S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

ROMA

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathagatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA

R O M E
I. II. III. IV. V. VI* VII. VIII. IX. 1.

O R I E N T A L

S E R I E S

Already published:
— Tucci G., The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings. — PETECH L., Northern India according to the Shui-ching-chu. — FRAUWALLNER E., On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasubandhu. — ROCK J . F., The Na-khi Nāga cult and related ceremonies. Part I and II. — Conferenze, Vol. I. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by — CONZE E., Abhisamayālañkāra. Introduction and Translation from the original text, with Sanskrit-Tibetan Indexes. — Conferenze, Vol. II. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by
H. CORBIN, N. EGAMI, M. ELIADE, J. FĪLLIOZAT, P. HUMBERTCLAUDE, J. MASUI, E. H. DE TSCHARNER. G. CCEDES, J. J. L. DUYVENDAK, C. HENTZE, P. H. POTT.

IX. 2. X.

XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

— FRAUWALLNER E., The earliest Vinaya and the beginnings of Buddhist literature. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I. Containing A s a ñ g a ' s commentary on the Vajracchedikā edited and translated; Analysis of the commentary on it by V a s u b a n d h u ; Mahāyānavimśikā of N ā g ā r j u n a ; Navaśloki of K a m b a l a p ā d a ; Catuhstavasamāsārtha of A m r t ā k a r a ; Hetutattvopadeśa of J i t ā r i ; Tarkasopāna of V i d y ā k a r a ś ā n t i . With an appendix containing the Gilgit Text of the Vajracchedikā, edited by N. P. CHAKRAVARTI. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I I . First Bhāvanākrāma of Kamalaśūa. — Materials for the study of Nepalese History and Culture: 1. Tucci G., Preliminary Report on two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal. 2. GNOLI R., Nepalese Inscriptions in Gupta characters. Part I, Text and Plates. 3. PETECH L., Mediaeval History of Nepal (c. 750-1480). — GNOLI R., The aesthetic experience according to Abhinavagupta (out of print). — ROCK J . F., The Amnye Ma-chhen range and adjacent regions. A monographic study. — CONZE E., Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā. — Le Symbolisme cosmique des Monuments religieux. Actes du Congres qui a du lieu â Rome sous les auspices de l'ls.M.E.O., avec la collaboration du Musee Guimet, Avril-Mai 1955. Conferences par R. BLOCH, J. DANIELOU, M. ELIADE, M. GRIAULE, C. HENTZE, C. LEVI-STRAUSS, H. C. PUECH,

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX.

— — — — —

XX.

G. Tucci. WYLIE T. V., A place name index to George N. RoericK's translation of the Blue Annals. FERRARI A., mK'yen brtse's Guide to the holy places of Central Tibet. Completed and edited by L. PETECH, with the collaboration of H. RICHARDSON. Orientalia Romana. 1, Essays and Lectures, by E. BENZ, H. CORBIN, A. GODARD, L . HAMBIS, V . MlNORSKY, S . P . TOLSTOV. ROERICH G., Le parler des Amdo. Etude d'un dialecte archaīque du Tibet. VAN GULIK R. H., Chinese Pictorial Art as viewed by the Connoisseur. Notes on the means and methods of traditional Chinese onnoisseurship based upon a study of the Art of mounting scrolls in China and Japan (about 600 pp. Size 30 X 22 cm.). Limited to 950 copies. MAHLER J . G., The Westerners among the Figurines of the 'Pang Dynasty of China, /•

XXI.

— Un Editto bilingue greco-aramaico di Aśoka. La prima iscxizione gteca scoperta in Afghanistan. Testo, traduzione e note a cura di G. PUGLIESE-

XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII.

troduzione di U. SCERRATO (out of print). — L E E P. H., Studies in the Saenaennorae: old Korean poetry. — GNOLI R., The Pramānavārttikam of Dharmakīrti. The first chapter with the autocommentary. Text and critical notes. — Tucci G., Deb fer dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text) [in the press]. — WYLIE T. V., The Geography of Tibet according to the 'Dzam-glingrgyas-bshad. — CONZE E., The Gilgit manuscript of the AstādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitS. Chapters 55 to 70 corresponding to the 5th Abhisamaya. Text and English translation. — GNOLI R., Udbhata's Commentary on the Kāvyāīamkāra of Bhāmaha. Sanskrit fragments from Pakistan. Edited with critical notes. — ROCK J . F., A Na-khi-English Encyclopedic Dictionary, Part I . — A bilingual Graeco—Aramaic Edict of Aśoka, Text, Translation and Notes by G. PUGLIESE-CARRATELLI and G. GABBINI, Foreword by G. Tucci, Introduction by U. SCERRATO. — GNOLI G.f Le iscrizioni Giudeo--Persiane del Gūr (Afghanistan). Text, Italian Translation and Notes. — AUBOYER J . , Introduction â Vetude de fart de VInde. — SCARCIA G., Sifat-nāma-yi Darvīs Muhammad Hān-i Gāzî. A Muslim Crusade against the Kafirs of Lagmān in A. D. 1532. — TAKASAKI J., A study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the TatLāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

CAHRATELLI e di G. LEVI DELLA VIDA, con prefazione di G. Tucci e in-

Special series:
Orients P oli a no • Studies and lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. on the occasion of the 7th Centenary of the birth of Marco Polo (1254-1954), by E. BALAZS,
P. DEMIEVILLE, K. ENOKI, L. CABRINGTON GOODRICH, E. HAENISCH, L. HAMBIS, A. MOSTAERT, L. OLSCHKI, A. NILAKANTA SHASTRI, E. H. SCHAFEK, B. SPULER, R. WITTKOWEB.

Forthcoming Works:
TūCCl G., Deb ter dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text). ROCK J . F., Na-khi Culture as expressed in their literature: an encyclopedic Dictionary. Part II. RUEGG D. S., The life of Bu Ston Rin Po Che. Orientalia Romana. 2, Essays and Lectures, by V. S. Agrawala, P. Beonio-Brocchieri, P. Corradini, L. Lanciotti.

Works in course of preparation:
PENSA C , - Vimuklisena's Abhisamayālankāravyākhyā. Sanskrit Text. Tucci G. - GARGANO A., The Abhidharmasamuccayakārikā by Sañghatrāta, text and commentary of a hitherto unknown work, the Sanskrit manuscript of which has been found in Tibet. Tucci G. - PETECH L., Grub-mHa-sel^gyl-me-loñ (Crystal mirror of the philosophical and religious systems), translated from the Tibetan. TtJCCl G. - PETECH L., The Fifth Dalai-Lama's Chronicle of Tibet, translated from the Tibetan.

IL

ISTITUTO ITALIANO MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

SERIE ORIENTALE ROMA
SOTTO LA DIREZĪONE
DI

GIUSEPPE

TUCCI

VOLUME XXXIII

LA REDAZIONE DELLA SERIE E CURATA DAL PROF. ANTONIO GARGANO

ROMA Is. M. E. O.

S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

R O M A

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA
ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER IL MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
PACE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PREFACE INTRODUCTION SYNOPSIS OF THE TEXT TRANSLATION AND NOTES

ix xi 1 63 135

APPENDIXES

I. - Supposed form of the Original Sloka-grantha II. - Corrections & Emendations to the Sanskrit Text III. - Description of the Ultimate Reality by Means of the Six Categories .

393 396 400

INDEXES

1. Index of Sanskrit Terms 2. Index of Works, Authors & Schools

411 437

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(for Synopsis and Notes on the Translation)

= Sanskrit text of the Ratnagotravibhāga ed. by E. H. Johnston Sanskrit term X ' = Tibetan translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition, Tohoku, No. 4025) Tibetan term Ç = Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Daizokyo Edition No. 1611) Chinese term O = Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, by E. Obermiller (Ada Orientalia, XI, ii, iii, & iv) J = E. H. Johnston's Preface & Notes on the Ratnagotravibhāga K. = Kārikā v. = verse Taisho = Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripitaka Tohoku = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, ed. by Tohoku University, Japan (1934). BHS = Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit BHSDic.= Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. by F. Edgerton (1953) M. W. = M. Monier-William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary PTS = Pali Text Society's Edition of the Pali Tipi^aka = Abhisamayâlânkāra of Maitreya, ed. by G. Tucci (Gaekward's Oriental Series No. 62) AAĀ = Abhisamayâlañkārâloka of Haribhadra, ed. by G. Tucci (ibid.) AAN = Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta (Taisho, XVI, No. 668) AĀS = * Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Taisho, XVI, No. 669) = AbhidhS = Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra AcintA = Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa (Taisho, X, No. 302) AksP = Aksayamatipariprcchā (Taisho, XIII, No. 397 (12)) AN = Añguttara Nikāya (Pali, PTS Edition) ASP = Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of the Abhisamayâlañkārâloka) AvatS = Avatamsakaśūtra (Taisho, IX, No. 278) BBh = Bodhisattvabhūmi, ed. by U. Wogihara BGŚ = * Buddhagotraśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1610) DAS = * Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1627) DBS = Daśabhūmikasūtra, ed. by J . Rahder AA

S

Fragment. PTS Edition) = Sandhinirmocanasūtra (Tib. XIII. ed. 666) = Yogācārabhūmi (Skt. XIII. Part I. . by S. No. ed. No. by Poussin) = Majjhima Nikāya (Pali. by E. tr. 1579) = Vajracchedikāsūtra. Levi. XVI. No. Nanjio = Madhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna (ed. XXX. Sde-dge Edition Tohoku No. No. by Sylvain Levi) (P) = Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. PTS Edition) = Mahāparinirvānasūtra (Mahāyāna) (Taisho. 397 (5)) = Āryaśrîmālāsûtra (Taisho. 235) f = Vimalaklrtinirdeśa (Taisho. 397 (11)) = Ratnadhārikāsūtra (Taisho. No. Bhattacharya. by B. XI. XIII. No. ed. XXXI. 397 (8)) = Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra (Taisho. by E. Taisho. by V. by Stael-Holstein. No. XII. ed. 310 (23)) = Lañkāvatārasūtra. 1595) t = Mahāvyutpatti (Wogihara's Edition) = Prajñâpāramitā = Ratnacūdasūtra (Taisho. Lamotte) = Saddharmapundarîkasūtra. ed. 397 (1-2)) = Gaganagañjāsūtra (Taisho. Nanjio = Tathāgatagarbhasūtra (Taisho. Nozawa. Kern & B. TAKASAKI = Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (Skt. No. No. by J .J. XIV. ed. XII. XIII. by M. No. by Paramārtha (Taisho. 224) = Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (Taisho. C. (Taisho. Levi = Source unknown (*) Sanskrit titles with the sign * are restored from the Chinese materials. 357) = Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra) ed. 374) = Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (ed. VIII. 397 (3)) = Ratnagotravibhāga = * Sadāyātanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśisūtra) = Sāgaramatipariprcchā (Taisho. ed. No. ed. 353) = Samyutta Nikāya (Pali. Yamaguchi's commemoration Volume) * = Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta (Tibetan KG. XII. No. Mūller (Taisho. XIII. by S. No. Prof. No. Tib. 475) = Vijñaptimâtratā-trimśikā.

R. from August 1954 to January 1957. kindly suggested that I publish my work in the Serie Orientale Roma. Gokhale who instructed me in reading the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the text throughout the two and half years of my stay in India and to Prof. H. It is indeed with deep regret that I must note the passing away of Dr. Gokhale of the Fergusson College (presently of the University of Delhi) during my stay at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. since I felt my work inadequate and the presentation of it in English imperfect. Tucci. Poona.A.. Therefore. H. who was one of the examiners of my dissertation. Dr. author. Nakamura of the University of Tokyo (my faculty adviser in the Post-Graduate Course). 1963. Dr. etc. Prof. It consists of two parts. kindly made suggestions.. Chinese translator. but I could not immediately respond to this kind proposal. I felt it a great honour.PREFACE The present volume was originally prepared under the guidance of Prof. and was submitted to the University of Poona as a doctoral dissertation. Prof. but others. published the « Hoshoron Kenkyū» (A study of the Ratnagotravibhāga) in 1959. Alex Wayman of Berkeley. Some are involved with the present work. In the meanwhile I wrote several articles related to the text. doctrinal and canonical references.S. Karmarkar of the Bhandarkar Institute from whom I received much guidance on Indian philosophy and the Sanskrit language in general. Dr. V. When I was awarded the degree in September 1958. G. are not touched upon in this volume. The first part consists of a critical and detailed studies on the text. and other Japanese scholars too numerous to mention in the matter of doctrinal interpretation. V. Y. Fortunately. an eminent Japanese Indologist. U. Ui. Ten years have passed since I started work on this volume. while the second consists of a Japanese translation of the Sanskrit text. I owe much to his interpretation in modifying my translation. Ui on July 14.D. especially those written after sending the manuscript to Rome for printing. I wish to express my gratitude to Prof. although points on which I disagreed with him are kept intact. I also must acknowledge the helpful suggestions given to me by Dr. under the auspices of the Indian Government. Ui. V. Wayman. I would like to give a list of my articles so far published in order .

Chap. § 7) 6. 1. n. § 7).) (The Texual cture of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the Supposed Form of Its Ori1 Text). Kyoto. 1962. Chap. >». Translation. Komazawadaigaku-Kenkiyo (Fac. « A Comment on the Term Ārambana in the Ratnagotravibhāga. (a detailed investigation of the same subject as No. 168-171).IV. 25. Translation. 24-33. compiled by Nakamura and K. 2. pp. Kawada. 186-190. (cf. Mar. 5. astitva.) (On the Meaning be Term amuktajña). Chap. abhisampratyaya. Vol. JIBS. 86-109. 1960. pp. 89-110. gunavattva. Vol.). Introduction. 163. 3. pp. Mar. pp. p. Introion. viz. of. VI-1. IX-2. « Nyoraizo-setsu ni okeru Shin no Kozo » (in Jap. Buddhism). VII-1. Mar. JIBS. IS. 8. Translation. I l l . Mar. Jan. p. 20] in relation to śraddhā. I hope that they will consult these articles. 1960. prasāda.4). « Description of the Ultimate Reality by means of the Six Catees in Mahāyāna Buddhism ». 4. No. 23. Chap. Vol. 30-37. and abhilāsa are traced back to Abhi- . X-2. Dec. 3 mentioned ye). etc. Mar. 275-332. pp. Vol. and śaktatva [cf. pp. « Tenne» (in Jap. «Structure of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Wu-shang-i-ching)». 22. « Kugyoichijohoshoron no Kozo to Genkei» (in Jap. IV. JIBS.) (Aśrayaparivrtti and āśrayaparāvrtti).) (The Hua-yen osophy and the Tathāgatagarbha Theory — Development of the L of gotrasarnbhava in India — ) . 14cf. P. Vol. No. § 3. 48-53. VIII-2. 9. pp. II and Appendix I). «Kegon Shiso». 1964. chanda. 1960. «Kegon-kyogaku to Nyoraizo-shiso» (in Jap. Mar. Appendix III). « AMUKTAJNA no Gogi ni tsuite» (in Jap. Introduction. If the reader has further interest on the subject. (cf. (cf. 1961. «The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and Ratnagotravibhāga — with special Reference to the Term ' tathāgataisambhava' — ». 7. 26-33. adhimukti. pp. 1958. V. JIBS.) (The Struce of Faith in the Tathāgatagarbha Theory). Vol. (This is an article in which the structure and significance of a set of three terms on faith. n. (cf. The Journal of Religious Studies. Nihon kyogakkai Nempo.J. 155. Introduction. 382. TAKASAKI to cover the shortcomings of the present volume. 144. pp. 1958. 1958.

and that Vasubandhu. § 2. cf. In conclusion I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the professors mentioned above for their valuable assistance and encouragement without which I could never have brought the book to completion. Tokyo. Introduction. J. R. as well as those of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory such as the Ratnagotravighāga. Yūki for his Sixtieth Birthday. might have contributed little to the development of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. who set my rather complicated manuscript into print and gave it a nice arrangement. « Shintai-yaku Shodaijoron-Seshin-shaku ni okeru Nyoraizo Setsu» Jap. V. 25 th August 1964. the Buddhagotraśāstra and Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyāna samgraha-bhāsya. including works of the Vijñānavāda such as the Mahāyānasamgraha—bhāsya. and the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarâśrayasūtra as well..O.The Ratnagotravibhāga dharma Buddhism. the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhyā. M. 241-264. especially Prof.3). However.. the Vij ñaptimātratā-trimśikā--bhāsya. etc. TAKASAKI. Antonio Gargano. In conclusion. (JIBS = Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies).E. 1964. the author suggested that the additional parts of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya unique to Paramārtha's translation are probably written by Paramārtha himself on the knowledge of the Ratnagotrabvibhāga as he might have done the same with the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarāśrâyasūtra. (In this article. I also wish to acknowledge with many thanks the troubles taken in the past three years by the people at Is. the responsibility of the final result rests solely with the author.) (The Tathāgatagarbha Theory Appearing in Paramārtha's Translation of the Mahay ānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu). pp. the close relationship between the Ratnagotravibhāga and Paramārtha's said translation is made clear after picking up the parallel passages in both texts. " Bukkyo Shiso Ronshū " — Commemoration Volume for Prof. Chap. . Tokyo.) 10. consequently deprived of his authorship on the said parts as well as on the Buddhagotraśāstra.

INTRODUCTION .

Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa 3. . Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna 54 54 57 61 . the Germ of the Three Jewels 2. in Mahāyāna Buddhism 1. its Text. Basic Text and Commentary 2. The Buddhagotraśāstra 47 3. The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra 53 The Position of the Ratna. V . 10 10 12 18 19 20 20 23 26 32 32 34 35 36 37 39 40 Works on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory Contemporary with or Succeeding the Ratna 45 1. The Ratna. and Traditions concerning the Author 1. as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā 2. Translation. Chinese Account of the Basic Verses 3. and the Vijñānavāda 3. The Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra 5 5 6 . Supposed Form of the Original Text 4. Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga 2. The Ratna. Text 2. Translations & Traditions concerning the Author The Structure of the Text 1. The Absolute Genealogy of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory 1. The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 45 2. Ratnagotra. 4 Aspects of the Germ 3. The Anuttarâśrayasūtra 49 4.INTRODUCTION CONTENTS PACK The Ratnagotravibhāga. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 5. . Buddhajñāna in the Avatamsaka 4. The Âryaśrīmālāsūtra 6. The Commentary and Later Additions Keypoint of the Discourse 1. The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 7.

Before then. being a Manual of Buddhist Monism. Johnston. x . Johnston. iii & iv. and seen through the press and furnished with indexes by T. 3 ) Dr.I. Obermiller who translated the Tibetan version into English and made this text famous under the title of " Uttaratantra" according to the Tibetan tradition 2 ) . and this title was justified by the discovery of a Sanskrit fragment in Saka script in which we find the title "Ratnagotravibhāga". TRANSLATION. suggested the use of " Ratnagotravibhāga " as the proper title showing the main subject of this text 4) . H. D. 1931. is one of the treatises on the Mahāyāna doctrine written in Sanskrit. The first introducer of this text to the world of modern study was Dr. It was. the discoverer of this fact and the editor of the Sanskrit edition of this text. however. Rāhula Sāñkrtyāyana in Tibet. VIII. p. 3 > " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra in Sanskrit". IX. H. 1935. D.Text.O. 31 (III. Salu monastery. E. 34 (VII. however. AND TRADITIONS CONCERNING THE AUTHOR § 1. Acta Orientalia. fn.. by E. ed. The reason for this will be made clear afterwards. vol. Chowdhury. In China. p t . p. This seems quite reasonable and I followed him in this study. 43) and XXIII. v. it was known only through the Tibetan and Chinese versions. by H. Vol.. the work of Ārya Maitreya with a commentary by Āryâsañga ". H. *' E. About the Mss. A. on which this present study is made. found by Rev. XIII-5. Bailey & E. Johnston. No. ' will be used for this p. Johnston. vol. quite recently that the Sanskrit manuscripts were discovered and critically edited l j . 1950. op. ITS TEXT.. Part 1. ) The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra. H. 2 ' " The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation.S. (hereafter the abbreviation ' J . No. S. Patna. THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA. E. This edition is based upon two Mss. . Litt. M. cit. XI-5. Salu monastery.. they used the name " Ratnagotrctr-śāstra" as its title. see JBORS. parts ii. 86 & 87. 2. XXI. The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāśtra. W. Vol. 242). The reference is to pp..

TAKASAKI About the manuscripts. has its importance because of its antiquity. will cast some new light on the implications of this text in Mahāyāna Buddhism. although it is called vyākhyā. Tohoku Catalogue No. so that we can further consider the authorship and date of the Ratna.J. in Tibetan Tanjur: 1. Johnston passed away before completing his learned analysis of this text. however faulty. shows his remarkable skill in editing Sanskrit manuscripts and is an excellent contribution to Buddhist scholarship. by Bloldan—śes—rab (Matiprajna) at Srinagar in Kashmir under the guidance of Kashmiri an pandits. references will be made to traditions about the author in Tibet and China. and should continue to give it critical study. especially of the latter. about the end of the 11th . I believe my work. . the basic text of my English translation. Besides this. § 2. I have nothing to add here to Johnston's description as I have had no chance to examine them. Some notable points for the present study are: 1) they belong to a considerably later period in comparison with the date of the Chinese translation. There are two versions of the Ratna. the first one consists merely of verses in the Ratna. Prior to describing the contents of the Ratna. and consequently the latter. 2) they are identified almost completely with the Tibetan version. it will be necessary to refer to the translations in Tibetan and Chinese. Johnston's critical edition. Both were translated. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan-bcos rnam—par-bśad-pa {Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra-vyâkhyā). I have found some words and passages to be corrected in the light of the Tibetan and Chinese translations. sub-sources of the present work.. Nevertheless. Tohoku Catalogue No. probably of the same source as the present manuscripts. and 3) no mention of the name of the author leaves room for taking the Chinese tradition into consideration. though it differs from the Sanskrit edition in several passages. in the absence of any material in the Sanskrit manuscripts. On the other hand.Translation and Traditions concerning the Author. Ratnavajra and Sajjana. 4025. according to the colophon of these translations. Buddhist scholars should regret that Dr. 2. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan—bcos {Mahay āna-uttaratantra-śāstra). The second one is a full translation of the Sanskrit text. 4024.

). 5 . however. 1Q ) " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra".' or ' T '. an ancient Chinese catalogue of the Tripitaka (730 A. ' Tib. his date is 1059-1109 A. 7) will be assured of its date in the same century . 1611). This attribution to Maitreya of the verse section is traced in the Saka script fragment referred to above. This name Sajjana reminds us of the author of the Mahay ānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. and probably in India. as the work of Bodhisattva Maitreya 1 0 ) . 347-350. too. to Ācārya Asañga (Slob—dpon Thogs-med) 8). 68). 86-89. This shows that Maitreya was regarded as the author of the Ratna. not only in Tibet but also in Central Asia. in the period between the 8th. Patna and to Prof. Tucci who has got another photographic copy of the same Ms. see George N.D. Chinese tradition offers a different name as to the author. Part I. Vol. 325-6. ) I have intention to edit this work and have already asked for permission to the authority of the Jayaswar Research Institute. and the point is undecided. nothing is mentioned anywhere else. Calcutta 1949. (This is an English translation of a history of Tibetan Buddhism called Deb-ther sñon-po.D. will be used for this p. For the date and personage of Blo-ldan śes-rab. The present Chinese Tripitaka retains one translation of the Ratna.D. being bis ultimate doctrine based upon the Prajñāpāramitā " 9) . quotes the opening verse and the first few verses of Chapter I I I in the Ratna. Ngor monastery. at Lo-yang. i. 8 > Tib. 511 A. I t was tran- slated by |Ratnamati (*$] ffi | | | Jj|-) in c. 81 f. op.The Ratnagotravibhāga cent. Hereafter. G. which. pp. 6 ) This work was reported by Rāhula Sāmkrtyāyana as one of three Mss. there are said to be two translations. No. and regards the Ratna. pp. (hereafter the abbreviation ' O '. 328. 5 ) . 31. of the Ratna. > Sde-dge Edition. According to the translator's calculation. The Blue Annals.D. (Tohoku University Copy). 33 (IV. one by Ratnamati and the other by Bodhiruci.e. p . and 12th cent. A. '—* PPI j § ! f^î pR8 •> ^. to Ārya Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa) and the prose commentary (vyākhyā in the second). A. No.Uttara— ekayāna-ratnagotra-śāstra) (Taisho. p. According to the K'ai-yuan che—chiao mo-lu (||f] jfc Tpp i^ |=J pf. 129 a 5 ff. 9 ) See. the verse section of the Ratna. Roerich. the references to the Tibetan version are made according to this edition with the abbreviation. Vol.D.). See JBORS. as one of " five treatises written by Bodhisattva Maitreya. XXI. If we can identify both names. About the authorship of Asañga on the commentary. p. given as Satyajñāna by Johnston from the Patna manuscript 6) .). VIII-6. 129 a 5. MDO XLIV. entitled " Chiu— ching yi-cWeng pao—sing-lun " ( 9 ^ Jfa. of which nothing is known except what Johnston tells us. cit. Obermiller. Tibetan tradition attributes the first one. the capital of the Northern Wei dynasty. the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstropadeśa.

and "> Taisho. founded by a pupil of Ratnamati. . 541 a-6. Namely. 5|* ^jp^ | a i Sffl 29 ^§? (Ratnakūtasūtraśāstra t_. 2149. 540 b. and there is no evidence of Bodhiruci's translation of the Ratna. fjfjg) school based upon the Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra of Vasubandhu divided into two branches. Avatamsaka) school which emphasizes ' cittamātra ' theory of the Avatamsaka-sûtra along with ' dharmadhātu '. U i . Hoshoron-kenkyū ( i n J a p a n e s e ) . The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (First Indian Edition. 690 6. Taisho. p.D. 540 b..). 4 vols.. a few years after the date of translation of the Ratna. No. the Ti-lun (ifcjfl.). 269 b: + ft& M tiffl ? ^ £ S i Pit 5? ft Ira. 518 A. where the record mentioned above concerned two other works.). This record seems reliable at a glance since it is said to be taken from the Pao-cK'ung-lu ( ^ fl|jj sift). 4 i i tathāgatagarbha ' against vijñaptimātratā ' and ālayavijñāna ' of the Fahsiang ( ^ ^Q) school founded by a disciple of Hsiiang-chuang ( ^ ^^)« Thus Ratnamati and Bodhiruci were standing opposite to each other. 55. these two ) J. the Daśabhūmikasūtra-śāstra and the Ratnakūtasūtra-śāstra.). and there might be room for such misreading in the circumstances of Chinese Buddhism in those days. 114. Nai~t'en~lu. Furthermore it is said that both translators collaborated at the beginning. 866 6-c: + ^ 6 M Iffl + H ^ (DaŚabhū- mikasūtraśāstra. 1959. it is clarified that the catalogue was not directly based upon the Pao-ch'ung-lu. and this division is said to have had its root in the differences of opinions due to the interpretation of the relation between 4 ālayavijñāna' and ' tathāgatagarbha' or ' tathatā'14). The record of the K'aiyuan—lu is perhaps created by misreading of these catalogues. However. d tne Daśabhūmika. because of the differences of opinions between them. The branch of Southern Path of the Ti-lun school. ) Ibid. _C JH p B PJT j/E l/îît _>C 3Z Î^P (two treatises mentioned above are also translated by R Bodhiruci). TAKASAKI which is lost now n ) . the Ta-fang nei-fen-lu (^J^ Jflf p^J jBL Śg|ç . 608 c-609 a. H ^ 1 14 (Hatnagotra-sastra. No. 12 vols. Vol. as the result of critical examination of this record. Li-tai san- pao-chi. Taisho. a missing catalogue compiled in c. at all 1 3 ) . 3-16. 2034. âfî ^ (tnis an §^r I Jffii jlffl " S ΫE TT ^ ^ JC are also translated by Bodhiruci). 637 6. p. 13 12 ) H . but later on. but upon the preceding catalogues such as the Li~tai-san~pao~chi (||f /f^ zL 5H $2» ^97 A. N o . Vol. Cf.D. p p .D. 49. p p . 1956). Takakusu. Vol. 55. caused in later days the rise of the Hua-yen (3J£ Jjg. ^ flt M Iw » H %. 664 A. 2154. proclaiming Bodhiruci and Ratnamati as the nominal founder of each branch. T o k y o .J . 714 a. Bodhiruci made his own translation separately 1 2 ) .

we should examine the whole contents and characteristics of this Ratna.D. the authorship of Sāramati on the Ratna. on the line of the Vijñānavāda. two authors on the Ratna. And it was he who left the record on the authorship of the Ratna. > Taisho. This Kārikā text is quite different from that of the Tibetan version. > Ta-cVeng-fa-chieh-wu-cKa-pieh-lun-chu Taisho. 63 c. No. 1838. From this fact we feel the need of assuming the existence of.. the Ratna. the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and others16>. This report. ^ ifsl). and 2) the whole work including the prose section but excluding certain number of verses in the Kārikā text. at least. _£. probably due to the fact that the author of the Ratna. At least.The Ratnagotravibhāga this conflict between them led people to imagine that Bodhiruci could translate the Ratna. in China. Vol. Actually however. But. The reason is that there is no name of the author in the Chinese translation nor in any of the old catalogues. He said in his commentary on the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa-śāstra (yC PPI VC W' vKi : ā i /Vi z Ing) 15> that Bodhisattva Kien-huei ( § ^ jjj). born in Central India 7 centuries after the Buddha's Mahāparinirvāna as a member of a Ksatriya clan who after learning Buddhism. is reliable to some extent. seems to be unchangeable. and since then the Ratna. one heing that of the basic verses and the other the commentator on it. takes the theory of the tathāgatagarbha as its basic standpoint and is highly estimated by Fa-tsang O?Jc līJc)' t n e ^rd patriarch of the Hua-yen school. As far as the Chinese tradition is concerned. we may say Sāramati was believed to be the author of the Ratna. heard by Fa-tsang from Devaprajña (%£ ^§g mC ^jrf) the translator of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and a monk come from Khotan. to settle this problem.). in that it omits those verses which seem to be supplementary to the basic verses. And we cannot find any other tradition concerning the author of the Ratna. We shall now proceed to the next stage.. till the end of the 7th cent. Still. 1626 and 1627. was ' a Bodhisattva on the first stage ' (jfcjjî. 16 15 . p. was thought not to be an orthodox Vijñānavādin such as Asañga and Vasubandhu. was not recognized as the authority for the Chinese Vijñānavādins. 44. Sāramati ($$ | g ^ jg. A. wrote the Ratnagotravibhāga uttaratantraśāstra. and this translation consists actually of two parts. Here one may naturally call to mind the Tibetan tradition. As will be made clear afterwards. he did not do it. in Central Asia. Nos. namely: 1) the Kārikā text. an extract of certain verses in the Ratna. there remains some doubt. in Sanskrit.

But we cannot accept the whole text as basic. Emphasis on the respect for the ' dharmabhānaka' was probably a reflection of the historical circumstances in those days. — Basic Text and Commentary. in verse and in prose. There are also a C.g. one basic. Then the text proceeds to the next subject. while the verse section consists again of two parts. but quite scanty for other chapters. 4 & 9 to be typical. too. The fact that Paramārtha's translation of the 17) [ 10 ] . I. lies in the fact that it consists of two parts. we may be able to compile the Kārikā-text of the Ratna. More precisely. I. In other words. is in verse and in prose and the prose section of the commentary which follows the commentary verse or verses explaining their meaning with quotations from various sūtras is quite detailed in Chapter I. 14. As its idea matches that of the 18 introductory verses. In most cases. 1. 4 which expresses devotion to the ' buddharatna' as the refuge (śarana) is followed by v. They seem to be written by the Chinese translator. the ' dharma-ratna '. we find that the Chinese Kārikā text gives a fairly good account of those verses which are basic or original. Besides these 18. 9 followed by commentary verses and a prose commentary with a structure similar to that of v. If we take such verses as I. it offers us a fairly good account of the basic verses. let us take an example from the text. To clarify this characteristic. and for this. the basic part of this text is merely of verses. seems to be composed by the translator 17>. this verse. or something like that. 820 c. while another part. the commentary. and the other supplementary. we have another additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text in the last chapter maintaining the respect for the teacher of the Doctrine (dharmabhānaka). persecution of the Buddhists by the Huns. The peculiarity of the Ratna.II. e. including the example given above. THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT § 1. 4. 10. beginning with v. I. p. the present text of the Ratna. That much is regular in Buddhist literatures. 5 with a prose explanation of it and the latter is again explained in detail by the following three verses and a prose commentary which continues up to p. For example. the first 18 verses in that text are to be omitted from this line as they are not available in either Sanskrit or Tibetan versions. The verse I. the Chinese Kārikā text is one of the aids for determining them. From the structural point of view. is a combination of the basic text and a commentary thereon..

