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Natti Rao / Keith O'Brien
Design Data for Plastics Engineers
Hanser Publishers, Munich Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc., Cincinnati
The Authors: Dr.Ing. NattiRao, Schieferkopf 6,67434 Neustadt, Germany; Dr. Keith T. O'Brien, Vistakon, Ing., 4500 Salisbury Road, Jacksonville, FL 322160995, USA
Distributed in the USA and in Canada by Hanser/Gardner Publications, Inc. 6915 Valley Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 452443029, USA Fax: (5B) 5278950 Phone: (5B) 5278977 or 18009508977 Internet: http: //www.hansergardner.com Distributed in all other countries by CarlHanserVerlag Postfach 86 04 20,81631 Munchen, Germany Fax:+49 (89) 9812 64 The use of general descriptive names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names, as understood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Marks Act, may accordingly be used freely by anyone. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Rao,NattiS. Design data for plastics engineers / Natti Rao, Keith O'Brien. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN l56990264X(softcover) 1. Plastics. I. O'Brien, Keith, T. II. Title. TP1120.R325 1998 668.4—dc21 9837253
Die Deutsche Bibliothek  CIPEinheitsaufnahme Rao, Natti S.: Design data for plastics engineers / Natti Rao/Keith O'Brien. Munich: Hanser; Cincinnati: Hanser/Gardner, 1998 ISBN 3446210105
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. © Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 1998 Cameraready copy prepared by the authors. Printed and bound in Germany by Druckhaus "Thomas Muntzer", Bad Langensalza
Preface
Mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of polymers form the basic group of property values required for designing polymer machinery. In addition, knowledge of the properties of the resin such as stock temperature of the melt is necessary for optimizing the process. Furthermore, while designing a plastic part, performance properties of the resin depending on the application are to be considered, examples of which are flammability, weather resistance and optical properties, to quote a few. Hence, a variety of property values is needed to accomplish machine design, part design and process optimization. Comprehensive as well as specific overviews of polymer property data exist in the literature. Also the data banks of resin manufacturers offer quick information on thermophysical properties of polymers. But there are few books dealing with both resin and machine design data based on modern findings. The intent of this book is first of all to create an easy to use quick reference work covering basic design data on resin, machine, part and process, and secondly, to show as to how this data can be applied to solve practical problems. With this aim in mind numerous examples are given to illustrate the use of this data. The calculations involved in these examples can be easily handled with the help of handheld calculators. Chapters 1 to 5 deal with the description of physical properties  mechanical, thermal, rheological, electrical and optical  of polymers and principles of their measurement. In Chapter 6 the effect of external influences on the performance of polymers is treated. General property data for different materials such as liquid crystal polymers, structural foams, thermosetting resins and reinforced plastics are given at the end of this chapter. In Chapter 7 the processing properties and machine related data are presented for continuous extrusion processes namely blown film, pipe and flat film extrusion. Resin and machine parameters for thermoforming and compounding have also been included in this chapter. Chapter 8 deals with blow molding and the influence of resin and machine variables on different kinds of blow molding processes. Finally, Chapter 9 covers resindependent and machine related parameters concerning the injection molding process. Machine element design covered in Chapters 7 to 9 includes screw design for extruders and injection molding machines, die design for extruders, mold design for
Keith T. This book is intended for beginners as well as for practicing engineers. illustrated by workedout examples.S. U. criticism and review of the manuscript.D. Natti S. Germany. as already mentioned. U. .S. for his valuable suggestions.D. He also suggested to write a book on the lines of Glanvill's Plastics Engineer's Data Book. Ph. Giinter Schumacher of University of Karlsruhe. Ph.. Germany Jacksonville. and can be considered as an extension to Glanvill's book. The authors also wish to express particular thanks to Dr. students and teachers in the field of plastics technology and also for scientists from other fields who deal with polymer engineering. Rao. Wherever appropriate. the properties and machine related parameters are described by mathematical formulas which are. On the basis of this approach the importance of polymer data in dealing with design and process optimization is explained. The solution procedure used in these examples describes the application of polymer data to solve practical problems. Our work is based on the findings of modern plastics technology.molding and forming operations and downstream equipment for extrusion.A. for his constructive comments and his great help in preparing the manuscript.A. O'Brien. Neustadt. We wish to express our sincere thanks to Professor Stephen Orroth of the University of Massachusetts at Lowell.
However. the nature of data needed for designing machinery for these processes is similar to the one presented in this work.AFINALWORD There are many other processes in wide application such as reaction injection molding. compression and transfer molding used to produce parts from thermosetting resins. It was not possible to cover all these processes within the scope of this book. .
1 Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continuous Processes'. he also holds seminars teaching the application of his software for designing extrusion and injection molding machinery. After receiving his Ph. Rao obtained his B. Besides consultancy work. Prior to starting his consultancy company in 1987.Sc.D. and Ph. India. and also edited the wellknown book. from the University of Karlsruhe. India. and M. . Keith O'Brien has a B. degrees from the University of Leeds in Mechanical Engineering. Later on he served as a technical advisor to the leading German Plastics machine manufacturers. Sc. Germany he worked for the BASF AG for a number of years. Before he joined Johnson & Johnson. Keith has over 100 published works to his credit. he was professor of mechanical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.Tech in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology. Chennai(Madras).D. Natti has published over 50 papers on different aspects of plastics engeneering and authored 3 books on designing polymer machinery with computers. Kharagpur.Tech(Hons) in Mechanical Engineering and M.(Eng) from the University of London. he worked as a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Technology.Authors Natti S.
.......................................................................................................................3 Relaxation Modulus .......................................................................................................................... 1...................2..... 1............. 1............. 1.........................................................................2 Creep Rupture ........................................... vii ..................................................................1 Creep Modulus .............2 Tensile Properties ...1 StressStrain Behavior .....................2 Effect of Temperature on Shear Modulus ........2...4 Compressive Properties ................. 1..... 1.................................................. 1..5. Authors . 1......... 1............2........1 Ideal Solids ...................5 Time Related Properties ..................................... 1.... 1.................. v vii viii 1 1 1 2 5 6 6 6 7 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.......................................................... 1...................... 1.......... 1.......4 Fatigue Limit ...........................3 Effect of Temperature on Tensile Strength ........5......................5................3 Shear Properties ....5..............................4.............. A Final Word .......................1 Shear Modulus ..3............... Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers .............................1 Bulk Modulus ..........2 Tensile Modulus .......... 1.........................................3.........................Contents Preface .. 1....
................................................................... 2...1 Specific Volume ...2.2 Entrance Loss ................ 2.......................3 Rheological Models .......................................9 Vicat Softening Point ....7 Coefficient of Heat Penetration .........................3 Polynomial of Muenstedt ..........1 Hyperbolic Function of Prandtl and Eyring .... Transport Properties of Molten Polymers ........................................................ 3......................................................1 Apparent Shear Rate ............................. 2..........................................2 Power Law of Ostwald and De Waele ....... Thermal Properties of Solid and Molten Polymers ................4 Enthalpy ................. 3................ 3.................................. 3........... 2....................................... 3..................1 Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids ...................2 Viscous Shear Flow .................8 Heat Deflection Temperature ........................................ 15 17 17 2......... 23 23 26 27 29 29 31 32 34 35 35 3.... 2...................viii Contents 1.....4 Apparent Viscosity .............2..........................3.............8 Coefficient of Friction ....6 True Viscosity .....................10 Flammability ....... 3........................... 2............3..........................................2................. 3........................................................ 3............ 2.2 Specific Heat ......................................................................5 True Shear Rate .............................................................3......2..................6 Thermal Diffusivity .......2................ 3...... 1.................3 Thermal Expansion Coefficient ....................2....................................... 3.................................................... 2...6 Hardness ...................7 Impact Strength .................... 3.......... 3................................. 1.......................... 39 39 41 41 42 42 44 47 47 47 48 48 50 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation..............3 True Shear Stress .......................................... 2................................................................. 2.................... .........5 Thermal Conductivity .....
.2 Haze ..................9...........................................................................................................1.............. 3........................ Optical Properties of Solid Polymers ................5 Viscosity Formula of Klein .......... External Influences ..........................................................................................1 Surface Resistivity ................ 5.............................6 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) ..3 Refractive Index .................... 4.......................2 Volume Resistivity ......................... 5..... 5..................................9............................. 73 73 73 73 75 75 6..... 5....................................................1 Solubility ................................. 4........................................................5 Dielectric Dissipation Factor or Loss Tangent ..................................................3...................................... 3.............5 Color ...............................................4 Viscosity Equation of Carreau .......... 3..............2 Shear Compliance Je .................4 Relative Permittivity ........................................................... 5..................8 Tensile Viscosity .......................................... 3................................ This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation......................... 6.......Contents 3............ 3..................................................... 4.................................................................. 77 77 77 ................................. 3........3 Dielectric Strength ..........................1 Physical Interactions .... Electrical Properties ..................9 Viscoelastic Properties ............... ix 53 55 56 57 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 4.. 6.....................................3 Die Swell ....6 Viscosity of TwoComponent Mixtures ................ 4.............7 Melt Flow Index ...............1 Primary Normal Stress Coefficient Θ ...........9........................... 3................. 3............................... 4..................................... 3.. 3....... 4...........4 Effect of Pressure on Viscosity ......1 Light Transmission ..................3..5 Dependence of Viscosity on Molecular Weight ........................ 65 65 65 65 66 66 68 5.......4 Gloss .............................................
.......... .........2........ 170 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation............2 Chemical Resistance .......1.............3........................... 135 7.......................................... Injection Molding .... 6............ 6........................................... 149 7.............. 142 7......................................................... 155 8..1............... 146 7......2..............................2 Processing Parameters .....3...1 Extrusion Screws ....... 91 92 92 92 98 7......................................................3 Permeability ..... 6..............................................4 Absorption and Desorption ... 155 8...................................1 Chemical and Wear Resistance to Polymers ...5 Weathering Resistance .................................2 Blown Film ........................1 Processes .............. 7....1.....2 Machine Related Parameters .....3 General Property Data ................................................. 152 8......... 77 79 80 80 81 81 82 7.......................1 Resin Dependent Parameters ............ 6..... 137 7.......... 7.........................................4 Thermoforming ..................................................... 7............................6................3..................................... 7................................................ Extrusion .............1 ResinDependent Parameters ................ 170 9.2 Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) ..................1 Dimensionless Groups ...................1 ResinDependent Parameters ............2 Machine Related Parameters .........6 Extrudate Cooling ..... 124 7.......................................................x Contents 6................. 161 9.2...................................1..............................................1..1.......... 155 8........... Blow Molding ...............................1 Injection Pressure ....................................3 Extrusion Dies ........................................1.........................................................................1 Pipe Extrusion ...... 6.................. 6.. 169 9........3 Sheet Extrusion ....5 Compounding ................................................................................................... 126 7.........
.........................2............... ....................1..... 179 9....2..2 Mold Shrinkage and Processing Temperature ............................................... 179 9. 183 Index ....................3 Drying Temperatures and Times ...............................................4 Flow Characteristics of InjectionMolding Resins ............Contents xi 9...2 Injection Molding Screw ........3 Injection Mold .............. 205 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.1 Injection Unit .... 172 9............... 180 9.............1...........................................2....................2 Machine Related Parameters ....... 174 9.. 175 9....................................1....................................................
1) .1 causes an elongation A/ of the sample of diameter d0 and length I0 fixed at one end.1 Ideal Solids Ideal elastic solids deform according to Hookean law which states that the stress is directly proportional to strain. Knowledge of polymer properties is. The following sections deal with the physical as well as important performance properties of polymers. To characterize ideal solids. The behavior of a polymer subjected to shear or tension can be described by comparing its reaction to an external force with that of an elastic solid under load. Following equations apply for this case: Engineering strain: (1.2 Tensile Properties The axial force Fn in Fig. as already mentioned in the preface. Furthermore they are also essential in design work to dimension a part from a stress analysis or to predict the performance of a part under different stress situations involved.2. In addition to the physical properties there are certain properties known as performance or engineering properties which correlate with the performance of the polymer under varied type of loading and environmental influences such as impact.1 Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers The properties of polymers are required firstly to select a material which enables desired performance of the plastics component under conditions of its application. it is necessary to define certain quantities as follows [3]: 1. a prerequisite for designing and optimizing polymer processing machinery. 1. fatigue. high and low temperature behavior and chemical resistance. 1.
2) [I].Hencky strain: (1. 1. .2.2. The maximum stress point on the curve.2.4) Poisson's ratio: (1.2 most metals exhibit a linear stressstrain relationship (curve 1). up to which stress and strain remain proportional is called the proportional limit (point P in Fig.5) Fig.2. The slope of the straight line portion of curve 1 is equal to the modulus of elasticity.1 StressStrain Behavior As shown in Fig.2.3) Reference area: (1. 1. 1.2) Tensile stress: (1. where as polymers being viscoelastic show a nonlinear behavior (curve 2).1: Deformation of a Hookean solid by a tensile stress [10] 1. When the stress is directly proportional to strain the material is said to obey Hooke's law.
Stress c Strain z Fig. 1. where an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress.2: Typical stressstrain curves of metals and polymers Most materials return to their original size and shape. 1. It should however be noted that some materials may not exhibit a yield point. Stress 6 Strain E Fig. The secant modulus represents the . even if the external load exceeds the proportional limit. it does not return to its original size and shape. The elastic limit represented by the point E in Fig.3).2) is known as the yield point. This point (point Y in Fig. The point B in Fig. and is said to have been permanently deformed. If the material is loaded beyond its elastic limit. 1.3: Secant modulus [3] Owing to their nonlinear nature it is difficult to locate the straight line portion of the stressstrain curve for polymeric materials (Fig.2 is the maximum load which may be applied without leaving any permanent deformation of the material. On continued loading a point is reached at which the material starts yielding.2 represents break of the material. 1. 1. 1.
ratio of stress to strain at any point (S in Fig. 1.3) on the stressstrain diagram and is equal to the slope of the line OS. It is an approximation to a linear response over a narrow, but prespecified and standard level of strain [2], which is usually 0.2%. The initial modulus is a straight line drawn tangent to the initial region of the stressstrain curve to obtain a fictive modulus as shown in Fig. 1.4. As this is ambiguous, the resin manufacturers provide a modulus with the stress, for example, G05 corresponding to a strain 0.5 % to characterize the material behavior on a practical basis (Fig. 1.4) [3], This stress G0 is also known as the proof stress. Nm m2 /
Stress 6
Sr i S tan
%
Fig. 1.4: Stress at a strain of 0.5% [3]
mm2 psi
Tensile stress
Elongation
%
Fig. 1.5: Tensile stress diagram of a number of materials at 23°C [ 4 ]: a: steel, b: copper, c: polycarbonate, d: PMMA, e: PEHD, f: rubber, g: PELD, h: PVCP
Tensile stress
Stressstrain diagrams are given in Fig. 1.5 for a number of materials [4]. It can be seen from Fig. 1.5 that the advantage of metals lies in their high strength, where as that of plastics lies in their high elongation at break. 1.2.2 Tensile Modulus According to Eq. (1.2.1) and Eq. (1.2.3) one obtains for the modulus of elasticity E which is known as Young's Modulus E = az/ 8 (1.2.6) The modulus of elasticity in a tension test is given in Table 1.1 for different polymers [7]. Table 1.1: Guide Values of Modulus of Elasticity of Some Plastics [4] Material PELD PEHD PP PVCU PS ABS PC POM PA6 PA66 PMMA PET PBT PSU CA CAB PhenolFormaldehydeResins UreaFormaldehydeResins MelaminFormaldehydeResins Unsaturated Polyester Resins Modulus of elasticity N mm'2 200/500 700/1400 1100/1300 1000/3500 3200/3500 1900/2700 2100/2500 2800/3500 1200/1400 1500/2000 2700/3200 2600/3100 1600/2000 2600/2750 1800/2200 1300/1600 5600/12000 7000/10500 4900/9100 14000/20000
The 3.5 % flexural stresses of thermoplastics obtained on a 3point bending fixture (Fig. 1.6) [6] lie in the range 100 to 150 N mm"2 and those of thermosets from around 60 to 150 N mm"2 [7].
A pi d l a p le o d
Fig. 1.6: Three point bending fixture [6]
1.2.3 Effect of Temperature on Tensile Strength
The tensile strength is obtained by dividing the maximum load (point M in Fig. 1.2) the specimen under test will withstand by the original area of crosssection of the specimen. Fig. 1.7 shows the temperature dependence of the tensile strength of a number of plastics [4].
1.3 Shear Properties
Figure 1.8 shows the influence of a shear force Ft acting on the area A of a rectangular sample and causing the displacement AU. The valid expressions are defined by: Shear strain: (1.3.1) Shear stress (1.3.2)
1.3.1 Shear Modulus
The ratio of shear stress to shear strain represents the shear modulus G. From the equations above results: (1.3.3)
N mm2 psi Tensile stress Temperature
0
Tensile stress
C
Fig. 1.7: Temperature dependence of the tensile stress of some thermoplastics under uniaxial loading [4]; a: PMMA, b: SAN, c: PS, d: SB, e: PVCU f: ABS, g: CA, h: PEHD, i: PELD, k: PELDV
Fig. 1.8: Deformation of a Hookean solid by shearing stress [10]
1.3.2 Effect of Temperature on Shear Modulus
The viscoelastic properties of polymers over a wide range of temperatures can be better characterized by the complex shear modulus G* which is measured in a torsion pendulum test by subjecting the specimen to an oscillatory deformation Fig. 1.9 [2]. The complex shear modulus G* is given by the expression [2] (1.3.4) The storage modulus G' in Eq. (1.3.4) represents the elastic behavior associated with energy storage and is a function of shear amplitude, strain amplitude and the phase angle
This kind of data provides information on the molecular structure of the polymer. These data for various polymers are given in the book [4]. 1. 1. DEFORMATION RESISTANCE HR AD B I TE RT L SL OI D 8 TUH OG SL OI D VC U SOS I ML ET R BE Y UBR TEMPERATURE Fig. 1.5) The modulustemperature relationship is represented schematically in Fig. from which the influence of the transition regions described by the glass transition temperature Tg and melting point Tm is evident. 8 TM (t) IE Fig. The storage modulus G' which is a component of the complex shear modulus G* and the loss factor d are plotted as functions of temperature for high density polyethylene in Fig. Loading mode and sinusoidal angular displacement t [2] The tangent of the phase angle 8 is often used to characterize viscoelastic behavior and is known as loss factor. The loss modulus G" which is a component of the complex modulus depicts the viscous behavior of the material and arises due to viscous dissipation.5 between stress and strain. 1.3.11 [4]. The loss factor d can be obtained from (1.10: Generalized relationship between deformation resistance and temperature for amorphous (solid line) and semicrystalline (broken line) high polymers [2] .9: Torsion pendulum.10 [2].
12 is given by the engineering compression ratio K .4. PEHD (crystalline). 1. P P V0LV Fig. 1.psi N/mm2 Dynamic shear modulus G' Temperature °C Fig. (1.11: Temperature dependence of the dynamic shear modulus. G' and the loss factor d.1) where AV is the reduction of volume due to deformation of the body with the original volume F0.12: Hookean solid under compression [44] Mechanical loss factor d . obtained in the torsion pendulum test DIN 53445 [4]: PEHD (highly crystalline). 1.4 Compressive Properties The isotropic compression due to the pressure acting on all sides of the parallelepiped shown in Fig. PELD (less crystalline) 1.
494 O7 2. for instance for PELD.Table 1.3109 0.5 0.49 0.4.25 0.9 Bulk modulus K N/m2 1.4.033109 0.2) where A: is calculated from Eq. i.2 [10].43% .4.3) This leads for an incompressible solid (K —> oo.1).1109 3. (1.47107 1.5406 Mild steel Aluminum Copper Quartz Glass Polystyrene Polymethylmethacrylate Polyamide 66 Rubber PELD Water Organic liquids 0. density p.4. /j —> 0.044 O7 3.08 0.05 1.27 0.33 0.344011 3.65 2.661011 71010 1.33109 Specific bulk modulus KJp m2/s2 2.2: Poisson ratio ju.5 1. (1.9 2. at equal weights.71010 3109 4. Although the moduli of polymers compared with those of metals are very low.85407 3.7407 24 O6 1.45 0.91010 3. when the pressure is increased by 100 bar follows from Table AV / V0 = 100/(0. ratio of modulus to density.5107 1.33 0. polymers compare favorably.92 1 0. Furthermore. the relationship between E.4.1107 2. 2. .5407 2.6107 1.4) Typical values of moduli and Poisson's ratios for some materials are given in Table 1.5 1. (1.7 8. The reduction of volume.7 • 104) = 1.2ju) .7109 2109 1.33 0.17 1.91 0.8.1 Bulk Modulus The bulk modulus K is defined by K =p IK (1.3407 0.5 ) to E = 3G. G and K is expressed as [3] E = 2 G(I + JU) = 3K(I.e. bulk modulus K and specific bulk modulus for some materials [10] Material Poisson ratio ju Density p at 200C g/cm3 7.23 0.07 0.33 0.
As shown in Fig.5.1.13 the creep data can be represented by creep plots. Creep is therefore the result of increasing strain over time under constant load [6]. The 2 % elasticity limits of some thermoplastics under uniaxial stress are given in Fig.1) and is independent of stress only in the linear elastic region. Creep data measured under various conditions for different polymers are available in [4]. 1.1) can be obtained.13: Longterm stressstrain behavior [3] .5. (1. a Strain £ Te/ m i b Stress 6 Stress 6 Tet m i Strain £ Fig.15. 1. Creep behavior can be examined by subjecting the material to tensile. Under the action of a constant load a polymeric material experiences a time dependent increase in strain called creep. The time dependence of tensile creep modulus of some thermoplastics at 2O0C is shown in Fig. 1.1 Creep Modulus In addition to stress and temperature. 1. The creep modulus E c № in tension can be calculated from E c (t) = W£(t) (1. time is an important factor for characterizing the performance of plastics.14 [5]. compressive or flexural stress and measuring the strain for a range of loads at a given temperature.5. from which the creep modulus according to Eq.5 Time Related Properties 1.
except that the magnitude of the stresses used is higher and the time is measured up Tensile stress . polycarbonate. b: ABS.Tensile Creep Modulus GN/m2 Nylon 662 20 MN/m 200P Polyethersulfone 28 MN/nf Polysulfone 28 MN/m2 Polycarbonate 20. e: PEHD.14: Tensile creep modulus vs time for engineering thermoplastics [5] N mm2 psi Tensile stress h Stress duration Fig. d: chlorinated polyether.2 Creep Rupture Failure with creep can occur when a component exceeds an allowable deformation or when it fractures or ruptures [6].6 MN/m2 Data for polysulfooe. f: PELD 1. 1. Creep rupture curves are obtained in the same manner as creep. Acetal copolymer acretal copolymer and nylon 66 20 MN/m2 from Modern Plastics Encyclopaedia 1 We ek 1 Ya er Time (hours) Fig. c: SB. 1.15:2% elasticity limits of some thermoplastics under uniaxial stress at 200C [4] a: SAN.5.
1. t> t r 7 tFig. Similar plots for different materials are to be found in [4]. 1.16: Relaxation after step shear strain y0 [3] psi N/mm2 Relaxation modulus Stress duration h Fig.17: Relaxation modulus of PEHDHMW as a function of stress duration at 23°C [4] .3 Relaxation Modulus The relaxation behavior of a polymer is shown in Fig. 1. The relaxation modulus of PEHDHMW as a function of stress duration is given in Fig. Data on creep rupture for a number of polymers are presented in [4]. Relaxation is the stress reduction which occurs in a polymer when it is subjected to a constant strain.17 [4].5. According to [4] the extrapolation of creep data should not exceed one unit of logarithmic time and a strain elongation limit of 20 % of the ultimate strength.to failure.16 [3]. 1. This data is of significance in the design of parts which are to undergo longterm deformation. 1.
1. 1.18: Fatigue curve [6] Stress Fatigue limit Log cycles (to failure) Fig. The asymptotic value of stress shown in the schematic fatigue curve (SN plot) in Figs.18 and 1. SN cuive  Stress Log cycles Fig. At stresses or strains which are less than this value failure does not occur normally. Examples of fatigue situations are components subjected to vibration or repeated impacts.4 Fatigue Limit Fatigue is a failure mechanism which results when the material is stressed repeatedly or when it is subjected to a cyclic load. Cyclic loading can cause mechanical deterioration and fracture propagation resulting in ultimate failure of the material.5.19 [6] is known as the fatigue limit.19: Fatigue limit [6] . 1.1. Fatigue is usually measured under conditions of bending where the specimen is subjected to constant deflection at constant frequency until failure occurs.
