principle of alternation so fre-

quently represented in Greek
ornament led to the use of
alternately round-headed and
F' G ~C
square-headed
the Monument
openings,
of
as

Philopappos
in
-

^ ro K7^ ar
pilast

at Athens, and frequently in Roman architecture.

Doorways not preceded by porches were adapted

i
Bohn, Taf .
7, 9.
2
Stevens, in A.J.A., X (1906), 47 ff.

254 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

in size and style to the interior requirements and to
the exterior character of the building. The addition of
porches introduced a new element into doorway compo-
sition. It necessitated their being related to the col-
umns in front of them. Many experiments were made

FIG. 310. Blind arcade from the Stoa of Eumenes, Athens.

with lower doorways before Vitruvius 1
laid down the
rule that the top of the cornice of the doorway should be
on a level with the top of the capitals of the pronaos
t

columns. The cornice of the doorway in the North
Porch of the Erechtheion is distinctly below the level of
the capitals of the columns the Temple of Herakles
;

at Cori and later buildings often follow the rule given

by Vitruvius.
5. PIERS AND COLUMNS. Piers supporting arches
and forming arcades are rare, but not unknown, in Greek
architecture. In the large courtyard of the pre-Hellenic
2
palace at Phaistos large bases occur in alternation with
small ones, suggesting an arcade with alternating piers
i
Vitruvius, IV, 6, 1. Mon Ant ^ X II,
,
Fig. 17, Tav. 2.

COMPOSITION AND STYLE 255
/

and columns. A sustaining wall composed in part of
piers and connecting arches, on the south side of the
Acropolis at Athens (Fig. 310), dates from the time of
Eumenes II. In general, however, the arcade did not
develope into an important architectural feature before
the Romans undertook the transformation of Greek archi-
tecture.
The column and the colonnade presented many prob-
lems in architectural composition. The most elementary
of these was to establish the proper relation of column
to column. In the earliest colonnades considerable ir-
regularity prevailed in the archaic period an effort
;

was made to equalize the intercolumniations, but there
were many exceptions to this rule. Some early temple
colonnades accentuated the short and long sides by a
difference in the intercolumniations. Sometimes the
columns of the short sides were more closely set, as
in Temple D, Selinous, and in the Enneastylos at Pae-
stum sometimes they were more widely spaced, as in
;

Temple C, Selinous. In fully developed Doric temples,
like the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, greater harmony

prevailed. The spacing of the columns on the long and
the short sides was practically the same. The inter-

columniation opposite the doorway of a temple was, to
the earlier architects, a matter of indifference in later ;

days it was wider than the rest and, according to Vitru-
vius,
1
demanded
in the frieze an extra triglyph. Another
and far-reaching cause of irregularity arose, in
Doric

temples, from the desire to have the colonnade
harmo-
nize with the entablature, so that the position of the tri-

glyphs would form a regular cadence with the axes
of

i 4.
Vitruvius, IV, 3,

256 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

the columns and the centres of the intercolumniations.
This could have been easily done, had the Greeks been
content, with Vitruvius, to leave metopes or halves of
metopes at the ends of the frieze. But they preferred to
have the frieze end with triglyphs. To secure this they
admitted various irregularities in the frieze. For ex-
ample, in the Temple of Zeus at Akragas much broader
l

metopes are found near the extremities than elsewhere
in the frieze, and in the Parthenon 2 the sizes of the tri-

glyphs and the metopes were quite irregular. The spac-
ing of the colonnades was also modified in that the ter-
minal columns were brought closer together. Sometimes
3
this contraction was confined to the terminal intercolum-
niations, which made a strong contrast with the rest of
the colonnade ; but in fully developed Doric temples it

was extended, as in the Parthenon and in the Temple of
Concordia at Akragas, to the next to the last intercolum-
niations. The many
modifications required in harmoniz-
ing the Doric colonnade and its entablature led Roman
architects to reject this order as mendosum et disconveniens.*

They preferred the Ionic and Corinthian, in which there
was no such problem.
Another problem in the composition of colonnades con-
cerns the emphasis or lack of emphasis to be placed upon
the corners of a peristyle. In the case of the Temple
of Apollo at Corinth (Fig. 311) and in the Temple
of Zeus at Olympia, 5 we find, not merely the corner
column, but all the columns of the fagade, of greater
diameter than those of the long sides. Here the most
1
Dunn, 125. 3
Koldewey und Puchstein, 197-200.
2 *
Penrose, PI. 7. Vitruvius, IV, 3, 1.
5
Olympia, II, 7.

COMPOSITION AND STYLE 257

important colonnade received the emphasis. In the
Theseion and the Parthenon greater harmony prevailed
in the sizes of front and lateral columns. It was not

the entire fagade, but merely the angle columns, that
were given superior thick-
ness. In the Theseion a
very delicate emphasis is
laid on the corner column.
It is of the same diam-

eter, but has less diminu-
tion than the other columns
of the peristyle. 1 Vitru-
vius 2 maintains that cor-
ner columns should be one-
o
fiftieth larger in diameter
than the rest. His ar-

gument, that corner col-

umns being seen against
the sky appear to be slen-
derer than those seen
against the temple walls, '

is not supported by mod- F IG 31 i._Relation of frontal to lateral
.

em writers. The theory columns in the Temple of Apollo,
Corinth
of Philander 3 that thicker
-

corner columns produced a sense of greater stability
in seems nearer the truth. In the stoa and
peristyles
the agora the corners were emphasized by larger col-
umns, 4 by quadrangular piers, or by piers with en-
5

as frames and
gaged columns (Fig. 312), which served
1
Reinhardt, 10.
8
Marini, I, 147, note 22.
4
2
Vitruvius, III, 3, 11. Pergamon, II, Taf. 33.
5
Priene, Taf. 13.

258 GREEK ARCHITECT UKE

connecting links of aesthetic rather than structural con-
sequence.
A
further problem arose in the case of double colon-
nades. In archaic temples when a double row of col-
umns preceded the temple cella, the inner columns were
sometimes heavier than those of the outer peristyle, as
Temple C at Selinous.
1
in In the classic period, however,

FIG. 312. Corner pier from Magnesia.

the inner row was composed of perceptibly slenderer
2
columns, as in the Parthenon. This practice became
the rule in later days. Vitruvius 3 tells us exactly how
much slenderer the inner row should be, and that the
apparent slenderness should be increased by additional
channellings.
The composition of the colonnade and walls with re-

spect to elevation furnished a new problem in the case
of the peripteral temple. Were the outer face of the
cella wall vertical and the column shafts cylindrical, the

2
1
Koldewey und Puchstein, 99. Penrose, PI. 3.
3 2.
Vitruvius, IV, 4,

COMPOSITION AND STYLE 259

colonnade would harmonize best with the cella walls if
it too were vertically set. But when the outer face of
the wall sloped inward, and the columns diminished in
diameter toward the top, a colonnade posed on a vertical
axis would form a porch wider at the top than at the
base, and thus apparently, lack stability. According to
Garbett, the colonnade in front of the British Museum,
being thus posed, appears in danger of falling outward.
1
t

To correct this fault was a practical necessity. It is
also held by some writers that when a line of tapering
columns are set on a vertical axis, they present a fan-
2
like appearance. Choisy assures us that this is the
case with the Pantheon and the Palais du Corps Legis-
latif in Paris. It may also be remarked that, in the case
of convex stylobates like those of the Parthenon, if an
attempt were made to pose each column perpendicularly
to the divergence would actually
stylobate, a fanlike
occur. Hence columns were harmonized with the walls
by being given a similar inward inclination, and the fan-
like divergence was corrected chiefly by means of the
counter inclination of the angle columns. In peristyles
an angle column belonged to two colonnades, each of
which demanded of it a different counter inclination.
This double demand was met by inclining the angle col-
umn in the direction of the diagonal of the temple base.
Sometimes only the corner columns supplied the counter
inclination in other cases the columns adjoining the
;

angle columns also shared in it. An inclination of the
colonnade toward the walls is found in the best Athenian
buildings, as the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Theseion,
and even in the Erechtheion 3 but in other fine Doric
;

i
Garbett, 155.
2
Choisy, I, 406. 3
Penrose, 30-38.

The art of composition included also the decoration of columns. III. Priene. 173. Vitruvius 4 re- quired a stronger inclination than is found in Greek temples. and capital was repeated throughout a colonnade. but also in the bases and capitals. In the North Porch of the Erechtheion a very delicate symmetry was produced by the use of concave bands in the braids which decorated the bases of the corner columns. 3 6 53. Vitruvius. 64. insisting that the axis of the colonnade be in- clined toward the walls far enough to overcome the diminution of the column and render the inner profile perfectly vertical. like the Temple of Apollo at l Phigaleia and the Temple of Concordia at Akragas. while the bases of the columns of the pronaos and opisthodomos were decorated with braid ornament. while convex bands were used for the others. 7 Haussoullier. Here the bases and capitals of the corner columns corresponded 1 * Cockerell. In the great majority of cases the same type of base. 3 it does not occur. 4. But decorative composition of a more com- plex type was found in the archaic as well as in the Hellenistic of Artemis at Ephesos. and 2 in some of the best Ionic temples. The fagade of the 7 decastyle Temple of Apollo near Miletos presented a most elaborate scheme of decorative composition. 89. 5 where variety Temple was exhibited not only in the sculptured shafts. shaft. 2 5 Koldeweyund Puchstein. 5. 134-177. Hogarth. In the Artemision at Magnesia 6 hori- zontal and vertical leaf decoration was applied alternately on the bases of the columns of the peristyle.260 GREEK ARCHITECTURE temples of the classic period. 264-271. . Magnesia. as the Temple of Athena at Priene.

314). but at capital. 313. a peristyle presented a problem in composition in the spirals of their capitals. It be further re- may marked that when the [onic order was used. Doric and Corinthian capitals did not involve this difficulty. The remaining bases. The interior angles of such corner capitals were espe- FIG. and probably the capitals also. were ar- ranged in pairs. At the exterior angle (Fig. the pairs being arranged so as to produce a rhythmical alternation of forms as well as a symmetrical balance of decorative motives. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 261 with those of the columns of the lateral colonnades. j FIG. Inner view of Ionic corner cially awkward. 314. i . capital. 313) the spirals were usu- ally drawn out in a direc- tion corresponding to the diagonal of the abacus. the corner columns of Plan of Ionic corner ' . . . each pair differing from other pairs and in some cases individ- ual bases differing from their mates. Priene they were relieved by decorative palmettes (Fig. and the angle was some- times marked with an orna- mental palmette.

In turning the corners of a rectangular colonnade. and then the frieze and cornice. a half mitre. of necessity. Both FlG 310. the difficulty consisted in selecting a proper joint. Its composition with the frieze was partially formal.In the Doric order the regulae occur- ring beneath the cap moulding of the epistyle serve no other function than to bind together decoratively 1 Olympia. But frequently epistyle and frieze differed in form. half butt blocks from the o i n t wa s j used. In treating of composition in the entablature we shall consider first the epistyle. The epistyle blocks were fashioned so as to compose in various ways with each other. 316). In the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. 1 where a triple series of blocks met at the corners. ENTABLATURES.262 GREEK ARCHITECTURE 6. only the inner blocks were mitred (Fig. followed. as in Temple E. the outer blocks formed a butt joint and the inner blocks were mitred. When double blocks were employed. 315).plan of cor-. ner epistyle blocks fr m Tem P le E and shared the same curvilinear modi- ficatioiis. . In rectilinear or circular colonnades the problem was purely tech- nical. the same plan. I. Selinous. The epistyle should also compose well with the frieze. and solved by fine jointing and proper clamps. Taf. FIG 315 Plan When ^ ne epistyle consisted of a series of comer epistyle of single blocks. and with the colonnade. 13. as in the Propylaia at " Pergamon (Fig. and were united chiefly through their decoration. .

84. In the Ionic order. The composition of the epistyle with the colon- nade required more care. the epistyle was advanced well beyond the face of the columns. . epistyle and frieze differ markedly in form. At Aegina (Fig. Relation of epistyle to shaft in Temple C. Relation of epistyle to In cases where the colonnade th6 Temple f Aphaia ' inclined inward so as to bar- teg'. 1 Pio. 317). and Paestum timidly posed their epistylesbehind or flush with the upper face of the FIG. I ful adjustment than is usually supposed. 317." monize with the walls the epistyle was given an analogous inclination. Metapontum. but their cap mould- ings usually present some decorative motive in com- mon. 101. The early builders at Selinous (Fig. 318) and at Athens. Selinous. colonnade. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 263 the epistyle and frieze. 318. in the classic period. only rather i Krell.

and acroteria. tator than their lower portions. being FIG. the Theseion. 5. 2 who argues that the upper portions of epistyles. 1 but here the Maidens them- selves were vertically posed.264 GREEK ARCHITECTURE greater in amount (Fig. Vitruvius. and posed.. 320. This was the case in the Parthenon. of the epistyle. Parthenon. Even the tympanon of the triangular gable shared this inclination.. friezes. Outward lean remoter from the eye of the spec- . I. It would be interesting to know just what inclination. in the interior of the Propylaia the Ionic columns were vertically FIG. . 320). would appear to slope inward and 2 1 Iwanoff. . Taf. and the Propylaia. cor- nices. nation of the entablature. In the Porch of the Maidens the vertical faces of the epistyle were perfectly ver- tical. . where the inward inclination of the columns was exceedingly slight. The frieze followed the epistyle. Propylaia.. but to a less degree. gables. yet the epi- style was given a forward or outward incli- nation (Fig. Athens . Inward incii. 319. 319). . was given to the entablature of the Erechtheion. III. This tilting for- ward of the entablature in Ionic colonnades was a rule with Vi- truvius. 13. However. if any. 13.

Thus the regulae of the poros epistyles from Athens 3 show four and five trunnels. the face of its taenia is vertical and that of the regulae is given an inward slope. Priene. and a corner trunnel made its appearance (Fig. as well as the regulae and their t runnels. Perg.. 22. PI. ward. Corner regulae of the North Stoa. Temp. though the epistyle is tilted in. 7. The significance of these variations is not always obvious. Later the two reg- ulae were united at the corners. in the Par- thenon. s x. Bohn. 321. was tilted inward. Dion. . 2 4 Priene. Thus. 194. carving six trunnels FIG. The details of the epistyle do not always follow its general disposition. Qn eacn (Fig. Corner regulae of the Parthenon. those of the 4 those of Temple of Dionysos at Pergamon. 321). Wiegand. In the composition of the regulae at the corners of buildings the practice in the archaic and classic periods was to juxta- pose the two regulae. 322. seven . FIG. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 265 hence must be tilted outward in order to produce the effect of perpendicularity. 1 In the North Portico of the Agora at Priene 2 the taenia. 150. The number of trun- nels sometimes differed from the canonical number. 322). 1 3 Penrose.

10. in order to avoid too marked a salience of the applied relief. The frieze. to the cornice. to the colonnade.. Ibid. d'Espouy. As we have already noted. Friezes. . 4. In archaic to buildings the facade sometimes had triglyphs broader than those of the sides. had be adjusted to contiguous friezes. Ch. whenever carried around a portico or building. Taf. 5 8. 1 a continuous row. Its relation to the epistyle. 11. the frieze shared also the inclination and the curvature of the epistyle. PI. 2 * Mauch. but this method of lighten- ing the superstructure of the entablature was seldom attempted. The frieze was posed in the Doric order usually with its triglyphs flush with the epistyle. as in the Temple of Athena Nike. PI. II. 4. When a frieze was continued around a corner the problem of uniting the two friezes was a simple one. the metopes being set back. In the 4 Erechtheion the face of the frieze was set farther back. and to the cella walls had to be properly adjusted. PI.266 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the Monument of Thrasyllos at Athens. 7. In the Ionic style the frieze was frequently with the lowest fascia of the set flush 3 epistyle. to the contiguous frieze. In the Temple of the Nemesis at Rhamnous 2 the face of the triglyphs appears to have been set slightly be- hind the face of the epistyle. presented several problems. as an intermediate member. and a space left between the external frieze and its antithema. In the Parthenon the antithema of the frieze was slightly set back. In the 8 1 Stuart and Revett. Wiegand. 5 In the classic period the front and lateral triglyphs were of equal breadth.

Thus. the adjust- ment at the corner was not so happily solved (Fig. In Ionic friezes the problem concerned chiefly the decora- tive reliefs. a mutule occurring in regular cadence over each triglyph . a proper regard for the to avoid coincidence in length of the blocks. as in the Treasury of the Megarians at Olympia. 324). the triglyphs and metopes de- termined the position of the mutules of the cornice. is found in the Palace of Hyrkanos in Syria. but also some similarity in form or decoration. and was solved by means of figures near the angles which served like punc- tuation marks for the successive phases of the figured theme. 323). The harmony of the frieze with the cor- FIG. with a half groove in common (Fig. so as jointing. Corner triglyph from the freas- mce required not only ury of Se iinous. which presented the appearance of two triglyphs at right 'angles to each other. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 267 Doric order this was accomplished by a corner triglyph (T/o(/yXv(/>o9 rycoviaia). Olympia. When the triglyphal frieze was applied only to the front of a build- ing. in the Doric order. An unusual type of corner triglyph. 323. with two half grooves at the angle.

as in the Temple of Apollo FIG. 7. . and exhibited a trigiyph over each column and one 1 Koldewey und Puchstein. A panelled cornice. it is possible the Treasury of Megara. 324: - Corner trigiyph from at Syracuse. IV. seems also to have been regulated with reference to the subdivisions of the tfiglyphal frieze.268 GREEK ARCHITECTURE and over each metope. and the cap mouldings of the frieze were repeated as a whole or in part in the crowning mould- ings of the cornice. 206-210 . confused in Vitruvius. 64 . Thus the trunnelled regulae were reechoed in the trunnelled mutules. The forms of mouldings and their decoration were also utilized to establish a closer harmony between frieze and cornice. Boetticher. He had first to determine the number of triglyphs to be distributed in the frieze. This system may be termed monotriglyphal The usual type of Doric frieze was ditriglyphal (StTpy\v- </>o?). When the columns were closely set. 3. The difficulties were numerous in the use of the Doric order. The relation of the frieze to the colonnade made further demands upon the architect's skill in composition. Olym. such as that of the Temple of Demeter at Paestum. that one trigiyphwas placed over each column and a met- ope or an opening over each intercolumniation.

Penrose.. 4 But the chief difficulty in adjusting the triglyphal frieze to thecolonnade arose from the twofold endeavor to adhere to the system of posing triglyphs above the axes of columns. 5 The Romans set a higher value on rigid uniformity. and the plumb line from the apex of the gable did not divide equally the central inter- columniation. Tav. PI. III. 197. Bank. Polytriglyphal systems were also in use. fivebetween the columns of the Tomb of Theroii ~at Akragas. Cockerell. Horn. Taf. Triglyphal and figured friezes were sometimes applied for other purposes than for colonnades. Etr. and did not hesitate to leave a portion of a metope at the 6 angle. 21. and epistyle blocks were not uniform in size. six are found between the columns of the Doric Niche in tEe~~Stoa at Pergamon. The result was that. 4 1 Bohn. and four over those of the upper order. II. At Phaistos 7 we find the base of a bench decorated with a triglyphal frieze. of the Stoa at Pergamon 2 . 17. the tri- glyphs were rarely posed above the axes of the columns or of the intercolumniations. 4-5. triglyphs.. over each intercolumniation of the lower order. 6 Dunn. ? 7. XII. 47. Taf. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 269 over each intercolumniation. even in so carefully con- structed a building as the Parthenon. 3 and seven be- 4 tween the pilasters of a DaricTtomb fagade at Antiphel- los.. Mon. Two triglyphs are found above the central intercolumniations of the Propylaia at Athens J three . 5 2 Pergamon. 69 . . 28. 3 Ibid. Ant. and at the same time to terminate the frieze with triglyphs rather than with a half met- ope. Taf. 46. posed the terminal triglyphs above the axes of the columns. metopes. Texier. II. 26. 378.

Taf. 4. a frieze encircled the interior of the naos in the Parthenon. 3 Ibid. 10. IX (1884). The composition of the dentil band required a harmoni- ous relation to frieze and cornice. 4Stuart and Revett. The connection of this band with the colon- nade was somewhat remote. 3 a sculptured frieze decorated the pronaos and also the opisthodomos in the . . dentil. VI (1902). Mitt. s Ath. the composition of the corner dentils sometimes received special attention. . 325. 306-320.270 GREEK ARCHITECTURE at Corinth. it decorated the exterior of the pronaos. III. 95. This was effected chiefly through similarity of decorative mouldings.. 16.. Taf. 1 A. 1 the outer wall of a fountain. if con- tinued upward.A. 2 Olympia. or as string courses upon walls. . I. the frieze of the pronaos was carried across the 5 pteromata to the colonnade of the peristyle at Sounion. and the cella walls. 325. Ch. II. as in rectangular buildings. 4 Theseion. The axis of the column. it was carried not only across the pteromata. would strike indifferently a FIG. but com- pletely around the interior of the front porch at Phigaleia. To one who gazed upward from below the square space left at the angle looked awkward. In the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. or as crowning ornament. 10. 2 a circular altar. Corner dentils from Priene viewed dentil or an inter- from below. Friezes were also applied above doorways. at Olympia. When one dentil band met another. .J. the opisthodomos. Taf.. PI. I.

326). 326. Thus in the of the Temple of Apollo at monotriglyphal system Syracuse the cornice was doubtless unirnutular. by the introduction of a pendent ornament resembling an egg or a pine cone. such as the Tem- . COMPOSITION AND STYLE 271 This was remedied. In the Ionic Temple on the theatre plateau at Pergamon twin dentils were used at the corners but this appears to have been an j exceptional solu- \ tion of the prob- lem (Fig. Corner dentils from Priene . the dentils. the cornice was sesquimutular. pie of Zeus at Labranda. Selinous. as it exhibits one mutule above each . Cornice com- position consisted in establishing FIG. 325). front view. by the introduction of a decorative motive. In the Doric style the mutular system of the cornice was determined by the system of the frieze. In Temple C. and adjoining cornice. _. suitable relations with the frieze. 327). To one who viewed the face of the building. Twin dentils from the Ionic Temple at harmonious and Pergamon. This was corrected in later buildings. in the Temple of Asklepios at Priene. FIG. the side of the lateral dentil made a striking contrast with the fronts of the other dentils (Fig. such as a palmette (Fig. 327. exhib- iting one mutule above each triglyph and none above the metopes.

1 2 Wiegand. The number' of trunnels upon a mutule depended somewhat upon their width and the overhang of the cornice. and contained only eight. Penrose. where there was no frieze. had no mutules. 37. The mutules were harmonized with the epistyle by the exhibi- tion of trunnels similar to those of the regulae. The Romans did not hesitate to repeat even the dentils in the raking cornice. especially when the method of decoration was similar. The correlation of cornice and frieze is well illustrated at the Treasury of the Megarians at Olympia. On the fagade. The repetition of an echinus. 16. being only remotely related to the frieze. The half mutules of Temple C. the cornice was provided with mutules on the . Here and elsewhere the raking cornices of the gables. 1. The usual Doric cornice was bimutular. 2 The Ionic cornice was brought into harmony with the frieze or with the dentil band chiefly through a general similar- ity in the treatment of the decorative mouldings. with six in each row. three in a row.272 GREEK ARCHITECTURE triglyph. but in buildings where the inward in- clination of the entablature was pronounced the cornice inclined outward like the abacus of the capital. or cavetto moulding unified the composition. contained but nine trunnels. arranged in two rows of six each the intervening mutules were narrower . at Selinous. and a half mutule above each metope. where there was a triglyphal frieze. In the Old Temple of Athena at Athens 1 the full mutules contained twelve trunneis. . sides. arranged in three rows. and contained a mutule above each triglyph and one above each metope. 105. Taf. cyma reversa. A normal mutule contained eighteen trunnels. the cornice had no mu- tules. The face of the cornice in many cases was posed in a vertical plane.

as in tympanon wall. 37. PI. Corner of gable of Temple C. Se. The normal solution was to cut the raking cornice so as to mitre it to the horizontal cornice at the angle (Fig. linous. in archaic buildings. In the megaron of Demeter at Gag- gera the two cornices met without modi- fication arid left an awkward an- gular profile (Fig. 24. In such cases it shared this inward inclination. set back. . at the outset. Selinous. In Temple C. or gable wall. was posed in a vertical plane. near Selinous. thenon l which exhibited an inward inclination in the colonnade and en- tablature. i 2 Hittorff et Zanth. was Selinous. some experimentation before an adequate solution was reached. 330). a verti- cal profile seems to have been secured at the angle by a bend in the raking cornice (Fig. FIG. 328). When the arranged for the exhibition of gable sculptures. 329). The tympanon. 328. Corner of the gable of the megarou Demeter. Penrose. except in build- ings like the Par- FIG. 329. 2 In the Temple of Zeus at Olympia Temple C. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 273 The composition of the gable with the horizontal cor- nice required.

When the columns were closely set. where. as in the 2 Philippeion at Olympia. ceilings presented little difficulty. 330. coffered ceiling was applied to the peristyle of a circular building. 7.274 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the wall. as in the Tholos of Epidauros. 2 Taf 82. as in theTemple of Apollo at Syracuse. It is illustrated in the lateral porticoes of the Theseion (Fig. it is possible that the ceiling beams corresponded in position with the triglyphs or columns. II. the cofferings became trapezoidal in shape. with one ceiling beam for each column and one for each intercolumniation. Ac- cording to Vitruvius. one beam for each column and none for the intercolumniations. 1 Lechat et Defrasse. Atheus. This is the system which we find most frequently in developed Doric peristyles. and consequently the sculptured groups. 118. . 332). A two-beam system. . the tympanon should be in line with the face of the epistyle and the necks of the columns. Except in the case of peristyles. 331). CEILINGS AND ROOF. In the case of rectangular buildings the chief difficulty consisted in adjusting the ceiling beams to the colonnade. is found in the North Porch of the Erechtheion. were thrown forward to the extreme limit (Fig. Olympia. 1 or lozenge-shaped. Corner of the gable of the Propylaia. When a FIG.

To adjust the ceiling beams to the unequally spaced colonnade of a Doric fagade was difficult. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 275 however. oiympia. 2 Cockerell. . n . and constituted the vitium lacunario- rum in the eyes of a Roman archi- tect. In the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia 2 FIG. . In some early temples. the beams do not correspond with the central axes of the columns nor with the centres of the inter- columniations. 5. In the Parthenon this lack of cadence is even more apparent.. 333). the ceiling beams of which are not regularly related to the friezes and not reg- ularly related to each other (Fig. -Overhang of gable . i Vitruvius. In the front and rear the ceiling beams were set at equal distances apart. 331. as there are two porches. 1 Even the Greeks felt this and invented a beamless ceiling. When the trabeated type of ceil- ing was used in peripteral build- ings. In the Parthe- non it was applied also to the pronaos and opisthodomos. PL 9. it was applied to both front and rear -. of the peristyle. its application was not always the same. on the Temple of Zeus.. j. such as Temple C at Selinous. . 3. IV. it was probably applied only in front. but show no regard for the mtercolumniations of the peristyle or of the pronaos.

. is found in the Sepulchral Monument at Mylasa.276 GREEK ARCHITECTURE In the Theseion the trabeated ceiling was applied to the entire peristyle. although in some archaic buildings. inasmuch as the front and rear of the peristyle were considerably deeper than the pteromata and had heavier ceiling beams. 30. and also to the pronaos and opisthodomos . the simae were applied. Pis. II. An unusual form of ceiling. system. . . 334). Antiq. 1 The disposition of simae required a consideration of their application in relation to the roof and to the colon- nade. their ceilings were cut off from those of the wings by very heavy beams. A perfectly harmonious FIG. giving the same value to 'all sides of the peristyle. on gable fronts. to the raking cornice alone. but. 24. with beams cutting diagonally across the corners. 25. was devised by Pythios for the Temple of Athena at Priene (Fig. Being designed to regulate the flow of water from the roof. 332. Plan of ceiling beams of the Theseion.

Siniae were sometimes posed vertically. and was then replaced by a system of antefixes in the Temple of . This horizontal sima on gable fronts defeated the purpose for which the form was designed. rather than dis- persed. I. 41. Penrose. the rainfall. 3 Taf. 3 and elsewhere. 333. Taf. It was accordingly omitted in the classic period. as in the Treasury of Gela. the sima was ap- plied also to the horizontal cornice. In the Parthenon the sima was continued for a short distance only on the long sides of the building. . in peripteral buildings. Plan of ceiling beams of peristyle and front porch of the Parthenon. was more marked on the long sides than in front. m FIG. 37. Zeus at Olympia. it extended along the 2 1 Olympia. 11. but usually were given an outward inclination 2 which. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 277 1 like the Treasury of Gela at Olympia. Olympia. I. inasmuch as it retained.

disk-like aiitefixes decorated the end of each ^ . were set at regular intervals. sometimes in com- bination with each other. The antefixes. in the Heraion at 1 Olympia. sometimes separately.278 GREEK ARCHITECTURE entire length of the pteromata. and the lion heads of simae. Thus. and were employed.

than in important buildings. 12. 33. similar figured acroteria were placed at the lower ends. Another development was the multiplication of ornaments at other points on the raking cornice. When figured sculpture was introduced at the apex of a gable. 38. Other systems seem also to have been employed. I. Taf. 4 who directed that the acroteria at the lower ends of the gable should reach apex of the in height the tympanum. 1 In the composition of acroteria. In some cases the lateral acroteria were adapted to the peripteral plan by being returned around the corner. This appears to have been 8 1 Olympia. 61. Pis. In the Heraion at Olympia terra-cotta disks sufficed for all the acroteria. . were insignificantly small. 2 4 Renan. and that the acroterion apex should at the be one-eighth higher than those at the ends. Vitruvius. and character had to be considered. their size. Taf. as in the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros. In the Temple 3 of Aphaia at Aegina the heights of the acroteria are very far from the standards set later by Vitruvius. 50. Two further steps may be noted in the composition of acroteria. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 279 amounts to saying that one lion head occurs above each column and three above each intercolumniation. III. like sarcophagi. in some of which the number and pose of the antefixes and lion heads had no definite relation to the colonnade. Their height was accordingly made the occasion for many experiments. Furtwangler. In some countries the acroteria were inordinately large 2 elsewhere they . There must also be some conformity between the character of the acroterion at the apex and those at the sides. 66. 5. height. This was more common in small structures.