Neither the Chinese Kārikā text nor the use of the word i śloka ' can give the final account of the basic verses. however. ' maharsi ' is used for the Bodhisattva). and I feel no necessity to change my former supposition. Prior to v. So the third assumption has no inconsistency. can ' śloka ' be construed as one kind of metre. . II. missing in the Chinese version. This is no doubt a kind of selection. p. IV. Only one thing we can say definitely: those verses which are omitted from the Chinese Kārikā-text are by no means the original ones. 4 is the first verse for which the word ' śloka' is applied. I. And. which is. I. which are called ' śloka ' in the text. it is said: Uktah śāstra-sambandhah // Idānīm ślokānām artho vaktavyab J — / atas tat-prathamato buddha— ratnam adhikrtya ślokah / And. confused after vv. which retains Ratna. it is said: Ato buddha-ratnād adhikrtya ślokah / dharma-ratna-prabhāvaneti tad-anantaram tad— This word ' śloka ' is not used for the supplementary verses in these cases. 16-28 at the end of the work (Taisho. in turn. 4. we should seek for other grounds. 156-157 where the prose commentary disappears except for headings. furthermore. omits this verse is another powerful proof in support of this supposition.g. V. 73. XXX. because of a unique terminology used in this verse (e. It shows the fact t h a t the passage up to ' uktah śāstra—sarnbandhah / ' is the introduction by the commentator who thereafter begins to explain the meaning of the ' ślokas'. e. Anustubh7 when it is used for the commentary verses? 1 8 ) One of these three possibilities must be in point. This limited usage of the word ' śloka ' becomes. I. it seems to be a quotation from some old canonical work. have the Anustubh metre except for v. 4 as the first basic verse is identical with t h a t in the Chinese Kārikā text (except the 18 verses referred to above).9. the commentary seems to be called the ' Slokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna' as appeared in the colophons of Chapters I. but these two are certainly the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. Can we ascribe it to the commentator's caprice or forgetfulness of the rule ? Shall we assume another commentator in order to explain this change of style ? Again. I. 1. the basic verses. i. 18 ) All the commentary verses in Chapters II-V.The Ratnagotravibhaga certain number of verses whose originality is doubtful to judge from the contents. i. Being the explanation of the meaning of śloka. and V. How to interpret this confusion seems not so simple. and v. e. 270 a-b). in the heading to that verse. and the word ' śloka"1 is used for both basic and supplementary verses. as the heading to v. but to go beyond this. this selection of v.

the point at issue is whether or not the author of the original text tried such categorization. 45. e. 1*. It shows. This verse is of doubtful originality for the following reason. 9*. we shall try to reconstruct the original text of the Ratna. 47. 35. 18-20. 49. vv. . however. Except for the 19 verses referred to above. 8 categories in regard to the ' nirmalā tathatā' i. vv. we shall evaluate all verses in the Chinese Kārikā-text. the subject word is ' jinagarbho 'yam ' in v.Chinese Account on the Basic Verses. (27) Chapter II.J . 62. 1-6. e. however. II. 29. (16) In this table. 84. 3. there will be no objection if we regard them as the 'basic verses. First of all. In this way. 23. 13. 38-41. a series of verses expresses a united meaning under one subject word.g. 35. 19) . (14) Chapter III. 1. they have independent meaning and are understandable by themselves19). The structure presents no doubt as to its originality. and whose terSometimes. all are doubtless of genuine character in their contents as well as their style. For them. this verse is followed by the commentary in prose and verse. vv. TAKASAKI most powerful bases for the selection. 8 2. according to the commentator. the * dharmakāya ' and without other supplementary and explanatory verses. The result is as follows: Chapter I. 1) v. require some more careful examination. 16-25*. 79. (1) Chapter IV. 156-157. 9. 1-2. 42 & 45. Formally. 66.' The verses with the sign ' * '. 42. On these points. I. except for verses with the sign ' *'. This question is posed regarding v. vv. I. 52-63. i And in this commentary verse called uddāna ' (summary). 69. 1. 30. 30. they are followed by the supplementary verses. 13* 41*. (4) Chapter V. Through their classification into certain groups. itself has no independent meaning. Not all of them are. 4. Furthermore. and those verses which are found in the Chinese Kārikā text and called ' śloka ' will be accepted as basic. 29. let us pick up those verses which are called ' śloka ' in the Sanskrit text. mentioned in the Chinese Kārikā text but called merely ' uddāna' in the Sanskrit text. the same categories are repeated in different terminology. vv. 45. 8. They express the fundamental doctrine of this text and maintain a fairly archaic metre. vv. of the same character. all the verses in the Chinese Kārikā text are found in the Sanskrit text.

v. XII-11. and hence. 13. § |ft H f& . . we incline to omit v. and are actually taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. As a consequence of denying the originality of v. there is no scope to treat this as original. 30. the first six. are ' uddāna1 . 2) v. Ill. 361 a). all of these. like v. In the same way. tad apy adhikrtya nirdeksyāmi / This ' nirdeksyāmi ' (I will explain) is immediately followed by ' uddānam '. 2.The Ratnagotravibhāga urinology is exactly the same as v. 29 and II. II. II. 59-60) and in the Yogācārabhūmi (on 'śabda-vidyā\ Taisho. viz. 1. This seems to show that such categorization was commonly held for any subject. and vrtti. I. as will be set forth below. 2.' In comparison with v. the commentary verse on v. expects the existence of detailed explanation which follows this verse. 29 seems clearly to be a commentary verse. verses to be similarly considered are v. Therefore the question is to be limited to the categorization itself. by the commentator. It is called. the commentary sentence preceding this verse says: pūrvataram tu yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tadarthasūcanam bhavati. karman. 1 from the line of original verses. Ill. And those verses explaining the 9 examples are. IV. 9. hetu. Without a knowledge of those explanations. it cannot be understood independently. against the Chinese tradition. Of the terms used for such categorization in w . 3) v. II. ' sdom-ni \ C. in showing 10 categories of the ' tathāgatagarbha. of rather doubtful originality. I. See Appendix III. p. depends on the originality of the latter verses. 96-98. This verse is composed with a view to succeeding detailed explanations of 9 examples of defilements which cover the tathāgatagarbha. this v. I. IV. regardless of the author. 4 and vv. ' sūtrasthānīya—śloka ' (a stanza based upon the scripture) and the following verses illustrating the examples in detail are called i vistaravibhāganirdeśa '. The omission of that verse therefore. This verse. e. illustrated in the Tathāgatagarbhasûtra and utilized in Chapter I. II. including v. phala. yoga. svabhāva. are identical with those used in the Sūtrâlañkāra (commentary on vv. 13. A further discussion will be made below along with examination of these illustrations. the categorization of the tathāgatagarbha into 10 aspects also will be denied of originality. although it retains a comparatively old terminology 20) . Furthermore. however. 4 is called ' uddāna ' according to the Tibetan and Chinese versions though not mentioned in the Sanskrit text 21\ In fact. II. IX. al 20) > T. I. About its structural character. II. 2. 29. Of them. there is no doubtful point. Hence. 9. i.verses on the See note on my translation.

based upon the Ratnadārikāpariprcchā. I. 16-25. The headings for these verses are missing in the Sanskrit text but the Tibetan and Chinese versions retain them well. is clearly a commentary verse and possibly the original Sanskrit text had a heading between these two verses. taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. There is another kind of verses among the Chinese Kārikā text. I. 2) vv. these verses differ from those in the first group in their being taken from a scriptural passage. but the Chinese commentary says in the heading: " a s it is said in the Kārikā text (yathoktam śloka. 9 udāharanas on the Buddha's Acts. It is v. 99-126. taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. As far as the structure is concerned. In this sense. and we have no need to discuss its originality separately. 88. IV. V. In the first group. this one is in the series of verses illustrating 9 examples on the acts of the Buddha. the possibility of their being original depends on the originality of the illustrating verses which follow them. V. and v. namely: 1) vv. 16-25. 27 are included. I will divide these verses discussed above into two groups: 'pure'—śloka and ' uddāna—śloka''. 41. On the other hand." On the other hand.S A JVl illustrations taken from certain scriptures. In general. 28. It expresses the fundamental idea of the Ratna. and 3) vv. 41. those verses mentioned in the table without the sign ' * ' except for vv. we cannot call them ' genuine ' to this text in the same degree. Ill. and is so important that we cannot imagine the contents of this text without. Both the Chinese and Tibetan versions have confusion in arranging this passage.X J\SS. and v. 9 udāharanas on the Essence of Buddhahood covered with defilements. 27. There is one verse to be taken as basic. This is the three series of verses to be called ' udāharana' taken from certain scriptural passages. v.J\. I. 4) v. but the Tibetan and the Chinese texts do not. 4. 64-67 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). 67-68. 55-57. ī. explanations on the 64 buddhagunas. they are no doubt basic. 5—26. though it follows immediately after v. They have no original idea of the author but are merely ' newly composed verses' by the author out of the basic scripture. 34-35. this verse. v. with some hesitation. 96-98. 27-30. 9 remain of doubtful position. the second group includes w . 44-52 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). I. they are to be termed ' sūtrasthānīya-udâharana '-verses. II. IY. From the structural point [ 14 ] . As the result of examination. I. In this sense. 29 and. 1 are also to be cancelled. 13 as being & sūtrasthānīya-uddānaS Verses II. 5) vv. & 89-91. Actually. and because of this characteristic. even though it was kept out of the table.or kārikā-granthe). III. The Sanskrit text shows ' śloka ' before this verse. I. 71-76. 27.

In each example these verses have the same contents as those kept in the Chinese Kārikā text. In the first case. And. attributed to Maitreya. and vv. v. The third case is less simple than the previous ones. vv. we shall be obliged to suppose the existence of a second author between the author of ' pure ' -ślokas and that of the commentary. 1. Note that such repetition of the same idea is seen in the udāharana verses in I. Of those verses contained in this passage. however.1. vv. Maitreya was not the author. 4. all the udāharana groups and hence the uddāna group as well. 12. they seem not to be the commentator's work. 89-91. We have another kind of question for Chapter IV. This last point will be proved by the examination of the third case. It depends more or less on the reliability of the Chinese Kārikā text as showing the original form of the text.1. seem to belong to somewhat later days in comparison with the * pure ''-śloka group. and verses 59—62 along with a heading are clearly the later additions because of their contents and style. 20 and p. It is in the passage between p. 102. sometimes it also changes the order. one thing to be noted is the counting of the 32 ' mahāpurusalaksana ' in Chap. 63 in the 5th. . 31— 33 in the 2nd. It contains actually more than 32 marks and some of them are not available in works such as the Abhisamayâlañkāra. As this part is among the series of i udāharana '. 14-26 in the first udāharana.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a of view. 76. although it agrees with the Ratnadārikāsūtra22). The Chinese Kārikā text omits a fairly large number of verses which are kept among the udāharana-xerses in the Sanskrit text and. 1 and p. In this connection. it is difficult to decide whether the verses were added after the Chinese translation was made or whether the Chinese translator omitted them intentionally 2 3 ). 69-70 in the 6th udāharana. 1. 112. the verses 36-40 along with the passage between p. Of these omissions. III. and the Prajñāpāramitāśāstra attributed to Nāgārjuna. 53-54 in the 4th. 88 is placed in the Chinese version immediately after v. and vv. The first one is. if not. 113. 42-43 in the 3rd. It seems to show that even the Ratnadārikāsūtra is composed after Maitreya and as far as this part is concerned. according to the Sanskrit ' note on 23 * Chapter 22 Detailed comparison on each ' mark ' among various scriptures is given in my the equivalent passage in the English translation. vv. The second case concerns vv. against Tibetan tradition. v. at the end of the first udāharana with a heading saying: anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti. as they are followed by a certain number of verses showing ' udāharanānām pindârthah \ The question is whether the same author of the 4 pure ' —ślokas had a share in composing this group of verses or not. 104. furthermore.

etc. 88 is a verse which shows the significance of the three udāharanas beginning with the 7th. the anutpādânirodhatā of the Buddha is repeated at the end of every udāharana up to the 4th. the problem is not of their genuine character but of their place in the text. TAKASAKI text.: and C omitted the three verses by mistake. 155). those omissions in the second case may be added to the Udāharana group. e. in the absence of the illustrations of dundubhi and the following two. 8587 with the heading must be the result of misundertanding of the role of v. i. (" The textual structure of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the supposed form of its original text " . the sūtra has a summarized verse on this point. the basic scripture for the 9 udāharanas.). ' bhājana-vimātratāyārn' before v. 70 in the Chinese Kārikā text. e. Verses as such are lacking from the 7th to 9th udāharana in the present Sanskrit text. 88 as simple summarization of the three udāharanas by a certain Sanskrit copyist of later days. But why was only one of the four kept in the Chinese version ? V. and at the end of the 4th ud. This verse occupies the same position for the 6th udāharana as v. See H. one of 4 ślokas which show the udāharana—samgraha. The Journal of Religious Studies. 85-87 and v. 88 yields another proof for this supposition MK However. Here I have corrected it according to Dr. in Jap. cit. 88 must have represented them in the basic text for the Chinese translation. 265. the omission in the second case in general will also be ascribed to the Chinese translator and the reliability of the Chinese version will decrease. The verse in the said sūtra is as follows: 24) [ 16 ] . No. 25) In the said sūtra. There must have taken place an artificial selection by the Chinese translator. Addition of vv.25) and conI have previously expressed my opinion that the whole of this passage is a later interpolation. If we admit such an omission by the Chinese translator himself. As for the next ones. Such a kind of verse is observed in every udāharana up to the 6th with a special heading like ' atatprahitānām ātmâparādhe ' before v. this ' udāharana—samgraha seems to be a later addition since its terminology is never seen in other passages and this part is situated after the udāharana—pindârtha of 9 examples.. Ui's opinion. the second Chinese translation. tr. i. p. 41 (2nd ud.. Difference of metre between vv. vv. [In the oldest version of the sūtra. or to the commentary as in the case of the Sanskrit text. 46 (3rd ud. 89-91. v.). has a similar verse between the udāharanas. but is kept in the basic text of C. i.J. 88 for the 7th-9th. whether they belong to the Kārikā text as the Chinese version does. Ui. it poses another question about the omission of v. 41 does for the 2nd: 2) The Jñānâlokâlāñkārasūtra. and as a result. As a whole.e. The Chinese treatment is acceptable for the following reasons: 1) These verses show the significance of the 1st udāharana as v. op. this summarized verse comes immediately after the 1st ud.

In view of the antiquity of the Chinese version. 84 which expects the existence of v. p . 112. the case was most probably as follows: vv. T h e Ratna. 2) their contents and wording are quite like to the commentary verses. especially the term i darśanâdi' in v. p. 91: ayatnāt krtyam ity evam darśanâdi pravartate / dharmakāyād anutpādânirodhād ā bhavasthiteh jj v. changing some words as seen in the present text and adding an explanatory heading (p. in the thought that the subject is not exclusive to the 1st udāharana but common to the whole passage.. but afterwards. we should treat vv. there remain some difficulties in accepting it.The Ratnagotrav. ibid. 89-91 along with an additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text were originally kept at the end of the 1st udāharana but with slightly different terms in the second pāda of v. 242 b) (ibid.ibhāga tinuity between v. 84 and v. As far as this point is concerned. 12. however. 91. 91.. 81: darśanādeśanā vyāptir vikrtir jñānanihsrtih / mano-vāk-kāyaguhyāni prāptiś ca karunâtmānām // M > For v. Namely. p. being a part of the udāharana—pindârtha. 251 a) 26) 27 See a b o v e ( n . 1. At the same time. 11. the Sanskrit copyist shifted them to the commentary. 1) the subject 'anutpādânirodhatā'' of the Tathāgata is the basic point throughout Chap. ) v.7 ( = Taisho. Vol. Thus the Sanskrit text also can claim its reasonability of their treatment. 25). It can be otherwise translated into the following way: This action takes place without effort. 92 as given by the Chinese version seems to be consistent. 84: ayarn ca prakrto ' trârtho navadhā darśanâdikam / janmântardhim rte śāstur anābhogāt pravartate // v. the Chinese version recovers its reliability to some extent. 240 6). C. # (Taisho. p . but unless we could reconstruct the original form of v. IV as well as the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra 26) . 91 is akin to 4 navadhā darśanâdikam ' in v. 9. 89-91 as the commentary verses. 81 2 7 ) . 91 2 8 ) . 18-20). r T7 1 . and one perceives this and that appearance (although) the dharmakāya has neither origination nor destruction and is eternal as long as the world exists. however.

I. udāharana '-group. B. ' pure '-ś/o&a-group. There is no possibility of abridging the original form of the text more than this. II. and C. I.-groups as the secondary addition. 2) the last verse of Chapter V.—group as consisting of the original form of text. not necessary to presume the existence of a text with 3 chapters.J. 23 from the line of original verses. which express the ' deśanāprayojana\ can stand for a kind of conclusion and by this passage. & the C. as it matches the use of the title of the commentary. . of course. it leaves us in some doubt regarding the inconsistency of numbers in each chapter or subject 29 ). 9 and verses in the B. This supposition. & C. (v. One way to solve these problems is to treat v. and the form of the original text. Thereby. we have arrived at the conclusion that 1) the Chinese Kārikā text does not stand for the original text. The reasons are 1) w . however. the tathāgatagarbha being the ratnagotra is sufficiently explained. i. In this way only 27 verses in Chapter I remain as original. . Another way is to cut out all verses. and 3) those verses retained in the Chinese Kārikā text are to be divided into 3 groups: A.Supposed Form of the Original Text. As the result of examination of the Chinese Karikā text. II. B. and 5) of these 3 groups. And even if the Chapters after II were the later M) It is. and regard them along with v. TAKASAKI S 3 . increases the importance of the supposed second author with regard to establishing the system of the tathāgatagarbha theory as appearing in the present Sanskrit text. 156-157. all kinds 4 of classification' are deprived of this text. 9 as an insertion made simultaneously with the B. starting with those in Chapter II as well as v. however.—and the C—group by the second author. in Chapter I. 4) in Chapter IV some verses among the Sanskrit text are to be added to the C—group. The problems remaining after this examination are the treatment of v. This seems consistent in its form. ' ślokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna '. 9. and regard the A. Strictly speaking. Denial of the originality of chapters other than Chapter I consequently means the denial of the idea of the 4 aspects of the ratnagotra. we can get 59 verses as original. e. ' uddāna '-group. but 2) it keeps a fairly good account of those verses which are ' not the commentary verses '. 25) which expresses the faith in the Buddha Amitāyus is not essentially connected with the contents of Chapter I. By this. 23 of Chapter I from the line of the original verses. II. That is why I omitted v. are somewhat of later days. even the existence of the Kārikā text of such form at the time when the Chinese translation was made is doubtful.

3-12.The Ratnagotravibhāga addition. C. Additions 1) p. and felt no necessity for detailed comment on other Chapters. . 1. 27 verses. 9 as the ' basic verses ' for commenting (it means neither original verses nor ' śloka 's) under the name oîikārikā '30>§ 4. groups. Besides small differences between them. which will be referred to in the notes on my English translation. Other minor points with respect to the structure of the text will be noticed in each passage of the translation. r 30) in 1 . 50. 102. the passages to be added to the commentary as missing in the Sanskrit text and subtracted from it as additions in later days. This fact is construed as indicating that the commentator attached the main importance to Chapter I. 20 . 16 (C. 112. 1. probably 4) p. p. . 1. including v. being the supposed form of the original text. 16 (before samsāraduhkha—) (C. p. 843 c) 4) two commentary verses before v. There seems to be no difficult point to discuss about the commentary. will be mentioned in Appendix I. 1. Most of these passages were already noticed by the editor of the Sanskrit text. and no explanation will be necessary for the present. 11. 2) p.p. 8 (with a heading 'aparah ślokârthalj. p. B. 108. are as follows: A. 829 c-830 o) 3) a quotation on the parable of a castle taken from the Eatnacūdasūtra after ' nagarddāharaiiam/' on p. 1. 104. Omissions 1) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. p.) (C. I shall treat in my translation all the verses in the A.The Commentary and Later Additions. In this sense. 825 b) 2) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. C. One thing to be noticed here are the omissions and additions in the Sanskrit text as compared with the Chinese version. 832 c) B. 1. 53. 31. Its style is consistent throughout the text except for the fact that the prose commentary disappears after Chapter II.'') — 10 verses and prose commentary. 1.18-20. 51. 1-13. they had been no doubt composed before the commentary was made. 16. 12 3) p. 10 —p. 15 (before na hi jātu. 46. 1.. 1. 64 (p. II.

through its being i identical' with the Absolute. or Ultimate Entity from its aspect of ' ratnagotra '. — Ratnagotra. Though monism is one. just because . 99 (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. p. v. every phenomenon has the characteristics of being 'real' and is 'identical' with each other as they stand for the Absolute in one of its various ' aspects' 32>. In this respect. 32) On the other hand. I dared adopt the word ' Absolute ' as a general term for what is immutable in Buddhism. Still Buddhism has its own idea of something immutable (asamskrta). KEYPOINT OF THE DISCOURSE } 1. Geistes und Sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse. 31 . Jahrgang 1954. the difference of standpoint means: " to which aspect of the Absolute. analyzing (vibhāga) the Absolute. and itself has no reality. the Brahman (or Atman) is nearer to the Absolute in Western philosophy in its character than what is corresponding to it in Buddhism. This > Having come with connotations of Western philosophy. there is a variety of forms. Glasenapp. Mahāyāna Buddhism. This work. Stcherbatsky. is to be characterized as monistic in its philosophical approach. Nr. we may define the characteristics of this text as a treatise. proved through the essential identification [advayatā) of various phenomena. S. The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. may generally be characterized as Monism (or Absolutism) which admits the unique Absoiute 3 1 ) or Ultimate Entity. See H. In the case of the Vedānta Philosophy. though its character is quite different from that of Brahman and there is no fixed term like Brahman to express it. In other words. the so-called Hīnayāna Buddhism whose representative is the doctrine of the Sarvāstivādin may be characterized as Realism declaring each element (dharma) as real. in its philosophical approach. Buddhismus und Gottesidee. or form) of the Absolute.J . feature. the word ' Absolute ' contains an idea somewhat different from that in Indian philosophy and hence it is not perfectly proper to use this word for expressing the idea which is to be discussed here. And each phenomenon. and this variety of forms is due to the different emphasis in each text. the use of the word' Absolute ' seems quite improper. 8). > cannot he the Entity different from other phenomena. But. See Th. the Germ of the 3 Jewels. is the emphasis given in the text ? " In this sense. 40. being a treatise on Mahāyāna Buddhism. f its being merely an aspect (or face. But since Buddhism denies the existence of such an eternal substance as Brahman. TAKASAKI III. and this difference of standpoint gradually causes the division of various schools within Mahāyāna Buddhism.

' cause '. it is used in the sense of' germ '. p. 3. 26. 'basis'. by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharva. 'essence'. 6: gotram bljam ity apy ucyate. a more detailed and thorough investigation on this subject based upon the Pali. ' source '. p. The word ' gotra' is one of the special terms difficult to be conveyed by any other language.. 11. In India. and analogically. ' vamśa' (for lineage). As for the development of the idea of 'gotra'' within Buddhist thought. and the Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-ka. The Ratna. Actually. this word means ' family'. in the word ' gotra '. BHS Die. ' nidāna ' (for ' cause '). Significance of ' gotra ' in the Brahmanical system was sought for by J. Brough in his work. Part 1. 'svabhāva\ iprakrti\ 'dharma ' (for ' nature '). the Germ of the 3 jewels. 16.'ground'. ' sthāna ' (for ' basis ' or ' ground ' ) . a commentary on the Abhisamayâlañkāra by Tsoñ-kha-pa. ' mine ' or ' matrix ' 3 5 ) . ' origin '. ' hetu' and ibīja'. Then. Calcutta. we can get various words such as ' pada '. and hence it may be translated into English by ' element'. 23) as ' visayah paramârthadarśinām śubharatnasargako yatah '. In his opinion. Cambridge. 24). and by this the contents of the text is fully expressed. ' sāra ' (for ' essence '). Eight Chapters on the Pāramitā. 33) . Vol. and explained in the śloka (v. a Translation of the Gotra-pravara-mañjali of Purusottama-Pandita with an Introduction". what is ' ratnagotra ' ? This word is interpreted by the commentator as ' gotram ratnatrayasya ' (v. 35) Edgerton regards the sense of 'a mine' as uniquely belonging to Buddhist texts. ' ākara ' (for ' m i n e ' ) . 1957). 1. and signifies usually an exogamous unit of families of the same lineage within the Brahmin clan. Yogācārabhūmi. 34 * ' Gotra ' is originally a term used in the Indo—Aryan society since the pre—Vedic age.10 (hetvartho'tra dhātvarthah). but the basic line of interpretation for this word among the Buddhist literatures is 'gotra' = ' dhātu ' = lhetu\ or ''gotra ' = ibīja' 33>. however. but as it is merely based upon Tibetan information (the Gser-phreñ. the sphere of those who have the highest perception from which the pure 3 jewels rise. 18-19: bljaparyāyāh punar dhātur gotram prakrtir hetuh satkāya prapañca ālaya upādānam duhkham satkāyadrstyadhisthānam asmimānâdhisthānam cety evam bhāgiyāhparyāyā veditavyâh. and Chinese sources will be required. ' nidhi'. by U. Wogihara). by a common use. p. Sanskrit. ' nidhāna '. 1. 322). see Obermiller's introduction to the Uttaratantra. See Edgerton. ' āśraya '. Journal of the Linguistic Society of India. an objection is raised by V. " The Early Brahmanical System of Gotra and Pravara. or 'nature'.' gotra ' means something original. ' yoni\ ' garbha' (for 'matrix'). p. (ed. as synonyms of 'gotra' with the range of senses. ' clan ' or ' lineage ' 3 4 ) . It gives a good summary of the development of the idea from the Vinaya to the Yogācāra system through the Sarvāstivāda and the Sautrāntika. gotra s.The Ratnagotravibhāga is the significance of the title ' ratnagotravibhāga '. 72. 1953. Here. Raghavan ("Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit". all of these senses are included. while 'ratnatraya\ its result. 20 (dhātu means gotra). and besides ' dhātu '. I. Bodhisattvabhūmi (ed. Indian Linguistics.v. of Jam-yañ-shad-pa). I. Abhidharmakośakārikā. Chatterjee Jubilee Volume. ' mūla '.

' ratna ' or ' rattatraya ' is a name for the Absolute when it is regarded as the ' śarana ' refuge). I. i. This ' impurity' is. e. 47) 38>. are identical with each other. 38) In another place. 27). is proved by the all-pervadingness of the Wisdom of the Buddha. a name for * sattmdhātu'. called ' tathagatagarbhāh '. I. par excellence. irrespective of their conditions or appearances. TAKASAKI parlgraha ' (for ' family ') etc. 49). the living beings differ from each other owing to their appearances. I. On the other hand. in other words. itathāgatagotra\ 'buddhgotra\ etc. and 3) it is the igotra\ through which the result. ' tathāgatadhātu \ 4 budIhadhatu'. Then again. 28). 4 buddhagarbha\ ' jinagarbha '. according to the text. by that of the Body of the Absolute (dharmakāya) (v. I. (v. In this ense. I. those who have the Matrix of the Tathāgata. md the other two. 4 ratnatraya ' 9r. bodhisattva. however. I. 3 6 ). in a concrete way. At the same time. the multitude of the living beings. despite the existence of purity. i. 47) they are classified into ' sattvadhātu. Through the purity of the innate mind. * This point is taken from the Śrlmālāsūtra and is called the ' ekayāna"1 theory being one of the characteristics of Mahāyāna Buddhism. common to all living beings. and have various names.nd combining these terms of both sides. as synonyms of '"ratna\otra '. but essentially there is no difference between the two kinds of classification (the Saints are par excellence' bodhisattvas ' in the Mahāyāna Buddhism). 7). e.J . namely the different degrees with regard to the ' impurity' on the pure innate mind. it is the ' buddharatna '.mployed ? The tathāgatagarbha is. Thus we know the word ' ratnagotra ' used in the title indicates /vhat is called ' tathāgatagarbha ' and this text is a treatise on the Tathā'}atagarbha theory. 30) which is found in the 4 innate mind ' (cittaprakrti) of living beings (v. sarva—dehinah. just because 1) the Wisdom of the Buddha penetrates it. all living beings) s. i. 'the Saints '. sarvasattvāh. the Tathāgata makes its appearance (v. 'the ordinary beings'. all living beings. and tathāgata '. or ' the Buddha ' (v. The existence of this purity. the ' dharmaratna' and 4 sañgharatna ' are merely he 'natural outflow' (dharmatānisyanda) of the former 37> (p. The point of its identity with the Absolute lies in its 4 essential purity ' (prakrty-asamklistatā) (v. but merely temporally associated with them as the accidental defilement (āgantukakleśa) and itself has no reality because ' All of these terms are taken from this text. how are these terms ' tathāgatagarbha ' or ' tathāgatagotra ' . we can get those terms like tathāgatagarbha '. e. the Absolute. 2) it is by nature identical with purity. viz. or the object of worship. ' ratnatraya ' is synonymous with 'buddha'. not essentially connected with them. This 4 sattvadhātu \ or sattvarāśV (in other words. ' tathāgata\ or 4jfma\ \. Par excellence. 37 36 .

1) 2) garbha (jñānadhātu-āptinistha). bodhi.4 Aspects of the Germ. 23) 39) The whole account of this passage on the [fundamental characteristics of the ' ratnagotra' was taken from what I considered as the original text. which at the same time constitute the core of the doctrine described in this text 39>. jinakriyā. I. 2) Bodhi. i. 4) Tathāgatakrtyakriyā. under the titles: 1) Tathāgatagarbha. when they accomplish the purification. guna. On the basis of the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha referred to above. It would be better to pick up such denominations before analysing their characteristics and significance. . these 4 aspects of the gotra form the basic frame of this text and the authors refer to them in various places with various denominations. § 2 . the text explicates the doctrine in five chapters 4°). 3) Guna. vimalā buddhagunāh. respectively. which are mentioned in v.The Ratnagotravibhāga it is constructed by the ' irregular thought ' (ayoniśomanasikāra) (v. agrabodhi (jñānâpti). Of these five. 41 ) The commentary mentions the 3 Jewels along with 4 aspects of the Germ in its open verse and calls them the 7 vajrapadas. 40) The Chinese version gives 11 chapters. and its pure innate mind is regarded as the Buddhahood (buddhatva) or the Essence of the Buddha (buddhadhātu). The other four stand for the 4 aspects of the gotra. e. dharmāh. But this categorization does not have as much significance as the 4 aspects of the gotra. I. I. 3). 3) samalā tathatā. dividing the Chapter on the Tathāgatagarbha into 7. I. sattvârthakrt. 60-63). 23 and which show its inconceivability in each respect (v. (v. the sattvadhātu is the ' gotra ' of the Buddha. I. it is removable from them and when they remove it by realizing its accidental nature. and 5) Anuśamsa. 24) while Chapter I includes 3 ślokas on the ratnatraya and the commentary thereon. Therefore. the last chapter is the conclusion in which the merits of having faith in this doctrine of the tathāgatagarbha are described. Those are the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha. Thus. 1) dhātu. nirmalā tathatā. . karman. (v. But this division has probably no source in the basic text for the Chinese translation. they become the Buddha. (v. along with the commentator's introduction 4l>. Because of this possibility. I.

4 cause ' and ' result '. bodhyañgāni. V. 3. I.J. 26) buddhadhātu. buddhakrtya. amalā bodhi. tadparāvrtti. samalā and nirmalā. the fourth. 42 and commentary thereon (on yogârtha). 43>. This relationship is expressed in another couple of terms. 42) [ 24 ] . is characterized as nirmalā in comparison with gotra. the tathāgatagarbha is said to be endowed with the same qualities and acts as those of the Buddha. 42). The interrelation between these two is that of ' cause' and ' result'. I. buddhabodhi. On the other hand. I. the first aspect represents the tathāgatagarbha or the gotra. bodhi. 155 and v. so to say A2\ At the same time. 49. and the second. ' to be enlightened ' or * capable of getting bodhi'. the Absolute as in common with the The relationship between the Absolute and attributes is often expressed by the term ' avinirbhāga. Gotra is different from the Absolute in its being actually not enlightened {abudha) (v.) and similes of lantern and ocean are used for its explanation (v. 4 c d). 66. they are to be termed as ' bodhya ' and ' bodhi '. the 4 aspects of gotra are fundamentally reducible to two aspects. these two latter aspects are less independent and less important than the former two and can be included in one of them. (gunaprakrtiyogatah). Because of this capability. while the identity of both is expressed by the term tathatā. buddhadharmâh. Therefore. these two are regarded as 4 aspects ' of the gotra. Tathatā. what is to be called the Absolute. arthasādhana. I. i. I. I. TAKASAKI 4) 5) 6) 7) bodhya. (v. being the natural outflow of the Buddhahood. the Absolute. but it has a relation to the latter in its being ' bodhya '. karman (v. and this capability is sought for in the fact (or postulate) that gotra is (or is to be) essentially identical with the Absolute (tathatâvyatireka). samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā. the latter two are said to relate to the Absolute as being * attribute ' and ' function ' inseparable from the Absolute or ' substance '. gotra has obtained its name of i cause '. Here we may notice that there are two aspects of the Absolute. I. 4). Thus. and for the 'result'-aspect. Because the Buddha is one aspect of the Absolute. Here. tadgunāh. p. 7) Of these four. being inseparable from him. amuktajña (avinirmuktajñāna) (p.19 (anādicittavyavadSnadharmasahajâvinirbhāgatā). In this respect. 1) vyavadānadhātu. (v. gunāh. they are ragarded somehow as the natural outflow of the Buddha's Compassion (karunā) towards living beings (v. e. bodhana. (v. the difference between two aspects is shown by each attribute. because of its identity with the Absolute. etc. the third aspect signifies the attributes or the qualities of the Buddha. Taking an example from the table mentioned above. though it is common to both. the acts of the Buddha. &c. V. 25) āśraya. 43) V.4 ff. V. For the acts of the Buddha.

In other words. Next. From the stand 4 4 4 point of gotra'. and tathāgatagotra. e. This Absolute. we come to know that these aspects are interchangeable according to the respective standpoint. while tathatā is explained as tathāgata in the sense ' tathatā śuddhim āgatā '. i. tathatā. tathatā stands again for 4 medium '-aspect. 70. if we restrict the observation only to the relationship between dharmakāya and tathāgatagotra. If we apply the same idea of ' medium ' in this case. as common to both cause and result. 69. The first application of the 3 aspects theory is v. buddha) under the name of bodhi in comparison with the gotra's being hetu. the third aspect is preferably called 4 ground '. dharmakāya and tathatā are either result' or ground'. and 4 result ' is considered 4 to become one with 4 4 the ground. I. the former is to be regarded as 4 cause ' and the latter. and 3) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. Here the third aspect is characterized as 4 medium ' (pratyaya) and on the basis of bodhi as medium. They correspond to dharmakāya. (p. as * result '. being the 4 ground ' which renders gotra as * cause '. 44) Such is the fundamental structure of the Absolute and its aspects in this text. dharmakāya is interpreted as the Absolute itself. I. and regarded as ' result'. Here. the Absolute can be established as ' result ' because it is in common with the gotra. 2) tathāgatas tathataîsām garbhah sarvasattvānām. respectively. taking this structure into consideration and subsequently clarifying 4 4 the process from cause' to result'. 26 where the Absolute is on the one hand regarded as phala under the name of ratnatraya and on the other hand as pratyaya for establishing ratnatraya (i. e. tathatā. The names of the 3 aspects are dharmakāya. gotra is result ' as well as 4 cause '. however. 44 ' The word tathāgatagarbha is interpreted in the Ratna. Another kind of. 17 ff) by the commentator based upon v. 3 aspects are often used for analyzing the tathāgatagarbha in this text. In this case. See my translation of each passage. cause and result are called bodhya and buddha. respectively. 27. namely: 1) tathāgatasya ime garbhah sarvasattvāh. According to the commentator. By examining in this way. the Absolute '. It may be termed ' ground'-aspect or 4 medium'aspect.17). division of the 3 aspects is what is called svabhāvatraya of gotra (p. and tathāgatagotra. 4 while from the standpoint of the Absolute. and more important. in three ways. and dharmakāya as 4 result' since the word dharmakāya stands for one aspect of buddha showing his essential nature. we know. . and including this aspect. For ground ' of cause '. is therefore to be regarded as the third aspect which is necessary to establish the relationship of cause and result. let us examine the characteristics of the Absolute. tathatā will be regarded as 4 medium '.The Ratnagotravibhāga gotra is the ' ground '.

is ' impersonal ' and ' attainable '. etc. in those two points we can find the peculiarity of the Buddhist Absolute. From the standpoint of the development of the idea or from the literal meaning of each term. to the other those doing the same from the ' result '-aspect. Originally and basically the Absolute in Buddhism is dharma. pratītyasamutpāda. On the other hand. śūnyatā. This is a kind of ' personification ' of the Absolute. these terms can be divided into two groups: to one group belong those expressing the Absolute from the ' ground 'aspect. is introduced into the conception of Buddhist Absolute. Of course both aspects are interchangeable as has been seen in the case of 'dharmakāya'' and '•tathatā'' in the preceding passage. this nature is also regarded as the Absolute under the names of ' dharmatā' ( = dharmasvabhāva). or by the terms. the universal law. and hence the universe is called 'dharmadhātu\ the realm of truth which is the essence of the nature (tattvasya laksanam) and is regarded as the Absolute itself in the sense of ' reality '. ' tathatā' or itattva'> (suchness). such a division seems possible. being the truth. But in its fundamental characteristics. which is unchangeable and immutable (asarnskrta) and whose contents are expressed by the 4 āryasatya of duhkha. Thus the all-pervadingness. The Absolute is expressed in various terms in this text. and hence. is characterized as ' adhigamadharma\ Thus the Buddhist Absolute. nirodha and mārga. .J. it penetrates all things or phenomena including the living beings. Being the nature of things.The Absolute. and based upon these two characteristics. 45) The following description does not exactly follow a historical development of the idea but is made with a logical approach. however. This is nothing but the 4 ground '— aspect of the Absolute. TAKASAKI § 3. the character of being ' attainable ' introduces the ' result '-aspect and is shown by the absolutization of the Buddha caused by veneration and glorification of the Buddha as the founder among Buddhist followers. and hence the oneness of the Absolute. the Buddhist Absolute expands its contents in two directions 45>. as this 'impersonal' truth shows the real nature of 'things'. or the highest truth (paramârthasatya). Sanskrit terms mentioned with quotation marks in the following passage are the technical terms on the Absolute used in the Ratna. This truth is to be realized by oneself ('pratyātmavedanīya'') as the Buddha did for the first time. Firstly. . samudaya.

Introduction of the ' result'-aspect into the Absolute thus effected the absolutization of Buddha. On the other hand. the intuition (prajñā) or wisdom (jñāna) by which the Buddha attained the enlightenment occupies an important place and is elevated to identity with the Absolute under the name of 4 prajñāpāramitā ' or 4 buddhajñāna ' as the essential nature of the Buddha. since he realized the truth and his essence or nature as being ' buddha ' lies in his realization (' bodhi ') of the truth. in the case of ' nirvana '. and Nirvana was regarded as synonymous with ' dharmatā'. the term ' buddha ' is originally applicable to any person as an adjetive. there is another important term for the Buddhist Absolute. Thus the absolutization of the Buddha consists in making the Buddha impersonal and this Buddha as the Absolute is called ' dharmakāya'. or ' dharmakāya'. if one may discuss the matter apart from the religious feeling* the Buddha is regarded as * impersonal'. though they are actually not the Buddha. are. Originally. This same nature is called ' gotra ' or ' dhātu ' and the existence of this nature is explained by the expression ' dharmakāyapa~ rispharanatā'' or ibuddhajñānântargama''-tva. At the same time. however. it shows the ' result '-aspect of the Absolute. Both of these attainments of ' jñāna' and ' vyavadāna'. Besides ' buddha ' and ' bodhi'. Mahāyāna Buddhism rebelled against the dualistic conception of Nirvana and Satnsāra and emphasized the oneness of both in the sense that Nirvana is the only reality. like ' bodhi'. combined in one as the sine qua non for the realization of the Absolute. of the attained state. In the case of ' bodhi '. the state of 'buddha' is attainable as the result of practice. ' nirvana'' and ' bodhi'. and consequently there is no strict distinction of use between both terms. In this sense. are postulated to have the same nature as the Buddha. anybody can become ' buddha ' if he experiences and practises what the Gautama Buddha did. It is ' nirvana '. and even of the medium or instrument for such an acquisition. in other words. we cannot overlook a rather primitive and magical idea that to know something is to become itself. the manifestation of the truth. the emphasis is on the disappearance or extinction (ksaya. ' dharmadhātu'.The Ratnagotravibhāga but even in this case. This term was absolutized even in the Pali and in the Adhidharma Buddhism as an idea contrary to samsāra and is stated to be the realm of peace (' śāntipatha '). which is believed commonly in India . by ' nirvana' is meant a state 4 attained ' by the Buddha and hence. For the introduction of such a conception. the existence of an innumerable number of Buddhas is possible and even ordinary beings. nirodha) of defilements (kleśa) and hence the term nirvana is much related to the purification of mind (cittavyavadāna). however. Namely.