1.20) [6].22) used the Shore hardness. 1. Shore A data referring to soft plastics and Shore D to hard plastics. The Woehler plots for oscillating flexural stress for some thermoplastics are given in Fig. increasing frequency and stress concentrations in the part [4]. is given as Shore A or Shore D. 1. According to the type of indenter (Fig. for example. .Some materials do not exhibit an asymptotic fatigue limit. 1. In these cases.20: Endurance limit [6] For most plastics the fatigue limit is about 20 to 30 % of the ultimate strength measured in shortterm tensile investigations [6]. Fatigue limits decrease with increasing temperature. The ballindentation hardness which represents the indentation depth of a spherical steel indenture is given in Table 1. Their common feature is measuring the deformation in terms of the depth of penetration which follows indentation by a hemisphere. 1.6 Hardness Various methods of measuring the hardness of plastics are in use. cone or pyramid depending on the test procedure under defined load conditions. the endurance limit which gives stress or strain at failure at a certain number of cycles is used (Fig.21. The results of both methods are expressed on a scale between 0 (very soft plastics) and 100 (very hard surface). Stress Endurance limit Log cycles (to failure) Fig.3 for some thermoplastics [2].
c: PEHD.21: Flexural fatigue strength of some thermoplastics [4] a: acetal polymer.N mm2 psi Stress amplitude Cycles to failure Fig. b: PP. 1. d: PVCU Table 1.3: BallIndentation Hardness for Some Plastics [7] Material PELD PEHD PP PVCU PS ABS PC POM PA6 PA66 PMMA PET PBT PhenolFormaldehydeResins UreaFormaldehydeResins MelaminFormaldehydeResins Unsaturated Polyester Resins Hardness N/mm2 13/20 40/65 36/70 75/155 120/130 80/120 90/110 150/170 70/75 90/100 180/200 180/200 150/180 250 320 260/350 260/410 200/240 .
1. the factors affecting the two processes such as roughness of the surfaces.a. b: shore C and A 1. relative velocities of the parts in contact and area under pressure are often the same. rd s ai u r Fig.8 Coefficient of Friction Although there is no consistent relationship between friction and wear. The test procedures are varied. and indicates the toughness of the material at high rates of deformation. In the Charpy impact test (Fig.23: Charpy impact test [2] 1. smooth surface and low coefficient of friction of the resin components involved are to be recommended.23) [2] the pendulum strikes the specimen centrally leading to fracture. . 1. In applications where low friction and high wear resistance are required. b) Fig.22: Types of indenter [7] a: shore. Table 1.4 shows the coefficients of sliding friction and sliding wear against steel for different materials [4]. 1.7 Impact Strength Impact strength is the ability of the material to withstand a sudden impact blow as in a pendulum test.
notch radius for some engineering thermoplastics [5] . Impact strengths for various plastics are given by Domininghaus [4]. Impact value Ductile behaviour Ductile/brittle transition Brittle behaviour Temperature Fig. notch geometry and on the test method. This type of data provides the designer with information about the temperature at which the ductile fracture changes to brittle fracture thus enabling to evaluate the performance of the material in a given application.25 [5]. 1. 1. 1. Charpy notched impact strengths of some plastics as functions of notch radius are given in Fig.25: Charpy impact strength vs.A typical impact curve as a function of temperature is shown in Fig.24 [6]. 1. The results of impact tests depend on the manufacturing conditions of the specimen.24: Impact curve [6] PC V Charpy Impact Strength (kj/m2) Polyethersulfone Nylon 66 (dry) Acetal AS B Glassfiled nylon Acrylic Radius (mm) Fig.
36/0.25/0.29 0.21 0.38/0.58 0.5 8.32/0.19 0.35 0.6 7.54 0.4 21.Table 1.10 0.35 0.26 is to be determined for the following conditions: The beam should support a midspan load of 11.36/0.7 0.38 0.46 0.54 0.4: Coefficient of Sliding Friction of Polymer/Case Hardened Steel after 5 or 24 Hours [4] Polymer Polyamide 66 Polyamide 6 Polyamide 6 {in situ polymer) Polyamide 610 Polyamide 11 Polyethyleneterephthalate Acetal homopolymer Acetal copolymer Polypropylene PEHD (high molecular weight) PEHD (low molecular weight) PELD Polytetrafluoroethylene PA 66 + 8% PELD Polyacetal + PTFE PA 66 + 3% MoS2 PA 66 . 1.32/0.09 0.GF 35 Standard polystyrene Styrene/Acrylonitrile copolymer Polymethylmethacrylate Polyphenylene ether Coefficient of sliding friction 0.0 1. Solution: The maximum stress is given by (1.22 0.45 0.5 4.0 4.10 0.52 0.28 11.8 90 Example [8]: The following example illustrates the use of physical and performance properties of polymers in dealing with design problems.1) .54 mm.32 0.30 0.44 0. The minimum depth of the simple beam of SAN shown in Fig.5 23 4.36 0.25 0.GF 35 PA 6 .42 0.9 11.16 0.8.34 0.32 0.43 0.0 0.16 0.30/0.35 Sliding frictional wear 0.8 0.32/0.13 N for 5 years without fracture and without causing a deflection of greater than 2.23 0.
54 mm. (1.8.27: Ec = 2413 NI mm2.1) The deflection is calculated from Eq.d = dimensions in (mm) as shown in Fig.44 N/mm2. This example shows why creep data are required in design calculations and how they can be applied to solve design problems.72 NJmm1 .440.75: Ec = 24130. The maximum stress from Fig.26. Creep modulus Ec a t cr < crw ^ d a period of 5 years from Fig.2) where f is deflection in mm. Creep modulus with a safety factor S = 0. 1.8. (1.75 NJmm2 . Fig. The creep modulus Ec is calculated from (1. 1. Working stress crw with an assumed safety factor S = 0.27 at a period of 5 years (= 43800 h) is crmax = 23.5 = 11. 1.h.where F = load (N) l.2) Under these assumptions the calculated/is less than the allowable value of 2. The depth of the beam results from Eq.26: Beam under midspan load [8] . 1.5: ow = 23.75 = 1809.8.
2. 7. 3.: James M. 6. 1. Munich. W. Hanser. Margolis. K: Plastics for Engineers. Ludhiana. Munich 1992 . NS.27: Creep curve of SAN [8] N mm2 Creep modulus Time t Fig. India 1980 Birley. Hanser.: Bachelor. 4. B. D. Ed.28: Creep modulus of SAN [8] h Literature 1.mm2 Initial applied stress h Tm at rupture i e Fig. Katson Publishing House. R. Munich 1993 Rigby. Hanser.: Physics of Plastics.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers.). 1991 Domininghaus.B. A. K: Handbuch der Kunststoffpriifung (Ed.: A Text Book of Materials and Metallurgy. Basel 1985 General Electric Plastics Brochure: Engineering Materials Design Guide Schmiedel. 5. 1. T. Hanser.: Haworth.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. Munich 1991 Rao. Marcel Dekker.S. Nat.
197879 9. M. VDIKunststofftechnik.: Praktische Rheologie der Kunststoffe und Elastomere. Dusseldorf 1995 . W. Design Guide.8. 1992 10. Laun... KM. Pahl. Gleifile. Modem Plastics Encyclopedia. Brochure: Advanced CAE Technology Inc.
.1) In this equation b* is the specific individual volume of the macromolecule. W. Spencer and Gilmore and other workers evaluated these constants from measurements for the polymers listed in Table 2. 2. The pvT diagrams are needed in many applications.2 Thermal Properties of Solid and Molten Polymers In addition to the mechanical and melt flow properties thermodynamic data of polymers are necessary for optimizing various heating and cooling processes which occur in plastics processing operations.1.1 [9]. Data on pvT relationships for a number of polymers are presented in the handbook [8]. p*. regression equations are used to fit the data for use in design calculations. for example to estimate the shrinkage of plastics parts in injection molding [19]. According to SpencerGilmore equation which is similar to the VanderWaal equation of state for real gases the relationship between pressure p.1 Specific Volume The volumetemperature relationship as a function of pressure is shown for a semicrystalline PEHD in Fig. As the measured data cannot always be predicted by physical relationships accurately enough.1 [1] and for an amorphous PS in Fig. the universal gas constant [9]. 2. the cohesion pressure. 2. The values p* and b* can be determined from pVT diagrams by means of regression analysis.2 [I]. specific volume v and temperature T of a polymer can be written as (2. [18]. In design work the thermal properties are often required as functions of temperature and pressure [2]. the molecular weight of the monomer and R.
temperature for a semicrystalline polymer (PP) [1] Specific volume (cm3/g) Temperature (0C) Fig. temperature for an amorphous polymer (PS) [1] . 2.S E I I V L M (cm3/g) P CFC OU E TEMPERATURE(0C) Fig.1: Specific volume vs.2: Specific volume vs. 2.
Table 2.1: Constants for the Equation of State [9] Material PELD PP PS PC PA 610 PMMA PET PBT W g/mol 28.1 41.0 104 56.1 111 100 37.0 113.2 b* cmVg 0.875 0.620 0.822 0.669 0.9064 0.822 0.574 0.712
atm 3240 1600 1840 3135 10768 1840 4275 2239
Example: Following values are given for a PELD: W b* p* = = = 28.1 g/Mol 0.875 cm7g 3240 arm
Calculate the specific volume at T = 190°Candplbar Solution: Using Eq. (2.1.1) and the conversion factors to obtain the volume v in crnVg, we obtain 10 8.314.(273, 190) + y = = 28.13240.991.013 The density p is the reciprocal value of specific volume so that 1 P = v The pvT data can also be fitted by a polynomial of the form v = A(0) v + A(l) v p+ A(2) v T+ A ( 3 ) v T p (2.1.2) if measured data is available (Fig. 2.3) [10], [11], [17]. The empirical coefficients A(0)v... A(3)v can be determined by means of the computer program given in [H]. With the modified twodomain Tait equation [16] a very accurate fit can be obtained both for the solid and melt regions.
cm3/g
/> = 1bar
OO a J br Specific volume v 800 bar
m a ue esrd polynomial
0
C
Temperature T
Fig. 2.3: Specific volume as a function of temperature and pressure for PELD [2], [13]
2.2 Specific Heat
The specific heat cp is defined as (Si),
where h = enthalpy T = Temperature The specific heat cp gives the amount of heat which is supplied to a system in a reversible process at a constant pressure in order to increase the temperature of the substance by dT. The specific heat at constant volume cv is given by
C  [^l
where u = internal energy T = Temperature In the case of cv the supply of heat to the system occurs at constant volume. cp and cv are related to each other through the SpencerGilmore equation Eq. (2.1.1)
(2.2.3)
The numerical values of cp and cv differ by roughly 10 %, so that for approximate calculations cv can be made equal to cp. Plots of cp as function of temperature are shown in Fig. 2.4 for amorphous, semicrystalline and crystalline polymers.
a )
b )
c)
Fig. 2.4: Specific heat as a function of temperature for amorphous (a), semicrystalline (b) and crystalline polymers (c) [14]
(2.2.4)
JiL k K g m aue esrd Specific heat cp pyo a on m l l i
As shown in Fig. 2.5 measured values can be fitted by a polynomial of the type [11]
T m ea r T e prt e u
'C
(2.3.1) The expansion coefficient aY a* constant pressure is pgivenand polynomial for PELD [2] 2.3 Fig. 2.5: Comparison between measured values of c [13] by [14] Thermal Expansion Coefficient
The isothermal compression coefficient yk is defined as [14]
r,   1 [£)
v \dpJT
ay and yk are related to each other by the expression [14]
Cp Cv + ^ ^
(23.2)
(2.3.3)
The linear expansion coefficient alin is approximately
tflin = CCv (2.3.4)
Table 2.2 shows the linear expansion coefficients of some polymers at 20 0C. The linear expansion coefficient of mild steel lies around 11 x 10"6 [K"1] and that of aluminum about 25 x 10~6 [K"1]. As can be seen from Table 2.2 plastics expand about 3 to 20 times more than metals. Factors affecting thermal expansion are crystallinity, crosslinking and fillers
Table 2.2: Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion [1], [5] Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVCU PVCP PS ABS PMMA POM PSU PC PET PBT PA 6 PA 66 PTFE TPU Coefficient of linear expansionat 20 0C alin 106K1 250 200 150 75 180 70 90 70 100 50 65 65 70 80 80 100 150
2. If.1) .4.4.7 [14].2. for example. the theoretical power requirement would be 20 kW. 2. It gives the theoretical amount of energy required to bring the solid polymer to the process temperature.5. This can be assumed to be a safe design value for the motor horse power. Values of this parameter for different polymers are given in Fig.1) As shown in Fig. 2. 2.1) leads to dh = cp dT (2.2. although theoretically it includes the power supply to the polymer by the heater bands of the extruder as well.6 the measured data on h = h(T) [13] for a polymer melt can be fitted by the polynomial (2. (2.6: Comparison between measured values of h [13] and polynomial for PA6 [11] The specific enthalpy defined as the total energy supplied to the polymer divided by the throughput of the polymer is a useful parameter for designing extrusion and injection molding equipment such as screws.5 Thermal Conductivity The thermal conductivity X is defined as (2. the throughput of an extruder is 100 kg/h of polyamide (PA) and the processing temperature is 260° C.2) kg p l n ma oy o i l m a ue esrd hhn 0 T m eaue T e prtr C Fig.4 Enthalpy Eq.
A pressure increase from 1 bar to 250 bar leads only to an increase of less than 5 % of its value at 1 bar. 2.7: Specific enthalpy as a function of temperature [14] where Q = heat flow through the surface of area A in a period of time t (T1T2) = temperature difference over the length 1.8 can be expressed as [2] (2.kWh kg P P A S P C Enthalpy ^C V 9 T m ea r I e prt e u C Fig.5. .2) Thermal conductivity A measured m K polynomial 0 C T m eaue Je prtr Fig. 2.8: Comparison between measured values of A. Analogous to the specific heat cp and enthalpy h the thermal conductivity X as shown in Fig. 2. [13] and polynomial for PP [2] The thermal conductivity increases only slightly with the pressure.
Table 2.12 0. [15].22 0.16 0. Foamed plastics have.As in the case of other thermal properties the thermal conductivity is. more accurate computations require functions of Z. Although for approximate calculations average values of thermal diffusivity can be used. in addition to its dependence on temperature.15 0. p and cp against temperature for the solid as well as melt regions of the polymer. strongly influenced by the crystallinity and orientation and by the amount and type of filler in the polymer [I]. for example.6. 2.1) and is of importance in dealing with transient heat transfer phenomena such as cooling of melt in an injection mold [2].14 0. thermal conductivities at least an order of magnitude less than those of solid polymers [I].12 0.12 0.14 0.11 .3: Thermal Diffusivities of Polymers at 20 0C Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVCU PVCP PS PMMA POM ABS PC PBT PA 6 PA 66 PET I Thermal diffusivity at 20 0C a 106m2/s 012 0.12 0.6 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal diffusivity a is defined as the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat capacity per unit volume [1] a = ^P 'Cp (2.14 0.3 [14]. Thermal diffusivities of some polymers at 20 0C are listed in Table 2.12 0.13 0.
92 0.35 Glass transition temperature Tg C 101 80 105 115 73 115 150 120/90 120/90 120/90 10 50 55 70 45 0 Melting point range Tm 0 C PS PVC PMMA SAN POM ABS PC PELD PELLD PEHD PP PA6 PA 66 PET PBT ca.37 0.49 0.Exhaustive measured data of the quantities cp. 130 160/170 215/225 250/260 250/260 ca. 220 2.02 1. Methods of determining thermal conductivity. 110 ca.16 0.4: Approximate Values for Thermal Properties of Some Polymers [14] Polymer Thermal conductivity (20 0C) X W/mK 0.30 2. [15]. h.91 1.46 1.55 1.29 0. Table 2. As shown in Table 2.25 Density (20 0C) p g/cm3 1. Owing to this the contact temperature of the wall of an injection mold at the time of injection lies in the vicinity of the mold wall temperature before injection.42 1.30 2.17 2.70 1.15 0.92 0.20 1.18 1.40 0. 125 ca. pvT values and other thermal properties of plastics have been treated in this brochure [12]. [16].95 0.10 1. . X and pvT diagrams of polymers are given in the VDMAHandbook [8].13 1.08 1.15 0. melting point and glass transition temperature by differential thermal analysis (DTA) such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are described in detail in the brochure [12].32 0.36 0.23 0.7 Coefficient of Heat Penetration The coefficient of heat penetration is used in calculating the contact temperature which results when two bodies of different temperature are brought into contact with each other [2].40 1.21 Specific heat (20°C)cp kJ/kgK 1.5 the coefficients of heat penetration of metals are much higher than those of polymer melts.35 1.40 1.40 1.20 0. Approximate values of thermal properties of use to plastics engineers are summarized in Table 2. 175 ca.80 1.4 [14].25 2.14 1.40 1. specific heat.45 1.20 0.12 0.12 0. Experimental techniques of measuring enthalpy.06 1.25 0.
56 x 103 21.5 refer to the following units of the properties: Thermal conductivity X: Density p: Specific heat c: The approximate values for steel are 1 = 50 W/(mK) r = 7850 kg/m3 c = 0.The contact temperature #Wmax of the wall of an injection mold at the time of injection is [17] 0W ~ _ bw flWmin + b p Bu " bw + bp n {JA) where b = coefficient of heat penetration= J / l p c ^wmjn = temperature before injection 0u = melt temperature Indices w and p refer to mold and polymer respectively.7 x 103 0.8 x 103 The values given in Table 2.99 x 103 0.5: Coefficients of Heat Penetration of Metals and Plastics [17] Material Beryllium Copper (BeCu25) Unalloyed Steel (C45W3) Chromium Steel (X40Cr 13) Polyethylene (PEHD) Polystyrene (PS) Stainless Steel Aluminum Coefficient of heat penetration b W • s05 • m'2 • K1 17. Table 2.57 x 103 7.2 x 103 13.8 x 103 11.485 kJ/(kgK) The coefficient of heat penetration is W/(mK) kg/m3 kJ/(kgK) .
8 Heat Deflection Temperature Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) or the Deflection Temperature under load (DTUL) is a relative measure of the polymer's ability to retain shape at elevated temperatures while supporting a load. Owing to the similarity of the measuring principle Vicat softening point. Crystalline polymers may have lower values of HDT but are dimensionally more stable at elevated temperatures [5].9: Principles of measurement of heat distortion of plastics [6] . In amorphous materials the HDT almost coincides with the glass transition temperature Tg. Table 2.6: Heat Deflection Temperatures (HDT) According to the Method A of Measurement [3].9) [6]. The heat deflection temperatures are listed for some materials in Table 2. 2.2. [6] Material PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA6 PA66 PMMA PET PBT VlCAT load load standardized needle heat transfer liquid a) specimen b) I HDT (Method A) °_C 35 50 45 72 84 100 135 140 77 130 103 80 65 M RE S ATN HT D load specimen oven c) heat transfer liquid specimen Fig. 2. HDT and Martens temperature lie often close to each other (Fig. Additives like fillers have more significant effect on crystalline polymers than on amorphous polymers.6.
9 Vicat Softening Point Vicat softening point is the temperature at which a small lightly loaded. The Critical Oxygen Index is the most accepted laboratory test. It is used as a guide value for demolding temperature in injection molding. These values . It measures the minimum volume concentration of oxygen in a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.7: Guide Values for Vicat Softening Points [6] Polymer PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET Vicat softening point ^C 65 90 92 90 102 138 165 180 200 85 190 PBT I 180 2. Both Vicat and HDT values serve as a basis to judge the resistance of a thermoplastic to distortion at elevated temperatures. The aim of various flammability tests is to measure the burning characteristics of plastics materials once ignition has occurred. Guide values of Vicat softening temperatures of some polymers according to DIN 53460 (Vicat 5 kg) are given in Table 2. Vicat softening points of crystalline polymers have more significance than amorphous polymers. The Vicat softening point gives an indication of the material's ability to withstand contact with a heated object for a short duration.2. as the latter tend to creep during the test [5].10 Flammability Most plastics are flammable and can act as fuel in a fire situation. which is required to initiate combustion of the plastic and propagate flameburning to a prespecified extent (a flamespread time or a distance along the test sample) [I].7 [6]. Table 2. heated test probe penetrates a given distance into a test specimen [5]. Data are presented in the form of Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value.
10: Typical arrangements for the UL flammability test: (V) UL 94 v vertical small flame ignitibility (variable sample thickness).4 17.3 18.0 24/29 30/32 36. The nonflammability of PTFE is manifested by its exceptionally high LOI value. (H) UL 94 HB horizontal small flame ignitibility / flame spread [1] .3/18. 2. Table 2.0/70.6/18. PVC and PVDC.5 60.8 20. Resistance to flammability can be enhanced by adding flame retarding additives to the polymer [I].4 17. Other flameresistant plastics include thermosets.are summarized in Table 2.9/15.0 60.8 [I].8: Limiting Oxygen Indices (LOI) of polymers (23 0C) [1] Material POM PMMA PE PP PS ABS PET PA 66 PSU PI PVDC PVC (chlorinated) PTFE I LOI 14.0 95.7 17.0 CLAMP PLASTICS SPECIMEN IGNITION SUC ORE (V) (H) Fig.4 17.
11 [4].10 [I]). The smoke emission for a number of plastics is given in Fig. 2. These thicknesses are important for designing plastics component design. The temperature index determined on the basis of the tensile halflife concept of the Underwriters' Laboratories is shown for various polymers in Fig.11: UL temperature index for some thermoplastics [4] .Underwriters' Laboratory test (UL 94) is a rating system which classifies flammability behavior of plastics according to their ability to maintain combustion after the flame is removed (see Fig. In general. Temperature 0C Fig. Ratings are given on the basis of minimum wall thickness of the material which corresponds to a particular flame class [I]. 2. plastics which extinguish rapidly and do not drip flaming particles obtain high ratings. 2.12 [4]. 2.
S. 3. p 421 . Munich 1991 Rao.C. JM. DM (corr.B. John Wuley. T. VDIVerlag. Hanser.S. B. Hanser. 2. 12. 2. W. W. 197879 Kenndaten fur die Verarbeitung thermoplastischer Kunststoffe. Munich.: Designing Machines and Dies Polymer Processing. 7.: Polymer Processing. 13.Specific Optical Density. Hanser.).Properties.L. 9.: Kunststoffe 61 (1971). Munich 1992 Design Guide. 1992 Proceedings.: VDIWarmeatlas. K: Handbuch der Kunststoffpriifung (Ed. Munich 1979 Mckelvey.12: Smoke emission behavior of some thermoplastics [4] Literature 1. Ed. 18.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers. Kunststofftechnisches !Colloquium. Munich 1981 Brochure: Advanced CAE Technology Inc. Munich 1986. K: Berechnen von Extrudierwerkzeugen. 6. Ogorkiewicz. Diisseldorf. Thermodynamik.. H. 4. 9. 5.: Thermoplastics Properties and Design. 8. Processes. RM. Aachen 1978 Rauwendal. 15. Modern Plastics Encyclopedia. New York 1962 Miinstedt. Munich 1993 Rigby. Munich 1993 Kurfess. Birley.: Polymer Engineering Principles . G: Berechnen von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen. New York 1973 Martin. 10. N. Tests for Design. Marcel Dekker. J. K: Plastics for Engineers. Throne. 1991 Domininghaus.: Haworth. 17. C: Polymer Extrusion. Hanser. 1978 Rao. John Wuley.) Test Conditions: American National Bureau of Standarts Smoke 32 mm Samples Flamming Condition Fig. Hanser. 19. Teil I. VDIVerlag. IKV. Hanser. Diisseldorf 1984 Wubken. 16.: James M. 11. Hanser. A. N. Margolis. Hanser. VDIVerlag. Diisseldorf 1974 Progelhof. 14. R.: Bachelor.: Physics of Plastics. R.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. Basel 1985 General Electric Plastics Brochure: Engineering Materials Design Guide Schmiedel.
3.1 indicates. melt flow and thermal properties of polymers play an important role in the operations of polymer processing.1 Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluids Analogous to the ideal elastic solids there exists a linear relationship between stress and strain in the case of Newtonian fluids (Fig. Thus. Plastics solids Plastication Melt Shaping Cooling Part removal Fig.2). the shape of which corresponds to that of the part.1: Principle of manufacturing of plastics parts 3. 3. . 3.3 Transport Properties of Molten Polymers The basic principle of making parts out of polymeric materials lies in creating a melt from the solid material and forcing the melt into a die. as Fig.
4) where . 3.SHEARSTRESS Dilatant Bingham Newtonian Pseudoplastic SHEAR RATE Fig.2: Flow curves of idealized fluids [1] The fluid between the upper plate in Fig.3) r For an extensional flow.3 moving at a constant velocity Ux and the lower stationary plate experiences a shear stress x (see Fig. we get (3. LIB also). which corresponds to the tension test of Hookean solid. 3.11) Ux H Fig.1.1. (3.3: Shear flow The shear or deformation rate of the fluid is equal to H dy The shear viscosity is then defined as TJ = (3. 3.
3. 3. The flow of melt in the channels of dies and polymer processing machinery is mainly shear flow.tgft Fig.GZ = normal stress A = Trouton viscosity e = strain rate Analogous to Eq.4.1 Apparent Shear Rate The apparent shear rate for a melt flowing through a capillary is defined as . Igq. knowledge of the laws of shear flow is necessary for designing machines and dies for polymer processing. 3.5) 3.4 and in Fig.2 Viscous Shear Flow Macromolecular fluids like thermoplastic melts exhibit significant nonNewtonian behavior. This is noticed in the marked decrease of melt viscosity when the melt is subjected to shear or tension as shown in Fig.5. . 3. the radius of capillary.lg/i M = 31« o <9£o.$ where Q is the volume flow rate per second and R.1. For practical applications the following summary of the relationships was found to be useful.2.4: Tensile viscosity and shear viscosity of a polymer melt as a function of strain rate [14] . (1. Therefore.4) one obtains I = 3TJ (3.