STYLE. Of these the Doric and Ionic stand in strong contrast. and having pointed out how they were modified when associated with each other. VIII. The Tuscan style.v. a frieze divided into triglyphs 1 Daremberg et Saglio. had a strong diminution and entasis. 1 and have been revived in the decoration to of Lombard and Venetian portals of the Renaissance period. Upon this type of column rested a heavy entablature. Figs. and decoration of the vari- ous architectural members. These styles may be distinguished as the Doric. distinguished from each other by a number of particulars. was a form of Roman rather than of Greek architecture. 8. Ionic. 56. 2 Vitruvius. XXXVI. 1146-1151. The Corinthian style agrees in so many details with we might well the Ionic that refuse to give it the standing of a separate class. consisting of a plain epistyle crowned by a rectangular moulding. and Corinthian. to which may be added the Mixed. . 45. In the Doric style the column had no base its shaft . s. 1 Paus.. N. were it not that the ancient writers 2 all agree in so recognizing it. .. forms. except to point out the fact that certain architectural features were naturally grouped together so as to form distinct styles. and was adorned with channellings of elliptical section separated by sharp arrises.Pliny. and the Miscellaneous. included by Vitruvius and Pliny. Capitolium. III and IV . .280 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the case in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome. little remains to be said about style. its capital was of circular plan and hyperbolic profileand was capped by a rectangular abacus its pro. portions were heavy.H. After having considered in detail the technique. 5. proportions.

where various modifications of type were produced. in Sicily. though not the strong- FIG. 335. In general. example of its class. and an overhanging cornice. the Ionic column was provided . Doric order of the Parthenon. The Doric style was abundantly represented in the Peloponnesos. and in southern Italy. est. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 281 and metopes. or most characteristic. but the general combination has come down with slight change to the architecture of modern times. The Parthenon (Fig. The Ionic style was associated in its early history with Asia Minor. The individual forms which composed the Doric order differed according to varying conditions of time or place. capped by a beak moulding. with mutules or cofferings. 335) may be taken as the most refined.

Above this was laid a light entab- lature consisting of an epistyle subdivided into suc- cessive fasciae . painted or carved with the egg and dart. and differed from it only in the type of the capital. reached a most refined stage at Athens. Its pro- portions were slender.282 GREEK ARCHITECTURE with a base. 336) furnishes an ex- cellent example. The Mausoleion at Halikarnassos (Fig. passed almost without change soleion at Halikarnassos. in a preference for curved friezes. The Ionic style flourished in the great cities on the west coast of Asia Minor. and was adorned with channellings of semicir- cular section separated by flatarrises. and FIG.its shaft had but slight diminution and entasis. but often adorned with sculpture in low relief. into Roman and later Euro- pean architecture. its capital was composed of an echinus moulding. and for cornices . The Corinthian style in most details was identical with the Ionic. Ionic order of the Mau. 33ti.. and a cornice of graceful profile supported normally on dentils and crowned with delicate mouldings. a frieze un- broken. above which were spirals and lateral bolsters crowned with a low abacus.

and to Rome. As an exterior order it first appears in the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. the Tholos at Epidauros. 134-136. Arch. the interior order of the Tholos at Epidauros. XI (1908). Two or more styles were represented in the same building in the Propylaia at Athens. 140. and thus distinguished from the cor- nices of the other orders. and with a bracketed cornice in the interior of the Tower of the Winds at Athens. the Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea. 4 These reflect architectural practice. 1 The frieze might have a plane surface.. and in many other buildings. but. but was used to adorn the frieze. 2 The Corinthian cornice was often supported on 3 brackets. and in the Olym- pieion at Athens. See Figs. the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia. or consoles. and in widely scattered parts of the Greek world. Mixed styles of architecture are pictured on Athenian vases of the sixth and fifth centuries. Vallois. the cornice. Mixed styles are found in various periods. in the later period in which this style flourished. It may also be noted that the acanthus decoration was not confined to the capitals of columns. whence it spread to Asia Minor. But a closer mingling. or acan- thus leaves. curved friezes were frequently associated with Corinthian col- umns. such as the columns of one style bearing the entablature of a different style. 252-262. in Rev. occurred more frequently than we are accustomed to suppose. . 2 See Figs. and various mouldings. 4 R. COMPOSITION AND STYLE 283 supported by consoles. and in fact are probably 1 8 See Fig. The Corinthian capital was essen- tially a calyx capital decorated with lanceolate. The Corinthian capital occurs for the first time in the interior of the Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia it was first associated with a curved frieze in . 383.

3 6 Pergamon. . in Crete. 1 as well as in Epidauros. I.* Miscellaneous styles are represented in buildings where 5 6 Caryatids. 45-49. 4. II. See Fig. 3 . Ch. 33-34. Mitt. 2 in the Stoa of Eumenes at Pergamon. Vitruvius. Telamones. Taf.284 GREEK ARCHITECTURE found in the Peiraieus. Taf.. These supports carry entablatures borrowed from the other styles.. 3 and in the so-called Tomb of Theron at Akragas.III. 2 * See Fig. in Ath. iDoerpfeld. 6 6 Stuart and Revett. 285. IX (1884). Pis. . Ibid.. 221. Paus. 286. Ill. Atlantes. 11. 1. and Persians are substi- tuted for columns. 11. 33.

Megara. baths. was known as the acropolis (a/c/JoVoXt?). like Ephesos. traverse the sea. gymnasia. and other structures for the physical. Miletos. CHAPTER VI MONUMENTS IT remains for us to consider the various types of Greek architectural monuments. In many such cases the old town on die hill survived and was connected by walls with the seaport. and libraries. palaces and houses for their shelter on land ships to . buildings for purposes of government . In the earliest periods villages (/c<w/-tcu) were preferably built in the vicinity of a hill. museums. Corinth. With the increase of population commercial interests became more important. Athens. and protected them with walls and towers ejected temples to . the gods . 1. fortified as a residence for the chief and a refuge for the people in case of war. With Hippoda- 285 . became typical centres. Tiryns. which. theatres for the intellectual welfare of the people. as at Athens. Troy. stadia. and Mycenae suffice to illustrate this type of settle- ment. civic market places for commerce . and Corinth. and seaboard cities. TOWNS AND THEIR DEFENCES. We shall briefly review the way in which the Greeks designed their towns. and finally memorial and sepulchral buildings for the dead.

2 3 Vitruvius. public buildings distributed with a view to artistic effect as well 1 as practical convenience distinguished this class of cities. The square was. . in the fifth century. Typologie . 2. 5. Alexandria. In the time of Peisistratos the streets of Athens were pro- 1 Hirschfeld. into which flowed all the streams of the* mountain. 337) they were covered with irregular stone pavements (errput par a). The hilly character of many Greek cities led to the construction of level spaces and terraces. II. The Peiraieus. which required retaining walls. and in his right a cup. broad avenues (TrXaretat) crossing at right angles to each other.286 GREEK ARCHITECTURE mos of Miletos. Streets were often narrow and rough. and later that of the Roman stationary camp. Open squares. such as that of the Altis at Olympia or of the Stoa of Eumenes at Athens. The conception of a city as a work of art reached the limit of extravagance in the proposition of Deinokrates to convert Mount Athos into the statue of a man holdinga spacious city in his left hand. Erdmann. As early as the time of the Second City at Troy (Fig. Ibid. But the walls of Greek cities more frequently enclosed an irregular space. the type of Babylonian and Assyrian cities. 2 The extreme regularity of the late Greek cities led naturally to the square or circle as the form to be fol- lowed by the enclosing walls. Hippodamos von Milet . I. sometimes paved. and even Vitruvius 3 argues in favor of winding walls in order that the enemy may be seen from many points of view. and Antioch may be cited as typical examples. Merckel. 379-465. in fact. praef.. began the architec- tural planning of cities.

338)... Mitt. Berl. 1 examples of which may also be seen at Priene and at Gyrene. . even more than the necessities of trafficked to the improvement of roads outside of city walls. Akad. At a later period the streets of Antioch were paved with carefully shaped blocks of marble and of granite. Later. Ath. 337. 1854. cities were though one has been found at Corinth. MONUMENTS 287 vided with gutters. Paved road at Troy. Antioch. The establishment of sacred ways (iepal o&u) leading to temples. rare. Zur ~Geschichte des Wegebaues bei den Griechen. the principal streets were lined with single or double colonnades of great magnificence. 459. 2 To prevent the shaking of 1 Doerpfeld. in Abh. Sidewalks in the early Greek FIG. XXI (1896). Curtius. 2 E. as at Ephesos. and Palmyra (Fig.

288 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

A few examples only remain. Paws. The second type may be illustrated by the fortifications of Assos. 339). forming a fixed track for the wheels of the chariots. and bridges were built over the streams. these towers were especially designed Jor flanking the enemy. At irregular intervals. angular turns.he from slipping. We may distinguish three types of fortification. . towers. supported upon piers connected by arches. 1 beasts Through marshy regions causeways were erected. 42. The earliest fortifications. were so broad as to permit of galleries and rooms within the walls. and Mycenae. and towers all occur at irregular intervals. Such being open to continuous fortifications. show that their builders relied most upon the walls. and Syracuse. representing centres of defence concentrated at more or less regular intervals. such as those at Troy. explained by i Frazer. tombs. MONUMENTS 289 the sacred treasures deep ruts were cut. lines of attack. II. Tirjms. according to the value set upon walls and towers. 186. and were better adapted to small hill towns than to large cities in the plain. importance Projecting from the line of the walls. called for continuous lines of defence. and were not confined to cities in the plains. In these cases. steep crossings. Athens. even through :ock. 2 Guhl und Koner. Grooves also were sometimes cut to prevent the feet of r. shrines. Messene (Fig. as at Tiryns. and in some cases. and benches were stationed. are of more than the walls. 2 The defence of many Greek towns was aided by the steep. But walls and towers were used for protection from the earliest times. rocky declivities common in mountainous lands.. These walls were built of huge blocks of stone. Greek bridges were narrow. The third type. although bastions.

earthworks. Sparta gloried in having no walls at all Messene was proud of its single line of . 339.290 GREEK ARCHITECTURE Phiion of Byzantium. gates (TruXi'Se?). The city wall (re^o?. 1 Translated by de Rochas. de Philol. Various types of walled towns may be distinguished by the number of the enclosing walls. . and advance walls. 7re/3#toXo?) consisted usually of towers jrvroi and curtain walls AecroTrim and was FIG. 1 adds moats.. 1879. Rev. or postern. devices designed to meet more complicated systems of warfare. mines. and subsidiary. Tower at Messene. provided with one or more principal entrances (?ruXat). Thus.

and because of the ease with which they diverted missiles. 231. Ibid. seldom used Greek in the finest such as those of Messene and Assos.. 7 Droysen. and elsewhere. as at Phiga- leta. vhree lines of walls 2 . Ill. from which messages could be 7 3 i Frazer. >six walls had to be passed before one reached the citadel of Epeion The number of important gates was in Elis. . Round towers were preferred by Philon and by Vitruvius because of their superior strength in direct resistance. and also afforded opportunities for offensive and defensive fighting. double wall 1 Orchomenos in Arcadia seems to have had . Argos. 4 Ibid. note 1. The fortifications.. 5 Isolated towers ((/>/)oujOta). 6 Guhl und Koner. Polygonal towers are found at Antioch. MONUMENTS 291 defence the Isthmus of Corinth was protected by a . 475. the earliest type. Samos. 175. They were. 258. 5. in early days. by its nine gates. 275-284. interior chambers. and with larger openings (SioSot) on the side toward the town. The flat roof was surrounded with battlements (eVaXfet?) which made an ornamental crown.. Square towers. Ill. served as watch-towers as well as forts. are represented in all periods. They sometimes formed a series of signal stations. and elsewhere. Andros. 225. however. the form of which did not always correspond with that of the exterior. Towers varied in form. Paws. w^re provided with narrow loopholes (#L>/ot8e? roft/ou) which were singly or doubly splayed. 5 Lupus. The most highly developed of Greek fortress- towers was the Euryalos at Syracuse. Mideia had four lines of defence 3 . Ill. like those on the islands of Keos. 4 another consideration in the distinction of cities. Thus Thebes was characterized by its seven and Athens. 2 IUd ^ jy. and 6 Tenos.

Etudes. and. 5.v.were utilized in making an attack upon walled towns. * De re fortificat. s. fjLeTaTrvpyia^). Helepolis . and that across the opening be constructed wooden bridges which might be removed in case of necessity. Choisy. 51. Where there was no peridromos on top of the walls. such as the Taker of Cities l 4 (eXeTroXi?). The great gateways (TTfXwz/e?) with their heavy gates 1 Smith. Between the towers of a fortified town were the curtain walls (fjLea-oTrvpyia. Philon 4 advised. 4. These were developed by Demetrios Poliorketes ' into immense structures. 5 Between the walls and the houses of the town Philon 6 would leave a space (Trajoao-rao-t?) ninety feet broad for the transport of engines of war and of troops. in case of necessity. 3. which were sometimes like the towers in having loopholes and battlements. Tre/noSo?). 215. note 10. 52. 6 De re fortificat. Wooden towers made of separable parts which could easily be put together (Trvpyoi foprjToi^ and towers on wheels (jrvpyoi. {/Tro'rpo^ot) with various devices such as o-ajjiftv/crj*) and grappling-hooks the drawbridge (eVt/Safya. The peridromos was 3 usually uncovered but the walls of Athens were covered .. 2. . Etudes. a wooden gallery supported by corbels a disposi- tion found at Herakleia in Latinos. and were broad enough to provide on top a peridromos or passage- 2 way (Tre/oi'S/oo/io?.. This had no religious significance as had the Etruscan and Roman pomoerium. advised the erection of inner works of defence. (/eo^a/ee?). with which he attacked the Cretan Salamis and the city of Rhodes. I. Vitruvius advised that the towers be left open toward the interior. 3 Choisy. 2 e Vitruvius. Droysen.292 GREEK ARCHITECTURE quickly signalled over a considerable extent of country. on the interior and near the top. with a roof.

MONUMENTS 293 (TTv\aC) differed in many ways from one another. at Athens had a double opening . and to protect the narrow passage by a series of gates. Messene. 341. The Arcadian Gate at Messene (Fig. FIG. From the earliest period the approaches were sometimes arranged. so that the enemy should expose his right or unshielded side. . The Arcadian Gate. Gate D at Mantineia. as had also the Hercula- neum Gate at Pompeii. Usually there was but a single The Northwest Gate passageway. as at Tiryns. 340. a primary maxim by Vi- truvius. 341) offers the best example of the protection afforded by . It was far more common to flank the en- trance with two towers FIG.J40). This was not the invari- able rule in Greek prac- although accepted as tice. as at Mantineia (Fig. the gate at Klazomenai had a triple opening (rpiTrv\ov).

The gateways (TrpoTrvXata. Athens. were decorated with reliefs and figured sculp- ture. 4 De re fortificat.. 2 Smith. Propyiaia at WO uld carry us beyond our pre- * Tiryns. 342. 1 The portcullis 2 (/eara/o/oatfT???). and Olympia. 276 Krause. 3 Frazer. and Curtius. the mound (%a>/*a).. such as the Dipylon at Athens. 147. are found within the city gates. . Phaistos. is men- tioned by Aineias Taktikos in the fourth century B. Ill. .. 10. or of sacred enclosures. as at Delos.C. . Greek methods of attack whether scaling by ladders. II. 3 Philon 4 pre- scribed that all fortifications should have at least three moats. the description of which FIG. and the pali- sades (%a/oa) characterized late Greek fortifications. Pans. irpoOvpd) of palaces. which we are apt to associate chiefly with mediaeval fortresses. Akad.. cut in the solid rock. At Aegina the city wall was protected by a moat one hun- dred feet wide and from ten to fifteen feet deep.. Berl. The moat (ra^/ao?). the principal gateway at Patras. 1854. or of market- places. Cataracta. as at Tiryns. Abh. and the Arcadian Gate at Messene.v. or effecting breaches by means of the ram or by mines were met by corresponding methods of de- fence. Eleusis. and Palatitza. but at a later period some gates.294 GREEK ARCHITECTURE annexing an inner court of defence to the city gate. The earliest gates were severe in style. The Herculaneum Gate at Pompeii testifies to its use in Italy. scribed limits. s. as at Athens. 1 . 263. .

342). Women. MONUMENTS 295 take their character not from the defensive walls but from the buildings to which they lead. But these could be so easily tampered with. WATER SUPPLY. could meet the wants of a small settlement in time of peace. except for the greater complexity. 188. but large towns required securer means of supply.A. The plan of the Propylaia at Tiiyns (Fig. with its two porches set back to back. five. that subterranean chan- 1 B. have made use of open channels. 343. The Propylaia at Athens. Next to the erection of works of defence.that of the Acropolis at Athens. suitable provision had to be made in the build- ing of towns for the water supply. by carrying water from a neighboring stream or spring. l Phaistos had two openings . that of the Temple of Athena at Priene. . FIG.S. or destroyed.. from the earliest times to the present day. three . 343). XI (1904-1905). in the magnificent Propylaia designed by Mnesikles for the Acropolis at Athens (Fig. The Propylaia at Tiryns had a single doorway that at . 2. The hill towns in Greece and Italy. remained unchanged.

hills in At Patara in Lycia 2 an aqueduct.. held together by a very hard cement.. v7roSo%al. 8. Sega/jieval. 4 It is built of fine jointed masonry. At Thouria in Messenia there was 1 Ziller. and in part pro- tected by the long walls from Athens. where the water is carried from springs through a mountain by means of a tunnel more than a thousand metres long. apparently of Greek workmanship. Ath. such as terra-cotta or lead pipes auXot). III. in their pipes. in Ath. IX (1884).296 GREEK ARCHITECTURE nels of various kinds. or in strength. 165-192. in general. Where practicable these subterranean aqueducts were aerated by vertical shafts (^peariai). PI. but. II . Greek aqueducts were subterranean. 179. 329. 224 and PI. which extended to the surface of the ground. A fine example of a circular cistern of the Hellenistic period may be seen at Peligriniatza. These were sometimes rock cut. were . substituted for them. 107-131. traverses a valley on an elevated structure. The water supply of the Peiraieus was in part concealed beneath the bed of the Ilissos. 2 Texier.(1877). Before being distributed. the water was usually gathered into large cisterns or reservoirs (eVSo^eta. Mitt. sometimes con- structed. Mont Olympe. The most remarkable work of this character is the sixth-century aqueduct constructed 3 by Eupalinos in the island of Samos. and carried their pipes through val- leys and over accordance with this principle. . SFabricius. 4 Heuzey. or rock-cut or constructed aqueducts . VTTOVO/JLOI. Mitt. but they did understand that water would reach the level of its source. \dicicoi). opvy/jLara^). 1 The Greeks did not always recognize the value of uni- formity in aperture.

78. in A. I. 2 the well- house was a mere subterranean enclosure. From the archaic and the classic period. most towns were provided with fountains of running water. 2 4 Guhl und Koner. 134. and Turkey still preserve remains of elaborate cisterns. RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS: ALTARS AND TEMPLES. like that built by Herodes Atticus 6 at Olympia. 40. and fountains (tcprjvai) lent themselves more readily to architectural decoration. sometimes several stories high.J. and the fountain of Peirene at Corinth. an apartment for the guardian.. s. A climax was reached in the Bin-Bir-Direk. 844).A. were in them- selves sufficient to encourage worship. Hilltops and other high places. which is attributed to the architect Philoxenos of the time of Constantine the Great. Cisterna. 204-239 . as at Kos. at Constantinople. 1 or cistern of a thousand and one columns. or receptacle. IV (1900). or exedrae. as at Priene. 1. with branches swayed by invisible causes. and that built by 4 5 Theagenes at Megara. In some early examples. 5 Richardson. springs with ever bubbling and refreshing water. caves with mystic vapors and resounding echoes. . Springs. leaving the dregs behind. Greek worship frequently demanded little of the architect. The sacrifices which accompanied such worship required some form of 1 3 Daremberg et Saglio. trees of venerable age or mighty spread. Priene. II. VI (1902). however. with an air shaft. 3. and an exit. These street fountains might be simple niches. like the fountain at Ephesos (Fig. Paus. Africa. consisting of a number of chambers. 321-326. MONUMENTS 297 a triply subdivided cistern.v. 6 Olympia. through which the water passed. 177.. wells. Italy. 3 or more elaborate columnar structures.

o?. brick. ecrr/a) might be a mere mound of earth or accumulation of ashes. or FIG. stone. This altar (/3<w//. 344. built of wood. Constructed altars were either circular or rectangular in form.v. eo-^dpa^ Trvpd. Fountain at Ephesos.298 GREEK ARCHITECTURE 1 altar. or marble. s. and 1 et Saglio. Daremberg . Ara.

299 . .

double. In the latter c^se. the platform (TrpdOvcns^)* and the altar proper (#17-16X77). and Syracuse.. Sometimes several divinities were worshipped at a single altar. Parion. and the altar for incense and bloodless offerings stood within the building. 34. the altar of burnt offering was usually front of the house or temple (/3&>/-io9 Tr/oo'So/io?. like those at Pergamon (Fig. Most Greek temples were essentially rectangular in plan. I. cruciform. its porch. and its roof. They were either independent. In the Myce- naean period the megaron of the palace may well have served as a temple. and others. its base. decorated by colonnades and sculptured friezes. Its plan distinctly foreshadows that of the temple. . were large monuments. divided into five parts. from variations in the disposition of the house. though usually distinguished from other houses by being set upon a high base. or even more complex. The Greek temple (mo'?. The introduction of images of the^godsjed to their being housed in shrines Itncl temples. very rarely. the steps (/cXt/^a/ce?). Thus at Oropos 1 an altar. heroes. in fact. In the larger altars we may distin- guish the base (tf/oi/TriV). was shared by various divini- ties.300 GREE^ ABCHITECTURE . therefore. like the Temple of . Some of these altars. and others. and was sometimes replaced by a table. a house (ot/co?). zW>?) was. o* connected with temples or houses. 345). 3.ecorated with er^blems of offerings. triple. but some were circular. The single type consisted of one room for the statue of the god. The rectangular type was single. in- placed /&0/405 TrpoWo?). The various types of temples arise. and sur-~ rounded by a columnar porch (Tre/^o-TuXo?).

a porch in F IG 346. Doerpfeld.II. for example. is a feature which occurs in some of the oldest buildings in most Greek Troy. in many small peripteral temples.. for example. 2.3. face. 17. but frequently became a or storehouse for temple treasures. and hands be- fore approaching the statue of the god.. 1 or thrones. like the so-called Treasu- ipaus. 346). 3 The single temple re- mained unchanged. the Graces in the pronaos of the Heraion at Argos. Plan of the Temple of . MONUMENTS 301 Demeter at Gaggera. 3. like those by Polygnotos and Onasias in the Temple of Athena Areia at Plataia. religious or communal buildings. as in the Temple of Themis at Rhamnous (Fig. Rhamnous. This type evolved by gradual stages. 4. 453. IX. and 4 at It is lacking. the rear.. or a porch or porches Themis. The rear porch (o7rto-0o'8o/>to?) was not usually associated with the cult. It Tafjueiov. like those found in the Temple of Themis at Rhamnous. irpoSo- /-tos). however. Taf. a second pronaos. except for the addition of subsidiary features as. In the pronaos were sheltered the lustral vases. Pans. near Selinous. . Here were some- times statues. extended about the building. 2 or paintings. or the cave-temple of Apollo at Delos. II. from which the priest sprinkled his head. and first by the addition of a front porch (TrpoWos. 2 Frazer. Paus. in the Heraion at Olympia.

and in some large temples in Asia Minor.. 2 A. J. 51. In Temples C. Above it was another room. that is. or apartment (0a\a/-to?) of the di- vinity. Before it was the sacred couch. apparently the prytaneion. Although this did not disturb the axis of the building. or by colonnades. 294-319.J.S.302 GREEK. between the naos and pronaos. In the naos was the cult statue. TerpaiciovLov). The Greeks preferred symmetry to orienta- tion. . its relation to the sun or to the stars. XXV (1905). the statue was protected by a tabernacle (vaurieos. In an open or hypaethral temple. was specifically the seat (e'So?). 2 On the other hand in the Temple of Apollo near Miletos the level of the naos was some five metres be- low that of the peristasis or temple platform.. nevertheless. and a veil Qjrapa- TreVacryLta) .H. like the Temple of Apollo at Miletos. like the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. or table for offerings. was exceedingly rare. a temple which looked in two directions inevitably lost something of the signifi- cance of its orientation. ARCHITECTURE 1 ries of Olympia and Delphi. VI (1890). or closed abode (er^/co'?). or fencing (If/ov/ia). and F at Selinous. But a de- pressed naos. set on a pedestal and sometimes screened by a lattice (^7/^X19). olKiSiov. The innermost sanctuary. was a room called the chresmographion tyP 7)*1 ' noypdfaov). or the inap- va6<$ proachable (aSim>z>).A. a waiting-room for the receipt of the oracular deliverances. On every side were votive offerings of various kinds. D. It was frequently raised a few steps higher than the pronaos. In the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. the proper. Further subdivision of the single temple was also effected by additional rooms. like this. The effect of the opisthodomos was to give the Greek temple a bifacial character. behind i Dyer.

Arch. These temples to a were. MONUMENTS 303 the naos was a closed room. possibly a treasure chamber (0?7crat>/3oV). a single colonnade di- vided the temple cella into two naves. accessible from the interior only (Fig. 1900. not well planned for dedications * 175. 1 and Apollo at Neandreia (Fig. 347). Eph. in the Enneastylos at Paestum. In some cases. 347. They were probably intro- duced to simplify the construction of the roof and to as- sist in its support.. 348. as in the Temples of m m FIG. Plan of cella of Temple C. Plan of the Temple of Apollo. 348) and at Therm on. Neandreia. Selinous. Colonnades also subdivided the interiors of some small and FIG. however. most of the larger temples. .

turn corners art the rear so as to form an ambulatory on three sides of the naos. . I. In lofty buildings architects were led naturally to the use of superposed colonnades. 2 which. with or without galleries. They added to the stability of the colonnade and may have been used for storage. in the Parthenon (Fig.. as in the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina. Choisy. In the Temple of Zeus at 1 Olympia there were galleries (o-roal virepwoi) by means of which one might approach the image of Zeus. how- ever. Paus. In very large temples. nor could the entrance remain single arid imposing. were probably inaccessible to visitors. In most cases the aisles were restricted to the long sides of the naos. Hence the introduction two col. Plan of the Parthenon. 349. appear also to have had galleries. 10.304 GBEEK ARCHITECTURE single divinity. of onnades subdividing the cella into a central nave and lateral aisles (<rroat ) a disposition which permitted still further expanse of roof. The so- called Temple of Poseidon at Paestum. 10. V. such as Temple G 1 2 437-439. and that of Aphaia at Aegina. 349) they FIG.

and the inner. 1-17. 345-408. . MONUMENTS 305 at Selinous. 25. 10. 5 when Athena established Erechtheus in her own rich temple. 171. The present perplexing plan of the Erech- theion 7 may have been designed to follow more closely that of the Old Temple of Athena. Koldewey und Puchstein. 2 Pans. */W&. Argos to Mantineia 3 there was a double temple dedicated to Aphrodite and to Ares. 74.J. or possibly for a double cult.. 101. At Sikyon Pausanias 2 tells us there was a double temple. in Ath. Meisterwerke. and may have been designed for the old and new images of Athena. Mitt. Pis. VIII. 4 . 8 Different potencies of the same divinity. 1.. with one entrance on the east a. 8 Furtwangler.J. A. SFrazer. Against galleries. III (1899). 350). The plan of the Parthenon itself is that of a double temple. 73. 9. II. Paus. XXIX (1904). 2. The double temple (rao? StTrXoO?) was dedicated to two divinities. which separated the image of Asklepios from that of Leto and her children.. Hiad. divided by a partition wall in the central axis. 1 there may have been a triple series of colon- nades with superposed galleries.A.. of which the outer chamber contained an image of Hypnos.A. 201. 5 549 ft 3 Ibid. VIII (1893). II. was represented in the archaic period by the It Old Temple 6 of Athena (Fig.. and arranged in various ways. A. Cooley. Fowler.nd anoth'er on the west and another at Mantineia. II. were sometimes separately worshipped 1 Hittorff et Zanth. and later by the Erechtheion. such as Aphrodite-Promachos and Aphrodite- in the Morpho. an image of Apollo-Karneios on the road from . The Acropolis of Athens furnished famous examples of the double temple from Homeric times. 553-582.. 7 Doerpfeld. II. 1.

V. as inthe Tholos at Epidauros and in the Temple of Zeus at Aizanoi. Pau- sanias speaks of the one at Sparta as the only one known to him. i 2 Paus. Olympia. 41-57. Daniel. 3 Pans. occur occasion- Fia. 1 Temples with more than one story were very rare. PI. Frazer. as in the two-storied temple at Sparta. though uncommon...306 GREEK ARCHITECTURE same building. 15. Paws. V. Crypts (/^UTrrat')? subterranean chapels or treasuries. Paus. Complex groups of cult statues. or side chapels (/eaXmSe?) for separate 4 images. 27. Ill. and more complex types. 92-94. 1-3 .. Plan of the Old Temple of Atheua. were preferred to complex structures. At Corinth a circular building was dedicated to Palaimon . ally.. though generally of small dimensions.Taf. as in the temple near 3 Lykosoura. J.H. ol/c^fiara Trepifaprj) were not uncommon. although so important a temple as that of Apollo near Miletos 2 had superposed rooms at least in one portion of the temple. as in the Heraion at Olympia. The triple temple (mo? T/onrXoi)?). Athens. 17. Round temples (0o\ot. may have been represented in Greece as they were in Italy. But the prevailing tendency was against them. 37. 18-23. 10. XXIV 4 (1904). 13. II. . VIII.S. Haussoullier. 350.. 622.

The larger of these buildings. like the Tholos at Epidauros and the Philippeion. Ath. 1 Lechat et Defrasse. Ill. Ill. . s 129-133.. Cruciform temples existed only in germ in ancient i Paus. 1. 12. 351). a cir- cular temple might consist of a cella without a colon. MONUMENTS 307 l at Sparta such a building contained images of Zeus and 2 Aphrodite. 95-128 Cavvadias. In external appearance. 5 or. II. like the Tholos at Epidauros. 11 . was a circular building of semi-religious character and . IV. ^^^^^^^^ 4 naia. were provided with an internal colonnade which aided in the support _ of the roof usually of conical form. Temp. Homolle. of a cella with a colonnade (Tre/HTrre/Jo?). FIG.. Olympia. inaptly called monopteros Ooi/oTrre/oo?) by Yitruvius. 351.). at Epidauros the Tholos (Fig. a charming ex- of a circular ^^Ji^ ^^^^ ample temple. 4. 6 8. as was the case at Delphi . Plan of the Tholos at Epidauros. 325. Pron. or of a circular colonnade with- out a cella. 13-16. called also the Altar (0i//AeXi. at Delphi the Tem- ple of Athena Pro. . nade (a-Trre/oo?). . Frazer. was a beautiful structure built 3 by Polykleitos the younger at Olympia the Philippeion . Vitruvius. Paws.

As we have seen in a previous chapter." Besides the cella. a characteristic feature of a Greek temple was the base (/c/o^Trt?) on which it was set. Ill. Vitruvius 3 directs that the steps in front of a temple be uneven. Of these there are several varieties. Non-peripteral porches are those which do not make the entire circuit of the temple cella. though it may have been a very ancient one. These may be distributed into two general classes: non-peripteral and peripteral porches. of little value in es- tablishing types. But something of this character may be recog- nized in the projecting lateral porches (Tr/ooo-Taem?) of the Erechtheion. "columnis adiectis dextra ac sinistra ad umeros pronai. and the variations of this feature have been long recognized as the basis for distinguishing various types. 2 8 Vitruvius. The variations of the base are. 4. . 4. IV. 4. and is treated as an en- closure with lateral walls terminated by antae (irapa- 1 Doerpfeld. In some cases the stepped base occurs only in front of the temple. The character of the approach to the principal entrance of a temple also varied from a gently inclined ramp to steps of uncomfortable height. Mitt.308 GREEK ARCHITECTURE times. The generally known as a simplest is porch in antis (ev Trapaa-rda-iv). but this superstition. The most obvious characteristic of the Greek temple was its porch. 1 and is possibly described by Vitruvius 2 in the phrase. Ibid. in others it is carried around all sides. 101. the number of steps in the krepi- dorna varied according to no set law.. so that the first and last step be made with the right foot. XXIX (1904). Ath. 8. seems to have had little influence in determining the char- acter of the Greek temple base.. however.