In relation to the conception of the Absolute in 4 ground ' and ' result ' aspect. observed in the use of terms such as 'samalā tathatā^ and '•nirmalā tathatā\ 'vaimalyadhātu\ 'viśuddhicittaprakrti'' or by the definition of tathāgata as itathatā śuddhim āgatā\ and of tathāgatagarbha as 'sarva kleśakośakotigūdhas tathāgatagarbhah\ Such terminology is characteristic of this tathāgatagarbha theory compared with stress on jñānâpti in the vijñānavāda as the ultimate goal 48>. viz. one thing to be noted here is the development of Buddhology. § 2. e. In this last point lies the significance of the tathāgatagarbha theory of this text. Basically. Brhad. jyesfhaś caśresthaś ca svānām bhavati. and the Vijñānavāda). iii-2-9) is regarded as one of the important authority for the Vedāntavāda. This theory is in one sense an inevitable result of the development of Mahāyānistic Monism in its religious expression. Rather. 47 ' 'sayo ha vai tatparamambrahma veda brahmaîva bhavati'. and this process is understood as the removal (' visamyoga'') of two kinds of obscuration. . the purpose of religious practices was made to be the acquisition of the Buddhahood rather than the Arhatship of Abhidharma Buddhism. however. and approach the Upanisadic thinking in its philosophy. In relation to the term tathāgatagarbha. * 8) See VI. (The Ratna. of knowable things (jñeya-āvarana) and of defilements (kleśa-ā. i. And when Buddhism developed itself into Mahāyāna Buddhism. it could not but take the appearance of Monism as a result of Absolutization of the Buddha. of the tathāgatagarbha) or jñānâpti.). And for explaining the possibility of anyone's acquiring the Buddhahood. In this characterization the process from cause to result is observed. TAKASAKI since the Vedic Age 46>. Emphasis was placed on the Buddha rather than the Dharma and effected the ' ekayāna ' theory of the Buddha.J. the stress lies on the purification of mind from the defilements. At the same time. the Monistic philosophy was used as the background. etc. the jewel of the Buddha came to be regarded as the only ultimate refuge. On the other hand absolutization of the Buddha made Mahāyāna Buddhism more religious than Abhidharma Buddhism. Establishment of the Buddha as the Absolute under the name of dharma46> e.g. the Absolute is often spoken of as the dharmakāya of the tathāgata. Up. Among the 3 jewels. it is an inevitable character for all systems which declare their philosophical standpoint as Monism. which is characterized as ' āśrayaparivrttV (Revolution of the basis. It was also the basic idea for the theory of the oneness of Brahman and Âtman in the philosophy of the Upanisads as well as of the later Vedāntavāda 47>. (Mundaka Up. vi-1-1: yo ha vai jyestham ca śrestham ca veda.

the rūpakāya. by dividing the second one into two. the Buddha's own nature means.' and hence the dharmakāya's original character as ' result ' is still retained. this second body is called ' rūpakāya' (v. i. Here. 27 and 28). paramārtha and samvrti.151-2. 1. ' sārnbogika' and ' nairmānika' are of conventional character. the Body for other's enjoyment. 43 ff. I l l . Therefore. as has been observed above. In turn. 61). I. and by it. 1). is ' result ' and the dharmakāya is ' ground' for the second body. in this text. and the manifestation of these Buddhas is regarded as for the sake of people. the historical Buddha is defined as 'nairmānika'. 1). but by this term all the Buddhas in ten directions and in three divisions of time. Furthermore these two are said to represent 4svârthasampatti'' and 'parârthasampatti\ respectively (v. This division of two bodies corresponds to the two aspects of the Absolute. namely. Literally sambhoga means enjoyment or bliss of the dharma by the Buddha himself as the ' result' of realization of dharma. sāmbhogika means para-sāmbhogika. future and present are signified. immediately followed by the triple kāya theory. However. however. it corresponds to the division of two satyas. This double kāya theory is. past. Also. I l l . This triple kāya theory seems to be basic for the Ratna. r oo . e. the interpretation of sāmbhogika leaves some doubt with us. the Apparitional Body. On the other hand. This was originally a problem of how to treat the historical Buddha in the Buddhist doctrine. It may be more logical to include the dharmakāya's character of jñānâpti or svârthasampatti ln to the second body of sambhoga. In comparison with the dharmakāya. ' buddhajñāna' is replaced by dharmakāya without interpretation (v. II.). e. the fact of being the Buddha's own nature. it is to be called ' svasāmbhogika ' in contrast with the sanibhogika which represents parârthasampatti. ' svābhāvika' is for the dharmakāya. referring respectively to the body for the assembly of Bodhisattvas and to the body for common people in order to lead them towards the Enlightenment. and called 4 paramārthakāya'' and *samvrtikāya. II. Here. to leave the dharmakāya m its pure character of truth or reality. and dharmakāya is called svârthasampatti because of its including jñānâpti within itself. An usual nomination for the three is ' svābhāvika\ ' sāmbhogika' and 'nairmānika\ respectively (vv. i. That is why. and is hence included under parârthasampatti. (v. Why is its Junction limited to para-sambhoga ? If the dharmakāya is regarded as svârthasampatti.The Ratnagotravibhāga subsequently caused another aspect of the Buddha to rise besides the dharmakāya. Of them. these latter two are called parârthasampatti. the former being lokottara and the latter being laukika. ' bodhi' or ' buddhajñāna.

the former might be said to represent svârthasampatti. or separation of the jñāna from the attributes of the dharmakāya. In this description. 21). 150). which is caused by means o f avikalpajñāna ' and ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna ' (v. Here. 80). and in the same way. Commenting on the dharmakāya as one of the svabhāvatraya of the tathāgatagarbha (p. the said twofold Body is referred to as the substratum of sva-parârthasampatti. the commentator divides the dharmakāya into (1) dharmadhātu which. but it might well have done so. the natural outflow of dharmadhātu. e. svârthasampatti is to be regarded as inherent to the muktikāya or dharmadhātu. and lastly resulted in another kind of the triple kāya theory. Namely. the correspondence between each of the 3 couples of terms is not clearly observed. 70).. in contrast with the former. I. 30). since it is nothing but the samudānītagotra being the result produced by the prakrtisthagotra (v. which it calls ' the realm of avikalpajñāna '. Shall we then consider that the svârthasampatti is represented by this second body. and we may conclude that the complete separation of the ' result ' aspect from the dharmakāya is not observed in the Ratna. and the first body.) ' and the latter ' K'ai-chen-ho-ying S * 'PJ* MH) '» respectively. represents ' adhigamadharma '. These two kāyas correspond to i prakrtiviśuddhi ' and ' vaimalyaviśuddhi ' (p.. which is characterized as 'parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. attention should be paid to the division of dharmakāya by the commentator into ' muktikāya ' and ' dharmakāya ' in regard to its function (v. even in the commentary 49>. but it is apparently ' no '. the dharmakāya. the dharmakāya stands for the ' result ' aspect. TAKASAKI In this respect. being the realm of avikalpajñāna. * 9) In Mahāyāna Buddhism. in comparison with the latter. which constitutes ' deśanādharma ' characterized as ' parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. the muktikāya is to be identified with the Absolute Essence characterized as ' dharmadhātu\ ' cittaprakrti ' or ''prakrtisthagotra''. In turn. In Chinese Buddhism reference is often made to these two kinds of the triple kāya theory calling the former ' K'ai-ying-ho-chen (pfj J|/j>|| / py J|l.J. The development had taken place from the double kāya theory in Nāgārjuna's philosophy to the triple kāya theory as in the Ratna. whose characteristic lies in the division of the dharmakāya into two kāyas. It is one of keynotes to decide the date of Mahā- . or to ' prakrtisthagotra ' and ' samudānītagotra ' (v. Here the text does not call the latter the realm of prsthalabdha-jñāna. it stands for the 'ground' aspect of the dharmakāya. Thus being the case. I. II. II. but it may be proven in the light of another commentary passage. and (2) ' tadnisyanda '. 149). respectively. Being 'innate'. i. Buddhology occupies an important part among its doctrines. in the sense 'the Body which represents the innate liberation'. the muktikāya remains without arthasampatti ? An answer is not clearly given in the text.

7) or the relation of deśanādharma to adhigamadharma as mentioned above (dharmadhātu-nisyanda). 60) In the Lañkāvatārasūtra (p. which.4 & 11). 4»Q I7p). 8). Up to now I have often referred to the i result' aspect without distinction. however. i. p. Suzuki. 8 & 18. is said to be vipāka-phala. are ' visamyoga '. Namely.) (c. 82). In the Ratna. the term vaipākika is used for sāmbhogika. the first one. this term is used along with visamyoga in the same context as dharmakāya and rūpakāya (v.At the same time. there is a certain variety. while to include the nirmānakāya within vipākaphala is improper. in the case of visamyoga. But in regard to its contents or its relation to ' cause' or ' ground '. This last usage actually refers to the relation of the rūpakāya to the dharmakāya in the sense that the rūpakāya is merely an aspect of the dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. 150). If it were so. samvrtikāya. yāna Sutras and Sāstras. visamyoga-phala is used for characterizing āśrayaparivrtti. This is nothing but what I called the ' result' aspect of the dharmakāya whose ' cause ' is gotra or dhātu.The Ratnagotravibhāga There is another thing to be noticed here with reference to the aspects of the dharmakāya. This usage seems to relate to the character of sambhogakāya as the ' reward ' of infinite practice (bhāvanā) before Enlightenment. 1). cause and result are exactly the same. result is the same as cause or is involved within the cause. Namely. The same relation must be observed between samudānītagotra and the twofold rūpakāya (v. I. while in the case of vipāka. 1. the tathāgatagarbha. 56. Now the third one. 283. The terms which show this variety and which are used in the Ratna. =P|X. Enlightenment or jñānâpti may also be termed vipākaphala because of its character of svasambhoga. * niryanda ' and ' vipāka '. and in the case of nisyanda. e. Studies in the Lañkāvatāra Sūtra. and between avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. On the other hand. About Buddhology of the triple kāya. representing parârtha. 308 ff. the term nisyanda-buddha is mentioned as indicating the second Body (p. the dharmakāya appears in its ' ground ' aspect. pp. or dharmakāya as the result of purification or attainment of Enlightenment (p. In this case. Of them. see D. however. curiously enough. II. 1. 57. in contrast with nairmānika (see BHS Die. in contrast with paramārthakāya as visamyogaphala which represents svârtha. cause and result are dissimilar from each other. 1. the term nisyanda is used for indicating the relation of dharmaratna and samgharatna to buddharatna (dharmatānisyanda.T. vipāka-phala is an entirely different one from the other two in its original character. because this kāya is said to be the incarnation of the dharmakāya50>. 80. is rendered into the Chinese . what is proper to the nirmānakāya is the term nisyanda.

we have examined the fundamental character of the tathāgatagarbha theory in the Ratna. 51) ranlrājasūtra). Among the scriptures utilized in the Ratna. ratnasūtra) (Chap.J. the Ratna. 3) Ratnadārikāsūtra. In one sense. . 4) Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. GENEALOGY OF THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY § 1. the Ratna. Of them. and those frequently quoted are 5) Āryaśrîmālāsūtra and 6) Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta.Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga. however. the main sources of the Ratna. 66. IV. according to the commentator. and its essential doctrine constitutes the core of this text. 2 dhā2) Tathāgatagarbhasūtra.18. For its explanation. those relating to the Kārikā text and hence assuming important roles in the arrangement of the text are. following ones: 1) Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (or Tathāgatamahākarunāsūtra). sometimes it uses the scriptural passage as if it were its own words without any sign of quotation. the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is the most important one as it expounds mainly the tathāgatagarbha theory. Sometimes it presents the whole passage by quotations without its own words. 1. from which the 9 examples illustrating the Buddha's Acts are derived (v. Besides the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 7) Avatamsakasūtra {Tathāgatotpattisambhava— Bibliographical information of these scriptures is given in my notes on the English translation under the first occurrence of quotations or name of each scripture. seems merely a collection of scriptural passages concerning the tathāgatagarbha theory. TAKASAKI IV. from which the 9 examples garbhasūtrodāharananirdeśa) (Chapter I). which seems to be the first treatise exposing this theory systematically and in its pure form. has been much aided by various scriptures which expound the same theory. from which the 7 Vajrapadas are derived as the body of the treatise. is more than 20 and quotations or altered scriptural passages seem to occupy more than one third of the whole text. tathāgata- . from which the 64 Attributes of the Buddha are derived (v. The number of Scriptures utilized in the Ratna. Also. (v. illustrating how the Germ is covered with defilements are derived (p. I l l . III). 79). 5 1 ) . 27. In the preceding chapter.

They expound more or less the same theory of tathāgatagarbha. as well as in its ascription of the cause to irregular thought (ayoniśo-manasikāra) 52>. which corresponds to the passage. These two seem to hold a key for solving the problems of the relationship between the tathāgatagarbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. much with its ekayāna theory and the doctrine of the eternal Buddha. 1. utilized them only along the lines of the tathāgatagarbha theory and never referred to the Vijñānavāda. as well as of the authorship of the Ratna. They are 12) Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra and 13) Mahayānasūtrâlañkāra. at least. the names Prajñāpāramitāsūtra and Saddharmapundarīka. of which one is in Prakrit. 10) Gaganagañjābodhisattvapariprcchā. and 11) Ratnacūdasūtra are quoted. To discuss and examine the character of all the scriptures mentioned above is beyond our present purpose. However. which occupy a unique position in comparison with the former group of Scriptures. They seem to have appeared after Nāgārjuna. For this purpose. are mentioned in the Ratna. There are two works. we will pick up some important ones and will refer to their historical order. One remarkable point is that all scriptures or parts of scriptures mentioned above are unknown to Nāgārjuna or. 9) Sāgaramatipariprcchā. 18) Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra). v. among the quotations. besides its indirect influences on the Tathāgatagarbha theory. but it is clear that this scripture had influenced the Ratna. 8) Mahāparinirvānasūtra {Mahayāna) {Tathāgatadhātuparivarta). both of which are regarded as the main authorities on the Vijñānavāda. 5 2 > See my note on the Engl. 17) Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa. is an entirely new and later theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. in the Ratna. 19) ISadāyatanasūtra (or § adindriyarāsi-sūtra) and from more than eight unknown sources. . There is no quotation from the Saddharmapundarīka. Other quotations are from 16) Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta. (111-53). the Ratna. not often but with long passages. Besides these scriptures on the tathāgatagarbha theory.The Ratnagotravibhāga parivarta). but it is necessary and possible for clarifying the tathāgatagarbha theory to trace its genealogy back to its origin by examining these sources. tr. This last one is significant in its exposition of how phenomena are originated from one essence (ekadhātu). 5) 6) and 8) are the representative scriptures on this theory. As for the Prajñāpāramitā. the Ratna. 52 onwards. not used in the works of Nāgārjuna. and the tathāgatagarbha theory. quotes once from 14) Vajracchedikā and once from 15) Astasāhasrikā altering the sentences into the commentary's own form. and especially nos. like the Vijñānavāda. two main and basic scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

g. the Ratnadārikā. 163 b). p.J.g. 6) seems to belong to the same line of doctrine found in the Pali canons.g.Taisho. however. p. 3. but was also the principle of practice from the outset of Buddhism.. S4 56) ^ C Jl'^f ^ C M I S . 3) the Vātsīputrīya—-* Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra (Taisho. 5. 3. 5. TAKASAKI § 2. etc. SN (PTS. 4) the Mahāsamghika—* Laksanânusāraśāstra (|*m >rn PRfl) (Taisho. Among other sects of the Abhidharma Buddhism. p. the Aksayamati—pariprcchā. S5 > e. 28. 1. seems also to be old and to have its origin in the Pali canons 54>. vol. 92). or similar ones. " cittasamkleśāt sattvāh samkliśyante. etc. ". the Ratnacūda. 397 (Vol. p. 2) the Vaibhāsika—Mahāvibhāsāśāstra (Taisho. 2. AN (ibid. 10). the most important and principal point of the tathāgatagarbha theory is to purify the mind. 32. etc. The term tathāgatagarbha was an entirely new usage but its basic idea is found in the expression " prakrtiprabhāsvaram cittam āgantukair upakleśair upakliśyate. The Dhāranīśvararājasūtra together with the Sāgaramatipariprcchā. Milindapanhā iv-7-2. 697 b). Another expression of this same idea of purification of mind. No. cittavyavadānād viśuddhyante". which form parts of the Mahāsamghātasūtra 56\ are also standing fundamentally on the theory of the cittaprakrti. 140 b). 9-10 (PTS. p. 1. See C. . 27. 13). 210 ff. p. Characterization of defilements or phenomena in general as ' accidental ' attachment on the mind is. and they are probably written by one and the same group who later developed the tathāgatagarbha theory. AN. I. The peculiarity of the tathāgatagarbha theory lies in its emphasis on this point in association with the fundamental identification of living beings with the Buddha under the name of tathāgatagarbha. A Prakrit verse quoted in the Ratna. 57 ' The Sarvāstivāda did not accept this theory of cittaprakrti. p. (p. not found among those scriptures belonging to the oldest group in the Pali canon and there was a controversy about this characterization among schools of the Abhidharma Buddhism 57) . the following four are known for their acceptance of this theory: 1) the Theravāda of Ceylon—Dhammapadâtthakathā. though it is not traced in the present Tripitaka. 53) . 151).Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa As has been said above. > e. vol. SN (vol.. p. the Gaganagañjā. 1. e. are used sometimes in the Pali canons 53>. for which the same corresponding expression. Compilation of this big collection of sūtras in the present form has probably taken place after the composition of the Ratna. This is not an exclusive facture of this theory. Akanuma: Bukkyo—kyori no Kenkyū (Japanese) (Studies in the Buddhist Doctrine). vol. This purity of the innate mind is often compared to that of gold 55>. 257).

The source of the citta-mātra theory is often sought for in the following passage: tasyaîvam bhavati / cittamātram idam yad idam traidhātukam / yāny apîmāni dvādaśāngāni tathāgatena prabhedaśo vyākhyātāni tāny api sarvāny eva cittasamāśritāni V (Rahder's ed. Questions which arise pursuant to the idea of cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa are (1) why and how the phenomena of unreal character are originated and (2) how the cittaprakrti is pure and identical with the Buddha or the immutable Absolute being. no. Strictly speaking. into Chinese by Dharmaraksa as an independent Sūtra 59 ). 558 b). Prior to the establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory by the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. is no doubt based upon this theory. though it makes no use of the term cittamātra. — " Buddhajñāna " in the Avatamsaka. The first exposition of these two points (consequently the first establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory) is seen in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 291. Taisho 9. Still there is no doubt that the citta-mātra theory and the Vijñānavāda have their starting point in this passage. § 3.. Furthermore. . The term buddhajñāna is a synonym of buddhatva or buddhatā. M) 58) ' Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching (#P ^ 5 | MB $ S \ Taisho. as for the former it has not sufficient explanation to resolve the problem even in the Ratna.The R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga This idea had been fully accepted by the Mahāyāna Buddhism. whose first exposition is found in the Daśabhūmikasūtra 58>. The passage containing the description of the buddhajñāna (Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa) also seems old. p.D. which will be observed in the passage expounding the origination of phenomena from the cittaprakrti. and we can find a frequent use of the above two expressions among the Mahāyānistic scriptures. 49 c. A. there is a stage of development with respect to the identification of living beings with the Buddha. The Avatamsakasūtra as is seen in the present form is a collection of minor scriptures among which the Daśabhūmika. p. It is the idea of the penetration of the Buddha's Wisdom into the living beings described in the Avatamsakasûtra and quoted in the Ratna. The tathāgatagarbha theory seems to put the accent on the latter of the two. the Gandavyûha are important and of early origin. this characterization of defilements led to the idea of non-reality of all the phenomena and resulted in the cittamātra theory. and was translated early in the 3rd cent. this passage teaches only the dependence of the phenomena on the citta. however. and. It describes only how the defilements come to cover the pure innate mind and how they are to be removed. This Ratna. (pp. 22-24).

1958. 11. a Buddha sitting in the interior of every lotus flower: 1) I (the Buddha) observe.The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. In relation to this. 60) . 16. 8-9). buddhacaksus. This buddhajñāna is often compared to the sun. though they are among the defilements of hatred. with special reference to this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna. for which the acquisition of jñāna is indispensable. These scriptures expound on one hand the eternity of the Buddha and his acts which corresponds to the all-pervadingness of the buddhajñāna and form the basic idea of the Absolute 60>. 10-11) seems to belong to the same group as the two said scriptures in the use of terms: tathāgatadhātur utpanno garbhagatah. 73). utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh6 1 \ On the relationship between the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa and the Ratna. . (48)-(53). and buddhakāya sitting motionless.J. p . being endowed with the virtuous properties. have the buddhajñāna. the Buddha preached the doctrine in order to remove the defilements and manifest the Buddha nature [within the living beings]. as it appears from the Ratna. the Jñānâlokâlañkāra and the Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra seem to be consistent with the Tathāgatotpatisambhavanirdeśa. 72. (p. I wrote an article in the Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies: " The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratnagotravibhāga. § 4. This article stresses the development of the idea of ' gotrasambhava '. Vol. are possessed of the tathāgatagarbha which is always unpolluted and. with the buddhacaksus. they are not different from myself. 7. or the Jñānâlokâlañkāra. 1. Tokyo. 3) Having thus observed. 4) esā dharmānām dharmatā. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is a small scripture whose main part consists merely of the 9 examples illustrating the covering of defilements over the tathāgatagarbha. that all living beings. with special reference to the term ' tathāgatagotra-sambhava ' (j%\\ yjv '|£n /chi) '\ JIBS. with respect to the Tathāgatgarbhasūtra. (p. 26. The last one is quoted in the Ratna. In their emphasis of buddhajñāna. 11. TAKASAKI because the Buddha's nature is represented by his Enlightenment. (p. though they are abiding in various worlds with bodies full of defilements. anger and ignorance. pp. one thing to be noticed here is that a scriptural passage of unknown source quoted in the Ratna. 457 6-c. 2) [Thus] all living beings. No. The core of its doctrine is stated in the following four sentences in the first example. one of the important terms in the Hua-yen philosophy and locates the first use of this compound in the Ratna. 61> These four passages are in Taisho.

It is quoted more often in the Ratna. and as far as the philosophical approach is concerned. such an observation is regarded as the real conception of śūnyatā. However. 7-11). 4) the aśūnya and śūnya character of the garbha (Q in pp. what is called the three meanings of the tathāgatagarbha by the Ratna. § 5. all of these points form the basic idea of the tathāgatagarbha theory and are deepened by the subsequent scriptures. the tathāgatagarbha has got its name and is characterized. it is expounded how this tathāgatagarbha theory is an eternal truth. while garbha is aśūnya since it is endowed with. (quotations in pp.The Ratnagotravibhāga The first three of those statements are based upon the Avantamsakasūtra. e. The explanation for this is that garbha is śūnya since it is devoid of kleśas "which are of unreal nature. dharkāyagarbha. 27. but deepened the idea by the phrase " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh " •which probably was declared for the first time in this Sūtra. . buddhadharmas which are inseparable from the dharmakāya which is the reality. and in relation to this. dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. i. I.The Āryaśrîmālāsūtra. tathāgatagarbha. as * samalā tathatā \ 2) In relation to those faces. and to know the tathāgatagarbha is said to be the same as to know śūnyatā. In the fourth sentence. and they represent. 26.. 28. viz. That. Moreover. & prakrtipariśuddhagarbha give the full characteristic of garbha on its pure side. lokottaradharmagarbha. in the Ratna. dharmadhātugarbha.. 59 & 76). than does the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. than any other scripture. 15 & 22) It is another expression of the same idea of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa '. in short. & 11. 3) Union of the tathāgatagarbha with innumerable attributes of the Buddha. is the whole contents of this Sūtra. the so-called i 5 meanings of garbha ' (clarified in the Buddhagotraśāstra). The original points of thought of the tathāgatagarbha expounded in this Sutra are as follows: 1) Two faces of the mind: prakrtipariśuddhicitta and upaklistacitta. A Sūtra which deeply investigates the characters of the tathāgatagarbha in a more developed form than the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra and has a significant role for establishing the tathāgatagarbha theory is the Āryaśrīmālāsūtra. and gotrasambhavârtha (p. which identifies the garbha with the dharmakāya. and those . Here is seen the criticism on the sarva-śūnya-vāda. vv. it occupies a much more important position in the Ratna. tathatâvyatirekârtha. and because of this co-existence of purity and impurity on the mind. respectively.

is proved by its being endowed with buddhadarmas and its being considered the ground of having intention towards the Nirvana (Q. in pp. p . (cf. is nirvānadhātu. and the problem remains unsolved. i. is probably taken from this term. p. in pp. VI. 55 & 84). The latter point. but its research never goes beyond this. in pp. And to realize this ekayāna is said to acquire the anuttarasamyaksambodhi. the Sūtra contends t h a t the garbha identical with the dharmakāya of such characters is not the Ātman mentioned by the tirthās 6 3 ) . One of such expressions is the tathāgata's possession of 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. & 20). in p . 72). 57). t h a t . its original word seems to be * ekayānanisthā '. the acceptance of One Vehicle of the Buddha. theg-pa-gcig-gi mthah). in p . TAKASAKI adhering to the śūnya-vāda are criticized by being called ' śūnyatāviksiptacittā'' sattvāh. Also 4 attributes of nitya. sukha. śiva and śāśvata are used for the dharmakāya. or to become tathāgata. 222 6.. dhruva. > Taisho. 9. Introduction. § 1. (Q.J. 72) But it does not give any account of how and why such samsāra or unreal defilements come out and cover over the garbha. 12. terms ' Chiu-ching-i-ch'eng (^L J?ĪL —* ^R) ' which is identical with the Chinese . i n p . in another word. 220 c. the fundamental standpoint throughout this Sūtra is the ekayāna theory. p. 7. Thus we 82 63 > Cf.and vyavadāna-dharmas. 64) Ibid. with positive expressions and thereby the character of the dharmakāya or garbha approaches the Atman of the Vedāntavāda. (Q. as well as the garbha. i. the garbha's being ādhāra of pure dharmas. and declares t h a t the tathāgatagarbha is only accessible to the Buddha or those who believe in the buddhayāna. However the idea of the Chinese title of the Ratna. In another place. accepts the buddharatna as the ultimate refuge among 3 jewels. or of samsāra and nirvana ( Q . i. the Mahāyāna inclusive of the other two Vehicles of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. e. It consequently admits the Nirvana only to the Buddha (Q. the Ratna. 6) Another expression of the idea of the śūnya and aśūnya of the garbha is its being the support (ādhāra) of both the samklista. ātman a*id śubha. 35 & 73). (T. e. 62\ 5) Such criticism of the śūnyavāda naturally leads the Sūtra to describe the dharmakāya. while the former has the simple explanation t h a t the samsāra exists owing to the existence of the garbha which is beginningless (anādikālika). the Sūtra seeks for the basis of origination of defilements in avidyāvāsabhūmi (Q. 33) which is also regarded as being anādikālika. This ' extreme of the ekayāna ' is translated into Chinese by title of the Ratna. e. to realize the dharma64) kāya. At the same time. 12. According to the Tibetan translation. 7) Lastly. which is nothing but the ' extreme of the ekayāna ' .

which is abbreviated in the latter to ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña '. There is a small Sūtra contemporary with the Śrīmālāsūtra named Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa 65>. K 6. 59 11-14). the following fact is to be noted here. the Ratna. dhruva.. The Mahāparinirvānasūtra. 3 is explained thruogh the 10 meanings of tathāgatagarbha. and consequently the full identification of the sattvadhātu with the dharmakāya of the Buddha. namely: 1) anādisāmnidhyasambaddhasvabhāva-śubhadharmatā anādisāmnidhyâsambaddhasvabhāva-kleśakośatā y 85) M3 î~F i£)> 2) J%* AH TPJ rf!H ' T* Ypf î^P if3»)> and 3) aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidya- that no. in p. bodhisattva and tathāgata (Q. Waldschmidt which is a Sanskrit equivalent for the Pali Mahāparinibbānasuttanta. and 3) three divisions of the dharmakāya under the names of sattvadhātu. the Universe. The main point of its doctrine is the nonincrease and non-decrease of the dharmadhātu. See my note on the Engl. p. in the Sūtra. Referring to them. are 1) inseparability of the dharmakāya and the Buddha's dharmas explained by similes of lantern and gems (cf. of increase and decrease with respect to the sattvadhātu as well as the dharmadhātu or nirvānadhātu. 39). 2) fixation of 4 terms of nitya. whille nos. Special contributions of this Sūtra to the Ratna. depends to a great extent on this Sūtra for its fundamental standpoints and that quite a little of its original development is added to this Sūtra. and those who have such dual-conception are called. esp.The Ratnagotravibhāga know that the Ratna. by E.The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. The Sūtra has a passage explaining the characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in three points (AAN. the Sūtra ascribes it to the removal of dualistic views of various kinds. 1-23. 67) This work is quite a different one from the Mahāparinirvanasūtra ed. There is however no description of the non-possibility of acquiring Buddhahood on the part of the icchantikas as discussed in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra (of Mahāyāna) 67) . Q. which exposes the eternity of the dharmakāya of the Buddha from the standpoint of the Mahāyāna and borrows In one point this Sūtra seems older than the Srlmālāsūtra. 28). mānatā (^C ^K I S ^ ^§F 'fi A ^ ¥£). namely in the use of a term ' avinirmuktajñāna '. 476 6). p. śiva and śāśvata as the 4 attributes of the dharmakāya (Q. in p. 12 & 54). 66) In addition. 1 & 2 are to be explained by the 9 illustrations on the defilements covering the garbha (S. tr. says . to its possession of innumerous dharmas or gunas. to the tathāgatagarbha's being covered with kleśas and to its accessibility only to the Buddha. it has similar terms as the Srīmālāsūtra with respect to the dharmakāya. in p. In most passages. in pp. 41) 66 \ About the perception of the garbha as identical with the dharmadhātu. ' icchantika ' (Q. .

there can hardly be found any new and advanced doctrine. Tu. D. It is one of key points for distinguishing the pure tathāgatagarbha theory from the Vijñānavāda. This version (Taisho. de-bshin-gśegs-pa sñih-pohi mdo-sde chen-po. yjgfaflfccī ? ' — -HJ 3R !?fc © ^ ft tt ft M # *£ • . sukha. 367). utilizes this second idea and construes the theory of icchantikas as a conventional teaching to convert people (p. It may be called a unique point of this Sñtra. which was a sort of taboo among early Buddhists. p. vv. is enriched by detail with similes (Q. . 37). 185). seems to have completed its present form in days a little 68 later than those of the Srīmālā and the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. have on the other the same opinion on this problem as the Vijñānavāda. but on the other hand. Mdo. The Ratna. I. § 7.J. emphasizes the innate possession of the buddhadhātu in every living being. however. The Ratna. I t is said to be a work of Maitreya with a commentary by Vasubandhu. Peking Ed. in p. Another point to be noted here is the doctrine of the icchantikas. 12. . 12. attributed the final agotratva to those icchantikas who abuse the Mahāyāna doctrine. but its description is detailed in several points. Such an opinion is often found in the works belonging to the Vijñānavāda. but the final solution of this problem seems to be the denial of the existence of such people from the ultimate point of view through introducing the idea of the Bodhisattva's compassion or the idea of the long time needed before their achieving Buddhahood.(Tib. Taisho. p. 881 6: %\l ^. where the simile of gold hidden under the ground (Cf. 31. by Fa-hien in 418 A. tr. Vol.The Mahāyānasūtrâlahkāra. TAKASAKI its style of structure from the Mahāparinibbānasuttanta of Primitive Buddhism. See.. for example. Some Mahāyānists. KJ. 407 b. [ 40 ] . is regarded as the oldest version of the MPS. repr.. consisting of 68 ) It is at least sure that the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is known to the author of the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. while exposing the doctrine of tathāgatagarbha on one hand. 74) and applies to the tathāgatagarbha the term 69 ātman >. Such descriptions are sometimes contradicted in various passages. as one exposition of the garbha theory. No. it refers often to the icchantikas who being agotra have absolutely no possibility of attaining Buddhahood. p. The Sūtrâlañkāra is the only Sāstra quoted in t h e Ratna. 112-114) is spoken of. The sūtra. and the Lañkāvatāra. 97 a 6 (Photo. ātman and śubba as the result of the! double negation of misconception (viparyāsa) as the Śrīmālā did but. It describes the eternity of the dharmakāya by attributing the 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. As for its tathāgatagarbha theory. The Sûtrâlañkāra. 69 ' Taisho. Vol.

''parāvrtti'' is used. 4 tathāgatagarbha\ and the 4 trikāya'-theory of 4svābhāvika\ *sāmbhogya\ and * nairmānika % with all of which we are acquainted in the Ratna. See note on t h e Engl. 4 dharmadhātuviśuddhi '. and āśraya means tathāgatagarbha or gotra nh What is meant by āśrayaparāvrtti and what is meant by āśrayaparivrtti are finally the same Absolute. which it regards as the same as parinispanna—svabhāva. Rather. V I I I (III & IV)-32. the term āśrayaparāvrtti or āśrayasya parāvrtti is used for denoting the anāsravadhātu. The term tathāgatagarbha is used only once throughout the passages. As if to answer this question. the term āśrayaparivrtti is used for characterizing dharmakāya or bodhi. 31. according to the Chinese tradition. the Sūtrâlañkāra has various relevant passages. 15 nairātmyameva ātmani krtvā. 71) A n exception is found once i n v . It expounds mainly the theory of the Vijñānavāda. t r . the chapter on 'bodhi\ This chapter. In the orthodox Vijñānavāda. ' āśrayaparivrtti '. 1. instead of 'parivrtti'. But whether parāvrtti and parivrtti differ from each other in their sense is somehow questionable. 4 tathatā '.The Ratnagotravibhāga 21 chapters. however. ' anābhogâpraśrabdhakriyā' with the simile of the Divine drum. to the same author. This point may be called unique in this Śāstra as showing a germ of reciprocal influence between the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. 4 anāsravadhātu '. 12 in Chap. In relation to this. The division of chapters has a resemblance to the chapters of the Bodhisattvabhūmi in the Yogâcārabhūmiśāstra. it describes the practices of the Mahāyānistic Bodhisattvas. attributed. in v. 12 we have ' buddhatvam — āśraya70) After p . one notable thing is the use of the term 4 āśrayaparāvftti ' or 4 -parivrtti' and its meaning. it is inclined to approach the trisvabhāva theory in its interpretation of cittaprakrti. nor has any systematization on it. As for the garbha theory. [ 41 1 .. In this chapter we come across such terms and subjects as ' buddhatvasya śaranatva '. treating the subject of buddhatva has a doctrine quite similar to the Ratna. 7. while in the Ratna. where. 4 āśrayaparāvrtti '. and āśraya means ālayavijñāna. IX are said to be referring 4 to āśrayaparāvrtti \ Of them. although this Śāstra seems to accept basically the theory of the prakrtiprabhāsvaratā of citta and āgantukakleśa. but at the same time has passages referring to the ta~ thāgatagarbha as seen in the quotations in the Ratna. V. are found in Chapter IX. and the difference lies in what is meant by āśraya. This much is clear in regard to the difference between the two theories. 1) 6 verses beginning with v. this Śāstra has no development to compare with the Sutras referred to above. Including one verse preserved only in the Chinese version 70\ all of the three verses of this Śāstra quoted in the Ratna.