V N N B D E A T OY DAA T I TN L P E D PA T S U O L SI C S E R R T du/dr H A AE Fig.2) where c and m are empirical constants and r the shear stress.2.1 for some of the thermoplastics. This is correlated empirically by the relation [4] Pc=cT m (3.6.7. 3.2.3 True Shear Stress The flow curves of a particular PELD measured with a capillary rheometer are given in Fig.2 Entrance Loss Another rheological parameter which is of practical importance is the entrance loss pc representing the loss of energy of flow at the entrance to a round nozzle. 3.2. 3. These constants can be determined from the wellknown Bagley curves as shown in Fig. T N WO A E T NN I ST. 3. The plot shows the apparent shear rate y a as a function of the true shear stress r . The dimensions of shear stress and entrance loss used in the calculation of c and m are Pa. The values of these constants are given in Table 3.5: Shear stress as a function of shear rate for different types of plastics [24] 3.B G A P A TC N HM L S I I SHEAR STRESS.
= pressure of the melt (see Fig.02M0.575 2. 3.072 1.187 1.98410° 5.116 1.976 2.55 HO" 5 1.78810° 6.399 1.614 .7 1.6) where L R p R= 1mm R=0. (3.1: ResinDependent Constants c and m in Eq.469 1. The entrance loss pc was obtained from the Bagley plot shown in Fig.176101 6.905 1.688104 3.7 2.2. the true shear stress z is given by 2(1/ R) = length of the capillary = radius of the capillary respectively. 3. Thus. 3.6.87M0.9404 O2 1.6: Bagley plots of a polystyrene with the capillary length L and radius R [15] Table 3.463104 2.40110"3 1.6 mm Pressure p Pc Capillary geometry L/R Fig.at the capillary wall with the melt temperature as a parameter.434 1.2) [4] Product Polypropylene (Novolen 1120 H) Polypropylene (Novolen 1120 L) Polypropylene (Novolen 1320 L) PELD (Lupolen 1800 M) PELD (Lupolen 1800 S) PELD (Lupolen 1810 D) PEHD (Lupolen 601 IL) PEHD (Lupolen 6041 D) Polyisobutylene (Oppanol BlO) Polyisobutylene (Oppanol B15) C m 2.
4 Apparent Viscosity The apparent viscosity rja is defined as (32. 3. 3.s] Shear rate f • P a S e r stress T ha Fig.8 as a function of shear rate and temperature for a PELD. Viscosity functions for several polymers are given in Figs. 3.7: Flow curves of a PELD [2] 3.4) Ya and is shown in Fig.8: Viscosity functions of a PELD [2] .2. Va= Pas U X5O3SI/\ Ser rate j ha s"1 Fig.10.9 and 3. 3.
9: Shear viscosity of some polymer melts . 3.Shear viscosity of different polymer melts PEHD (19O0C) ABS0 (250 C) Melt viscosity (Pa s) POM (21 OX) P 6 (2800C) A6 PP (260°C) PA6 (275°C) PBT (290°C) PELD (2000C) S e r rate ( s1 ) ha shear viscosity of different polymer melts PD EH PM O PELD P6 A P P PT B P6 A6 AS B melt viscosity (Pa s) melt temperature (0C) Fig.
Pa s S E R R T 1 D SECS.10: Shear viscosity of some engineering thermoplastics [3].Viscosity Ns/m2 0 Polyethersulfone 300P: 3500C Polyethersulfone 200P: 3500C Polysulfone : 350 C Polycarbonate : 2700C Rigid P C V i : 1800C Shear Stress N/m2 VISCOSITY. 3. 0C Fig.1 HA AE O P LS Lb E OY UFN P L C R O AE OY A B N T TEMPERATURE. [16] Poise .
3. As can be seen.3 Rheological Models Various fluid models have been developed to calculate the apparent shear viscosity r\a [2]. The following sections deal with an important few of these relationships.11 the true and apparent viscosities are plotted as functions of the corresponding shear rates at different temperatures for a polystyrene.11: True and apparent viscosity functions of a polystyrene at different temperatures [4] 3. which are frequently used in design calculations.2. 3. the apparent viscosity function is a good approximation for engineering calculations. 3.5 True Shear Rate The true shear rate y t is obtained from the apparent shear rate by applying the correction for the nonNewtonian behavior of the melt according to Rabinowitsch The meaning of the power law exponent n is explainedin Section 3.3. Pas Apparent viscosity 7}a True viscosity 7?w Polystyrene s"1 A p r n s e r rate fa p ae t h a Tu s e r rate fx re ha Fig.3. .6) In Fig.6 True Viscosity The true viscosity rjw is given by ^ =Yt (3.2.2.2.
1) [2] 3. (3. hence widely employed in design work [5]. 3. It can be seen from Fig. This relation can be expressed as fa=Kr" or ra=K\rnl\T (3.12 leads to C = 4s"1 and A = 3104 N/m2. S1 " Shear rate j P O E0 L 1O 9C Nm /z Ser stress T ha Fig.3.3.4) .for the flow curve of PELD at 1900C in Fig.12 that the hyperbolic function of Prandtl and Eyring holds good at low shear rates.3. Another form of power law often used is (3.1 Hyperbolic Function of Prandtl and Eyring The relation between shear rate ya and shear stress r according to the fluid model of Eyring [19] and Prandtl [20] can be written as ra=Csinh(r/A) (3.12: Comparison between measurements and values calculated with Eq.3.2 Power Law of Ostwald and De Waele The power law of Ostwald [21] and De Waele [22] is easy to use.2) where K denotes a factor of proportionality and n the power law exponent.3.3. 3. The evaluation of the constants C and A.1) where C and A are temperaturedependent material constants.3. 3.3) (3.3.
s'1 P O EL M50°C Shear rate j P a S e r stress T ha Fig.14 were found to be K= 1.or (3. 3. From Eq.57.14.K nR . The deviation between the power law and experiment is a result of the assumption that the exponent n is constant throughout . the power law fits the measured values much better than the hyperbolic function of Prandtl [20] and Eyring [19].3.2) the exponent n can be expressed as «= ^ P dlgr (3. nR is the reciprocal of n and KR. (3. T. (3.061011 and «=2. 3.3. 3.6) As shown in Fig. As can be seen from Fig.13: Determination of the power law exponent n in the Eq.3.3. 3.2) Furthermore 1 = d\gr n d\gya = d\grja + d\gya d\gya = d\grja  ^ d\gy a The values of K and n determined from the flow curve of PELD at 1900C shown in Fig.13 in a double logplot the exponent n represents the local gradient of the curve y a vs.5) In this case.
14: Comparison between measured values and power law Example: Following values are given for a PELD: nR = 0.3. (3. The power law can be extended to consider the effect of temperature on viscosity as follows: ria=KORe*v(pT)y**x where K0R = consistency index P = temperature coefficient T = temperature of melt.3. whereas actually n varies with the shear rate.008630C1 KOR = 135990NsnR nf1 The viscosity % at T= 2000C and ya =500 s1 is calculated from Eq.8) r\a = 373APas 3.3 Polynomial of Muenstedt The fourth degree polynomial of Muenstedt provides a good fit for the measured values of viscosity.8) s] Shear rate f measured PEIO 1 OC 90 N/m2 S e r slress T ha Fig.the range of shear rates considered.9) .3. For a definite temperature this is expressed as (3.3.3286 P = 0. 3. (3.
3.3.where A0.10) and (3. (3..1 Shift Factor for Crystalline Polymers The influence of temperature on viscosity can be taken into account by the shift factor aT [4]. A4 represent resindependent constants. A3.15 illustrates this relationship for a definite PELD. This program in its general form fits an equation of the type y=ao+apcl+ajc2+. the assumption of a constant value for the power law exponent holds good for a wide range of shear rates.9) (3. (3.3.3. These constants can be determined with the help of the program of Rao [13].12) With Eq.3.. 3. which is based on multiple linear regression.3. A2. Fig.7) we get (3. c2 resindependent constants T = melt temperature ( 0 Q T0 = reference temperature (0C) The expression for calculating both the effect of temperature and shear rate on viscosity follows from Eq. 3. .10) where bh b2 = resindependent constants T = melt temperature (K) T0 = reference temperature (K) 3.2 Shift Factor for Amorphous Polymers The shift factor O1.arpcn and prints out the coefficients a0.3. For crystalline polymers this can be expressed as aT = bx(T0)exV(b2/T) (3. (3.3.15. for amorphous polymers is derived from the WLF equation and can be written as C2 +(TT0) where C1.3. Ci1 and so on for the best fit.13) The power law exponent is often required in the design work as a function of shear rate and temperature. As can be inferred from Fig.3. Ax.13). The curves shown are computed with Eqns. 3.3.
774500) = 2. (3. = 351. b2 = = = = = = = 4.13) n = (1 + A1 +2A2X+ 3A3X2 +4^ 4 X 3 )" 1 Using the values of A0.78 Pa s The power law exponent is obtained from Eq.774 With X = lg(aT.0731 0.12) = lQ(^aT + A0+A\X+A2X2+A3X3+A4X4) Substituting the values of A0.10) aT= 5. (3.1OC 50 Power law exponent n 1OC 90 2 OC 30 2OC 70 P D EL s1 S e r rate f ha Fig.3.3. (3. Solution: aT from Eq.15: Power law exponent of a PELD as a function of shear rate and temperature Example: A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 b.196 .ya) X = lg(0. 3. A1 and so on one gets 77.2541 0.0011 5. A1 and so on w= 3.588 rja from Eq.3.4978 0.0133 0.13106exp(5640/473) = 0.1310"6 5640 K at y a =500 s1 and T= 200 0 C.
86(r 2 ~7V) .3.3.c <3315) (\ + BaTfaf For a number of resins the shift factor can be calculated as a function of temperature from the following equation with good approximation [5]. 8.14) where A.17) . at which the viscosity is to be found out. the Carreau equation gives the best fit for the viscosity function reproducing the asymptotic form of the plot at high and low shear rates correctly.3.16: Determination of Carreau parameters from a viscosity function [9] The equation is expressed as rja = p (3.4 Viscosity Equation of Carreau [23] As shown in Fig.3. 3. [6] lor (T r .3.17) Va = ^ .. 3. C are resindependent constants.15): (3. at which the viscosity is given and T2 (0C).4.18) (3.3. l6) where T1 (0C) is the temperature. the temperature. (3.14) the temperatureinvariant form of the Carreau equation can be given as (Fig..3. 3. (3. So e C lp: Viscosity 7} S e r rate / ha Fig. B.86(riTa) 8. By introducing the shift factor aT into Eq. The power law exponent n can be obtained from Eq. The standard temperature TST is given by [6] TST = Tg+50° C Data on typical glass transition temperatures of polymers are given in Table 2.16.
Reduced shear rate y/aT KM [Pas] master curve T^ = 150 0 C [Pas] LDPE Is"1] Shear rate y [] PS aT LDPE PP Shift factor HDPE 0 C [10 3 IC 1 ] Reciprocal absolute temperature 1/T Fig. 3.17: Use of shift factor aT for calculating temperature invariant viscosity [17] Reduced viscosity rj/a T Viscosity r .
5 Viscosity Formula of Klein The regression equation of Klein et al.86(200(133)) _ 6 ? 9 101.89 (1 + 13795)0. v i+z .3.3.6 2 . Example: Following constants are given for a particular PELD.6 + (T2 ~ TST) 101.3.20) .7 V ) and y_ 8. A = 32400 Pa • s B = 3. (3.6+ C r 1 .19) Computer disks containing the resindependent constants A9 B.86(TITST) _ 101. C can be obtained for the respective resins from the resin manufacturers [12]. (3.62 TST = 133 C T1 = 190 C The viscosity is to be calculated at T2 = 2000C and Y0=SOOs1 Solution: One obtains from Eq.3.86(T2TsT) _ 8.For high shear rates n becomes [4] «=j ^ (3.63 .6 + (200.3.62 3.(133)) The power law exponent is calculated from Eq.1s C = 0. These constants can also be determined by using the software VISRHEO [13].5 + l) = 2.16) Y_ 8. v 1 + 1379.5 The viscosity r\a follows from Eq. [25] is given by IgT1n = a0+U1In/a+an(lnya)2+a2T+a22T2+auT\nya T= Temperature of the melt ( F) rja = Viscosity (lbfs/in2) 0 (3.86(190(133)) _ 6 ? / ) 101.6+ (190(133)) 8.18) n=^ + lV' = r°.3.15) 324000. and can be stored in a data bank for viscosity data.1 3 7 9 . (3.
8 • 200 + 32 = 392 With the constants above and Eq. (3.4.21) 3. (3. (3. as has been the case in finding out the Acoefficients in Eq. What is the viscosity rja at ra=500sJ and T= 200 0 C? a0 = 3. However.3. [4] r/p = rjoexip(ap'p) (3.8 • T(0C) + 32 = 1.066 Ibfs/in2 and in Siunits T]n = 6857 • 0.4.1) where r/p = viscosity at pressure/? and constant shear stress T0 T]0 = viscosity at constant shear stress T0 ap = pressure coefficient For styrene polymers T]p is calculated from [8] 17P = ^oGXP(P/KM)) where p = pressure in bar. the relative measure of viscosity can be obtained from [8]. (3. (3.4 Effect of Pressure on Viscosity Compared to the influence of temperature the effect of pressure on viscosity is not of much significance.81510'2 a2 = 5.3.19). = 6. Example: Following constants are valid for a particular type of PELD.919 (3. [6].The resindependent constants a0 to a22 can be determined with the help of the computer program given in [13].20) one gets T]n = 0.975103 a22 = 2.388 a. a12 into this equation one obtains « = 2.9).7) and Eq.35M0 1 au = 1.2) .8 Pa • s The expression for the power law exponent n can be derived from Eq. The exponent n is given by .3.187104 Solution: T(0F) = 1..5 MO'6 a12 = 5.3.3...= l + ax +2au\nya +au T n Putting the constants ah .066 = 449.
2) for a polystyrene of average molecular weight. This means that in the case of polyethylene an increase of pressure by 200 bar would enhance the viscosity only by 3 to 4%.4 and for Polyamide 6 JT= 5.5 Dependence of Viscosity on Molecular Weight The relationship between viscosity and molecular weight can be described by [ 10] T111= K'Ml5 (3.72% 3000 I 20% Figure 3.03% 1.1) where Mw = molecular weight K' = resin dependent constant.2810.18 shows the melt viscosity at constant stress and temperature as a function of pressure for some polymers [7].4.221% 1. 3.2: Effect of Pressure on Viscosity for Polystyrene. (3. the effect of pressure on viscosity can be neglected in the case of extrusion 'processes.5. (3.Thus the change of viscosity with the pressure can be obtained from Eq. in injection molding where usually one has to deal with high pressures the dependence of viscosity on pressure has to be considered. (3. The approximate value of K' for PELD is ^'=2. It can be seen that a pressure of 200 bar causes an increase of viscosity of 22% compared to the value at 1 bar. in which generally low pressures exist.4.65% 2. Table 3.35 Tj0 1.2) bar 30 100 200 300 500 1000 1. Table 3.2).2 shows the values of viscosity calculated according to Eq. . Consequently.105% 1. These values are based on zero viscosity.2U0"14 according to the measurements of Laun [10]. The pressure coefficient of PELD is less than that of PS by factor of 3 to 4 and the value PEHD is again less than a factor of 2 than that of PELD.4. Eq. However.
3.Viscosity/viscosity at reference pressure Temperature above 210 0 C only Excess pressure ( b a r ) Fig.18: Melt viscosity at constant stress and temperature as a function of pressure [7] .
Ranges of melt indices for common processing operations are given in Table 3. B: components 3.3: Ranges of MFI Values (ASTM D1238) for Common Processes [18] Process Inj ection molding Rotational molding Film extrusion Blow molding Profile extrusion MFI range 5/100 5/20 0.1) where T1 = viscosity C = weight percent Indices: M: mixture A.5/6 0. Table 3. The MFI value is the mass of melt flowing in a certain time.20 [18].1/1 0. that the melt at 200 0C flows at a rate of 2 g in ten minutes under a dead load of 2. In the case of Melt Volume Rate which is also known as Melt Volume Index (MVI) the volume flow rate of the melt instead of mass flow rate is set as the basis.6. as an example. The effect of MFI on the properties of polyethylene. The unit here isml/lOmin. and is measured by forcing the melt through a capillary under a dead load at constant temperature (Fig.19). for example.16 kg.6 Viscosity of TwoComponent Mixtures The viscosity of a mixture consisting of the component A and the component B can be obtained from [11] Ig T1M = CA Ig T1A + C 5 Ig T1n (3.3.3 [18].16 kg means.7 Melt Flow Index The Melt Flow Index (MFI) which is also known as the Melt Flow Rate (MFR) indicates the flowability of a constant polymer melt. A MFR or MFI of 2 at 2000C and 2.1/1 . 3. is illustrated in Fig. 3.
and is much higher than shear viscosity. . The elongational or tensile viscosity can be measured with a tensile rheometer [1]. The tensile viscosity is defined as // =  (3. a complete analysis of melt flow should include both viscous and elastic effects. 3.19: Melt flow tester [6] 3. although the design of machines and dies by considering melt elasticity is rather difficult and seldom in use. elongational flow is of importance in such applications as film blowing and blow molding. 3. However.1) * ri where / = length at any instant of a volume element t = time 3.4 the tensile viscosity of a Newtonian fluid is three times the shear viscosity.weight barrel heater piston capillary Fig.8 Tensile Viscosity Although the flow of melt in the channels of dies and machines of polymer machinery is mainly shear flow.8.9 Viscoelastic Properties Polymer machinery can be designed sufficiently accurate on the basis of the relationships for viscous shear flow alone. As shown in Fig. Similar attempts to dimension the dies taking elastic effects into account have been made as described in the work of Wagner [26] and Fischer [27].
The material functions characterizing the elastic behavior of a polymer melt are shear compliance and primary normal stress coefficient which are defined as follows [14]. Surface gloss F. Toughness stress crack resistance Increasing melt index Fig. 3. Clarity reduced shrinkage Increasing density B D F E.1) (392) yrs: recoverable shear strain. polymer properties [18] To give a more complete picture of melt rheology the following expressions for the viscoelastic quantities according to Laun [10]. [2]: 3.9.2 Shear Compliance Je: U=7TO (3.1 Primary Normal Stress Coefficient 0 : 0 =^ N1: normal stress difference.A. Flexibility elongation C. T0: shear stress Further on we have [14] (3. Rigidity creep resistance heat resistance D.9. y0 : shear rate 3.9. [14] are presented.20: Melt index and density vs. Barrier properties hardness tensile strength chemical resistance C A E B.3) .9.
With increasing L/R ratios the molecular orientation decays. 3. 3.The equations above shown as functions of shear rate can be determined from measurements with a cone and plate rheometer (Fig.23 [14] as a function of length L to radius R of the capillary.3 Die Swell Die swell which can be measured with a capillary viscometer gives a measure of the elastic deformation of the melt. 3. igUg7?. .21) [I].22). Die swell is shown in Fig.9. II = nonlinear region) 3. 3. Tj0 and J° (Fig.ig0 ig % Fig. 3.22: Parameters for steady shear flow [14] (I = linear region. Cone Sample Plate Fig. The value is highest for an orifice of negligible length where the effect of converging entrance flow is largest. and the swell attains a constant value. For certain applications smaller L/R ratios of dies are preferred in order to have a high molecular orientation.21: Schematic diagram of a cone and plate rheometer [1] The limiting values of these equations are 0 O .
9. 6. Technique & Documentation (Lavoirier). Munich.. Acta 18. Birley. 478 (1979) .: Physics of Plastics. KS. A.: Bachelor. Paris 1982 Hertlein. KB. KM. 8. 14.F. C: Polymer Extrusion.M. Munich 1986 Ogorkiewicz. R. Sergent.23 Die swell vs length to radius IVR [14] The viscoelastic behavior of polymer melts is treated in [2] in more detail. 75.: Thermoplastics Properties and Design. O'Brien. 11..: Haworth. 12. Munich 1981 Rauwendal. VDIVerlag.T. Margolis. 13. p. D.: Designing Machines and Dies Polymer Processing. Hanser. Literature 1.: James M. Hanser.W.T C9CJ PA 6 die swell i" UR Fig. Basel 1985 Miinstedt. K. KS. New York 1973 Avenas.. Hanser. 4. John Wuley.: Kunststoffe 78. Hanser. O'Brien. Diisseldorf. 3. 439 CAMPUS Databank Rao. K: Berechnen von Extrudierwerkzeugen. 1978 Rao. 10. Fritz. Munich 1991 Rao. J. 5. KG. KS.: ANTEC 84. Keith T. Hanser. Marcel Dekker. 7. P. Ed. KM.Ph. 606 (1988) Laun. 1991 Rigby. Agassant. B.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications..: Rheol. J. 3. J. 2. T.K: Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continous Polymer Processes. Colloid & Polymer Sai.: Progr.F. T. Ed.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers.: La Mise en Forme des Materieres Plastiques. and Harry. Munich 1992 Laun. 111 (1987) Carley.
New York (1963) 25.: Soc Plastic Engrs. Fischer. Ostwald. Rosato. E. Madison (1968) 24. 33 (1923) 23. J.: Polysulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. 283 (1963) 20. L.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. E. Marcel Dekker.: Processing of Thermoplastic Materials. A.I.: James M. D. 4. J. 1977 16. BASF Brochure: KunststoffPhysik im Gesprach.: Private Communication. 161 (1949) 21. Wisconsin. Prandtl.: Dissertation. New York 1990 19. Stuttgart (1983) .: Oil and Color Chem. Friehe. Stuttgart (1976) 27.. K. D. Geiger.15. Wagner. M. Chem. V. Bernhardt. Univ. W. D. 1299 (1965) 26.. 21. Basel 1985 17. Phys.E. De Waele. Marshall. Reinbold. K: I. PJ. Blatter 5.K: Dissertation. Univ.: Dissertation. 99 (1925) 22. Eyring. Klein. Ed. Rosato. Margolis. V. Univ. 6. Harris. J.. C. 36. 18.: KolloidZ. L: Phys. Assoc. Carreau. Van Nostrand Reinhold. CA.
is increasing. to the steadystate current flowing between them [1].4 Electrical Properties The use of plastics in the electrical industry as insulators for wire and cable insulation is well known. It is the ratio of the voltage reached just before breakdown to the material's thickness and is expressed as kv/mm or Mv/m. conductive housings of computer equipment and the like. Volume resistance is the ratio of the direct voltage applied to the electrodes in contact with the test material. printed circuit boards. [3]. 4.1 Surface Resistivity Surface resistivity is defined as the ratio of electrical field strength to the current density in a surface layer of an insulating material. 4. although not so well known. Some of the electrical properties which are of importance in selecting a resin for these applications are treated in this section. The application of engineering resins to make miniature electric components. The unit of surface resistivity is ohm [1].3 Dielectric Strength Dielectric strength is the measure of the electrical breakdown resistance of a material under an applied voltage [I]. . The unit of volume resistivity is ohmm (Wm) or ohmcm (Wcm). [3].1. It is the measure of a material's ability to resist the flow of current along its surface when a direct voltage is applied between surface mounted electrodes of unit width and unit spacing. 4. Dielectric strength data for some materials are given in Table 4.2 Volume Resistivity Volume resistivity is the volume resistance reduced to a cubical unit volume of the material.
2. 4. to the capacitance (Cv) of the same configuration of electrodes with vacuum as the dielectric [1].2 for some polymers [1]. Relative permittivity and dissipation factor are dependent on temperature.Table 4. It is the tangent of the loss angle (S) and is analogous to tan5 which is the ratio between loss and storage moduli described in Section 1.1: Dielectric Strength Data for Plastics (Method ASTM D149) [6] Material PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET PBT Dielectric strength kv/25jim >700 > 700 800 300 500 400 350 700 350 400 300 500 500 4. Typical values of volume resistivity. frequency and voltage [3].4 Relative Permittivity Relative permittivity (%). relative permittivity and loss tangent are given in Table 4. [5] (see also Fig. . SR = ^r Cv (4A1) The performance of plastics as insulators increases with decreasing relative permittivity. 4.3. formerly known as dielectric constant is the ratio of capacitance (C) of a given configuration of electrodes with the plastics material as the dielectric medium.5 Dielectric Dissipation Factor or Loss Tangent Dielectric dissipation factor is the ratio of the electrical power dissipated in a material to the total power circulating in the circuit.1 [2]). [3]. A low dissipation factor is important for plastics insulators in high frequency applications such as radar and microwave equipment. moisture.
1: Loss tangent as a function of temperature for some engineering thermoplastics [2] Table 4.3 2. 4.3 4.5 2.0 Dielectric dissipation factor or loss tangent tan<5 • 10 4 at 20 0 C and 1 M H z 1.9 3 3.5 2.27 2.2 2 400 230 1 200 7 50 300 800 40 200 200 PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET PBT .7 3.0 3.0 3. [5] Material Volume resistivity ohm x cm 1017 1017 10 17 1015 10 17 1015 1017 1015 1012 1012 1015 1016 1016 Relative permittivity at 50 Hz 2.35 3.8 8.2: Typical Values of Volume Resistivity. Relative Permittivity and Loss Tangent [1].Loss Tangent (tan S at 60 Hz) Polycarbonate Polysulfone Polyethersulfone Polyethylene terephthalate Polyimido Type H Temperature C Fig.