. 352. The porch was styled prostyle (TT/oocrruXo?) when. as in the temples at Rhamnous three . 466. occur in the inner porches of the Enneastylos at Paes- tum. 9. 352). Arch. MONUMENTS 809 The temple itself. a porch in antis was applied at both ends of the cella. the lateral walls were 1 Priene. 2 Koldewey und Puchstein. FIG. II. as in the Temple of Artemis at Eleusis (Fig. Fig. One column sufficed for one of the chapels of a te/?o5 ol/co? at Priene 1 two columns . Pans. characterized by its porch. were common.. 173. 15. 2-3. and in a temple near Kourno 5 with its false antae. 17. Pis. 3 Frazer. II. 4 Reinach-Lebas. I. Pelop. Eleusis. Peculiar modifications of these types are found in the Temple of Diana Laphria at Messene 4 with its double antae. 353). In many temples. Plan of the Temple of Artemis. The number of columns between the antae varied. . was called a mo? eV Trapao-Tdaiv. PI. as in the so-called Temple of Em- pedocles at Selinous (Fig. 3 Oropos. . 2 four in the pronaos of the Temple of Apollo near Miletos and six at the Temple of Amphiaraos at .

as was the case with the Temple of Athena Nike at Athens. 1900. in view of its columns..and the front consisted in a complete colonnade. seems hardly 2 likely. The variations of the peripteral 1 Staes. form of a non-peripteral. 2 Lechat. peristyle It (Tre/no-TuXo?). 28-30. Arch. 122.. Noack. col. that FIG. Neue Jhb. porch may be seen in Temple of Athena at So union.310 GREEK ARCHITECTURE partially or entirely omitted. 8 . Le Temple Grec. ally from the in antis type. Lechat as supposes. the temple cella and its surrounding porch would have been in accord with each other from the first. the type was called amphiprostyle (a^fynrpoGTv Xo?) A very unusual . 233. 1 the where a portico was attached to the front and one of the sides of the temple cella. When a colonnade was applied in the rear as well as in front of a temple. 8. . Peripteral porches extended around the entire temple cella. 353. A temple with such a porch was called peripteral (mo? Tre/HTrre/oo?) or. It is more likely that the peripteral porch was deliberately applied to the 3 temple as a sign of religious distinction possibly sug- gested by the Egyptian royal aedicula and that a con- siderable time elapsed before it became properly adjusted to the temple cella.Eph. XI (1896). Plan of the the Greek temple evolved natur- Temple of Empedocles. Selinous.. If this had been the case. PI. through the double in antis. or partially peripteral. 581 Jhb. I (1898). to the pe- ripteral type.

the porch was omitted and the cella walls were decorated with engaged columns and entabla- tures. . so as to suggest a peripteral porch. Ordinarily it was supported by a single row of columns. III. The Temple of Zeus at Akragas was completely pseudope- I I FIG. ripteral . MONUMENTS 311 porch were not many. as in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (Fig. the building was called pseudodipteral (^evSoStTrrepos). the temple was called dipteral (SiVre/oo?). 354. The Temple of Apollo near Miletos and the Olympi- eion at Athens were examples of this class. as in the Temple of Zeus atAkragas. 3. Sometimes. i Vitruvius. the Temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome and the Maison Caree Nimes were only partially so. 1 and is well illustrated Artemis The by the Temple of at Magnesia (Fig. Such temples were styled pseudoperipteral (^evSoTrepiTrrepos). When at the peripteral porch was constructed with a double row of columns. Plan of the Temple of Zeus. The invention is attrib- uted to the architect Hermogenes. When a peripteral temple by a wide porch and a frontal colon- nade of eight or ten columns suggested the dipteral ar- rangement without possessing it. Olympia. 354). 8. 355).

I. Plan of the Temple of Artemis. . 48. Thus the Temple of Artemis at Eleusis. it sur. II. Another classification of temples notes merely the number ofcolumns exhibited in the fagade. note p. a coin of Abdera 2 1 Von Duhn und Jacobi. in Temple C. 2. Thus. a prostyle. as the Greek Temple at Pompeii. D m m m m m 0K1 JVQ 1*&L jT^l JSBa. Magnesia. one doubly in antis. which has two columns only. however. seems to date from an earlier period. H si HHt^Pl M 4^yj m m m m m m m FIG. 139 . is called distyle the Temple of Athena Nike. 355. in Temple at Selinous. Selinous. hibiting four columns. Olym-pia. In examining the plans of temples it may be observed that the peripteral porch was applied to buildings of very different types. Taf. tetrastyle . 1 even if correctly restored as hexastyle. an amphiprostyle temple. ex- . rounds a temple in antis in the Temple of Zeus at .312 GREEK ARCHITECTURE type. was essentially pseudodipteral. 2 Stieglitz. and in the Parthenon.

Pis. 4. pits . . unnecessary. Greek temples had various accessories. The roof. as at Phigaleia. as was probably the case at Miletos.however. the heptastyle. in part. for the Greek temple a clerestory system of lighting. Ordinarily were provided with altars. 334-344. Philo's Porch at Eleusis was dodecastyle. MONUMENTS 313 shows a pentastyle temple the Theseion at Athens was. style. by means of which Greek temples were classified. was sometimes lighted by windows. roofless. chthonic temples with they oracular shrines had sacred trees or caves cura. or in a special room. hexastyle. the Temple at Thorikos. XVI (1891). . and memorial temples were erected over or near some hero's burial-place.. with a more or less 1 Doerpfeld. 2 Fergusson. and possibly some smaller ones like the Apollo Temple at Phigaleia. was the roof. The amount of light which entered througlT the door was deemed sufficient for the purposes of the Greek cult. 2 It accordingly. like the Temple of Apollo at Miletos and the Olympieion at Athens. that is. They were usually com- pletely covered. enneastyle and the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. deca- . to imagine is. A final character. with Fergusson. i>rra<$/>to?). Ath. Parthenon. In such instances the statue of the divinity could be sheltered in a special aedicula. Temples were frequently set upon sacred ground and surrounded by a wall. Mitt. All temples might have their dwell- ings for priests. but very large buildings. as in the Temple of Concordia at Akragas. were hypaethral 1 (inraiOpos. octastyle the so-called Basilica at Paestum. 3. . at least. tive establishments had their hospices and colonnades.

GOVERNMENTAL BUILDINGS. floe. IV. that temples of Aphrodite faced Kythera and those of Apollo faced Delos. Eoy. it is not possible. That a solar tradition of some sort influenced the orientation of Greek temples is evident from the fact that in most cases the fagade was toward the east. had certainly a very limited appli- cation. The foundation of Greek government was in the voting assembly of the people . 4. such orienta- tion for both parts was manifestly impossible. that the axis was originally directed towards some star in the heavens. Hellen- isticsanctuaries appear to have been placed with less regard to the sun than those of earlier date. and other officers. the theatre. Penrose. to give a satisfactory sketch of Greek governmental buildings as a whole. 5. Philos. set back to back. Vol.314 GREEK ARCHITECTURE imposing entrance and covered walks. The astronomical 1 theory of Penrose. . Vitruvius. or a specially prepared 1 190 (A). at present. 43. the judges. I. 425. The place of assembly for the voters (e/c/c^a-iaa-Tijpiov*) was the market-place. the magistrates. The value which the Greeks set upon the orientation of their temples is not always obvious. Accord- ing to Vitruvius the courses of rivers and the directions 3 of public streets are of more importance than solar con- siderations in determining the axes of temples.. 2 3 Choisy. Although some light has been cast on this subject by recent excavations. the superstructure was the de- liberative council. and the geographical theory of Choisy. leads to extravagant 2 conclusions. At Athens and Olympia groups of temples were contained within the sacred enclosure. Trans. In the case of double temples.

MONUMENTS 315

area, like the Pnyx
l
at Athens. The only requirements
were a platform for the speakers, and standing room, or
The Bouleuterion (0ov\VTr)piov),
seats, for the voters.
or Council House, on the other hand, required a roof.
The type may be studied from the ruins at Priene

FIG. 356. Bouleutetion at Priene.

(Figs. 856, 357) and
Miletos. At Priene the building

was almost square. On one side was a niche with a raised
stage (\oyelov, ftfjfJLci)
and lateral
passages (Trapo&n), in
the centre an open space with an altar, and on the
three

remaining sides were banked
rows of benches (Oaicoi,
and at the top a surrounding passage (Stafo^a).
fidOpa),
2
At Miletos, although the exterior of the building was
2
Milet, 25-80.
i
Crow, A. S.A. Papers, IV, 207-260.

316 GKEEK ARCHITECTURE

rectangular, the banks of seats were arranged like those of
a theatre, in concentric curves. In front of the Council
House was an open court, entered through an imposing gate-
way and surrounded by covered porches. Buildings of a
similar character have been found at Termessos 1 and else-
where. At Megalopo-
lis 2
the Thersilion, built
for the meetings of the
Arcadian Ten .Thou-
sand, was constructed
with rows of wooden
seats sloping from three
sides towards a central
area, while a stage and
lateral passages were on
the fourth side.
A long, rectangular
3
plan was also em-

FIG. 357.
ployed for Bouleuteria.
Plan of Bouleuterion at Priene.
In such cases the seats
sloped from two sides of the building. Of this type
was probably the Phokikon, near Daulis, 4 in which there
were long colonnades and, from the columns, banks of seats
rising to each wall. The Curia at Pompeii 5 appears to
be a variant of this type, with decorative columns at the
side walls instead of colonnades. In this case movable
seats were probably used.
Governmental buildings were frequently arranged in

1
Lanckoronski, II, 43, 99.
2
Frazer, Pans., IV, 338-346; Schultz, 17-23.
3
Vitruvius, V, 2.
4 5 121.
Paus., X, 5, 1-2. Mau,

MONUMENTS 317

l
groups, as the so-called Bouleuterion with its adjoining
2
buildings at Olympia, or three buildings at Eleusis,
or the six governmental offices adjoining the Philippian
colonnade at Megalopolis. 3 The buildings so associ-
ated with the Bouleuteria may have varied in differ-
ent cities. Not far

away, however, from
the Bouleuterion
should be the Pry-
taneion.
4
The Prytaneion
(TTpvTavelov) was the
official meeting-place
of the
Prytaneis. It

contained the state
hearth in which per-
petual fire was kept
burning ; it was also a
dining place reserved
for the Prytaneis,
honored citizens, and
FIG. 358. Plan of Prytaneion at Priene.
state guests. It prob-
and continued to
ably originated in the royal palace,
If there
serve some of the purposes of a private house.
form of Prytaneion, it is natural that
was a typical
it resemble in some degree a private house.
should
Priene furnishes us the most definite example (Fig. 358).
Here the building consists of a peristyle court with rooms

1
II, 76-78
Olympia, Frazer, Paus., Ill, 636.
;
3
Frazer, Pans., II, 511.
^us., VIII, 30, 6.
Vratislaviae, 1881 J. G.
4 G.
Hageman, De Graecorum prytaneis, ;

Frazer, Journal of Philology,
XIV (1884), 145 ff.

318 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

opening into it from three sides. Mag- The Prytaneia at
nesia 1
and
Olympiaat 2
are of similar form.
second A
type of Prytaneion was the circular building (0o\o?, ovaa?).
Such was the Tholos at Athens, 3 and the Common Hearth
of the Arcadians at Mantineia. 4 This type was preferred
by the Romans for their temples of Vesta.
For various other officials were erected separate buildings,
such as the Thesmotheteion, the Strategion, and the Epho-
reion. Law courts 6
(Si/caaTrjpia') were held sometimes in
the open, sometimes in closed buildings. There seems to
have been no typical form of building for this function of
government, although there were certain features which
characterized these halls of justice, such as the benches on
which the judges sat, the raised tribunals for the advo-
cates, and the bar or railing which separated the court
from the public.
5. COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: THE AGORA AND STOA.
-
Greek trade was both wholesale and retail. The whole-
sale merchants sold their goods by samples. The locality
where such goods were exhibited was called the Deigma.
These merchants were often importers, and had their store-
houses at the seaports. Remains of some of these may be
seen at Delos. For the use of these traders were also
erected colonnades, such as those at the Peiraieus. 6
Retail merchants and those who sold their own products

sought the agora, or market-place (a70/oa), which inmost
7

1 2 58-60.
Magnesia, 112, 137, Taf. 2. Olympia, II,
3
Paus., I, 5, 1; Frazer, Pans., II, 76.
*
Paus., VIII, 9, 5 ; Frazer, Pans., IV, 441.
5 et Saglio, s.v. Dikastai Dicasterion.
Daremberg ; Smith, Diet., s.v.
6
Frazer, Paus., II, 24.
7
Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Agora ; Krause, 164 ; Curtius, A.Z., VI
(1848), 292.

MONUMENTS 319

Greek cities was the heart of the town. The earliest type
of market-place was an open space, where each merchant
could expose his wares from a booth, or tent, and where
shade was provided by means of trees. It had no well-
defined form, and its functions were manifold. Temples
and altars were erected in it; here also was likely to be
found a group of governmental buildings. The agora was
often peopled with statues. But the religious, political,
and commercial interests in growing cities could not long
continue to occupy the same ground. Hence they were
separated, although the separation was not always com-
plete.
In the classic and Hellenistic periods the agora became
an architectural feature in Greek cities. The open space
was more or less surrounded by porticoes, into which
opened store-rooms. The agora at Priene had covered
1

walks on three sides; those at Magnesia (Fig. 359),
3
Knidos, and at Aphrodisias had them on all four sides.
2

The form of the agora in Hellenistic cities corresponded

with the general disposition of the streets, and was usually
square or rectangular. Agoras with curved boundaries,
however, existed in Asia Minor, and a circular one at
4

Constantinople.
5
Those of the archaic period were less
regular in form. Pausanias 6 describes that of Olympia
as built in "the Older Style," with separate colonnades,
and streets between them. In the later or Ionian type
the colonnades were united so as to form an enclosure
without streets.

i 2
Newton, II, 306, PL 50.
Priene, 185, Taf. 13.
3
Ion. Antiq., Ill, Ch. 2, PI. 4.
VII (1883),
A.S.A., III, 302 cf. B.C.H., VI (1882),
4 492 ;
Sterrett, ;

6
368. 5
Zosimos, II, 30. Paus., VI, 24, 2.

LJ-J_llllilI7ULiJLlllllJLlillJ
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

-H
H
H
H

PTTTTT
1

MONUMENTS 321

The stoa (oroa), or porch, although associated with
temples, political buildings, theatres, and other buildings,
^.vas the chief architectural feature of the agora. It

FIG. 360. Stoa of Eumenes, Pergamon. Restoration.

existed in various typical forms. The simplest was the
single-aisled porch (/zowW^o?),
the pent roof of which
wall to a single colonnade. Of this
sloped down from a
the Eastern and the Western Stoa of the agora
type were

322 GREEK ARCHITECTURE

at Priene. 1 This type was usually single-storied
0-T6709), but
it might be two-storied
(StcrTe709), as was
the Stoa of Eumenes at Pergamon (Fig. 360). In two-
storied porticoes the upper columns were posed directly
above the lower ones, but differed from them in style and
2
proportions.
A
second type was the two-aisled stoa (<rroa SKTT^OS),
in which the double aisle resulted from the introduction of
an interior colonnade. In some instances, as in the Philip-
pian Colonnade
at Megalopolis, 3
the outer and
inner row of
columns corre-

sponded in size,

number, and
position. In
this type the
pent roof was
probably re-
.
tained. In other
== cases, as in the
FIG. 301. Plan of double Stoa, Magnesia. Stoa of Oro-
phernes at Priene and
in the agora at Magnesia (Fig. 361),
the inner colonnade consisted of larger columns, which
corresponded in position with every alternate column of
the outer row. We may believe that this central colon-
nade supported the ridge-beam of a gable roof, which
covered a single-storied porch.
A third type stoa was the three-aisled, which resulted
i 2
Priene, Taf. 13. Vitruvius, V, 1, 3.

SFrazer, Paws., IV, 321.

5 although Texier restored the peribolos at Kangovar. 6 Texier. Fig. 9 Reinach-Lebas. The development of trade demanded the establishment of special markets. A new variety of stoa was produced by developing a This was called porch on both sides of a central wall. but at Aegae and at Alinda porticoes were 8 erected on top of two-storied buildings. 4. 2 6 Frazer. 8 Bohn-Schuchhardt. 4-5.. built by Epigone at Mantineia. and Curtius the Aristandrian Colonnade at Megalopolis. a prototype of the basilicas of Roman and Christian architecture. 211. such as the grain market at Athens. Min. Pans. .. in its general disposition. It also stimulated private hospitality and led to the 1 Paus. A stoa with more than three aisles was certainly rare. At least three basilicas at Rome were five-aisled. 3 7 Lange. is said to have had a four-aisled stoa. Paus. the double stoa (o-roa St-TrX?)). 24. Armenie. Arch. 161. 214. Frazer.. IV. its principal street. note 5. It has been assumed 3 that the Stoa Basileios at Athens was. and also that basilicas must have existed in many Greek cities in the Hellenistic 4 period but excavations have not yet established the . Pans. 2. Of this type was one of the porticoes seen by Pausanias at Olym- 1 and that 2 pia. in Pauly-Wissowa. I. As. 4 Mau.v. Sittt. Pausanias 10 discusses a stoa of this kind at Elis known as the Corcyraean Colon- nade. In elevation two stories seem to have been the normal 9 limit. MONUMENTS 323 from the introduction of two inner colonnades. IV. 6 as having three aisles enclosed by four rows of columns. VI. 24. Antioch 7 because of the double portico on each side of . 321. truth of these reasonable assumptions. VI. s. II. 375. Basilica. 24. 10 Pis. 60-104.

jumping.324 GREEK ARCHITECTURE erection of inns or khans (/caraycbyia). ball xrv I xni I p* xv IX XVI vra XVI! -I I- t vn xvin I- ! vi XIX IV in II FIG. 6. 362. Wrest- ling. some of which may have been learned from Egyptians or Phoenicians.. were practised in Greece from Homeric days. Those which the Phaea- 1 cians instituted in honor of Odysseus took place in i Od. . BUILDINGS FOR PHYSICAL CULTURE. and restaurants (/ea-Tr^XeZa) . weight-throwing. VIII. play. Plan of Palaistra at Olympia. hotels (Trav&o/ceia). and other games. Athletic games flourished in Greece from an early period. boxing. foot-racing.

Krause. There was also a dressing-room (XIX) (aTroBvTrjpiov). . V. 265. where athletic instruction or literary entertainment might be given. \vhen closed. MONUMENTS 325 the agora. 3 Olympia. fol- lowed the type of the agora and consisted of a rectangular court surrounded by colonnades with adjoining rooms. were probably used for storing the athletic implements and. Vitruvius. IV) (7riA. 93. It was known as the square (Terpdycovov) and had more or less imposing entrances (I. 363). 5 2 Daremberg et Saglio. for lounging or meeting rooms. 11. 246. 6 same period was at Delos. adjoined the Ephebeion.H.. 1 The surviving stone and marble examples belong to the Hellenistic period. or wrestling house. In all these buildings it may 1 4 2. Other rooms. 113. a commons room (XII) (e<i7/3eoz>) devoted to the use of young men. 2 The palaistra (TraXato-r/oa). the konistra (tcovL&Tpa or Kovicrripiov).v. II. These two 4 rooms. 6 ^ C. adjoined the stadion at Priene. II) (irpodvpa) with adjoining porters' lodges (III. XV (1891). a bath-room (X) (\ovTpwv) provided with a tank or with a trough as at Priene (Fig. I.&>/>ta). Gymnastik. according to Vitruvius.C. when open toward the court. a room where the athletes were anointed with oil (XIII) (eXaioOeviov). 3 Olympia furnishes the best example of the type (Fig. and another (XI). Priene. A somewhat simpler palaistra of the second cen- 5 another of the tury B. or commons room. In the archaic and classic periods buildings were erected which exhibited the essential features of the later gymnasium. where the athletes were rubbed with dust.but more frequently a levelled piece of ground was set apart for athletic purposes. s. Gymnasium. In primitive times no covered structures for this purpose were thought necessary. 362).

existed from earliest days in Greece. IX (1902-1903). Similar bath-rooms were found at the palace at Palaikastro 4 in Crete.A. VIII (1901-1902). 291. Water troughs in gymnasium. public and private. Priene. PL 6.326 GREEK ARCHITECTURE be observed that the bath was subsidiary to the main pur- pose of the building. Bath-rooms and bathing establishments (/3aXama) of various kinds.S. At Tiryns a wooden lined bath-room l FIG. 3G3. 52-53. contained fragments of a terra-cotta tub similar to that found at Mycenae. sunken tanks reached by steps. Tiryns. 8 B.. 230-232.. Priene. . but also gypsum-lined. 1 2 Schliemann. * Ibid. 293. 2 At Knossos 3 there were not only bath-rooms for portable tubs. 278.

VIII (1904). Hot baths (deppa Xofrpa).v. upon which open thirteen square rooms. Problemata. Actual remains of bath-houses in Greek 5 lands are rare. corresponding to the frigidarium of Vitruvius. a large circular room. 1 It consists of a long corridor. 364. 8 2 Daremberg et Saglio. Balneum. * Herod.J. . s. In this building is a rectangular room with a cold- 6 water pool. V. IV. in A. and still smaller rooms 1 Bacon. 6 6 Sears. Vitruvius. Greeks of the classic period. MONUMENTS 327 A simple type of public bathing establishment adjoins the agora at Assos. mentioned by Homer 3 but not generally prac- tised by the FIG. XIV. 29-32. Assos... 25. 8. 6. 364) present an example of a hot-bath establishment dating apparently from the second century B. In others may have been the large vases used for bucket douches. Vase-paintings provide us with illustrations of various kinds of 2 bathing. possibly the tepidarium . Aristotle. a smaller circular room. In one at least of these rooms water was introduced from an elevation so as to provide a douche. the calidarium. II. 4 became more popular in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The unfinished excavations at Oiniadai in Akarnania (Fig. Iliad.A. Plan of Bath at Oiniadai. 216-226. 11.C. 75. 23.

each provided with a cover. but the central court was replaced by rooms which correspond to the Ephebeion and the other apartments of a palaistra.328 GREEK ARCHITECTURE which may have served as anointing rooms. 96. 3. and the Central Baths. the circular rooms being sometimes employed for the cold and sometimes for the hot vapor bath. The Akarnanian type of bath is seen in a more developed state at Pompeii (Fig.. Remains of similar circular bath- rooms are found at Eretria. 36-48. 270. duction of hot water by means of pipes . 2. Similar tubs are found in the loutron of the palaistra and in a 2 private house at Priene. such a 1 A..A. to serve as lockers the intro. 292. the small baths near the Forum. . In Asia Minor the baths of the late Greek and Roman periods departed so far from the Assos type as to be hardly recognizable. and especially the use of furnaces. . V (1901). 3 Mau. Mitt.J. To these were added enlarged facilities for bathing. Taf. such as small vaults in the walls of the apodyterion. The so-called gymnasium (jyvfjivdo-tov) at Alexandria Troas 4 and Opistholeprian Bath at the 5 Ephesos retained the long corridor into which the prin- cipal rooms open. 180-206. 4 Koldewey. In view of its general plan. 1 where the basins in front of fixed seats were evidently arranged as foot-tubs. In the Stabian Baths. In the cen- tre of the circular rooms probably stood large kettles or caldrons of boiling water. From these hot water may have been conveyed to the cir- cular basins in the floor. 365). the hot air from which circulated beneath the floors and through the hollow walls. 6 Falkener. IX (1884). 3 cir- cular or domical rooms as well as rectangular rooms are found. Various improvements were introduced. in Ath. 2 Priene. 88.

such as those of Caracal la or of Diocletian. Foot-races and chariot-races required specially prepared . Plan of small Bath at Pompeii. MONUMENTS 329 building might be styled a winter palaistra or gymnasium. but its disposition as a bathing establishment was suffi- FIG. ciently emphatic to justify us in considering it a prototype of the great Roman baths. 365.

-r. It was not until the second century of our era that Herodes Atticus (104-180 A. The stadion (o-ra&oi>). Here they sat upon the ground or upon wooden FIG. so named from the measure of length equivalent to six hundred Greek feet. an artificial mound of earth was erected as a theatrori (0e'aT/ooi>). When practicable. or stone benches.) provided the stadia at Athens and at Delphi with marble seats. Delphi. known as the stadion and the hippodrome. These seats resembled those of the theatre.D. The Stadion. for the spec- tators.330 GREEK ARCHITECTURE courses. The seats of the Isthmian Stadion were also of white marble. 366. provided seats for spectators and judges. in being ar- ranged in successive tiers reached by flights of steps at . and a course with start and finish for the runners. from the sloping sides of which the spectators could view the races. a valley was selected. Where nature did not provide a suitable slope. or view place.

were separated from each other by a 1 3 Olympia. The starting liue of the Stadion. Olympia. 367.v. the . where the two rows of seats approach each other on a curve which suggests the entasis of a column. Messene. . At Aphrodisias and at Laodikeia the tiers of seats were arranged on this plan at both ends. 367) there appears to have been an aphesis at each end of the stadion. so as to accommodate a larger number of spectators. covered porticoes were built at the summit of the theatron. 264. Amphitheatrum. 64. as at Athens and at Delphi (Fig. II. MONUMENTS 331 regular intervals. and finish (reppa). Pauly-Wissowa. as at Olympia and at Epidauros. An feature in the design of the interesting theatron was that at the extremities of the stadion the two banks of seats were drawn closer together than at the middle. a long rectan- gle elsewhere. 63. and at Aphrodisias. Atthe base was a parapet and some- times a drain. 4 so that the finish might be opposite the judge's stand. The form of the stadion was in some cases. s. At Priene. 2 4 Priene. This appears to have been the case at l Olympia and also at Priene. At the start the runners. arranged in line. whether the runners went once over the course or traversed it twice. 366). or starting-place. tiers of seats were continued at one end on a semicircular plan (<7</>ez>SoV/7). The stadion was provided with an aphesis (a$e<m). II. At Olympia (Fig. Olympia. Such a thea- tron is properly called an amphi theatron 3 FIG. 2 This feature is retained in the recon- structed marble stadion at Athens.

was an enlarged stadion. 4 Krause. the beak (epftoXov) of which was turned towards the course and contained stalls otViara from which the 1 Kern. 6 p aus VI. and double its length. Priene. V (1890). The cross-bars as barriers for runners are represented in a drawing from the Codex Ursinianus in the Vatican.. These were replaced in later days by semi-columns of the Ionic order. Gymnastik. Pausanias 5 describes the aphesis of the hip- podrome at Olympia as resembling the prow of a vessel. . The finish was marked by a rope or line drawn opposite the seats reserved for the judges. 7. Special devices were necessary to secure a fair start. as the arrangements at Olympia appear to indicate. . 150-156. 96. At Olympia the holes for wooden posts occur at regular intervals in a series of marble sills. Taf. Mitt. The blocks also show parallel furrows by means of which the runners may have been able to obtain a quick start. each runner kept to his own track and made the turn about a separate post. 10-15.832 GREEK ARCHITECTURE series oflow posts which carried cross-bars. 260. The course was necessarily wider than the stadion. in Rom. I. or track for horse and chariot races. The theatron was similarly disposed. 147-168 . in which marble piers were substituted for the wooden posts.. Asklep. Daremberg et Saglio. The hippodrome 4 (tTrTro'S/ao/Lto?). or. 1 At Epidauros iron posts appear to have been used. Hippo- dromes. 2 3 Cavvadias. When the runners traversed the course twice.v. Temp. the turn may have been made around a single post. } 20. and in a bas-relief in the Lateran. although regular tiers of seats may not have been built until the Roman period. 2 At Priene 3 a device of the Olym- pian type was replaced later by a more imposing aphesis.. s.

Plan of a Hippodrome. been found in earlier Greek hippodromes. FIG. While no remains of a spina have . A turning-post was set at either end of the spina. which consisted of a low wall in the central axis of the course. and finally those nearest the beak (Fig. 3(>8. The spina of the hippodrome at Constantinople still survives. A second device necessary for the hippodrome was the spina. This protected the outgoing and re- turning chariots from clashing with each other. it may be assumed that some . MONUMENTS 333 horses issued. 368). The ropes or barriers of the stalls fur- thest from the beak were lowered first. then those of the adjoining stalls.

music. Intellectual and social demands led to the estab- lishment of special buildings for schools. theatres. the formal examinations to test the progress of students were held in the gymnasium or in the bouleuterion. At Athens the Academy. . 7. naturally represented the school and developed so as to include literary and philo- sophical exercises. and music or concert halls. 794. a lecture-room (efe'fy>a). where Plato taught.334 GREEK ARCHITECTURE effective method was provided to avoid the clashing of chariots. and the Lyceum. The University to the Muses 2 (Moucretoi/). and in private houses. Instruction appears to have been also given in the public agora.v. consisted in cross- ing a line in front of the seats reserved for the judges. Hence gymnastics was a fundamental branch of education. Strabo. according to Strabo. Greek education 1 in the earlier periods aimed chiefly at the production of soldiers. were all primarily athletic establishments. and writing were associated. The palaistra. BUILDINGS FOR INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL PUR- POSES. where teach- ers of various kinds were paid from the public treasury. At Teos. quad- rangular courts surrounded by colonnaded porticoes. had. and with it training in poetry. Since fourteen thousand students at a time are said to have pursued here the study of litera- 1 2 Daremberg et Saglio. a portico (TreptTraro?). or gymnasium. Educatio. the school of Antis- thenes. the school of Aristotle. and the Herakleion or Kynosarges.. s. reading. clubs. dedicated at Alexandria by Ptolemy Philadelphos about 280 B. XVIII. In the Hellenistic period educational establishments be- gan to assume more specific form. The finish. but the teaching place (StSaoveaXetoz/) had no fixed type.C. as in the stadion. and a large hall (ol/co? yLteya?). libraries.

1 with its exedrae and large rooms. Such libraries required a closed room with shelves. . dwellings for the librarians. appears to be a building of similar char- acter. or Aristotle. were furnished with reading-rooms. Greek libraries (@i/3\io07jKcu or aTroOrj/cai j3i/3\iG>v) be- gan with private collections of books. 369). made by Polykrates of Samos. MONUMENTS 335 ture. Plan of Library at Pergamon. 56. The library at Pergamon 2 (Fig. or closets in which to store papyrus and parchment rolls. astronomy. 369. mathematics. and cloistered walks. II. cabinets. Pergamon. 197. The so-called Stoa of Hadrian at Athens. such as those FIG. The large libraries of later days. and medicine. such as those at Pergamon and Alexandria. established 2 i Harrison and Verrall. Peisistratos of Athens. the building must have been more extensive than is indicated by Strabo.