IX. e. 60. 9) v. 77 to be the dharmakāya. 15 with a simile of sky. sama. v. 4) V. 42 mentions only the first 4 and the 5th bhūmi.J . which refers to the ' yogabhūmi' of Bodhisattvas. i. ' change of basis from A to B '. 71) 5) Verses IX. [ 42 ] . referring to ivibhutva\ speak to the effect that. 8) In the commentary on v. e. e. and that the one who has acquired this state is called ' parāvrttâśraya ' (one whose āśraya has been changed). i. 14). This last point is shown in v. as the result of fixation {yoga) of mind on svadhātu. which is.. 41—48. the ' vimukti \ It ( = anāsravadhātu) is also ' sarvatragâśraya '. tathatā. e. the commentator says that by this second verse the superiority of the tathāgata abiding in that state (sthitaś ca tasmin sa tathāgato. i. 6) The same amalâśraya is explained in v. dharmâlambana. 13) over other kinds of āśrayaparāvrtti is explained. the commentator mentions ' āśraya ' as the last of the 5 yogabhūmis and explains that ' āśraya' means here 4 āśrayaparāvrtti \ But v.. (p. and anyūnânadhika.) Here the term āśraya seems to be synonymous with buddhatva as 'sarvagatâtmaka'' (v. i. which is quoted in the Ratna. which refer to the investigation of samkleśa and vyavadāna. tathāgatānām parivrttir isyate\ It is interpreted by the commentator as ' āśraya iti yo sau parivrtty āśrayas tarn darśayati* (that which is parivrtti is that which is āśraya. āśraya is shown in the next verse where it is referred to by the term āryagotra characterized as vimala. in the sense. existing also in the śrāvaka and the pratyekabuddha. 3) Commenting on v. one obtains ' vibhutva ' (power) and enters upon the amalâśraya of the Buddhas. 42 of the same chapter. XI. defined as ' āśrayaparāvrtti-laksana ' in the commentary on v. ' āśrayaparivrtti ' is explained. 2) The commentary says that by this v. e. e. the commentator says that what is taught in v. due to parāvrtti of 5 indriyas and others. 32-33. grāhya and grāhaka. of vijñānas (other than ālayavijñāna) is the 4 anāsravadhātu '. 7) In the commentary on vv. 44 runs as follows: padārtha—deha—nirbhāsa—parāvrttir anāsravah / dhātur. i. 13.e. 14 refers to the 10 meanings or characters of āśrayaparāvrtti and says ' āśrayo. XI. i. TAKASAKI syânyathāptih \ Here ' anyathāpti ' seems to be an interpretation of ' parāvrtti '. 12. i. bījaparāvrtteh sa ca sarvatragâśrayah \\ and thereon the commentary says that ' bījaparāvrtti ' means ' ālayavijñānaparāvrtti ''. viśista. in turn. 33 is the acquisition of ālambanaviśesa (special basis). which causes the disappearance of the manifestation of dvaya. ' parāvrtti ^ of i padârtha-deha-nirbhāsa '. IX.

' āvrtti ' of manas. 2) āśraya = bīja = ālayavijñāna (whose parāvrtti. 54 runs as follows: akhyāna-khyānatā jñeyā asadartha-sadarthayoh / āśrayasya parāvrttir mokso ' sau kāmacāratah Jj Here āśrayaparāvrtti is defined as the non-manifestation of the unreal objects (asadartha = nimitta. etc. IX. while at the same time there takes place the manifestation [ 43 ] . because parāvrtti means 'change of basis (from A to B)'. e. and this ' āvrtti ' is explained in the commentary to mean parāvrtti. 13) v. In conclusion. i.. the former basis. e. i. XIX. 45 & 46 say that the final āśrayaparāvrtti. v. In this third meaning. This use of the term āśraya relates to the characterization of svābhāvika or dharmakāya as the āśraya of the other two kāyas (IX. 49 runs as follows: pratisthā-bhoga-bījam hi nimittam bandhanasya hi j sāśrayāś cittacaitās tu badhyante ''tra sabījakāh fj For the second line. in v. the 5 outer-sense-based vijñānas. e. etc. 29 says that āśrayaparāvrtti takes place for the first time in the first Stage of Bodhisattva. 11) In chapter XIV. we may say. and not with parāvrtti.) = caksurvijñāna. being the substratum of unreal things or phenomena. and as the result of parāvrtti. i. and 3) āśraya — āśrayaparāvrtti = tathāgatānām parivrtti = sarvatragâśraya = amalâśraya = anāsravadhātu = dharmakāya = buddhatva = = āryagotra = svadhātu. 66). udgraha and vikalpa-. That is the description of āśrayaparāvrtti in the Sūtrâlañkāra. and vv. though it is not brought out clearly by the author. Furthermore the ' āśrayas ' are here to be understood as caksurvijñāna. 45) with another expression. that there is a variety in usage of the term āśraya: 1) āśraya (in pi. the commentary says: on these three nimittas are bound citta—caittā accompanied by āśrayas. 49) and the manifestation of the reality (sadartha = tathatā). āśraya should be compounded only with parivrtti. is annihilated or no more exists (akhyāna of asadartha). anyathâpti is buddhatva). 60.The Ratnagotravibhāga 10) The same parāvrtti of vijñānas are referred to in the next verse (v. 12) v. the acquisition of anuttarapada and sarvâkarajñatā takes place with those Bodhisattvas who practised the tajropama—samādhi.

Part 1. 3) āvrtti. with such expressions as 4 — dausthulyasya prahānad āśrayo 4 sya bodhisattvasya parivartate\ i asyâśyayah parivrtto bhavati. gañ kun-nas ñon-moñs-pahi chal dog cih. Sthiramati's commentary on the Madhyântavibhāga. p. ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' means āśrayasya bijasya tathatāyām amalâśraye parāvrttih ' . the term āśrayaparivrtti was commonly used by the Vijñānavādins and in the Tathāgatagarbha theory. * tathatāyāh parivrttih ' takes place. not only is the term āśrayaparāvrtti found in the Sūtrâlamkāra. I I Manobhūmi). Wogihara's edition. p. but not with parāvrt.. 74) Mahāyānasamgraha. the Lañkāvatārasūtra. In this sense. that is to say. Yogācārabhūmi. 190. e t c . 73) Bodhisattvabhūmi. but also in the Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā. could remain before and after the enlightenment without changing its nature. that is to say. Appendix to the Mahāyāyasūtrâlañkāra. by S. including the Bodhisattvabhūmi. disappearance. Dharmadharmatāvibhāga. was no doubt acquainted with both expressions—parivrtti and parāvrtti—but the Ratna. The commentator of the Ratna. tathatā) which is a new āśraya. to disappear (phenomenal sense). This last interpretation of āśraya and its combination with parivTtti is supported by the usage of these terms in the Yogācārabhūmi. being āśraya. p. 6 & 9. 2) akhyāna. because gotra. defining āśraya as ālayavijñāna.of the reality (khyāna of sadartha. 6. p. 1-2. ed. and the Mahāyānasamgraha of Asañga has probably the same use of āśrayaparāvrtti along with its definition 7 4 ). could not employ the latter expression. And as the result of the ' parāvrtti ' into ' tathatā '. (Dharmadh)73) . 405. i. On the other hand. the disappearance of the asad-artha (inclusive of blja) signifies its returning to the reality. Levi. Tib. 1. etc. ' —yoginām parivrttâśrayānām sarvaklistadharma-nirbīja āśrayah parivartate* (Yogācārabhūmi. 11. and due ' Parāvrtti ' is interpreted in three ways in the Sūtrâlañkâra. This supposition bears upon the authorship of the Ratna. (gshan-gyur-pa — parāvrtti). sā câsya niruttarā āśrayaparivrttih ' (Bodhisattvabhāmi). and the Dharmadharmatāvibhāga attributed to Maitreya. and that before that term was introduced. 11. and it is this ' manifestation ' of the reality that is meant by parivrtti 7 2 ). respectively. Bhattacharya. by V. Namely. Sde-dge edition. returning (doctrinal sense). rnam-par byañ-bahi char gyur-paho. 1) anya~ thâpti (in literal sense). fragments. 368. e. 72) [ 44 ] . In these two Śāstras. These facts seem to show that the term āśrayaparāvrtti was used for the first time in the Sūtrâlamkāra (kārikā) and has gradually been fixed as a technical term of the Vijñānavāda by Asañga and Vasubandhu. 27. ' tathatā-parivrtti '. 25-26. Ri 36 b 2: gshan-gyur-pa ni. 11. The most important one is the third interpretation. nirasyate. gañ gshan-gyi dbañ-gi Ao-bo-ñid de-ñid-kyi gñen-po skyes-na. 4 (āśrayaparivrtter) svabhāvapraveśas tathatā' vaimalyam āgantukamala—tathatâprakhyāna—prakhyānāya'. etc. ed. ' tathatā ' alone manifests itself fully without obscuration. we find āśraya in combination with parivrt.. astam prayātam.

the commentator of the Ratna. 10) anarthakriyā. 2) hetu. Except (4). and hence discussions will be mainly devoted to them in this chapter. — The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. 6) avasthāprabheda. From its contents. referred to above is accompanied by a prose commentary whose explanation is exactly the same as Vasubandhu's commentary on this very verse. namely: 1) phala. 3) g ft .fiS m ? t 11) ft ft M. that casts various problems about their authorship. It is the use of the six categories (sat-padârtha) beginning with svabhāva. There is another point which shows the close relationship between the Mahāyānasūtrālañkāra and the Ratna. see Appendix I I I . The main point of doctrine in this work is the i bodhicittai which is synonymous with 'cittaprakrtV in the Ratna. and is mainly based upon two Sutras. the Āryaśrīmālā and the Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa76). 5) abheda. in their contents. 7) asamklista. As has been referred to above. 3) svabhāva. (3) Anuttarâśrayasūtra. § 1. and hence is nothing but the tathāgatagarbha. date. 2) g | . 10) A. 6) ft . 7) m Ife. this small Śāstra is attributed to Sāramati in the Chinese Tripitaka. The Chinese insertion of one verse from the Sūtrâl. Especially. 76 ^ These terms are reconstructed from the Chinese translation which gives the 78) ft (ffi). As for this. must be someone other than Asañga or Vasubandhu 75>. this work seems quite consistent with the Ratna. and even their originality.The Ratnagotravibhāga to the specialized use of the term āśrayaparivrtti. 8) nitya. and 12) ekatva (or ekadhātu). The text describes this bodhicitta under 12 divisions. 8) ^ fi. Among them those to be referred to here are (1) Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. 4) paryāya. (2) Buddhagotraśāstra. The Description of the Ultimate Reality. 9) yoga. and these problems are relating to the date and author of the Ratna. 9) ffi JR. 5) ft 3g &] . though regarded as of Indian origin and preserved in the Chinese and the Tibetan Tripitakas. 11) arthakriyā. (4) Lañkāvatārasūtra and (5) Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśātra. the first three are in close relation to the Ratna. 12) — ft[ 45 ] following terms: 1) ^ . all these are known only through the Chinese sources. V. THE WONKS ON THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY CONTEMPORARY WITH OR SUCCEEDING THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA There are many other works on the garbha theory which are never reffered to in the Ratna. 4) J £ & . This fact cannot be a fully reliable proof for the present problem but suggests the point to some extent.

TAKASAKI This division has a resemblance not only in its terminology but also in its contents to the 10 meanings of the gotra described in Chap. similes used under 10) anarthakriyā and II) arthakriyā are the same as those in Chapters 1 (among 9 illustrations). prakrtyasamklistatva is said to be the own nature of bodhicitta. samādhi and karunā. ' bodhisattva '.. and the 10 characteristics of asambheda under 5) can be traced one by one in various passages in the Ratna. The remaining parts not described above seem to be taken mostly from Chapters II & IV of the Ratna. with a verse containing the same idea as v. The verse in 8) nitya. a verse referring to the śūnya and aśūnya of the gotra. of which the first one is identical with v. 1. dharmâdhimukti. with I. In particular. it explains 4 causes. and ' tathāgata' seeking for its authority in the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa. a verse under 7) asamklista resembles v. and emphasizing oneness of nirvana with buddhatva. And lastly. i. Namely. is called śubhâtmasukhanityapāramitā and so authorized by a quotation from the Srīmālāsūtra. e. 1. the text says phala means nirvānadhātu which is nothing but the dharmakāya characterized as āśrayaparivrtti. the second. like ākāśadhātu. saying ' śukladharmamayalaksana and vaimalyapariśuddhilaksana reminds us of the characterization of dharmakāya with prakrtiviśudhi and vaimalyaviśuddhi (p.. and Sāramati to whom this work is attributed may have been the author of the commentary of the Ratna. 155. in its contents.'..). 26 ff. did in its explanation on the ' śuddhâvasthāyām avikārârtha ([IX]-c). (pp. 34 of the Ratna. Under 3) svabhāva. Under 2) hetu. it is possible that the latter is identical with the author of this text. II. Besides. compressing and revising the form according to his own view. [ 46 ] . the tathāgata. saying that the bodhicitta is nothing but the dharmakāya. the āryasatya or the Nirvana. 80) or the distinction of prakrtisthagotra and samudānītagotra in the Ratna. 6) avasthāprabheda is fully identical with that in the Ratna. II. 3 in the Ratna. Thus examining the contents. a synonym of bodhicitta in its phala state. in its classification of living beings into ' sattvadhātu ' . under 1) phala. and IV of the Ratna. we may say that the author of this text composed it on the basis of the Ratna. Under 9) yoga. unlike the Sûtralañkāra. of neither origination nor destruction (anutpādânirodha). In this case.. the contents of 12) ekatva are the same as those under 'asambheda'' (X) in the Ratna. is identical with verses I. explaining that dharmadhātu is. 53 & 54 of the Ratna. and explains it in the same way as the Ratna. 42-c d of the Ratna. a reference to the 2 sides of bodhicitta under 3) svabhāva. the text has two verses. prajñā..J . seems to have been written from the same standpoint as the commentator of the Ratna. as this text.. I of the Ratna. In 4) paryāya.

I in the Ratna. and sometimes those passages which are in other chapters or other parts of Chap.The Buddhagotraśāstra. II of the Ratna. viz. 3) descriptions regarding Buddhology of the trikāya—theory which is taught in two places in the Ratna. of which the last one treats the subject of the 10 meanings of the gotra under the title: Analysis of the characteristics (laksana) (of the Tathāgatagarbha). but with the same terminology and with explanations much similar to those of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. 4) explanations of (VII) nitya and (VIII) acintya in Chap. 5) descriptions of the ' śūnya and aśūnya ' of the garbha along with the 4 kinds of sattvas. in most parts of the text. according to the Chinese tradition. even in their wording. ' ft ft ffffl '.. 1610. I (among explanations on the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra. important changes of arrangement in this work are 6) shift of the deśanāprayojana ' which is at the end of Chap. are inserted under (IX) avikāra. is attributed. in Chap. It is translated into Chinese by Paramârtha. like the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. by ' j f f$f\ . I). No. pp. by '^C ^ft '. but sometimes doctrines based upon the Vijñānavāda are interwoven among passages. 2) (V) yoga includes explanations of ' dharmaratna ' and ' sañgharatna ' which appeared in Chap. are inserted under (IX) avikāra as characteristics of the dharmakāya. The whole text consists of 4 chapters. This attribution is rather doubtful. I of the Ratna. . The Buddhagotraśāstra is another work which. expounds the 10 meanings of the gotra described in the Ratna. p. I in the Ratna. tr.The Ratnagotravibhāga c 2. Explanations under each ' laksana ' are in most cases quite equivalent to those in the Ratna. are inserted between lines. The main differences between the two works as mentioned in the previous paragraph are as follows: 1) 9 illustrations of the garbha taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra along with the explanations of the 9 kinds of defilements and of the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra (Ratna. II (under (VI) vrtti) and in Chap. satkāyadrstipatitā. to Vasubandhu 7?) and highly esteemed among Chinese Buddhists throughout the centuries as a representative work on the garbha theory. 66-72) are inserted under (IX) avikāra. 72). Besides those insertions in the passages on the 10 laksanas of the garbha. but this work poses interesting problems for us because of its very close similarity to the Ratna. are inserted in (X) asambheda. to the beginning of the work forming the nidānaparivarta' (Chap. and 7) "> Taisho.. etc.

Another point of interest is the use of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra in the Buddhagotraśāstra. has a subtitle: Sandhimocana Mahāyāna-uttara-śāstra. I. has a similar character of being * sandhi—nirmocana ' in its position among the Mahāyāna Buddhism. and 78) "phe Ratna. some of which are based upon the Vijñānavāda. (See Introduction. of the attainment of the Buddhahood by the icchantikas (in [IV] karman). Annals of the Nihon Bukkyogaku-kyokai. in passages other than those referred to above. except for the first one. Furthermore. as far as the garbha theory is concerned. the text is written in prose except for a few verses which are quotations. Why such a statement is made is not clear 78>. So it is not impossible to imagine that the Ratna. of the 6 meanings of avikāra. but arranging them more systematically by adding the author's own opinion. of the ' 5 laksanas and 5 gunas ' of dharmakāya as one of trikāya (in [IX] avikāra). It also indicates that this work was composed after the Ratna. III-V of the Ratna. 21-23) and Chaps. of the āśrayaparivrtti. and the first one is said to be taken from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra.J. the Ratna. is also called ' Sandhinirmocana'. along with its prose commentary. Tsukinowa. Thus the Buddhagotraśāstra is based upon two works. 23 of the Sūtrâlañkāra which is preserved in the parallel passage in the Chinese version of the Ratna. Tsukinowa's information. dharmakāya. as an authority. This author's opinion appears in descriptions of the ' 5 dosas ' and the 4 5 gunas ' in relation to the purpose of the teaching. the name of the source is not mentioned. According to Prof. this work was composed by borrowing many sentences from the Ratna. and nirvana (in [V] yoga). 7. of the 3 natures of the garbha taught in (I) svabhāva. we are led to imagine that. but there is no doubt about their being taken from the Ratna. 1935). 154 & 155 of the Ratna. 51. and one identical with v. (K. Thus examining. though the verse is not found in any edition of that Sūtra. These passages show the more developed doctrines. for which the source is probably the Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. one Tibetan version of the Ratna. pp. vol. Japanese. the text expresses the doctrines of the Vijñānavāda such as 4 3-fold nihsvabhāva ' ' 3-fold svabhāva ' and i 5-dharmas '. which is never quoted in the Ratna. IX. This relates to the fact that the text is lacking those passages on the 4 aspects of gotra (Ratna. of the 5 meanings of the garbha taken from the Srīmālāsūtra. An interesting fact is that among these quoted verses. Throughout these passages. These two points show that the purpose of this text is to describe the buddhagotra only from its gotra aspect but not from 4 aspects as in the Ratna. VI § 1 & 2). we have 3 which are identical with vv. TAKASAKĪ shift of the explanation of the 3 meanings of the term tathāgatagarbha to Chapter III with detailed explanation. " On the Uttaratantra". [ 48 ] . etc. For these.

and the Buddhagotraśāstra. IV. jf> pp. At a glance. %[i Pfś. Tathāgatabodhi—p. respectively 8°). ) This term is restored from the Chinese * 3PīÇ _fc. vol. being a work on the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. I . is t h e Adbhutasūtra whose versions are available in Tibetan a n d Chinese as well ( T i b .The Ratnagotravibhāga ^ke Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. 319. respectively. V I I I Parlndana—parivarta is a n enlargement of t h e conclusion of t h e Adbhutasūtra i n accordance w i t h enlargement of the central p a r t . § 3. Tohoku. a n d t h e core of t h e tathâgatagarbha t h e o r y lies in its ekayāna theory. 81) I n Chinese. t h e S t ū p a worship a n d the eulogy on t h e B u d d h a h a d originally taken place a m o n g a group of B u d d h i s t from which t h e M a h ā y ā n i s t c o m m u n i t y came i n t o existence. As far as this point is concerned. one may notice in this Sūtra. This standpoint is somewhat similar to that of the Sūtrâlañkāra and hence the author was probably a Vijñānavādin who had a tendency similar to that of Yasubandhu. and trying to combine both theories. ^JJ \fâ p p . & #U ^K •=p 82 p p . the Sūtra emphasizes the inconceivability of these 4 subjects. V I I is a k i n d of eulogy on the B u d d h a (buddhastotra) a n d Chap. 1955. Bukkyoshigaku. . " Busshoron no Ichi—kosatsu "' (Japanese). we should next examine the Anuttarâśrayasūtra 7 9 ) . N a m e l y . T h e connection of t h e tathāgatagarbha theory w i t h t h e S t ū p a worship a n d t h e eulogy on t h e B u d d h a is n o t a merely mechanical and accidental connection a t all. respectively 8 1 ) . but a doubt arises about its date because of its being later than the Ratna. respectively. and V. a n d whose main subject is t h e a d m i r a t i o n of merits of t h e S t ū p a worship as t h e highest observance of Buddhists. These are quite identical with the 4 aspects of gotra described in the Ratna. while C h a p . which quotes the Sūtrâlañkāra. 80) The original of C h a p . p. N o . 688. I I I . at the end of each chapter. b u t i t shows t h e existence of a n essential interrelation among t h e m . To solve this problem. Hattori.The Anuttarâśrayasūtra. 689). The term anuttarâśraya8 2 ) seems to mean the Tathāgata that possesses these 4 aspects. j{\\ < 3$. IV. a similarity of its chapter divisions to those of the Ratna. Tathāgataguna-p. see M.. ^ •$£ p p . Furthermore. N o s . Tathāgatakriyā-p. Furthermore we have to put the Anūttarâśrayasūtra between the Ratna.e.. t h e pure ' faith i n t h e B u d d h a as often referred to in t h e Ratna. flX '• [ 49 ] . the central part of this Sūtra consists of 4 chapters whose titles are II. Leaving aside the first and the last two chapters which form its introduction and conclusion. Taisho. i. the Chinese attribution of this text to Vasubandhu seems quite reasonable. but their description can be traced word by word in the 79) p o r these problems on the Buddhagotraśāstra discussed above. Tathāgatadhātu-parivarta. 160 ff.

(4) phala. the Sūtra mentions the 180 āvenikadharmas including the 80 anuvyañjanas which are not in the Ratna. (3) paripantha.17-18. This is actually a mixture of the 10 meanings of4 gotra ' and the 8 meanings of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna..J . II) 1. Taisho.3. in its contents. RGV.5. except for (9) āvenika.. 2. 22. respectively. in its prose commentary on v. 801 b. RGV. (8) nitya. 24. are identical with the last five subjects among the 8 meanings of' bodhi ' in the Ratna. Taisho. This hypothesis will be proven upon examining the contents of the Sūtra. but names for the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas are identical with those mentioned in the Ratna.. (2)-(4) are identical with (II) hetu and (III) phala among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna. are included in the chapter on tathāgatadhātu in this Sūtra but with a slight difference in arrangement and wording. it seems to show that this Sūtra was composed after the Ratna. TAKASAK. imitated the structure of this Sūtra or borrowed such an idea from this Sūtra. Taisho 16..9-25.8-9. I.. while the last six (nos. Tathāgataguna—parivarta. For instance: (Chap. (2) hetu. 475 c. = Anuttarâśraya 473 c. As to Chap. a passage on anutpādānirodhatā of the Tathāgata taken from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra (p.h 1S $ S . 16-17). 5-10). 23 & 24 8 3 ) . but quite to the contrary. Namely. 22. 16.. a stronger factor which shows that this Sūtra is an imitation of the Ratna. as a kind of sutralization of the latter. 469 b. On the other hand. (7) vrtti. A passage on the meaning of gotra being sadāyatanaviśesa taken from the Sadāyatanasūtra (Taisho 16 p. as if they were its own sentences. This Sūtra uses a categorization with respect to the characteristics of gotra or dhātu. 476 b-c. 21. but under the chapter on ' bodhi ' .I Ratna. p. p. However. 31. p. similar to that in the Ratna. its idea is taught here and there. ft ft fw . IV. of which (3) paripantha is included under (III) phala in case of the Ratna. in the explanation of (1) svabhāva. 6-10). 12. whose idea is fundamentally identical with (I) svabhāva of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. 84) fe . the six subjects starting with (V) yoga among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna.. (5) karman. Its ten divisions are (1) svabhāva. [ 50 ] . p. but utilized in the Buddhagotra84). 55. 470 c. Besides these similarities with the Ratna. the Sūtra refers to ' āśrayaparivritti ' with its 4 characteristics which are not in the Ratna. (6) yoga. 469 c. It is only the chapter on Tathāgatakriyā that differs entirely from the Ratna. 470c. Although (9) āvenika has no equivalent passage in the Ratna. 83) Ratna. (9) āvenika and (10) acintya. This fact does not show that the Ratna. is that this Sūtra refers to certain passages which are quotations from other Sutras in the Ratna.

RGV. RGV. 13). RGV. 26. 2-6. sukha. viz. RGV. 9-50. p. 32. 470 c. V) 17. (Chap. 476 b. 18). p. 4. 470 b. 16-41. RGV. RGV. reshaping its contents into the frame of sūtra style and keeping !ts stress on the bodhi aspect.8-9). 472 a. and aparāntakotinistha taken from the Daśabhūmikasūtra (p. ākāśadhātuparyavasāna. 16. 7.3).The Ratnagotravibhāga 3. 30. 22. p. r si ] . a description of the Buddha. 1-2). 4696-c. etc. 469 6. acintya.7). ātma. 8. 11. p. Ill) 12. a passage on tathāgatagarbha covered with millions of defilements taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. a passage on the 3 epithets of the Tathāgata. RGV. RGV. 11-12). a passage on dharmakāya endowed with the Buddha's properties w are avinirbhāga. 10-14). 470 a. 6. RGV. 40. 28. nitya) taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. 5. being an authority for the Triple Jewel taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. p. 469 c.16-27. 10. taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. the Anuttarâśrayasūtra is clearly a composition based upon the Rotna. p. RGV.3-4). RGV. a passage on the penetration of tathāgatajñāna into the living beings taken from the Tathāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka ( p .16). a passage on the 4 gunapāramitās (śubha. 471 c. his teaching and disciples. a passage on the inconceivability of dhātu taken from the same Sūtra (p. Thus. 470 a—6. RGV. 471 a. RGV.2-5). 5-9). 49. pp. p. which is the highest basis {anuttarâśrayd). 28. a passage on cittaprahrîi and āgantukakleśa taken from the same Sūtra (p. 79. RGV. 471 6. 73.19-31. 470 c. pp. 15. a passage on those who are proud of their conception of śūnyatā taken from the Kāśyapaparivarta (p. 3. a passage on the 3 states of dhātu (avasthāprabheda) taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p.5). 24. a passage on the inconceivability of tathāgatakriyā taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. 10). a passage on dhātu being āśraya of all dharmas. dharmadhātuparama. p. a passage on the Icchantikas taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. 49. pp. amuktajña. RGV. a parable of a householder with respect to the Bodhisattva's compassion taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. pp. 470 a. real and unreal. 47.1-4). 9. p. 12. p. (Chap. 7-48. 14. 13. a simile of the Vaidūrya stone taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. pp.469 6. 472 a.

it was probably some one in the circle to which Paramârtha had belonged or rather Paramârtha himself who composed these Sūtra and Śāstra as authorities for the propagation of his unique doctrine. a combination of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. Attribution of the Buddhagotra to Vasubandhu will be a subsidiary proof of the fact that the Ratna. i.J. 40. a quotation from the Sāgaramati-pariprcchā). pp. 806 6 ($£ $ | ± 16-41. 469 c = RGV. p.6 (a part of a quotation from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra). A key to solve this question as well as the question of the author of the Buddhagotra seems to lie in the hands of Paramârtha. 49. while the orthodox Vijñānavādins like Vasubandhu have gradually deepened their theory on the side of pure Vijñānavāda. More interesting is the fact that the quotation is much more similar to the Ratna. 806 6 (i\\ $$ _L 13-15 (a commentary passage). [ 52 ] . It was after Vasubandhu that the combination again took place. than to the Anuttarâśraya. 156 c).. 16-17 (a quotation from the Sadāyatanasūtra). was not written by Asañga or Vasubandhu. pp.. as an authority. 1595) also quotes the AĀS (Vol.. 469 6 = RGV. . TAKASAKI But what was the intention of the author in composing this * Sūtra' ? This Sūtra is quoted only in the Buddhagotra. but intentionally. But the quotation is found neither in the Tibetan version nor in Hsūan-chuang's translation of the same text. If we may surmise so. 469 b-c = RGV. . seems to have tried to purify its standpoint on the garbha theory. This supposition will be supported by the fact that among Chinese translations of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya of Vasubandhu. p. while interpreting a verse from the Mahāyāna—abhidharmasūtra (Anādikāliko dhātuh) which is quoted also in the Ratna. ) = AÂS.8). 2) p. 469 c = RGV. p. the garbha theory is inserted only in Paramârtha's translation 86>. and the Ratna. One is ' ālayavijñāna' and the other is 'gotra'. the latter was a great and respected scholar of the Vijñānavāda. The latter interpretation is identical with the Ratna. which has. and both are translated into Chinese by Paramârtha 85>. pp. Paramârtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (Taisho. As 85) Quotations of the Anuttarâśraya in the Buddhagotraśāstra are as follows: . ft M ! £ . some insertion between lines.5 (a quotation from the 3) p. p. 41. 7. Of course. 4) p. in turn. ft H? I S . tathāgatagarbha (Taisho. 469 6 = RGV. . p. Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa). 55. Paramârtha's translation gives two meanings for ' dhātu'. the combination of both theories was already traced in the Sūtrâlañkāra to some extent. p. but it was not intentional nor as clear.) = AÂS. 31. p. No. ) = AĀS. (77. and hence it was not desirable for the Vijñānavādins to use the Ratna. 86 * For example. 12. p. .e.13-73. 11-50. 31. 259 c-260 a = AĀS. 812 (#H M _ h ft $ S nft.

. The Lañkāvatāra is actually a collection of various theories among Mahāyāna Buddhism. (prior to this translation) there was 6aid to have been another translation done by Dharmaksema (fig ^Sg g||j) between 412-433 A. the Lañkāvatārasūtra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra.D. As far as the present problem is concerned. Some scholars wanted to solve this contradiction by regarding the author as another Aśvaghosa different from the famous poet. A. to which we will refer at the end of this introduction. However. and the Vijñānavāda are prominent. Therefore.The Ratnagotravibhāga other examples of this combination we have two works. and these two are combined under the theory of cittamātra taught in the Avatamsaka. This is quite significant for determing the fate of the garbha theory. there is some doubt about its authorship. the date of the Ratna. This latter opinion is not 87) According to old Chinese Catalogues on the Tripitaka. That is why the Lañkāvatāra is regarded by modern scholars as a work produced after Vasubandhu. One point of similarity to the Ratna. The unique point of these two works with respect to the garbha theory is their identification of the tathāgatagarbha with the ālayavijñāna— an identification which has never been seen in previous works. is its establishment of tathatā as the ultimate principle that is the basis of both klista and aklista elements. It is impossible that such an old poet is the author of this work containing such a new theory. [ 53 ] . cannot be placed after that year and probably lies in the 4th cent. but some are trying to prove that this work is of Chinese origin in the absence of Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. the famous poet contemporary with the King Kaniska. As for the Śraddhotpādaśāstra. This is another Sūtra not known to the Ratna. and it was translated for the first time into Chinese in 433 A. Another point which seems to be under the influence of the Ratna. 8 7 ). ç 4. its doctrine is purely of the garbha theory in spite of its use of the term ālayavijñāna. because of its exposition of the cittamātra and garbha theory. _ The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda—śāstra. Later Vijñānavādins regarded the Lañkāvatāra as one of the authorities. It is attributed to Aśvaghosa. is the expression of faith in the Buddha Amitāyus towards the end of the treatise. even in those of Vasubandhu. among which the garbha theory. and it is in one sense the most systematic exposition of its kind.D. there is no difference even if we accept this tradition. It reminds us of the samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā of the Ratna.D. but in China it was respected by the followers of the Avatamsaka school as well. but now missing.

svapna. 1. No. the later exposition. this work is in the same position as the Buddhagotra. signify the Prajñāpāramitā and the like. It is clear that the Sutras which expose the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' with similes of megha. being translated by Paramârtha. criticizing the latter.. saying that the text was exposed in order to establish the existence (astitva) of buddhadhātu so that one could avoid the faults created by the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' described in the ' previous ' Sutras (I. this Ratna. but it is at least sure 88 that this work shows the final development of the garbha theory \ VI. 191) and it was translated into Chinese in 591 A. the Ratna. the Ratna. IN MAHĀYĀNA BUDDHISM § 1. according to the Tibetan version. calls itself the ' uttara-tantra '. the subtitle: Uttaratantra denotes the position of the Ratna. 14. in the history of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the sense " one that comes after the Prajñāpāramitā. On the Aryacandrottaradārikāvyākarana—nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra {Japanese). and that. Namely. The second translation was made by Siksānanda who is said to have come from Khotan. is Arya— candrottaradārikā-vyākarana (Tohoku no. (Taisho. emphasizes ' asti' in contrast with the ' śūnya ' of the Prajñāpāramitā. The problem is still under consideration. Takata. expresses its purpose of discourse. detailed examination of this Sūtra could not be pursued up to now. regards itself as the real successor to the ' śūnya-vāda ' of the Prajñāpāramitā declaring that the real meaning of ' śūnyatā ' is to know the ' astitva' of the Germ having within itself both the ' śūnya' of defilements and the ' aśūnya"1 of 88) There is another Sñtra which exposes the garbha theory and bears a resemblance to the Ratna.D. the Ratna. criticize the Prajñāpāramitā ? As a matter of terminology. But this ' asti-vāda ' does not mean the negation of 'śūnya-vāda\ Rather. no. in contrast with the Prajñāpāramitā taken as the * pūrva ' exposition. . 480) Its composition seems to be later in date than the Ratna. THE POSITION OF THE RATNA. etc. But one difficulty in accepting this opinion is how to explain the existence of two versions of this treatise in China. in its contents." On what point does then the Ratna. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies {īndogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyū) Vol. At the end of Chapter I. TAKASAKI untenable since. 1957 (pp. 83-86). as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā. There is no work which refers to this treatise in Indian literature. As I received this information only recently.The Ratna.J . 158-9). r si i . Its name. See N. and there were probably a great deal of influences from the Ratna. V.

e. Here ' jñāna ' has the character of criticizing ' prajñā ' in the sense of affirming the existence of the reality undone by i prajñā \ But the text seems to regard this ''jñāna ' as one side of ''prajñā''. This seems to be the reason for maintaining ' ātmasneha ' as the last of the 5 faults and ' maitrī ' as the remedy for it. Thus the Ratna.The Ratnagotra\ibhāga the Buddha 's Qualities. and hence the word ' śūnya' implies ' aśūnya ' of this Germ. on the other hand. assumes for that reason many faults among the followers of the prajñāpāramitā. i. is to remove such faults in order to make known the real meaning of ' śūnya-vāda '. defining ' sarvam ' as ' sarvakleśa ' from which all phenomena arise and which excludes the Germ inseparably associated with the Buddha's Qualities. for the world. but to its short or unclear explanation. This is exactly what is aimed at by the Prajñāpāramitā. respectively. as represented by 4 prajñā' and ' jñāna '. and to establish the ' bhūtadharma '. the aim of the Ratna. the commentary mentions ' jñāna '. the latter have the fault of ' bhūtadharmâpavāda '. The text calls both kind of people those of ' śūnyatāviksiptacitta ' (P. the Ratna. These two sides of 'prajñā' are shown in another passage by the terms avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna). However. As the remedy against this fault. karunā or maitrī. ' prajñā ' has two functions. some regard ' śūnya ' as something substantial. therefore. This [ 55 ] . emphasizes karunā along with prajñā as associating inseparably with each other for the acquisition of the Buddhahood. respectively. identical with the Absolute. as a natural outflow of ''prajñā '. which forms the 4th of the 5 faults. Thus the criticism is directed not to the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā itself. We may take this statement as an eX planation of ' śūnyam sarvam '. (I. Unless this function of jñāna operates. and hence is based upon the Compassion. 154—5). especially the last three of them. the 3rd fault: ' abhūtagrāha ' denotes the ' Ātmavāda ' of Heretics or the ' sarvâstivāda ' of the Abhidharma and is said to be removed by ' prajñā '. The former have a kind of ' abhūtagrāha '. and. This is nothing but a function of providing benefits for others. many people are likely to misunderstand the meaning of ' śūnya ': on the one hand. man will have the fault of ' ātmasneha '. Here the term ' laukika ' signifies the function of jñāna to make known the reality to the ' worldly ' beings. some become the ' nāstika ' and never believe in the existence of the dharmakāya but rather abuse such a reality. As the Prajñāpāramitā was lacking in a clear explanation of such a kind.. 75). This point becomes clear after examining the 5 faults described in the Ratna. and characterized as lokottara and laukika. that is to say. to negate the ' abhūtagrāha '. Namely. when this ' prajñā ' is stated to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. In other words.

but it is. never remains in the Nirvana (apratisthitanirvāna).g. prajñāpāramitā. 27-35) Namely. 323). as has been examined above. teach the notions of anitya. samādhi. Saddh. never afflicts the world.J . owing to the practice of karunā. ātman and śubha are usually regarded as wrong notions with respect to the phenomena. in this Ratna. Another important point to be noted here is the positive expression of the dharmakāya to be the śubha-ātma-sukha-nityagunapāramitā. In the Prajñāpāramitā. In contrast. e. the phenomena. This is a kind of revolution in Buddhist thought. or in the garbha theory in general. p. it is said that the result of the former practice is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' ātmapāramitā ' extending as far as the limit of space (ākāśadhātu—paryavasāna). Special attention is to be paid to the point that the ātmapāramitā is said to be the result of the practice of ' prajñāpāramitā.. as the cause for attaining the dharmakāya. It seems to show that the Ratna. anātman and aśubha as the correct view (aviparyāsa) with respect to the dharmas. which declares the eternity of the Buddha89>. TAKASAKI point is also mentioned in the explanation of the process from cause to effect with respect to the Germ. Buddh. adhimukti. viz. And the Bodhisattva is said to be the only one who practises both prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā and who. prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā are relevant to the present discussion. the text mentions four kinds of practice. while the practice of mahākarunā is said to be the remedy for any selfishness whose typical form is found in the Pratyekabuddha. nitya. sukha. but. understands the prajñāe. 89) [ 56 ] . ed. P. XV-1: Acintyā kalpasahasrakotyo yāsām pramānam na kadāci vidyate / prāptā mayā esa tadagrabodhir dharmamca deśemy ahu nityakālam // (Bibl. the function of prajñā (or prajñāpāramitā) is to establish the correct notions of anitya. viz. Of them. another expression of the same idea of ' dhātvastitva ' being explained through the characters of the gotra as 4 śūnya ' and i aśūnya '. while here the same term is used for the function of establishing the dharmakāya expressed in the positive way. and most scriptures. while that of the latter is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' nityapāramitā ' continuing as far as the limit of time (aparântakotinistha). i. Also. duhkha. Here we see the stress lies more on the karunā than on the prajñā and this standpoint relates to the ekayāna theory whose origin is in the Saddharmapundarīka. (pp. The practice of prajñāpāramitā is said to be the remedy for all kinds of substantial views. owing to the practice of prajñā. the ātmavāda of heretics and the like. these prohibited terms are used as attributes of the dharmakāya but in the reverse order. and mahākarunā. These four terms. including the Prajñāpāramitā. etc.