[3].3 [5].4. allow increased conduction over the surface which may lead to tracking. Typical values of CTI are given in Table 4. for example. Contaminants. such as salt and moisture. The CTI is given in terms of maximum voltage.4. .5. A list of properties for which data can be obtained from the resin manufacturers.6 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) Comparative tracking index indicates a plastics material's ability to resist development of an electrical conducting path when subjected to current in the presence of a contaminating solution [1]. This situation can be alleviated by using antistatic agents in the polymer formulation. The deterioration of the surface quality is hence the cause of failure of high voltage insulation systems [I]. the appearance of conducting paths over the surface.3: Typical Values of Comparative Tracking Index [5] "Material PELD PEHD PP PVC PS ABS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA I Test method KB >600 > 600 > 600 600 200 300 > 600 > 600 > 600 > 600 > 600 PBT I 450 Owing to their high electrical resistance plastics retain electrostatic charge which leads to such undesirable effects as marked attraction of dust or creation of discharges when the material comes into contact with other surfaces. on CAMPUS computer disks is presented in Table 4. Table 4. Example of material data used as input to the software VISMELT [4] for designing extruders is given in Table 4. according to different test procedures. at which no failure occurs. Polymers with intrinsic electrical conductivity can also be used as antistatic coatings [I]. In addition to the properties treated in the foregoing sections the optical properties of plastics products such as transparency and gloss of films play an important role in selecting a resin in applications where these properties are required. The test procedures to measure the optical properties are treated in [I].
Table 4.4: List of Properties Obtainable from Resin Manufacturers Tensile strength Tensile elongation Tensile modulus Flexural strength Flexural modulus Compressive strength Hardness Abrasion Izod impact strength Material density Bulk density pvT diagrams Specific heat Enthalpy Thermal conductivity Vicat temperature HDT (Heat distortion temperature) Flammability UL 94 rating LOI (Limiting Oxygen Index) Dielectric strength Surface resistivity Volume resistivity Relative permittivity Dielectric dissipation factor or loss tangent Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) .
55251 A4 = .0 2. K Kleincoefficients : TM CPM CPS KM KS LAM RHOM RHOS RHOS0 = = = = = = = = = 130.78 .3 0 .0 Grad Celsius b = 2447.9430 .01304 .7126 S Al A3 = = .5: Example of Input Data to the Software Design Package VISMELT [4] PEHD HOECHST GM 9255 F Type of Polymer: Trade name of polymer: thermal properties : melting point specific heat of melt specific heat of solid thermal conductivity of melt thermal conductivity of solid heat of fusion densitiy of melt density of solid bulk density Viscosity coefficients : Carreaucoefficients : A = 28625.2700 .Light transmission Refractive Index Melt Flow Rate (MFR) Melt Volume Rate (MVR) Shear viscosity as a function of shear rate and temperature of melt Table 4.2800 200.51 2.40 Grad Celsius kJ / (kg K) kJ / (kg K) W / (m K) W / (m K) kJ/kg g / cm**3 g / cm**3 g / cm**3 B = .033758 TO = 200. K Muenstedtcoefficients : AO = 4.6535 TO = 200.222252 .2410 A2 = . Pa S C = .000 .0 Grad Celsius b = 2425.
R. Ed. Munich 1993 . 3.: Haworth.4022 BETA = .003919 l/Grad Celsius KOR = 60889.: Polyethersulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. A.213261EOl .473881E03 Power law coefficients : NR = .989580E02 . Birley. Munich 1992 BASF Brochure: KunststoffPhysik im Gesprach. 4.H. O'Brien.: Bachelor.T.653721E+01 . Basel 1985 General Electric Plastics Brochure: Engineering Materials Design Guide Rao. Hanser. 6. B. D. Hanser. Munich 1991 Rigby. O'Brien. and Harry. H. T.: Plastics for Engineers. N.S. 5.722213E+00 .AO All A22 = = = .: Physics of Plastics.: James M.. K. Keith T. Hanser. 1977 Domininghaus. Marcel Dekker. Margolis. N s**n / m**2 Literature 1.B.W.204288E04 Al A2 A12 = = = .: Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continous Polymer Processes. 2. Ed.
The intensity of light entering the plastic is further reduced as the light passes through the plastic since some light is absorbed.2 Haze Haze is defined as the percentage of transmitted light which deviates from the incident light beam by more than 2. by the plastic. that is. or scattered. Its measurement is also defined by ASTM D 1003. Some typical light transmission values are presented in Table 5. The luminous transmittance is defined as the percentage of incident light which is transmitted through the plastic.3 Refractive Index The refractive index n of an isotropic material is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in the material v to the speed of light in a vacuum c. Some typical haze values are presented in Table 5. 5.5 degrees. 5. Haze is a measure of the clarity of a plastic. The refractive index decreases as the wavelength of the light increases.1 for most common optical plastics.5 Optical Properties of Solid Polymers 51 Light Transmission The intensity of light incident on the surface of a plastic is reduced as the light enters the plastic because some light is always reflected away from the surface. n = v/c The speed of light in vacuum is 300 Mm/s.2 for most common optical plastics. Light transmission is a measurement of the transparency of a plastic. Therefore the refractive index is measured and reported . For comparison purposes the exact test parameters are documented in ASTM D 1003.
Since speed of light in the polymer v is a function of the density.3: Refractive Indices as Functions of Wavelength AES line F D C Wavelength 486 nm 589 ran 651 nm PMMA 1. Table 5.489 PS 1.586 1. or atomic emission spectra (AES) lines. which is required for lens design.576 The refractive index is usually measured using an Abbe refractometer according to ASTM D542.491 1.590 1. the refractive index is dependent on whether the polymer is amorphous or crystalline.4.at a number of standard wavelengths. as indicated in Table 5.607 1. Since density is a function of crystallinity.593 1. or Luminous Transmittance of Some Common Optical Plastics Material ABS PC PMMA PMMA/PS PS Luminous. An extensive list of refractive indices is provided in Table 5.584 PC 1. and on .497 1.2: Haze of Some Common Optical Plastics Material ~ABS PC PMMA PMMA/PS PS Haze T O 13 18 2 3 SAN I 3 Table 5. Transmittance D 1003 85 89 92 90 88 SAN I 88 Table 5. polymers which exhibit a range of densities also exhibit a range of refractive indices.1: Light Transmission.3. The Abbe refractometer also measures the dispersions.
59 1. 5. Also called specular reflectance or specular gloss. the refractive index also decreases with increasing temperature.55 1. Table 5.a. spectrocolorimeters).k.48 1.53 1. polished black glass with a refractive index of 1.64 Density kg/m 3 914/928 940/960 890/910 1380/1550 1050 1200 1410/1420 1130 1140 1170/1200 1380 Transparency transparent opaque transparent/opaque transparent/opaque transparent transparent opaque transparent/opaque transparent/opaque transparent transparent/opaque 5. colorimeters).its degree of crystallinity. The bvalue measures the yellowness when . These instruments measure color by illuminating a sample and collecting the reflected light. Since density is also a function of temperature.49 1.51 1. The gloss reduces rapidly as the surface roughness increases.a.4: Refractive Indices of Some Plastics as Functions of Density [1] Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVC PS PC POM PA 6 PA 66 PMMA PET Refractive index n2D° 1.52 1. the gloss is measured within a specific angular range of the ideal reflected angle. They are used for quick and simple measurements of color differences.53 1. decreasing as temperature increases.58 1. Spectrocolorimeters measure color as a certain wavelength of light.51 1.52/1.50/1.k.567.4 Gloss Surface gloss is the percentage of light intensity reflected relative to that reflected by an ideal surface. which possesses a specular gloss of 100%. The Lvalue measures the grayness. The specular gloss is measured according to ASTM D 52380. with pure white scoring 100 and pure black scoring 0. Colorimeters use filters to simulate the color response of the eye. It is then compared to a standard. or spectrophotometers (a. The avalue measures the redness when positive and the greenness when negative. The color is reported as three numbers.5 Color Color may be measured using tristimulus colorimeters (a.
a. Literature 1. Hanser.positive and the blueness when negative. and b values a color can be defined. So from the L. Munich 1993 . K: Plastics for Engineers. Domininghaus.
gas or organic liquids can take place. which gives rise to premature failure. where as in the case of crystalline polymers the failure is denoted as stress corrosion failure. weight and dimensional changes together with property loss.6 External Influences Plastics parts are often used in an environment. 6. 6. The solvation leads to swelling.2 [7] and Fig. 6. plastics used in certain applications as in packaging foodstuffs should be resistant to the entry of oxygen or moisture.1 Physical Interactions 6. temperature.3 [4]. It is the combination of stress and the liquid medium. One of the standard ESC tests is the Bell Telephone technique.1) [I]. [3]. Furthermore. 6. The term ESC is applied to amorphous polymers. alcohols and chlorinated organic liquids.1. The failure is initiated by microcrazing into which the aggressive liquid or vapor penetrates [I]. in which bent strips of material containing a defect are totally immersed in a chemical medium before being examined for visible signs of damage (Fig.2 Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) ESC is a failure mechanism which occurs under conditions when an external or residual stress is imposed on the part which is in contact with an external environment such as liquid or vapor. The properties of polymers which manifest themselves under external effects are the topic of this section.1.1 Solubility Most thermoplastics have a solubility parameter [1]. This may lead to deterioration or even failure of the part. ketones. Common solvents are paraffins. The behavior of polymers under external influences is dependent on the combination of polymer and fluid. exposure time. stress level and processing history [I]. in which an interaction between the polymer and a fluid like water. so that the contents do not deteriorate during the prescribed time span. ethers. The environmental behavior of some plastics is presented in Fig. 6. .
6.SAMPLE JIG LIQUID Fig.1: Bell test for determining ESC [1] ENVIRONMENT' ISOOCTANE/TOLUENE 7 0 / 3 0 by volume POLYARYLETHERSULFONE POLYARYLATE STRESS (psi) POLYSULFONE P L C R O AE OY A B N T M D I D PO O IE P F M DI D O IE F P L A YA E OY R L T TIME TO RUPTURE (seconds) Fig.2: ESC resistance of polyarylate vs.3: ES rupture comparison of several engineering thermoplastics in a 70/30 isooctane/toluene mixture at 25°C [4] . 6. 6. other thermoplastics [7] STRESS (psi) P L S LO E OY UF N P L C R O AE OY A B N T N R L SEI OY TIME TO RUPTURECSECONDS) Fig.
19 5.64 147 200 1038 434 208 245 3604 4400 Gas permeability CO 2 H 2 O (25 0 C.52 500 111 34.17 22.6. Other factors which affect permeability are the structure of the polymer film such as crystallinity and type of the fluid. Permeation data for some resins is summarized in Table 6.32 8.^ (6.64 4.15 7.) 1 1 2.1: Relative Permeability of Various Polymers Compared to PVDC [3] Polymer PVDC PCTFE PET PA6 PVCU CA PEHD PELD PP PS Butyl Rubber Polybutadiene Natural Rubber N2 1 3.28 93 5.3 Permeability Plastics are to some extent permeable to gases. The diffusional characteristics of polymers can be described in terms of a quantity known as permeability. Permeability is a barrier property of plastics and is important in applications like packaging. 90% R.1.21 5. vapors and liquids.1) S . The mass of the fluid permeating through the polymer at equilibrium conditions is given by [3] m = where m P = = mass of fluid permeating [g] r permeability g i —— [msPaJ t = time of diffusion [s] A = Area of the film or membrane [m2] P1 p 2 = partial pressures on the side 1 and 2 of the film [Pa] s = thickness of the film [m] Besides its dependence on temperature the permeability is influenced by the difference in partial pressures of the fluid and thickness of the film.1 [3].48 0.51 42. Table 6.3 121 57 1214 49 317 857 303 179 4800 4517 P t A  ( P ' .5 5357 235 9.55 298 287 2021 479 309 332 862 8600 O2 1 10.H.1.
can be very long.2: Relative Permeability to CO2 of Different Polymers Compared to PET [3] Polymer PET PVCU PP PEHD PELD Relative permeability 1 6.53 60 23 230 One of the reasons for using PET for making bottles for carbonated drinks is that PET is relatively impermeable to carbon dioxide.4) [8].1.. The period until equilibrium value is reached. Performance data of the resin under weathering is supplied by resin makers (see also Table 6. temperature. .5 Weathering Resistance Weathering is the deterioration of the polymer under atmospheric conditions which by the action of oxygen. = 6.1. 6. ultraviolet radiation on the resin lead to loss of properties and finally failure of the part. as the absorption rate decreases with saturation. However.04919 s2 t0.Table 6. ~ (612) where t 05 s D = = = halflife of the process thickness of the polymer assumed to be penetrated by one side diffusion coefficient The value of t 05 for moisture in PMMA for D = 0. as can be seen from Table 6.5 = .310~12360024 when the sheet is wetted from one side only [3]. and above all.049193310~ 6 __. = to 5 T^ 171 days 0.3 x 10"12 m2/s and s = 3 mm is 0. humidity. Its magnitude can be estimated by the halflife of the process given by [3] 0.4 Absorption and Desorption The process by which a fluid is absorbed or desorbed by a plastics material is timedependent. the equilibrium absorption takes much longer. .2 [3]. governed by its solubility and by the diffusion coefficient [3]. .
6. 3: conditionally resistant. Table 6.6. It is important that the correct materials be chosen for these surfaces or reduced performance and premature failure may Esthers 3 1 1 5 5 1 5 1 1 Esters . 2: sufficiently resistant.3 [6].3 shows the performance of some polymers according to a rating when they are in direct contact with the chemical agents listed in the Table 6. the interior die surfaces and the mold cavity surfaces. 4: mostly not resistant.1 Chemical and Wear Resistance to Polymers As polymers are converted into products they contact the walls of the various machines in which they are converted.2 Chemical Resistance Good chemical resistance of polymers is of importance in many applications. Such walls include barrel walls.3: Chemical Resistance of Resin to Different Liquid Agents [6] Halogenated hydrocarbons Aliphatic hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbon Concentrated acids Monvalent alcohols Concentrated bases Oils and greases Organic acids Salt solution Ketones Polymer PELD PEHD PVCU PMMA PS PA PC POM PTFE Rating: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 5 2 5 1 1 1 2 5 5 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 1 1 3 3 5 5 5 1 5 2 1 3 1 1 5 5 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 5 5 1 5 3 1 3 1 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 1: resistant. Table 6.2. 5: completely nonresistant Data on chemical resistance of resins can be obtained from resin manufacturers. the plasticating screw surfaces.
and finally to select a coating for the remaining surfaces of the screw which exhibits the greatest corrosion and wear resistance to the plastic. One of the approaches is to select the barrel which provides the greatest resistance to corrosion and wear by particular plastic.3 General Property Data General property data for some plastics is presented in Tables 6.4: Ultraviolet.12. The comparability of different test methods is discussed in Table 6.arise. 6. fillers or reinforcements. aromatic Epoxy. Some properties of the reinforced plastics are illustrated in Fig.5 to 6. Then to select a material for the screw flights which performs well against that particular barrel material. cycloaliphatic Polyurethanes Silicones Butyl rubber excellent excellent excellent poor excellent excellent excellent poor poor poor poor excellent excellent . 6. Thermal and Biological Resistance of Some Plastics [8] Polymer Service temperature range 0 C 90/104 50/150 120 75/100 110 75 170 55 100/150 100/150 100/130 260 45/150 Ultraviolet resistance fair poor excellent poor poor fair fair poor fair to good excellent fair excellent excellent Fungus resistance Acetals Polyamides PC Polyethylene Polypropylene PS Polysulfone PVC Epoxy. In the case of screws and barrels.4 [5]. Table 6. including any additives.11. the contacting surfaces must also exhibit wear resistance to each other.
Strength Plastics Composites / Reinforced Plastics Wo od Steel Aluminum Concrete Ma P 3 x 10 psi Modulus of Elasticity Plastics Composites / Reinforced Plastics Wood Steel Aluminum Concrete Ga P 6 x 10psi Specific Gravity Plastics C m o ie / R i f r e Plastics o p s s enoc d t Wo od Se l te Au i u l mn m Gs l s a Concrete .4: Reinforced plastics and composites vs. 6.Stone Fig. other materials [5] .
4 Property Specific gravity Deflection temperature [0C] under load at 0.2 22 9.Table 6.9 27.462 N/mm2 atl.85N/mm 2 Coefficient of thermal expansion [K"1105] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Flexural modulus [N/mm2] Compressive strength 10% deformation [N/mm2] .4 PC 0.2 840 12.6 54.7 2500 36.9 138 127 3.3 1960 31 modified PPO 0.25 Wall with 20% Density Reduction) [9] PEHD 0.85 96 82 6.64 42.86 86 78 8.9 23.2 34.6: Properties of Some Thermoplastic Structural Foams (Physical Properties Guidelines at 0.8 1827 36.9 ABS 0.5: Polymer Parameters and Their Influence Properties [8] Molecular weight distribution Increases Decreases Increases Decreases Broadens Narrows Environmental stress Impact strength Stiffness Hardness Tensile strength Permeation Warpage Abrasion resistance Flow processibility Melt strength Melt viscosity Copolymer content Density Molecular weight Table 6.
UL94 Oxygen index Tensile modulus. 0C Melt temperature. N/mm2 Unnotched izod. % Specific gravity Glass transition temperature.9/4. 103 Hz Volume resistivity.9 275/330 250/280 180/240 200/240 025 x 106 flow direction 255OxIO'6 transverse V/O 35/50 9. 0C Coefficient of thermal expansion. yield N/mm2 Tensile elongation.7: General Properties of LiquidCrystal Polymers [8] Property Flexural strength.5 46x 103 1012/l 0 13 780/1000 63/185 0. 0C at 0.6 140/245 1. 0C Heat distortion temperature.8/40.8/35 .02/0. N/mm2 Value 147/308 150/300 400/500 M62/99 2.9 9. J/m Notched izod.4/1. W • cm Dielectric strength.455 N/m2 at 1. J/m Rockwell hardness Dielectric constant.Table 6.04 1. ppm/°C Flammability.2/6.848 N/m2 Continuoususe temperature. N/mm2 Tensile strength. s Water absorption. % Flexural modulus. equilibrium at 23 0C. 103 Hz Dissipation factor. V/mil Arc resistance.
4 24.6 37.03 0.04 121 105 21.05 .5 32.2 204 210 530.043 Phenolics glass mineral filled filled 1.4 847 16.1 0. unnotched [kT/m2] Skin hardness.5 602 9.6 36.2 742 12.4 847 16.45 0.9: Properties of Some Thermosetting Resins [8] general Epoxy mineral purpose glass filled filled Specific gravity Water absorption [% 24h] Heat deflection temperature at 1.8: Some Physical Properties of Polyurethane Structural Foams [9] Property vs specific gravity Specific gravity Flexural strength pST/mm2] Flexural modulus pS[/mm2] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Heat deflection temperature [0C] at 0.55 0.Table 6.6 36.8 10.0 0.76 0.5 11.2 12.0 l/2in 0.5 204 49 187 1.6 37.6 91 18.8 0.5 260 77 801 1.8 96 21 80 Table 6.8 1092 18.864 2.95 0.8 81 13.462 n/mm2 Charpy impact.1 0.1 75 0.83 0.0 3/8in 0.4 4 1. D scale Property vs thickness Thickness Specific gravity Flexural strength (N/mm2) Flexural modulus (N/mm2) Tensile strength (N/mm2) Charpy impact.8 1001 17. unnotched (ft • lb/in2) l/4in 0.25 70 0.7 172 70 16 4.4 3.85 N/m2 [0C] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Impact strength [T/m)] [Izod] Coefficient of thermal expansion [105 • K"1] Thermal conductivity [W/m • k] 1.
next page) .092 Glass reinforced epoxy filament wound 1800 16.5/24.83 210000 462 231 48.12: Comparability of DIN/ISO and ASTM Test Methods for Plastics [2] Test Density Standard DINl 306 DIN53479 ASTM D 792 ASTM D 1505 DIN 53735 (ISO/R 292) ASTM D 1338 Symbol d d 23C Units g/cm3 at 200C g/ml at 23°C g/lOmin g/lOmin Comparability comparable at same temperature Melt index MFI comparable under same conditions (cont.5 0.0624 2712 24 70000 84 28 234 0.6 0.39 8968 11.0607 Composite structure glassmat woven roving 1522 24 7000/10500 84/140 84/140 2.5/24.2 3360/5950 300/750 outstanding 60 67 30A/100A 10/30 Table 6.5 1400/14000 150/450 fair 15/50 55 55A/95A 15/30 Natural rubber 16.6 0.11: Comparative Physical Properties of Metals and Reinforced Plastics at Room Temperature [10] Property Density [kg/m3] Coefficient of thermal expansion [k1 • 10'6] Modulus of elasticity [N/mm2] Tensile strength [N/mm2] Yield strength [N/mm2] Thermal conductivity [W/m • k] Ratio of tensile strength to density Carbon steel 1020 7860 11.0752 Hastelloy C Aluminium Glassmat laminate 1384 31 4900/7000 63/84 63/84 2.5 196000 560 354 11.5 0.3 0.5 700/21000 100/700 good 55 58 30A/90A 20/60 Chloroprene 3.5 700/21000 100/800 excellent 45 62 30A/95A 20/60 Fluoroelastomers 10.031 Table 6.Table 6.6/3.4/22 21000 420/700 420/700 2.7 196000 595 245 16.3 0.8/32.10: Properties of Some Elastomers [8] Property Tensile strength (N/mm2) Tensile modulus (N/mm2) Elongation Resilience Brittleness temperature (0C) Thermal expansion coefficient (105 • K 1 ) Durometer hardness Compression set EPM/EPDM 3.0588 Stainless steel 316 7916 16.
test rate E0 psi kgf/cm2 • > Shear modulus Torsion modulus Torsional stiffness Stiffness properties Tensile properties Tensile strength (at maximum load) G G T G(!) <*B kN/mm2 comparable dyn/cm2 psi kN/mm2 comparable dN/cm2 N/mm 2 N/mm 2 psi dN/cm2 % % % % N/mm 2 N/mm 2 psi dN/cm2 % % % % N/mm 2 N/mm2 psi dN/cm2 % % N/mm 2 psi N/mm 2 psi ^B Elongation at maximum force Percentage elongation Ultimate tensile strength Tensile strength (at break) Percentage elongation (at break) eB 5 Pmax comparable only under same conditions: shape and state of specimen. measured lenght.in. test rate %E1 <*R <*R °u SR SR Yield stress (Yield point) Yield point Yield strength Percentage Elongation (at yield) Flexural properties Flexural strength Limiting flexural stress Flexural stress (at 5% strain or at conventional deflection) Flexural impact Impact resistance Impact strength comparable only under same conditions: shape and state of specimen. measured length.Test Mechanical properties Elastic modulus Standard DIN 53457 ASTM D 638 (Tensile) ASTM D 695 (Compression) ASTM D 790 (Fluxural) ASTM D 882 (Film) DIN 53445 (ISO/DR 533) ASTM D 2236 DIN 53447 (ISO/DR 458) ASTMD 1043 DIN 53455 (ISO/DR 468) DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 DIN 53371 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 882 DIN 53455 ASTM D 882 DIN 53452 ASTM D 790 DIN 53452 ASTM D 790 Symbol E E Units kN/mm2 psi (=lb/sq. test rate Es °bB <*bG limited comparability DIN 53453 (ISO/R 179) ASTM D 256 (ISO/R 180) kJ/m2 J/m not comparable * ) kgf=kiloforce = dN .) Comparability comparable only under same conditions: shape and state of specimen. measured length.
specimen shape and slate are the same 22°C. if pre. 24h. 4d. C. mg 23°C. mg 23°C. specimen and times are the same Electrical properties Volume resistivity Surface resistivity Dielectrical constant Dissipation factor (tan 8) DIN 53482 (VDE 0303 Part ASTM D 257 DIN 53482 (VDE 0303 Part ASTM D 257 DIN 53483 (VDE 0303 Part ASTMD 150 DIN 53483 (VDE 0303 Part ASTMD 150 Qcm comparable Qcm Q comparable Q comparable 3) P R0 3) a 4) 6 4) D comparable Dielectrical loss factor (e= tan 8) Dielectrical strength ASTM D 150 DIN 53481 (VDE 0303 Part 2) ASTM D 149 DIN 53484 (VDE 0303 Part 5) ASTM D 495 DIN 53480 (VDE 0303 P a r t i ) ASTM D 2132 Ed kV/mm not comparable V/mil (1 mil=25im) sec not comparable sec not comparable Arc resistance Tracking resistance . 24h.and posttreatment.Test Impact strength (notched) Standard DIN 53453 (ISO/R179) ASTM D 256 (ISO/R180) DIN 53505 ASTM D 1706 ASTM D 2240 DIN 53456 ASTM D 785 DIN 53460 (ISO/R 306) ASTMD 1525 DIN 53458 DIN 53461 (ISO/R 75) ASTM D 648 DIN 53472 DIN 53475 (ISO/R 62) ASTM D 570 Symbol aK Units kJ/m2 Comparability not comparable J/m Shore scale A. % 2h PD comparable (converted). D Scale A5 D gramforce Rockwell scale VSP 0 Shore hardness Durometer (Shore hardness) Ball indention hardness ctRockwell hardness Thermal properties Vicat softening point comparable H H N/mrri2 C C C C C50F not comparable comparable if measured under same load in liquid 0 0 Martens heat distortion temperature Heat distortion temperature Deflection temperature (HDT) Water absorbtion 0 MSO 0 comparable if load.