. These rooms were preceded by a double portico. Lange. It consisted of a single rectangular room. affords a typical Greek solution of the library problem. in B. 2 Fortunately. others for lectures. V. the Lesche erected by the Knidians (Fig. 633-639. Book shelves at Pergamou. and the two founded by Au- libraries gustus were also con- nected with porticoes. Restoration. 120. 635. s. XX (1896). some of which were evidently intended as dwellings. The club-house (\a")(r]) met the social requirement of a place for conversation. It consisted of a series of rooms. for reading. and for the storing of books. the excavations at Delphi seem to have brought to light the most celebrated building of this 8 class. 371) and decorated with paintings by Polygnotos. Asinius Pollio was established in the atrium of the Temple of Liberty. * Homolle. Frazer. there seems to be no fixed type for such a building. As this want was also met in various other ways.C. 370).v. The Roman li- brary of C.336 GREEK ARCHITECTURE by Eumenes II.H. in the interior of which eight 1 2 Pauly-Wissowa. 1 FIG. and it is idle to speculate as to its form. . The room for the latter purpose has been identified by the holes in the walls in which were fastened the supports of the cabinets or shelves for which the foundation still exists (Fig.. 370. Bibliotheken. Pans.

Delphi. an auditorium. or place for seating the spectators. The floor of the orchestra was usually of rolled orjpounded earth. In the centre of the orchestra was an altar !For bibliography consult the Preface to Haigh. from windows. 163. At Delos. however. for this a level space was required. and a skene with dress- in^-rooms v5 for the actors. z . The architect was called upon to provide a dancing ground for the chorus. Whether the paintings which adorned the walls were illuminated from an opening in the roof. Plan of the Lesclie of the Knidians.C. When covered with sand for gladiatorial contests. Fia. it was coated with 2 plaster. it was covered with a marble and mosaic pavement. The fundamental feature was the orchestra (op^arpa)^ or dancing ground for the chorus. 371. or merely from the door cannot now be determined.and at Athens.H. MONUMENTS 337 pillars or columns helped to support the roof. XVIII (1894). The Greek theatre 1 (Oearpov) was designed for the presentation of plays in which choral songs and dances were prominent features. it was known as the Konistra (j) Koviarpa). *B. in the Roman period. The Attic Theatre..

Fig. 112. Plan of Theatre at Thorikos. Miller.. in A. though subjected to many changes. 1-34 . Haigh. 372) it was a rectangle with rounded ends.S. (Fig. but^in most Greek theatres of the classic period it was nearly if not entirely circularT^The theatre of Dionysos at 2 Athens. 1 . Taf. 110. 366. Doerpfeld und Reisch. At Thorikos'1 FIG. 2 . still retains some of the blocks of the retaining wall of a circular 1 W.A. At Priene it was relegated to the periphery ot the orchestra. IV. in later theatres it was often omitted altogether. Doerpfeld und Reisch. The form of the orchestra was not invariably the same. 372.338 GREEK ARCHITECTURE around which moved the chorus. In the course of time the altar lost its central significance. 3.

. In fact. 275-280.J. VII (1891). This was decorated by a roundel moulding on the half of the circle towards the auditorium.>) has the. The plan of the theatron followed that of the orchestra.u^enly disappear. however. connecting the orchestra and skene. was a subterranean passage (/c/ouTTT^etcroSo?). When. the enclos- ing walls furnished an excellent field for architectural ornamentation. Examples of such subterranean passages are found at Eretria 1 and Sikyon.. it was supported by retaining walls. a theatre was constructed in a plain. the chief necessities of a Greek theatre. as was the case with many late Greek and Roman theatres. 278-279.. an orchestra aTnd~artheatron. which could be further excavated. The excavated theatre had little or no exterior for architectural decoration. in A..J. 2McMurtry.37. distinction of exhibiting an orchestra whose circular form is emphasized Jby a ring of limestone. and provided with steps at either end. Where necessary. for the spectators.. 2 Next > in importance to the orchestra was the theatron (Oearpov). so as to furnish spectators with a view of the orchestra. V (1889). in A. or as. MONUMENTS 339 orchestra jlating apparently as early as the sixth century. Kpidiuiros CFitf. are all that are found in the theatre at Thorikos. Such a ring may have proyed a stumhling-block to the people entering and leaving the theatre and was elsewhere omitted.A. At Thorikos it was rectangular with irregularly rounded ifirownson. or_ built up. The general requirement a theatron was a sloping for bank or hollow (jcolKov). These passages were probably closed with trap- doors.A. or view place. A special device by means of which actors could sud- denly make their appearance.

340 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

theatres was subdivided into the theatron proper and an epjj theatron (eiriOeaTpov). II. Where two occur. Me^alopolis^jtnd in^eliel^T^^^epTfhearfron was semicircular in plan and At it concentric to the theatron. in part at least. at Epidauros/ it followed the line of a three-centred curve" (Fig. There is -but one such dividing passage at Epidauros. II. without sacrificing a continuous curvature in plan.Jbut elsewhere followed. 58. Pgjog^ however. and in most theatres of moderate size. and atAthens in a horse- shoe arch. Blouet. and in some small. The block of seats was still further subdi- vided by the sta-kaca^ (jcXipaKes). and elsewhere. 27. or passageway. and con- it sisted of semicircular banks of seats continued in straight lines towards the skene. at the base of the theatron. at Athens 8 resembled the end of a stadion. Taf. or horizontal passages. termmates~m~ar pointed arch. 6 s Doerpfeld und Reisch. At Epidauros. At Athens the open drain between the theatron and the orchestral circle was less practical. At Aspendos 1 it barely exceeded a semi- 2 it circlej a. one was usually nar- rower than the other. Megalopolis.. This widened the diodos (Stb8o<?).. Taf. beneath this passage- way was a channel. MONUMENTS 341 extrernities. . *IUd. or upper theatron. 21. 5 2 Ibid. yThe theatron in all large. as at Argos 6 6 and probably at Megalopolis. I. by means of diazomata (&act>yiiaTa). which were known also as furra^gXoX/cot'). 122. At Epidauros. 374). The stairways radiating from a common centre divided the block of seats into wedge- 1 Lanckoronski. 42. a circular plan. which carried off the surface drainage of the orchestra and of the theatron. 39-40.t occupied^ tw^-thirda of ji circle Sagalasso's . PI. Fig. 26.

342 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

_ ber of stairways should be doubled. Thus at Epidauros the stairways were continued through FIG. As these wedges widened tow- ards the upper rows additional stairways were required. MONUMENTS 343 shaped sections (/ee/o/a'Se?). 375. Front seats in the Theatre of Dionysos. Athens. . the_ epithgatroii4_ whejre^mtermediate stairways /cX^a/ee?) were added. Vitruvius generalizes this practice into the rule that above every horizontal passage thejium.

and near the stairways were terminated with claw feet. Of this class thaF of~^tfa6 > priest of Dionysos Elenthereus at Athens (Fig. a second row of seats of FIG. Benches of the Theatre at Epidauros. as at Miletos (Fig.Megalopolis. Beyond the topmost bench was a passageway. thronoi were = sometimes finely carved. or seats of honor. by slabs of stone posed vertically and crowned by a capstone or . Usually. in the orchestra directly in front of the passage at the base of the theatron . Occasion- ally. 375) is the most noteworthy. Steps of this character are found in the theatres at JMegalopoliSj Athens. and at Athens. terminated. l/cpia. at Delos. at Priene. however. there was. which were marble chairs or benches with backs. at . e&oXm). as at JEpj- dauros. in the theatron but on the level of the orchestra . At_Argos the form of the ordinary benches was of extreme simplicity.344 GREEK ARCHITECTURE The seats consisted of thronoi (Qpovoi. and the ordinary rows of benches (eSpcu. 376). In Asia ^Min^r. 376. were placed. irpoebpaC). slightly above the orchestra level.curved profiles. with risers and treads like an ordinary stairway. and Kpidauros (Fig.. 377) and at lassos^the benches were given more decorative form by the use oj_double. at the base of the epithe- atron. The former. there was a depression in the face and top of each step to accommodate the feet of those seated in the next higher tier.

Benches of the Theatre at Miletos. . 377. MONUMENTS 345 FIG.

As occa- sion demanded they could elevate themselves above the chorus by standing on the steps of the altar platform. rpdire^a). and exit from the theatre was further facili- tated by means of vomitoria. In theatres of the classic_period the skene was built of wood. The entrance to. In Roman theatres the parodoi became vaulted passages beneath the theatron. In late Greek and Roman theatres.346 GREEK ARCHITECTURE railing. and the actors. In the earliest logeion (\oryeiov~). Throughout the fourth century the . side passageways. Gate-posts still remain at^Epi- dauros and at Priene (Fig. the theatron was ordinarily through parodoi (ydpoSoi). seldom required a raised platform. and in the luxurious theatres of the late Greek and Roman periods. between the theatron and the stage. who mingled with the chorus in the orchestra. ii 378). to the exterior. stone. Their costume suf- ficiently distinguished them from the chorus. or openings into passages which honeycombed the substructure of the theatron and led. theatres a tent sufficed for robing purposes. or marble. was the ^kene (o-icnvn^. polychromatic marbles. a direct entrance to the epithea- tron was possible from a higher level. silver. and gold and ivory were employed in the decoration of the stage facades. and the or actors' glatform. Occasionally. or upon a temporary stand (jSfjfjLa. o_r__Stage- building._with its robing-rooms and property-rooms. These parodoi were usually closed by gates. and the last in order of development. as at Aspen- dos and at Orange. At Syracuse there were separate entrances for each diazoma. by means of stairways. an arcade or a colonnade protected this passageway. as at Athens and at Segesta. bronze. and the exit from. The third factor in the Greek theatre.

MONUMENTS 347 .

486 . 26. Choisy. such as those at Termessos (Fig. . Plan of the Theatre at Termessos. 1 where the logeion of the stage building encroached somewhat upon the full circle of the orchestra.is-reflected in Graeco-Roman theatres. 10. 2 Vitruvius. This chan^_e. FIG. 379. The geometrical rules laid down by Vitruvius 2 for 1 Taf Lanckoronski. 453. 7. XXII (1897). In the late Greek plays the part played by the chorus diminished and that of the actors increased. Ath. . . V. Doerpfeld. II. 379) and Sagalassos.348 GREEK ARCHITECTURE skene was located outside of the perimeter of the orches- tra circle. 1. Mitt.

In theatres of the Roman type the stage-building. 163. be called the mesoskenion B. The central portion of the skene is called in a Delian inscription l fj pea-rj 07071/77. a rec- tangleTwith.H. or without. Plan of a Theatre according to Vitruvius. XVIII (1894). a projection in front. hence. it may. MONUMENTS 349 planning a Greek theatre are based upon theatres of the Graeco-Roman period. for convenience. 1 . 380). 380. or on the slcte~s7or in the rear. In plan jthe skene was. encroached FIG.. still more until it occupied one-half of the orchestral circle (Fig.C. almost without exception. with its enlarged logeion.

but has increased in length to about one and a half orches- tral the Roman theatre. 6. 274-275.A. are believed by the American excavator (McMurtry.In later Greek theatres. It was seldom more complicated. V (1889). Doerpfeld und Reisch.J.350 GREEK ARCHITECTURE In_length the mesoskenion was usually equal to the dia- meter of the orchestra with the surrounding passageway. 29. Thus the term hyposkenion^ sometimes referred to the inner and lower rooms of the skene. gradually gained in length/^ The mesoskenion was ordina- rily subdivided by cross walls into three rooms. 2 In elevation the skene consisted originally of a single story. 3 * Pollux. to which access from the orchestrawas given by three doors. as published by Doerp- feld and Reisch (p.. At Termessos and at Sagalassos 5 a single order 1 Vitruvius. . .L_Dglos.. and Priene. 98. such as those at Termes- sos and Sag-alassos T the skene has no lateral projection. and in the Roman. Tat 11. theatre the hyposkenion. V. or ground floor. the length of the skene should be double the diameter of the Thus the stage-building orchestra^. The episkenion. It retained usually three or more doorways. 9) to result from a crossing of Roman with Greek walls. the lower of which may be called the hyposkenion (yTroa-Krjviov). IV. 3 In the late Greek. as the upper was called the episkenion (liner icriviov). increased in importance^and was decorated with columns and entab- latures. 132 VTTO rb \oye?ov : 6 Lanckoronski. |ln 1 Vitruvius. 2 The six rooms of the mesoskenion at Sikyon. 6. 300. 117). PI. lost value and presented to the spectator the appearance of a mere 4 support to the actors' platform. II. in A. according to diameters. TEuTmaylBe seen in the theatres at Eretria. however. In the classic period it had two stories.

MONUMENTS 351 .

Originally the entire proskenion was made of wood. was not their only purpose. . 381) two orders occur. Vitruvius 2 demanded that the height of the skene should equal the height of the roof of the portico at the summit of the theatron. 11. decorated so as to resemble a colonnade.. the intercolumni- ations of which were filled with pina^es (TrtW/ee?). or movable wooden panels. and in various ways from the para- 1 3 See Fig. . Thus the skene gradually gained also in height. 1 three orders in the theatre of were required to decorate the scenae frons. In the classic period it consisted of a narrow projection. 4.' The front wing was named the proskenipn (Trpoo-Kijvtov*). Scaurus at Rome. * Vitruvius. XXXVI. Th Jop ft of the proskenion seems to have been as important as its facade. later its supports were made of stone. and the rear wmg^we may call the opisthoskenion.pr^Tce- nion was the most important. by ramps from the parodoi. in breadth varying from two to three metres. 378.H. It was reached by doors from the mesoskenion. 24. but at Aspendos (Fig. and in height from two and a half to four metres. Pliny. (oincr6o<Ticriviov)\ of these thp. The theatres at Prjene and at Oropos furnish the best examples of such proskenia and show how the pinakes were held in place. Imd M. by open steps or by secret passages from the orchestra. 2 Doerpfeld und Reisch. A_ further development of the skene consisted in the projection of wings on one or more sides..352 GREEK ARCHITECTURE sufficed. 6.. V. 3 Such gro- skenia were so high and so narrow as to suggest their use 4 as backgrounds for plays given in the orchestra. however. 341-365. This. the lateral wings paraskenia (Trapao-Krjwa^). or marble. in length equal to the diameter of the orchestra. N.

. on either side of the mesoskenion were projecting wings. 382). 2A .. Priene. At Eriene 3 such access was secured by continuing the of the mesoskenion. The lateral extensions of the mesoskenion were known as paraskenia. 229. in B. but lateral accesswas given to the logeion by means of ramps. 2Delos Inscription of 279 B. 162 ff. from the upper story of which doors probably led to the logeion.C. 382.C. Fig. 7. 3 Vitruvius. and lowered so as to allow a better view to the occupants of the front seats. logeion partially around the sides 1 Puchstein.H. so as to accommo- date both chorus and actors. . actor. V. and elsewhere. rcov gev&v). In late Greek and in Roman theatres the proskenion or logeion was deepened. At Eretria (Fig. The two ramps may have served for such actors as were supposed to be arriving from the country or from the city. MONUMENTS 353 skenia. 1 was^ known also asjthe logeion (\oyelov). From the niesoskenipn three doors opened upon the l^ggjgn a : central or royal door (Ovpa for the ao-t'\eto?) principal FIG. or It 2 speaker's platform. Skene of the Theatre at Eretria. 46 ff. In the theatre at Epidauros the paraskenia did not project beyond the front wall of the mesoskenion. on either side of which were the doors of the guests or strangers (Ovpai. XVIII (1894). 2.

Figs. logeion was continued around the building. supply the outermost entrances. 383. At Sik- yon in this position was a portico. 9. Skene of the Theatre at Magnesia.354 GREEK ARCHITECTURE These^ lateral_extensions of the logeion we may name paralogeia (?rfr/' x '"yffVT) j a typinal pya. and other architectural ornament. For the conven- ience of the populace as well as of the theatrical company Vitruvius 2 advised the erection of porticoes behind the skene. 58-59. cornices. forming what may be called a perilogeion (7repi\oyelov). At Termesos a_process of simplification jaJj^e-Yidence^lIere the paraskenia are absorbed by the mesoskenien soaiTto form one long cor- ridor. For the rear of the skene there was no demand for the creation of a fixed type. and at Megalopolis an assembly-hall known as the Thersilion. 388). reminiscences of paralogeia except the doorways have disappeared. It was left undeco rated at Oro- pos and Priene. . Vitruvius. At Magnesia we find an opisthoskenion with three entrances at Delos 1 the . V. whereas the large theatre at Pompeii and that at Aspendos were decorated with pilasters. 1. 2 Doerpfeld und Reisch. barely indicated by bounding walls. At ^Asjigndos all L FIG.mp1o_of^ whichs found at Magnesia (Fig. and the paralogeia.

III. 7-48 . Stieglitz. and was used for stabling and other such purposes. BUILDINGS FOR DOMESTIC USE. Lange. with opeij courts and separate apart- ments for men and women. . These nourts were frequently surrounded with porticoes. in fact. Greek houses. 2 222-240. or irusical contests and rehearsals of plays. were essen- t ally Oriental in character. Figs.v. was designed for (wSetoz/). and may well be classified by the variations of this character. II. 1823-1824. In the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns (Fig. This demand called for a building like the Greek theatre. 105 . 2 It is natural to assume that a similar type prevailed in the earlier periods. MONUMENTS 355 The Odeion music hall. but in most Greek houses of the classic period a single court sufficed. the type of building represented by the Odeion of Herodes Atticus at Athens. which appear more or less distinctly throughout the entire history of the Greek house. and furnished a breath- ing place and source of air and light and warmth for the surrounding apartments. 8. In the town house it was situated within the walls of the house itself. W. II. Oomus. Daremberg et Saglio. These features. s. indicate already a developed or complex type. They were provided. but smaller and covered with a roof (Oearpov virwpofaov). and in private houses of the late Greek period. 384). 8 Becker-Goll. It was by no means necessary that a Greek courtyard should 1 Tuckermann's plan in Baumeister. 1 and other Odeia of the Roman period. 3 whether designed for kings or private persons. Such was. as in Egypt and Assyria. The courtyard (auXrj) in the country house preceded the domestic apartments. a succession of courts are found.

The peristyle court. 297.. the lat- ter at Priene. 290. 458. PI. Ath.H. which. Ant. 4 In Greek lands they were not common until the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman periods. * Petrie. Vitruvius. 2 A similar absence of columns usually characterized the atrium of the Roman house. 40. XXIX (1905). VI. spernier. 140. XIV (1904). and so on. and in Italy 7 Such peristyles may be at Pompeii. There were no such colonnades in the fifth-century house at Dystos in Euboia 1 and few in the houses excavated at Priene. 5 B. 473. Man. The pre-Hellenic palace at Phaistos in Crete 3 had colonnades upon two sides of its great court . 8 Hiller III. VIII (1884). 5 Priene. made the court almost completely peristylar. He distinguishes between peristyle courts with uniform porticoes and those known as Rhodian (Tre/ncrTf Xoz> 'Po&a/eoV). 7. on the other hand. The court with uniform porticoes reflects the love of regularity which characterized Hellenistic 1 Wiegand. 3.. 14. according to the number of columns involved. as may be seen in the remains at Kahun. distinguished from each other as tetrastyle. 2 Priene. hexastyle. 6 Priene. in which the porch with the southern exposure was composed of loftier columns. Tav. with the porch of the megaron on the fourth side. Com- plete peristyle courts (rerpdo-Tooi) existed in private houses in Egypt as early as the Twelfth Dynasty. The former type is represented in the houses at Delos and Pompeii. . existed in various forms from the earliest days. at Tiryns the court of the men had colonnades on three sides. 7.C. Kahun. when we find them represented at Delos.. 7 von Gaertringen. XIX (1895). 460. But another distinction preserved by Vitruvius 8 is of greater interest. XXIV (1899). 27. Mitt.356 GREEK ARCHITECTURE be surrounded by colonnaded walks. 6 Thera.

or as sleeping rooms.H. or house (oZ/eo?. Memorab-. and. The entrance was protected by gratings (TT/JO- ^pdyfjLara) and by a door which led to the court. 39 Lange. Xenophon. Some were undoubtedly store-rooms. 129. 6 8. like the 2 palace of Hyrkanos in Syria.C. 297-300. Peristyle courts may also be distinguished as single storied and two storied. The rooms about the court. so as to receive the warmth of the winter sun. 2 . whereas the so-called Rhodian type was more like that of a Mycenaean palace in which the portico of the megaron dominated the rest. 181-223.. known as No. IX. 3 B. dining halls. The latter variety seems not to have been confined to important houses. VIII (1884). III. 3 The approaches to the court varied according to cir- cumstances. It contained the family hearth.. when practicable. XI (1904-1905). apart from those of the principal side.S. In its earliest form the oikos was a mere enclosure to 1 Priene. Taf. * Mackenzie. De Vogue".. were usually dispensed with as hindrances in the narrow streets. 6. and was situated at the north end of 6 the court. a porter's room. Oecon. So'/io?. Palaces were reached through imposing 4 In ordinary town houses projecting porches propylaia. 5 Lange. A house at Priene. Fre- quently there was a vestibule. such as those of the houses at Tanagra. 5 (irpdOvpa). but was found in small houses like the one on the banks of the Inopos at Delos. others may be recognized as kitchens. XXXIII. in B. MONUMENTS 357 architecture in general. &M/-ia). 149. illustrates in a striking 1 manner how naturally this type of court was evolved. note 1. appear to have served various purposes. 483. . Le Temple de Jerusalem. principal apartment was known specifically The as the oikos.A.

The larger megaron at Tiryns had four columnar supports for its roof. it was known as an Egyptian house (oZ/co? AlyvTmos) . When six or more columns were used to support the ceiling. and low. Noack. The inner room developed internally through the addi- tion of supports for its roof. since the oikos. Both types seem to have found their way into the private houses of ordinary citizens in later days. The porch might be without columns. into an outer porch and inner vestibule. Priene. It was treated as a single space. the megara are more closely connected with the general series of apartments. or columns. at least in those at Knossos and at Phaistos. VI. when a similarroom was projected northward. lateral win- dows allowing vistas into the garden. The houses excavated at Priene resemble those of the Mycenaean type. as in a basilica. it was called a Corinthian house (ol/co? KoptvQios) when . was given an imposing prostas (Tr/ooo-ra?) or 1 2 8 Vitruvius. by clerestory windows. 1 The prodomos varied in disposition. Cretan palaces. in . XXXII at Priene. Noack 3 has pointed out the isolation of the megaron as a distinguishing feature of Mycenaean palaces whereas. conditions. 325. Of more significance than the modification of the princi- pal apartment is its relation to the rest of the house. having a central doorway with folding doors. superposed colonnades were employed and the central space lighted.358 GREEK ARCHITECTURE which was added a prodomos (TrpoSo/zo?). or anteroom. 2 or two columns. like the megara. . as in house No. it was called Kyzikene (oZ/eo? Kfft/CT^o?). Thus the Mycenaean palaces re- flectwarlike and aristocratic. 3. those of Crete peaceful and democratic. 7. as was commonly the case. 10. or show one column between antae. or sub- divided by a wall.

XVIII (1894). A higher degree of complexity arose when the apartments for the men (avSpcov.. 386). in Ath.H. ol/coi). as were uncommon. Houses of this type developed around this central feature as a nucleus by the addition of rooms on one side only. avSp&Piris') were separated from those of the women (yvvaue&vlTis. 150. Kidder. or on both sides in the latter case known to Vitruvius as thalamoi (dd\a^oC) and amphi- thalamoi (a//. 385. pwyes) by means of which access could be had to widely separated por- tions of the building and greater privacy secured..C. de Pis. Simi- 2 i Priene. MONUMENTS 359 prodomos. p. 4 A. Fig. Theophanes. as in house No. Three-storied houses (rpia-re^oi 3 FIG. close to the principal apartment. as at Arne 4 (Fig. and sometimes by an upper story 2 (vTrepwov). 313. The ruins in the latter town exhibit in a striking manner the use of corridors (\avpai. Fig. XIX (1894).. ed.*) At Priene this was sometimes accomplished by juxtaposed apart- 1 ments. . XXXV. The plan of house No. Chronographia. Classen. at Tiryns. Sleeping rooms were sometimes. and one recently excavated at Pom- peii. 295.(/>t#aXa/zot). Ibid. 271-310. XXVI.C. House No. such as those at Alexandria XXIV at Priene. they were relegated to the rear. . 3 10-11 Noack. as in house No. 385) will show the significance still attached to this feature by an ordinary citizen in the second century B. elsewhere. 405-485. 314. Mitt.. in B. 295. XXIV at Priene (Fig.

nor is if. it providedwith an independent prostas. The peristyle type seems to have been 1 Vitruvius. 386. The prevalence of long corridors at Priene also is noteworthy. . double passages in Egyptian houses at Kahun led to the men's and women's quarters. 7 In the house on the street leading to the theatre (Fig. 5. A second type of Greek house is well illus- trated by the houses at Delos built after the Athenian occupation in the second cen- tury and before its destruction in 86 B. The oikos presents its broadest face to the court and in this respect differs from that of the houses with a prostas. Passages FIG. In these houses the oikos is not isolated. VI. It is merely a large room with doorway and windows towards the court. these houses may be designated as of the perist} le type. 387) the columns opposite the oikos were of greater diameter than the rest.C. The peristyle court gives character to the house hence .360 GREEK ARCHITECTURE lar narrow. The Palace at Arne. but were not located with reference to its walls or doorway. 7. which connected two courts were known as 1 mesauloi (/LtecrauXot).

a small It open boat. MONUMENTS 361 represented at Athens in the fourth century by the house of Kallias. These walls were strengthened on the exterior by hori- zontal waling pieces (fwo-r^/oe?) and sometimes on the interior by a second planking. was. 388). while Hippias 1 sat enthroned in the opposite (ev TO> Karavn/cpv Trpoa-Tqxp). The Greek ship (mO?) was con- structed for service in an inland sea. 511-512 . Protagoras. At Pompeii 2 the two types were frequently united in the same building (Fig. NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. its solid. 9. street to the theatre. Delos. tion. but also by a second. ity depended upon its construc. Being constructed. ship sheds. spruce. The walls (rot^ot) of the vessel con- sisted of planking attached to a series of ribs (ey/coi\ia). therefore. In this section we consider first the construction. House on the FIG. 387. Mau. . forms. Both types of houses seem to have left their imprint on the Italic and Roman house. 239-360. Krause. 2 38-39. for the sake of lightness. and decor- ation of Greek ships. which could without difficulty be drawn up on a beach. and arsenals. larch. 17 . of such woods as pine. and cypress. The shallow keel (T/oo'vm) was stiffened not only by an external or false keel (%e- Xuo-fta) of beech or oak. Further rigidity was 1 Plato. Gardner and Jevons. then harbors. internal keel (Sevrepa rpoTris). in which Protagoras walked with his disciples in one portico (jrpoaTwov).

362 GREEK ARCHITECTURE .

1 Baumeister. by the system of longitudinal and cross beams required for decking and other Even purposes. 15. in the larger vessels. 1675. capacious. MONUMENTS 363 secured by the fixed seats (fvya) for the oarsmen and.III. 1 we see ropes FIG. The trading vessel was wide. 2 Vessels were also strengthened by ropes extended horizontally. bound around the prow and stern in order to give addi- tional strength to the general fabric. Figs. 2 The forms of Greek vessels varied according to special requirements. and. Vitruvius. . Warship from a Greek vase in the British Museum. in some representations of Greek as well as of Egyptian vessels. X. 389. 1656. 1671. Cf. this did not suffice. 6 funes : religati a puppi ad proram.

and its single mast with square sails are features which it had in common with Egyptian vessels. Taf. if we may judge from the repre- sentations on vases. XXVIII (1908). for holding the anchor. Smith. and sometimes with a second. and swift. relieved occa- 1 4 Layard. 6 On either side of the bow were large eyes (o<0a\/W). Mag. or the neck and head of a bird or fish. being covered with tar. Iliad. 7 Burl.H. Fig. As the Greek potter learned to mould his vases into animal or human forms. 1661.. 389) sometimes it was fashioned as a goose. smaller one (Tr/ooe/iySoXtoi^) set somewhat higher. The outer walls of Greek vessels. 591-593. 8 9 I. 3 Guhl und Koner. and projections.v. at about the water level. PI. owes more to Phoenician pro- 1 totypes. Furtwangler und Reichhold. the ship resembled a fish 2 (IxOvTrpwpos) 3 (Fig. Above this the bow ended curved ornament called the akro- in a stolion (aicpo(TT6\iov) The stern terminated in a long . Ibid. 2 5 Baumeister. depending for its speed upon oars rather than sails. Fig. curved ornament carved and painted to resemble the tail. J. 8 This ornament. 717. or a . known to Homer 9 as the afaao-rov. or the head of a horse. XV. so the Greek naval architect played with the forms of vessels. 588. 71.S. Its high bow and stern. 13. swan 4 occasionally the bow presents the form of a boar's . XIV (1908). known as ears (eVamSe?). were almost entirely black. The war vessel. s. with their platforms. 71. head 5 (uoVpo^o?). Figs. narrow. long. Frequently.364 GREEK ARCHITECTURE and slow. III. 7 The bow (o"relpa) was provided with a metal-cased ram (e^/SoXo^).. . is found also on Roman and later vessels. This type was adopted at an early date by the Greeks. The name of the vessel was sometimes inscribed on the bow. possibly used as hawse-holes. Navis. 220.. and had a marked development. 327.

especially at the stern. it is natural that the rowing system should be made the principal object of development. which had fifty oarsmen seated on twenty-five benches. The terms bireme (St?^?/?). V. PI. 2 Representations of Phoenician. 5. etc. At first the length of the vessel was increased so as to admit of a greater num- ber of rowing benches. 37. and Roman vessels seem to prove 3 4 5 that vessels with two. while the extreme limit was reached in the so-called forty- banked vessel (reo-o-apaKOVTijpr]?) of Ptolemy Philopator (222-204 B. 8 5 Baumeister. 7 vessels with . 4 Torr. But sionally late Greek and Roman ships were sometimes decorated. Greek. the number of oars was increased by their arrange- ment in superposed banks (o-rot^ot). But'a limit appears to have been reached in the pentekontoros (Trezmj/eoWopo?). Pis. fifteen and sixteen banks Ptolemy Philadelphos (285- . 1 As the war vessel was propelled chiefly by oarsmen..). III. three. Figs. trireme (T/O^/OT. MONUMENTS 365 by patches of color on the bows. Kara roll's <TTI'XOUS TOI)S Kara rb tn/'os ^TT dXXiyXots. quoted by Graser. and even four such banks of oars were thus constructed. 2 on Aelian. 3 6 1(5. 57. 8 practical The involved in difficulties supposing superposed banks of oars for the higher rated 1 Torr.?). When it was no longer practicable to increase the length of the boat. floating palaces with twenty and thirty banks. De veterum re navali. Demetrios. VII. 1678. Pliny. 1685. with elaborate figure paintings.C. The Athenian navy of the classic period consisted chiefly of triremes. 71. Athen.). Alexander the Great 6 is said to have built vessels with ten banks of oars Demetrios Poliorketes.C. 247 B. 4 : Scholiast. are ordinarily taken to designate vessels with superposed banks of oars. . 4. Layard. 7 Plutarch. 31. 35-36.