prajñāpāramitā as consisting and jñāna or of prajñā and karunā. Vol. 65 f. G. 90 J [ 57 ] . there was taught the doctrine of the āryasatya and on its basis the astivāda of the Abhidharma has been developed.f p. sought for its basic term in jñāna as the Sarvāstivāda did. 85 f. 90>. prajñā and jñāna are of a great significance in Buddhism since its beginning. 91) Sandhinirmocanasūtra tr. that of Mahāyāna Buddhism may be characterized as ' practical'. op. in other words. pp. cit. In clarifying such a structure of prajñāpāramitā. and the Vijñānāvāda. Cf. while the Prajñāpāramitā emphasized prajñā as the highest 'practice '. the former has a somewhat functional character.The Ratnagotravibhāga paramitā in its two aspects. 693 c-697 c. Diagramatically speaking. as mentioned above. in spite of its similarity to the Sarvāstivāda in its analytical method. What is criticized is ' prajñā.The Ratna. negation of the wrong view and manifestation of prajñā o f the reality. However. V. Nihsvabitāvalaksanaparivarta. Lamotte (1935). Literally and originally. 16. Tokyo. This astivāda was negated by the Prajñāpāramitā and there has been established the śūnyavāda of the MahāBoth terms. by E. (Lamotte. 2. pp. but there was a variant in each school in the usage of both terms. This prajñā of the Prajñāpāramitā and consequently of Nāgārjuna was again analyzed by the Vijñānavāda. Tib. the Ratna. but this prajñā included both aspects of jñāna and prajñā. Sasaki. is a successor of the Prajñāpāramitā in its introduction of the idea of parârthasampatti into jñāna. the Sarvāstivāda laid stress on jñāna in which the function of prajñā is implied. No. by Hsûan-Chuang (Taisho. which changed the character of jñāna to its ground. I I . while the latter signifies what is attained by the former. (Chapitre VII. " Prajñā and Jñāna ". deserves to be called the successor to the Prajñāpāramitā. 437-439. 676) Chap. No. in turn. such an analysis was made for the first time by Pali Abhidhamma Buddhism. and hence on karunā. . A critical approach to this subject will be one of the big themes in future studies of Buddhist thought. 30-31). This is the Vijñānavāda whose authority is sought for in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. prajñā is the intellect or intuition by means of which the Buddha attained the bodhi. and the Vijñānavāda. or ' prajñā which does not work out in the world as jñāna '. ed. ' Sandhinirmocana' on account of ' nihsvabhāva' is the main topic of this chapter. while jñāna is the knowledge which forms the contents of bodhi. not accompanied by karunā '. (Japanese") Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. In contrast with the logical approach of Abhidharma Buddhism. § 2. This statement is placed towards the end of the chapter. But a revolutionary point of Mahāyāna Buddhism in comparison with Abhidharma Buddhism is in the emphasis laid on * parārthasampatti'. Don dam yañ-dag-hphags) on this point. Concretely speaking. and in primitive Buddhism there seems to have been no strict distinction in the use of these terms. The Sūtra says 9 1 ): By the first Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. p. which.). which opens with a question by Paramārthasamudayagata Bodhisattva (Tib. There is another system in Mahāyāna Buddhism that criticizes the Prajñāpāramitā in a manner similar to the way done by the Ratna. This distinction is of fundamental character throughout the history of Buddhism. Taisho.

i. V. and it is the last and the highest Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. is in one sense a sandhinirmocana on account of prajñā94) and the Sandhinirmocana may be termed the uttaratantra as the ultimate exposition of the śūnyavāda described from the two sides. in turn. IAK. VII.. E d g e r t o n B H S D i e . Indeed. 3 (p. although it criticizes the PrajñāCf. For example the Prajñāpāramitā teaches the nihsvabhāvatā in regard to the sarvadharma. In spite of such interrelations of both theories.J. cit. as has been referred to above. This standpoint is precisely held in common with the Ratna. cit. Just because of this standpoint.. He refers to the source of this trisvabhāva in the Prajñāpāramitā {op. the Disclosure of the Knot or Secret Doctrine. may be observed in the fact that there is no quotation from the Sandhinirmocana. e. of śūnya and aśūnya. & samdhā. has many authorities for its doctrine that are. but what is meant by this nihsvabhāvatā is not so clear. cannot be regarded as a work of the Vijñānavada. that is to say. the Sūtra continues: The ultimate doctrine of the Mahāyāna is no doubt taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. 93) 92) [ 58 ] . 3. The purpose of the Sandhinirmocana is to explain this meaning of nihsvabhāva ' in a clear manner '. pp. As the justification for this statement. we have already observed in the Sūtrâlañkāra the co-existence of the garbha theory and the doctrine of trisvabhāva and ālayavijñāna. 67). The quotation of a verse from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra (anādikāliko dhātuh—) also shows the influence of the Vijñānavāda on the Ratna. but its way of exposition is ' with an esoteric meaning. the Sūtra is called ' sandhi-nirmocana '. or ' with a hidden intention ' 92>. Lamotte. These facts seem to tell us that the garbha theory. Avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna). the Sūtra establishes the doctrine of the 3 meanings with respect to the nihsvabhāvatā as the basis of the trisvabhāva theory93>. terms borrowed by the Ratna. Along this line. samdhi. not acquainted with the Vijñānavāda at all. the unique standpoint of the Ratna. Chap. in its criticism of the Prajñāpāramitā. the Ratna. Furthermore the Ratna. s. Also. Such a community of historical background brought the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda to assume a similar appearance of ' astivāda ' and to have common doctrines to a great extent. at least on the commentary. to analyze and clarify the significance of the śūnya—vada.ASAKI yāna. The amalgamation of both asti..and śūnya-vāda is now done by the Sandhinirmocana. 94 ^ See Note on Introduction. Preface. op. and lastly resulted in the amalgamation of both theories. samdhāya. or āśrayaparivrtti and the six categories beginning with svabhāva for describing the ultimate reality. 14-16). the Ratna. v . are. from the Vijñānavāda. nor any use of terms like trisvabhāva or ālayavijñāna: hence.

somewhat precedes the Vijñānavāda. The passage referred to above is used for explaining how the cittaprakrti is real and how the āgantukakleśa is unreal. and hence deserves to be called ' mahāyānâbhidharma ' . This is a weak point of the garbha theory. Nevertheless. the Ratna. The starting point of the garbha theory lies in the doctrine of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa' and the stress is laid on the purification of the mind which is regarded as the attainment of the Enlightenment. exposes its doctrine always from the viewpoint of the dharmakāya or bodhi. the Vijñānavāda was really a successor of the Abhidharma Buddhism. in turn. but there is no explanation of the reason why such unreal kleśas are originated from the cittaprakrti. or manifestation As regards bodhi. is named ' âlayavijñāna'. what is done by the Vijñānavāda is the investigation of this very point of difference between sattvadhātu and the Buddha. the ultimate purpose is the realization of bodhi. [ 59 ] . in its possession of many Sutras. and ' citta '. never uses the expression of cittamātra. and with this ' jñāna ' acquired. the emphasis lies on the identification of gotra or garbha with the dharmakāya and any difference of the garbha or the sattvadhātu from the dharmakāya is rather neglected. When the Sandhinirmocana established the theory of trisvabhāva as the result of the analysis of nihsvabhāvatā taught in the Prajñāparamitā. The term cittamātra is replaced by and explained more concretely as ' vijñaptimātra ' .The Ratnagotravibhāga nāramitā. the Vijñānāvada seeks for the process towards its realization in the acquisition of ' jñāna ' as a result of the conversion of ālayavijñāna. we may expect the development of the cittamātra theory as exposed in the Avatamsaka or the Lañkâvatāra. but it was the Abhidharma based upon the śūnyavāda of the Prafñāpāramitā. but as something that manifests kleśa. In other words. On the other hand. In its methodology. karman and janman from cittaprakrti by the force of ' ayoniśomanasikāra' is set forth. we find a germ of such a theory in the Ratna. or as the basis (āśraya) of phenomena. Of course. in the passage where the origination of the 3 impurities (samkleśa) of kleśa. even for the Vijñānavāda. of the real meaning of śūnyatā. This cittaprakrti is unconditionally identified with bodhi or dharmakāya and is called ' dhātu ' or ' gotra \ From such a theory of cittaprakrti. as shown in the title of one scripture. not as pure cittaprakrti. Thus the standpoint of the Vijñānavāda is the analysis of phenomena from the viewpoint of the sattvadhātu and thereby it stands in a clear contrast with the garbha theory which. is a completely different system from the Vijñānavāda by origin? and. its analytical method found the origin of the nature of sattvadhātu covered with kleśas in vijñāna as the function of distinguishing object from subject. In fact.

never introduced the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. failure to introduce the ālayavijñāna made the garbha theory weak in its explanation of the gotra as the substratum (ādhāra) of Samsāra or the phenomenal world. and why the Ratna. [ 60 ] . and ' jñānâpti ' is said to be the result of the revolution (parāvrtti) of āśraya.j . The only difference. while ālayavijñāna can never be identical with 4 avikalpajñāna ' and in 4 jñānâpti ' . One thing to be added here is the similarity of the Ratna. in spite of its acceptance of the Vijñānavāda in its interpretation of4 jñāna * and others. This point is accepted in the Ratna. such an innovation of the Vijñānavāda resulted in the absorption of the garbha theory into the Vijñānavāda. and there was an attempt at identification. is regarded as fully identical with bodhi or dharmakāya.1 it is said. though being anādikāliko dhātuh and being āśraya of sarvadharma. At the same time. too) to the Upanisadic philosophy in the expression of 95) According to Paramārtha. gotra involves two sides. as seen in the Lahkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda. ālayavijñāna. This absorption seems to have taken place not so long after the Ratna. At its starting point.A&AK. This is the reason why the Ratna. however. it no longer remains. owing to which function the basic prajñā.. the garbha theory was no doubt of an independent character. and kjñānâpti ' is said to be the perfect manifestation (pari-vrtti) of such ' āśraya \ while in the Vijñānavāda. in the period when the Vijñānavāda had formed an independent school as the rival of the Mādhyamika. e. e. the * vijñaptimātratā' can be understood. In other words. otherwise it cannot. (and the Vijñānavāda. and the Ratna. however. i. change of basis from ālayavijñāna to jñāna. the garbha theory in its later development could not but introduce the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. in the field of the pure garbha theory. is that the gotra. and hence has the same structure as 4 avikalpajñāna ' and 4 tatprsthalabdha '. ālayavijñāna is said to have a mixed character of real and unreal (JfiÇ -%£ 7(\\ ' o )• This characterization seems to be his unique interpretation of that term. Because of this weak point. Furthermore. 4 avihalpajñāna ' can realize itself in the world. of garbha with ālayavijñāna. i. Thus this 4 jñāna ' is characterized as ' laukika ' ' prsthalabdha ' . namely 'prakrtistha' and *samudānīta ' . could remain thereby. was the first systematized and at the same time the last independent and pure exposition of the garbha theory. probably influenced by the tathāgatagarbha theory. preventing the former from establishing an independent school of its own. but of an essential character. XAJS. always remains as a principle of ' samklistadharma ' and is never regarded as identical with dharmakāya 9 5 ) . being 4anādikāliko dhātuh'' and the ' āśraya of sarvadharma ' . different from the Vijñānavāda.

it is clear. however. As for its date: 1) The upper limit is the date of Nāgārjuna and Âryadeva. e. A. R. XIII of his work is devoted to the subject of the Absolute seen by three systems. Gokhale (A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. In its essence. Prof. Vijñānavāda and Vedānta. Kyoto. 97) Recently. the middle of the 3rd cent. it may not be useless here to have in conclusion a summarized consideration of the date and authorship of the Ratna. to establish its monistic doctrine.D. e. 1955) Especially. Yamaguchi's Commemoration Volume. the text consisting of the basic Kārikās and a commentary on it in verse and prose. too wide to cover here. At the same time. being the manifestation of śūnyatā. i. T. V. Still it is not impossible to suppose that there was an influence from the Upanisadic thought for the astivāda of the Ratna. 3) Completion of the present form of the Ratna.. so far no work has been done systematically.D. 1955. and I cannot but reserve its investigation for my future studies 97>. This subject is. viz. It is common to the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda in general. 96) A verse of the Ratna. To clarify the historical and social background of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. Chap. S. pp. is of a cruite different character from the substantial Absolute of the Upanisad. . V. 2) The lower limit is 433 A. London. As a result of investigations throughout the previous passage. V. many scholars have already remarked the influence of the Vijñanavāda on the Vedāntavāda in its change of character from the realistic philosophy of the Brahmasūtra to the idealistic philosophy of the Advaita-vedānta which is established by Śaûkara through the philosophy of Gaudapāda. (The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. the Absolute taught in the Ratna.D. 32. and hence at early 5th cent. Mādhyamika.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga the Absolute with positive terms 96) . Murti has appeared on this field of comparative study. As far as the historical approach is concerned. 90-91). came probably after Asaûga and Vasubandhu but not so far from their time. A. 52 = Bhagavadgitā XIII. i. when the Lañkāvatāra is translated into Chinese for the first time. § 3.Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna. however. a great work by Prof.. it seems quite necessary to investigate such mutual influences and interrelations between the Brahmanical thought and Mahāyāna Buddhism. quite similar to one of the Bhagavadgītā is pointed out by Prof. [ 61 ] .

however. As for the author: 1) The author of the commentary must be Sāramati. and we shall be required to engage in further and detailed examination of all the works attributed to Maitreya. 3) The Vijñānavāda had probably been established in its pure form by Vasubandhu. This seems to be the most reasonable assumption on the date and author of the Ratna. pieces of evidence are still not enough. But against the Tibetan tradition. TAKASAKI 4) As for the Kārikā text. Sāramati may Amalgamation of have been almost contemporary with Vasubandhu. but before the Sūtrâlañkāra. especially those verses called ' śloka ' and kept in Chapter I. the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda are taught side by side. 4) In the same way. seems to have been composed next to the Abhisamayâlañkāra This is because the garbha theory precedes Maitreya.J . taking the Tibetan tradition into consideration. [ 62 ] . it is quite doubtful to attribute the Buddhagotraśāstra to him. Thus it is not impossible that the same author of the above two works composed the original ' śloka' of the Ratna. He was no doubt acquainted with the garbha theory Therebut devoted himself to the systematization of the Vijñānavāda. seem fairly old in both their style and contents. since the Lañkāvatāra was unknown to either of them. while the Abhisamayâlañkāra expresses no Vijñānavāda. In the case of the Sūtrâlañkāra. fore. This is certain through comparison of the Ratna. the Ratna.. Because of this similar position. Sāramati was the systematizer of the garbha theory in its pure form. hence its date is no doubt earlier than Asañga's. but the Vijñānavāda is likely to have started with Maitreya. For certainty of Maitreya's authorship of the Ratna. after the present investigation. both theories may consequently have taken place after Vasubandhu and Sāramati. with the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 2) Most probably the authorship of the original ' śloka ' is to be attributed to Maitreya.

TRANSLATION .

. . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (for Translation & Notes thereon) Chapter I. . [ 137 ] . . . The Sermon: All Living Beings are possessed of the Tathāgatagarbha . The Meaning of the 3 Jewels The Germ of the 3 Jewels in 4 Aspects 1) Inconceivability of the 4 Aspects 2) The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its 4 Aspects . Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the ultimate Standpoint . — THE MATRIX OP THE TATHĀGATA FAGS Introduction 1) The Meaning of the Adamantine Subjects 2) Authorities on the 7 Subjects 3) The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects 4) The Inherent Connection among the 7 Subjects The Jewel of the Buddha 1) The eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood 2) Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra The Jewel of the Doctrine 1) 2) 3) 4) The Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine Nirodhasatya & Mārgasatya The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 141 141 143 146 153 155 156 159 163 164 165 165 168 172 173 174 175 176 176 180 180 181 184 185 186 188 194 196 The Jewel of the Community 1) Manner and Extent of Perception a) Right Manner of Perception b) Unlimited Extent of Perception 2) Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception 3) Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community The 3 Jewels as Refuges 1) 2) 3) 4) 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint The Doctrine and the Community are not the ultimate refuge . .

PAGE

VIII. Analysis of the Germ from 10 Points of View (I) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu 1) The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata 2) Obstructions and Causes for Purification (III) Phaîa & (IV) Karman 1) The 4 Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 2) Concordance between the 4 Supreme Virtues and the 4 Causes for Purification 3) 4 Impediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 4) Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 4') The Unstable Nirvana 5) Functions of the Germ for its Purification Yoga 1) The Union of the Germ to the Factors of its Purification 2) The Union of the Germ to the Result of Purification Vrtti (Manifestation) Avasthāprabheda (Different States of Manifestation) . . . .

199 200 200 201 207 208 210 214 218 219 221 225 225 227 229 230 233

(V)

(VI) (VII)

(VIII) Sarvatraga (All-pervadingness)

(IX) Avikāra 234 (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State 235 1) Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind 238 2) Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind 241 (B) Unchangeability in the Pure-and-impure State 243 1) Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva 243 2) Defilements endowed with the Virtuous Root 245 3) Bodhisattva's Compassion — The Parable of a Householder . . . . 246 4) Bodhisattva's Perception of the Pure Mind 248 5) ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva 250 6) Bodhisattva in his 6th Stage 250 7) The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha 253 (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure Sta;e 256 (X) Asambheda 1) 2) 3) 4) IX. The 1) 2) 3) Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana The Parable of Painters Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun 258 259 261 263 265 268 268 277 281

9 Illustrations on the Germ covered with Defilements The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities of the Mind Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and 9 Kinds of Defilements . [ 138 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga
PAGE

4) The threefold Nature of the Essence a) Dharmakāya b) Tathatā c) Tathāgatagotra X. The Essential Characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1) The Saying: ' All Living Beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' is the Highest Logical Truth 2) The 4 Kinds of Individuals to whom the Faith in this Essence is necessary 3) The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as representing Non-substantiality XI. The Purpose of Instruction

283 284 287 288 294 294 296 300 305

Chapter II. — THE ENLIGHTENMENT

XII.

General Characteristics of the Reality free from Pollutions

310 314 314 315 318 322 324 326 328 329 331 334

XIII. 8 Points on the Undefiled Reality (I) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu Phala Karman Yoga Vrtti

a) The Body of the Absolute Essence b) The Body of Enjoyment c) The Apparitional Body (VII) Nitya (VIII) Acintya

Chapter I I I . —

THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

XIV. XV. (I) (II)

General Characteristics of the Buddha's Properties The 64 Properties of the Buddha The 10 Powers The 4 Forms of Intrepidity

336 338 338 339 341 343 347

(III) The 18 Exclusive Properties (IV) The 32 Marks of the Superman (Commentary)

[ 139 ]

j . TAKASAKI

Chapter IV.

— THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA
PAGE

XVI. XVII.

General Characteristics of the Acts of the Buddha The 9 Illustrations on the Buddha's Acts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Buddha's Magnanimity The 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlankārasūtra Summary of the Illustrations given by the Commentator Summary of Examples given in the Kārikās Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood The Point of Dissimilarity

351 355 355 356 374 375 377 377

Chapter V. — THE MERITS OF FAITH

XVIII. The Merits of Having Faith in the Doctrine of the Essence of Buddhahood 380 1) The Superiority of Faith to other Virtues in regard to their Merits . . 2) Authority, Motive, and Characteristics of this Text being the Correct Doctrine 3) Means of preserving oneself within the Doctrine 4) Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine 5) Conclusion 380 384 386 387 389

[ 140 ]

ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS 1}
(A Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle) 2)

CHAPTER

I.

THE MATRIX OF THE TATHÂGATA (Salutation) I bow to the Saint Vajrasattva 3>.

I. INTRODUCTION - The 7 Vajrapadas § 1. The Meaning of the 7 Vajrapadas. The Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Community *>, The Essence [of the Buddha] 5>, the Supreme Enlightenment 6>, The Virtuous Qualities [of the Buddha], And, last of all, the Act of the Buddha; — These are the 7 Adamantine Subjects, [which show] Briefly, the body of the whole text. // 1 //
*) Ratnagotravibhāga. The word ' vibhāga ' is the correct Skt. form of P a l i ' vibhañga ' which means ' explanation ', ' commentary '. In BHS, however, the form ' vibhañga ' is more often used as in cases of Madhyântavibhañga, Dharmadharmatā-vibhañga and so on. In these cases, ' vibhañga ' is taken in the sense of ' distinction between two '. But here, the meaning ' analysis ' seems more suitable, because the wofd ' ratnagotra * indicates ' dhātu ' or ' tathāgatagarbha ', and not ' ratna & gotra '. Cf. gotram ratnatrayasya S. p. 21.6. 2 ) Mahayāna—uttaratantra—śāstra. About the title, see my Introduction, Ghap. I. 3 ) T. offers salutation to " the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas " . C. om. the salutation, but has 18 verses instead before entering the main text. This salutation to Vajrasattva, who has an important role in the Tantric Buddhism, does not match with this text which has no connection with Tantrism in its doctrine, in spite of the use of the word * tantra' in the title. Probably this is a salutation made by the copyist of the present Skt. text under the influence of later Tantric Buddhism. *) gana, T. tshogs, C. £fc |gj
B

( = sañgha).

) dhātu, T. khams, C.

ft.

• bodhi, T. byañ-chub, C. j l f . ) [ 141 ]

J.

1AKASAKI
7

The word * vajrapada ' (adamantine subject) > means the term (pada), i.e. the basis (sthāna), which expresses the meaning of the Enlightenment (adhigama) which is similar to a thunderbolt [or diamond] (vajra). Here, it 8) being difficult to be penetrated by the knowledge consisting in studying and thinking, the meaning [of the Enlightenment] which is not capable 9 of being explained but is to be realized by oneself >, should be understood as 'like a thunderbolt'. Those letters, which express that meaning by making manifest the way which is favourable for its acquisition, are called 4 pada% just because they are the basis of that meaning. Thus, by both meanings, i.e. being hard to be penetrated and being the basis, the character of 'vajrapada', of the meaning as well as of the letters, is to be understood. 4 4 Now, what is artha ' (the meaning) and what is vyañjana ' (the letter)? 'Artha' is the sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment, viz. 1) the Buddha (buddha), 2) the Doctrine (dharma), 3) the Community 10 (samgha), 4) the Essence of the Buddha (dhātu) \ 5) the Supreme Enlightenment (bodhi), 6) the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha (guna), and 7) the Acts of the Buddha (karman)u>. These are called 4 artha ' l2>. The letters, by which this sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment is indicated or is manifested, are called 4 vyañjana ' 1 3 ) . And this teaching of i vajrapada ' should be understood in detail according to the Sutras.
') T . rdo-rje gnas, C.J
8

) prativedha,

T. phigs-pa

(to m a k e a small hole, to penetrate).
rig-par bya-ba, C. P ^ -5j* ffî£ V2*

9

) pratyātma-vedanīya,

T . so-so-rañ-bshin

10 n

> C. >$* S i ( = sattva).

) For these 7 subjects, T. & C. give the following terms: 1) sañs-rgyas, 7) phyin-las, | i p | .

2) chos, ' ? £ ; 3) dge-hdun, fft'; 4) khams, ft ( ^ >^£); 5) byañ-chub, =§?• 6) yon-tan, SjJ j ^ ;
12

) C. adds here the following scriptural passage: " ^>C 0ft —* |f| ) Instead of this sentence, C. puts the following one: "J^ff ī=f ^ p ^ff

paramârtha satya) gf | g , ifr fâ fig} ^ P f i g f t L f a f f i ^ ^ ^
13

^•i "^F T J "?* » •?- *HJ (phrase), ī=| an (word), jffi\ 5=p (sound), ^tj ^ K (expression), î b 1/u (description), ^ b RrJ (explanation), ^ b / J ^ (indication), JtL ' u *M ^ ^ » And it adds the following scriptural passage: " _^\., THT ^rjj (samvrtisatya) ^ § ,

1 -ft n * 0rffl^ * , ^ ^ . * ^ , Wfs. 0r ft These two passages are quoted from the Aksayamati-parivarta (C. I, M. # • % OP , Taisho, XIII, p. 197 fc). 197 [ 142 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

8 2. Authorities on the 7 Subjects. 1) ' Buddha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, invisible is the Tathāgata. He cannot be seen by eyes " . 2) ' Dharma ': " Verily, O Ānanda, unutterable is the Doctrine. It cannot be heard by ears ". 3) ' Samgha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, the Holy Community is of an immutable 14> character. It cannot be completely served, either by body or by mind ". These are the [first] 3 vajrapadas, which are to be understood according to the Dfdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta15). 4) ' Dhātu ': " Verily, O Śāriputra, this meaning is a subject for the Tathāgata [and only belongs to] the sphere of the Tathāgata. This meaning, O Śāriputra, can neither be known 16> nor be seen, nor be examined correctly throngh the knowledge of the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. Needless to say, this applies to the case of ignorant and ordinary beings, except when they have faith 17> in the Tathāgata. O Śāriputra, the ultimate truth is really approachable only by faith [in the Tathāgata]. O Śāriputra, the ultimate Truth is a synonym of the mass of living beings (sattva-dhātu) 18>. The mass of living beings is, O Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Matrix of the Tathāgata {tathāgatagarbha) 19\ The Matrix of the Tathāgata is, Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) " .
14 ) asamskrta, T. hdus-ma-byas-pa, C. 3*9? >w{f» Lit. 'being not created by causes and conditions ', or ' not caused by samskāras (the active forces) ', i. e. ' not belonging to this Phenomenal World '. 15 ) T. Lhag-pahi bsam-pa bstan-pahi lehu. Here, ' brtan-pa' is preferable to ' bstanpa\ Cf. Tohoku No. 224 which gives the Skt title; Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta. This sūtra is lacking in Chinese Tripijaka. 16 ) According to T., ' jñātum vā ' should be supplied after ' svaprajñayā ' (T. śes-pa). 17 ) śraddhā-gamana, T. dad-pas rtogs-pa. As for the importance of faith, see S. p . 74 1. 1 f. (v. I. 153).

nVt.
1S

•!_, |33

) T. sems-can-gyi khams, C. ?fc f-^_ -yi*, Here dhātu means ' a group ' (jāti or gotra) and sattvadhātu is used as a collective noun for sattvas. At the same time, however, this word, being synonymous with tathāgatagarbha, maybe interpreted as " t h e Essence of the sattva, being the ' cause ' of the Buddhahood " , according to the special use of the word ' dhātu ' in this text.
19

) T. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi sñiñ-po, C. }$[ yjv |!15c. The meaning of tathāgatagarbha

will be discussed under (VII) & (IX) - 4) (in Chap. I) (S. p. 26, 70 ff.).

[ 143 ]

i.

j . .ri.rv.tvi3i4.JVl

Thus is the fourth ' vajrapada ' and is to be understood according to the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa—parivarta20). 5) * Bodhi ' : " O Lord, the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment {anuttarā • samyaksambodhi) is a synonym of the Sphere of the Nirvana 21>. The Sphere of the Nirvana is nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . Thus is the fifth Vajrapada which is to be understood according to the Ārya Śrīmālā-sūtra2 2 ) . 6) 4 Guna ': " 0 Śāriputra, that which is called the Absolute Body, preached by the Tathāgata, is of indivisible nature, of qualities inseparable from the Wisdom, that is to say, [indivisible from or endowed] with the properties of the Buddha which far surpass the particles of sands of the Gangā in number "23>.

« C. ^ P if!" A^ $ S H [ , Taisho, No. 668, XVI, 467 a. T. has no translation of > this sūtra. Hereafter, AAN will be used as the abbreviation.
V|~T rftfV \'Jr\

2

) nirvānadhātu, T. mya-ñan-las-hdas-pahi dbyiñs, C. £35 ^ ^ •yf'. T. dbyiñs (for dhātu) means ' a heavenly region '. ' bhagavan ' in the Text is, to be corrected into ' bhagavams '. 22) = Śrîmālādevîsimhanādasūtra. T. Hphags-pa dpal-phreñ-gi mdo (Dpal-phreñ lha-mo señ-gehi sgrahi modo) C. 3g. '^=1 /j/r 3 C ntC. • There are two translations in C :

21

i>* * w ^F ift — ^-k.~n &is'9i M *.by * m &. PB m
(Gunabhadra), Taisho, No. 353. and 2) $$f- " ^ ^ A . *f[. vol. 48 of ^ 5 8 Jf{ jf8£
(Ratnakūta-sūtra), Taisho, No. 310. Hereafter the first one will be used as the reference under the abbreviation of SMS. This passage, SMS, Taisho, XII, 220 c. 23 ) The whole quotation runs as follows: mā,

(S.) j o ' yam, Śāriputra, tathagatanirdisto dharmakāyah, so'yam avinirbhāgadharavinirmuktajñānaguno, yaduta, gañgānadī—vālikā—vyatikrāntais tathāgatadharmaih; (T.) Sārī—bu, de—bshin-gśegs—pas bstan—pahi chos—kyi sku gañ—yin—pa de—ni hdi— Ita-ste, gañgāhi kluñ-gi bye-ma-sñed-las hdas-pahi de-bshin-gśegs-pahi chos-dag-dañ / rnam—par dbyer—med—pahi chos dañ Idan-pa, ma—bral—bahi ye~śes—kyi yon—tan—can yin—no

^

tation, but its additional part is identical with the quotation in S. p. 39 from the same sūtra). dbyer-med-pahi chos dañ Idan-pa ( = . . . chos-can), C. simply A^* pj|t and om. 'dhar-

M ^ JB i £ ft ?£ #ū * ^ S ^J @ (C. has a longer quoFor ' avinirbhāgadharman ' (' -dharman ', ifc. ' of the nature of'), T. mam-par

man* (usually, ^ ^ g ^ g £ ?£).
For ' avinirmuktajñānaguna', T. ma-bral-bahi ye-śes-kyi yon-tan-can, which does aot seem correct (it should be 'ye-śes-dañ ma-bral-bahi yon-tan con'); C. -A^

[ 144 ]

This is the seventh Vajrapada which is to be understood according 25 to t h e Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra—nirdeśa >. That is to say. without any imagination or any thought construction " . No. 302). Therefore. 2 *) AAN 467 a. The term ' avinirmuktajñānaguna '. 915 b (No. by which the Buddha has realized ' bodhi '. pp. p. seems to show the latter interpretation. this term ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is an attribute. No. pp. Instrumental case-ending of the word ' tathāgatadharma ' (which is translated into T. or otherwise is to be related to ' avinirbhāga ' as shown in the present translation. ' samanvāgama '. bstan-pahi sgo. in l which the former part ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is relating to the latter part guna* as an apposition.9. ' gañgānadivālikā-vyativrtta ' (p. (See S. by ' dan ') shows the implied meaning of ' -upeta '. b I I « ^ (Jñānagupta). 80. p. i. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities and often used along with ' amuktajña '.2-3. the Tathāgata never imagines anything nor distinguishes falsely. (sometimes in the form of ' gañgānadîvālukāvyativrtta ' (S. ' jñāna' signifies ' buddhajñāna '. 25 J Chinese Tripiçaka retains 3 kinds of translations of this sūtra. 304. 26 ) uddeśamukha. X. They are nothing but the abbreviated forms of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' and seem to have the same sense as the latter. [ 145 ] ibid.14). not clear. No. and probably the whole sentense could not be understood properly by C.2. 55. ' -yoga '. ibid. 39. T. offers no help. 73. his acts of this kind flow forth without any effort.9) or ' gañgāsikatā 'tivrtta' (p.14-15. 76. is a Bahuvrīhi compound. y fH S iSv | H & tr. 303. Here. forms again a kind of Bahuvrīhi compound. ' gañgātīrarajo 'tīta' (p.. 85.The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a This is the sixth Vajrapada and is to be understood according to 24 the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. I t should mean ' unreleased from jñāna'. 7) ' Karman ' : " 0 Mañjuśri. these are t h e 7 Vajrapadas which should be known as the body of this whole text. 42.12). JjjjJ . where a simile of lantern is used for clarifying this meaning and lantern is said to be of ' avinirmukta-guna '. In short. See S. being an adjective to 'guna' (which means ' buddhagunāh ' or ' tathāgatadharmāh ' i . This passage is in Taisho.16). being appositional to ' dharmakāya '. G. namely: 1) Jg^ (translator unknown). ' avinirmuktajñāna'. in t h e sense of being a collection of preliminary 26 explanations >. e. Taisho.^ Jf!£ -R/ f^. As for the term ' gañgānadivālikā-vyatikrānta ' it is also an adjective. ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña ' is used as an attribute to ' guna '. 12. the Wisdom. T. translator. 42. In other passages. C. ' avinirbhāga ' and ' acintya '. 302.2-3. by Śiksānanda. the Qualities of the Buddha). exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities.. And hence. omitting the word * jñāna '). e . but -^3 JHfc -Ç/J "f@ is placed at the end. 55. 3) ^C ^ f M A #0 3fc ^ . 2) ^ l p |gt W± i$fr £fl ffi ^m Wi ^ A tW * fl § S JS §i i t # M tr.

It should be ' nidānaparivartād anugatāni '. 2S ) == Dhāranîśvararājasūtra. as well as to ' catvāri [padāni] \ For ' svalaksanenânugatāni '. I " Alañkāra-parivarta " and Chap. 409 o). 1-4. [ 146 ] . 2 (nidānatah). Accompanied 2 7 ) by their own characteristics. respecti- vely. II " Dhāranīśvararāja-bodhisattva-parivarta " . In this Mahāsamnipātasūtra. denoting the contents of this chapter.. See below. The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects. takes it as locative.J. C. ( = ^ C ñ « I S . T. . But C. Literally. T . has the title ' Tathāgata-mahākarunā—nirdeśa-sūtra '. 29 a7 ) dhīmat ( = bodhisattva). i. has another (yC translation of the same sūtra as a part of the Mahāvaipulya-mahāsamnipāta-sūtra y/J "^f y^.e. the three subjects should be known as being from 3 1 ) the introductory chapter (nidāna—parivarta) of the Holy Dhāranīśvararājasūtra. Therefore. 398). // 2 // [The meaning of this verse is as follows]: And of these seven Vajrapadas. (dañ is probably for Instrumental case-ending). 30 For ' dharma '. No. It seems that the " Nidāna parivarta " is equivalent to the Alañkāra-parivarta. 397). it is said: " The Lord has perfectly realized the equality of all things. a n d jina ( = buddha). and om. ) anugata. which is identical with the title of Chinese translation ' y^. 32 ) This sūtra is available in both Tibetan and Chinese Tripitakas. One should know respectively the [first] three subjects From the introductory chapter in the Dhāranirāja—sūtra 28\ And the [latter] four from [the chapter on] the distinction Between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha 29>. Taisho. (ablative) Also v. rjes-hbrel-ba ( = anubandha). T. accompanied 3 0 ) by the explanation of their own characteristics. ^ $§£ ' (Taisho.) (Taisho. p. • DRS 1 a. C. anugatāni'. ^ ) For ' svalaksananirdeśena (jñāna). sl ) The reading ' nidānaparivartânugatāni ' i r rather obscure. not clear. T. Chap. Jīfc rfT. Of these [seven subjects]. No. So T. blo—ldan & rgyal—ba.. the caseending of ' esām ' (hdi-dag). ' anugata ' is related to ' trlni padāni '. T. to the remaining part. and the " Bodhisattva-tathāgatadharmabheda-(parivarta) " . Beside this independent sūtra. C. and then the remaining four [are to be known] from the chapter on the distinction between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha respectively 32>. under the titles of Chap. as if ' svalaksanasyânngatāni '. II. has set the wheel of Doctrine going well and has kindly trained numberless disciples " 33>. TAKASAKI § 3. rañ-gi mtshan—ñid bstan—pa dañ / rjes-su hbrel-ba ni. XIII. the Dhāranirājasūtra occupies the vols.