Schmiedel.Materials. Mallinson. New York 1990 6. J.H. 2.: Plastics for Engineers. Basel. Marcel Dekker. RM. WM. Van Nostrand Reinhold.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. Mcgraw Hill.). A purchasing and Design Guide. Marcel Dekker. James M.: Polysulfone in Engineering Thermoplastics: Properties and Applications. Rosato. K: Handbuch der Kunststoffprufung (Ed. H. 4. Basel 1985 5. Properties and Applications. Robeson. Marcel Dekker.: Corrosionresistant Plastic Composites in Chemical Plant Design.: Structural Foam. BA. A. Margolis. LM. Rosato. Hanser.: Plastics for Electronics . D. Ed. T. New York 1973 Harris.: Bachelor. LM. New York 1985 10. Birley. New York 1994 9.: Thermoplastics Properties and Design. 3. Munich 1993 Ogorkiewicz. V. Wendle.V.. Hanser. Margolis.. New York 1969 .Literature 1. Munich 1991 Domininghaus. 1985 8.: Haworth. Marcel Dekker. John Wiley. D.: Polyarylates in Engineering Thermoplastics. Hanser. J.: James M. Alvino. Properties and Design Applications. B. Munich 1992 7.W.E. Maresca. Ed.: Physics of Plastics.
P s c ti n l H aa o Metering Feed zone Molten polymer Fig. 7. melting the solid. melt mixing and pumping of the melt to the die However the functions of a zone are not limited to that particular zone alone. . 7.1). and forcing the melt through a die (Fig. 7. homogenizing the melt. Basically it consists of transporting the solid polymer in an extruder by means of a rotating screw.7 Extrusion Extrusion is one of the most widely used unit operations of polymer processing.1: Plasticating extrusion [2] The extruder screw of a conventional plasticating extruder has three geometrically different zones (Fig. The processes mentioned can continue to occur in the adjoining zone as well.1a) whose functions can be described as follows: feed zone transport and preheating of the solid material transition zone compression and plastication of the polymer metering zone melt conveying.
7. the processing temperature of a polymer is too high. 7.2 are used.2b) [27]. 7.1 Extrusion Screws To perform these processing operations optimally screws of varied geometry as shown in Fig. Higher melting capacities compared to the three zone screws (Fig. 7. for example.1 ResinDependent Parameters Resindependent parameters are not the physical constants which one obtains by measuring the physical properties of the polymeric material. Barrier type screws enable the separation of solids polymer from the melt. The appropriate processing temperatures and pressures suited to a particular resin and process are usually quoted by the resin manufacturers. They are.EEN ET SAK CEDNETO DTPRD ROTD CNTIG ROINA HN OS T CIN AAEEN OTOA MTRT SC O ! OS N OT I A l NA R T I T O Fig. in the pelletizing and compounding of PVC or in the profile extrusion of PVC. the machinery such as extrusion screw or die [I]. 7. Devolatilizing screws are applied to extract volatile components from the melt (Fig. for example. if necessary. Too low a processing temperature on the other hand may create a melt containing unmelted solids. Twin screw extruders are mainly used in the compounding of polymers.1) are achieved with screws having shearing and mixing devices (Fig. however. The degree of intermeshing between the flight of one screw and the channel of the other screw. The positive conveying characteristics of the twin screw extruders are achieved by forcing the material to move in compartments formed by the two screws and the barrel. and thus lead to lower and constant melt temperatures over a wide range of screw speeds (Figs.1a: Three zone screw 7. 7.2 Processing Parameters The factors affecting extrusion can be classified into resindependent and machine related parameters. such as. If. degradation of the material leading to adverse material properties of the product might occur. 7. These values can be maintained during the process by optimizing the processing conditions and.2c/d).2a).RNT E II O O FE S O TAS SCIN .2. . similar to these constants with the difference that they relate more to the process and processing conditions.3 [9]) from one another. sense of rotation and speed distinguish the different kinds of screws (Fig. 7. 7.
7. Barr screw (variable depth and constant pitch) d. [27] . Maddock mixing screw MAIN FLIGHT b. KIM screw Fig.feed transition/compression feed transition Metering screw first meter vent transition Two stage screw transition Pin mixing screw second meter or pump feed metering feed transition metering a. Devolatilizing screw Extraction section SOLIDS CHANNEL BARRIER FLIGHT MELT CHANNEL c. Maillefer screw (variable pitch and constant depth) e.2: Geometries of some extrusion screws [20].
They refer to the temperature and pressure of the melt at the die entrance as shown in Fig. . by the MFR value. 7. Guide values of these parameters are given below for a few resins and extrusion processes. for example.a b counterrotating corotating nonintermeshing closely intermeshing Fig.3: Geometries of some twin screws [9] Melt temperature and pressure are important resindependent parameters which affect the quality of the product. These values are also known in the practice as stock temperature and stock pressure. and depend not only on the type of the resin but also on the grade of the resin used. 7.4. which is characterized.
1. rolls basket bubble winder extruder air entry Fig.5) Characteristic values of melt temperature and pressure are given in Table 7.4: Position of measurement of melt pressure and melt temperature [9] Blown Film (Fig. 7.7.die flange breaker plate screen pack melt pressure melt temperature Fig.5: Blown film [9] . 7.
7.6) Table 7.Table 7.6: Pipe extrusion [9] Table 7. h p e with opr feed control Melt temperature 0 C 140/210 180/230 190/230 220/240 270/280 260/290 260/280 150/200 200/220 Melt pressure bar 100/300 150/300 250/350 200/300 160/200 150/250 150/250 100/200 100/200 water bath calibration die extruder haul off air Fig.1: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Pressure for Blown Film Material PELD PEHD PELLD PP PA 6 PC PET EVA EVOH Pipe Extrusion (Fig. 7.2 shows some guide values of melt temperature and pressure for pipe extrusion.2: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Melt Pressure for Pipe Extrusion Material PVCU PVCP PEHD PP Melt temperature 0 C 180/185 160/165 180/200 230/240 Melt pressure bar 100/200 100/200 150/250 150/200 .
7) Typical values of melt temperature and pressure for flat film extrusion are given in Table 7.3: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Pressure for Flat Film Extrusion Material PP PA 6 PELD PEHD Sheet Extrusion A flat die is used in both flat film and sheet extrusion processes. 7.3. depending on the type of extrusion the pressure can range from 100 bar to 400 bar. Data on processing conditions suited to attain resin compatible melt temperatures is also supplied by resin manufacturers. Wire Coating Melt temperatures for wire coating are approximately the same as those used for pipe extrusion. However. Melt temperatures and pressures for other resins and processes can be obtained from resin makers. Depending on the thickness of the product the term film or sheet is applied. Typical values for sheet extrusion are presented in Table 7.4. die melt Chill .roll Fig.7: Flat film extrusion [9] Table 7. This data includes values on extruder barrel Melt temperature 0 C 230/260 260/280 220/250 220/230 Melt pressure bar 150/200 100/200 100/250 150/250 .Flat Film Extrusion (Fig. 7.
4: Typical Values of Melt Temperature and Pressure for Sheet Extrusion Material PS PMMA SB ABS PET PVCU PVCP Melt temperature 0 C 190/220 200/230 210/230 220/240 280/285 180/185 160/165 Melt pressure bar 150/250 200/250 150/250 150/250 150/200 100/200 75/150 7. Table 7. Feed Zone The solids transport is largely influenced b y the fiictional forces between the solid polymer and barrel and screw surfaces. screw speed.temperature.2. [2]. Example: The geometry of the feed zone of a screw (Fig. 7. A detailed analysis of the solids conveying mechanism w a s performed b y Darnell and M o I [16].1 Extruder Output Depending on the type of extruder the output is determined either b y the geometry of the solids feeding zone alone as in the case of a grooved extruder [11] or b y the solids and melt zones to b e found in a smooth barrel extruder. and depending on the process hauloff rates and drawratios.2 Machine Related Parameters Although machine related parameters include effects due to resin properties. barrel diameter Db screw lead s number of flights v flight width w FLT channel width W is given b y the following data: = 30 m m = 30 m m = 1 = 3 mm = 28.6 m m . they are more influenced b y the geometry of the machine elements involved such as extrusion screw and die than b y resin properties.2. In the following example an empirical equation which gave good results in the practice is presented [1]. die temperature.8). Following examples taken from single screw extrusion illustrate the influence of the geometry of machinery on the target quantities of the process.2. 7.
depth of the feed zone conveying efficiency screw speed bulk density of the polymer H rF N p0 = = = = 5 mm 0.1) W + WFLT with the helix angle O $ = tan"1 [s/ (n Db)] (7.Db ( D b .005 • 0. barrel and the screw.H ) — sin ^ .2.03 • 0. (7.8: Screw zone of a single screw extruder The solids conveying rate in the feed zone of the extruder can be calculated according to [2] W G = 60/vN.2) we get G = 60 • 800 • 250 • 0.2.4A. bulk density.953 0.2) The conveying efficiency rj¥ in Eq.2.2.1) and Eq. Experimental values of r/¥ for some polymers are given in Table 7.2. (7./7F.025 • ° > 0 2 5 6 • 0.1) as defined here is the ratio between the actual extrusion rate and the theoretical maximum extrusion rate attainable under the assumption of no friction between the solid polymer and the screw.3034 • 0.0286 Hence G « 50 kg/h .r2H. 7. cos (f> (7. friction between the polymer. Solution: Inserting the values above with the dimensions in meters into Eq.44 • n2 • 0.436 250 rpm 800kg/m 3 screw lead s screw flight clearance 5FLT screw channel barrel Fig. (7. It depends on the type of polymer. barrel temperature.
17 0.Table 7. v2p LW P E S R F O 1 Sxp RSUE L W SRW R O CE OT COMBINED DRAG AND PRESSURE FLOW h OPEN DISCHARGE CLOSED DISCHARGE Fig.52 0.65 (7.8A: Drag and pressure flow in screw channel . 7.44 0.25 0.5 0.45 0.18 0.51 0.8 0.8 0.75 0. 7.35 0.3) BARREL S R A E UFC DA RG F O .6 0.2 0.8A): Smooth barrel 0. These equations can be summarized as follows: Volume flow rate of pressure flow Q (Fig. there were found to be useful for many practical applications [I].2.22 Grooved barrel 0.4A: Conveying Efficiency r\Y for Some Polymers Polymer PELD PEHD PP PVCP PA PET PC PS Metering Zone (Melt Zone) Starting from the parallel plate model and correcting it by means of appropriate correction factors [3] the melt conveying capacity of the metering zone can be calculated as follows [3]: Although the following equations are valid for an isothermal quasiNewtonian fluid.
2.Mass Flow Rate rhp mp = 36001000 QpPm (7. extrusion screws have a small clearance between the top of the flight and the barrel surface.2. respectively [m3/s] Mass flow rate of pressure and drag flow respectively [kg/h] Extruder output [kg/h] (7.6) (7.4) Drag Flow Q d (Fig. rh riid' : Barrel diameter [mm] Channel depth [mm] Flight width [mm] Screw lead [mm] Flight clearance [mm] Length of metering zone [mm] Volume flow rate of pressure and drag flow.2.2.7) The melt conveying rate of the metering zone can be finally calculated from [1] (7.8) where ad = .H Symbols and units used in the equations above Db : H : e : s : 8FLT : L : Q ' Qd : ihp. This clearance reduces the pumping rate of the melt because it enables the polymer to leak across the flights. 7.m p / m d and J = 5FLT /H Average shear rate in the metering channel K = n Db N/ 60.5) Mass Flow Rate ma r h d = 36001000 Q d p m Leakage Flow Q L To avoid metal to metal friction.2.8A) (7.2.9) . The net flow rate Q is therefore (7.
rh = 1. v=1 Substituting these values into the equations above one obtains nip = 3.8) the effect of different parameters on the extruder output is presented in Figs.562 k g / h With the help of Eq.2. 1 m m . 7. 7.9A: Effect of screw speed on extruder output .148 k g / h Eq. N = 80 rpm Ap = 300 bar. e = 6mm.2.6) m = 41. 7. The dimensions of the screw used in these calculations are taken from the example above. H = 3mm.8) Leakage flow mi = rhd + m p . s = 60mm. p m = 0.9AH by changing one variable at a time and keeping all other variables constant. (7. (7. L = 600 mm.59 k g / h Eq.Ap v r a ya pm ad N : : : : : : : Pressure difference across the metering zone [bar] Number of flights Melt viscosity [Pa • s] average shear rate [s 1 ] density of the melt [g/cm 3 ] Ratio of pressure flow to drag flow Screw speed [rpm] Example: For the following conditions the extruder output is to be determined: melt viscosity r a = 1406. 5 FLT = 0 .2. (7.88 k g / h Eq.2.7 g/cm 3 Geometry of the metering zone (Fig. (7.8) Db = 6 0 m m .4) ihd = 46. extruder output (kg/h) s r w s e d (rpm) ce p e Fig.34 P a s .
extruder output (kg/h) channel depth (mm) Fig.9C: Effect of flight clearance on extruder output .9B: Effect of channel depth on extruder output extruder output (kg/h) flight clearance (mm) Fig. 7. 7.
7.9D: Effect of melt pressure on extruder output extruder output (kg/h) melt viscosity (Pa s) Fig.extruder output (kg/h) m l pe s r (bar) et r s ue Fig.9E: Effect of melt viscosity on extruder output . 7.
7. 7.extruder output (kg/h) melt temperature ("C) Fig.9F: Effect of melt temperature on extruder output extruder output (kg/h) screw lead (mm) Fig.9G: Effect of screw lead on extruder output .
14) with x =H/W.1. (7.12) and QpK = FpOp (7213) The correction factor for the screw power which is treated in the next section can be determined from [1] Fx = ex .14) is valid in the range 0 < HAV < 2.05x (7.x3 + 2.10) and the factor Fp for the pressure flow Fp = 10.extruder output (kg/h) channel length ( m m) Fig. The influence of screw curvature is also small so that Fx can .9H: Effect of channel length on extruder output Correction Factors To correct the infinite parallel plate model for the flight edge effects following factors can be used along with the equations above: With sufficient accuracy the shape factor Fd for the drag flow can be obtained from [27] Fd = 10.2.2. For the range of commonly occurring H/Wratios in extruder screws the flight edge effect accounts for only less than 5% and can therefore neglected [27].625 ^ (7.2 x2 .11) W The expressions for the corrected drag flow and pressure flow would then be Qdk = FdQd (7. 7.2.2. Eq.2.571 ^ (7.
The symbols and units used in the Eqns (7.15) Fig.be taken as 1.I6) This parameter is the ratio between the amount of melted polymer per unit down channel distance to the extruder output per unit channel feed depth.15) and (7.10: Velocity and temperature profiles in the melt and solid bed after TADMOR [2] The numerator represents the heat supplied to the polymer by conduction through the barrel and dissipation.2. 7.2.l ^ G  C«.2. (7.2. their use for polymer melt flow is accurate enough for practical purposes.16) are as follows: 0 Barrel temperature Tb C 0 Melting point of the polymer Tm C Viscosity in the melt film r f Pa • s Velocity of the barrel surface Vb cm/s . 7. Although the above mentioned factors are valid only for Newtonian fluids.10). 7. The dimensionless melting parameter \\J is defined as [2] " = K HrW05 . [1] (see also Fig.2. The melting rate increases with increasing Op.2 Melting Parameter The melting rate is described by TADMOR [2] through the parameter Op which is expressed as [2]. where as the denominator shows the enthalpy required to melt the solid polymer.
Mt e l S ld b d M t film oi e e l Barrel X/W.Gs/G Srw ce Axial dsa c a n t e sr w i t n e o g h ce l Co ss ci n o sr w c a n l r s . G s : mass flow rate of solids 7. 7.2.e to f ce h n e Fig. The total power Z N is therefore for a melt filled zone [5] . G H1 W pm pp Ts Xm im cm/s (Fig. melt temperature and melt pressure are given in the book b y R A O [4].2. 7.2.15) and (7.Velocity component Relative velocity Output of the extruder Depth of the feed zone Width of the screw channel Melt density Specific heat of the solid polymer Temperature of the solid polymer Thermal conductivity of the melt Heat of fusion of the polymer V bx V. 7.2.16) have been given b y R A O in his book [I].11: Solid bed and melting profiles XAV and G s /G [2] G: total mass flow rate.2. It shows whether the polymer at the end of the screw is fully melted.2. The melting profile enables to judge the suitable positioning of these devices in the screw [4]. (7.4 Screw Power The screw power consists of the power dissipated as viscous heat in the channel and flight clearance and the power required to raise the pressure of the melt. Methods of calculating melting profile. 7.3 Melting Profile The melting profile gives the amount of unmelted polymer as a function of screw length (Fig. and is the basis for calculating the melt temperature and pressure along the screw.10) cm/s g/s mm mm g/cm 3 kJ/(kg • K ) 0 C W/(m • K ) kJ/kg Numerical examples illustrating the calculation of melting rate and melting parameter according to Eqns.11). The plasticating and mixing capacity of a screw can b e improved b y incorporating mixing and shearing devices into the screw.
2.20) The power required to raise the pressure of the melt ZAp can be written as (7.19) The power dissipated in the flight clearance can be calculated from [1] (7.2.2.1mm.ZN = Zc + ZFLT + ZAp (7.2. H = 3mm. (7. Solution: Power Zc in the screw channel: DFLT = 59. s = 60mm. (7.17) where Zc = power dissipated in the screw channel ZFLT = power dissipated in the flight clearance = ZAp power required to raise the pressure of the melt The power ZAp is small in comparison with the sum Zc + ZFLT.2.2.22) .8 mm from Eq. In general the power due to dissipation £ d can be expressed for a Newtonian fluid as [1] Ed = V Y2 (7.18) Using the respective shear rates for the screw channel (Eq.23) The symbols and units used in the equations above are given in the following example: Example: For the following conditions the screw power is to be determined: Resin: PELD Operating conditions: Screw speed N = 80 rpm melt temperature T = 200 0C die pressure Ap = 300 bar Geometry of the metering zone: Db =60 mm. AL = 600 mm.21) The flight diameter DFLT is obtained from (7.9)) and flight clearance the equation for the screw power can be derived [I]. v=1 8FLT = 0.2. The power dissipated in the screw channel Zc is given by [1] (7.2. and can be neglected.22) and the channel width W (7. e = 6mm.2.
8280251.249 • 10"6 A. . as it might occur due to wear in extruders the melt conveying capacity is reduced.7219.23) Number of flights v = 1 Length of the metering zone AL = 600 mm FactorFx: Fx = 1 for HAV = 3/51. (7. This leads to an increase in the power Z N as shown in Table 7.34600(lcos 2 17. (7.Viscosity of the melt in the screw channel rc at the average sheer rate 83.3sinl7.2.2.4B. (7. (7.2.66° = 5.0375 kW Hence the power ZAp is negligible in comparison with the sum Zc + ZFLT.8) WFLT = e cos O = 6 • cos 17. 7.2. since the leakage flow over the flight increases. With increasing flight clearance.66° Power in the flight clearance ZFLT: Flight width WFLT(Fig.249 106m3/s Die pressure Ap: Ap = 300 bar ZAp from Eq.2.46 = 0.34 Pa • s Channel width W = 51.828f6005.20): ZAp = 100 • 1. (7.7 3610140.7 Pas Power in the flight clearance ZFLT from Eq.2.2.66°)_^ Qg1 w c 361014.14) Power in the screw channel Zc from Eq.8 s"1 according to the Eq.46 from Eq.9) and T = 200 0C from the viscosity function of resin rc = 1406.300 = 0.1 Qp = 1. 2 5 1 3 .7 mm Viscosity at the average shear rate in the flight clearance y = "DbN .303 Power to raise the melt pressure ZAp: Pressure flow Q : = = L56 kW Q from the example in Section 7.461406. 3 s > and T = 200 0C from the viscosity function of the resin rFLT = 219.20): lV. (7.59.058 from Eq.2.66 o +4sin 2 17.19) _ lV59. To compensate for this reduction the screw speed has to be increased. if the output were to remain the same.10.
1 K N Q < 0.58 3.5.5 (Tin + Tout) can be taken as the stock temperature in the increment.73 2.25 0.5 Melt Temperature and Melt Pressure Melt Temperature The exact calculation of melt temperature can be done only on an iterative basis as shown in the computer program given in [4]. The temperature variation AT can be estimated for a 3zone screw from the following empirical relationship developed by Squires [19]: AT = 9 [4.65 0.3 kW 0.71 0.2.2.711 0. """fa * Z r * NH) mCpm (7224) where Z c .6 zc kW 2.4B: Effect of Flight Clearance on Screw Power for a PELD 5 FLT ZFLT mm 0.15 ZN kW 3. Z FLT = (see Section 7.44 3.2. where Tin denotes the temperature of the melt entering the increment.1 0.15 0.63 3. The temperature rise AT in an increment of the screw can be found from [5] 4T .0 .5 83 84 86 7.75 N rpm 80 81. The parameter N Q is given by (7.2.4) (kW) NH = heat through the barrel (kW) rh = extruder output (kg/h) Tout = temperature of the melt leaving the increment ( 0 C) Tm = melting point of the polymer ( 0 C) The average temperature 0. (T _ T J .2.31 N Q .25) .2 0.93 3.54 3.The power in the flight clearance Z FLT does mot vary much as the opposing effects of viscosity and flight clearance nearly balance each other.83 2.0 3.626 0. 0 2 4 J for 0 . Temperature Fluctuation Fluctuations of melt temperature in an extruder serve as a measure of the stability of extrusion and extrudate quality. Table 7.
25) AT = .2. [5].310. Pressure Fluctuation The effect of pressure fluctuations of the melt on the flow rate can be estimated by the relation [2] (7.2.2.33 NQ from Eq. L 9 3 9 H 0. flow rate Q1 = 39.7 .2.25) depend on the type of polymer used.024j The constants occuring in the Eqs.26) and (7.26) has to be defined in such a way that NQ correlates well with the measured temperature fluctuations.(7.26) where AT = temperature variation 0C Db = barrel diameter cm G = output g/s L = Length of screw zone in diameters H = depth of the screw zone cm Example: D = 6cm.9 0.61° C 9_4.22° C or ±3.1 0 " 4 ~ 43.153 2 0. b G15 g/s. (7. For screws other than 3zone screws the geometry term in Eq. The more exact calculation of the melt pressure profile in an extruder should consider the effect the ratio of pressure flow to drag flow.I \ 1 = 7.153 AT from Eq.26) NQ = 14. the socalled drossel quotient as shown in [5]. (7. (7.2.6 (mean value) 0. (7.33 = 0.33 30 Hence L/H = 43.3 C m 3 /s Ap2 = 210 bar .4) [1]. (7. Melt Pressure The melt or stock pressure can be obtained from the pressure flow by means of Eq.3 L/H 10 3.2.2.2.27) Example: pressure drop Ap1 = 200 bar.
885 Q2 = 44. 7. Empirical design data for different screw geometries. resins and processes is given in Figs.39 7 flow rate variation = (Q2 .12A: Influence of increasing output on solids melting in an extruder [2] .14AE[Il].power law exponent n for PELD = 2.5 Calculate the flow rate variation. Solution: Q1ZQ2 = 39.13 [2]. 7.9 cm 3 /s 44 9 .12AL [2].Q1) / Q1 = — — = 13% Ap2Ap1 210200 L pressure variation = — = = 5% Ap1 200 This means that a pressure variation of 5% can cause a flow rate fluctuation of 13%. 7. 7. For given resin the fluctuation of the melt temperature depends mainly on the screw geometry and output rate as shown in Fig. The influence of machine related parameters and operating variables on the melting of solid polymer is shown in Figs. screw REDUCED SOLID BED WIDTH X/W increasing output AXIAL DS A C ITNE Fig.7/Q 2 = (200/ 21O) 25 = 0.
12C: Influence of increasing screw speed and output on solids melting in an extruder [2] .12B: Influence of increasing screw speed on solids melting in an extruder [2] screw REDUCED SOLID BED WIDTH X/W increasing screw speed and output AXIAL DISTANCE Fig.screw REDUCED SOLID BED WIDTH XTW increasing screw s e d pe AXIAL DISTANCE Fig. 7. 7.
12E: Relationship between flight clearance and length of melting for different resins in an extruder [2] . 7.LENGTH OF MELTING range of extruder operation S R W LEAD CE Fig.12D: Relationship between length of melting and screw lead in an extruder [2] P P LP DE LENGTH OF MELTING LP DE PC V FLIGHT CLEARANCE Fig. 7.
7. 7.Length of melting Number of channels in parallel Fig.12F: Relationship between length of melting and number of channels in an extruder [2] screw increasing screw lead MELT PRESSURE AXIAL DISTANCE FROM START OF THREAD Fig.12G: Relationship between melt pressure and screw length at increasing screw speed[2] .
121: Relationship between melt pressure and screw length at constant screw speed and increasing output [2] . 7.12H: Relationship between length of melting and barrel temperature at constant screw speed [2] MELT PRESSURE increasing output AXIAL DISTANCE FROM BEGINNING OF THREAD Fig.constant srew speed LENGTH OF MELTING BARREL TEMPERATURE Fig. 7.
12J: Relationship between melt temperature and screw length at increasing output [2] screw MELT PRESSURE CONSTANT SCREWSPEEO AND OUTPUT increasing screw lead SCREWLENGTH Fig. 7.MELT TEMPERATURE increasing output S RW LN T C E E GH Fig.12K: Relationship between melt pressure and screw length at constant output and screw speed and increasing screw lead [2] . 7.
13: Relationship between melt temperature fluctuation.12L: Relationship between power and barrel temperature at increasing output [2] deep metering channel shallow metering channel Temperature Fluctuation Amplitude very shallow metering channel Output Fig. 7.increasing output POWER BARREL TEMPERATURE Fig. screw geometry and output [2] . 7.