Baumeister. * AJ.. like the Venetian galea a scaloccio. J. Above this on some vessels was a bul- warked passage (-Tra/JoSo?). 3 now in the Louvre. with convenient quays (epvpara). Now. or with oars manned 1 by teams of two. In the construction of the breakwaters the ingenuity of !L. Class. and arsenals pro- tected by fortification walls with towers and lighthouses. .KOI). ship sheds (V(*>CTOI. and so on. III. like the Venetian galea a zenzile. The coast line of Greece furnished projecting ledges and retreating bays in abundance. 2 3 Furttenbach. four or more oarsmen. 2d ed. three. Fincati.. subject to attack from foreign vessels. 7. Bev. 138 Cook and Richardson.1 XII (1908). 1881 Tarn. the traditional theory of many superposed banks of oars receives a serious blow. . to protect the oarsmen. which without artificial modification afforded shelter and safety to most classes of vessels.^ The marble prow which bears the Nike of Samothrace. were obliged to establish closed harbors (Xt/ueW? K\eia-ro() with narrow entrances protected by chains. show projecting galleries (7ra/9e|et/3eo-tat). %7?X?7) to protect vessels at anchor from the force of wind and waves.S. XIX (11)05). Le triremi.H. Greek harbors (XtfteVe?) may be classed in general as natural and artificial. such as was used by Demetrios Poliorketes. But the im- portant cities. A similar disposition is found on mediaeval galleys. 91. XXV (1905). Taf. . three. if it be assumed that the prow in the Louvre represents a high-rated vessel. Rome. 375. Sometimes it was necessary to build a breakwater or mole (^&>/>ta. resembling encased outriggers..366 GREEK ARCHITECTURE vessels are so great that modern writers have suggested a single line of oars arranged in groups of two.A. and a relief 4 recently found at Lindos. Fig. 1693.

MONUMENTS 367 tiie Greeks displayed itself at an early date. built of white marble. 2 Koldewey. the submarine walls at Mytilene 2 con- sisted of concrete made of lime slacked in oil and then mixed with sand and broken stone. of which there are many remains. The ship sheds. at Se- 1 3 Georgiades. where torches or fires were kept burning at night. 4.C. and consisted of a single story. By the seventh century B. 341. 6. The quays were built. the Corinthians built submarine walls in which blocks of stone were so united by a gravel cement as to be practically monolithic. No attempt was made to establishany regular form* for these closed harbors.. Such lighthouses appear to have been located near harbor entrances. PI. of finer upon coarser masonry. But it may be noticed that at Larymna the inner harbor was closed by two flood-gates. . The lighthouse (<a/3o<?) added much to the convenience of sailors. 1. The most famous was the Pharos at Alexandria. 1 At a later but pre-Roman period. rectangular. 4 Ibid. that at Larymna was semicircular. PL 5. by means of which it could be converted into a dry-dock. These seldom exceeded one hundred and fifty feet in length and fifteen in width. 5 Merckel. The Lechaion 3 harbor at Corinth was exceedingly ir- 4 regular. in many stories. and diminishing in successive stages towards the top. probably by windlasses. consisted of stone tracks upon which the boats were hauled. from the water into boathouses on the shore. Georgiades. At Larymna the walls are effectively buttressed so as to resist the force of the waves. and that at 5 Rhodes. as the breakwaters. Dry- docks where transports might be cleaned and repaired were infrequent.

Whether he was to be buried. 1-4.. It resembled a basilica. Dockyards (vavTrifyia) were also necessary for ship-building. 1-42. where the oars. 4 and sanctuaries for the use of sailors were built near the harbor. SEPULCHRAL ARCHITECTURE. XXIX (1905). Pis. Die attischen Grabreliefs . he wished for some memorial to mark the location of his body or his ashes.C. Storehouses. for storage. and of 6 this class of monuments there are many beautiful remains.C.) of Eleusis and Euthydomos of Miletos. 2 i Merckel. When his active life neared itsend. 24. VIII (1883).. Athen. 3 built by Philon (347-830 B. 10. 21-40. The Arsenal at the Peiraieus. in B. . sails.. the Greek desired an artist to make for him a suitable resting-place. P. 1908. Mitt. the port of Antioch. and elaborate preparations were made for launching such large vessels as those belonging to Ptolemy Philadelphos and Ptolemy Philopator. Gardner. Pans. Eph. Col- onnades with shops attached were also common in seaports. or stacks. examples of which have been found at Delos.H. or cremated.368 GREEK ARCHITECTURE 1 leukeia. V. Arch. The interests of foreign commerce made still further demands upon the architect. Conze. as were the heroes of old. 4 5 Frazer.. 3 Jard. the supply of water to the inner harbor was under control by means of a tunnel.). and tackle were stored. 355-358. which must have added considerably to the beauty of the harbor. II. as was sometimes the custom. This might take the form of a sculptured or painted stele (err^X?. were occasionally buildings of some architectural interest. 2 Arsenals (crtcevoOriicaC). Choisy. was the most famous build- ing of its class. 147-164. Doerpfeld. At the Peiraieus 5 there were five such colonnades. Ath. Sculptured Tombs of 6 Hellas. the side aisles of which contained superposed stories.. Etudes.

s. we frequently find in them a suggestion that the departed had entered into his eternal home. and (2) those which are entirely architectural in character. such as a tower. It was given more enduring form by a wall at the base (tf/^Trt?. representing such subjects as a lion. such as a raised foundation. Phoenicians. 29. The notion of the tomb as a house was very familiar to the ancient world. V. Qpiytcfc)) as in the tumulus of Phokos in Aegina. a bull. house.v. 7 It was accepted by the Greeks. 81-145. The tumulus or mound (j<w^a) of earth. without archi- tectural character. or temple. V. Sarcophagus. Ill. Ibid. as in the conical tombs discovered in Peiraieus street at Athens.. Ibid. 589-638. VI (1891). and at Marathon to cover the remains of the Athenians who fell in battle. 176-220. Persians. Such monuments as belong properly to our survey may be thrown into two general classes (1) those which are : partially architectural. 6 and Etruscans. served in the Troad to commemorate Homeric heroes.. I. of which there were many interesting varieties. as in the 5 1 Bauraeister. 4 8 9. especially to the 2 3 4 5 Egyptians. V... a column. 6 2 Perrot et Chipiez. 'Braeckner. II. Paus. 8 or its surface was covered with stucco. 198. a satyr. a dog. 7 3 Ibid. 9 or with stone. 2B . sarcophagus. the deceased himself or the official chair he occupied or of a box or . Phrygians.. Ibid.. III. 1 Although such monuments belong to the field of sculpture. in Jhb. gable or fagade. Martha. To the second class may be assigned tombs which represent an entire building. Lycians. 129-322. 137-240. who frequently gave an architectural character to their tombs. a siren. To the first class belong tombs which exhibit a single architectural feature. MONUMENTS 369 cr of a statue. 361-384.

as at Kenchreai 2 between Argos and Tegea. The pyramid was occasionally substituted for the tumulus. These chamber tombs. in Four pillars supporting a roof. 8 Halbherr. and in one of the tombs at Knossos. Pans. is said by Pausanias to have been the normal type of tomb at Sikyon.. XXVIII (1903). During the Mycenaean period they often resembled Phoenician tombs. Columns (/aWe?). as in the tombs at Kyrene. V (1901). 186.. Even the tumuli sometimes covered a hidden room. 2. 6 7 Paus. 245. the entrance received elaborate archi- tectural decoration. Rock-cut tombs sometimes displayed an entire building. Mitt.. Gardner.. in being preceded by a narrow passage (S/o6/-to?). In general they 1 Perrot et Chipiez. Pfuhl. or elliptical. 48. Occasionally. 7 in plan either circular.. 49.J. forming a baldachino or 5 tabernacle. 4 6 Borrmann. Ath. Ill. Ill (1888).370 GREEK ARCHITECTURE tornb of Tantalos near Smyrna. Frazer. as in the Tholos of Atreus at Mycenae. 269-285. V. A. and led through a contracted passage (OTO/UOI/) to the sepulchral chamber. More completely architectural were the various types of chamber and house tombs. Pilasters supporting gable also frequently occur as a framework sculptured Athenian stelae. and his statement is confirmed by 6 Sikyonian coins. 291. which served as the home of the departed. 46. occur either alone or as pedestals bearing some sculptured memorial. Gropengiesser. 2 3 P. 8 or rectangular. 7. II. as sepulchral monuments. 1 This type of sepulchral monument culminated in gigantic structures such as the Mausoleia of Augustus and of Hadrian at Rome. 35. Jhb. reflected the type of houses in use amongst the living. .A. 110. Reber. 3 Their shafts and capitals show considerable variety in 4 a style.

giving to the interior of the building the shape of a beehive. Interior of Tomb at Tamossos. and. as in Phrygian and Etruscan tombs. ceilings. with earth. or peaked. In the rotundas (0oXot) we find pointed domes constructed in converging horizontal courses. . The tombs with rectangular chambers had if rock cut. sometimes several connecting rooms. having sometimes a single chamber. received special attention. 115-158. 1 The exterior of the FIG. This prevented the vaults from falling in and protected the tomb from intrusion. MONUMENTS 371 were family tombs. 390. i Tsountas-Manatt. reflected horizontal. and even the sepulchral chamber was covered entrance passage at times blocked up. The ceilings.

Overbeck. there are many tombs which imitate types of half-timbered houses. 4 Perrot et . Heuzey. 19. Mont Olympe. PI. To this class belongs the so-called Nereid Monument of Xanthos. others arched roofs. 9. and elsewhere. 4 where art was moulded in great measure under Greek influence. The doorway to the sepulchral chamber was surmounted by a Doric frieze and gable (Fig. Arch. Min. vestibule. Chipiez. above which. In the Hellen- istic period chamber tombs. A vaulted dromos leads to this subterranean house. a fine example of which is the Sarcophagus of the Mourners 2 1 Becker-Goll. In the classic and later period in Athens sumptuary laws 1 prevented the con- struction of expensive tombs. In some localities house tombs were constructed above the soil. Tombs resembling temples form a final stage in this development. II. 6 37. 8 Reinach-Lebas. V.372 GREEK ARCHITECTURE the usual methods of roof construction. which follows the type of a Greek house in having a courtyard. At Labranda 3 there is a free-standing tomb. Italy. beneath the roof. are found in Asia Minor. 2.. is a second story. All the rooms were covered with stone barrel vaults. Africa. . 26. and principal chamber. The tem- pleform was sometimes repeated also in sarcophagi. 361-384 Benndorf und Niemann. which consisted. 191. usually rock cut and fashioned under Greek influence. An interesting example from the classic period isfound at Tamossos in Cyprus (Fig. As. III. 390). of a large room preceded by two vestibules. Taf. PI. At Pydna in Macedonia. hence we look elsewhere for examples. 5 which reproduces the form of an Ionic peristyle temple set upon a high plinth. a tumulus 2 covers a fully constructed house. like the mega- ron at Tiryns. II. 391). 43. In Lycia. 145. Some have horizontal.

1 A more complicated type' was produced roof upon the Greek temple by superposing a pyramidal 2 uype. II. . Such was the Lion Tomb at Knidos and the still 1 238-271. MONUMENTS 373 FIG. Figs. 4-11 Collignon. found at Sidon. Doorway of a Tomb at Pydna. I. Pis. . 391. 212. Hamdy Bey-Keinach. Newton. 2 PI. 213. 63.

FIG. 392. Restoration of Mausoleion at Halikarnassos. 374 .

PI. Cat. . famous for its sculptured decoration. 18.J. II. of Ok. Sc. I. XII (1908). Br. and properly reck- oned as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The latter building. Dinsmoor. Mus. 392). 1 Newton.A. 76-77. 141-171.. MONUMENTS 375 more imposing Mausoleion at Halikarnassos 1 (Fig. was finely conceived and proportioned.. A. 1-29.

.

1887- Jhb. Rev. PERIODICALS AWi. 1890- Jh. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Samm- lungen des allerhochsten Kaiserhauses. B. Mitt.Z. Berlin.S. 2 vols. 1895- . 1883- 377 . LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. Athens.S. = The American Journal of Archaeology. Rec. Paris.A. 1885- Ath. = Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts in Athen. Arch. = Antike Denkmdler. The Journal of the Archaeological Institute of America. = Jahreshefte des Oesterreichischen Archaeologischen Institute. = The Architectural Record. = The Classical Review. London. Oesterr. 1815- AJ. Burl. = Gazette des Beaux Arts.A. Berlin. published. Berlin. = 'E^rj/zepts dpxcuoAoyiK^. = Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Deutschen A rchaeologischen Instituts. Berlin. Herausgegeben vom Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Institut. Athens.A. 1898- Jhb. 1885- Ant. Mag. Cambridge. = Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Samml.A = The Annual of the British School at Athens. 1858- Harv. Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch des Archaeologischen Instituts. 1891- A rch. 1837- G. Princeton. New York. London. = Archaeologische Zeitung. Anz. Baltimore. Wien. Wien. Oesterr. Stud. Arch. Akad.B. . = A rchaeologischer A nzeiger. 1887- Eph. London. 1891- A. The Burlington Magazine. Berl. Denk. Kunsth. 1876- A. = Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. = Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 1903- Cl. New York. 1889- Arch. Berlin. 1843-1885.

= The Journal of Hellenic Studies. Baumeister. 2d edit. 3 vols. Assos Investigations at Assos. London. Munich and Leipzig. Entworfen von Wilhelm Adolph Becker. Paris. = Monumenti Antichi. 1882. Kunst und Sitte. Architects= Journal of the Royal Institute of British Archi- tects. 1851- 2. 1884-1889. Drawings and Photographs of the Buildings and Objects discovered during the Excavations of 1881. Curvatura delle linee deW architettura antica con un metodo per lo studio dei monument!. Past = Records of the Past. Neu bearbeitet von Hermann Goll. 10 vols. AURES = A. BASILE = G. B. Edited with explanatory notes by Francis H. in 1821 and 1822. Washington. Paris. zur Erlauterung des Lebens der Griechen und Rb'mcr in Religion. 3 vols. 1898- Rec. Leipzig. Br. Arch. 1885-1888. 1844- Rb'm.R. Clarke. = Zeitschriftfiir Bauwesen. Wien. Cambridge. Pt. London. pubblicati per cura della Reale Acca- demia del Lincei. BACON. Bilder altgriechischer Sitte zur genaueren Kenntniss des griechischen Privatlebens. = Revue archeologique.H. see Bacon. = Neue Jahrbiicher fur das klassische A Itertums.f. Milan. Rome. 1 886- Z. BEECHER = F. Denkmaler des klassischen Altertums. 1868. Ant. Bacon. also Clarke. 2 vols. 1828. Rome. W. und deutsche Literatur undfiir Padagogik. 1880- J. 1829-1878. Berlin. 1877-1878. . F. London. Beecher and H. Francis H. Basile. BAUMEISTER = A. Bauw.378 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS J. 1901- Rev. 1890- Mon. London. 1896. = Monumenti inediti pubblicati dalV Instituto di Corre- spondenza Archeologica. = Mitteilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. BENNDORF UND NIKMANN = Otto Benndorf und George Niemann. Aures. Ge- schichte. Roemische A btheilung. Mitt.S. V. 1893- Mon. 1902. Bacon. by Joseph T. 1883. Berlin.I. Rei*en in Lykien und Karien. Proceedings of the Expedition to explorf the Northern Coast of Africa from Tripoli East- ward . Neue Jahrb. I. BOOKS Assos. Palermo. Beecher. BECKER-GOLL = Charikles. Leipzig. Robert Koldewey. Etude des dimensions du grand temple de Pae- stum. Ined.

Der Tempel des Diony- sos zu Pergamon. BORRMANN = R. CHOISY = Auguste Choisy. Monumenti. 1831-1838. Konig. . LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 379 BLOUET = Abel Blouet. N. BLUMNER = Hugo Bliimner. Paris. Cavvadias. ter [= 2 Erganz- ungsheft des Jahrb. etc. Classical Series. d. New York. Aus d. zu Berlin. 1850. Temp. Expedition scientifique de More'e ordonm'e par le gouvernment francais. Via Appia dalla Porta Capena a Boville. Die Propylaeen der Akropolis zu Alhen. Perg. CAVVADIAS = P. in one. 1882. Report on CLARKE. Berlin. 1889. Griechische Kulturgeschichte. I. . 1885. Via Appia = L. To icpov TOV 'Ao-KA^tou eV 'ETTLoavpu. CANINA. Vol. 3 te Aufl. 1884. BOHN. arc de triomphe et theatre. BOETTICHER = Karl Boetticher. 1882. Fouilles d'Epidaure. 1898. P. 1881. Dion. Mosaic. Berlin. BoHN-ScHUCHHARDT = Altertumer von Aegae. Richard Bohn. I (1882) = Joseph Thacher Clarke. Asklep. New York. 3 vols. I. 2 vols. 1874-1881. 1884. Temp. Paris. Classical Series. Paris. Papers of Institute America. 4 vols. Monuments antiques a Orange. 1903. 1900. BUTLER = Howard Crosby Butler. 1898-1902. Technologic und Terminologie der Ge- iverbe und Kiinste bei Griechen und Romern. Akad. Leipzig. in Baumeister. Abh. and Wall Painting in Northern Central Syria and the Djebel Hauran. Wissensch. 4 vols. Athens. 1856-1857. s. = sur V archi- CHOISY. Assos Report the Excavations at Assos. Paris. 1891. Polychromie. Sculpture. Rome. CAVVADIAS. Etudes epigraphiques tecture grecque.v. CLARKE. CARISTIE A. BOHN = Richard Bohn. BURCKHARDT = Jakob Burckhardt. Athens. Report the Archaeological on the Investigations at Assos. Papers of Archaeological Institute of America. Architecture. Caristie. Berlin. Borrmann. Assos Report II (1898) = Joseph Thacher Clarke. Arch. 1882. Cavvadias. 2 vols. Die Tektonik der Hellenen. unter Mitwirkung von Carl Schuchhardt herausgegeben von Richard Bohn. 1883. Canina. Berlin und Stuttgart. Inst] Berlin. of II. Histoire de V architecture. 2 vols. fitudes Auguste Choisy. Boston. and atlas. k. 1899. Preuss. 1875- 1887.

In Hermann's Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitdten. H. 1900. DUHN UND JACOBI = F. CONZE = Alexander Conze. Die Baukunst der Etrusker. Archaeologische Untersuchungen auf Samothrake. 1896. Histoire et technique. 2 te Auflage. 2 te Auflage. DURM = Josef Durm. 1892-1897. v. . Histoire de la sculpture grecque. Daremberg et Edm. Beitrdge zur Geschichte des Dionysos-Theaters in A then und anderer griechischen Theater. 2 vols. 1890. Athens. L'encaustique et les autres procede's de peinture chez les anciens. Spirals = J. Bank. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in den vorhistorischen und historischen Schichten von Ilion. DAREMBERG ET SAGLIO = Ch. Die Baukunst der Griechen. Paris. Cook. Vienna. 1873- DEFRASSE ET LECHAT = Alphonse Defrasse (architecte) et Henri Lechat. 1860. CONZE-HAUSER-BENNDORF = Alexander Conze. London. B. Jacobi. = Josef Durm. Heidelberg. Das griechische Theater. Epidaure. Otto Benndorf. DURM. Freiburg i. 1875-1880. Cockerell. 1889.. Troja und Ilion. 1902. Hippodamos con Milet . 3 vols. Stuttgart. 1903. 1884. Die attischen Grabreliefs. 1892. Paris.380 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS COCKKRKLL = C. Der griechische Tempel inPompeji. DROYSEN = H. DOERPFELD = Wilhelm Doerpfeld. Paris. R. Saglio. London. COLMGNON ET PoNTREMOLi = Maxime Collignon et Emmanuel Pontremoli. Die Baukunst der Rimer. Ber- lin.Vacropole. Paris. CROS ET HENRY = Henry Cros et Charles Henry. DOERPFELD UND REISCH = Wilhelm Doerpfeld und Emil Reisch. Darmstadt. von Duhn und L. Droysen. 2 vols. Restauration et description des monuments de . II. 1870-1894. Athens. Heerwesen und Kriegfiihrung der Griechen. Spirals in Nature and Art. Pergame. E RDM ANN. COLLIGNON = Maxime Collignon. The Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius atAegina and of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae near Phigaleia in Arcadia. Alois Hauser. Paris. Hippodamos von Milet = Erdmann. 1905. Etr. Diction- naire des antiquite's grecques et romaines. Rom. 2 Abth. COOK. 1895. 1893-1906.

S. Gardner. FURTTENBACH = Josephus Fuvttenbach. Ephestis and the Temple of Diana. Frazer. 1907. Athenes. Paris. FABRICIUS = Ernst Fabricius. JfewterwrJfe rfr griechischen Plastik. FERGUSSON = James Fergnsson. GEORGIADES = Athan. Histoire de Vordre lotiforme. 1893. Ancient Athens. GARBETT = E. Munich.. New York. Translated with a commentary. D'ESPOUY = H. The Grammar of the Lotus. Text und Atlas. London. Berlin. 42 (1888). . The Parthenon. Ber- lin. 1881. An Essay on the mode by ivhich light was introduced into Greek and Roman temples. Das Heiligtum der Aphaia. GARDNER = Percy Gardner. 1902. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 381 und die symmetrisclie Stddtebau der Griechen. Pausanias's Description of Greece. Dorische Polychromie. Paris. 1852 (?). Furtwangler und K. 1883. Ulrti. 1906. 1898. d. Lon- don. G. 1897. FURTWANGLER. 1904. Les ports de la Grece dans I'antiquite. Fenger. P. L. FENGER = L. London.. Fragments d architecture 1 antique. London. Paus. Reicli- hold. New York and London. Principles of Design in Architecture. FURTWANGLER = Adolf Furtwangler. 1895. = J. 1862. Leipzig. Garbett. Berlin. E. Sculptured Tombs of Hellas. GARDNER = Ernest A. GARDNER AND JEVONS = Percy Gardner and Frank Byron Jevons. 6 vols. London. Der Graeber von Attika der vormykenischen und mykenischen Zeit. FURTWANGLER UND REICHHOLD = A. 1629. Miinchen. 2 vols. A Manual of Greek Antiquities. GROPENGIESSER = Hermann Grope ngiesser. Architectura Navalis. 1886. GOODYKAR = William H. De architectura graeca. 1896. Meisterwerke = Adolf Furtwangler. n. Athens. 1907. London. FALKENER = Edward Falkener. FOUCART = George Foucart. 1891. Aegina. d'Espouy. 193-227. Griechische Vasenmalerei. Georgiades. Goodyear. FRAZER. Philologus.

Herausgegeben von Richard Engelmanu. HAUSSOULLIER = E. Sechste. Mission archcolo- gique de Macedoine. Frhr. Oxford. Doerpfeld. 1870. with introductory essay and archaeological commentary by Jane E. 1876. Berlin. Hiller von Gaertringen. vollstandig neu bearbeitete. HILLER VON GAERTRINGEN = F. Haussoullier. London and New York. HAMDY BEY ET REINACH = O. 1904. HAIGH = A. Une ne'cropole royale a Sidon. A Description of the Stage and Theatre of the Athenians and of the Dramatic Performances at Athens. Paris. Heuzey. 1902-1906. 5 vols. Harrison. Berlin. J. Fou- illes de 1895 et 1896. Typologie = Gustav Hirschfeld. Paris. The Archaic Artemisia. Zanth. etc. Unter Mitwirkung von W. Paris. Zur Typologie grie- chischer Ansiedelungen im Alterthum. 3d edit. 353-375. 3 vols. 1892. Texte et Atlas. 1901. Being a translation of a portion of the Attica of Pausanias ' by Margaret de G. Paris. Mont Olympe = L. Paris. I. HITTORFF = J. HARRISON AND VERRALL = Mythology and Monuments of Ancient ' Athens. Texte et Atlas. Restitution du temple d'Empe'docle a Selinonte. Hittorff. Fouilles de Delphe* (1892-1903). 1907. HEUZEY. Vermessungen und Ausgrabungen in den Jahren 1895-1898. Pontremoli et B. 2 vols. HEUZEY ET DAUMET:=L. Didymes. 1893. Les monuments del' Algerie. 1899-1904. British Museum Excavations at Ephesus. 1908.382 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS GSELL = Stefane Gsell. Hamdy Bey et Theodore Reinach. GUHL UND KONER = Guhl und Koner. Published in Historische und phi- lologische Aufsdtze Ernst Curtius zu seinem siebenzigsten Geburtstage am zweitem September 1884 gewidmet. Recueil des monuments de Segeste et di Selinonte. Paris. Hittorff et L. Le Mont Olympe et VAcarnanie. HOGARTH = David George Hogarth. Architecture an- tique de la Sidle. Untersuchungen. . HITTORFF ET ZANTH = J. Leben der Griechen und Ro- mer. London. 1860. Heuzeyet H. Daumet. 1890. ou V architecture polychrome chez les Grecs. Verrall. pp. Haigh. Thera. 1884. HIRSCHFELD. Berlin. H. HOMOLLE = Theophile Homolle. E. Paris. Auflage. 1851. Paris. The Attic Theatre. Dragendorff.

/on. KRAUSE. 4 vols. Berlin. herausgegeben von Karl G'-afen Lanckoronski. 1. be. LECHAT ET DEFRASSE = Henri Lechat et Alphonse Defrasse (archi- tecte). published by the Society of Dilet- tanti. Iwanoff. LANCKORONSKI Stadte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Studien zur Geschichte dtr antiken Wohnhauses und der Basilica. Jena. 1 vol. Homolle. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 383 HOMOLLE. Gymn. L' architecture grecque. Vienna. W. 1888. = Th. F. 1880-1884. Paris. 2 vols. Pron.] LALOUX = V. 1 vol. 3\ols. Leipzig. Berlin. fr. LABROUSTE = Henri Labrouste. text . Die Terracotten von Pompeji von Hermann von Rohden. Haus und Palast. 2 vols.irbeitet ^ 2. Architektonische Studien. 1841. Stuttgart. Leipzig. Das antike griechisch-romische Wohn- hvus. KOLDEWEY UND PUCHSTEIN = Robert Koldewey und Otto Puch- stein. LEBAS. KRELL = P. 1870. Krell. LANGE = Konrad Lange. Paris. 1890. Die Gymnastik und Atfonistik der Hellenen. August Mau und Christian Hiilsen. 1863. 1899. 1821-1881. LAYARD = Austen Henry Layard. Text and At- la^. [In Restaurations des monuments antiques per les architectes pensionnaires de I'academie de France a Rome. Leipzig. 1877-1884. Die antiken Baureste der Insel Les- 6w. Stuttgart. Le temple d' Athena Prmaia. Antiq. 1890. Puris. 1895. LANGE = Walther Lange. Geschichte des Dorischen Styls. Die Terracotten von Sicilien benrbeitet von Reinhard Kekule. IWANOFF = Sergius A. Die griechischen Tempeln in Unteritalien und Sicilien. KOLDEWEY = Robert Koldewey. KEKULK = Die Antiken Terracolten. Laloux. 1885. see Reinach-Lebas. plates. The Monuments of Nineveh. . 2 vols. Temp. London. Res- ta aration execute en 1829. Deinokrates oder Hutte. Haus und Halle. Dorf. KRAUSE = Johann Heinrich Krause. 1892-1898. 1849. London. Berlin. the Revue de I'Art Ancien et Moderne. Extr. Niemann und E. Stadt und Residenz der alien Welt. Ath. = Antiquities of Ionia. 1902. Epidaure. Les temples de Paestum. Petersen. 1878. Unter mitwir- kung von G. Johann Heinrich Krause. Paris. Mit Er- lauterungen von Richard Bohn.

Histoire som- maire de ses origines et de son de'ueloppement jusqu'au Ve siecle avant Jesus-Christ. Kelsey. LENORMANT ET DE WITTE = Ch. Lloyd. 1904. Berlin. = Henri Lechat. Vitruvii de architectura libri decem. 1889. Auflage. LECHAT. 1836. Attique = Henri Lechat. Romer und neueren Baumeister. Rome. neu bearbeitete. Published in Penrose. Memoir on the Systems of Pro- portion employed in the design of the Doric Temples at Phigaleia and Aegina. Pompeii. L'art etrusque. La sculpture attique avant Pheidias. Paper no. Le temple grec. Paris. 111-116. MAUCH = J. Elite des monuments ceramographiques. 1902. Excavations at Mega- 1890-1891. Abstract of the paper read at the Royal Institute of Brit- ish Architects. Suppl. Mauch. Sc. 13 June. and its exemplification in detail in the Parthenon. v. 4 vols. J. 1833. . pp. v. 1 of Society for Promotion of lopolis Hellenic Studies. MAUCH. MARTHA = Jules Martha. Mauch. 1887. 1904. Au- torisierte Deutsche Bearbeitung der Cavallari-Holm'schen Topograjia Archeologica di Siracusa. Debacq. Berlin. Me'taponte. Paris. London. London. LLOYD-COCKERELL = W. W. Detailbuch zu den Architekton- ischen Ordnungen der Griechen. Lenormant et J. 1875. 1850. De Witte. MAU = August Mail. Paris. Die Bauwerke bearbeitet von Julius Kohte. Principles of Athenian Architecture (1888). Paris. Paris. 1844-1861. MAR INI = Luigi Marini. Translated by Francis W. Die Architektonischen Ordnungen der Griechen und Romer. LUPUS = Bernhard Lupus. grec. 4 vols. Die Bildwerke bearbeitet von Carl Watzinger. Megalopolis = Robert Weir Schultz and others. Bericht iiber die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen der Jahre 1891-1893 von Carl Humann. 1859. Detailbuch = J. DE LUYNES = Le Due de Luynes et F. On the General Theory of Pro- portion in Architectural Design. W. Lohde. mit Text von L. Die Stadt Syrakus im Alterthum. Strassburg. Siebente.384 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LECHAT. Temp. Published in CockerelPs Temples at Aegina and Bassae near Phigaleia. LLOYD-PENROSE = W. New York. 63-94. pp. Berlin. Magnesia = Magnesia am Maeander. 1899. M. M. 1892. Lloyd. 1860.