T. ^ ^p\. ( o m . he is endowed with the power of expressing the Highest Doctrine37\ knows very easily the intentions of all living beings.. samādhi-i. chos-smra-ba-ñid. it is said: "Having realized the perfect Enlightenment. rim-gyis skye-ba hgrub-pa. Sometimes ' bodhi-manda ' is explained as denoting Bodhi-tree. g 41 ) apratipraśrabdha. e. ' the highest state of Enlightenment'. on the 8th Stage of Bodhisattva. Ihun-gyis grub. " ) anābhoga. / $ Wl)) triratnotpatty-anurūpahetu-samudāgama-nirdeśa. T. T. ' manda ' has originally meant ' the scum of cooked rice. j 6 ^ <^\s \7f* fig^. or the essence of milk. translation. one should know the arrangement of the three Jewels [in the aspect of] their successive origination and accomplishment 34>. In Pali. C. rgyun mi~hchad-pa(r). realized perfectly the equality of all things " . it is used in the sense of ' essence ' (sāra) ' excellent part'. translation ' f^Jâ $ £ ] j j | | H Iffi ^ / 2 l | t £ ' . There are 5 indriyas. as the power of controlling all elements of phenomena has been attained. &prajñā-i. translation ' sñiñ-po ' shows the same meaning. one who has the qualification for preaching the Doctrine).The Ratnagotravibhāga By these three fundamental sentences. 36 39 3ā ) vāsanā-anusamdhi. T .. On the 9th Stage of Bodhisattva. respectively. he is immediately calmed in the Buddha's effortless 40> acts uninterruptedly 41 ). C. smrti-i. after attaining the anointment for the prince recognized as the next king in the highest religious empire of the Buddha. namely śraddhā-i. Mvyut 41. T. Therefore. it is said: " H e who has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going has kindly trained number3 *) anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. Here I preferred C. On the 10th Stage of Bodhisattva. 37 ) dharmabhānakatva. (T. and is often accompanied by the word 4 vara ' as in the text. brings all faculties [of living beings] 38) to the highest perfection and becomes an expert in the removal of the chain of Defiling forces39) in all living beings. ) bodhi-manda. But in later scriptures. viz. hgrub-pa. [ 147 ] 11 . so it is said: " He ( = the Lord). anu- samdhi). < £ ptP ( t e a c h e r of t h e D o c t r i n e . T . sitting in the excellent Seat of the Englightenment 3 6 ) . vlrya-i. cream '. it denotes ' the excellent place of the Enlightenment' as C. bag-chags-kyi mtshams-sbyor-ba. -yC 0ft -3£ W /PC 5vC • Here the word ' samudāgama ' (also in the next line) means ' siddhi '. Therefore.. $ & fffj ^ T • C. C. Therefore ' bodhi-manda ' means literally ' the essence of the Enlightenment'.. i. The remaining four subjects are to be known as the statement of the accomplishment of the causes which correspond to the origin of the three Jewels 35\ Now. C. he has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going " . C. 38 ) indriya.

> And then. It runs as follows: " He was together with the assembly of a large number of monks ) and with the assembly of numberless Bodhisattvas " . C. yon-tan rnam-par dbye-ba. T .B (beginning w i t h A u p t o B). but T. immediately after this sentence. And next. . . the establishment of the distinguishable qualities > of the Jewel of the Buddha is to be known through the accomplishment of a great palace adorned with circular ornament of jewels >. C. shes- 42) A _ yāvat . T. -^^ ?fc . . and the second vastu). Furthermore. t o come t o g e t h e r ) . For parisat—samāvartana. as ' vimala '. (DRS 1 c-3 c). T . T. (decoration). khyams (court-yard). ) C.less disciples " . . through the splendid arrangement 5 0 ) of the seat of the Doctrine and its brightness. C. 44 ) vrsabhitā (BHS). dravya. C. through the completion of various kinds of worship with divine things 4 8 \ and through the pouring of rain from the cloud of praises 49>. The term is often used as an epithet of the Buddha. C. a-b. R/J (/J\ t 148 ] . khyu-mchog (' the best b u l l ' = rsabha). 42 As he has well trained those who are in the enlightenment of the Śrāvaka and up to that of the Buddha. yons-su bsgrags-pa. reads it as ' visaya '. collects ' (viz. bkhor—hdus—pa (hdus-pa < hdu—ba. however.' vipula '. om. the same qualification of having trained numberless disciples is shown in the same text. and through the glorification 51) 47 46 45 44 43 of the name . step by step. C. b u t seems t o o m .v. ' gathers. For . through his bringing the people together > into the assembly of Tathāgatas. C. . 48 C. C. . Of the two ' vyūhas ' in the text. * 5 l H x ' s e e m s to include the meaning of ' mandala '. 49 ) These passages are extracted from the same sūtra. 45 ) F o r ' gunavibhāga '. parisad. 46 I n t h e following cases. in the reference to the Buddha's inconceivable leadership > in regard to tranquillity. s. the first one is translated into T. *') samāvartana < samāvartayati (BHS). 5 1 ! Mx. " &c. T. (palace of jewel).). 80 > vyūha. as S. «Ç/J j ) vipula-ratna-vyūha-mandala-vyūha-nivrtti. . and has * J | >fM 1^> ^ C instead (vividha-divyā-pūjā?). BHS Die. T . JjJt ^ one. __ ") pariklrtana. / J H-\ . shes-bya-ba-nas bya-bahi bar. C. ' bkod-pa '. bkod-ba. immediately after the [passage of the] doctrine on the nature of qualities of Śrāvakas and Bodhisattvas. C. ^Y* fî£\ g ^ | -sfl. *») DRS 1.(acintya^ 2 c //'J (gunaprabheda). . ~$t R . it is said: " Thus being endowed with the virtuous qualities. F o r samāvartana. into T.

68 ) pratibhāna (from P a l i patibhāna. C. C. besides t h e usual sense of intelligence o r manifestation of m i n d ) . B u t t h i s r e s o l u t i o n of t h e c o m p o u n d is n o t good. spyod-yul. . there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Doctrine53). om. §/£. ) upanyasana ( < upa-ni-V as) T. through the description 5 9 ) in the form of discussion 6°) of the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. ' . ^ 1 ^ * j ^ I p J f p f XJ 4a. 61 w ) avasānagata. which translates it twice by JjjP & JJRj. through the explanation of the highest praise to the true virtues of the Tathāgata. phan-tshun. gtam-gyi dños-po. \ J . and. 85 86 ) gocara-visaya. <\~f jjf| -TT . there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Community 5 6 ) . confidence). DRS 5 6-6 c. (to give. the Essence of the Buddha is explained by a description of the sixtyfold appliance as 62 ) dharmaparyāya. jyesthiputra' meaning Bodhisattva.The Ratnagotravibhāga and qualities of the variety of doctrines 52) . For ' tat-pratipatteh '. according to C. and in the light of the description of their various forms of qualities. C.suggested. T. as the result of that knowledge. respectively. C. aiśvarya. through the sprinkling of the Buddha's light. T. spobs-pa t a l e n t of speech). H e r e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s according t o T . . C. T. > D R S 4 e-5 b. resolving the compound into ' anuttaradharmarāja-jyesthaputra-upaharana ' and ' paramavaiśāradyaupaharana '. after the introductory chapter of this Sūtra. And next. Then. ne-bar bkod-pa. mthah-ñid (avasānatva) C. seems to omit ' prabhā-samdarśana '. 'anyonya' had better be connected with ' bodhisattva ' in a compound. 64 ) anyonya. through the manifestation of the attainment of the highest sovereignty 61 ). ) C. immediately after this. 69 (courage. C. in the reference to the Buddha's presentation 5 7 ) of the highest fearlessness and confidence [in speech] 58) on account of the prince of the supreme religious king [to the Bodhisattvas]. 60 ) kathāvastu (subject of story). And also therein the introductory chapter of this Sūtra is known to have come to the end 6 3 ). in the light of the mutual 54> manifestation of the power of the acting sphere55) of various tranquillities of the Bodhisattvas. j ^ i Ī3>« As J. C. DRS 3 c-4 d. t i l Jī^t • [ 149 ] . T . T. And. T. {l^ ») Cf. # P j j f fjj£ ^ (because of the practice of that Mahāyāna by rule). w h i c h h a s t h e special m e a n i n g of ' readiness (cowardless in s p e e c h ' o r ' confidence of s p e e c h ' . to offer). the highest establishment of the distinguishable qualities of three Jewels is to be understood 62 ). chos-kyi rnam-grañs. ») Cf. through these three. om. respectively. e x c e p t t h e t e r m ' upaharana '. 67 ) The reading ' upakaranatā ' is to be corrected into ' upaharanatā '. And again. C.

too. A b o u t ' viśuddhi-guna—parikarman''. the meaning seems as follows ' viśuddhi—guna ' is ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' of ' dhātu '.7 (ratnagotra-puspapratimandite . and ' ^ g ' . (Cf. [ 150 ] . T. yoñs-su sbyoñ-bas sbyoñ-ba byed-do. C. After all. in so far as it has qualities of an object to be purified .. C. T . we c a n n o t s a y ' unmilya ' is absolutely correct. But in another case. and having washed ) it with acid salt water ). 44 O noble youth.the purifying factors of that 65) Essence *>. C. 67 ) D R S p . 71 ) paryavadāpanena paryavadāpayati (lit. and hence. J^A. 6. B reads ' unmîlya \ There seems t o b e no definite reason for changing ' unmilya ' i n t o ' utksālya' against Ms. ' dhātu ' is ' viśodhya—gunavad— artha '. 21 c. 66) in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva . / A (in the sense of ' method '. 69 ) uiksālya i n t h e t e x t . p. 1. T . p. there is illustrated again an analogy In this Sūtra (the Dhāranirāja—sūtra) It runs as follows >: 67 of the purifying process of gold. [j=ij] p £ I' | [ T ^ ) « Cf. lan—tshvahi chu rnon-pos. for ' parikamma ' in the verse quoted in S.samudra-malaya-śikhare). C. the allegory of unpurified Vaidūrya stone is illustrated. cleaning). T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s word is n o d o u b t ' washing '. Taisho. ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' is inherent to ' dhātu ' in the form of ' Sūstyākāra-viśuddhiguna ' . 186c. take for instance a skilful jewel-maker who knows Having taken out an 69 71 68 quite well how to purify precious stones. says instead ' i n the Daśabhūmika-sūtra'.e. unless we find o t h e r examples of t h e same u s e . the most suitable translation for this term is ' process of purification or ' appliance for purification \ 68 ) The significance of this ' daśasu bodhisattvabhūmisu' is not clear. tad -viśuddhi-parikarma-yogāt. he then polishes it by rubbing ) with black- ) sasty—ākāra—tad (=dhātu) —viśuddhi-guna—parikarma—nirdeśena. p i ^ ^ -»j£ 70 ) tiksena khārodakena. b u t i n t h e special sense of ' m e t a l i n g '. L a n k .. after the description of the Acts of the Buddha. i. b u t Ms. i t seems r a t h e r difficult t o consider i t as a m i s t a k e . yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba (pariśodhana. C. see b e l o w . 10. In other words. And because of the effect of this meaning. T. For ' parikarman '. reading. 6. p . jglt / A (sharp a s h ? ) ' khāra ' is a Prakrit form of Skt ' ksāra '. ' t a k i n g d u s t off i n order t o m a k e jewel or m e t a l m a n i f e s t ' ( i n causative sense). translates it by ' Ypf i~r '» which has the same sense as T.). in the third case (f^P* Jjp^. I t sounds better in comparison with ' asminneva ca sūtre'1 in the next sentence. nor—bu rin—po—chehi rigs ( = maniratnagotra). 188c. 68 ) manigotra. 70 unpurified precious stone from the mine ). In comparison with ' viśuddhi-guna-parikarrnan ' and ' buddhadhātoh sastyākāraviśuddhi—parikarma-gunāh ' in S. ' yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba '. As t h i s ' unmilya ' is found twice i n Ms. 64 i. J^K /TJ 3B M=x seems to show the actual process of purification. or ' appliance ') in the former two cases. 1: 11. 65 ) viśodhye ' rthe gunavati. A t t h e same t i m e . 6 Because the Essence of the Buddha deserves to be applied the purification. ' makes perfectly clean by means of purifying instrument'). etc. . So I adopted it in the translation.e. however. C.4AJ |7Uīi» f° r viśuddhi-parikarma-guna).

having washed it with great medical liquid 7 5 ) . C. he never ceases to make efforts. creates disgust in the mind of those living beings who are attached to the world of transmigration through the teaching of being afraid of the non-eternity. the Tathāgata too. > sattvadhātu. he polishes it with closely-woven cotton cloth 7 6 \ After having been polished and having been separated from all impure metals mingled with it 77>. b u t C. as usual. C. Even with this much of act. '. T. 84 ) trimandala-pariśuddhi.J . T . kāca' s e e m s t o b e a g e n e r a l n a m e for dust or piece of metal and glass mingled within jewels. rigs-chen-po 74 75 ( = mahākula). p]P: vE|P| jylJj i > • ^ 3p|i[» Wft JÇHU " ^ 3 "5fcf • A c c o r d i n g t o C . tfe ^ £ f^.7|^ (a piece of wood covered with cloth). suffering. lal-gyi la-ba.(against the usual translation.Hl ^fl. zañs—kyi klu—pa rnon—po. ) khandikā. i. B H S D i e . and the gift. >-*-. VzC Wffl (dharmacakra). he makes them realize the guiding manner 8 1 ) of the Tathāgata by the teaching of [the threefold gate to the emancipation 82\ viz. y\^. . 82 ) (trini vimoksa—mukhāni). ' T h e s e a r e called ' caturvidhâviparyāsa—samjñā ) netrl. ) . having washed the stone with meat juice 73) of bitter taste. the Tathāgata never ceases to make efforts. T. Even with this much work. C. through the teaching of the irreversible wheel of the Doctrine 83> and through the teaching of the ' purification of three circles ' 84>. Cf. C.|îr/A &PI £4f» 77 ) apagatakāca ( B a h u v r ī h i c o m p . ' non-distinction ' (animitta) and ' desirelessness ' (apranihita). T . v . having known the unpurified element of living beings 7 9 ) . T . tshul (— nay a). [ 151 ] . he never ceases to make efforts. S. 79 80 81 C. he polishes it by rubbing with a woollen blanket 7 4 ). hkhor-gsum yoñs-su dag-pa. p . T .e. s. the giver. 3 0 . skrahi re-ba (om. dri—ma dañ bral—ba(ni). . ) mahā—vaisajya—rasa. T. ' b o r n i n t h e noble family '. Jpflj Ypf r~r )• It means usually the purity of three things in donation. After that. the receiver. After that. and signifies 'non-substantiality' (śūnyatā). C. impersonality and impurity [of this world] 8 0 ). But with this much work. he causes those living beings who have 72 73 ) krsna-keśakambala. ^Y* Jj^ . ^V\ %HI ^ ^ . 0 noble youth. 76 ) sūk'sma-vastra. 78 ) abhijāta (' well b o r n '. and causes them to enter the discipline of the sacred Doctrine. T. ^ .IjjC j | / £ J^_ + \ . After that. 83 ) avivartya-dharmacakra. v i z .The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hair cloth 7 2 ) .] ' non-substantiality ' {śūnyatā). ' noble ' ) . it is called a precious 78) Vaidūrya stone. C. J^. ( = mahā). After that. krsna). With this much of act the Buddha never ceases to make efforts. Similarly. jf^ ]£f| 3gc 'KC • ) tlksa āmisa-rasa..

(2) 8 kinds of illumination of Bodhisattvas. which is of pure origin 8 6 ) . Now.iiii> ^ ^ (daśa akuśalāni abhimāna. ^ (jñāna). *££ (dharma).. i. but is not found among the present Pali Tripitaka. rāga—ā. yon-gnas (place of gift). mānâtimānu. 88 ) viśuddhigotra. (loka-mārga ?). TAKASAKI different kinds of characteristics and origins. JZQ MH j§i] (caturvidha-viparyāsa). H^J): 1. f^ i j § (abhijñā). to enter the sphere of the Tathāgata. T.e.l i ? 8 S (prajñā) & 4. ^ (apratihatajñāna). C. gift. and (4) 32 kinds of deeds >. & 8. jfa (pañca—āvarana. (1) 4 kinds of ornament of Bodhisattva's Essence of Buddhahood? Bodhisattvas. The source of this Prakrit verse is unknown. 7. Pfe J H / £ (dhārani). (3) 16 kinds of Bodhisattva's great compassion. by which each of the following ' mithyās' of the living beings 3. yoñs-su dag-pahi rigs. 4. ^ ^ 4. it is said as follows: " Just as gold. 5. is removed: 1. which are the sixtyfold factors of purifying process87) of the They are. (samādhi). 3) 16 ' karunās '. ūnamāna & mithyāmāna). and sands. H ^ 2. ^ (smrti). / \ ^|S ^ .. TJf (satya). 9. (16 kinds of ' mi11. | r 152 ] . 3. though it is invisible among stones Comes to be seen by the process of purification. 2. 12. māna. (It is apparently in Pali. T. styāna-middha-ā.e. 3. C. (durgati). (ślla). karmani). are called unparalleled venerables " 8 5 ). f â ffl (punya-ksetra).J. mamakāra). Having in view this Essence of the Tathāgata. ^ L 1 ^ (sapta-māna. -fT (caryā ?). 4 ^^ i l l . these gunas are as follows: 1) 4 'alañkāras' ( ^ $§• )jf H ) : 1.. adhimāna. Having entered [the sphere of the Tathāgata]. 10. (DRS 9 a-10 a). -Jjv? »yj ilk W^. those same beings. & vicikitsā-ā. donation). 5.. 88 ) According to DRS. 6. IHT 1P3. 3jp J j ^ (mithyā-drsti). (avidyā—mātsarya—rāga ?). namely.) »7> See above (Note 65). in this world of living beings The Tathāgata [becomes visible by purification] " . ^ " j \ ^ / | jYu (ahamkāra. when they have realized the true nature of the Tathāgata. 7. abhiniveśa). (DRS 5 6-8 b). pratigha—ā. ignorance about the 12 añgo's of causality.e. 6. Tl. Similarly. y j^c Ypf r~r (as if ' prakrtipariśuddhi '). 8. 86 88 ) daksinlya (worthy to receive ' daksinā \ i. 2J^L S\ y \ (sadāyatanaasmimāna.). 2. auddhatya-kaukrtya-ā. ^ 2) 8 ' avabhāsas' Çjfc. i. ^ (manas).

anārambana). 9. § ft fpf ffi (prakrtipariśuddhi). 13. 11. 5. T T ^ * ^fJF (tryadhva-samatā).. A* ^J f^ / (anabhilāpya). "Q^ ^ J (safya- pado).). BHS Die. there is explained the Supreme Enlightenment of the Buddha by indicating the 16 kinds of Great Compassion [imparted by] the Supreme Enlightenment a9\ Next to this description. 422 a-425 a). . ignorance about the gate to Nirvana. records only the form of ' aim- [ 153 ] . etc.1^. DRS 11 b. affliction to ' tribhava\ 14. ^ Jg M 16. which is thyādrsti').% 3>P? > s | (asamskrta). The Inherent Connection between 7 Subjects. 82 ) anuślesa ( < anu-\/ ślis). (DRS 10 o-lO c). pp. ^ ^X $ j | (3E I©) (apratisthita). . ties. 14. 10. And next. hbrel-pa ( = sambandha). 89 ) The Supreme Enlightenment is said to be accompanied by the following 16 qualiK î? (śuddhi-śānti). " ^ _L ^ SI ^ ^ C S S . _g|. these two are equal and undistinguishable from each other). # ^ # $\> (M ffl te f^) (animitta-akrtrima ?). 7..The Ratnagotravibhāga Immediately after this statement. IV (III). 8. Tñv ^ÎS S>v Wot {asamjñā. there is explained the Buddha's Virtuous Qualities by the indication of 10 Powers. 15. ^* "far (anudgraha. 6. JU tf% ( ^ 0T ^ ) (anāsrava. anupeksā ?. these 7 Vajrapadas should be understood in detail through the indication of their own characters according to the Sūtra. jtfif ^ ^ (ākāśavat). which are the counterpart of 32 bad behaviours of living beings. Here the reason why these qualities are called ' mahākarunā ' is that they are inseparable from ' mahākarunā ' and Buddha's Enlightenment realizes itself in the form of the acts of ' mahākarunā \ Cf. 91 ) DRS 26 6-27 b. 5 * (śūnya). | | | £ (māra). 4) 32 acts practised by Bodhisattvas. Each of the 32 ' karman's is indistinct. In the Community exists the Matrix. Thus. Owing to the Doctrine there is the Holy Community. C. T. 4 kinds of Intrepidity and 18 Exclusive Pro90 perties of the Buddha ).P -»iX. (DRS 10 c-11 6). 2. }»»§ y H wj i l l (nirvikalpa-padârtha). 12. what is the inherent connection 9 2 ) between these subjects? From the Buddha comes the Doctrine. the Acts of the Buddha are explained by the indication of 32 kinds of Supreme Acts of the Buddha 91>. 13. arana?). < C H^ "^Li ^ ^ i oF (śānti. 8. And then. The use of ' anuślesa ' seems to be quite rare. 4. (?) (DRS 11 b-14 a) (Chinese terms in brackets are taken from y^. fîf ^ / 3. ^ ^ . Jj5^ flbc* Taisho. 15. 16. DRS 14 c-21 c (there is no description of the 32 Mahāpurusalaksana in DRS). prabhā. ffPJ . § 4. f^ -^f |(l3 TST 7J Jv'J "• (The Supreme Enlightenment and the Great Compassion. fj^ ^p§ (kāma ?). 9 °) See Chap. ^V Jfv (anu-krama). namely: 1.

TAKASAKI The element of Wisdom. mthar. & C. In comparison with it. BHS D i e . ślista ' (ppp. C. (' āpti-nistha ' seems to mean 'having (jñāna—)āpti as the end'. though against T. the reading ' sañghe ' in the text. takes it merely to show the order of succession between each subject and uses. 93 ) ' jñāna-dhātu-āptinistha '. (Supreme Enlightenment) 94 ) śāstrasambandha. g¥^ <āg +Q (dharmârthasvalaksana ?). iii-71-14. Its acquisition of the Wisdom is the Supreme Enlightenment. the ablative for the preceding one. in each case. T.//3// Finished [the explanation of] the relation between each subject in the text 94>. viz. And accompanied by altruistic Acts for all living beings. But it is not agreeable.) found in Mahāvastu. is quite correct. 'jñāna—dhātu' seems to mean ' garbha '. aiming at its acquisition 9 3 ) . L 1541 .J. 10 Powers and others. reads as ' sañghād apratihatadhātuh (-}$$ ijU £ X ) . For ' nistha '. T. hbrel-pa. For sambandha. s. v. which is indicated by ' tad ' in the next line. Which is endowed with the Qualities. dhātor jñānam ' and om. ' jñānadhātvāptinistha ' & * agrabodhi '. C. C. Therefore. y±.

abuddha. Therefore. 4) 6 buddhatva. C. who has realized 3) the Buddhahood 4> Which has neither beginning. 4). About a detailed discussion on the basic verses. C. 6) ekacchid. 3) vibuddha. chos~ñid-kyi rgyu-mihun-pahi dvañ-ba. jjjjj • * § . 2) dharmatānisyandâbhiprasādena. C. S e e also V . and is quiescent. & C omit eka. And who. where emphasis lies on the 'ekaśaranatā' of t h e B u d d h a . For abhiprasāda. T . sañs-rgyas-ñid.II. though we have 3 ' verses '. taught the Path. wrong view).. (viparyasta-mati. [ 155 ] . C. It is used mostly in case of certain verses which I picked up as the basic verses. Those living beings who were lead by the Tathāgata. middle nor end. Cf. see my Introduction. T. Sloka-or Kārikā. both T. I. (Kārikā 1) I bow to the one. in order to enlighten the ignorant 5\ And who. it is clear. trust). there is one śloka with regard to the Jewel of The Buddha. having in hand the excellent sword and thunderbolt Of Wisdom and Mercy. there is no śloka. reads this passage as follows " and breaks the wrong view and all forests 8> [of defilements] {<yfy iy%) concealed in the mountain of various views " . especially in Chap. faith. Fearless and eternal. first of all. Pali. T. -ff^- T»IX ^Q ^ ^ (respecting the Tathāgata). ljy|{ |3tjj Jf^. THE JEWEL OF THE BUDDHA Hereafter we should explain the meaning of Slokas (basic verses) x). also take refuge in the Doctrine and Community through the faith as the natural outflow of the Reality 2 ). while taking their refuge in the Tathāgata. SMS 221 a. 7 ' vimati. T. dvañs-pa (purity. Hereafter I shall use the Sanskrit word śloka without translation when it indicates the basic verses. In I.text starts with the following verse (v. abhippasāda. The three jewels as refuges. cuts in pieces 6> all sprouts of Sufferings. Introduction. dvañ-ba. = S k t . ' one who has enlightened '. the-tshom (doubt). having realized himself. And breaks the wall of doubts 7) concealed In the forest of various views s\ // 4 // *) The word śloka has a strict use in this text. > abudha (BHS).

7) rañ-gi don phun-sum tshogs-pa. * kārunya in the verse. The Buddhahood has two kinds of benefit. 7) fulfilment of self-benefit (svârthasampad). & C. are as follows: 1) hdus ma-byas-pa-ñid. it is Wisdom. [Also] Being endowed with Wisdom. Because of preaching the way. 4) ye-śes. The Eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood. Compassion and [supernatural] Power [imparted by both]. pratyātmam 13) samskrta. middle nor end by nature. 5) thugs'|{j^ yî\\ . What is shown by this [śloka]? Being immutable. 1) Immutability (asamskrtatva). It is cognizable without any help of others. {3 ^*'J ^gât» 8) gshan-gyi don phun-sum 12) tshogs-pa. hdus-byas-pa. Which are the 8 qualities? Namely. As having neither beginning. free from efforts And not being dependent upon the others. j \ . TAKASAKI § 1. benefit for others [is indicated]. C. ^ n) gyi rkyen-gyis mñon-par rtogs-pa ma yin-pa. ^ >w§ • [ 156 ] . — thus remembered by tradition // 6 // Being realized by oneself12^. T. and 8) fulfilment of benefit for others (parârthasampad)11). • adhigamya. 'ftji >r'J -śnfc. And by the latter three. -^I"* f^ r e J i ^\S>» 6) nus-pa. Being the body of quiet character.J. 5) Compassion (karunā) 10\ 6) [supernatural] power (śakti). not dependent on others (aparapratyayâbhisambodhi)9\ 4) Wisdom (jñāna). Translations of these 8 qualities in T. Thus awakened in a threefold way. -7re? >w\j H a î 2) Ihun-gyis-grub-pa. It is immutable. It is free from any effort. 2) being free from any effort (anābhogatā). // 8 // 1) asamskrta: The word i immutable' {asamskrta) should be understood as being opposite to being conditioned or caused (samskrta)lsK Here 9) 10 aparapratyayodita in the verse. // 7 // It is Power because of destroying Suffering and Defilements by Wisdom and Compassion. Q f£v£ î 3) gshan. p ^ -£§' § J î § . benefit for oneself. C. 3) Enlightenment. // 5 // By this verse there has been briefly explained the Buddhahood as being contracted by eight qualities. it is Compassion. By the first three qualities.

Cf. 4 ( a bhavasthiteh). shows merely a literal translation of the term prapañca (pra-\/pac or -Vpane. 1. 16 ) prapañca (Pali papañca). & 6) śakti: Thus. JM. of which origination. sthiti. this term signifies ' pluralistic view '. as being Tathāgata. the Buddhahood should be seen as having neither beginning. T. Here. which shows almost the exact sense of this Buddhist term. as in the śloka. the term is usually accompanied by vikalpa. 1. Though it is not a literal translation of Skt. showing an opposite sense between them. i. JPç) between sthiti and bhañga. manifold ( = prapañca-vacana) and not ' t h e phenomenal world ' as in the Vedānta philosophy. 16 [ 157 ] . C. respectively. ^Rv > p I " > N (from t h e beginningless p a s t ) . inserting anyathātva (C. to spread out. 4) Jñāna. r e a d i n g " odaya ni hdir mñon-par-rtogs~pa-la hdod-kyi. Sometimes. middle and end. Because of the absence of these characteristics. means literally 'frivolous talk'. Here the word ' udaya' means 4 perfect enlightenment ' (abhisambodha). 4 (ā samsārāt). by which is meant originally the acquisition of Enlightenment by Sākyamuni. 2) anābhoga: It is free from efforts because all dualistic views 15) and false discriminations 16> have ceased to exist. C. p . ^T*: . and being represented as the immutable Absolute Body. C. skye—ba.) 17 18 ) ā samsārakoteh. C. middle nor end. 112. by means of self-born knowledge which needs no tea14 ' utpāda. the whole action of the Perfectly Enlightened One proceeds without any effort. But. utpāda = tathāgatotpatti. ^ ^ . 4 a n d p . 13. we count 4 characteristics of samskrta. Abhidharmakośa. as O translated. C. T. ^f)£ pffij • T. 1. T. C. lasting. 79. Cf. any pluralistic view is considered as a false view. That is to say. ) vikalpa. (udaya. from the Buddhist point of view. i. as well as destruction 14> are conceivable. 1. Pali AN. by which the one entity is regarded as plural. these 3 are implied the beginning. Thus. gnas—pa. a view. to enlarge). 32. p . T. 113. though it is immutable and of the characteristic of non-activity. mam-par rtog-pa. not having heard the Buddhahood. 45 and comm. hjig—pa. 17 ( ā bhavagateh).9 (ā bhavâgratah). p .e. I I . In the Buddhist texts.The Ratnagotravibhāga 'being conditioned' (saniskrta) means the thing. 1. T. Ekapuggala-vaggo. C. and bhañga. 88. which is a quite marvellous and unthinkable sphere. it catches the significance quite well. skye-ba-la ni ma yin-no " means " here the word ' udaya ' is to be understood in the sense of ' abhisambodha ' and not in the sense of ' utpāda ' " . p £ .e. Cf. 'Kyi' of 'hdod-kyi' in the above sentence is a conjunction of two clauses. I. 5) karunā. in which the sense 'origination' is implied17). p . spros-pa. " 3 ^ 7} ZrJ (sometimes only '/J ArJ )• ) T . 3) aparapratyayâbhisambodhi: It is 4 enlightened without any help of others ' (aparapratyayodaya) because it is realized through one's innate knowledge. in Buddhist thought. but having perfectly cognized its unutterable nature 4 by ones e l f (svayam). S. from somebody else. ceaselessly and uninterruptedly as far as the world exists18>.

The root of Defilement is anything which is based on the prejudice25) to the individual existence26). Of these. With respect to their abolition of the roots of others' Suffering (duhkha) and Defilement (kleśa). 2? [ 158 3 . 19 ) anācāryaka ( P a l i anācaryaka). it is akin to the wall concealed by a thick forest.J . sakkāya). ) abhiniveśa (Pali abhinivesa). which is contracted in wrong view and doubt and is to be destroyed by the Path of true perception. ston—pa. who are ignorant 20> and blind by birth. by which the individuality is distinguished from each other ' . ' nāma ' means the 4 skandhas other than irūpa\ therefore. o n t h e contrary. Therefore.s u t t a ) . 171 ( Ā r y a p a r i y e s a n a . wrong view and doubt 2 7 ). with respect to his comprehension. a n d is t o p e r i s h b y bhāvanā-mārga. As having the character of cutting it. i. ^i^ $ £ p i P p f ] . it should be known that the Buddha's power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of sword. p . is difficult to be understood and hardly to be overcome by means of mundane knowledge. ) nāmarūpa. physical T.e. T . 1. ^ J Ç ^ . C. C. T . rjes-su rtogs-pa ( = anubodha). ' m e n t a l e l e m e n t s a n d m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s . in order to enlighten the others too. P a l i MN vol. 24 25 23 c IE. 21 22 ) vyupadeśa ) anugāmin. T. the Suffering. the power (śakti) of Wisdom and of Compassion of the Tathāgata. and. The Defilement. C. srid-rnams-pa. vyapadeśa). C. nāmarūpa is a synonym of pañcaskandhāh. As having the character of breaking. false opinion. is explained by means of the examples of sword and thunderbolt. śīlavrataparāmarśa a n d vicikitsā. 20 ) abudha = S. superstition. TAKASAKI cher 1 9 ) . as being contracted in the Individuality. mire dañgzugs. Thence. Cf. the root of Suffering is. 26 ) bhavāh T . ^pj -£}". [the Buddha] should be understood as being endowed with the supreme Wisdom and Compassion. respectively. in short. saikāyadrsti is. T . slob-dpon med-pa. it should be known that Buddha's Power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of thunderbolt. C. one kind of origination of Individuality 23) (nāmarūpa) on the [three] existences24). The fearlessness (abhayatva) of Path is due to its transcendency. mñon-par śen-pa. abuddha. ZZ. drsti-parāmarśa. Here. They a r e mithyādrsti. a n i n n a t e defilement. ^=J ( t r i b h a v a ) . collection perishable). The transcendency is due to its never again being turned back. r e a d s i n s t e a d ' anuttara '. ) There a r e 4 kinds of ' kleśas ' which a r e caused b y t h e wrong discrimination and are t o perish b y darśana-mārga. C. should be regarded as having the state of sprout because of its character of origination. [the Buddha] has preached 21) the path to follow22) that [Buddhahood]. ) satkāya ( P . ( B H S ) ( p e r h a p s a wrong form for S k t . īj/£ . T .hjig-tshogs(& body.

IH tf ñ. indiscriminative. which seems to show the original type of this sūtra. are partly lacking in 2). Cf. first of all. the Perfectly Enlightenend One " 3°). p . by S nS &c . Taisho No. See B H S Die.1 5 . 240 c. 3) " j ^ fft ^ C ^ A ^3 ^t H^| rf± M M tr.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a fi 2. 1. according to the Sarvabuddhavisayâvatārajñānâlokâlarnkārasūtra29\ In that Sūtra. p. hence hereafter the equivalency in C. . 250 a-253 c). s. T. £>. p./ P ^-p Pu*]. p. And immediately after this. p. the Arhat. so. 357 (12. Taisho. 2) j j —"QJ t f ffî ft •§?. 240 b. By this. However. will be shown according to 1) (abbr. should b e i n s e r t e d after ' acitta '. 3 °) C. 33 ) The term ' vithapati ' is to be corrected into ' vithapeti '. Caus. > T . 2. 359 D (12. bsam-du med-pa ( = acintya). A ^ J©» vñV JS> ^ ^ ® » B ^ ' a c m i y a ' [ 159 ] . B anu—). M tr. the 9 illustrations on the Buddha's Acts utilized in the Ratna.e. the simplest edition is 2). anupubbī. JAĀ. No. has the epithets) the Tathāgata. with reference to this very meaning of the Tathāgata's being neither originated nor destructed.( t h e l l t h cent - A . 239-250 a). T. it is said as follows 3 2 ) : " Thus. vithapanū. 35 C. Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkāra—sūtra. go-rims. 99 ff. 1. C. vithapyante. IV (S. the Tathāgata.v. the Perfectly Enlightened One neither moves nor produces any thought 33>. 1. by ff" -fJO I g H (Samghabhadra)& c. of Skt. Thus. by nine illustrations beginning with the illustration of a reflection of the Indra on the surface of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone 31 ). it is said as follows: " O Manjuśrī. 49.). Pali. vi\)sthā. 31 > About the 9 illustrations. JAÂ). 358 (12.-)> Taisho. Cf. as a hybrid form of vithapayati. 29 ) We have 3 translations of this sūtra in the Chinese Tripitaka : 28 (Dharmaruci). D. 7: hetvānupurvyā (Ms. (511-520 A. Of them. the six qualities of the Tathāgata mentioned above should be understood by this very order 28> and wdth detailed and analytical explanation. the Arhat. S. 1. He is unimaginable. he who is of no origination or destruction is (i. vithapitā. 253 c-265 b).). p. neither explains in a dualistic way 34 ) nor imagines falsely nor discriminates. No. (501 A. 34 ) prapañcayati. see Chap. S. it is explained that the Tathāgata is of immutable character. sems-par byed-pa. See N o t e 1 1 . devoid of thinking 35> and ) ānupūrvl (anupūrvi?). 31.). 32 ) JAĀ. Mañjuśrī.