14A: Empirical screw design data [11] .L = 2 0 D to 24 D front edge of the feed opening Fig. 7.
7.m m h t l h.1 mm "W D Fig.14B: Empirical screw design data [11] nm« . m m D kg/h .
7.h 3 D m m Fig..LD 2 / =0 D m m m m h.14C: Empirical screw design data [11] m / n [kg min /h] e [kWh / kg] n [min ] NA [kW] m [kg/h] .
02.80 n mi. s=0. [min ] Nmix[kVv] D Design data for a series of grooved extruders Fig.14D: Empirical screw design data [11] h[mm] m I n [kg min /h] .5D L =2.screw flights L =1617D homogenizing shearing section section screw tip L =22. 7.5 D D effective length L/D = 20 Screw built from standard modules for grooved blow molding extruders 170=20.
7.1 • 10"6 • D 17 Fig. die pressure and residence time of the melt as functions of the flow path of melt in the die [6].14E: Empirical screw design data [11] 7. Common shapes of flow channels occurring in extrusion dies are shown in Fig.15. b conventional extruder m/n = 3. Of these quantities the die pressure is most important as the desired throughput cannot be attained if the die pressure does not match with the melt pressure. Following areas of application of extrusion dies serve as examples to illustrate the relationship between die geometry and processing parameters: . Detailed treatment of die design is presented in the book [1] and in [17]. Lupolen 5021 D) a grooved extruder m/n = 6. The interaction between screw and die is shown in Fig.3 Extrusion Dies Extrusion dies can be designed by calculating shear rate.k m /h g n i m/n D m 2 m Comparison of specific throughput rates m/n of conventional and grooved extruders (material: HDPE.10" 6 D 1 9 .6.16. 7. 7.
7.15A: Effect of screw and die temperature deep channel H 5 m =m Material: PA6 melt Temperature: 275°C extruder output (kg/h) shallow channel H3 m =m large die DiA=5mm small die DiA=4mm melt pressure (bar) Fig.15B: Effect of channel depth and die opening .Material: PA6 s r w characteristics ce extruder output (kg/h) die characteristics channel depth: 3mm die opening: 5mm melt pressure (bar) Fig. 7.
7. Mandrel support die Mandrel Mandrel support" (spider) Spider legs Or breaker plate Fig.17 is employed for making tubes and pipes and also for extruding a parison required to make a blowmolded article.Fig. 7. It is also used in blown film processes.17: Mandrel support die with spider or break plate [17] .1 Pipe Extrusion The spider die shown in Fig.3.16: Common shapes of flow channels in extrusion dies [1] 7. 7.
3. Gslit has to be multiplied by the correction factor F p given in Fig. (3.3. Factor Fp H W Ratio H / W Fig.1) where G. The height H and the width W are obtained in this case from Eqns.1).3) (7.6).3.5) (7. The die constant Gannulus is calculated from H = R0R. (7.3.2) (7.6) (7. 7. which represents the pipe crosssection it is given by The pressure drop is obtained from [7] (7.2. the die constant follows from (7. For W/H < 20. W = Ti(R0 + ^ ) Gannuius follows then from Gannulus ~ (7.For a circular channel the shear rate is calculated from Eq.3. 7.3. For smaller values of this ratio Gannulus has to be multiplied by F p given in Fig.7) for (R 0 + R 4 )/(R 0 R 1 ) £ 3 7 . 7.4) for W/H > 20.3.3.18 Correction factor Fp as a function of HAV [ 19] . For an annulus.18.18 as a function of HAV.3.5) and (7.
The substitute radius is expressed by [18] (7.In Table 7.8) where R111 = substitute radius A = crosssectional area B = circumference On the basis of the substitute radius the pressure drop in the channel is calculated as in the case of the circular channel [I]. Another method of calculating the pressure drop in channels of varied cross section is presented in Fig.5 the shear rates and die constants for different channel shapes are summarized. 7. .16) [1] Channel shape Circle Shear rate y [s1] Die constant G Slit Annulus Triangle Square General Cross Section By means of the substitute radius defined by Schenkel [18] the pressure drop in cross sections other than the ones treated above can be calculated. The correction factor Fp and the flow coefficient fj. [19].3.5: Shear Rates and Die Constants for Some Die Channel Shapes (Fig. have the same values in comparable ranges of height to width of the channel. 7.19 [17]. Table 7.
19: Flow coefficient fp as a function of shape factor H/B [17] The symbols and units used in the equations above are explained in the following example: Example: It is required to calculate the pressure drop Ap of a PELD melt at 200 0C flowing through an annular channel with an outside radius R0 = 40 mm. Solution: Volume flow rate Q = — = — = 14.7 .Narrow slit Flow coefficient fP Rectangle Ellipse According to Squires Square (Tp= 0.447) Shape factor .29 — Pm 0. 7.=0.4217) Circle (f = 127T ) [ p 128 } Semicircle (f.g Fig. an inside radius R1 = 39 mm and length L = 100 mm at a mass flow rate m = 10 g/ s.
001)2 The given resindependent values which can also be calculated from flow curves (see Section 3.3.2) are n = 2. (7.bar Pressure drop AP LDPE m = 40kg/h TM= 1600C mm Length of flow path I Fig.20A: Melt pressure in a spider die [6] or Q = 1.2.04 + 0.47.7 g/cm3 Shear rate from Eq. 7.7.2 n (R0 + R1) (R0 . = .039) (0.1) 6 L429 10 5 ^ ~2 = ' ' " .3410' 13 .43 Pa • s K=1.354.4291(T 5 In 3 /s where p m = melt density = 0.907 T] = 579.R1) n (0.
The pressure drop Ap is obtained finally from Eq.443 • 10 5 . (7.s Residence time t LDPE m = 40 kg/h TM= 1600C hr = 2 mm mm Length of flow path I Fig.00I) 2907 O A 1 As the ratio Tc(R0+ R J V ( R 0 . 7.20B: Residence time in a spider die [6] The die constant Gannulus follows from Eq.3. (7. no correction is necessary.19 is greater than 37.7) ( w\ 2^907 — 2 Il r vJannulus = S^l .(0.3.R 4 ) = 248.2) Ap = 400.04 + 0. Therefore.39)2907 (0.26 bar The residence time t in a channel of length AL can be written as t = AL/ u . Gannulus = 1.
7. channel cross section and volume flow rate.1600C hr = 2mm m m Length of flow path I Fig.3.9) '/VCpm = = = = . The adiabatic temperature increase of the melt in the die can be obtained from AT = where AT Ap pm cpm AP 1O (K) temperature rise (K) pressure difference (bar) melt density (g/cm3) specific heat of the melt kJ/(kg K) (7.20C: Shear rate in a spider die [6] The average velocity u can be expressed in terms of shear rate.S"1 Shear rate if LDPE TM .
21: Drawdown in pipe extrusion DR = D *! " 1 ^tel (7.10) ODpipe " IDpipe The draw ratio is dependent on the resin and on the hauloff rate. 7. residence time and pressure of the melt along a spider die are calculated and shown in Figs.Using the equations above. The draw ratio DR can be expressed as (Fig. In Fig. Drawdown and HaulOff Rates Drawdown occurs when the velocity of the hauloff is greater than the velocity of the extrudate at the die exit. For other resins this ratio has to be determined experimentally. This leads to a reduction of the extrudate crosssection.22 [8] the ratio of die diameter to pipe diamteter which is referred in practice as the draw ratio is shown as a function of the hauloff rate for a PA resin. 7. 7.20AC.22: Relationship between draw ratio and hauloff rate [8] . 7.3. the shear rate. Ratio of Die diameter to pipe diameter Hauloffrate ( / i ) mmn Fig.21) D dIe mn rl a de OD pipe 'Dpipe pipe die Fig. As seen from these figures the die gap has a marked influence on the pressure [6]. 7.
14 0.14 0.0 2. Design data for pipe dies and sizing units (Fig.6 shows typical data obtained on twin screw extruders for pipes.3 21 167.0 PVC PE PP mm 20 160 21 168 21 168 mm 20.6: Typical Data for TwinScrew Extruders for Pipes out of Rigid PVC [12] Screw diameter D mm 60/70 80/90 100/110 120/140 Screw length L/D 18/22 18/22 18/22 18/22 Screw speed min"1 35/50 30/40 25/38 20/34 Screw power kw 15/25 28/40 58/70 65/100 specific energy kwh/kg 0.2 28.1/0.2 25/30 1.1/0.7: Die and Calibration Unit Dimensions Based on Empirical Results [12] Pipe raw material Outer diameter of pipe mm 20 160 20 160 20 160 A B a at S in % of nominal pressure 6 to 10 wall mm thickness 30 4 150 79 20 100 40/1751 100 20 100 40/1751 100 S [mm] 25 25/303 35/503 b Hauloff speed m/min 20/35 2.0/2.2 30.14 Table 7.2 21 167.16 161.0 8. 7.0 3.5 25/30 1.7 [12].1/0.6 20.14 0.23) is given in Table 7.2 mm 100/150 500/600 150 40 150 640 PA12 1 PA122 PA122 1 8 20 22 14.3 3. Table: 7.3 130 130 130 55/60 12/15 10/12 WaIl thickness 1 mm wall thickness 2 mm dependent on wall thickness 2 .0/3.85 23.1/0.2/2.Table 7.
24: Blowup in blown film . 7. Depending on the material and the type of film blow ratios range from 1. The effect of operating variables such as coolant temperature in the case of watercooled films on some film properties like gloss and haze is shown in Fig.25 [9]. 7.23: Design data for pipe dies and sizing units (see Table 7. •A bubble cooling ring die diameter of d i e lip extruder Fig.7) [12] The blow ratio is the ratio between the diameter of blown film to the die lip diameter (Fig. 7.7.3.24).2 Blown Film diameter of buble Fig.3 : 1 to 6 : 1 [26].b Q B 7.
usually 90°. Table 7. 7.26 [17]) are widely used today. 7. to the direction of the extrudate (Fig. The mixing of spiral flow and annular flow of the melt in these dies leads to uniform flow distribution at the die exit.8 [13]. . Side fed and spiral dies can also be designed using the equations given in the Section 7.26 [17]). 7. The principle here is to divide the die into a number of segments and by applying the pressure balance.8: Data for High Performance PELD Blown Films Lines [13] Screw diameter D mm 60 90 120 150 Maximum throughput kg/h 200 400 550 900 Extruder power kW 55 110 170 300 Side fed and spiral mandrel dies are employed in processes. These processes include making annular parisons for blow molding. to mention a few examples. This can be done conveniently by means of a computer program such as VISPIRAL [20]. In the extrusion of blown film spiral mandrel dies (Fig.haze film thickness Fig. in which the extruder is at an angle.25A: Effect of film thickness on haze [9] Extruder throughputs for blown film lines for polyethylene are given in Table 7. ^ P spiral flow in the channel ^ P annular flow in the gap to each segment calculate the height of the channel required for uniform flow.1.3. and owing to the lack of spider legs which disturb the melt flow in a spider die there will be no weld lines on the film. cable coating and pipe jacketing.
The shear rate in a rectangular channel is calculated from (7. 7.3. 7.11) .25C: Effect of coolant temperature on gloss [9] 7.haze coolant temperature Fig.3 Sheet extrusion Dies for sheet and flat film extrusion have a rectangular exit crosssection (Fig. where the die width W is usually much larger than the height of the slit H.16).3.25B: Effect of coolant temperature on haze [9] gloss coolant temperature Fig. 7.
25E: Effect of coolant temperature on impact strength [9] . 7. 7.stiffness c oa t t m eaue o ln e prt r Fig.25D: Effect of coolant temperature on stiffness [9] impact strength coolant temperature Fig.
25F: Effect of blowup ratio on ease of drawdown [9] ease of drawdown height of frost line Fig. 7.25G: Effect of frost line on ease of drawdown [9] .ease of drawdown blowup ratio Fig. 7.
26: Sidefed spiral mandrel dies [17] The pressure drop in a sheet die can be obtained from the relation given by Chung and Lohkamp [10].28 the calculated manifold radius R(x) is shown as a function of the distance x along the manifold [6]. .27: Scheme of a typical coathanger die [6] In Fig.8). 7.27) is deduced to be [10] (7. is the reciprocal of the power law exponent n in Eq. 7. 7.28A as a function of the die gap. (3. 7. 7.Side fed die Spiral mandrel die Mandrel Spiral mandrel manifold Fig. Manifold Coathanger section Damper section Choker bars Dielip section Fig.2.12) where n. The pressure drop in the die lip section is given in Fig. For a uniform flow distribution the radius R(x) along the manifold (Fig.3.
7. 7.m m Radius R m m Distance x Fig.28: Manifold radius R(x) as a function of the distance x along the manifold [6] pressure [bar] die gap [mm] Fig.28A: Pressure drop in a flat die as a function of die gap .
Thus the optimal conditions for thermoforming occur at a temperature corresponding to the material's transition from a solid rubber state to a viscous liquid state [21]. 7. 7.7.12. At this temperature the polymer must have a sufficiently strong viscous component to allow for flow under stress and a significant elastic component to resist flow in order to enable solid shaping.29AE [22] [23].9 to 7. The effect of different factors related to thermoforming is presented in Figs.29A: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Draw ratio vs temperature Optimum Strain level reached in fixed time Strain Area of rupture Increasing straining rate under fixed load Temperature Fig. 7.4 Thermoforming In thermoforming the material initially in the form of a sheet or film is shaped under vacuum or pressure after it has reached a particular temperature. Some data including machine dependent parameters are given in the Tables 7.29B: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Strain vs temperature . (Cold) rupture Draw ratio Holes and splits Discoloration degradation Details not reproduced Acceptable quality Temperature Fig.
sheet temperature .29C: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Internal stress vs. 7. 7. sheet temperature ENERGY FOR FORMING SHEETTEMPERATURE Fig. temperature HOT STRENGTH COTE E RSAL YY LI N PLMR AOPE S MLMR O O PRHU Y S ET TMEAUE HE E PRTR Fig.INTERNAL STRESS OF FORMED PART SHEET TEMPERATURE Fig. 7.29E: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Hot strength vs.29D: Parametrical relationship for thermoforming: Energy vs.
9: Polymer Guide to Thermoforming Processing Temperatures [0C] [24] Mold temperature 71 82 88 85 129 60 160 Lower processing limit 127 127 149 127 168 100 200 Normal forming heat 146 163 177 146 191 135 246 Upper limit Set temperature 82 93 93 93 138 71 182 PEHD ABS PMMA PS PC PVC PSU 166 193 193 182 204 149 302 Table 7. m n i takeoff speed v PELD PP PA6 film thickness s Fig.The production rates for flat and thermoformable films are given in Figs.10: Extruder Outputs for Thermoformable Film Extrusion (Film Thickness Range: 0.9 [14].30A: Production rates for flat films [14] Table 7.4 to 2.0 mm) [14] Screw diameter D mm 75 90 105 120 150 Screw length PP 30/36 D 30/36 D 30/36 D 30/36 D 30/36 D 180/200 260/290 320/350 480/550 650/750 SB 300/320 450/500 600/650 750/850 1100/1200 Output kg/h ABS 220/250 360/400 450/480 600/650 850/900 PET 120/140 180/220 240/280 320/360 480/540 . 7.10 shows the thermoforming temperature ranges for various thermoplastics [14]. Table 7. 7.30A/B [14] and in Table 7.
8/2.2/0.off speed v AS B P P m m film thickness s Fig.min S B take .5 0.12: Shrinkage Guide for Thermoformed Plastics [24] Polymer PELD PEHD ABS PMMA SAN PC PS PP PVC U PVCP Shrinkage % imo 3.5 0.30B: Production rates for thermoformable films [14] Table 7. 7.6 0.4/0.8 0.5/2.5/0.3/0.5 .8 0.5/0.3/0.2 0.11: Ranges of Melt and Roll Temperature Ranges Used in Thermoformable Film [14] Material PP SB ABS PET Melt temperature 0 C 230/260 210/230 220/240 280/285 Chill roll temperature 0 C 15/60 50/90 60/100 15/60 Table 7.8 0.0/3.5 1.
15: Data for the ReifenhaeuserBitruder with Intermeshing CounterRotating Screws for Compounding and Pelletizing of PVCU and PVCP [23] Extruder Screw diameter mm 77 77 98 98 150 Screw length L/D 12 16 14 18 17 Drive power N kW 25 25 33 37 133 Heating capacity kW 17 17 31 36 88 Output kg/h 120/230 200/400 300/550 450/750 650/1200 BT 80 12 G BT 8016 G BT 10014 G BT 10018 G BT 15017 G .7. Some machine data are given in the tables below.14: Machine Data of Intermeshing. CoRotating TwinScrew Extruders (ZSK) for the Concentration of Melts [25] Screw diameter D mm 130 170 240 300 Screw speed n min"1 180/300 150/250 140/230 110/180 Drive power N kW 150/240 300/490 680/1100 1200/2000 Throughput G kg/h 850/1500 1750/3000 4000/7000 7000/12000 Table 7. Table 7.13: Machine Data of NonInterrneshing CounterRotating TwinScrew Machines for Degassing [25] Screw diameter D mm 150 200 250 305 380 400 Screw speed n min1 100/180 87/150 78/135 70/120 63/110 58/100 Drive power N kW 120/250 220/460 370/750 600/1200 970/2000 1500/3000 Throughput G kg/h 670/1250 1200/2300 2000/3750 3300/6000 5400/10000 8300/15000 Table 7.5 Compounding In the compounding of polymers such as polyolefins and PVC twin screw extruders find a wide application.
These partial streams are then combined just prior to the land area. dies of different designs are used as shown in Fig.30C: Adapter dies: a) Flat slit die. To create layered structures and benefit from the properties of several resins in combination. b) a) Fig. To achieve these objectives. They flow together through the die and leave it as a coextrudate (Fig.30D: Multimanifold dies: a) Flat slit die. 7.30D [17]. b) Blown film die [17] . 7. a) b) Fig.30C) [17]. b) Blown film die In the multimanifold dies (Fig. A multilayer extrudate can be produced by conventional dies when an adapter is used to feed the individual melt streams into the die inlet.Coextrusion In many cases a plastics product made from a single polymer cannot meet the requirements imposed on it. Examples include multiple layer flat and tubular films.30D) [17] each melt is first fed separately and distributed into the desired form. cables with multiple layer insulation. 7. 7. coextrusion is evidely employed. 7. 7.30C and in Fig. multiple layer blow molded articles and many more.
15A. 2. Die design is complicated. 1.Some advantages and disadvantages of adapter and multimanifold dies are summarized in Table 7. 1. Materials with different flow behavior (Table 7. . Table 7. It is difficult to solve the problem of thermal insulation of the individual channels from each other. 3. Table 7.15A: Comparison Between Adapter (Feedblock) Dies and MultiManifold Dies [17] Type of die Adapter (Feedblock) dies Multimanifold dies Advantages Any number of individual layers can be combined. if appropriate adjustment is available.16: Examples of Compatibility Between Plastics for CoExtrusion [24] PELD PELD PEHD PP IONOMER PA EVA 1: 2: 3: 3 3 2 3 1 3 PEHD 3 3 2 3 1 3 PP 2 2 3 2 1 3 IONOMER 3 3 2 3 3 3 PA 1 1 1 3 3 1 EVA 3 3 3 3 1 3 Layers easy to separate Layers can be separated with moderate effort Layers difficult to separate. Each melt can be adjusted individually. 3. The method of combining the melts inside the die under pressure improves the mutual adhesion of the layers. For a combination of more than four layers this type of die becomes very complex and costly. 2.16) and melt temperature can be processed Disadvantages Polymers used must have almost identical flow behavior and processing temperatures.
7. The magnitude of heat transfer coefficients which are necessary to estimate the rate of cooling is given in Table 7.5 m/s Solution: The Biot number Bi = ^ A where R = radius of the wire 170 Q. Table 7.13 . Calculate the length of the water bath to cool the wire from 19O0C to a centerline temperature of 140 0C for the following conditions: Heat transfer coefficient cca = 1700 W/(m2 • K) = Thermal diffusivity plastic 10"7m2/s Thermal conductivity \lastic = 0.31 as a function of the Fourier number with the recoprocal of Biot number as parameter [29]. in which mostly conduction and convection determine the rate of cooling.23 Bi The temperature ratio 0Th : Bi = ( T ^ U = 14020 = 120 = ( ) 7 0 6 (TaTw) 19020 170 The temperature ratio #Tb based on the centerline temperature is given in Fig.17: Heat Transfer Coefficients for Different Types of Cooling Heat transfer coefficient a [W/(m2 • K)] Air cooling by natural convection 5/10 Air cooling by forced convection 20/80 Water bath 1000/1800 Water sprays  2000/2500 Mode of cooling Example [28]: A wire of polyacetal of diameter 3.6 Extrudate Cooling The cooling of extrudate is an important operation in downstream extrusion processing.2 mm is extruded at 190 0C into a water bath at 20 0C.23 W/(m • K) Hauloff rate of the wire VH = 0.1 .6 = 11. Transient conduction can be described by means of Fourier number and simultaneous conduction and convection by Biot number.0846 10000.17 for different cooling media. .7. It is an unsteady heat transfer process. L = 0. as it sets a limit to the production rate.
6/ (1000 • 0.35 1/Bi = 0. The cooling time tk follows from the definition of the Fourier number —— — — — — — 0. The Biot number is then Bi = 3500 1. 7.1 s The length of the water bath is therefore V H tk = 0.31 is approximately Fo = 0.Temperature ratio &\b Fourier number F0at/X2 Fig.31 is approximately F 0 «0.15 The cooling time tk follows from a • tk / R2 = 10"7 • tk / (1.6 • 10"3)2 = 0.05 m If the wire is cooled by spraying water on to ist as it emerges from the extruder. 1 = 2.5.31: Midplane temperature for an infinite plate [29] The Fourier number Fo for # T b =0.84s .610" 3 ) 2 2.5610 tk = 4.16 R2 (1. a heat transfer coefficient of oca = 3500 W / (m2 • k) can be assumed.4 .15 tk = 3.0846 from Fig.23) = 24.706 and 1/Bi = 0. 7. 7.16.041 The Fourier number from Fig.
31 for Sn = 0. Example: Cooling of a blown film for the following conditions: thickness of the film: 70 JJ.242 = 0. = (110 .12W/(m 2 .242 W / ( m . since the resistance to heat flow is mainly due to conduction.4 m. melt temperature: 2200C frost line temperature: 1100C air temperature: 200C oca = 120W/(m2K) W = 0.K) Ct3 = 1000 W/(m 2 K) hauloff speed =130 m/min The length of contact between the sheet and the roll required to attain a sheet temperature of 70 0C is to be calculated.20) / 220 .5IQ3 n Cooling time t k = .13 • 10"3 mVs ^lastic = 0.^ = 0.0 = ^ .20) = 0.29 • 10"3 cm2/s hauloff speed: 60 m/min The cooling time tk is to be calculated.x2 'F 353542.6 F0 from Fig.5 v .K ) thermal diffusivity a: 1. . Solution: Temperature ratio Sn 0n.45 Biot number Bi Bi = 120 • 35 • 10 6 / 0.This value is not significantly less than the one in the case of cooling in the water bath.25 mm melt temperature T0 = 240 0C roll temperature Tw = 20 0C thermal diffusivity a = 1.01736 1/Bi = 57.4 s At a hauloff speed of 1 m/s the height of the film to the frost line will be approximately 0.45 and 1 / Bi = 57.6 F0 = 42. 7. Example: Cooling of a sheet for the following conditions: thickness of the sheet s = 0.^ .
1 Dimensionless Groups Dimensionless groups can be used to describe complicated processes which are influenced by a large number of variables with the advantage that the whole process can be analyzed on a sound basis by means of a few dimensionless parameters.20) = 50 / 220 = 0.13 At a hauloff speed of 2. The foregoing example shows their application in heat transfer applications.18 shows some of the dimensionless groups which are often used in plastics engineering. + 0. Cooling time tk = = = 0.276 = 0.Solution: The Biot number Bi = ^ ^ X Bi = 10000.96 and Qn from Fig. Table 7.125/0.96 Gn = (70 120) / 240 .04 1/Bi = 0.12 = 1. n v 7.1250.6. .6 m._.276 s k 1021.17 m/s the length of contact is L = 2. Their use in correlating experimental data and in scalingup equipment is well known.31 times the roll circumference.17 • 0.227 The Fourier number F0 for 1 / Bi = 0. 7. For a roll diameter of D = 250 mm this amounts to 1.1252103 _. The above examples give only a rough estimate of the actual values.31 . More realistic results can be obtained by using the software POLYFLOW [20].
18: Dimensionless Groups Symbol Bi Br Deb Fo Gr Gz Le Na Nu Pe Pr Re Sh Sc Sk Nomenclature: a g 1 p tD tp AT w ota P PT Ps 5d r\ X v tv t p : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Name Biot number Brinkman number Deborah number Fourier number Grashof number Graetz number Lewis number Nahme number Nusselt number Peclet number Prandtl number Reynolds number Sherwood number Schmidt number Stokes number Definition a a • IA 1 T]W2Z(X • AT) at/12 2 2 g. wl/a v/a pwl/r) v/8 d P • 1/(Tl • W) thermal diffusity [m 2 /s] acceleration due to gravity [m/s 2 ] characteristic length pressure [N/m 2 ] memory time [s] process time [s] temperature difference [K] velocity of flow [m/s] outside heattransfer coefficient [W/(m 2 • K)] coefficient of volumetric expansion [K' 1 ] temperature coefficient in the power law of viscosity [1] [K"1] mass transfer coefficient [m/s] diffusion coefficient [m 2 /s] viscosity [Pa • s] thermal conductivity (index i refers to the inside value) [W/(m • k)] kinematic viscosity [m 2 /s] residence time [s] time [s] density [kg/m 3 ] .Table 7.ATl /v 2 l /(at v ) a/5d P x • w2 • TiA.'p. alA.