Textband II. Die Baudenkmaler. 1 vol. Histoire de I'art dans Vantiquite. Philosophical Trans- actions of the Royal Society for 1897. OVERBECK = J. Eine Studie zu den Di'. 1308. Griechischer Theaterbau. Pullan. T N EWTON = C. 1888. 1862. 1882-1903. Philos. 2 vols. PENNETHORNE = John Pennethorne.Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung. Geschichte der griechischen Plastik. Paris. PERROT ET CHIPIEZ = Georges Perrot et Charles Chipiez. 1892. Pergamon = Altertumer von Pergamon. PAULY-WISSOWA = Pauly's Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Alter- turnswissenshaft. The Remains of Ancient Rome. Herausgegeben im Auftrage das koniglich preussischen Ministers der geistlichen Unterrichts. Trans. 1892-1896. -TTAY^ANIOY ELLAAO^ TTEPIHrH^I^. 1886. PENROSE = Francis Cranmer Penrose. Vol. 1882. and Branchidae. PENROSE. Paris. Roy. London. P. MURRAY. Handbook of Greek Archaeolonn New York.Neue Bearbeitung unter Mitwirkung zahlreieher Fachgenossen herausgegeben von Georg Wissowa. Berlin. OEMICIIEN = Oemichen. Newton. An Investigation of the Prin- ciplesof Athenian Architecture. F. 1878. A History of D<scoveries at Halicarnassus. Penrose. On the Orienta- tlm of Greek Temples and the Dates of their Foundation derived from Astronomical Considerations. S. NOACK = Ferdinand Noack. 1894- PAUS. assisted by R. 190 A. Overbeck. 1893-1894. 2 vols. 8 vols. Cnidus. Henry Middleton. 2 ^-ols. Ed. published.und medicinal.London. Die Tngenieurtechnik im Alterthum. Berlin. plates. The Geometry and Optics of Ancient Architecture. Ber- lin. text.Angelegenheiten. Tafelband I. Leipzig. 2c . Olympia = Olympia. MIDDLETON = J. Homerische Palaste. 1899. In course of publication since 1885. Die . London. New edit London. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 385 MERCKEL = Curt Merckel.nkmalern und zum Epos. 1903. Herausgegeben von Ernst Curtius und Friedrich Adler. Stuttgart. Soc. London. Dindorf. X892. Leipzig. C. Murray. T. = A. Hdbk. Paumniae Descriptio Graeciae. being a Supplement to a paper published in the Transactions of the Royal Society in 1893.

386 LIST OP ABBREVIATIONS PERROT ET GUILLAUME = Georges Perrot et Edmond Giiillaurae. with chapters by Cecil Smith. 1886. Kahun = W. London. unter Mitwirkung von G. PETRIE. Das Erechtheion zu Athen. PLINY = C. 1862. PRISSE D'AVENNES = Prisse d'Avennes. Paris. Berlin. 1901. PETRIE = W. 1904. H. Translated by Joseph Thacher Clarke. Plinius Secundus. Flinders Petrie. 1903. Winne- feld. Cap. Paris. Paris. Littre. Marchandon de la Faye. M. = Otto Puchstein. Reisenin Lykien. Didymes. Die Gesetzmdssigkeit der grie- chischen Baukunst. Historia naturalis. 1891. . Berlin. Flinders Petrie. REINHARDT = Robert Reinhardt. 1888. History of Ancient Art. Leip- zig. New York. Priene = Priene. 1889. 1904. REBER = Franz von Reber. Eine archi- tektonische Untersuchung. = Otto Puchstein. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuch- ungen in den Jahren 1895-1898. 1887. Ed. 1883. Ion. Naukratis = W. W. Voyage archeologique en Grece et en Asie Mineure. Histoire de I'art egyptien d'apres les monuments. PUCHSTEIN. Part I. PUCHSTEIN. Berlin. etc. Paris. Zahn. M. Flinders Petrie. Milyas. REINACH-LEBAS = Philippe Lebas. PETERSEN UND VON LUSCHAN = Eugen Petersen und Felix von Luschan. Texte par P. QUAST = Ferdinand von Quast. and Gurob. 1889-1890. 1862. Die lonische Sdule. Stutt- : gart. and Barclay V. Kahun. See Koldewey und Puchstein. Haussoullier. von Theodor Wiegand und Haris Schrader. 1907. Fouilles de 1895 et 1896. M. Publiees et commentees par Salomon Reinach. Erster Theil Der Theseustempel in A then. PUCHSTEIN Otto Puchstein. Wien. PONTREMOLI ET HAUSSOULLiER = E. und Kibyratis. Berlin. 1879. 1895. Saul. Ernest Gardner. R. Egyptian Decorative Art. Exploration archc'ologique de la Galatie et de la Bithynie. Wilberg. PETRIE. Paris. Naukratis. Head. London. Das lonische Capitell. Die griechische Biihne. Illahun. Ion. Libri 37. PUCHSTEIN UND KOLDEWEY. Pontremoli (architecte) et B. New York and London. 1887. 1884-1885. 2 vols. Kummer. 2 vols.

Atlas of Classical Antiquities. Ch. SITTL = Karl Sittl. Texte et Atlas. Edited by William Smith. 112 Tafeln. Berlin. Vol. [= Vol. Leipzig. E Mariudin. London. New York. STERRETT = J. Arthur Strong. STIEGLITZ = C. Reliefb. Der Tempel der Nike Apteros. SCHLIEMANN. Stieglitz. DE ROCHAS = A. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings of Tiryns. SCHLIEMANN. SCHREIBER. Mykenae. 1894. Murdoch Smith and E. 1888. SEMPER. 1839. Leipzig. Archaeologie der Baukunst der Griechen >md Romer. A. 1891. L. Nachtceisung tierProportionality in den Bauwerken des griechischen Altertmns. Schliemann's Excavations. Ross. SMITH AND PORCHER = R. 1895. '2 vols. Principes de la fortification cntique. 1864. E. Archaeologie der Kunst.MUller. Bemerk. . Myken. = Theodor Schreiber. 2 vols. Vorlauf. Handbuch der klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft. 1834. Paris. London and New York. 1864. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 387 RENAN = Ernest Renan. The Wolfe Expedition to Asia Minor. Weimar. Paris. 1878. His- ory of the Recent Discoveries at Cyrene made during an Expedition to he Cyrcnaica in 1860-1861. Han- nover. Hell. = Heinrich Schliemann. = Gottfried Semper. Schaubert.den A Iten. Schultz. Sterrett. Porcher. Lon- <ton. Altona. SMITH = A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. R. Vorldnfige Bemerk- mgen ilber bemalte A rchitektur und Plastik bei. Schreiber. Tiryns. 1801. Schuclihardt. Papers of American School of Classical Studies at Boston. Mission de Phenicie. Roman Sculpture from Augustus to Constantine. STRONG = Mrs. SCHULTZ = W. III. 1881. 1895. 1907. Hansen. New York. SCHUCHHARDT C. Bericht rber meine Forschungenund Entdeckungen in Mykenae und Tiryns. Athens. 1885. 1890-1891. Linden. de Rochas d'Aighm. 1891. S. Die Hellenistischen Reliefbilder. Tiryns = Henry Schliemann. Die Harmonie in der Baukunst. London. (T. SCHREIBER = Th. G of I wan von !. Ross-ScnAUBERT-IlANSEN = L. William Wayte.~\ Munich.

Le temple de te Jerusalem. 1899. Leipzig. Description de VAsie Mineure. 3 vols. de Vogiie. 4 vols. 1904. 1891-1903. 2 vols. 3 vols. 1841- . 1864. De architectura libri decem. Berlin. 1 vol. Paris. Doerpfeld. Paris. STUART AND REVETT = John Stuart and Nicholas Revett. Herausgegeben von Theodor Wiegand unter Mitwirkung von W. 1 vol. 1821-1822. TUCKERMANN = Tuckermann. The Argive Heraeum. = le C Melchior de Vogiie. Das Odeum des Herodes Atticus und der Regilla in Athen. Gillieron. Boston and New York. Vitruvius Pollio. Die Konstruktionen und die Kunsfformen der Architektur. 1868. Berlin. Antiquity. Lon- don. London. Cassel u. plates. Moriographie du Haram-ech-cherif. 2 vols. text. TORR = Cecil Torr. 1762-1796. Byz. TEXIER = Charles Texier. 2 vols. Paris. 1902-1904. 1839-1849. Paris. London. 2 vols. Waddington. Bonn. 1842-1852. Leipzig. Taylor and Edward Cresy. H. WINCKELMANNSPROGRAMME = Programme zum Winckelmannsfeste der archaeologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin. WALDSTEIN = Charles Waldstein. Armenie = Charles Texier. Denkm.388 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS STRZYGOVVSKI. 1865. H. New York. Schrader. I. by Valentine Rose. WIEGAND = Die archaische Poros. Ancient Ships. la Perse et la Mesopotamie. Jerus. Irving Manatt. 1865. 4 vols. VITRUVIUS = M. Vienna.Architektur der Akropolis zuAthen. La Syrie Centrale. TSOUNTAS-MANATT Chrestos Tsountas and J. The Mycenaean Age. The Archi- tectural Antiquities of Rome. The An- tiquities of Athens. Architecture civile et religieuse du Ier au VII6 siecle. Ihre Entstehung und geschichtliche -Entwickelung bei den verschiedenen Volkern. Boston andNew York. DE VOGUE = Le Comte Melchior de Vogue et W. 1895. Description de VArmenie. TAYLOR AND CRESY = G. 1906. Temp. A History of Architecture. = Josef Strzygowski. Ed. UHDE = Constantin Uhde. (3 published). Cambridge. Watzinger und W. 1902-1905. Byzantinische Denkmaler. L. suivie d'un essai sur la Topographic de la Ville-Sainte par M. E. Vol. C. STURGIS = Russell Sturgis. DE VOGUE. TEXIER AND PULLAN = The Principal Ruins of Asia Minor. 1897. TEXIER. Wilberg.

78 35 19. . Gsell. Fox collection of photo- graphs 26 10. Athens. . Penrose. . Etudes. 340. PI. 75 . Taf. Notched masonry at Eretria. but unequal..15 8. II. PI. Choisy. Choisy. Roofing tiles hooked together. Base from Erechtheion. Samml. XI... Tenons for lifting drums of columns. I. . German" Institute photograph . 337 . Diatonikon masonry. Bliimner II. Polygonal masonry from Sarnikon. 347 . . Schuchhardt. Tiryns. 719 9 6. VII. Athens. M 44 23. Floor of Arsenal at Peiraieus. 21 32 15-18. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. PI. . German Institute photo- graph 29 13. from Lenormant et De Witte. Athens. 16 . . Clamps of various shapes. 52 . coursed masonry from Agrippa Monu- ment. Curved adze. Choisy. 2 . I. Hoof construction of Arsenal at Peiraieus. Perrot et Chipiez. 27 11. PAGE 1. 25. 37 4 2. Oesterr. 42 22. Taf. Jb. VI. 36 20. Delphi. 7 3. I. Retaining wall of Temple of Apollo. Photograph by A. PI.18 9. Door-frame at Naxos. Etudes. Gallery of South Wall. Athens. Choisy. Brick wall bonded with wood. 41 .46 46 24. . Bohn. 49 Epistyle from Parthenon. Wall of a building at Bir Sgaoun. Olympia. Photograph by A. Equal coursed masonry at Magnesia. PL 2 12 7. VII. Fox collection of photographs 37 21. German Institute photo- graph 30 14. Sarcophagus from Gjolbaschi-Trysa. Perrot et Chi- piez. Base from Temple of Nike. 24 10 6. 347 . Regular. Durm.. . . Algeria. Anathyrosis from wall of Propylaia. . Perrot et Chipiez. . Kunsth. 389 . I. 330 28 12. M. 8 4. Restoration of Proto-Doric Entablature.

15 coffering. 68 . Taf. Base of Temple at Stratos in Akarnania. showing set-backs. Acropolis wall. 18 70 47.. Triglyphal frieze of Parthenon. . Plan of Anta from Temple of Zeus. Fig. II. Base of statue of Nike. .68 42. Parthenon Penrose. 15 71 48. . Doerpfeld. Apsidal wall of Byzantine Church. . . 59 33. Plan of Anta from Temple D. 4 71 50. Olympia. . . 53 30. 66 39. of Theron's Tomb. 92. Olympia. Cornice of Temple D. . . Olympia. Selinous. . Fig. . Anta base from the Theseion.. I. Olympia. Taf. Troja und Ilion. Paestum. 71 52. . Penrose. I. Tiryns.Paestum. Penrose. Taf. * Olympia. Olympia. . . Olympia. Wall crown of Erechtheion. . Pergamon. Taf. Koldewey und Puchstein. II. PI.. Etudes. 2. PAGE 26. Acroterion block of the Parthenon. I. 13 71 --49. Koldewey und Puchstein.. . Base of Kyniskos statue. Wall of Arsenal at Peiraieus.. .65 38. Taf. Akragas. 109 49 27. .. . Selinous. PI. Olympia. Base of Roman statue.. Olympia. 67 40. 70 46. 17 . 48 . 7 68 44. PI. Epistyle of Temple D. Plan of Anta from Troy. . PI. Wall crown from Temple of Zeus. Plan of Anta from Temple of Poseidon. Taf. . . 54 31. From German Institute photograph Podium .62 37. From German Insti- L tute photograph . . I.61 35. Athens. 23 70 45. II. Olympia. 51 28. . Olympia. Ch. 93 . 71 51. 62 36. I. Schliemann. 12 68 43... From a photograph . Wall of circular building at the Marmoria. M . Olympia. Taf. I. .. 2 .. 890 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. Athens.. III. . . Koldewey und Puchstein. 9 . Plan of Anta from the Heraion. Delphi. 1 W . I. 81. PL 7 . : . Photograph by Sommer 60 34. 109 62 29. Olympia. 17 . Selinous. Photograph ' by A. . Olympia. Plan of Anta from Tiryns. 94 . . Choisy.* . Stuart and Revett. Stuart and Revett.72 . II. Plan of Anta from the Enneastylos. . Anta base from the Stadion. . Podium of Temple of Despoina at Lykosoura. 68 41. . Koldewey und Puch- stein. Taf." -. . *. Taf.* . Olympia. PI. 57 32. Koldewey und Puchstein. Delphi. PI. Ch. Taf. . Wall of Treasury of Phocaeans. From a photograph . .

IV. 16 . 77 64. III. Gateway at Messene. Gateway at Assos. 3 73 73 58. Athens.. Mont Olympe.. Antiq. II. Anta capital from the Enneastylos. 7 75 63. Taf. Petrie. PL 14 'I 74 59. Paestum. 77 65. Naukratis.77 67. VI. .78 69. PL 11 . Bohn.H. Ion Antiq II. . 162 77 66. Lechat et De- frasse. Miletos. Ch. 341.of Nike. Heuzey. Taf. Koldewey. 11 79 74. Hansen.. 81 T 6. 5 81 75. Doorway of Tomb at Orchomenos. Anta capital from the Temple of Apollo. Perrot et Chipiez... Fig. Tav. Gateway at Phigaleia. Low Doric base from Greek Temple at Pompeii. II. Schliemann. Athens. Gateway at Oiniadai. Mont Olympe.'/ 72 55. . Base from Naukratis.78 73. PL 15 . . 3. PL 3 . VII.77 08. Perrot et Chipiez. 6 Anta capital -. Fig. PI..82 77. 75 62. VII. 10 Anta base from . Antiq. Base from the Temple of Dionysos.S. 10 74 60. Ch. PL 15 . Aetolia. Ferret et Chipiez. I. J. PL 15 . VII. Anta capital from the Theatre at Epidauros.. Ephesos. Anta capital from Temple of Poseidon. I (1882). Assos Report. . Taf.. 211 . . . 23 . Heuzey. Window from Temple of Concordia. PI. Heuzey. I. 13. Mont Olympe. Ross-Schau- bert-Hansen. Fig. PL 11 . Ion. . X (1889). Selinous. . Taf. 78 71.. Akragas. Anta capital from Temple G. Gateway at Oiniadai. Perrot et Chipiez.. Fig. Stuart and Revett. 11 72 56. PL 3 78. Ion. Von Duhn und Jacobi. Ross-Schaubert- Stuart and Revett II Ch II 72 '. Base from Kolumdado. PL 11. Gateway at Elaios. Fig. 54. 79. Serradifalco. VII. Perrot et Chipiez. Lesbos. Athens. PL 25 82 . ..! from the Propylaia. Gateway at Assos. 18 75 61. Sounion. Taf. Clarke. the Erechtheion. Teos. Myken. Anta capital from the Erechtheiou. .. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 391 FIG " PAGE Anta base from the Temple 53. Anta capital from the Temple of Nike.. Koldewey und Puchstein. Base from archaic Temple of Artemis. Gateway at Mycenae. PL 27 . PL 11 .78 72. .. . Gateway at Oiniadai. 78 70. Hittorff et Zaiith. PI 57.

5 92 94. 85 Dion. Base from inner order of the Propylaia. 84 82. VII. Mycenae. Perg. Kolde- wey. VII. Cockerell. IV. . Base from the Erechtheion. Part IV. 4 93 96. . Archaic capital from Athens. Taf. Shaft from Tavola dei Paladini. Antiq. Echinus capital from the Heraion. PI. VII. Ch.. Ion. Ch. Temp. 28 83 80. Plat-band necking on capital from the Erechtheion. . 5 . Archaic capital from Athens. . PL 6 95 100. Penrose. 1 92 95. 74. VII. Ion. PI. PL 3 96. PL 53. 5 * .. 88 88. Taf. Ross- Schaubert-Hansen. I. Hittorff et Zanth.. I. I. Base from the Leonidaion. Ion.85 . . 4. Shaft from the Propylaia. Ch. PI. Perrot et Chipiez. d'Espouy. I. 65 . PL 53. 624 91 93. 7 95 101. Olympia. 14 91 91. Base from the Temple of Dionysos. Concave necking on capital from Temple D. Base from the Temple of Dionysos Bresaios. 11 84 83. 11 . Base from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. Ion Antiq. 3. IV. Perrotet Chipiez. Pulvinus of capital from the Palaistra. Stuart and Revett. . PI. PI. Pulvinus of capital from the Temple of Apollo. Selinous. : . VII. Athens. Ch. Antiq. Shaft in relief from Lions' Gate. Taf. 7 . Athens. 14 87 87. Pulvinus of archaic capital from Athens. 5 95 98. De Luynes et * Debacq. 5 94 97. II. Perrot et Chipiez. Priene. PI.392 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. 5. 85 86. PL 10 95 99. 1 . Athens. Archaic capital from Delos. Pergamon. PL 53. Olympia. II. . Convex necking on capital from Neandreia. 85 84. . Perrot et Chipiez. Apophyge on shaft from the Temple of Nike. PI. Antiq. PAGE 79. Apophyge on shaft from the Temple of Apollo. Athens. PL. II. Priene. Phigaleia. VI. Pennethorne.90 90. Olympia. PI.. Perrot et Chi- piez. 32 91 92. 33 88 89. PI. 84 81. Metapontum. Stuart and Revett. Lesbos. Taf.. Perrot et Chipiez. Athens. Bohn. Base from the pronaos of the Temple of Athena.. r ' x . 11 . . PI. Miletos. Pulvinus of capital from the Temple of Athena. Olympia.. PL 53. Samos.

98 107. 112. Durm. Newton. I. 21 99 114. d'Espouy.. Dunn.. Plan of abacus of Monument of Lysicrates. Selinous. Wiegand. Athens. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of Propylaia. I. PI.. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of Tholos at Epidauros. Abacus of the Erechtheion. Kolde- wey und Puchstein. 51 123. Kolde- wey und Puchstein. 115.98 108. 7 106 122. Echinus of capital . Temp.. Bell-shaped capital from Tower of the Winds. 113. 251 . 116.99 111. Ch. . Athens.. . Penrose. .. S. Le- chat et Defrasse. . Fig. Paestum. 7 97 106. PI. Bohn. . from the Temple Olympia. Pergamon. Antithema of Epistyle from the Olympieion. I. Akra- gas. 64 100 . Athens. . Heraion. 3 103.. 99 99 . '. 172 104 119. d'Espouy. Magnesia. Stuart and Revett.. Pen- rose. . 22 . 97 105. 107 Magnesia. Antithema of Epistyle from the Temple of Artemis. 2 . . 51 . Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of Temple of Concordia. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 393 FIG - PAGE 102. Dion. Olympia. Echinus of capital from Parthenon. 17 l fi 124. Abacus of the Leonidaion. Ant. Athens.. Taf. Choisy. PI. Perg. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of the Temple of Artemis. Magnesia. Athens. 16 . . . d'Espouy. Athens. PI. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of Old Temple of Athena. Cyma recta moulding on votive column. Athens. 98 109. 3. 1 . Abacus of the Parthenon.. Koldewey und Puchstein. Penrose. 286 99 110. 7 106 121. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of Temple C. Olympia of Poseidon. Durm. PI. . Antithema of Epistyle of Temple of Demeter. 38 100 . PI. Plan of abacus of corner column. Crowning Moulding of Epistyle of Temple of Nike. Athens. PL 14 Abacus of the Mausoleion at Halikarnassos. Athens. I QQ Aures. Abacus of the Olympieion. 29 . 31 104 120. PI. Taf. 103 104 118. PI. 293 107 125. Abacus of Monument of Lysicrates. . PI. Taf. 105 Magnesia. Conical capital from the Taf. Paestum.. I. 22.Denk. Erechtheion. 104 117. .. Olympia.. Cyma recta moulding on capital from the Temple of Dionysos. 399 . 7 m 104.

Convex' Frieze from the Temple of Zeus. Frieze of Stoa of Hadrian. 14 . Koldewey und Puchstein. Cornice with coffering from the Temple of Demeter. 9 114 141. 13 117 147. 112 137. Ch. Triglyph from the Temple of Concordia. Labranda. Athens. III. Kolde- wey und Puchstein. 2. Texier. . Cornice with mutules from the Temple of Zeus. I. . . Bohn. 110 130. Olympia. PI. Olympia. 30 118 . Stuart and Revett. 35. . . 3. Miletos. Ceiling beam from the Temple of Zeus.. Taf. Ch. Aizanoi. . PI. I. Taf. . Cornice with dentils from Priene. I. Benndorf and Niemann. Subdivided cornice from the Treasury of Gela. Semicircular grooves. from the Temple of Apollo.. Frieze of the Propylon. Stuart and Revett. .. 4 . Paestum. 109 127. Lechat et Defrasse. . '. Triglyph from Temple C. 39 . Tav. Taf. 139. Olympia.109 129. Akragas. 68. 6 .. PI. Ceiling beam from Parthenon. Triangular grooves. 2. Temple of Apollo. 117 146. PAGE 126. Priene. .110 131. Ch. Dentil frieze from Tomb of Amyntas. Pis.113 . 100 V: . Priene. .110 132. . II. Metaponttiin. 134-135 . Ceiling beam from the Temple of Apollo. 17 113 140. 138. and without. I. PI. Priene. 41 115 144. PI. . Olympia. ' Serradi- falco. 110 133. 74 . Athens. I. 13 .111 135. Taf. Mauch. Triglyph from the Treasury of Metapontum.112 . Temple of Poseidon.. Stuart and Revett. Cornice with consoles from interior of Tower of Winds. . Koldewey und Puchstein. 9 116 145." . Ch. . Athens. 42 . 7 . 19 . Selinous. -. 5 Ill 136. Taf. 4 . Antiq. Cornice of Erechtheion. Figs. Ill 134. PI. Lechat et Defrasse. Koldewey und Puchstein. Ion.114 142. 8 115 143. Cockerell. . Telmessos.. Olympia. 1. Cyma recta Frieze from the Tholos at Epidauros. 109 128. II. . Olym- pia. beams. .. I. . 29 . Haussoul- lier. PI. Triglyph from the Tholos at Epidauros. PI.394 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. Coffered ceilings with. . . Triglyph from the Propylaia. 4. Athens. 13 . Paestum. Taf. Phigaleia.

Taf. Durm. II. 115 from Mycenae. PI. Taf. Scroll pattern 173.. Perrot et Chipiez. Priene. 41 151 167. Taf. 2 . Olympia. Taf. Taf. Priene. 118. Sima of the Parthenon. Taf. Sima with water spout. I. 2 152 170. Olympia. PI. 3 . 154. 2 1^2 7. . Olympia. Ridge tile from the Temple of Aphaia. Cofferings from the Philippeion. Athens.. Olympia. Sima of the Temple of Athena. Maeander from the Treasury of Sikyon. Lozenge decoration of ceiling of the Philippeion. Penrose. I. 283 . II. Olympia. II. Aegina. Sima of the Treasury of Gela. Olympia. 122 and Revett. Lateral acroterion from the Old Temple of Athena.. Scroll pattern from Olympia. PI. Taf. II. . PI. 2 . 113. 137 . 149.. Olympia. Wiegand. Taf. III. 68 Stuart and Revett 118 119 150. Fig. Olympia.. building. Olympia. 8 150 164. II. I.. Taf. 1 123 158. Olympia. 7 . Fig. 169. Olympia.. Cockerell. XIII. Roof tiles from the Treasury of Gela. 2 172. 17 Roof tiles from the Monument of Lysicrates. Olympia. 10 123 156. . . 113. et Chipiez. VI. Central acroterion from the Heraion. Taf. II. 84 124 162. 82. 124 161. Fig. 9 125 163. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 395 FIG - PAGE Cofferings from the Theseion. Maeander from the Treasury of Gela.. 3 171. Olympia. II. Penrose. Olympia. 82. Olympia.. PI. Olympia.. Maeander from archaic cornice from Athens.152 168. 148. . 118. Athens. Wiegand. Olympia. Taf. 1. Bead and reel. Olympia. Athens Museum. 08 . 3 123 155. Stuart . PI. Taf. Ch. . Mycenae. Priene. 4. 150 Zigzag ornament from the Tholos of Atreus. Roof tiles from the Parthenon. 41 123 157. Perrot 165. VI. 99 122 153. Taf. Olympia. Taf. . Priene. Maeander from the S. Ch. Olympia. II. II. Maeander from Olympia. PI.! Cofferings from the Temple of Athena. also egg and dart ornament. II. Roof tiles from the Heraion. Scroll pattern from the Heraion. Aegina. 13 . Athens. 74. 123 160. Taf.E. II. 79 119 151. Cockerell. Sima of the Temple of Aphaia. 123 159. Olympia. Olympia. Olympia. 121 152. 151 166.

Egg and dart pattern from Olympia. 113. 4 . II. 118. Anta capital from Aegina. 1 154 . . Scroll patternfrom the Erechtheion. 166 194. Taf. Olympia. 172 200. . Steps from the Philippeion. 177. Olympia. 157 184. 121. . . Rosette pattern from Olympia. Epikranitis from the Temple of Aphaia. . 158 185. Wiegand.. II. 162 164 166 193. 12 153 175. 23 . 179.177 203. Ionic leaf pattern from the Acropolis Museum. Quast. 7. Wiegand. Olympia. M. Rosette pattern from Tiryns. Texier and Pullan. ' Fenger. 2 Archaic antefix in A. Olympia. Taf. Selinous. private collection Steps from the Leonidaion. Pavement from palace at Phaistos. . Fox collection of photographs . Palmette pattern from the Leonidaion. Abth. Olympia. 2 . Cockerell. 176. PAGE 174. Profile of door-tracks from the Temple of Athena. Taf. . 3 155 . PI. Taf. note- book 167 196.. Tiryns. .3 . 8-9 171 199. 156 181. Taf. Priene. Winck- 191. Olympia. 41. Western window. . 1 . . . 9. . . M. Epikranitis from the Parthenon. A. Anta capital from the Parthenon. 120. 1 . II. 157 183. 167 195. Wiegand. Braid pattern from Athens. r. 9. Taf. 159 187. . PL 6 . M. I. . 5 . PI. Pis. Athens. y_ . M. 9. II. Rosette pattern from Athens. Palmette and lotus pattern from Olympia. Olympia. Taf. Door-tracks from the Temple of Athena. Taf. . Pilaster capital from the Temple of Apollo. 4 . . . Olympia.. Rosette pattern from Epidauros.. Fig. II.178 204. photograph 170 198. 6 . 162 190. PI. Palmette and lotus pattern from Temple C. PI. notebook 168 197. Doric leaf pattern from the Temple of Themis at Rhamnous. Taf. . . 7. notebook . 1 . Cockerell. M. . 180. PL 23 . PI. II.. Penrose. Taf. 161 189. I. . 154 . Taf. Miletos. .154 . d'Espouy. Athens. 160 188.396 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. Taf. 4 . Schuchhardt. 290 155 . Olympia. North door of the Erechtheion. Ceiling of Tholos at Orchomenos. Braid pattern from Athens. A. Erechtheion. . Olympia. Wall from Priene. 2 . . 8 . 123.179 . Braid pattern from Athens. 178. 192. Lechat et Defrasse. 66 . Fox collection of photographs 175 202. Aegina. . Wiegand. Penrose. elmannsprogramme. . Braid pattern from Athens. . Priene. . Taf. . 7. 2 156 182. Wiegand. 174 " 201.159 186. A. A. Taf. Taf. Doric leaf pattern from Olympia. Schliemann. 80 .

Paestum. 40. d'Espouy. Crete.205. M. . of capital from Magnesia. Athens. PI. Anta capital from Ancyra. Capital from the Palaistra. 179 206. Column base from North Porch of Erechtheion. d'Espouy. Column channellings from Pergamon. 3 186 213. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 397 FIG. Column channellings from the Temple of Demeter. Taf. Olympia. Taf. A. of capital from Paestum. Anta capital from the Propylon at Pergamon. PI. Homolle. Column base from the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. Ch. PAGE . 12 187 215.181 . 6 188 217. . Ephesos. 40. photograph . PI. PI. Aizanoi. 233. 230. Pergamon. Pergamon. Perrot et Guillaume. (1907). German Institute photograph 193 of capital 223. 229. Capital from the Propylaia. Koldewey und Puchstein. Column channellings from the Parthenon. . Taf 30. Stuart and Revett. 20 192 PI. Cockerell. PI. G. Olympia. Taf. Incised annulus from Temple D. 40 191 220. from Fig. 189 photograph . Neck Magnesia. Fig. Olympia. Channellings from the Monument of Lysicrates. 103 99 227. Texier. Krell. Annuli from Phigaleia. 191 218. 21 185 211. Stuart and Revett. 186 212. Kanephoros from Knidian Treasury. 31 180 . Magnesia. A. 183 210. Sculptured drum from the Temple of Artemis. A. M. Delphi. II. Neck Puchstein. 25. II. I. Bohn. PI. Taf. Olympia. Perrot et Chipiez. Neck Puchstein. I. 1 224. Capital from Delos. 35 . 221. * photograph . 228. Olympia. 208. photograph 226. I. Column base from early and late Temple of Hera at Samos. II. Neck A. Column channellings from the Temple of Zeus. PI. 222. Fig. 12 232. of capital from Paestum. PI. Fig. Taf. Athens. I. 1 . Fig. Taf. 75 . M. II. 4. M. Ch. PI.197 . Capital Magnesia. 14 231. 9 188 216. Cockerell. Selinous. 20 .B. M. Neck from Mycenae. Capital from Phigaleia. 3. 219. IV. photo- graph 182 209. Capital from the Philippeion. II. VII. Annuli from the Treasury of Gela. 53. . Olympia. 3 . of capital from Naukratis. 8 . 31 186 214. 207. 2 225. Athens. . Channellings from the Tower of the Winds. Column channellings from the Erechtheion.A. Capital on a vase from Hagia Triada. A.