40 by accepting T. " and so forth. Note 1-89.e. . sets forth the Compassion which is 'pure'. -observing the nature of all living beings. of neither origination nor destruction. 37 ) C. O Mañjuśrī. C. hence. or touched and has no characteristic remark. H e r e ' pradeśa ' seems t o m e a n ' a s p e c t ' (visaya o r gocara). in his own acts. m • * ^ f t ID ⣠VS W M tfe M IA % a %.minding. with reference to the Tathāgata's 16 kinds of Enightenment 3 8 \ it is said as follows39>: There. (Acc. of quiescent character. the character of non-existence 40>. reading * dños-po med-pahi ño-bo-ñid-du to * nirdistān '. There. The former 3 epithets are translated in an opposite way. 38 > Cf. the Creat Compassion named 4 mastery ' sets in forth on all living beings ".. By this the Tathāgata's possession of Supreme Wisdom and Compassion is demonstrated. •> JAÂ. i. After this. the Tathāgata is free from efforts. which is equivalent to JAĀ. ñe—bar shi—bahi tshig—gi rab—tu dbye—ba (== upa- śamaśabda-prabheda ? ) . but it is probably a wrong translation. after the explanation of [nine] illustrations. By this it is indicated that. has neither making known nor being made known.)-ho ' as an apposition [ 160 ] . " all the elements of such a nature " means * [all the elements. /fc5£ i ^ ^c. T . there is explained by the remaining texts the Tathāgata's perfect enlightenment realized without any help of others with respect to all the gates to the Perfect Enlightenment of the real nature of all elements 37>. M !S >l>. 'not blemished ' and ' mastery'). or tested. Having enlightened " means 4 having known truly by means of Buddha's non-discriminative Wisdom \ 44 Of [all] living beings " means 4 of those [living beings] who are in the 36 44 ) upaśamaprabheda—pradeśa. He cannot be seen. 247 6. regards ' sarvataihatâbhisambodhamukhesu ' as a quotation. as soon as the Tathāgata has enlightened all the elements of such a nature and has observed the essential nature of all living beings as 4 impure ' ' not removing stains ' and 4 blemished '. 2476. Such is the explanation of various kinds of aspects of quiescence36>. And after this. all dualistic views and false discriminations have ceased to exist. having the nature] as has been said before '. i. ) ' abhāva-svabhāvāt * in the text should be corrected to ' abhāvasvabhāvān'. or smelt. /7'J ^ZL T O ( — upaśama-prabheda-laksana). or heard. 'immaculate'.e.

B H S . T . & C. etc. T. has ' fj^ •Jf"' ' along with ' ' ij^ [££. C. chos-kyi dbyiñs. enters t h e various gates of that means " . because [the Buddha]. unconformed (aniyatar-) and wrongly conformed (mithyā-niyata-) groups (rāśi) '. " Blemished (sâñgana) " 44) means ' [blemished nature] of Bodhisattvas '. t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s passage r u n s as follows: " I t is ' vikrīditā ' because [the B u d d h a ] . 44 ) T . 47 ) T h e reading of t h i s passage is r a t h e r obvious. because of [their] retaining [the impression of] one of both [obstructions] 45>. " Not removing stains (avimala) " means * [stainful nature] of the Śravākas and Pratyekabuddhas ' because of obstruction on account of knowable things (jñeyâvarana). T h e prefix ' vi. translates it by ' § | | Tiiy '. Cf. lhag-ma. " The great Compassion sets forth on all living beings". The term vikrldita is often used in the sense of ' having perfect mastery ' in BHS as E. dharmasvabhāva ? ) . being an epithet or an apposition to ' karunā '. impure. añgana. [The Compassion is * named] mastery (vikrīditā) " 46> because it enters well into * the gates of accomplished means of training in various ways (vividhā) 47>. connects t h i s 'vividhā' t o ' m u M a ' a n d C. h a v i n g k n o w n ( = sampanna ?) t h e various m e a n s b y w h i c h living beings a r e t o b e c o n v e r t e d . " Essential nature (dharmadhātu) " 4 1 ) means 4 the Matrix of the Tathāgata.. having realized 4 8 ) the characteristics of all living beings through 41 ) T. IV-1 ' vineyadhātau vinayâbhyupāye '. sāñgana. 43 ) C. uses t h i s word twice. trivimoksamukha—vikrîdito. " Impure (aśuddha) " means i [impure nature] of the ignorant and common people ' because of obstruction caused by Moral Defilement (klesâvarana). e x p l a i n s t h e w o r d s from ' sarvasattvānām ' t o ' avalokya ' t o g e t h e r . g. There is no exact concordance between S. ^ J j S p cf. " Having observed " i means having perceived all kinds (i.The Ratnagotravibhāga state of conformed [in right way] (niyata-). rnam-par-brtse-ba. which is not different from his own quality by nature ' 4 2 ) . 48 ) T h e reading ' abhisambuddhabodheh ' i n t h e t e x t is doubtful. 42 ) (sattvānām) dharmadhātu — svadharmatā-prakrtinirviśista-tathāgatagarbha.) through the Buddha's eye to which nothing is obscure' 4 3 ) .' is i n t e r p r e t e d b y ' vividhā'. Here. T . T. and C. connects it t o ' supravista '. hence the whole means ' taking compassion in various ways ' ?). J/C j3Î in the quotation (instead of the usual ' î ^ -^r '). the reading should be (remained). C. But here C. S. s. S.e. t o ' mukha'. fZC B S ' (dharmatā. b u t T . instead of the usual mam-par rol-pa. r e a d as ' vineyopāya '. once connecting t o ' upāya' a n d i n t h e second case. mñoT-par rdsogs- r . which is usually equivalent to ' vijrmbhita ' (manifestation of the Buddha's power). in common with S. Lalitavistara). the feminine form is used. F o r ' vinayopāya \ b o t h T . C. skyon-dañ bcas-pa. B u t t h e r e seems t o b e n o t so m u c h difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s as t o t h e i r sense.v.. & C . On the contrary C. (brtse-ba = sneha [affection]. mentioned (e. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . 45 ) Instead of ' tadubhayâniyatama-viśistayā ' in the text. 46 > T. & C. For 'avaśistatā'1 ^ \ ^ ' shows nearly the same meaning. D i e . ' "p| ' tadubhayânyatamâvaśistatayā'. v .

Besides [thee *s another meaning]. This [activif] should be known as ' power ' of both [Wisdom and Compassion] in egard of acting for the sake of others. seems to have a double expression ' fjg -4^ £££.J. takes ' svadharmatā ' i ' Buddha's own nature'. See. a e r ' tuahākarunā iti\ and ' ^gjf y^. because of their character of being the basis for set*ng forth the Wheel of the highest and greatest Doctrine. eternal and cruiescent plPe 51^ n a s the character of being the basis of his own perfect enlightenmei • By the words ' Compassion ' and ' Power '.e. •=f^' Jg£ ' seems to be connected with ' i!i> wC *^~ īlF AO ' ( to ' ^n orc ^er t 0 ' o r having intention to) as an apposition to ' 3ÎU 7 £ enghten the same as the Buddha. C. because there is another expression *JĪJ5C -4^ . upaśāntipada [ 162 ] . [the Buddhal o l " n s t n e Great Compassion equally for all living beings with intention to make living eings realize what the Buddha did.t n e double expression. i. 7) St7âriasa]r?ljPa<^ & 8) parârthasampad: Here. Wisdom. having aroused the supreme Wisdom an Compassion.. _5f? signifies ' nirvān • 51 * <g)C p£f" ft^ •£?. i & ' p. ) paramatyopaśāntipada. to enlighten the Highest Enlightne- ment). so) £_ r e a c the whole passage as follows: " ' mah5!>rui}ū ' [signifies] that. the fulfilment of sef"k enent *s designated. immutable. and [the quality connected with] the remaining three. et( *s ' t n e fulfilment of benefit for others ' (parârthasampad). " It seems C.I equality 49). C. i. 49) samata1. the Enlightenment. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra the Thāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa (Avat S). par byañ-chub'as na (abhisambodheh). of these six qualities of the Tatbg ata > according to order [the quality] connected with the first three ualities. i. If so.I. id. still it is better to be ' abhisambodhibuddhyā '. VII .t it is not certain whether it is the translation of this terin or that of ' adhie:amaprāpia ' O e a ds to the acquisition). ^ a s t n e intention to lead [the living beings] to the acquisition of thei o w n nature 50). ' 3. [it is called ' mahākarunā ' ] . And even if wc*1006?*. to make them enlighten the Great EnlighteJ i e n t < Therefore.e. After this. or the lack of differencp (nirviśistatā) between the Buddha himsel£ n d all sattvas. By the word ' Wisdom '.e. the fulfilment of benefit fo others is designated. J-[J£'. 1AJ4. i. is 4 the fulfilment of self-benefit' (svârthasamfd). Cf. [the Buddha] has no relaxation of activity for effectuatag t n e setting in motion of the Wheel of unparalleled Doctrine.AS5AK. Usually. / v r f 4/E ' * s m e r e l y an interpreting word by the Chinese translator. the equality.££. in so far as the highest. Note 11-42.e. etc. having attained the Great Enlightenment.

timiranud. translation is curious. So ^« /JiE (moha). Lañkāvatāra p. moha or avidyā. Pali dosa). Pali āram- mana — Skt. Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra VI.. T. (Kārikā 2). Note VI-70 (for cittârambana. But. ' 3fT| | P J ' means usually ' vitarka-vicāra ' and I could not trace the use of ' j | ? j Hit' for 'ārambana' in other texts. It means doctrinally the ignorance. with rays of light of the immaculate Wisdom. J.. Which cannot be speculated upon and is beyond explanation. THE JEWEL OF THE DOCTRINE Now. etc. sdañ(-ba) (she-sdañ). 122. 5) ārambana (āramvana in the text is probably a misprint) (BHS fr. rab-rib. Dictionary. C. in comparison with the simile of the sun. dvesa. W. And which. dmigs-pa. T. Which is neither non-being nor being. there arises the Jewel of the Doctrine.C 'li* fft a t SB) and XVII-187 (for ' nirālamba'. cf. immediately after [the explanation of] the former. And neither different from being nor from non-being X). s. But. ^ J ||}£ or »_!?£ pip. 3) 4 dosa (BHS for Skt. viz.). ^ C 163 ] ( § ) . W ® ?£ . Skt. flji£ |*Jp. Therefore. hatred 3) and darkness4) with respect to all the basis of cognition 5 ). ' timira. timiraripu. j ^ S f$t ? C. Destroys passion. // 9 // This alternative proposition is called ' catuskotikā\ Cf. M. T. 4-8. The present transla- . But revealed [only] by introspection 2> and is quiescent. ālambana). I bow before the sun of-the Doctrine. 2) pratyātmavedya ( = pratyātmavedanīya in comm. we have one śloka concerning the latter. C. etc. Madhyamaka-kârikā I.fa i|> fcj .III.) and C.v. 1. T. so-so-ran-gyis rig (-parlj bya-ba). from the Jewel of the Buddha. seems to show this sense. what is to be destroyed is timira (the sun is often referred to by such terms as timiracchid. timiranāśana. timirâri.C. Nor both being and non-being together. 7.

4) śuddhi. 7) yo virāgah.' seems to be equivalent to vibandha '. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its being unthinkable. Cf. I V .researching and investigation (jSjjJ Çpt) [by discriminative mind]. 1-^)* i>e. and all [other] defilements " . passions.. 6) hostility [against obstacles] (pratipaksatā). & 8) yena virāgah. 3EJ j p . v . ^ ^ / fî\ |2si). Cf. 3E>|. non-dual. and C. rnam-par rtog- pa med-pa-ñid. where these 8 categories are explained as the qualities of the Buddha's ' āśrayaparivrtti '). 2) non-duality (advayatā). hdod-chags dañ bral-bahi rgyu. ^TJj' M R ^ ^ / (BGS ) j ^ ñid. // 10 // By this verse. & C. translation is more understandable than S. Cf. tion is according to T. 2) advaya. and being non-discriminative. and ' j^lj ||p£' to vikalpa or ayoniśomanasikāra. 4) purity.). The C. Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine 6>.ASAKI § 1.J . translation for the whole line runs as follows: " Destroys several kinds of darkness (H_5£. s. 7>fç 73 [A7'Jj. 5) vyakti. manifestation and hostility. 3) niskalpa. ç?^ pip. mñonJ £A| )î 6) vipaksa gñen-pohi phyogs- par gsal-bar (byed-pa). pgfl: |AJ (BGS BGŚ 8016. [V] vrtti. — e . in brief. BHS Die. (BGS -7HÇ . hdod chags dañ bral-ba. bsam-du med-pa-ñid. pjfl: ^ ^ (BGS pgjt ^ ) . (śuddhi). 5) [being] manifest (abhivyaktikarana). The Doctrine. Buddhagotraśāstra ( B G Ś ) 801 b ff. the Jewel of the Doctrine is explained as being contracted by eight qualities. dag-pa. ( u n d e r C h a p . [ 164 ] . see below (Note 111-39). 3) non-discriminativeness (nirvikalpatā). hatred and ignorance. 7) Terms in v. î^p". (ārambana 6) & ālambana). as well as in BGS are as follows: 1) acintya. And because of its pureness. „„ - „_. About the use of the term ' ārambana '. TAJK. gñis-su med-pa-ñid. Which are the eight qualities? They are 1) unthinkability (acintyatva). which is Deliverance and also by which arises Deliverance Has the characteristics of the two Truths. 10 and translations of these 8 in T. 'i* yf^ "pT* {B |âfe fRPŚ /T^ UT ® B *V . and 8) cause of Deliverance (virāgahetu) 7 ). 7) Deliverance [from passions] (virāga). (BGŚ ^ ^ î ^ " ) .

10) abhisamasya ( g r . by the first three qualities. and " by which arises the Deliverance " means ' by [the Doctrine as] the Truth of Path. i. T . te (ete) veditavye '. mnon-par bsdus te. as] the Truth of Extinction. hphags-pa. nirodhasatya and mārgasatya. See above. 9) The reading ' ete ' in the text should be understood in the sense ' yābhyām nirodhatnārgasatyābhyām .e. Unthinkability [of the Doctrine should be known]. 11. Deliverance 8) is summarized In both truths. f^p* fZC . 9) Which are each to be known By three qualities according to order. And by the remaining three qualities. and from this. Extinction and Path. . and is opposite to ' duhkhasatya ' and ' samudayasatya '. the Truth of Extinction is explained. C. which are. it should be known that the cause of Deliverance is contracted. unthinkability. ' being of the nature of Deliverance (virāgadharma)u ) ' means ' having characteristic of the two purifying Truths12>. manifestation and hostility. T. to be termed ' samkleśasatyadvaya \ 13 l l j ' ārya. Nirodha-satya and Mārga-satya. H e n c e ' v i r ā g a t ā ' seems here a more natural form than ' virāgitā '. . ' Having joined these two together10>. ' Q " . in their turn. The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction. Consequently there is no difficulty in C. ' pjjft also shows n o t h i n g special.e.vffî iyn ' vyavadānasatyadvaya ' means ' the 2 satyas concerned with purification ' i. 8) ' virāgitā '. purity. Because of its being beyond speculation and explanation. . T . [ 165 ] . // 11 // Of these six qualities. it is explained. translates ' nirodha—mārga—satyābhyām ' as the subject. And because of its being the knowledge of Saints 13>. i. C. § 3. C. From this [explanation] it should be known that the Deliverance [itself] is contracted. . T.e. rnam-par byañ-bahi bden-pa gñis-kyi mtshanñid. non-duality and non-discriminativeness. -^3 ^gf . ' [hdod-]chags [dan] bral[-ba]-ñid ' seems e q u i v a l e n t t o ' virāgatā \ C.The Ratnagotravibhāga § 2. t h e s t a t e of b e i n g virāgin (one w h o is passionless). the Truth of Path is explained. w h i c h is t h e c o m m o n n a t u r e of b o t h ' nirodhasatya ' & ' mārgasatya '. pij|£ f S • This is an interpretation of the word ' virāgitā ' (or virāgatā) in v. 12) vyavadāna-satyadvaya-laksana. C. o f abhi-sam-^as).. and takes ' samgrhita ' as active voice. " That which is Deliverance " means [the Doctrine. T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s w o r d is s h o w n below b y t h e t e r m ' virāgadharma '. C. reading.

purity etc. C. 5=p . word a n d t h o u g h t . 16) A A N 467 b. 19> 17) dual'?). [as by deed. see Note VIII-(IX) A-61. explanation. speech. T. vyavahāra. tha-sñad. ^ J . By knowing deeply that 14 ) So-called ' catuskotikā '. tshul-bshin ma-yin-pa yid-la byed-pa. T. in short. 13 and p. Cf.^ . 10 ff.ghosa. 4 dual ' (dvaya)19) means ' action ' or ' active force ' (karman). T. 13. 2) advayatā & 3) nirvikalpatā. ñe-tshig. p e r h a p s i n t h e sense t h a t ' śiva * is an epithet of ' nirodha '. 1. Vpf i 5 > • ^ u t T . " E ī m . . and neither being nor non-being. the same sentence is quoted changing * dharmā ' into ' dharmatayā '. 2) it cannot be explained by any sound. 1. 7 ff. C. see S. nirukti. voice. ^*H g / j j . skad ( = bhāsā). word and thought] ' 2 0 ) and ' Defilement (Mesa).C 2gp (echo ?). way of speech. brjod-pa ( = vacana). It seems to be the original reading and is preferable here. Here. I n t h i s sense ' k a r m a n ' should be r e g a r d e d a s t h e ' active force '. By which three? Because. respectively. 16> ruta. (S. 21) T. sgra (= śabda). See above. designation. _ p . i. is not sure. of which t h e cause is ' kleśa'.J. ravita (artificial sound). śiva. agreed term. p. 1) it is not a sphere of speculation even by four categories [of existence] 1 4 \ i. being and non-being together. mñon-par brjod-pa. And three [qualities]. T.1. EL abhilāpa. As for its being a cause of Defilements and Actions. T. being. // 12 // 1) acintyatva: Unthinkability of the Truth of Extinction.). brda. and 3) it is to be revealed by the introspection of Saints. C. 20) ° " m ^1 ^ Z2 ITS I S ^ H (what are two. C. C.e. are akin to the sun. some kind of energy a n d h a s a sense similar t o ' samskāra '. ^\ . 18) dharman (ifc). TAKASAKI Because of quiescence it is non-dual and non-discriminative. ñag-gi yul. Whenever 'karman1 and ' kleśa ' a r e mentioned side b y side. hgog-pa ( = nirodha). About the etymology of ' vyavahāra'.e nonbeing. Equivalency to each term pt in C. samketa. C. t h e n e x t birth. T. should be known by three causes. 'karman' is t h e cause of 'janman' (or bhava). p . C. t h e former signifies t h e a c t u a l deed b y body. How should here be understood nonduality and non-discriminativeness of the Truth of Extinction? It is taught by the Lord as follows1 6 ) : " O Śāriputra. ?R ^ ( 4 ^] H S 1H). 44. C. P T S D i e (' kamma ' ) . i discrimination (vikalpa) means 'Irrational Thought (ayoniśomanasikāra)'21) which is the cause of origination of Action and Defilements. p. B u t i n t h e relation t o ' janman '. [ 166 ] . In another passage.. vākpatha. 14). conversation [and so forth] 15>. ( B G Ś also quotes t h i s sentence). 42. having the nature 18> of being non-dual and non-discriminative " . T. C. quiescent l 7 ) is this Absolute Body [of the Buddha]. T. of which is taught ' non- See below (S.

p. however. mi-hjig-pa. in case there is neither origination nor extinction. @^C). AÂS (which has the passage after ' asamskrta ' up to the end of this quotation). This is usually an adjective to ' dhātu \ See S. eternal. because of extinction of something. Wherever no mental action takes place.) Cf. 53. By the term. 4 Extinction of Suffering '. See below (S. śiva. vv. C.) 24) i. everlasting28). brtan-pa.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga this Irrational thought is extinct by nature. C. there is designated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is beginningless 27>.1. 81. 26 > ŚMS 221 c. 23) 44 44 citta-mano-vijñāna. it is [called] the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. Non-arising of Ignorance means non-arising of the Twelve Parts of Existence (dvādaśa-bhavâñga) 24>. 72. thog-ma med-pahi dus-can. and ' vijñāna '. 27 etc.e. extinction of Suffering does not mean the disappearance of element. Cf. J|_j^ ^g. p. ^[j* Jlā» JHf« H * (but AĀS & BGS. for this reason there is absolutely no origination of Suffering. (T. These three are synonymous with each other and here seem to have no special meaning as in the Vijñānavāda. intellect and consciousness never take place 2 3 ) . 82. rtag-pa. dhruva. 1. quiescent. 10. non-originated. 20. mental actions as mind. BGŚ 801 (quotation from ŚMS). the chain of causation (pratītyasamutpāda). T. 469 b) BGŚ quotes the first sentence from AĀS and regards the remaining as its own explanation. 1. ' manas ' ' ādâna-vijñāna '. p . 54. p. O Lord. of no birth. O Lord. "> T. of no destruction. II. ' " and so forth. (in BGS. there is no origination of duality and discrimination. released from covering of 22 > JAĀ 247 a. (BGS 801 c). 12 ft. consequently. One who applies himself with rational thought never makes Ignorance arise. Cf. shi-ba. T. It is called 4 non-birth(ajfāti) 2 5 ) . AĀS (beginning of Chap. ' ajāti ' = ' anutpādânirodha \ The term ' ajāti ' reminds us of the idealistic philosophy of Gaudapāda. 13. I t is quite against the Vijñānavādin's way of interpretation. e. This is called the Truth of Extinction of Suffering.. & śāśvata. C. p. free from destruction. It is said as follows 22>: O Mañjuśrī. I^J ' t ā Vpf î/K *> S ! ) a r e °f ten u s e d i n this treatise as the modifiers of ' dharmakāya' or the Absolute Truth. It should never be explained that. starting with ' avidyā '. the usual set of) 6 vijñānas. ^ ^J£ (BGS A^ ^ £ ) . 28) These 4. purified by nature. immutable. nitya. ' ālayavijñāna '. ^ ' H ® tt> respectively (496 b) BGŚ ^ ? ft B S 8 6 $& ( 8 0 1 c ) ' [ 167 ] . > anādikālika. mi-skye(-ba). Paramārtha interprets that ' citta ' means the ' former ' (i. there is no false imagination by which they would think irrationally. constant. | P £ jfâ [ ^ jf& i f r ^ ] . Also said [in the scripture]26). C. sems dañ yid dañ rnam-par śes-pa.

brol-bar śes-pa (= muktajña). BGŚ 802 a (j|ft $£ 0 ) .) ' m a k e s t h e i d e a signified b y ' gañgāvālikā tathāgatagarbhah —. AĀS. § 4. [when it is] unreleased from the covering of moral 30) defilements. p. gañgāvālikāvyativrttair avinirbhāgair acintyair buddhadharmaih samanvāgatas . . 93 ff. because of being apart from all the minor defilements and stains. see Note 1-23. 34> 33) [ 168 ] . .all moral defilements. T. 4) śuddhi. mthoñ-bahi lam. 2) through the common characteristic of being the manifestor of forms. 5) abhivyaktikarana & 6) pratipaksatā: Now indeed. Similarity of ' jñāna' to the sun is also referred to in S. (sūryavad iti. j||£ . 0 Lord. C. ŚMS (both T. T. p. which are far more than the sands of the Gañgā in number 29>. tathāgatakāyo ' vinirmuktakleśakośas T h i s is a f a m o u s ^\f definition of the term ' tathāgatagarbha \ Chinese refer to this often by ' śf\\ p | | 31 > Cf. mam-par mi-rtog-pahi ye-śes. all other editions i. The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 3 1 ).. and 3) through the common 29) .. . The term ' amuktajñair ' had better be inserted after ' avinirbhāgair '. and forth). . AÂS & BGŚ. T. C. etc. & C). C. J^J. (quotation from AAN). have this term. because of making manifest knowable things of all kinds.. because. C.. y@g 3JH. TW t=î B^Ś A* -fjjf Jiff ^ ? the last two seem to show the best translation. For this expression.. except the present Skt. the way to attain the Absolute Body of Tathāgata named Extinction of Suffering is the Path of perception and practice 32) based upon the nondiscriminative Wisdom (avikalpa-jñāna) 33\ And this [Path] is to be known as similar to the sun with threefold common characteristics 3 4 ) . & bhāvanā-mārga.e. And this very Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. • ' darśana-mārga ' signifies the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. 107 ff. darśana-mārga. q u i t e clear. ^ ^ T h e t e r m ' samanvāgata 30) $ ? $fc ^ . " Thus all the determination of the Truth of Extinction of Suffering should be understood wholly and in detail according to Sutras. and endowed with inseparable and unthinkable qualities of the Buddha. sgom-pahi 32) lam. ŚMS. (C. . vv. 58. text and T. 4 N $fc 4 ^ j | | ) . [Namely] 1) through the common characteristic of purity of the disk. and * bhāvanā-mārga ' those Stages after the second one. is called the Matrix of Tathāgata. T. ^ ft $1] ^§?. C.

40) anuśaya. respectively. the uncertain passage in Ms. way. F r o m t h e point of S k t . 'not of its nature (atatsvabhāva) ' thing as the [real] characteristic because of its desirable looks (śubhâkāra)41> when Desire comes forth from its state of tendency. fn.The Ratnagotravibhāga characteristic of hostility against darkness. s t a t e '. however. ( b u t usuIX-77. C. T. C p j ^ moha. u n d e r s t a n d s 'ārambana'' in t h e sense of ' t a k i n g hold o f or 'grasping '• This v e r b a l sense seems b e t t e r here t h a n t h e nominal sense. T . I n other words. it should be ayoniśomanasikāra ' in its implied sense. As being based upon the unreal feature. _fpl. /MR -£Ç J) ft'] j]l^ . . but BGS. being appositional t o ' manasikāra '. On t h e c o n t r a r y . g r a m m a r . m a k e s a B a h u v r ī h i compound. 12) should be read ' tattva ' instead of ' satya ' inserted by J . Jjt^ . dvesa. This word > T. 0 t f p *?£ (the thing to be dispelled). t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e light of this S k t . 17). regards t h e t e r m 'ārambana' as ' visaya'' (sense object) a n d connects i t with ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta ' b y t h e genitive case. ' p o t e n t i a l s t a t e ' . C. BGŚ B|f seems to stand for ' timira ' in the kārikā. when Hatred comes forth [from its state of tendency]. T . C. And of those people who T. See below. p. gti—mug. C. 1. 1. 37 ' rāga. yañ-dag-pa ma-yin-pahi dños-po rgyu38) mtshan—gyi yul. C. yid-la byed-pa. and when Ignorance conies forth. B. bag-la ñal-ba. ^ ? F o r ' śubhâkāra [ 169 ] . ' manasikāra ' here is determine d a s ' abhūtavastunimitta-ārambana'.e. p. ^ p ^ A^ t w ( b u t usually |§|f S|^) ' sleeping Idan-pa. people regard the unreal. (see J. If we construe T . J ^ . fift. kun-nas (S. . [they regard the unreal thing as the real characteristic] because of its detestable looks (pratighâkārena). By reason of this T. o m . C. C. T . has no equivalent term. Indeed. T .e. 67.= paryavasthāna 41) T . T . As for t h e relation of this ' ārambana ' t o ' manasikāra '. T. 8 in S. because ' arāmbana' is a kind of a c t . 7JIJE. T . C. Hatred and Ignorance 37> preceded by the thought 3 8 ) which takes its basis [of cognition] upon the characteristic of unreal things Z9\ It is due to the union of the state of tendency (anuśaya) with manifested state (paryutthāna) [of defilement] 40>. a n d for paryutthāna. manasikāra. >P}A'/1>* Jp|^ "^p" ^ffl. de-kho-na mthoñ-ba ( = tattva-darśana). ally H I ) . translation as well as by the reading ' sarvâkārasya tattvadarśanavibandhasya ' in S. 13. t h e a c t of t a k i n g hold of ' abhūtavastu-nimitta ' [as real]. C. 39 ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta-ārambana. ' can ' should be inserted after 'yul'. a n d hence is to b e understood i n t h e sense ' [manasikāra] whose ārambana is abhūtavastu—nimitta ' a n d ' ārambana ' c a n be t r a n s l a t e d into ' senseobject '. hdod—chags. because of being the enemy of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception35*. she—sdañ. Or ' ayoniśo manasikāra ' = ' abhūtavastu—nimitta—ārambana-manasikāra '.. seems t o regard i t as being appositional. then it is the same because of its obscure looks (avidyâkārena). d e t e r m i n i n g t h e characteristic of ' manasikāra '. ārambana '. 17. See note '. t h e compound ' abhūta . And t bondage ' (vibandha) 36> means the origination of Desire. 36 35) C. i. gegs. i.

i. from which consequently arises Defilement. Action Rebirth. Here. C. (3) karma-samkleśa. [affectionally] hanging on it 43>. it is called ' a complexed action of mind '). For those people whose mind is occupied with the Irrational Thought. Here ' ārambana seems to show more clearly the sense of ' an action to hang on '. > eka-dhātu. — ' *gf ft 5?" > ( B G Ś — ' 5^) T. Thus these people. For ' nimitta-grāhin '. p. and the Irrational Thought i3 the cause of associated origination. for ' ārambana '. and for ' ārambana-carita ' T. dmigs-pa-la spyod-pa. %M. mtshan-par hdsin-pa-can. e. having tendencies [of Desire. 44) samkleśa. T. produce the Irrational Thought. 1. etc. ayathābhūtam can be regarded as an adjective to ārambana.&• / £ . In this process. .. (C. nor perceive the one [real] essence 45) as it is 4 6 \ 42) rāgadvesamoha-nimittam ayathābhūlam ārambanam kurvatām. Furthermore. of which the Defilements in dormant state are causes. but from the context. T. from the origination of Action. [Of them]. affections towards the five sense-objects are conditions. C. (1) a complexed action of mind is [a mental activity]. 1. come forth because people do not know. and making it the basis of cognition. ' nimitta-grāhin ' and ' ārambana-carita ''. Due to this [origination of Defilement]. 2) or ' abhūtavastunimittârambana-manasikāra ' (S.). dharmatā. 46) About the process of origination of the phenomenal life (samkleśa) see S. p. 39). (2) kleśa-samkleśa. kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa. and (4) janma-samkleśa. BGS 802 a: -JÇ J ^ Bpf [yp. Hatred and Ignorance]. 13. Because of the association of these three. there arises Action. 12. It may be termed [ 170 ] . The function of ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is to be compared to that of ' manas ' in the Vijñānavāda. there takes place the Defilement of any one of Desire. z?t£ (7P1E ^Rc)« A general term for kleśa. 58 f. ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' occupies the important role. T. \m M ' l ī l ffiE > ^ C ¥ K ffi • Me t i (anuśaya) M H (ayonisomanasikāra) (The tattvadarśanavibandha means (1) a complexed action of mind. as before (-»IA). i. all the phenomena^ life. (tattvadarśana-vibandha) pf| . dmigs-pa. TAKASAKI incorrectly take hold of characteristics of Desire. Cf. om. 43) Here ordinary beings (bala) are said to be ' anuśayavat'. And all kinds of impurity (samkleśa) 44> of these Defilements. and this ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is defined as ' vikalpa ' (S. Because of origination of Defilement. speech and thought. the Absolute. karman & janman. the latter two). Hatred and Ignorance. and also [in the same way] they produce the action born of Hatred. î | § . I rendered it into an adverbal sense. It is also identical with cittaprakrti. etc. they make the actions born oi Desire by means of body. e. These three show successive activities of mind preceding to ' manasikāra '. regarding the [unreal] characteristic [as real]. from Action there results Rebirth. p.J . there arises Rebirth. khams gcig. 45 dharmadhātu. (v. C. 42 f. 1) (see Note 38. the action born of Ignorance. Hatred and Ignorance as the basis of cognition 4 2 \ the Irrational Thought occupies their mind.

VIII.g. C. . yoñs-su btsal-ba. T. med-pahi rgyu-mtshan-gyi dmigs-pa and C. 4-7 & 11-15. p. *g£ f 4 • «> dharmāh (pi. C. BHS Die. for which the original reading is as follows: " . 334. asamavadhāna. which had literally better be translated into ' unreal basis of characteristics '. [ 171 ] . 9-12. C. this is to be known as the ' enemy ' (pratipaksa) of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception. 1. the content of realization is shown. 1. v. inserts a short quotation. /MR 3 C < £ TR (unreal characteristics of things) a'nd om. ' ārambana '. p. rgyu-mtshan nam dmigs-pa. T. but BGŚ —° ~ffl n§ ?£ (sarvadharmāh). 354. T. Thus. (Skt. (e. g. then can he perceive the Reality 48 ). 1. 1. 1. 22-335. This is indeed the Path of perception and practice based upon the non-discriminative Wisdom. ^yç. g.e. bral-ba. 335 b). And thus. Astasāhasrikā-Prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of AAA pp. and we can see the real character of being as the absolute truth. this realization of all natures by Wisdom. there is absolutely no association nor harmony 52) of the obstacles. Cf. 1. 48 > bhūta. 332. 9-12). /fâ\ (as if * nimittârambana ' as in the previous cases). 2-5 & 15-16. C. 'ff f 4 . of pari- gavesate. jr«-* f o r b o t h e. • 60) By the term * iti '. 334. C. For ' nimittam ārambanam vā '. 1. has the sg.The Ratnagotravibhāga [On the other hand] these impurities should be seen in the same manper as by a perfect investigator 47 ) who does not perceive any [unreal] characteristic nor any basis of these impurities. AAA (GOS Edition. tatra bodhisattvayānikah pudgalo yair vastubhih anumodeta yair ārambanair yair ākārais tac cittam utpādayet api nu tāni vastūni tāni vā ārambanāni te vā ākārās tathopalabhyeran yathā nimittîkaroti ". 332. 1. T . i. running: together. these elements 49> are perfectly realized by the Tathāgata as equal through 50 equality ). of parigavesayati. investigates. 333. which is the cause of attaining the Absolute Body [of the Tathāgata] and which is to be understood in detail according to the Sñtra named Prajñāpāramitā 53>. caus. seeks for. T . 1. 51) asad nimittârambana. when he perceives neither characteristic nor basis. Here the use of ' ārambana ' is obviously objective. B3) M ®#H. case-ending) T. 5-9). 52) asamgati. because we cannot see any characteristic nor basis of non-being51). [Because]. med-pa. ^ i ^ "\^ ^r. pres. as being equal without any addition nor diminution because of these two facts.). (Wogihara. 12. $$. US. 230 ff. s.). p. . yañ-dag-pa. C. where a passage from ASP is quoted. 353.if4iiin3Kjçjn^^ftfj| J5']-. 47 > parigavesayat (one who investigates) ( < p.14 & 17-18. And because of the origination of this enemy.

See S. having understood 2> perfectly The extremity of non-substantiality of all the worlds as quiescent. Because of their perception of the unreality 3> of defilements Through the brightness of the innate pure mind of all the world 4) . C 172 ] . Notes IV-31. 16 ff. -tā). Perceive the Buddhahood 5> penetrating everywhere.). Besides this division. // 13 // *) avaivartika ( = avinivartanīya). C. being ranked as the 1st. Pramuditā & c. it is regarded on one hand as the name for the 7th ' vihāra\ but on another hand. rdsogs-pahi sañs-rgyas (om. About the equivalence of this state to the Bodhisattva's i bhūmi'' or (vihāra\ there is a variety among the Mahāyāna texts. 3rd. Confusion occurred after the apperance of the Avatamsakasūtra which established the 41 stages of Bodhisattva. i n t h e 1st line. see S. 4) 3) 6) sambuddhatā. (Kārikā 3. S. sometimes to the 7th bhūmi. 15. T . we have one śloka referring to the latter. p. j?fj fī* • * " rlE v r C. 13. And whose eye of Wisdom has its objects In the pureness and infinitude of the living beings. 13). Those whose intellect is unobscured. p. has •§ some misunderstanding on the third line and due to this misunderstanding. rtogs(-pa). THE JEWEL OF THE COMMUNITY Now. ño-bo-med[-pa]. changes the order of the commentary. 13 i n d i c a t e s ' sarvajagat' m e a n s ' p e o p l e i n t h e world ' . T. caryāpratipanna. as the highest group of Bodhisattva's stages. j | j (or ^ P ) . (Cf. 7th & 10th. ' tat' of t h e 2nd line of v . C. immediately after [the explanation of] the former. Here the commentator seems to have used the term ' avaivartika ' as indicating the Bodhisattva on the 1st bhūmi. from the Jewel of the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. T. there seems to have been 4 divisions of states on account of the Bodhisattva's rank. avaivartika & ekajātipratibaddha or abhiseka (of these 4. 1. the former 4 have got their place among 10 stages. p. ranking the old 10 stages at the beginning under the name of 10 ' vihâra 's. 2) prati-vidh. At the beginning of the development of the 'bhūmi' theory. t h e ' j a g a t * asvabhāva. 1. respectively.) I bow before those who. T. C. and newly creating the 10 ' bhūmi 's. C.1. ^V* ^ g J p | | . 52. namely: prathamacittotpādika. As for ' avaivartika '. Therefore. -/Sç 0f_ . the division of 10 stages also seems to have an old history and as a result of the combination of both. C. 16. there arises the Jewel of the Community of Bodhisattvas who are abiding in the irreversible state 1 ) . phyir mi-ldog-pa. as being equivalent sometimes to the 1st bhūmī.IV.