16. Hanser. Hanser. S. Munich 1991 Tadmor. New York 1980 . G. DJ. V. 22. D.J. ANTEC 21 (1975). 21. Lohkamp. 324 Brochure: EMS Chemie 1992 Brochure: BASFA.H: Computer Modelling for Extrusion and Other Continuous Polymer Processes. Munich 1992 Schenkel. KT. H: Compound Lines in Plastics Extrusion Technology. Munich. Hanser. Hanser. 12.: Polymer Engineering and Science. Y. W. E.: Soc. F. New York 1973 Kreith. Rosato.: Extrusion Dies. 6. B. Harper & Row. Hanser. D. 28. New York (1970) Bernhardt. HG. Hensen.M. Munich.: Designing Machines and Dies for Polymer Processing with Computer Programs. Plastics Eng. Hanser. Rao. V. 26..: Thermoplastics and Design..: Extrusion of pipes. Munich 1988 Rauwendaal. W. Hensen.Literature 1.: SPEJ. London 1969 Titow. London 1984 Rosato.. Jackson. New York (1963) Rao. V. p. 14.20 (1956) Michaeli.: Extrusion of blown films in Plastics Extrusion Technology. 16(1960). Ed. 21 (1981). Munich 1981 Procter. 7. Munich 1986 Ogorkiewicz. p. 23. Reinhold. F. 15.: Basic Heat Transfer. 5. 18. Hanser. F.: Processing of Thermoplastic Materials.: SPE 33. New York 1968 Rao. KS. 9. 24. Munich. Klein. Ed. 13. D.T.Z.L. P. p. F. Ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 20. 1988 Rauwendaal. L: Engineering Principles of Plasticating Extrusion. W. Reitemeyer. O'Brien. andMoI. CL.H. 363 Fritz. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. G. Reinhold.. 4. Z. Munich 1986 Klein. C: Polymer Extrusion.: Private Communication Squires. F. profiles and cables in Plastics Extrusion Technology. 8. Ed.: SPE J. Munich. 29. 17.: Plastics Engineering. 3. L. Hanser. F. H: Flat film extrusion using chillroll casting in Plastics Extrusion Technology. Gliffe Books Ltd. Black. Van NostrandReinhold. N.A. 27. 5(1995) Ogorkiewicz. 1988 Bongaerts. 1992 Chung. R. Hanser. G. KS. CJ. Ed. New York 1990 Hermann. 25. Hanser. Keith T. 2. 1988 Predohl.S.. Munich 1992 Eckstein. Hensen. R.. Hensen. O'Brien. RM. John Wiley. D. Marshall.: Plastics Extrusion Technology. Ed. F. E. Hensen. and Harry. 1092 Darnell.: Computer Aided Design of Plasticating Screws. J.: PVC Technology. N. 1988 Winkler. RH. C.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. W. Munich 1988 Hensen.Effects of Processing. W..: Computer Programs for Plastic Engineers. Hanser.: Extrusion blow molding in Plastics Extrusion Technology. 267 Rao.: Design Formulas for Plastics Engineers. 10.. 28 (1972) p. 19.: Thermoplastics . 12. 11.
8 Blow Molding 8.1 Processes The different processes of blow molding. In Fig. namely extrusion blow molding.5 [2]. 8.1. Table 8.1 to 8. 8.1: Melt Temperature and Pressure for Extrusion Blow Molding of Some Polymers Material PELD PEHD PP PVCU PVCP Melt temperature 0 C 140/150 160/190 230/235 180/210 160/165 Melt pressure bar 100/150 100/200 150/200 100/200 75/150 .4 [1]. injection blow molding and stretch blow molding are illustrated in the Fig. [2]. in addition to the aforementioned processes the principle of dip molding is briefly explained.1. 8.1 Resindependent Parameters Melt Temperature and Pressure Typical values of melt temperature and melt pressure for extrusion blow molding are given in Table 8.
PRESS PLATEN Parison being extruded Compressed air inflates parison Blown container being ejected Fig.1: Extrusion blow molding [1] . 8.
8.2: Injection blow molding [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig.Injecting preform Blow molding and ejection Fig. 8.3: Extrusion stretch blow molding [2] .
and can be measured. 8.1.1. (8.4: Injection stretch blow molding [2] Parison Swell The wall thickness of the molding is related to the swelling ratio of the parison. . Referring to Fig.3) it follows K = KK The swell ratio Bp depends on recoverable strain [4].2) Using the relationship [4] B t = B2p (8.Inject preform Reheat preform Stretch blow molding and ejection Fig.11 [3] the swelling thickness of the parison is given by Bt = y h d (8.1) and the swelling of the parison diameter Bp = D1ZD.1. 8.
blow (possibly cool) MOULDED ARTICLE PREFORM transfer to second (CLOSEENDED (article) mould. FULLY FORMED cool NECK) EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING EXTRUSION STRETCHJ3LOW MOULDING MOULDED ARTICLE PLASTICS FEEDSTOCK injection moulding PREFORM (CLOSEENDED TUBE WITH FULLY FORMED NECK) transfer to second (article) mould. cool MOULDED ARTICLE INJECTION BLOW MOULDING transfer to second(article) mould. blow. blow.PLASTICS FEEDSTOCK extrusion OPENENDED enclousc in mould TUBE Mow. cooT MOULDED (ORIENTED) ARTICLE INJECTION STRETCH_BLOW MOULDING PLASTICS FEEDSTOCK extrusion or injection HOT MELT IN CAVITY complete shaping of preform round mandrel by piston push on melt Fig.5: Sequence of operations in different blow molding processes [2] •pjnoui (appJB) puo3ds O) JajsuBjj dip mandrel into melt in cavity PREFORM (CLOSEENDED TUBE WITH FULLY FORMED NECK) blow. coot MOULDED ARTICLE DIP (DISPLACEMENT) BLOW MOULDING . TUBE WITH stretch and blow. 8. cool (PARISON) enclose in first (preform) mould.
3: Data on Stretch Blow Molding for Some Polymers [1] Polymer PET PVC PP PAN Melt temperature 0 C 250 200 170 210 Stretch orientation temperature 0C 88/116 99/116 121/136 104/127 Maximum stretch ratio 16:1 7: 1 6: 1 9:1 Volume Shrinkage Table 8.Average parison swell for some polymers is given in Table 8.2 2.4 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.2: Average Parison Swell for Some Polymers [1] Polymer PEHD (Phillips) PEHD (Ziegler) PELD PVCU PS Swell % 15/40 25/65 30/65 30/35 10/20 _PC Processing Data for Stretch Blow Molding I 5/10 Table 8.4: Volume Shrinkage of Stretch Blow Molded Bottles (Seven Days at 270C) [1] Type of bottle Extrusion blow molded PVC Impactmodified PVC (high orientation) Impactmodified PVC (medium orientation) Impact modified PVC (low orientation) Nonimpact modified PVC (high orientation) Nonimpact modified PVC (medium orientation) Nonimpact modified PVC (low orientation) PET I Percent 4.2 [I].2 . Table 8.2 0.
4/10. Table 8.78.9 [7] and Fig.7 respectively.2 4.14 4.34 3.34 . moderate gloss Cost for equivalent stiffness (PELD=IOO) 104 100 87 79 76 71 8.2 Machine Related Parameters Blow Molding Dies As the parison is always ejected downward and the position of the extruder being generally horizontal. Data on air blowing pressures and temperatures for cavities in blow molds are given in Tables 8.2/6.Choice of Material Table 8.9 5.13/6.9 5.6) [5] or side fed dies as shown schematically in Fig. high gloss very clear.4/5.2/6. 7.9/10. The interaction of various factors influencing blow molding operations is presented in Figs. These can be of the spider type (Fig.8/10. the term crosshead dies may be applied to blow molding dies. these dies can be designed by using the equations given in Section 7.6 and 8. As mentioned earlier.9 3.9 2. 8.1.6: Data on Air Blowing Pressures [1] Polymer Acetal PMMA PC PELD PEHD PP PS PVCU ABS Pressure bar 6.76/6.10 [8].1.26 [6]. low gloss rather opaque. low gloss transculent.34 1.3. 8. 8.5: Data for Choosing Blow Molding Materials [8] Polymer Highimpact PVCU PELD Lowimpact PVCU Highimpact PP PEHD Lowimpact PP Appearance in blow molded form clear high gloss transculent. high gloss rather opaque.38/4.
7: Recommended Temperature for Cavities in Blow Molds [1] Polymer PE and PVC PC PP PS PMMA Temperature 0 C 15/30 50/70 30/60 40/65 40/60 Extruder Elbow joint Tip of Mandrel Spider legs die body mandrel die ring parison Fig.6: Application of spider die in blow molding [3] .Table 8. 8.
8.B tl oe wgt eh i D e i swell M t t m eaue e e prtr l Bottle wgt eh i Py e omr l d i e swell Py e d swell omr e l i D ln lnt e a d e gh i Otu ut p Otu ut p W l t ik es a h ns c M t t m eaue e e prtr l Otu ut p B w g pes r o n r sue l i Cc m ru i ferential wail t cn s hk es i variation Extrusion rate Critical shear rate Parison drawdown (sag) Die gap Melt index Parison drawdown (sag) Extrusion rate Parison drawdown (sag) Parison weight Parison drawdown (sag) Parison formation time Pinch off properties Melt temperature Pinch off properties Melt index Die lines Parting line Blowing pressure Fig.7: Relationship between machine and material variables in extrusion blow molding process [7] .
8: Relationship between machine and material variables in injection blow molding process [7] . impact strength Melt temperature With flow S rk g hi a e n Across flow Part weight Molding gloss Mold temperature Packing time Melt temperature Mold temperature Cmoet o pnn ZD IO m at i pc sr n t te gh a n line og l o flow f Melt temperature Shrinkage With flow Across flow Cooling time Cavity thickness Packing time/pressure D nt o e sy f i crystaline py es om r l Mold temperature Neat distortion temperature Melt temperature Shrinkage Restricted gate O e gate pn Packing time U t md n o i l cmn a pg l i pes r r sue Long flow path Short flow path Cavity thickness D nt es i y o crysf talline p y es om r l Distance from gate Wd e l tensile sr n t te gh injection pressure Fig.w.Mold temperature Dge er e o orienf tation in mdg on li k Jthicicness Injection Pressure pressure loss Packing through gate time Melt temperature Melt temperature Component f. 8.
Cold mold Post molding shrinkage of crystalline polymer Ageing time Hot mold Annealed Pressure loss through gate Gate area Impact strength Along line of flow Across line of flow Melt temperature Weld tensile strength Shrinkage in line of flow Cooling time Distance from gate Gate area Cavity thickness Density of crystalline polymers Flexural and tensile strength in line of flow Cavity thickness Melt temperature Differential shrinkage Melt temperature Cavity pressure Density of crystalline polymers Packing time Melt temperature Heat distortion temperature Packing pressure Shrinkage Restricted gate O e gate pn Cavity thickness Pressure loss through runner Injection rate Impact strength Along line of flow Across line of flow Mold temperature Weld tensile strength M t t m eaue e e prtr l Fig. 8.9: Relationship between machine and material variables in injection blow molding process .
10: Relationship between product stiffness.STIFFNESS DENSITY IN g / c m J Variation of stiffness with density for polyethylene THICKNESS FOR EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS DENSITY IN g/cmJ Relationship between thickness for equivalent stiffness and density for polyethylene COST FOR EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS DENSITY IN g/cm1 Relationship between cost for equivalent stiffness and density for polyethylene Fig. material density and cost in blow molding process [8] . 8.
W. Gliffe Books Ltd.M.. Van NostrandReinhold.: Blow Moulding in Thermoplastics. V. F. 5. V. London 1984 MortonJones. V.D P molding mold Dm Fig.V. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. 8. Van NostrandReinhold. 4.: PVC Technology. New York 1990 Titow. New York 1981 Cogswell. W. Ogorkiewicz. BS. 3. 6. Munich 1992 Rosato.: Extrusion Dies. Effects of Processing. D. New York 1986 Glyde. D.: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. 7. V. Chapman and Hall.11: Wall thickness of parison and molding in blow molding [3] Literature 1. D. Rosato. New York 1981 BASF Brochure on Blow Molding 1970 Michaeli. London 1969 . D.: Polymer Processing. 8. Rosato.: Polymer Melt Rheology. D. 2.N. Rosato. Hanser.: Injection Molding Handbook. R. John Wiley..H. Ed.
9. Injection Moid partially filled Barrel Feed hoDOer Screw advances Heater band Stoge 2 . 9. . The quality of the part depends on how well the interaction between these components functions. ejection [1] The molding equipment consists of an injection unit. Port is cooling Screw rotates at the end of holding pressure Sa e 3.1: The three stages of injection molding: injection. plastication.9 Injection Molding Among the polymer processing operations injection molding (Fig. Holding Pressure end Plostication Mold fitted.1) has found the widest application for making articles which can be put to direct use. Ejection tg Mote opens P r is ejected at N ze oe k of oz r o s < l Fig. an injection mold and a mold temperature control unit. Stoge 1 .
causing the newly recharged shot in front of the screw to flow into the empty mold. As in extrusion. prevents back flow during injection. 9.1C. thus completing the cycle [7].1 ResinDependent Parameters 9.At an appropriate point in the typical molding cycle (Fig. in which the cavity pressure is illustrated as a function of time during the molding of a part [I].1A) as indicated by phase 5 in Fig. s p 1: start o pa tao t e f t sc t n i i s p 4: start o n co t e f i et n j i s p 2 ed o p sc t n t . and while the mold is open and part ejected. 9.1B [22]. 9. 9. The screw then maintains pressure on the molded plastic for a specific time called dwell or hold time. The screw is then idle in the back position while the previously molded plastic continues cooling in the mold.1A: Injection molding process [22] The important processing variables in an injection molding process and their effect on the plastic material and part are shown in Fig. the processing parameters can be classified into resindependent and machinerelated parameters.1 Injection Pressure Injection pressure is the pressure exerted on the melt in front of the screw tip during the injection stage. It affects both the speed of the . 9.7A).1) the screw remains stationary in the forward position (Fig. After the mold closes. such as a cheek ring (Fig. 9. with the screw acting like a plunger [I]. the screw is forced forward by the hydraulic pressure.n f a t ao e l i i s p S ed o n co ad c og o t e mdg t : n f i e t n n on f h on e j i il li s p 3: c s g t e md t e on h o li l s p 6 = e ci n o mdg t e et f on jo li Fig. 9. At the end of dwell or holding pressure the screw begins to rotate conveying plastic material and developing a pressure ahead of the screw.1. This pressure pushes the screw to move back a predetermined distance which is dependent on the desired volume of the molded part. A valve.
IB: Molding cycle [22] .1. The maximum injection pressure is approximately 1.advancing screw and the process of filling the mold cavity with the polymer melt. The injection pressures needed for some resins are given in Table 9.1 [I].1: Injection Pressure Required for Various Plastics [1] Material Low viscosity heavy sections 80/110 85/100 70/100 90/110 100/120 100/120 80/100 100/120 100/140 80/100 N ecessary injection pres sure [MPa] Medium viscosity High viscosity standard sections thin sections. 9. and corresponds to the flow resistance of the melt in the nozzle. Table 9. sprue. runner and cavity.2 times the pressure listed in Table 9. small gates 100/130 130/150 100/120 120/150 100/120 120/150 110/140 >140 120/150 < 150 120/150 < 150 100/120 120/150 120/150 >150 140/175 175/230 100/120 120/150 injection cycle pnri start closing the mold injection unit forward filling ABS POM PE PA PC PMMA PS Rigid PVC Thermosets Elastomers opening the mold part ejection holding pressure plasticating cdounq injection unit backward Fig.
material: viscosity molecular degradation crystallinity molecular orientation in part surface b.1C: Cavity pressure profile over time [1] 9.2 Mold Shrinkage and Processing Temperature Due to their high coefficients of thermal expansion components molded from plastics experience significant shrinkage effects during the cooling phase.1) where V is any linear dimension of the mold and L.1. Semicrystalline polymers tend to shrink more. 9.Injection stageEffects from: injection speed temperature of hydraulic oil. the corresponding dimension of the part when it is at some standard temperature and pressure.2 [17]. 9.2 for a number of materials [I]. material: crystallinity molecular orientatior inside the part shrinkage b. parts: completeness of molded part •flash formation weight Time Holding pressure stage Injection stage Compression stage Holding pressure stageEffects from: temperature of cavity wait deformation of m l od stability of clamping unit magnitude of clamping force Effects on a. As a consequence of mold shrinkage it is necessary to make core and cavity slightly larger in dimension than the size of the finished part. mold temperature and shrinkage are given in Table 9. Shrinkage S can be defined by [2] S = 1 ^ (9. Processing temperature. parts: surface quality Compression stageEffects from* •switchover to holding pressure •control of pressure reserve Effects on crystallinity •anisotropy b. owing to the greater specific volume difference between melt and solid.1. parts: weight dimensions voids sink marks relaxation ease of ejection Cavity pressure Fig. . melt and mold •viscosity of material pressure dependency of screw drive Effects on o. The parameters influencing shrinkage behavior are shown in Fig.
5 0.5/6.0 >0.8/1.5 0.0 1.5 0.6 1.5 0.5 3/6 3.8 0.5/0.3 0.8 1.5/5.3/1 0.7 <0.5 0.2 0.4/0.8 0.3/1. and Shrinkage for the Most Common Plastics Processed by Injection Molding [1] Material PS HIPS SAN ABS ASA PELD PEHD PP PPGR IB PMP PVCsoft PVCrigid PVDF PTFE FEP PMMA POM PPO PPOGR CA CAB CP PC PCGR PET PETGR PBT PBTGR PA 6 PA 6GR PA 66 PA 66GR PAIl PA 12 PSO PPS PUR PF MF MPF UP EP Glass fiber content % Processing temperature 0C 180/280 170/260 180/270 210/275 230/260 160/260 260/300 250/270 260/280 150/200 280/310 170/200 180/210 250/270 320/360 210/240 200/210 250/300 280/300 180/230 180/230 180/230 280/320 300/330 260/290 260/290 240/260 250/270 240/260 270/290 260/290 280/310 210/250 210/250 310/390 370 195/230 60/80 70/80 60/80 40/60 ca.5/1.7 0.70 Mold temperature 0 C 10/10 5/75 50/80 50/90 40/90 50/70 30/70 50/75 50/80 70 15/50 30/50 90/100 200/230 50/70 >90 80/100 80/100 50/80 50/80 50/80 80/100 100/120 140 140 60/80 60/80 70/120 70/120 70/120 70/120 40/80 40/80 100/160 > 150 20/40 170/190 150/165 160/180 150/170 150/170 Shrinkage % 0.5/1.8 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.0/2.0 1.2/2.2 0.3/0.7 0.1/0.15/0.2/2 0.0 0.5/2.Table 9.5/1.55 1.2 1.5 0.2 30 30 10/30 20/30 30/50 30/50 30/35 40 30/80 .6 0.5/2.5/3.5/0.5/2.5 0.2: Processing Temperatures. Mold Temperatures.5 0.5/0.2 1.9 1.5 0.5 0.0 1.5/3.0 1.5/0.5/1.2/2.4/0.6 0.9/2.
Schrinkage shrinkage .3) [3].4 plastics absorb water at a rate depending on the relative humidity of the air in which they are stored (Table 9.1.2: Qualitative relations between individual process parameters and shrinkage behavior [17] 9.shrinkage shrinkage shrinkage holding pressure time holding pressure shrinkage melt temperature injection speed PEHD PP PS cavity pressure wall thickness shrinkage wall temperature Fig.3 Drying Temperatures and Times As already mentioned in Section 6. 9.1.
15 PA66 2.8 0.5 2 2 2/3 3/4 2/4 2 1/2 1/1.19 0.10 PBT.2 PA6 3 0. 9. materials are dried in their solid or melt state. The length L of the solidified plastic in the spiral is taken as a measure of the viscosity of the polymer concerned (Fig.5 1/2 1/1.2 1. 9.05 0.15 0.02 PC PMMA PPO 0. To remove moisture. Table 9.3 0.2 ABS 1.02 Equilibrium moisture (%) Water content 0.2 acceptable for injection molding [%] Moisture and monomers have an adverse effect on processing and on the part.5 0. In practice a spiralshaped mold of rectangular crosssection with the height and width in the order of a few millimeters is often used to classify the resins according to their flowability (Fig.5 1/2 1/1.4: Drying Temperatures and Times of Various Dryers [1] Drying time h fresh air/mixed dehumidifying dryers air dryers 1/2 2/3 1 1/1.03 PBT 0. .4 Flow Characteristics of InjectionMolding Resins The flow behavior of injectionmolding materials can be determined on the basis of melt flow in a spiral channel.08 0.3). PET PC PMMA PPO SAN Drying temperature 0 C fresh air/mixed dehumidifying air dryers dryers 80 80 75 70/80 75 70/80 75/80 not recomm.8 0.4).1 0.3: Equilibrium Moisture Content of Various Plastics Stored in Air at 230C and Relative Humidity 50% [3] CA CAB 2.5 1 1/1.4 shows the drying temperatures and times for different resins and dryers [I].2 0. it 75/80 120 120 120 120 80 80 120 120 80 80 9.5 Material ABS CA CAB PA 6 PA 66.6.02 PET 0.1. Table 9.Table 9.
9.3: Flow length in a spiral test as a function of the resin MFI .flow length increasing mS on Ug rmr ue c og canl on hne il c og canl on hne il spiral c og on il canl hne spiral height Fig.
m m P P Flow length L Spiral h i h H e t g m m Fig. 9.1.06 g/cm3 Specific heat cp = 2kJ/(kgK) Thermal conductivity X = 1. A quantitative relation between L and the parameters influencing L such as type of resin. Re. Example [4]: This example illustrates the calculation of the dimensionless numbers Gz.2) from which an explicit relationship for the flow length L can be computed.Br.4 shows the experimentally determined flow length L as a function of the height H of the spiral for polypropylene.5W/(mK) Melt temperature TM = 27O0C Mold temperature Tw = 7O0C Mass flow rate G = 211. Gz = f (RePrBr). mold temperature and injection pressure can be developed [4] by using the dimensionless numbers as defined by Thorne [5]. As shown in [4] the Graetz number correlates well with the product RePr. F2=IOOO .4: Flow Length L as function of the spiral height H [4] Fig. Pr and Br for the given data and for resindependent constants given in [4]: Width of the spiral W = 10 mm Height of the spiral H = 2 mm Flow length L = 420 mm Melt density p = 1. (9. F3 = 3600 The Graetz number Gz is calculated from . melt temperature. 9.5kg/h Solution: The conversion factors for the units used in the following calculation of the dimensionless numbers are F1=OOOl .
1. melt temperature and flow rate the Graetz number corresponding to the calculated product of RePrBr is read and finally the flow length L calculated from this number. From the plot of Gz vs RePrBr (Fig. WH p Br =1.1.^ where Ve H* nR = = = £^ k velocity of the melt front in m/s halfheight of the spiral in mm reciprocal of the power law exponent (9. Symbols and units used in the formulas above: Br cp Y G Gz H H* Brinkman number Specific heat kJ/kgK Shear rate s"1 Mass flow rate kg/h Graetz number Height of the spiral mm Halfheight of the spiral mm .Br is 7768.9833 Finally the product RePr.with Q = —.4) The viscosity r can be calculated from the melt temperature and shear rate [4].3) with G in kg/h and L in mm. With H* in m and Ve in m/s we get for the Prandtl number Pr Fvk*CnH*(1"nR) *2 K C p H AV^ n R ) Pr= 103 302.87 The Brinkman number Br [5] Br = * — ^ S A(TMTW) (9.06.O.1.51. For the given values Re = 0. The Reynolds number is obtained from F T V ( 2 " n R ) .5) [4].03791 [4]. which is obtained by measuring the flow length at different values of spiral height.6) Ve follows from Ve = .FT* nR Re = ^ .^ .(9. From the above data Gz = 186. 9.
9.L Ux Pr Q0 Re TM Tw Ve W X p rj Length of the spiral mm Reciprocal of the power law exponent Prandtl number Volume flow rate m 3 /s Reynolds number Melt temperature 0 C Mold temperature 0 C Velocity o f the melt front m / s Width o f the spiral m m Thermal conductivity W/mK Melt density g/cm 3 Melt viscosity Pas In the case of thermosetting resins the flow can be defined as a measure of melt viscosity.5: Dimensionless groups for determining the flow length L in s spiral test 9. 9.5 [I]. .2 Machine Related Parameters 9.1 Injection Unit The average travel velocities of injection units (Fig. Graetz number Gz RePrBr Fig.6 [1] shows the common forces with which the nozzle is in contact with the sprue bushing.2. Table 9. This contact pressure prevents the melt from leaking into the open at the interface between nozzle and sprue bushing [I].6) [1] are given in Table 9. gelation rate and subsequent polymerization or cure [18].