205 243. Priene. . Penrose. 4 .. Penrose. 76 208 247. Taf. . 215 262. PI. 39 . . II. Athens. Olympia. . 12 . Capital from the Philippeion. 35 . Pergamon. 2 209 251. Annuli from Olympia. Koldewey und Puchstein. Photograph from cast .. Pulvinus decoration from Salamis.. 54. 202 . Pulvinus decoration from Delphi. Selinous. . Selinous. PAGE 234. Furtwangler. . II. Annuli from the Parthenon. PI. 3 214 261. . . 208 246. 99 . .. Krell. Durm. Pulvinus decoration from Ionic Temple.. . VII. 206 245. Athens. .398 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. Foucart. . Fox collection Athens.. Capital from the Stoa of Eumenes. 200 237. 2 bis. 1 215 . .. Aegina. 2 210 255.. Taf. 200 236. 155 .. 285 . 199 235. . Athens. M. 23 . . . PI. Stuart and Revett... 204 241. PI. 211 211 259. Pulvinus decoration from Pergamon. 204 242. Fig. A. Capital from the Heraion. Pulvinus decoration from Priene. Mon. 202 Durm. 88 . Annuli from Cadacchio. Pulvinus decoration from Magnesia. . Ch... Stuart and Revett. Taf. 257. 81.. . Fig. 19. 29. PI.211 XIX dyn. Durm. Annuli from Temple C. 105 . Taf. A. Koldewey und Puchstein. Capital from the Erechtheion. 37 . 210 254. Magnesia. Ant. 203 239. Pergamon. . Capital from the votive offering of Aischines. Taf 27 . 84 208 248. . Capital from Thebes. Capital from the Theatre of Dionysos. Capital from Samothrace. IV. Taf. . . Tav. 258. XVIII dyn. II. . II. Pilaster capital from Megara Hyblaea. 3 209 252. Taf. Olympia. 202 213 260. Annuli from Old Temple. photograph . Egypt. II. Conze-Hauser-Benndorf. Capital from El Bersheh. Pulvinus decoration from the Erechtheion. 2. 1.. I. Denk. Samos. Capital from the Olympieion. Pergamon. 1 . Cyprus.-". Egypt. Fig. Durm. 203 240. Ant. . . Olympia. I. .. No. of 212 Fig. Perrot et Chipiez. 256.. Annuli from Temple D. Monument of Lysicrates. Taf. Pergamon. II. Capital from Thebes. . photographs Capital from . Durm. Annuli from Agora Gate.. Ch. Fig. . Athens. Fig. 208 249. Capital from Phigaleia. Egypt. 203 238. Fig. 210 253.208 250.Fig. 25. Perga- mon... 285 . . photograph 205 244. Capital from the Tholos at Epidauros. M.

Fig. Taf. Taf. . 216 265. PI. . Ch. 74 . Priene. I. 30 217 267... Wiegand. Fig. PL 8 230 2. Abacus from Aphrodisias. 30 228 2S1. Epistyle crown from altar at Pergamon. . Lechat et Defrasse. Taf. Cap moulding of frieze. Haussoul- PL 10 232 lier.. 255. VI (1899-1900). . Frieze from Treasury of the Knidians. Stuart and Revett. Fig. . Denk. I. . 226 278: Frieze from the Stoa at Pergamon. II. II. .. 11 224 276. PI. soffit. PI. Taf. Dentils from Priene. Texier and Pullan. II. Olympia. . Pergamon. 22 . 216 264. Ch. Koldewey und Puch- stein. .)!. 272. II. 22 . 28 . Magnesia. Taf. IV. Pergamon. 35 Priene. Abacus from Olympia. 76 . Olijmpia.S. Homolle. Fenger. 58 soffit . Capital from the votive offering of Evenor. Fig. 29. German Institute photo- graph 222 274. 1. Metope from the Old Temple of Athena.. . Dentils and inter-dentils. 2 .. I.. Erechtheion. Cornice crown from the Erechtheion. 7 . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 399 FI <*. . Priene. . Ill. Magnesta. Epistyle Epistyle Epistyle soffit. Homolle. IV. 2 . PAGE 263. 275 . Pergamon. PI. Pergamon. 68. Taf. Newton. Cap moulding of frieze. 10. Pergamon. II. Pergamon. PI. 70 from Pergamon. Dentils from the Temple of Apollo near Miletos. Priene. 5 .. PI. 227 280. Texier and Pullan. 235 2 '. Metope decoration from Thermon. Cap mouldings of frieze. PL 41 223 275. Frieze from the Propylon. 117 200. Cornice from the Treasury of Gela. . PI. Figs.A. 285 . IV. 231 287. 230 288. 218 219 269. 5 .. . 29. 271. Jhb. Delphi. Delphi. 2. Parthenon. Penrose. . Epistyle from Myra. 230 284. 216 266. Frieze from Propylon. Frieze from Knossos. . II. B. Cornice crown from the Parthenon. 45 Epistyle from the Parthenon. 268. 227 279. 229 2<S2. 16 220 270. Stuart and Revett. II. . 8 236 Ch. Triglyph from Temple C. Metope from Treasury of Athenians.. 288. . 34 soffit . 256. . . Pergamon. Priene. Selinous. 220 2-J1 273. . . Halikarnassos. Abacus from Athens. III. ^*. .221 .225 277. 14 . 233 239. 9 . Stuart and Revett. Taf. Ant. Cornicefrom Epidauros. Taf 35. Athens. Taf. . . . Olympia.

38 263 . and Taf. 304. Olympia. Complex from Kangovar.. . Taf. Sima from Epidauros. Taf. Acroterion from the Temple of Aphaia. Taf. Furt- wangler. 314. II. Pergamon. Composition of stylobate and pavement blocks in the Temple of Concordia. Olympia. Blind arcade from the Stoa of Eumenes. Corner blocks of the Arsenal at the Peiraieus. PL 15 . . Armenie.. Magnesia. Ceiling coverings from the Parthenon. Notched corner blocks from Pergamon. . 300. 3 258 . Sima from Temple of Zeus. Mauch. Akragas. Penrose. 21 . 298.. Complex pilasters from the Stadion Gate. Furtwangler. 312. Athens. 49 239 295. Olympia.. . M. Mitt. Taf. Taf. Fig. 301. Selinous. Fox collection of photographs 243 . Photograph by A. Palermo Museum. 9 248 305. 31 243 .. . Aegina. Antefix from the Parthenon. . . M. Taf. Front and lateral pavement of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Aegina. 303. Wiegand. Olympia. 315. 15 244 . II. Sima of the old Temple of Athena. Relation of epistyle to shaft in the Temple of Aphaia. Taf. Corner pier from Magnesia. Priene. A. 299. Ath. PL 66 pilasters . Sima and cornice from Temple F. Olympia. Taf. Acroterion from the Heraion. Mitt. Penrose. Sima from Priene. 245 . Plan of corner epistyle blocks from Temple R. II. I. 62 261 . 9 242 297. PI. PL 24 263 318. Etudes. . 2 . 257 313. I. 33 250 307. II. 48 252 309. 241 296. Athens. Taf. Corinth. photograph . 302. Penrose. Fox collection of photographs . Olympia. Taf. PL 1 249 306. 25 247 . Ill (1878). Taf. .400 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. PAGE 292. 7 . Athens. Relation of epistyle to shaft in Temple C. 253 310. Hittorff et Zanth. PL 3 251 308. 126. . Taf. . Olympia. Olympia. XI (1886). 115 238 294. Choisy. . . Relation of the pronaos and peripteros columns in the Parthe- non. . 29 262 316. Inner view of Ionic corner capital. Relation of frontal to lateral columns in the Temple of Apollo. Hit- torff et Zanth.244 . Koldewey und Puchstein. Taf. I. Fig. Sima from Olympia. Ath. Selinous.. Plan of Ionic corner capital. Selinous. Taf. Texier. 118. 242 .261 . Pergamon. . PL 43 262 317. 7 254 311. Plan of corner epistyle blocks from the Propylaia at Pergamon. 235 293. . . Sima from the Propylaia.

265 322. Messene. 62 . . Taf. 125 294 342. . Fig.. 265 23. . . . The Arcadian Gate. 276 Plan of ceiling beams of peristyle and front porch of the Par- 333.. . 12 . 203. 344. Fig. Priene. Twin dentils from the Ionic Temple at Pergamon.megaron of Demeter. Overhang of gable on the Temple of Zeus. Ill. Parthenon Penrose PI. .. 8. Fountain at Ephesos.' 264 320. 5 Plan of ceiling beams of the Temple of Athena. Penrose. Inward inclination of the entablature. 345. Frazer. Fig. M. Gate D at Mantineia. Corner regulae of the Parthenon. PL 31 274 331. . Doric order of the Parthenon. 281 336. Taf.. . Plan of ceiling beams of the Theseion. Photograph by Sebah . .'J28. Corner of the gable of the. Paved road at Troy. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 401 F[G - PAGE 319.. . 190 . Taf. Pergamon. 267 c24. Corner dentils from Priene front view. . Bohn. III. Athens. Priene. Olympia. IV. Butler 288 339. restored. Pans. Taf. Penrose. C. Olympia. Tower at Messene. 273 330. Priene. 145 . Corner triglyph from the Treasury of Selinous. . 273 329. 430. IV. . Athens.264 321. Propylaia..26. I. . Outward lean of the epistyle. PI. 166 275 332. X 343. 53 293 Schliemann. Photograph by H. Corner dentils from Priene viewed from below. . (1885). Fig. Propylaia at Tiryns. Priene. . 9 . . Olyinpia. Corner regulae of the North Stoa. Altar from Pergamon. 270 i. German Institute photograph . German Institute photograph . 78 N . 278 335. 334. 271 '!27. 293 341. Taf. 287 338. Corner triglyph from the Treasury of Megara.' . 38 268 i. Berlin Museum photograph .7 . Photograph by A. Penrose. Frazer. Priene.. 277 Priene. From a cast by Brucciani 282 337. I. Corner of gable of Temple C. 1 . near Selinous. Street with colonnades at Palmyra. 26 . Olympia. Olympia. Fig. Koldewey und Puchstein. 144 . 38 271 . Ionic order of the Mausoleion at Halikarnassos. Corner of the gable of the Propylaia.!Mitt. . Pans.25. . . Koldewey und Puch- stein. . Taf. 299 2D . 2 . Fig. thenon. . Tiryns..290 340. Doerpfeld in Ath. 1 . Selinous.. Fig. Olympia. 5 '. Propylaia at Athens. Taf.. PI. Beinhardt. 33. .

333 369. Plan of the Temple of Themis. PAGE 346. Fig. Priene.. 243 . . Front seats in the Theatre of Dionysos. VI (1881). Athens.. Taf. Taf. Plan of the Agora at Magnesia. Book shelves at Pergamon. . 211 316 . Plan of cella of Temple C. 257. 12 . Cavvadias. Photograph by A.A. II 320 . Magnesia. 343 344 377. Mau. Taf. Photograph by A.v.. . II. Ath. Baukunst. s.. 39 301 347. . . Priene. M. Magnesia. 336 371. Olympia. The Stadion. 257. 335 370. 40 . M. Mitt. II. Fig. . XXIX (1904). Priene. Plan of the Temple of Apollo. Magnesia. 217 327 364. Pergamon. 86 366. Fig. Fig. 43 . II. Pergamon. .v. Rhamnous. 117 . 358. 340 374. Frazer. Baumeister. Baukunst. 303 349. Delphi. Benches of the Theatre at Miletos. 338 373. Eleusis. Fig. A. : 310 354. . Plan of the Theatre at Epidauros. . 9 . . 50 342 376. Taf. Magnesia. German Institute photograph . 307 Plan of the Temple of Artemis. . Plan of double Stoa. Water troughs in the Gymnasium. PI. II. s. 359.. 360. 329 330 Photograph by Miss K. Plan of Library at Pergamon. 6 306 Plan of the Tholos at Epidauros. 225 . Magnesia. Gaskell . .. Photograph by A. . Paws. Plan of Theatre at Thorikos. Baumeister. Fig. I.. Taf. 317 . Athens. I. Plan of the Bouleuterion at Priene. Olympia. 73 . Plan of small Bath at Pompeii. Koldewey in Winckelmannsprogramme. Restoration.. .. Guhl und Koner.. 326 Plan of Bath at Oiniadai. 2 . Hittorff et Zanth.. Plan of the Old Temple of Athena. .. Plan of the Parthenon. Fig.. Olympia. 244 .311 355. Fig. Doerpfeld und Reisch.. Theatre at Epidauros. Neandreia. Cavvadias. Stoa of Eumenes. 30 312 356. PI. 365. . II. . Plan of a Hippodrome. . . I. tion of photographs Fox collec- Benches of the Theatre at Epidauros. 452. Fig. Plan of the Prytaneion at Priene. Mitt. Plan of the Temple of Artemis. Fig. Berlin Museum 361. Plan of Palaistra at Olympia.. 6 337 372.315 . . Doerpfeld und Reisch. . 271 . . Plan of the Lesche of the Knidians. 21 303 348. 47 331 368. Fig.. 51 (1891). 367.. Delphi.. The starting line of the Stadion. Olympia. . I. Plan of the Temple of Empedocles.402 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG.. 375.. Olympia. Selinous. Ath.:. Pergamon. VIII (1904). Bouleuterion at Priene. Taf.309 353. Taf.J. Restoration. photograph . Homolle... PI. PI. 304 350. 324 363. .. Selinous. 24 . 70 . 357. 345 . 321 322 362.. 1 . . M. Plan of the Temple of Zeus.

Plan of the Palace at Tiryns. Plan of the Theatre at Termessos. Tomb at Tamossos.A.. I. M. Taf.C. B.. XXII (1897). A. 359 360 387..Skene of the Theatre at Eretria...J. Fig. Mitt. . Skene of the Theatre at Aspendos.. PL 4. . XXII (1897). XII (1908). House No.586.. PI.. No. House on the Street to the Theatre. Torr. Puchstein. 27 351 1582. ..1 388.H. Lanckoronski. Mitt. .A. .362 389. Mausoleion at Halikarnassos. PAGE V>1S. Warship from a Greek vase in the British Museum. B. 11 353 .H. 61. 371 373 392. PI. . B. . 391.Skene of the Theatre at Magnesia. German Institute Heuzey. XIX (1895). 17 363 390. Taf.. Priene. 347 o79. XXIV at Priene. Plan of Roman Theatre according to Vitruvius. XVIII (1894). 384..Parodos of Theatre at Priene. at Pydna. Interior of photograph Doorway of a Tomb . PL 5 36. 10 348 IJ80.C. PL 5 374 . Cyprus. 11 . 132 354. .J. . Ath. Schuchhardt. A. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 403 1'IG. VII (1891).. Restoration by W.. Photograph by A. 452 349 o8l. Delos.. House Photograph by Alinari of the Vettii.. 14 354 .583. . Fig. 355 385. PL 2 . Ath. Dins- moor. ... 301 The Palace at A rne. Mont Olympe.

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56. 37. 239. /3a. 285. wr*s. . 51. 104. 240. 176. 315. 43. ai)X^. 143. 90. 113. 315. ts. s. 5. dSurov. 14. . 90. 112. . 359. 121. 54. . s. 86. 359. 37. 267. s.-. 73. l. /. ?. INDEX OF GREEK WORDS . t. 335. s. 355. OLKpoyeiaiov. . dyopd. 302. 61. ArXavres. icat. s. 307. 90. 14. Vi 353. Si 310.249. Si 37. 37. 121. s. i. 346. 298. d7/cu. d<rT/od7aXos. avXo/.j'es. 54. 296. 106. 359. . s. i. 405 . 326. . f. Vi 325. d?rta. 364. 358. 51. s. im. 193. 80. 98. 45. der6s. 331. 331. 364. v. 90. i. 176. 124. . 52. v. 359. 125. 114. . 328.n6s. s. t. yflffov. 124. 34. . . . i. 300. iS. s. v. 25. 335. t. 150. 318. xtot. 132. . 335. . 112. 315.

. 339. 291. . . 56/tos. 370. . . 341. . 88. s. ?5os. 95. i. 95. 43. 24. 50. 43. . t. . . 108. 341. . 67. 364. v. 5. . . SITI-XT. 53. 26. 91. . 315. 23. a. 314. 7. 292. 291. 365. 34. 296. 325. 42. 108. .406 INDEX OF GREEK WORDS . 41. . s. 132. 325. 73. . 7. 5iTply\v<j>os. 117. 344. 350. . 341. 102. 323. . 315. 361. 31. 292. 7. . . 366. s. 332. 296. s. 361. 42. . 67. j 15. 203. . 322. 102. i'. 47. 322. 108. 42. 302. s. Serfrepa. . 344. . 56. 293. 298. l. . s. s. . 197. 5. iov. . s. 305. 45. s. 334. 104. 45. . 132. 203. 19. . 363. 108. 42. . 311. 143. . 7. t. 121. 302. 45. . . 334. 318.. 298. 8. 5/iruXoj'. 16. . SfoSos. 5e<TM<Ss. . 357. SoKof. So/W. 268. 357. 45. 361. . 364.

t. t. . 121. 237. 364. 371. . 366. o. 353. . 20. . 292. 353. 39. t. 359. 307. 192. 11. 297. 343. iepa. . 306. 325. 56. Kovlarpa. 300. 325. dpavoi. 343. 337. 91. 324. 43. s. 330. a. 339. 7. 192. Mperpa. Iep6s. JS. Kovia. 45. . 361. 163. 56. 303. 300. 11. 45. 06Xoi.. f/fpia. 302. 46. 309. 6r}(ravp6s. KOVlffT'fjplOV. 333. . 300. 306. s. ccirw dpotyal. . *6p<u. era. . 45. 78. 302. 339. 76. 118. KavXiov. 369. . 17. 236. . 341. Ka. 113. 344. 45. 47. . 344. 40. 7. . 108. . 86. 40. . 339. 47. . s.~ 85. 355. 332. 86. s. 45. 91. . . . 45. 124. . Kor/ttjua. /caXu/x/iartcc. 0i/p*5es. 46. 16. s. 308. 91. araierta.vi](f>6poi. 104. . 06Xos. s. 43. 0ipt6/uara. . 291. 20. 337. s. 108. . 55. i'. 358. 173. 108. 327. . 114. 39. . 7. 40. iSes. 151. 0tfpcu. 56. . fycd i/res. 370. . Ki6icpavov. 324. t'/cpiwT^pes. 86. 0pi7/c6s. 294. INDEX OF GKEEK WORDS 407 s. Ke<f)d\aioi>. s. 240. 11. . 358. 40. v. 31. tOV. . . . 287.

352. 110. 300. . 306. XdKKOl. n. 42. 176. 225. 236.i 296. 302. . 11. 357. 123. . 45. 287. 334. 334.408 INDEX OF GREEK WORDS Moucretor. . 310. 349. 27. 346. . 353. 45. 361. 336. '. 14. Xiflda-rpwra. 325. 337. 364. . . 332. . 366. XWeu. 121. Xo-ydSej. 202. XWos. o5of. 43. 26. 305. Xot. 24. 292. 16. 22. . 2<. . . 73. . 45. Xavpeu. . 24. 285. . . . . . s. . . 171. s. . 117. ov/>ari<r:os. 27. . 309. 307. . . . 343. 236. 138. 341. 302. olicoi. 237. '. 245. Xo76tor. 300. . . 30. XI/^F. 32. 43. 349. . . 31. . 321. 21. 268. F. . 315. . . 236. Xi06>XXa. m6s. 296. 28. 23. . 176. 118. KVfMTlOW. s. . 28. 327. . 359. 358. 22. 12. 151. 249. Kot. 42. 325. (. 334. 306.359. 353. 7. okos. 34. /uioxXol. 118. \ovrpd. 56. 309. 50. 360. 301. 151. 302. rai/s. 324. 333. 300. 366. 34. 236. 41. 245. .M). 45. 368.

325. . 7 epfoSos. 306. 3(36. 7-eXe/aVoi. poefjLp6\tov. 349. T epiro/A/s. 294. rept^ep^. 346. . ts. 292. 359. 292. 7T 352. 102. JOO'KTjl'tOI'. 171. . dpodoi. 308. 21. os. 16. 292. 365. 122. 290. 290. '. a. 6. 121. 352. 7. . . 43. 318. 290. 293. 14. . t. 364. 309. 294. 45. -rp60vpa. ir oXiVyajj'OS. . 7 cptVaros. INDEX OF GREEK WORDS 409 . 34. 45. 356. TrpiSoAtos. 45. . /KT}. 301. 315. pd^35ari5. s. 317. 356. 292. . 117. 36. 302. 290. 301. 7. upd. 368. 307. . 28. 118. 34. 357. . 157. 43. TrpoTo/aat. 83. 309. . 344. . 354. 310. . s. 98. 334. . 309. 357. iJKCLl. s. 187. . 361. 121. 354. 366. T 77X65. 7-dpo5os. 298. . . 5. ?rapa>T/S. 21. IT 364. rXaretat. 356. . Tiwuces. . 13. 300. . 132. 80. 310. 7r/x><?5peu. 300. s. 45. rXakria. 7-epi'oXos. 176. . 121. 7. . 300. rrapao-Tdo-tv. 330. 80. 352. 292. 361. 325. 302. :-apeeipe<rt'cu. TI joiryXeua. 7T joardo-ets. s. . 69. 308. . 76. 346. . i. 286. 183. V. 43. 292. s. . tpa. 300. 6Xot. 117. -rapao-TdSes. ffrddiov. 358. -rapdo-rao-ts. irrepvyiov. 121. paryes. xXWos.

rpiy\v<pov. VTreprbvaiov. 45. . '. rpdTrefa. 6. 40. 40. 11. 370. virepOtpiov. 46. . 80. 40. i. 313. 304. Terpdcrroot. 43. 7. . 368. 364. 361. <r<j>6i>8v\ot. rpiffreyot. j 91. 325. vj 302. i. 0-^17765. 365. <rrT7\77. 190. . 361. j. 359. TO/itetoi'.. 7. <rrotxot. . 45. <TTp6<t>iyyes. 7. . 26. 45. ray^icoXXa. 331. 50. 41. rerpd7wvos. 83. . i. <rrDXos. s. 117. 80. 313. 41. T/067TIS. 108. 117. o-w/xa. 365. . . virevdwrvipla. iffKOl. <Vara. vSpoppfa. . 42. 306. 321. 45. 14. 296. 193. vireprbvaia. 267. 104. 296. 14. 108. 56. 331. 85. 323. 41. 55. 47. . rat^a. S. 304. 293. . 365. 56. 7. 30. 313. 43. . hraiepios. TC10/90S. 91. 40. 123. 121. i. 7. rotxot. 109. 77. s. 3e56. s. 32. . 301. $. j. 57. . . 55. Terpdyuva. s. 72. . 322. 346. . front. . 28. <TTod. <rTp00etS. TP iy\v<pos. 40.410 INDEX OF GREEK WOKDS <TTepeo/3drai. 286. <TTepeo/3dT?/s. vdpaywyeia. o-ri/Xo/Sdrat. 359. 86. 19. 56. . 132. 124. ffrbfuov. s 290. 294. 157. o-wX^i'es. S.. Mirpvpos. reo-cra/oaKOJ'r^/57/5. . . 40. 61.

. '. 311.r)d6i>. i. . . 363. -. . ov. 13. ySetoi'. 355. /. /. 366. 91. 361. (M. 311. 73. 350. INDEX OF GREEK WORDS 411 . 366. . 296. s. <f>op/j. 294. X^t 40. 367. 369. . i.31. . ij/evdodiTrrepos. 43. 14. 292. . 292. 302. 11. . 294. 7. . 23. 25. . . 296. 117. 355. 55. . 6. 39. .296. cSro. . . 43. Xios.

.

179-181. Abdera. 124-125. 291. : of Theron curvature of podium. Akrostoliou. of 220-221. Amphiprostyle. 174. Aischines. 69-76 complex types. slope of gable. . polytriglyphal frieze. 176-179. Akarnanian. scrolls. Antithema. Alexandria Troas. 300. 269. 252 dec- . Amphithalamoi. Hellenistic Altars. Alexander. 192-193. 256. 286. 279. Akragas. vertical columns. 226 close relation of . 284. Aegae. 4. atre. galleries. Antiphellos. 312-313. Alder. 298. 318-320. styles in. Anthemia. 304. 134. Temple of Concordia : tri.134. 207-209. 163. 325. 359. 364. 311. 122. 168. epistyle. 277-278. cisterns. 367. leaf. 237. 240. 372. 61. glyphs. 194. 359. 98-100. Andros. Algeria. 334 marble wall revet- . Aedicula. courses. 413 . Agora. 8. 138. 59 relation of entablature . Aegina. 171 sima. 193. of composition of stylobate. 213. decoration. of cornice to frieze. 79. Adze. 285 see Athens. 61 : . 310. Acroteria. 323. 260. Tomb of Phokos in. Temple of Aphaia : acroteria. ments. 238-240. 97. of channellings. Africa. 304. 191. base of. 76 string . Aizanoi. 157. 7. Anthropomorphic. 186. Alexandria. aisles. 6. mixed 280. 163. 139. 323. 291. Alexandrinum. 3. 334. to intercolumniation. Agamedes. relation of frieze. Acacia. platband 'the Muses. anta and column capitals. Antioch. 313. 163. 240. oration of. 79. of epistyle. 78. 106-107. 256 windows to light roof. 158 . pavement foundations. 3. 79. The. 365. 178. tion of colonnade. 227. 327. tion. 369. Antefixes. 214-217. 207 echinus. 269. . annuli. * Abaton. Alinda. Academy. Aischylos. Anta. 245 relation . Amphitheatron. houses. 243. 218 of frieze. 328. 246-247. . 173. Ancyra. 310. 263 gable decora. Altar of Zeus. 41. 54. Animals. Air spaces. University to - . . 233. 86. GENERAL INDEX Abacus. consoles. composi. Town of. entablature to intercolumniation. lighthouse. 163.240. see Ornament. 245 : peripteral porch. Olympieion: Atlautes. pseudo- Acanthus. . 331. 297. tombs. 50. 171. Tomb Acropolis. Anointing room. Temple of Zeus decoration : Annuli. 286-287. 111. anta capitals.

344. 160. 131. 176. 150. gamon. 163. Attic Ionic. 86. decoration. 64. ings. 291. 269. 252. 90. 331. 102. Parthenon. 344. 217. 289. pieion. 63. 254. 230. 257. 84. 57. 188. 355. 174. 149. 305. Apollo. 84. 134. 265. of buildings. of Thrasyllos. Priene. 88. 199. Aphesis. 289. Tholos. 312. 78. Theatre. 232. 224. 246. 81. 8. 230. tions. 81. ceiling. 71.Augustus. antae. ture. Aqueducts. 165. Per. Walls. 92. gable. 188. 270 . Aristandrian. 166. . and win- walls. 176. 252 . Argos. 182. 197. 301. . 99. 51. 266. 107. 202. Miletos. 153. base and pavement. . 177. 133. 184. dows. 104. 200. 274 . Sonnion. Magnesia. 172.Attalids. 63. Town of. Walls. mould- Apolloiiion. 86. 323. 56. 278. Artemis. 259. 208. Babylonian. 283. 341. 163. Theatre of Dionysos. 245 . 336. 251. 139. 200. Athens. 256. 120. columns and piers. and windows. 12. Stoa of Hadrian. 140. 137. 166. Assyrian. 197. 243-244. 310. 249. 56. 331-334. 163. 172. 255. 122. 134. 312 . 282-283. 305. 122. 359. Olym- Arsenal. 194. Temple of: see Athens. 75. 222: see Corinth. Propy. 4. 311. 265. 171. 202. 219. 89. House of Kallias. 314. 236. Sta. 193. 199. 165- Stoa of Attalos. 253. 90. 266. 191. Temple Agora. laia. 137. 58. Temple of: see Aegina. and roof. 292. of walls. Assos. 169. dion. doors. Asklepieion: see Epidauros. 275. 177. 344. 159. Priene. 68. 259. 169. Winds. Arcade. 64. 346. 69. 335. Philopappos. 286. Metapontum. 39-41. 248. 254/255. 225. 291. Stoa of Eume. Double temple near. 305. 201. Nean. col- Archimedes. 259. 335. Stadion. 263. 111. 178 entabla. 116. 237. unity. 53. 50. 133. 236. Aristotle. 200-203. 253. 244. 187.414 GENERAL INDEX Aphaia. : 95. Axe. 71-72. 4. 114. ceiling and roof. 174. 173. 194. minor decoration. 182. 240. 266. 2. Temple of Hera. olis architectural fragments. 354. 318. 169. 85. Astronomical. Athena: its plan. 170. 86. 13. 264. 118. 258. 97. 97. entablature. 74. 195. 305. 79. 212. Acrop. doors. dreia. 308 . of Athena Nike : its plan. 190. 230. 286. Erechtheion its plan. 97. 233. Aspendos. 236. 179-181. 79. 168-171. 285. Ash. 319. 269. 171. Monument of Balteus. 55-61. 67. 100. Aphrodisias. Monument Base mouldings see Columns. 139. Delos. 153. : Araiostyle. 313. 178. umns and Caryatids. 169. Agora. Tower of Athena. Monument of Lysicrates. 93. 346. 323. 141-142. 207. 208. 63.' 272. 100. 286. Old Temple of Apophyge. 156. antae. 246. 90. 59. 264. 175 antae. 206. 74. 89. 296. 222. 193. 156. 8. Stoa Basileios. 95. 3. 330. 97. 131. 8. 237. 277. 341. 191. 160. 196. 191. Apothesis. entablature. 256. Phigaleia. . 170. 361. Aures. 106. 338. 186. Troad. 239. 313. 242. 132. 230. Augurs. entablature. 266. Bases. Founda. 160. columns. 158. 99. 108. 74. 122. 263.236. 185. 159. Tower. 8. 178. 79. 176. nes. 218. Augusteum. 295. 119-120. 304. 368. Pinakotheke. Atreus see Mycenae. 331. Temple of Aphrodite. Astragal. 213. Temple of: see Ephesos. Asia Minor. 260 . 218. 170. walls. Delphi. plan. Arne. 187. 98. 273.

355-361 governmental. 324-334. Colonnades. . Bricks. 48. 255-261. 234-237 . 190- terlin. Codex. 4. 47-48. 4. 7. liattlements. Boetticher. of walls. Boxwood. 8. 5ireme. 233. 153-154. Ceilings. Temple of Herakles. 91-102. 12-17. Clubhouse. letos. 53. 181.Composition : chral. 69-72. 138. Cori. Bucrania. 252 of columns. bases. 250. Chestnuts. 233. 334-355 for physical culture . 116. 61. ienihassan. 88 181. Braid. 46. Caulieuli. 212. of antae. 368-375.commercial. 289. Temple of. 280. 8. horizontal and vaulted. 91-102. 5encb. Mi- : Cofferings. 234-237. 19. Clamping. 304. 7. 307.. I'. 34. capitals. 326-329. 193-217 composition of. Bonding. poses. mestic. composition Head and reel. . 259. 368. Carpenter. 5in-Bir-Direk. 178-181. hannelliugs. 69. 19. Compactiles trabes. 86. Hoards. 120.alk line. 171-172. hapels. 'astor and Pollux. Color. 3. 133-135. 191. 176. 254. 86- British Museum. 325. Slue. 4. Concordia.es. . 2. Shaft. Basilica. 230. 318 for intellectual and social pur. 274-275. 2. 15. 63 . 147-148. 365. Bassae: see Phigaleia. 297. Buildings. 233. 291. Corcyraean colonnade. 292. 12. Priene. Caligula. 344. Clamps. 117-120. 370. 260-261. Olympia. 150.252. 101. Cisterns. 183-188. Temple of: see Akragas. see Daulis. 314. Cords. Oandia. 47-48. 260 of stat. Jlumner. 46. 5. 318-324. Columns. 297-314. 169. 282. Construction : see Chapter I. construction of. 114. 142. 296. 356. 19. 35. 47 forms of. Console. 306. 10. GENERAL INDEX 415 of antae. 48. do. 103. 11. Bolymnos. 101 proportions. 3. 193-217. Body: see Columns. 323. 13. 3. 184-191. Colchian. . messos. sepul. Breakwater. Chamber tombs. 328.224. 19. 318-324. 12. < 'adacchio. 332. Central Baths. 187. 34. I'. construction of. 297. shafts. 259. 117. 163. 225. Ter. . 176. Ch. Colchis. decoration of.Commercial buildings. of columns. religious. see Chapter V. Bridges. 236. Braces. Censorinus. . 5. Concrete.Commons room. 302. 80-85. 133. . 1 laths. led moulding. 11. of. Clay. ues. 12. 148. Cedar. 3. Capitals. 209. 336. 79-85. 181-183. 255-260. 218. 117-120. Teos. 240. Choisy. 67-69. Chisels. . 12. 323. 237. 135.eams. 5.eak moulding. 8. Holts. Concord. 18. 366. Bouleuterion 315-317 . 177. 73-76.

292. 134. 173-176. 344. Diastyle. 170. Theatre. 245. 356. 287. 232.Elaios. 224. 83 Dionysos Eleu- . Temple of: see Eleusis. 307. 368. Diazoma. 341. 272. 6. 312. Gaggera. 184. 95. 109. 315. Temple of. see Entablature. Delphi. Temple of Apollo. 302. : Crete. Corridors. 271. 163. materials of. Date palm. 200. 51. Treasury of Athenians. Doric leaf pattern. of Athena Pronaia. 111. 100. Cyprus. 350. Lesbian. 168. Temple of Apollo. 191. 156. Drydocks. 7. Cyma. Dikasterion. 131. 297. 313. 89. construction of. Dodecastyle. 93. 313. forms of. 20. 195. 310. Phaistos. Egyptian. cular building. 244. Cross-beams. Echinus. 264-265. nos. Dome. 86. 231. 268. 196. 192. 325. Disks. 132. 355-357. 138. Corinthian house. 3. 100. 47. 341. 306. 95. 286. in ships. 268. Doorways. Dystos. Treasury of Pho. 273: Diminution. of. Temple of Dionysos: Cover tiles. 102. 356 Storehouses. 163. see Athens. Temple Dentils. decoration of. 330-331. 58. 203. Dart and egg : see Egg and dart. Dionysos Bresaios. caeans. 228-229. 87. Macellum. 236. 311. 360. Ears. 120. 316. shafts. 48. 240-241 245 . 313. . forms of. Stoa. as decoration.Ekklesiasterion. 53. Diaper. 314. 193. Crypts. Eagle. 325. 318. 4. 355. . 254 : see Knossos. 230-234. 217. 136. Die. see Pergamon Theatre of Dionysos . 139. 237. Column of Naxians. 270. Palaistra. Drums. composition. Treasury of Siph. Doors. Ditryglyphal. 77. 6. Dusting room or konistra. Deigma. 47. reversa. 325. Crowning moulding: see Moulding. Dipteral. Dwellings for priests. Curtius. Cave temple. Archaic capitals. 226. 344. 290. wall decorated with Demetrios Poliorketes. Decoration see Ornament. 156.416 GENERAL INDEX Corinth. Drawbridge. 240. 287. 359-360. 102. columns. 111-116. 253-254. Treasury of Knidians. Despoina. 367-368. 367. 154-155. 306 fountain of . 318. 318. 354. Dog heads. 123. 133. triglyphs. 202. 124. 291 cir. 157 . composition of. 58. 292. 10. 97. Cypress. 364. Elder. 222. Curvature : see detail concerned. Courtyard. Town. Cyrene. entablature. 59. Deinokrates. 45. 207. 256. 270. Paestum. 136. harbor. Diocletian. Houses. 323. Stadion. Demeter. 114. 12. 285. 192-193. 364. 21. 224. 116. 28. Treasuries. of Apollo: its base. Egg and dart. 5. 301. 43-45. Distyle. Peirene. Door post. 134. . Temple Ebony. Daulis. 59. : Dressing room. 3. Delos. 329. thereus. Drill. Decastyle. 76. 358. Door-jambs. 76-78 decoration . 176. Earthworks. Cornice. 346. Diglyph. 3. 357. 239. 3. 91-92.

8. 269. Galleries. 8-10. Epikranitis. Government Floors. Bath. 55-62. 115. composition of. Hagia Triada. Fountain. Glue. 3. Later Temple of Arte. 140. 132. 314-318. i^uryalos. Ephoreion. Treasury of. 188. 140. 7. 6. decoration of. 97. see Olympia. Epistyle. 339. Propylaia. 195. Furnace. 328. 240. 341. 86. Entasis. 6. Grain market. Girdle. fortification see Towns. 262-265: see Government buildings. . Old Gaggera. 163. 157. 262-272: see 49-51 forms of. Epeion. 67. 313. 216. tion of. 153. Fir. Geographical theory of orientation. Gods and Giants. fountains. 266-270. Fran9ois Vase. 350 Grappling hooks. 163. 292. 243. Entablature. Forum. 344. 283. 7. 82. Elm. 6. 300. 218. buildings. Epigone. 307. 80. Gymnasium. 335. Btruscan. 366. 6. Feathers. Frieze. 217-221. ^truria. 226. Cornice. 348. 256. 297. decoration of. 79. 294. Tholos. 219. Temple of Askle. Banister. 301. 147. lates. File. : Elis. Temple of Artemis. Enneastyle. 318. thian capital. composition of. 12. 274. 353. Entablature. Epidauros. 350. 136. 331. Foundations. 221. 314. 21. 3rechtheion see Athens. 217. 75. 185. usual application of. 158. Town of. M]retria. 19. Encaustic. 221-230. GENERAL INDEX 417 Eleusis. 48-49. 137. 290. Graeco-Roman theatre. 176. 166. Stadion. materials and construc. 201. 300. Temple of Artemis. Gimlets. 304. Buthydomos of Miletos. Griffins. 323. 323. 4. 3. 79. 151. Fletcher. proportions of. 328. ple of Demeter. Fortified harbors. Guttae. 343. 339. ralea a scaloccio. 240. 3xedra. forms of. Stoa of. 343. Philon's Porch. Girders. 291. 265. 334. 270. 341. 108-111 decoration . 237-239. 200-203. 313. 335. Ephesos. Corin. Gorgon heads. Baths. 2. 328. 94. 232. Enneastylos see Paestum. Abaton. 366. composition of. 295. 290-291. 287. : Frames. Episkeniou. 366. Tem. . 186. 312. 110. Frieze. 88-90. 4. 224. 291. Spitheatron. 328. of. Gutters. lable. 273. 97. un- Entrances to towns. : Grape leaf. 224. 260. Colonnades. 297. 224. Hadrian. 8-9. materials and construction Gluing. 297. 325. mis. 83. 8. 368. of. 285. Gela. 317. 102-107. Greeks and Amazons. 279. Theatre. 39-40. 137. 111. pios. 48. Theatre. 165. Epistyle. 323. 7. 332. Guilloche. materials and construction of. 95. 371. 6. Ephebeion. 287. 174. 264. 159.Galea a zenzile. 111. Sustyle. proportion. Geison. Gateways.

Hippodrome. 157. 43. Hellenistic buildings. 219. 275. 120. 336. Harbors. Herakleion. Handles. 230. 168. 310. Kyniskos. 361. 2. 227. Keys. Keos. Kolumdado. 217. 324. 370. 197. Herakleia. Lesbos. 335-336. 358. History of Plants. 218. 9. Lindos. 190. 324. 153. Lighthouse. King post. 61. 323. 166. 216. Kyzikos. 132. Krepidoma. 72. 194. Lapiths. 297. 99. 156. Ionian. 108. 240. Lathe. 45. 40-41. 173. Knossos. 367. 309. Hinge posts. 313. 67. 334. 370. Inns. 324. Hydra. 2. 319. Inscription. 372. 314. 372. Samos. Jambs. Heads as antefixes. 4. Heraion see Argos. Hittites. 226. Kangovar. Libraries. Law courts. Leaf patterns. Herodes Atticus. Lech ai on. 330. 250. Lesche. 281-282. Olympia. 313. Laodikeia. Knockers. 296. 337. entablatures. 7.418 GENERAL INDEX Halikarnassos. Juniper. 356. Kahun. 327. 190. 176. 45. 313. Incantada. 82. 168. 334. . : Koldewey und Puchstein. 84. Italy. 319. 168. 47. 216. 297. Houses. 325. Temple of Zeus. 224. Joists. 319. Lesbian. Palace Kallias. 237. 252. 126. 182. 120. Lead. 168. Larymna. 184. 366-368. 3. lassos. 332. Heptastyle. 157. Hexastyle. 192. Lacunariorum. 59. 367. Hypaetbral. 355-361. Italic house. 131. 7. 224 see Cori. Heliodorus Damianus. Kyzikene. 7. Ivy leaf. Knidos. 158. Hearth. 313. : Kos. 6-12. Hyposkeuion. Kourno. 356. Kynosarges. 344. Mausoleion. Kosmophoros. Treasury of: see Delphi. Inter-dentil. 357. of Mausolos. 89. Iktinos. Tomb at. orna. Labranda. 271. 76. 111. 83. 318. 156. 350. 173. 11. 45. 317-318. Hippodamos. Lechat. columns. Kitchen. 114. 196. Kenchreai. 296. Knidiaus. 332-334. Konistra. 373. 200. Leaf and dart. Herakles. 158. 325. 367. Lintel. 311. Hammer. 156-158. Lateran. 285-286. Hotel. Hospices. 222. 56-58. 131. 360. Ionic style. 292. Hermogenes. 375. 297. 334. 94. Hyrkanos. ment. 291. 231. 366. 357. Laurel leaf. 361. Khan. 361. Leonidaion : see Olympia. Keel. 195. 331.

Mouldings. Maison Carree. 159. Lysicrates. Mnesikles. 172. 133. Mitre. Mesauloi. 240. 360. wood. 309. Museum. 194. 276. Myra. 83. 267- Locks. 21-38 . 346. 370. 6. 82. 302. 123. Mortar. Maidens. 91. 81. 176. 291. and stucco. 289. 213. 193. Messene. 315. 354. 237. 199. 240. 59. 268. 91. . 89. Messa. 322. 38. 107. Megarians. entablature. 344. 203. 173. Apollo: its plan. Temple of Ar. 174. tures. 19. 77. Naukratis. Logeion. 231. temis its columns. 205-206. 197. Mythological. 53. Lotus. 38-39. 102. 237. Walls. of capitals. Masks. Mosaic. Mummius. 87. Nailing. : 173. 61. Megalopolis. 137. . 193-194. 18. 372-373. 297. 201. Metope. 290. 151. Tholoi. 41. 317. Monoglyph. 245. 156. Mideia. 98. 194. 263. Stoa. Mesoskenion. Lykosoura. 107. 218. GENERAL INDEX 419 Lion heads. 156. 176. concrete. Masonry. Theatre. 311. 316. 194. 168. 108. Metapontum. 6. . Mortise. Mycenaean columns. 10. 5. Temple Lion Tomb. Lloyd. 341. 373. Mausoleion see Halikarnassos. 34. 328. gables. 285. 334. 219. 22-24. pilasters. Gates. Pry. 216. Magnesia. Mines. Maeander. 81. 50-51. 300. 285. 241. Theatre. 95. 6. gems. columns. 198. 25-38. 162. 334. 97. Mutule. 83. 311. 260 en.Moats. 168. 369. 138. 109. Mars Ultor. 119-120. 2. 157. 9-10. 137. 217. 318. Government buildings. 167. 225. Monument of : see Athens. 161. of Marathon. 111. 161. 244. 168. 87. 203. 78. Palace. 305. 168. 169. Treasury of : see Olympia. tablature. 349. 256. 178. 237. 260-261. Temple at. 87. Micon. Mounds. 135. Megaron. 302. 8. 1-13. 269. 96. Bouleuteriou. 177. Lycia. 150. 200. 95. 173. 187 ivories. Megara Hyblaea. 182-183. Mourners. 131. 272. Temple of Zeus. 58. 285. 309. 313. taneion. of entabla- Mantineia. Naples. . 294. 93-94. 91. 153. 6. : Mole. 45. 323. 166. 231. 5. Loopholes. Lyceum. 90. Vj Metals. Colonnades. 369. 292. 6. 322. its columns. 295. 111. 366. 224. 193. fa?ade. 179. 195. 218-219. 262. Lockers. 133. 268. 109. 356-358. Theatre. 318. 120. 244-245. of Apollo. Town of. Logs. Materials. 192. 323. town of. 230. Miletos. 221-224. 319. metals. 227. Monotriglyphal. Atreus. 220. sarcophagus of. Temple of Lokroi. 13-21 stone and marble. 91. clay. 7. 7(5. 162. Mycenae. 289. 290. 291. 219. Nails. Mylasa. Tholos of Mausolos. 293-294. Naos. 344. Megara. 290-291. 182. 237. 194. Marble. Agora. 232-234.

277-278. 122. 352. Oak leaf. 224. of Olympia. 334. Altar. 263. 131. Orchomenos in Boeotia. 232-233. 81. Treasury Palaiopolis. 154. columns. 300. 252. Nero's palace. 101. Oinomaos' Temple of Demeter. 102-103. 150. 244. 297. Opisthodomos. 95-96. Odeion. 306. 346. 139. 70. 325-326. Temple of Amphi- 138. 159. 200. 246. 204. 157. and walls. Leonidaion. 73. Nereid Monument. of ceilings Bouleuterion. of Megara. 268. araos. 113. 77. 354. Treasury of Gela. Walls. Treasury of Sikyon. 94. 216. 217-234. Maeanders. 194. Oikos. 337-339. 313. 301-302. 185. Opus tesselatum. 270. 214. 98. 151. Orange. 63. 139. 149-155 floral. Nimes. 134. 91. Prytaneion. 250. Orchomenos in Arcadia. 323. Temple Palisade. 232. 149. 57. 70. 165-166. 147-149. He. 63. 277. epistyle. Pulvinus. 96. 142. 167. 304. 243. Notching. 86. Olympieion : see Akragas. 317. 214. 232. sirna. 114. 227. Orthostatai. 313. of columns. Scrolls. 240. 149. 184-185. Temple of Athena Opisthoskenion. Nemea.163. Exedra. types of geometric. 240. 170. 147. 366. 190. 146-149. 141- 212. 208. krepidoma. 115. 157. cornice. Athens. 149. 272. 105. 304. Theatre. 57. ramp. 267. 139. 240. 155-163. 98. 301. Epistyle decoration. 68. anthropo- Oinomaos. 121. 156. house. -Panels. 245. 165. 78. 372. of foundations. 129. 105. of . 233. Temple of Poseidon. opes. Palaistra. 319. 184. 197-198. 248. 198. its acroteria. 111. Sta. frieze. 373-374. 256. 48. 6. 196. 19. 153. 154. 8. 165-173. 160-161. dion. Onasias. 318. pavements. 160. 103. 151. 13. Oiniadai. 173-181. 357-360. 133. itals from. gallery.420 GENERAL INDEX Neandreia. 112. entablatures. Altar. 151. 355-356. uries. 224. 176-177. 234-245. 116. 239. 85. 217. 134. Octastyle. 70. 163-165. 8. 240. Altis. 45. 262. raion. 118. 151. 70. 214. 89-91. Gymnasium. 118. 309. zoomorphic. doors. 106.307. Neck. 94. 61-62. Palaistra. Orientation. : Opus Alexandrinum. 66. . Palmettes. 193. Acroterion. 243. Palatitza. 50. 303. . 124-125. 41. methods of. 138. Palmyra.Zeus: antaeT Palmette and lotus. 100. 209. 244. 100. 240 . Treas. of Bases of statues. and roof. S. E. Agora. Basilica or Enneastylos. 196. tympanon. Sima. 185. morphic. 287. 56. 191. pavements. 240.279. 311-312. 286. antae. 171. 239. 72. and pilasters. Temple of Zeus. 294. met. 181-217. 331-332. Temple of Apollo. Nike. Ornamentation. Paionios. 67. windows. Philippeion. 136. 311. 63. 301-302. 156-157. 278. 41. 178. 58. Taenia. gables.Paralogeia. tiles. Oropos. 354. 159. Olive. 309. 68. 155. 194. Oemichen. epikranitis. 291. Nike see Athens. 71. Paestum. 62. 8. 303. porches. Nereids. 314. 133. 355. 6. 240. 89-91. Cap. Orchestra. 200. 61. Palaimon. Oak.Painting. 202. 122. Building. Antefixes. Palace. 191. Baths. Cornices.

Poros. Greek Temple. 248. Tower Porticoes. 187. Parastades. mixed styles. Peridromos. 166. Forum. Phaistos. Poplar. 173. 284. 312-313. Piles. 191-192. 130. 7. 221-222. 359. Pharos. 173. Peligriniatza. Pipes. 323. 297. 184. Polykrates. Mixed Physical culture. 318. 98. 260. Paraskenia. Philander. 367. 265. 199. Pompeii. 80. Philoxenos. Pine. 133. Gate. Parion. 316. Bath. Pergamon. 127. 158. 79. ceiling and roof. Sounion. Phi Ion of Byzantium. Phoenicians. 98. 176. 105. 8. Perrot. Walls. 79. 352. 310. 250. 94. 69-76. 300. Library. 116. 185-186. 236. 8. Gymnasium. 356. 319. 5. 7. 191. 211. 94. 4. Temple of Athena. 117-118. Altar. 88. 336. 296. 97. Pavements. 316. 295. 296. 294. Persian. 3. Pollux. 309. 271. Phigaleia. 246-249. Columns. 232. Polykleitos the younger. 336. 4. 336. 80-81. Pausanias. Pliny. 195. Polygnbtos. 368. Curia. Phrygian tombs. Polykleitos the elder. 6. 249. 168. 171. 371. 204. 172. 300. 141. Parodoi. Polytriglyphal. 55-56. 312. Peristyle. Poseidon Hippios. Water supply. 324-334. styles. Persians. 220. frieze. 177-181. 188. 354. 90. . 365. Pennethorne. Tomb Podium. 97. Pinakes. 354-357. 84-85. 166-167. 286-287. 313 . 331. 290-292. 269. 323. 301. 11. 322. 19. Temple of: see Paestum. 158.48. 43. 2. 335. 66. 131. 186. 69. Plinth. 248. 300. 98. 360. Town. 328. 21-22. 307. Colonnades. 137. : Paris. Peisistratos. Philopappos see Athens. 158. 3. 197. Parthenon : see Athens. 296. 328. 335-336. 284. Porch. 301. 315. 270 . Temple. 6. 201.55. 286. 275. Phokikon. 269. 225. 227. 66. Perseus. 294. 71. 240. 178-179. 163. Pinakotheke. Pilasters. Planks. 354. : Philippian colonnade. 172. 9. Plate. 290. 269. Philippeion see Olympia. Plane. Gateway. 356. 57. GENERAL INDEX 421 3 arapet. Pillars. Wall paintings. 352. 86. 89. 3. 78. 358. 41. Poseidon. 283. 85. 183. 365. 346. 158. 292. Temple of 184. 67. Trajan's Plateia. 90. Houses. 120. 101-102. 240. 119. 356. 252. 118. Peribolos. Ionic Temple. 257. 368. Philon of Eleusis. 254. 308-312. 58-61. 370. of Telephos. 135. 2. 195. 6. 171. 335. 82. Phrygia. 58. 134. Pentekontoros. 360. Piers. Arsenal. 190. 227. 301. 61. 251-253. Pollio. Walls. Isis Temple. 259. Temple of Dionysos. 250. Perilogeion. 204. 257. Pentastyle. 264. Peiraieus. 166. Penrose. Apollo : its columns. 291. 219. 159. Phoenician ships. Stoa. Platband. Persia. 322. Postern. Propylon. Plumb line. 85. 7. 140. 131. Theatre.

ornament. Temples classified by. 365: Pantheon. 364. 227. 184. Theatre. 111. 53. Property-rooms. Ptolemy Philadelphos. 245. Prytaneion. 78. 308. 168. minor. 360. 117. Temple of Proskenion. 116. 202. 346. Restaurants. 126. 236-237. 4. 300-301. 231. 358. 104. 364. Rosette. columns. 344. mius Severus. 204. 158. Rafters. Robing rooms. 327-328. construction of. Capitolinus. Ram. Roman. Roof. Gymnasium. 296. propylon. Purlins. 300-301. 296. 218. 249. 106. 217-218. 120. 226-227. 181. ratios. 350. forms 117-125. 126-130. 163. 291. 311. 173. 140-141 symmetrical. 234. Proportion. 184. Prytaneion. 322. : 166. 356. Arch of Septi- symmetrical ratios. 367. 280. library. ceilings. 45. theatres. Palaistra. 217. major ratios. latures. Red. S. Stoa roof. 276. 287-289. 325. 216. ships. 11. arcades 255. 9-10. 181. 313. 245. 150. gustus and Hadrian. 253. 346. of. Minerva. 139. . 107. Ara Pacis. Baths. modified 352-353. Puchstein. 280. Mausoleia of Au- Ptolemy Philopator. Prodomos. klepieion. Rubble. 249. 137. 331-332. Revetments. major. 194-195. umns.422 GENERAL INDEX Posts. 218-219. 158. 307. Theatre. 111. tain. Ratios. 129. 348. Maria in Trastevere. Concord. 140 modified. 231. 336. 211. houses. . 3. Pozzuoli. 206. 328. 315-316. 329. Foun. Sacred ways. 365. 7. 94-95. 309. 172. Pythios. 3. 74. 218. 317. 249 . 83. 346. 295. 200-201. 11. Renaissance. Priene. Quadriga. 274- Pyknostyle. 218. Fortuna Virilis. entablature. Pseudoperipteral. windows. Agora. 250. 53-54 . ceil. 237. 309. 52. Rhodian. Propylaia. 133. Ptolemaic. 7. 6. 317-318. Quarry. 139. 24. 346. 280. 11-12. Baths. 297. 361. 287. 311. Priene. Stadion. 240. 240. 159-160. 18. Ridge beam. 224. Pydna. 130-140. As. 259. 220. Ramp. Reservoirs. 218. 294-295 see Athens. 237. 203-204. 250. Mars Ultor. Rhamnous. Reglets. Pronaos. 251. 111. 370. minor ratios. pilasters. Temple of Regulae. : Column of Trajan. 104-105. 349. Pulvinus. Jupiter Stator. 232. Liberty. 324. decoration of. 356. 365. 372. 237. 153. 126-130. 133. Water supply. 356-360. 118. Towers. 132. 140-141 . baths. 222. Athena its platform. 319. 318. Reel. 321-322. 84. 334. 353-354. 106.erion. . composition of. Temple of Hera. 300-301. 352. 234-245. 141-145. 130. 276. 52. 325. 201. 220. Saw. 135. Bouleuf. 52. 352. Sagalassos. Rails. entab- 190. 219. 283. Streets of. Sun. 350-352. 173. 158. 132. 168. 220. 241. 96. 266. Prostas. Jupiter Prostyle. ing and roof. 141-145. 18-19. Rhodes. 336. Salonica. 11. Houses. col. Samothrace. 86. Rome. Samos. 260-261. 200. Castor and Pollux.

134. Phigaleia. 147. 367. 126. 219. 40. 371-372. 302-303. 4. : Stratos. ceiling and roof. Asklepios. see Ae- gina. Priene of . 161-162. Systyle. Sills. 304-305. 275. see Spiral. Storehouses. Strategeion. 92.246-247. 211. 270. 185. 325. . 94. 346-354. 225. Priene. 225. 127. 120. 142. 161. 74. 116. 328. 176. Stems. 45. 190. Ships. 367-368. Stretchers. egesta. Spouts. 217. 122-124. 333. 243. 339. 110. 117-118. 185. 300-314 . Temple D its plan. 147. 313-314. 183. see Corinth. Syracuse. 107. Smyrna. ple G. 113. 330-332. 246-247. Soffit. of Despoina. see Lyko- Square. Sikyon. 263.eleukeia. 263. 105. 56. 186. chultz. see Athens. Tem. 46. 20-21. see Ephesos. Shanks. . of Aphaia. Submarine. Temenos. 2. 135-136. 300. 246. 305. Temple of Athena. of Concord. Stucco. Skene. 8. of Coneordia. . 287. Sidon. Sparta. 271-273. 369-370. los. Taker of cities. 106. Temple of Studs. 334. see Akragas. 286-289. 217. Telibphos. 372-373. 139. 361-366. 370. 368. 91. 346. 302-303. 207. 48. 280-284. of 310. Sima. Style. Smintheion. Sounion. 52. De- Soluuto. 178. 185. Pergamon. 291. 56. Syria. Sidewalks. 306-307. of Athena. 42. 133. 74. 262. 312. f. 318. 7. 7. 193. 165. of Dionysos. Temple of -Poseidon. Spina. 271. 217. Delphi. 341-343. 279. 70 . 15. 241-245. 319. 67. Stereobate. 21-38. Neandreia. . lux. 231. Suweda. 258. see Lesbos. 295. 221. 312 pavement. pavement. 82. 236. 139. 346. see Rome. soura. Socle. 318. 321-323. krepidoma. Tegea. Stoa. 104. Streets. 12. 273. Rome. 334-335. Stroteres. 207-208 entab. Paestum. 246-248. 111. columns. Magnesia. 85. 286. see Epidauros. Spatula. 161. Stone construction. 290. lature. 134. Technologic. of Demeter. Sepulchral architecture. 5. Miletos. Springs. 302-303. Empedocles. fr. 218. Gaggera. of Empedocles. 245. 57. 163. Pergamon. 274. 91. 183. 217. 115. fc Stairways. 104. Stromatobate. 138. Tamossos. Temple E.olinous. Metapontum. Supports. 292. Splicing. 257. Shields. Stiles. Sicily. Artemis. 61. Strabo. 237. 40. GENERAL INDEX 423 Scales. 140. Sikyonian. 283. 222. see Eleusis. 132. Temple F. 133. gable. 231-233. 123. entablature. Telamones. of Apollo. Temple C: its plan. Taenia. Sounion of Castor and Pol- . 195-202. 370. 248 antae. 291. Stylobate. 309. Stadion. 74. 354. 276. columns. Shaft. chools. 131. Troad. 224. 368-375. 86. 85-90. Temples. see Stabian.

200. Lycia. 87. Tholos: see Athens. 82. forms 109-110. Mylasa. Tiryns. Delos. 289. Thronoi. Virgil. of Tiles. see Akra- . Athens. Thebes. 17-18. 266. Smyrna. My. 240. 119. Toichobates. 119-120. Syracuse. 297. 225. Teos. Venetian. 332. Theatre. Miletos. 303. Terra-cotta. Priene. Trajan. 121-122. 41. Vase paintings. Thresholds. Viae. of. 225. 291. 323. see Argos. La. Thermon. Turkey. 289. 6. of Herakles. 334. 2. 237. Tombs. 32-33. 269. 119-120. Tetrastyle. Theagenes. 312. 369. 337-339. 369. 273-274. see Paestum. Theron. Orange. . 295. of Poseidon. of Zeus. 291. Epidauros. University. 355-356. 272. 289-292. 87. 233. 195. 240. 124. Olympia. Trussed. 237. Trabes compactiles. 3. 316. 6. 221. 280. Rome. 7. 173. 296. 371: see Mycenae. Towers. 57. Oropos. temples. 172-173. Tuscan. Palace. 240. 198. Magnesia. Athens. see Akragas. sition of. 8. : Tetraglyph. 338-339. Sagalassos. cenae. 348. Tamossos. 142. Triglyphs. 237. 356. Tunis. Trunnels: see Mutules. Town and walls. Trophonios. Termessos. Theseion : see Athens. proportions of. 285. 275. Segesta. Hera. 334. 24-26. see the name of town where Pergamon. 163. see Cori of Mars. Epidauros. Towns. 149. Tenon. 313. Texier. Tenos. Tripods. Thesmotheteion. 56. Theatron. Rome. decoration of. Sikyon. Thouria. Megalopolis. see . 10 construction of. 188-189. . Regulae. Theseus. 224. 339-346. 3. 166. Termessos. 354. 8. 339-346. Thrasyllos. Aizanoi. Treasuries see Delphi. theatron. 118. 365. Ursinianus. 168. Sounion . 111. Olympia for other . see Athens. Labranda. : of Theseus. Troizen. 280. Rome the Olympieion. Tympanon. Thera. 170. 350. Athens Parthenon see Athens. 61. 284. Knossos. 227.424 GENERAL INDEX Selinous Enneastylos. 283. 50-51 . Thalamegos. 191. 359. Tholoi. Myra. 359. on towns and walls.2. 327. see Athens. 17-19. 285-286. 79. Tools. Tesselatum. Samos. 2. located. 109. Akragas. the Erechtheion. 225-226 compo. orchestra. 302. 248. Thorikos. Pompeii. 346-354. Marathon. Vitruvius. 371-372. Eretria. Typhon. 86. Vitium lacunariornm. 138 . Thalamoi. 356. branda. Theophrastos. 192. Vaults. 318. 86. . gas. 285-297. Kenehreae. Mycenae. Olympia. 237. 297. 12. Thessalonica. 6. 232. Vases. Trireme. Nemea. . Thasos. Halikarnassos. Aspendos. 266-269. 7. 4-5. 8. 368-375 see Aegina. 296-297. see Paestum . Troy. Tritons. Xanthos. 344. Troad. see Argos. Sikyon. 224. skene. Tumulus. Athens. 366. 226. Knidos. .

. 13-16. . Windows. decoration of. 3. 172. and gates. 249-251. 127-128. proportion. 130. 295-297. with stucco covering. Perga- stone. pro. Wild fig. 62-69. 19-21. GENERAL INDEX 425 250. 126-145. 130. 20. Tower of : see Athens. columns. 297. 123. 291-292. 41-46. Wells. Wall plates. 372. 92. of wood. 241 245. Aizauoi. Wrestling. Athens. 343. 307-308. . 19-20 doors . 120. 356. 325. basilicas. entablatures. Water supply. 141. portions. city walls. forms of. Withes. 77-78. mon. 260. Xanthos. Zoomorphic. of brick. 184. 129. 163. Walls. 41-43. 8. 78-79. 173-176. 189. 5. 313. 253- 256. 293 . pavements and Water spouts. . Nemea. 289-292 . 167. 173. Altar of: see Akragas. 367. 359 theatres. submarine. 3. 274. 348-349 the palaistra. 255. 108. 314 houses. 192. 135. 325. 7. Temple of: see Akragas. 132. Labrauda. 258. 254. 88. 6. Olympia. temples. 141. 201. Walnut. 6. 128-129. 138-139. ceilings and roofs. 174. 7. 199. 254. composition of. Wood. of Zeus. 255. Zophoros. 286. 114. floors. 129. 279. Winds. 1-12. 87.

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