At long times of screw rotation it approaches the steady state condition of extrusion melting [6].6: Contact Force Between Nozzle and Sprue Bushing [1] Clamping force kN lOO 1000 5000 10 000 20 000 Contact force kN 50/80 60/90 170/220 220/280 250/350 Fe ed hpe opr C l d r h a H ae b n s Barrel T em c u e yn e e d e t r a d i h r oo p l I Nozzle Sr w tip ce Nn return valve o R cpo ai g e i r c tn sr w ce Fig.6: Components of a reciprocating screw injection [1] 9.5: Travel Velocity of the Injection Unit [1] Clamping force kN <500 501/2000 2001/10 000 > 10 000 Maximum velocity mm/s 300/400 250/300 200/250 200 Minimum velocity mm/s 20/40 30/50 40/60 50/100 Table 9.Table 9.2. [7]. 9.2 Injection Molding Screw The plastication of solids in the reciprocating screw of an injection molding machine ia a batch process consisting of two phases. During the stationary phase of the screw melting takes place mainly by conduction heating from the barrel. . The melting during screw rotation time of the molding cycle is similar to that in an extrusion screw but timedependent.
25 30 40 60 80 100 120 >120 Screw geometries for other polymers are given by Johannaber [I].15 2.20 2.5:1 4.5:1 4.20 2. L (0 ) M 2% L( 0 ) c2 % L.3 0. Table 9.15 2. .4 0.15 2.1 10.7A [21].5 9.6 0.4 7.7).Design of injection molding screws can be performed by using the software of Rao [8].7 12 max 14 Flight depth Flight depth Radial flight clearance (metering) hM ratio mm mm 2: 1 2.6 0.0 s2 D L (0 ) p 6 % Fig.7: Dimensions of an injection molding screw [1] Nonreturn Valves A nonreturn valve is a component at the tip of the screw that prevents back flow of the plasticated material during the injection and holding pressure stages.1 0.4: 1 3.7: Significant Screw Dimensions for Processing Thermoplastics [1] Diameter Flight depth (feed) hF mm 4. A comparison between the main categories of the nonreturn valves used (Fig.25 max 3 : 1 max 5. Table 9.3 5. Essential dimensions are the lengths and depths of the feed zone and the metering zone (Fig. 9.7 shows these data for several screw diameters [I]. 9.7A) is given in Table 9.1 : 1 2.2:1 3.8 0.8 0. 9.
BALL ISR NET DS H R E ICAG BD OY iNLETS Front Discharge Ball Check DISCHARGE BALL BALL SEAT NOSE CONE INLETS BODY RETAINER P!N Side Discharge Ball Check Fig.7A: Nonreturn values [21]. 9. [22] .
which is forced against the sprue bushing of the mold prior to injection and produces a force locking connection there [I]. CADMOULD [10]. greater pressure drop.Table 9.7B [1]. less pressure drop across valve 5. Less streamlined. hence more heat 4. suitable for heat sensitive materials 3. lower shot control.2.3). easy to clean.3 Injection Mold The quantitative description of the important mold filling stage has been made possible by the wellknown computer programs like MOLDFLOW [9]. Ball check valve . Better shot control Disadvantages Disadvantages 1.65 cmVs. More positive shut off 2. Example: A part is to be made from polycarbonate using a runner of length 100 mm and diameter 3 mm and with the melt at a temperature 300 0C. more barrel wear and galling 3. 9.Advantages 1. 9.7A: Comparison Between Sliding Ring Valves and Ball Check Valves [21] Sliding ring valve . well suited for vented operation 6. Nozzle The plasticating barrel ends at the mold in a nozzle.2. [22]. The pressure drop in the runner is to be calculated. The volume flow rate of the plastic melt through the runner is 2. harder to clean. 9. . CMOLD [19] and others. Lower positive shutoff in large machines 1. of materials 2.3. The purpose of this section is to touch upon the basic principles of designing injection molding dies using rheological and thermal properties of polymers. Greater streamling for lower material degradation 2.1 Runner Systems The pressure drop along the gate or runner of an injection mold can be calculated from the same relationships used for dimensioning extrusion dies (Section 7. hence more degradation 2. poor for vented operation 5. Examples of commonly used types of nozzles are given in Fig.Advantages 1. less barrel wear 4.
The shear stress T=TfY = 4201000 = 0. = *± = ^ ^ = 1000 s"1 At 300 0C.42100 Ap = = = 56 MPa H R 1. 9.42 MPa The pressure drop across the runner can be calculated by using Eq.7B: Examples of nozzles [22] Solution: shearrate. (3.5 .2.IDeIt byposs heater bond screw tip needle spring Shutoff nozzle with internal needle (with selfclosing spring action) n ae bn e t r od s r e bu h g pu r s n i sr w tip ce sliding dmtr a ee i s rn pi g Floating or sliding shutoff nozzle (with selfclosing spring action) Fig.3) 2TL 20. a shear rate of 1000 s"1 corresponds to a viscosity r = 420 Pa • s according to the resin manufacturer's data.
35) given in Section 7. Circular crosssection Cross sections for runners Advantages: smallest surface relative to crosssection.5mm Trapezoidal crosssection Alternative to parabolic cross section Disadvantages: more heat losses and scrap than parabolic cross section W = 12 . simpler machining in one mold half only (usually movable side for reasons of ejection Disadvantages: more heat losses and scrap compared with circular cross section W = 125D D = smQX +1. The pressure drop in runners of noncircular crosssections can be calculated by using the Eq. Disadvantages: Machining into both mold halves is difficult and expensive Parabolic crosssection Advantages: best approximation of circular cross section. 50 Unfavorable cross sections have to be avoided Fig.3. (7. Empirical guidelines for dimensioning cross sections of runners are presented in Fig.9 [20]. 9.2. Otherwise the size of the runner should be increased. disadvantages and practical design relationships are summarized in Fig. slowest cooling ratet low heat and frictional losses. center of channel freezes last therefore effective holding pressure 0= s max •• 15 rn m * .8: Advantages and disadvantages of some runner crosssections [20] . Different crosssections for runners. 9. 9.It is accepted practice that the pressure drop across the runner should be less than 70 MPa [23].8 [20]. their advantages.
By means of the software mentioned in Section 9.9: Nomogram for dimensioning runner crosssections [20] 9. CAB Diagram 2 applicable for PE. correct diameter or runner: D = D'fL k Fig. SAN. .3. PC. 9. PA. 9.3 the entire melt entry system of the mold as well as the mold can be designed with good success.2. take fL from diagram 3 5.11 [20]. 9. ABS. take D' from diagram for material considered 3. determine L 4. determine G and s 2. PP.2.10 [20] and those of sprues in Fig.Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Gig) G(g) D'(mm) D'(mm) Diagram 1 applicable for PS.2 Design of Gates Suggested dimensions of some commonly used gates are shown in Fig. POM Diagram 3 rnrn^ Symbols s: D': G: L: fL: wall thickness of part (mm) diameter of runner (mm) weight of part (g) length of runner to one cavity (mm) correction factor L Procedure (Diagram 3) 1.
0) mm H =(0.2 to 0. c: edge gate with circular distributor channel. 6] D = s+1. d: disk gate.7) s Fig.10: Guidelines for dimensioning gates [20] a: pinpoint. 175 Edge gate with circular distributor channel [1.5 mm H = § s to 1 to 2 mm r =0. 9. e: ring gate with circular crosssection . 185 Ring gate with circular cross section [5.5] D = s to § s + k k = 2 mm for short flow lengths and thick sections k = 4 for long flow lengths and thin sections L =(0.5 to 2.5mm to f s + k L =0.2 s k = 2 for short flow lengths and thick sections k = 4 for long flow lengths and thin sections Fig.5 to 1.Fig. b: tunnel.
Fig. 9.11: Guidelines for dimensioning a sprue [20]
9.2.3.3 Injection Pressure and Clamp Force To determine the size of an injection molding machine suited to produce a given part, knowledge of the clamp force required by the mold is important in order to prevent the mold from flashing. As already mentioned, the mold filling process was treated extensively in the programs [9], and [10] and later on by Bangert [H]. Analytical expressions for the injection pressure and clamp force have been given by Stevenson [12] on the basis of a model for mold filling. The main parameters characterizing this model are fill time x and Brinkman number Br, which can be used as machine related parameters for describing injection molding in general. According to the solution procedure of Stevenson [12] injection pressure and clamp force are calculated assuming isothermal flow of melt in the cavity and then modified to obtain actual values. The empirical relationships used for this modification are functions of fill time and Brinkman number. Following example shows the calculation of fill time and Brinkman number for a discshaped cavity [4], [12]: The material is ABS with nR = 0.2655, which is the reciprocal of the power law exponent n. The viscosity constant k, [4] is k,. = 3.05 • 104 Constant injection rate Q = 160cm3/s Part Volume V = 160 cm3 Halfthickness of the disc b = 2.1mm Radius of the disc r2 = 120 mm Number of gates N = I Inlet melt temperature Tm = 245 0C Mold temperature Tw = 5O0C Thermal conductivity of the melt X = 0.174 W/(m • K) Thermal diffusivity of the polymer a = 7.72 • 10"4 cm2/s Melt flow angle [12] 0 = 360° Calculate fill time and Brinkman number.
Solution: The dimensionless fill time x which characterizes the cooling of the flowing melt in the cavity is defined as [12]
Inserting the numerical values we have
f,160.7.7210^ 2
160(0.105)
The Brinkman number which characterizes viscous heating is given by B , = ^ ^
104X(TMTW)
f
»*•>,
T'
(«.,
LNQ^b2T2J
Introducing the given values we get 01 305 104
55 2 I'" = 0.771 2 10 0.174195 U3602;r(0.105) 12j Table 9.7B shows the results of simulating the mold filling of a large rectangular open container (Fig, 9.1 IA) [24] according to the model of Stevenson [12].
Br = f4

{
160 360
'
Fig. 9.1 IA: Mold filling of rectangular open container according to the model of Stevenson [12]
Relative to the standard conditions the results in Table 9.7B show that Ap is decreased by 10 percent when T1 is increased 20 0C, by 4 percent when Tw is increased 20 0C, by 24 percent when the material is changed, by 37 percent when the number of gates is increased to four, and by 63 percent when all of the above changes are made. The optimal conditions which correspond to the lowest Ap and F occur when these changes are combined with the change of the resin.
Table 9.7B: Simulations of Injection Pressure and Clamp Force at Different Processing Conditions [24]
Resin A A A B A B
N
1 1 1 1 4 4
T1 K 501 520 500 500 500 500
0
Tw 0 K 301 301 321 301 301 301
Br 1.381 0.962 1.536 0.849 0.625 0.299
Ap MPa 302 273 290 229 192 113
F kN 191000 175000 181000 147000 67800 40400
Symbols in Table 9.7B: T1: inlet melt temperature Tw: mold wall temperature Ap: injection pressure drop F: clamp force N: Number of gates Operating Conditions: injection rate = 2000 crnVs fill time = 3.81 s halfthickness of the part = 0.127 cm dimensionless fill time T = 0.1824 A rough estimate of the clamp force can be made as follows: The pressure drop in a plate mold AP1N for the melt flow of an isothermal, Newtonian fluid can be calculated from Eqns. (7.3.2) and (7.3.4) given in Section 7.3 by putting n = 1. AP1N is then
Substituting the injection rate for the volume flow rate Q 0 we get Q=^ where V = W H L and t = injection time = L/u with u = injection velocity Introducing the equations above into Eq. (9.2.3) we obtain (9.2.4)
APiN=1
ir'r u ' ; 7
(925)
Example with symbols and units in Eq. (9.2.5)
part thickness flow length injection velocity melt viscosity Solution:
H = I mm L = 100 mm u = 100 mm/s r = 250 P • s
1O 100 1 100250 OAAU A P l N = 12 — ™ — ^  = 300bar
In Fig. 9.1 IC AP1N is plotted over the part thickness H for different ratios of flow length L to part thickness H [25]. The injection velocity is assumed to be 10 cm/s and the melt viscosity 250 Pa • s. The pressure Apm is then corrected by the following correction factors [26]:
Correction Factor CFshape
Depending on the complicacy of the part geometry the factor CFshape can have values between 1.1 to 1.3.
Correction Factor CFresin
The correction factors for the flow behavior of the resin CFresin are given in Table 9.7C for some resins. Table 9.7C: Correction Factor CFresin [26] "Resin PE, PP, PS PMMA, PPO PA, SB PC 5 PVC ABS, SAN, CA CFresin 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.7 11.3
Finally the actual cavity pressure Ap Ap = A PlN . CFshape • CFresin and the clamp force F [kN] A p(bar) • projected area of the part (c m 2 ) 100
9.1 IB: Cavity pressure as a function of part thickness and ratio of flow length to part thickness [25] .[bar] uncorrected cavity pressure ratio of flow length to part thickness part thickness [mm] (a) [bar] ratio of flow length to part thickness uncorrected cavity pressure part thickness [mm] (b) Fig.
Here a and a0 are the ratios between working (injection) capacity and clamping force and Fcx and Fco the clamping forces. Example: Clamping force: 3500 kN Value of the ordinate corresponding to the dashed line 3 in Fig. 9.2 Resin: ABS CFresin from Table CFresin= 1.8 « 980 g The range for the maximum shot weight is approximately [1] 1230 ± 500 g. .3 Solution: Ratio of flow length to part thickness L/H L/H=100 AP1N from Fig. The following example shows as to how the maximum shot weight can be calculated if the clamping force is known. Twodimensional and threedimensional diagrams as shown in Fig.9 « 1230 g Effective maximum shot weight with a factor of 0.Example: Diskshaped mold (see Fig.9: 3500 x 0.1 IA) Thickness H = I mm Radius R =100 mm Correction factor CFshape =1.39 Maximum shot weight for polystyrene assuming a density of 0.8: 1230 x 0.21.39 x 0. 9. 9. 9. 4.1 IB for L/H = 100 and H = 1 AP1N = 300 bar Actual cavity pressure Ap Ap = 3001.12b: 0.3 =468 bar Clamp force F (kN) F = ^ M * 147OkN 100 In Fig.12 the relationship between shot size and clamping force is presented for some commercially available injection molding machines [I].13 [18] are helpful in the practice for finding out the useful working range of an injection molding machine [18].
cm5 kN Model law a=a _ Max.12: Calculation of maximum shot weight by means of model laws [1] . 9.Max shot size / clamping force . shot size JCUL3 clamping force kN ( F f3 c o 7" ^ Clamping force F c kN Fig. shot size ° 3 i d ^ kN clamping force ^N Clamping force F c cm3 kN Max shot size / clamping force Model law a= a a = Max.
13: Mold Area Diagram (MAD) and Mold Volume Diagram (MVD) [18] a: MAD. 9. b: MVD Ram pressure psi .Ram pressure F lash area Molding ' area Short shot area Mold temperature Fig.
7 0C thermal diffusivity of the melt a = 1.66 Cooling time tk: s 12.14 in which the ratio 0Th is plotted over the Fourier number for bodies of different geometry [14].35 mm 2 2 .3 0C = mold temperature Tw 21. it has given good results in the practice for semicrystalline and crystalline polymers as well. 9.2910"3 cm2/s The temperature Tb in Eq. Example with symbols and units: Cooling of a part in an injection mold for the following conditions [5]: resin: PELD thickness of the plate s = 12.6) refers to the centerline temperature of the part.= = 6. Solution: The temperature ratio 0Th : Q1b = ^ Z J ^ = 7 6 .2.321. (9.25 F0 = 0.l n f ± — 1 = 206. 9.4 Thermal Design of Mold Cooling of Melt in Mold The analytical solution for the transient onedimensional heat conduction for a plate can be written as [13] * . Fourier number F0 from Fig. (9.10C = demolding temperature Tb 76.9.7 mm temperature of the melt Ta = 243.3.1 cooling time tk according to Eq.5 s The cooling time tk can also be found from Fig.2 U =0.6) tk = L2?2 2 3 .2. _ x=.14 at 0Th = 0. .7 .M ^ fe£] Although this equation is valid only for amorphous polymers.25 Tb T 3 Tw 243. so that its general use for all thermoplastic materials is justified.2.7 .
14: Axis temperature for multidimensional bodies [14] cooling time (s) wall thickness (mm) Fig. 9. 9.15: Cooling time vs.Temperature ratio <9jb • Fourier n m e F^at/X1 u br Fig. wall thickness .
The cooling time as a function of wall thickness of the molding is shown in Fig. 9.15. Calculations of cooling time based on the average demolding temperature are given in the book by Rao [4]. Convective heat transfer is to be taken into account if the mold is cooled by a coolant such as circulating water by calculating the Biot number as shown in Chapter 7. In practice the temperature of the mold wall is not constant, as it is influenced by the heat transfer between the melt and the cooling water. Therefore the geometry of the cooling channel layout, thermal conductivity of the material and velocity of cooling water affect the cooling time significantly (Fig. 9.16).
demolding temperature
cooling time Fig. 9.16: Cooling time as a function of demolding temperature and wall thickness
The influence of the cooling channel layout on cooling time can be simulated by means of equations given in the book [4] by changing the distances x and y (Fig. 9.16) as shown in Figs. 9.17 and 9.18. The effects of the temperature of cooling water and of water velocity are presented in Figs. 9.19 and 9.20 respectively. From these results it follows that the cooling time is significantly determined by the cooling channel layout.
s
W20°C W=W 0 C
Cooling time
m m Distance between mold surface and cooling channel Y Fig. 9.17: Effect of cooling channel distance Y on cooling time [4]
s
W20°C W='o°c
Cooling time
m m Distance from channel to channel / Fig. 9.18: Effect of cooling channel distance X on cooling time [4]
s
Cooling time
5= 1.5mm /=25 m m K= 15 m m
0
C
Cooling water temperature Fig. 9.19: Influence of the temperature of cooling water on cooling time [4]
s Cooling time S= 15 m .m /=25 m m Y 1 m 5m W20°C
m/s Velocity of coojing water
Fig. 9.20: Influence of the velocity of cooling water on cooling time[4]
9.2.3.5 Mechanical Design of Mold The cooling channels should be as close to the surface of the mold as possible so that heat can flow out of the melt in the shortest time possible. However, the strength of the mold material sets a limit to the distance between the cooling channel and the mold surface. The allowable distance z (Fig. 9.21) taking the strength of the mold material into account was calculated by Lindner [15] according to the following equations: ^ ^ (9.2.7) (9.2.8)
r=™**
Z z U2EZ 2 GJ where p = melt pressure N/mm2 d,z = distances mm, see Fig. 9.21 E = tensile modulus N/mm2 G = shear modulus N/mm2 cb = tensile stress N/mm2 T = shear stress N/mm2 f = deflection of the mold material above the cooling channel jam The minimization of the distance z such that the conditions
^ b ^ ^bmax * <  w
f= iooo^r__d^ + ai5l
J
(fmax: maximum deflection; abmax: allowable tensile stress; xmax: allowable shear stress) are satisfied, can be accomplished by a computer program [16]. The results of a sample calculation are shown in Table 9.8.
mfl e s oc ua rd b=0.7 d
Minimum cooling channel distance z (mm)
channel form
Channel dimension d (mm) Fig. 9.21: Cooling channel distance z for different cavity pressures and channel dimensions with steel as mold material
Table 9.8: Results of Optimization of Cooling Channel Distance Input melt pressure p = 4.9 N/mm2 maximum deflection ^12x = 2.5 j,m modulus of elasticity E = 70588N/mm2 modulus of shear G = 27147 N/mm2 allowable tensile stress abmax = 421.56 N/mm2 allowable shear stress Xn^ = 294.1 N/mm2 channel dimension d = 10 mm Output channel distance z = 2.492 mm deflection f= 2.487 pm tensile stress a = 39.44 N/mm2 shear stress % = 14.75 N/mm2
1976 Brochure of MannesmannDemag 1992 . 3.R. H. 21..: Plastics Processing Data Handbook. p.L.F.: Design Formulars for Plastics Engineers. Hanser. July 30.A. CE. Hanser.: How to make Injection Molds. G. O'Brien.: Computer Modeling for Extrusion and other Continuous Polymer Processes. Hanser. Mohren. 6. KS. K. 22. 13.H.): Plastics Extrusion Technology. D. 18. Munich 1986 Donovan. Menges.. K: Systematische Konstruktion von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen unter Rechnereinsatz. The distance from wall to wall of the channel in this case should be roughly around channel length 1 or channel diameter depending on the strength of mold material. VDIVerlag.. Ed. Hanser. Dissertation RWTH Aachen 1981 Stevenson. U. John Wiley.The equations given above are approximately valid for circular channels as well. London 1993 Stevenson. Keith T. Hanser. JM.: Handbook of Thermoplastics Injection Mold Design. 19.: Kunststoffe 84 (1994) 8. R. D. R.S. (Ed. 7. J. Munich 1995 Cracknell. Hanser. Johannaber.. 17.21 shows for steel as mold material the minimum cooling channel distance z for different cavity pressures. Hanser. O.S. 573 Martin. R.: Polymer Engineering and Science 18 (1978). P. J. 9. Literature 1.V. Munich 1988 Rao.: Computer Aided Design of Plasticating Screws.An Introduction. 10. 8. 25.A. 20. 14. 15.. Wicks. Rosato. New York 1983 Lindner. J.: Fundamentals of Momentum. John Wiley. Dusseldorf 1984 Welty.V.F. C. 4. New York 1990 CMoId: Advanced CAE Technology Inc.: Plastics Process Engineering... Blackie Academic & Professional. 12.E. Fig.: in VDIWarmeatlas.. 1995 Potsch. G. 361 Rao. W. 24.: Handbook Methods for Predicting Pressure Drop and Clamp Force in Injection Molding: Technical Report No. J. Munich 1983 CADMOULD: DCV Aachen Bangert. KS. E. C: CAE for Injection Molding. Munich 1992 Austin.: Polymer Processing.: Berechenbarkeit von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen. Munich 1993 Brochure ofSpirex Corporation U. Dyson. 109 Rao. 7. 9. Hanser. New York 1979 Rao.W. O'Brien. R. 9. Hauptfleisch. 16.: Injection Molding ... New York 1962 Hensen. 2.. and Harry. Munich 1991 Thome. F. VDIVerlag.T. Heat and Mass Transfer. Michaeli. 11. KS. Dusseldorf 1974. 5. Munich 1983 McKelvey. Hanser.: Designing Machines and Dies for Polymer Processing with Computer Programs.: Polymer Engineering and Science 11 (1971) p. Marcel Dekker Inc. 1022 Rosato. KS. Van NostrandReinhold. Wilson. 23. D. P. Munich 1981 Zoellner. F. Sagenschneider. p.: Injection Molding Machines.
205 .Index Index terms A Absorption 80 Links B Barrel diameter temperature Bagley plot Barr screw Biot number Blown film Blow molding Brinkman number Bulk modulus 98 98 98 42 92 152 135 155 152 10 108 108 C Chemical resistance Clamp force Color Comparative tracking index Compounding Composites Contact temperature 81 188 75 68 146 83 32 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
206 Index terms Cooling channels Cooling of melt in mold Cooling time Correction factors drag flow pressure flow Creep modulus Creep rupture 196 196 196 196 106 106 106 11 12 Links 200 198 127 D Deborah number Desorption Design of mold mechanical thermal Dielectric strength dissipation factor Diffusion coefficient Dimensionless numbers Die swell Drying temperature time 152 80 183 200 196 65 66 80 152 62 174 175 196 200 E Enthalpy Elastomers Entrance loss Environmental stress cracking 29 87 42 77 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. .
207 Index terms External influences Extrudate cooling Extruder output Extrusion dies annulus pressure drop residence time distribution shear rate slit substitute radius Extrusion screws channel depth clearance channel length flight diameter Extrusion screws lead power speed 115 109 102 77 149 98 124 127 127 131 41 126 128 92 122 101 106 101 Links 47 127 128 103 122 F Fatigue Flammability Fluid Newtonian nonNewtonian Fluctuation pressure temperature Friction 14 35 39 39 39 112 113 112 19 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. 111 .
.208 Index terms G Gates Gloss 170 75 Links 186 H Hardness Haze Heat defection temperature Heat penetration 16 73 34 32 I Ideal solid Impact strength Injection molding mold pressure processing temperature resin runner systems screw unit 1 17 169 183 170 173 170 183 181 179 L Light transmission Liquid crystal polymers Loss tangent 73 85 66 M Melt flow index 59 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
.209 Index terms Melting parameter Melting profile Melt pressure temperature Mold shrinkage 107 108 111 111 172 Links N Normal stress coefficient Nozzle 61 183 184 P Parameter machine related resin dependent Permeability Permittivity relative Pipe extrusion 92 98 92 79 66 66 126 80 R Reinforced plastics Refractive index Relaxation modulus Rheological model Carreau Muenstedt power law Pradtl and Eyring Runner 83 73 13 47 53 50 48 48 183 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
210 Index terms S Shear compliance Shear modulus effect of temperature Shear rate apparent true Shear stress true Sheet extrusion Shrinkage Solubility Specific volume Specific heat Spider die Spiral die Stress strain behavior Structural foam Surface resistivity Tensile modulus effect of temperature 61 6 6 41 41 47 42 42 137 172 77 23 23 131 136 2 84 65 5 6 Links T Tensile strength effect of temperature Thermal conductivity Thermo forming Thermal diffusivity 6 6 29 142 31 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. .
211 Index terms Thermal expansion coefficient Twin screws 27 92 Links V Volume resistivity Viscosity apparent effect of molecular weight shear true twocomponent mixtures 65 41 44 57 44 47 59 W Weathering resistance 80 This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation. .
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