^ Cf. both of these relate to ' lokottara-jñāna'1 or ' lokottara-prajñā ' (S. T . C. 16.' or ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna '. i.e.e. p. C. 486 b etc. p. 'being as it i s ' (yathāvad-bhāvikatā and 4 being as far as ' (yāvad-bhāvikatā) 8\ yathāvad-yāvat. XXX. (Lamotte's Sandhinirmocanasūtra.\ ' samvrti-satya \ This is the traditional way of interpretation in Tibet.e. ' . [manner and extent] i. [ 173 ] . but see BGS 802 b where these two are said to be the cause of ' virāgadharma ' representing ' bhāvanā-mārga ' under the names of %\\ K g | ^ & >flj H i \e£ • however. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t h e following prose respectively: C. while ' yāvad-bh. 1-2. 14. XVI.C. ji-lta-ba bshin-du yod-pa-ñid & ji-sñed yod-pa-ñid edition. 1. with respect to two aspects. . While the Bodhisatlvabhūmi says that yathāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means their ' bhūtatā '. p. O's way seems an overinterpretation. C. 5-9). 699 c). res r ÎM ls> ^"3* ' P. by both of which the two kinds of ' tattvârtha' are represented. ' is said to relate to the perception of ' tathāgatagarbha-asiitva' in all living beings. It seems to show the original sense of these terms. 11. 11). ' . and yāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means sarvatā. T. %. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its purity of perception by introspective knowledge.' signified p aramârtha-satya '. // 14 // By this it is explained. ' avikalpajñāna' and not to ' laukika. But as far as this text is concerned. Sandhinirmocana defines them. t\\ 0 f ^ft tt & ffi 0T ~fâ ft (Taisho. It means ' yāvadbhāvikatā' signifies all phenomena. in brief. 11. while ' yathāvadhbāvikatā' signifies the essence or the Absolute (tathatā) inherent in all phenomena. ' kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa dan mampar byañ—bahi chos mams—la rnam—pa rab—tu dbye—ba thams—cad—kyi mthar thug—pa gañ-yin—pa de—ni ji—sñed-yod—pa yin . pure and impure. that the Jewel of the Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas is endowed with supreme qualities. ji-bshin. respectively. . The Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas [Is endowed] with the supreme qualities 7>. 98 & 99). So far as its manner and extent are concerned 6) .. 0 translates the terms into 'Absolute and Empiric'al character'. i. ' 'jjg* 4~T ' f° ' bhāvikatā' is probably a misreading. because of its purity of perception by supermundane knowledge. ji-lta-ba-bshin-yod-pa & ji~sñed-yod-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga § 1. This is rather close to the original interpretation. BBh. Manner and Extent of the Perception of the Community. 258. 7) 8) 6) ji-sñed. here. refers o n l y t o ' yathāvat' c o m m e n t a r y before v . Yogācārabhūmi (Bodhisattvabhūmi) #H 0 Î ^ tt S I $ T -ft ft (Taisho. AĀS ^ 0 Î J L #H j i t (470 c). . p. 1. . As for their meanings. 215. 2. replaced by ' "^j ' after the next occurrence ($U *3î & This term ' \g£ ' is p 3 & KU JUT J^J ). the only special feature being that the ' yāvad-bh. 1-19. & ' kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa dañ mam—par byañ-bahi chos de-dag ñid-kyi de~bshin-ñid gañ-yin-pa de-ni ji-lta-ba bshin-du yodpa—ñid yin . On the other hand. Therefore. as if ' yathāvad-bh. yāvat. 39. KU ^[ a n d o m .\\ J8^ \v£ 'fT & T. 15.

And this understanding. they (i. which shows the denial of the conception of destroying something. shi-bahi chos-ñid. the innate brightness of the mind and the defilement on the mind. Ś M S 2 2 2 b. Therefore. rr-fc j j A —/-•{• H e r e . ' avināśa T. f£^ . act together as one and the same. Bodhisattvas) have understood the extremity of non-substantiality (nairātmyakoti) of the whole world called Individualities and Separate Elements (pudgala—dharma-ākhya) as it is (yathāvat). and not such a perception as existing after the realization by dispelling the defilements. 0 Lord. in the immaculate sphere. defilements cannot 9) śānta-dharmatā. 4-5 (on ' nirodha-satya '). nirodha. nihsvabhāva. The bad mind is [also] momentary.J.e. This is a word for ' śivā nairātmyakoti 10) ādiksaya. # Stiff S ff W*J* 5 p ^hl (Real perception means the perception of the non-existence and quiescence of individuality and separate element from the outset. it is said 13>: " 0 Lord. 12) 13) avināśa. Namely. the extinction of defilements on the mind. T. C. Their manner [of perception] is ' as it is ' . T . skad-cig-ma. [ 174 ] . C. T. Because they have understood the quiescent nature 9) of the world. there is no succession of a second mind because both minds. by two causes. relating to the non-annihilation U ) of Individualities and Separate Elements because of their nature of absolute quiescence from the outset. even this [bad] mind cannot be afflicted by defilements. these two. See S. 'being as it is {yathāvad-bhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because. TAKASAKI a) Right Manner of Perception (yathāvad-bhāvikatā). 7JC ^ 3>ī£.>g5£ jg=p" . in short. p. 3 . C. * } ' . ittif^ife t * * * g i * t » f t . [with respect to the manner]. ksanika.e. has a long interpretation: 11} T . good and bad. . gdod-nas zad. 12. a good mind is momentary 14>.j | | . // 15 // Here. are quite difficult to be understood in relation to the fact that. is produced. ' i n k. 1. Here. because of their perception of the innate brightness (prakrtiprabhāsvaratā)1® of the mind. C. it cannot be afflicted by defilements. and because of their perception of * being destroyed from the outset ' (ādiksaya). 14) C. g f^ V ^ VT (= prakrtipariśuddhi). hjig-pa med-pa. i. And this [understanding] is caused by The purity [of the innate mind] and Their perception of the defilement as being destroyed from the [outset 10 ).e. 7^lJ J& j j ū . ' = ādiksaya. i. rañ-bshin-gyis hod-gsal-ba(-ñid).

10 ~ 24. (sarvasattvesu sarvajñâstitvadarśanāt). gpf jtfijj ~\ j Q i * y) Xfc "7T S \ (jñeya-paryantagatayā). cittasyopaklistatā dusprativedhyā. because [verily in that Stage]. moñs-pa 16) asparśa-dharmin. ('dhyā' in t h e 1st line a n d ' d h a r m a t ā ' i n t h e 2nd line a r e omitted). 1. of untouchable character 16) . 'being as far as (yāvadhhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because [with respect to the extent]. By the intellect 1 9 ) reaching as far as the limit of the knowable 20>. Jfc * ~%JJ J^K £ t î . // 16 // Here. Moreover. S. 2. reg-pahi chos-can ma lags-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga touch that mind. Jjj'* •'"i x j§gQ !K|| '[pg = nâpi dttam samklistam bhavati. Because they perceive the existence Of the nature of Omniscience 1 8 ) in all living beings. they perceive the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata in all living beings. Their extent [of perception] is * as far as '. T. 21) Cf. '. 18) sarvajña-dharmatā = tathāgatagarbha ( i n t h e comm. with reference to [the manner of] ' being as it is '. T . still there is defilement and there is defiled mind. p. 9 (Quotation from Avat S. 15) Ace. the explanation of the meaning ' difficult to be understood ' should be understood in detail according to the Sūtra. Thus. i n prose: ififfl y@g <fj* (yāvadbhāvikatā) --Q . up to those who are in the animal kingdom. 6) Unlimited Extent of Perception (yāvad-bhāvikatā). 22. to T. the Absolute Essence is realized in the sense of all-pervading ' (sarvatraga). one sentence should be added here (as in brackets). S. 20) C. & C. [ 175 ] . p . Tathogatotpattisambhavanirdeśa).) 19) dhl = prajñā (lokottara prajñā). can be afflicted by darkness? O Lord. 22. sems ñonyañ ma-lags na. the meaning that the mind purified by nature is defiled 1 7 ) is difficult to be understood " . O Lord.^ * "MJ fc3 WÇ. [And the mind cannot be touched by the Defilements] 15h O Lord. And this perception of Bodhisattvas takes place in the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. by means of the supermundane intellect (lokottara-prajñā) which reaches as far as the limit of all knowable things 21>. C. 'A^ }§3y f£C • 17) T h e r e a d i n g ' upakleśârtho ' is preferably t o b e corrected i n t o ' upaklistârtho Cf. C. how is it possible that the mind.

cig—śes ñi-tshe—bahi the knowledge of Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. 2 their perception of pure ' buddhajñāna ' through the Path of the true intuition). thogs-pa med-pa. uncommon to Srāvakas. as its field is the innate purity of the essence of living beings through its being as it is. again i n prose. . . Which ones? Because it is 'free from any attachment' (asañga). that perception has no hindrance 27>.e. 27) T. saying t h a t t h e former is ' hetu '. and because it 'has no hindrance' (apratihata)2e\ Here. T. 4 Through the purity of their perception by wisdom2 8 ) . 28) T h e s h o r t a g e of syllables after ' . T. [ 176 ] °> For v. while t h e l a t t e r is ' phala '.. unco23 mon to others >. -j||Ç |«ip. t a k e s i t a s showing (apratigha in t h e verse). what is called understanding in such a way % That is the perception by one's own wisdom.śuddhyā' c a n b e m a d e u p b y 'hi' o r ' e t a ' (śuddhyaiva). t h e l a t t e r is ' paripūrna-hetu ' (802 b). but 'jfzr shows it. Pratyekabuddhas and ordinary people. 3H§ PH ( = ^v§ $11). Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception. chags—pa med—pa. C. UP n i t | 3 ) - * asañga. or i n comparison with t h e n a t u r e of ' viśuddhi-hetu of t h e former. C. has no word equivalent to ' anuttarā ' in the verse. C. // 17 // * Thus. (§=jp f4j U=F J x . i f ^ ffi ^ ft | ? (jft) (Because of in the commentary . T .J. of two reasons. is here intended to be the perception of the Saints by the supermundane wisdom of their own (pratyātmam). T . respectively. 26 ye—śes. 18 a b. C. i. its field is the unlimited number of knowable objects. BGS 5 ^ | ^flf & fJPJ Ç|j§. . %\\ H ^ J jg. Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community. through 'being as l l it is ' and being as far as ' . TAKASAKI § 2. Thus. Because it is free from attachment 22) and has no hindrance . § 3. /[* ^-> — sv-. 2S * itara—prādeśika—jñāna. C. And this [perception] is called perfectly pure in com24 25 parison with ) the superficial knowledge of everyday life ) because. It is pure in the Immaculate Sphere. in brief.e. l a Itos-nas. e. has ' na ' after ' dag-pas '. by this way. in such a way' (ity evam). therefore. / u A /v Tf • 24) upanidhāya. and through its being as far as. It is superior as [being the same as] Buddha's Wisdom 29> 22 23) ) C. i. C. apratihata BGS adds some more sentences o n 'yathāvad-bhāvikatā ' a n d ' yāvad-bhāvikatā '. the perception [of the Saints] is free from any attachment. i. what is called understanding' (avabodha) of the supermundane path.

translation of v. pj ^ 1 j ^ £ B^j |*li J^i ?llL '* X S *^£i ^Pv • I* is clear that avinirvartanîya-bhūmi is here regarded as the 1st bhūmi of Bodhisattva on which stage he accomplishes ' darśana-mārga '. it is said that Bodhisattvas in the irreversible state are worthy of being the refuge of all living beings./ £ . there is no wise man who. n SU ±jfiS -feo H$£ (ñS ^3 Wr). 18. the term ' jñānadarśanasiddhi ' has the implied meaning of ' darśanamārga ' as in C.The Ratnagotravibhāga Therefore. to both T. ^/J ffijj. (JrJJ jig* J # f ) .-mahākarunā. T. ( ^ ^ ) sup. etc. translation. (0$ j \ JJTT). immediately after the Jewel of Community of the Bodhisattvas.i Nirvana as being obtained after SU salvation of all living beings. T. In this sense. moral conduct. because it is superior to the other qualities of Bodhisattva. 3S) vā. superiority in perception of objects. C. in the accomplishment being the Supreme Enlightenment. etc. 3S ' C. in their birth. 31 30) ' avinivartanlyabhūmi—samārudhānām bodhisattvānām. sup. because the former is not worthy of being worshipped 35>. 6) W M S ^ sampūrnā. sup. 7) $j? J £ ^C SU n P« i their compassionate mind H regarding people equally.3i\ On account of this purity. sup. 10) Jf^ Ijfjp ^ ^ _C anuttara-phala. 6 abhijñās. (|ffj Jill )3/r)? P« *n their Stages. 2. in gunāh. in purity. amala. has one verse on the superiority of bodhisattva—sañga from 10 points. sup. the Saints abiding in the irreversible state 30> Are [worthy of being] the refuge of all living beings. and a prose commentary thereon. donation. & C. who The reading ' avaivartyād bhavanty āryāh ' should be corrected into ' avaivartyā bhavanty āryāh ' ace. (fpL JJTT). 3) g S ^ ^Jg nirvana. ( t f ^ "=ff ^L^ 9^*)' ]j#). 2) ijffj Jyj JJ§1 "TH^t •iī^ Wfe ±>cs£ -fen adhigama. sup. or otherwise 33>. in qualities. 10 vaśitās. 32) upanisadgata. 34) The first two of the 6 pāramitās are mentioned. 10 points of superiority mentioned in C. (^rfc ^ § /3ZT)» P . It seems the present Skt text is lacking one paragraph which was in the original text of C. casting off the new-moon-like Bodhisattvas. ( ^ ^ ) . [ 177 ] . Cf. 5) j|ff JQi bhūmayah. because their birth is ajāti (/JÎÇ f £ ) in its ultimate sense. {] śuddhi. (letters in parentheses show the terms in commentary). // 18 // Thus. AA III. There is no mention of the Jewel of Community of the Śrāvakas. samyag-āsannatoditah (produced by sitting perfectly near). 9) J^. Indeed. (r)am (after phyir) I t denotes another interpretation of ' anutîarā '. because it approached the highest purity of the perception of Buddha's Wisdom. having known the distinction of qualities between Bodhisattvas and Śrāvakas. are as follows: 1) ^5āi "^i ' visaya '.. ^ < jātis tathāgatakule. ñe-bar gnas-par hgyur-ba. 8) ^ £ /fe ^ P ^ <îK iffl vaśitâbhijñāsampad. in their supernatural powers. this ' purity of perception by wisdom ' of Bodhisattvas who mounted to the Stage of being irreversible 31> is to be known as 4 the 32) supreme '.

J. sdom-pa (%>\). which. Indeed.i } . T. are standing in the illumination for their own existence (sva-samtāna) like stars 39>. bodhisattva. C. om. shows that the following verses belong to the same text. 9) rddhi—v. See BHS. who in their turn. and are standing in the illumination over the group existence (gana—samtāna) 37) of innumerable living beings and entering the way favourable for going toward the full-moon of the supreme Tathāgata. 3) pariskāra—v.) up to the end of the verse is a long quotation from some Sūtra (source unknown). bsod-nams dañ ye-śes-kyi tshogs. C. has the same sense as ' purusa ' in BHS. in its turn. .. & 10) jñāna-v. rjes-su brtse-ba med-pa. T. ^1^* ^fjçîj /flj -fifc •ftli ^ ^ . om. tries to bow before the Śrāvakas. ' ^ £|£ . 40 ' prathamacittotpādika . && * S . ? Really. have light only for their own illumination. 6) adhimukti—v. ^ C T~^ r$9 ī î ) > ** seems that the whole passage after ' na hi jātu panditā ' (Indeed. [^K 5 £ fa:] fT ^ W (gahana-samtāna?).' for 'posin' is probably a misreading for 'poso'. & C.. being like stars.. 39) The whole passage illustrates the comparison between Buddhas. T. ' 10 vaśitās are namely: 1) āyur—vaśitā. 37) / 36) £n bhāra '. regard only the following 43) 44 verse as a quotation (T. Bodhisattvas and Srāvakas by an example of moon and stars. [ 178 ] . although having attained perfect purity of immaculate moral conduct and discipline 43>. 10 Controlling Powers.. T. How much more is the case of the other qualities of Bodhisattvas.. om. C. * ananyaposiganya. t3 Î C £ 5 ) ' Of the 6 pāramitās. can overcome the holy Śrāvakas who are pitiless 4 1 ) . 27).. 7) dharma—v. The style of these passages seems near to the sūtra style. C. . śdasamvara (under samvara [1]). . (usually. (Mvyut. T. C. 44> etc. a n d t h e o t h e r 5 a r e called ' punya-s C. If it be so.. indifferent to the nourishment of others 4 2 ) . s. See above (Note IV-25). T. 5) upapatti—v. gshan rgyas—par byed—pa mi—ldan—pa. 2) citta—v. v.shes-gśad-do. samvara. prajñā-pāramitā is called ' jñānasam'. sems dañ—po bskyed—pahi byañ—chub- sems-dpah.. The meaning is clear as being compared with ' svasamtāna ' in case of Srāvakas. (wealth). $J jtfe SI © # SI £ *l> f t # K ^ (1PJ M 'fr # īK). saying that the Buddha is like the full moon. 38) prādeśika-jñāna. Though both T. 41) 42 niranukrośa. TAKASAKI have the lustre-disk of Wisdom and Compassion filling with great accumulation of merits and knowledge 3 6 ) for the Great Enlightenment. the passage only available in C will be ascertained to be the original śāstra passage for which this long quotation is mentioned as the authority. although having attained certain limited superficial knowledge 3 8 ) . while the Srāvakas. 4) karma—v. C. even those Bodhisattvas who have resolved to attain the Enlightenment for the first time 40> by the quality based upon the purity of altruistic intention. gañ-gi phyir . there is no wise man who . 45) ' vaksyati hi ' in S. 8) pranidhāna—v. Bodhisattvas are like the new moon. . both of them have illumination for others. it will be said 45>: punya-jñāna-sambhāra. D.^ . . . but not to a quotation from another scripture. See BHS Die.

C. wind. T . Apart from compassion on the living beings of bad conduct 47>. o m . gzugs-brñen. One who. Renders services for others' livelihood like fire. 46) 47) 48) bibharti ( P r e s . ātmambhari. n o u r i s h i n g oneself. J^l @ g J|. bdag-ñid rgyas-byed. And who is endowed with pure wealth of moral conduct only for his own nourishment. of bhr). | ^ 7 p • [ 179 ] . C.fjfc . 49 ' pratirūpaka T. water and earth. o n e w h o n o u r i s h e s himself) T . T . C. and others are of sham 49> morality. praśuddha. C. \%£ <f7*. ( l i t . Such a one is a [real] moral man. 3 sg. rab-dag-pa. rnam-rgyas-śiñ (= vivrddhyā?). having aroused the highest Compassion toward others And having accepted the moral conduct.The Ratnagotravibhāga One who feeds 46> moral conduct for his own sake.48> Such a saint is never called a man of pure conduct.

in order to show the x) ' adhikrtya' has a more concrete sense than usual here. for which T. B^_] . rnam-par gshag-pa (vyavasthita) in the introductory sentence and in v. T. [ 180 ] . // 19 // [in 3 forms. it was established 2) . it was established. (= pūjā. C. bstan—shiñ mam—par gshag—go. C. BHS Die. byañ-chub-seems—dpahi theg-pa-bahi. T. who belong to the Vehicle of Bodhisattva 7 ) and those [people who] devote themselves to the highest religious observance of the Buddha. & * dvipada. In the commentary. however. VŚJU )/. translation ' byed ' or ' bya-ba byed ' shows nothing special. 'homage.V. (T. sañs-rgyas-kyi dños-po-ñid. 7 * The reading is preferably ' bodhisattva-yānikān * instead of * bodhisattvān' in comparison with the uses of ' pratyekabuddhayānikān ' and ' śrāvakayānikān' in the following paragraphs. pj*) / £ . But. 19. C. s. It is interpreted doctrinally that the Buddha is standing on the basis of 'jñāna' and ' karunā '. in order to show the virtue of the Teacher (śāstr). v. ' dbah-du byas-nas ' as usual. With reference to those who belong to 3 Vehicles And to those who devote themselves to religious observance 4) Three Refuges were taught 2 ) [by the Lord]. ) . T. f^ ^ . The teaching: " the Buddha is a Refuge because he is the highest among human beings " 5 ) .. rkañ-gñis rnams. for the sake of those people who approached the nature of Buddha 6 ) i. for what purpose and for the sake teach 2) the 3 Refuges (śarana-traya) ? of whom did the Lord In order to show [the virtues of] 3 ) The Teacher. Also. The teaching: " the Doctrine is a Refuge because it is the highest of what are devoid of passions ". J $ cfSj ^ 2 \) (for the sake of). but C. 3 ' arthena = .). j^p ^jjtf J<£ . C. 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint. ) prajñapta (made known = taught). T. THE THREE JEWELS AS REFUGES l) Now.e. • 4) kāra (BHS). C. s) buddhabhāva (= bodhi). there is used ' deśitam prajñaptam '. worship') (Cf.). § 1. T. It seems that the term prajñapta' has both senses here. guna-udbhāvanârthena (in the comm. the Teaching and Disciples. Usually this term is accompanied by ' kriyā ' and other forms delivered from kr as in the prose comm.

$}£ $]). 'pratitya' (T. who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance of the Doctrine. T. 12 ) For these four reasons. The teaching: " the Community [of the disciples] is a Refuge because 9 ) it is the highest of communities " .B reading 'svayam gambhīra-pratitya-dharmânubodha' is preferable. * sdañ' is to be corrected into * span' (fut. from being adhimukta to yānika. for the sake of those people who approach the enlightenment of profound Doctrine of the depen8 dent origination by [depending on] themselves *. but C. slu-bahi chos-can. ' The regular method ' means ' from the lower standard to the higher standard.). and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance in the Community. from the empirical standpoint. hjigs-dañ bcas-pa.e. T. |2vJ /fâfc) seems to mean 'pratltya samutpāda'. ' rañ- ñid rten-hbrel-gyi chos zab-mo rje-su rtogs-pa . it was established. being of deceptive nature. T. • About these three formulae on ' ratna-traya '. are as follows: 1) tyājya (T. span. As being abandoned. but from the highest standpoint. § 2. C. i. in order to make living beings 11} enter the regular method . ~ñj J £ ) . rten-hbrel. Thus. equals 'yāna' instead of ' nay a'. in short. The Doctrine and Community are not the Ultimate Refuges. . 267. C. C. i. who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka. the terms used in S. Pf|j "py£). (D. for these three purposes. C. . for the sake of six kinds of people. 4) sabhaya (T. med. See below. & C. n ) anupūrvanaya. C. [ 181 ] . there are 3 Refuges. // 20 // 8 [respectively]. /MR 3C)? 3) abhāva (T. ' . i. reading. ) 10) samvrti-pada-sthānena. C. Q f^v jfî[. in order to show the virtue of Disciples (śisya) well enrolled in the Teaching of the Teacher. Pretyekabuddha is said to be a buddha who enlightened the doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda. ty\. for the sake of those people who approach in order to understand the voice heard from others. That is to say.The Ratnagotravibhāga virtue of the Teaching (śāsana) of the Teacher. Çf^ . from śrāvakayāna to bodhisattvayāna. The two kinds of Doctrine and the Community Are ultimately not the highest Refuge. distinctively did the Lord establish the teaching of these three 10) Refuges from the empirical standpoint . of ' span-ba '). /\* "f^ -fjjj yQ f pfc |2y n$i i £ • Here. T. according to the faculties of living beings.e. only the Buddha is the Refuge. from sañga-śarana to buddha-śarana. 2) mosadharma (T.e. Being non-existence and being possessed of fear12). see Mvyut. ) Ms.

20). Pali musā-mosa-dhamma. A s for these three kāyas. 70 (v. the author substitutes Srāvaka for it and never refers to that of Bodhisattva. according to the system (naya) of Śrāvaka 2 0 ) . [respectively] 1 8 ) . tshogs. Vaj. the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction in the sense. p . the mere absence of Defilement and Suffering. 11 (v. TAKASAKI The Doctrine has two kinds. see S. see SMS 221 o. brdsun-pa Die. rEf*. abhisamaya. pahi chos & rtogs-pahi chos. C. See M v y u t . For 'koiopama' (kullūpamo dhammoy 16) Cf. And they are always possessed of fear (sabhaya). is included in the artificial character. the Doctrine as Teaching is [the Doctrine] of sūtra and other teachings and it consists of the collection14) of name. s. 95-97. bstanT . T. *7* •r e s p . ai) For the following passage. T . gziñs. This passage is exactly an extract from that sūtra. and that which is non-eternal cannot be a refuge. a non-existence (abhāva) cannot be a refuge nor a non-refuge. Jmt 3 c > T . ñe-bar hbyuñ-ba. PTS Die. 4 by which realized ' and 4 that which in realized ' . I. C. MN. 10 a n d comm. T . 20). And it is said that this Teaching is akin to the boat 1 5 ) because it ends 1 6 ) with the acquisition 17) of the Path. the Doctrine as Teaching (deśanādharma) and the Doctrine as Realization (adhigamadharma)1 3 ) . that which is untrue is not eternal. That which is included in the artificial character is of false. C. Of them. because. deceptive nature is untrue (asatya). the Path. deceptive nature (mrsāmosadharmin)19). The Doctrine as Realization is [again] twofold by the division of cause and result. 14 ls ) kāya. 134. C. 145 and comm. See B H S sified form of ' musā ' (deceptive). It is synonymous with ' moksa \ [ 182 ] .). $ p f f l j . (' mosadharma ' i n v . 20) I t is remarkable in this text that whenever the subject refers to the unworthiness of Dharma or Sañgha.135 J *>G£ *~^^ īt-j-*. they have taken refuge in the Tathāgata and are seeking for deliverance22). v.) T. The Community ' is a term for the community [of the Saints] belonging to three Vehicles21>. ^tî^ paryavasāna. C. And the Extinction realized by this Path also represents. 23. jy\ BJ£ i A & fy\ nS. Also. [but still] they have [many] 4 13) On these two categories of ' dharma '. p. Of them. word. JSJP. T. just like the extinction of a lamp. > kola. i. § 104. That which is of false.e. and letter. mñon-par rtogs-pa. That is to say. C. njī£ i l l • See S.J. C. translation ' |J_ç£ i l l . p.. 17) 18) 19) (This t e r m is for tyājya i n v . tST |HJ ( = loka-nihsarana). as learned people. mthar-thug-pa (paryanta). 22) nihsarana. C. **v v$G >?H T £ J Tup ^ J P G ' catches t h e meaning well. ' mosa ' i n Pali is t h e intenslu-bahi chos-can.

one who has entered upon the Path). 39. similarly even the Arhats have their fear. though having extirpated rebirth Defilements]. 29 ' C. jJñq" ^fg. highest state 3 2 ) . hdu-byed. shugs-pa lags-so. C. 1. leadership. J\. [that which is] a refuge for refuges [in others]. regards this passage (arhatām api . T. being a partial refuge. 991: # l j " II 30) śaiksa. The text should have Danda between ' vadakapuruse' and ' tasmāt '. Hence correct.The R a t n a g ot r av ib h ā ga things to be done (sakaranīya) and are approaching (i. having Deliverance '. text up to ' pratyupasthitā bhavanti\ Cf. ' entered the way '. 31) On the contrary. 24 > Cf. the Community. coming from a bull. For this reason. (For the parallel passage in SMS. On the contrary. 28) [ 183 ] . descendant of Rsabha (name of a former Buddha). T. 26) punarbhava.e. gśad-mahi skye-bu. the first place. T. have not yet realized) 23) the Highest Perfect Enlightenment 25) 24) . It is used here in the sense of ' gone towards '. as if standing in face of the executioner [by itself] never seeks no refuge. And as being a 31) And thus one who seeks for a refuge because of his being possessed of fear. > samskāra. How are they posses- sed of fear? As the Arhats (the Saints of the Vehicle of Śrāvaka). will inevitably seek for the deliverance from fear. he is 'one who has undertaken ' (pratipannaka) to attain the fearless. is i one who has things to be done ' (sakaranīya) . slob-pa. rsabha). khyu-mchog (the highest bull).. T. (Cf. . śaranam upagacchati) as a quotation from SMS. S. where the negative ' ma ' is not used). C. T . ' ārsabha-sthāna ' = Pali āsabhatthāna. rtag-tu rgyun mi-hchad-par. a learned man 30) seeker of deliverance. . So they have not attained the ultimate delightful Just as living beings. and the emphasis is on the approach. p. with reference to the destruction of the root of fear. SMS 219 6. om. C. and. are for the Deli- . and consequently seek by fear they take refuge in the Tathāgata 29) verance. <ffj .e. cannot be the 23) pratipannaka (Pali patipannaka = maggatthaka. T. . frightened by this or that fear. 26) 27 c •* % % tk ?t i t ffl ft n m & n H i i H # K' is quite satata-samitam (BHS). ^ J J ^ ( = sāsravadharma). the Highest Perfect Enlightenment. but not ' attained [the Enlightenment] '. C. ^ f ^ ^f fâ . being frightened . Pali * āsabha ' means a hero or great man and is an epithet of the Buddha. ' ārsabha '. i. Indeed. 3. and before the quotation has the same commentary passage as the Skt. T. ŚMS 221 a. Buddha is said to be * aśaiksa'. For vadakapurusa. T. As being a learned man. have not yet destroyed the Impression [of constantly26) a strong 27) there therefore exists always and 28) notion of fear in all physical life with raised sword 22 .) 32) ārsabha (Lit. ' shugs—pa ma yin—no ' is probably due to a misunderstanding of this ' pratipannaka ' for the actual attainment of Enlightenment. C. aśaiksa-sāntānika. yañ-srid-pa.

the Sage (muni). /fK ^ . a n d tannisthatva = dharmakāyaviśuddhinistha. dharmakāya).T. saying ' dam-pahi don-tu ' (paramârthatah). putting a negative.). TAKASAKI ultimate refuge. the Community [of the Saints] belonging to the three Vehicles sets the ultimate goal of acquisition 37) . \ being t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e [ 184 J . Because the Sage has the body of the Doctrine. meaning ' having kāla which has paryanta. eternal Refuge. it is an adjective to ' buddhatva \ But T. Buddhahood is the sole Refuge of the world. which lasts as long as the utmost limit 3 8 ) in the unprotected and refugeless world. 38) aparântakotisama. 1 1 . . § 3. r e a d s p r o b a b l y ' śivâdvayavirāgadharma). that which is the imperishable Refuge. ~7\_t Jjfo t p î i^Jr gtSi (ova. the Tathā33) paryantakāla-śarana. 37) nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. see the prose comm. . „ . the end '.e. T. t-l-~ r^. Also. C.fâīf T$C eSSii' A correct translation is shown in SMS. mthar—thung—pahi dus—na skyabs rib t^Z -fr. 39) ' ekam ' should b e inserted after ' pāramārthikam t e r m ' ekatra ' i n t h e verse. 35) nistha = nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. interpret this term as ' nâtyantakāle śarane '. is [only one] 3 9 ) .J. C. see v. ^pj pR (having limitation. 32 and comm. I. Both T. phyi-mahi mthahi mu-dañ mñam-pa.ñg. liberated from passions and [characterized36*] as the Two Truths of purification (i. the Doctrine and the Community). 19. (ŚMS 221 a). ^f~ zHu Ji^L . But it is wrong. ' paryantakāla ' is a Bahuvrīhi comp. f ma—yin—pa. 1. adnigama). From the ultimate standpoint 3 4 ) .e. represented as neither becoming originated nor disappearing. C. T . Thus these two Refuges. dus-kyi mthah-mchis-pahi... & C. the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction). About ' sabhayatā ' of the Srāvakas. See below. and everlasting Refuge. // 21 // As has been said before. takes it in the adverbial sense. that is to say. where for * paryantakāla '. (T. which seems better to grasp the meaning in comparison with the Empirical standpoint in v. on this verse. and in the purity of this Body of the Doctrine ( = the Absolute Body. are called ' temporary refuges' 3 3 ) . In Skt. See S. Therefore. 14 (vyavadānasatyadvaya-laksano virāgadharma iti). p . It is helpful t o m a k e t h e m e a n i n g clear. r< iJi^ JfiÇ> •!££. 34) pāramārthikam. ti. inserts ' mtshan-ñid ' (laksana) after ' vyavadana-satya-dvaya '. And because in that the Community sets the ultimate goal 8 5 ) . T h e s a m e with T . limited). is endowed with the body of the Doctrine.being an adjective to buddhatva as S.iSS i=Ef . Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the Highest Standpoint. (i. from the ultimate standpoint. (C. 36) T. mthar-thug-pa thob-pas mthar phyin-par hgyur-ba. C. 58ç > p ^ r ^ Wf> =P^ J^L ( a s if * pūrvântakotinistha ').

The Ratnagotravibhāga gata. cf. ' . 3) ceta-paryāya-jñāna. And 6) through the common nature of being unchangeable by praise. even during a long succession of eaons 4 4 ) . 2) Through the common nature of being immaculate. because they are the cause of beauty 4 8 ) intended by the whole world. Doctrine and Community. 4) Through the common nature of being the ornament of the world. * 45) I accepted T. 43) For this passage. because they are apart from all kinds of45' dust. C. The Meaning of the 3 ' Jewels \ [They are called] ' Jewels '. dkon-pa. Mvyut. anavāpta. 14. 2) divyāśrotra. C. bskal-pa. because they are supermundane. T . § 4. alābha (gain & loss). C. because those people who have not ripened 4 3 ) the root of virtue cannot get any chance to meet them. M v y u t . are called ' Jewel '. 5) rddhividdhi-jñāna. 50) These are called ' asta-lokadharmāh. 1) divyācaksus. And this teaching of the unique. praśamsā (praise). quiescent and unchangeable Refuge is to be understood in detail according to the Âryaśrīmālā-sūtra41). C. // 22 // In short. | U ' 42) T . the 6 Supernatural Powers (abhijñā) 4 7 ) and so forth. om. yaśas. 46) 47) prabhā. nindā (blame). And because of their being the ornament of the world. T. 2 2 . 5) Through the common nature of being superior to the artificial 4 9 ) jewel. because of their non-artificial nature. by the sixfold common nature with Jewels. bsñan—pa. C. A^ fjft /f?f (unable to obtain). the Arhat. C. blame etc. dge-ba. instead of ' stuti-ninda '. C. T h i s ' ekayāna durlabhotpādabhāva. 1) through the common nature of their appearance being difficult to obtain 4 2 ) . 49 * prativarnika.e. if} . They are immaculate and powerful. in the text. duhkha. mthu. BGS 808 a. 5 0 ) . 40) 41) pi. 125. * stuti' is for praśamsa. THT | H j | f j £ / fv§ : ( i n v .t h e o r y is o n e of i t s m a i n p o i n t s of t e a c h i n g . 48) śobhā. ever-lasting. ma bskrun-pa. because Their appearance is difficult to obtain. Cf. because they are endowed with the quality of unthinkable power. 4) pūrvanivāsânusmrtijñāna. Cf. 3) Through the common nature of power 4 6 ) . & 6) āsravaksaya-jñāna. om. TfiT \Q\ J\ iS• [ 185 ] . ayaśas (praise and blame). ^ f|r|. reading ' sarvâkāra ' instead of ' sarvâcāra '. T. sukha. S M S 221 a. And being the highest and unchangeable. as ' sarva—sāsravadharma '. translation is * » kalpa. these three named Buddha. So. i. T. That is to say. lābha. T. the Perfectly Enlightened one 4 0 ) . hbyuñ~ba ^R" ^ f ) . C. eternal.

namely: yf" (dhātu) of the Tathāgata in Chap. IV. (paramārthadarśin).VI. C. ^ ^ (bodhi). has literal translations). The Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha. mundane and supermundane. probably in order to authorize this theory of the 4 subjects. in Chap. [ 186 ] . II. skye-bahi gnas. what is the birth-place 1} of purity. Saddharmapundarīka. There is a Sūtra named " Anuttarâśrayasūtra " (AĀS). (Kārikā 4) The Reality mingled with pollution. I. though it bears the name of ' sūtra '. It seems that this Sūtra. 2 ) From which arise the pure Three Jewels 3 ) . of which now only the Chinese translation is available (C. ) C. and also these 4 stand for the latter 4 of the 7 vajrapadas. (T. [These are the four aspects of] the sphere Of those who perceive the Highest Truth. for the respective case. No. Cf. I l l . And [the Reality] apart from pollution. (in v . \rf\. Each one of these four is treated in each chapter (I-IV). This sūtra also men- tions the same 4 subjects with which the main part of the sūtra is formed. and ^fl. v.V. S$) f^ (guna). THE GERM OF THREE JEWELS IN FOUR ASPECTS Imraediately after the explanation of the Three Jewels. etc. 3) This is the stanza by which the basic subjects of this text are shown. 669). 97. has been composed after the Ratna. in Chap. in what circumstances are there born the Three Jewels. // 23 // What is elucidated by this śloka ? The Germ of these Three Jewels 2) Is the sphere of the Omniscience . I t ) Taisho. Detailed discussion of this problem is given in my Introduction. o m . jffj yjp . and his Acts. paramârihadarśin = sarvadarśin tta 1/K » XH ^N .(kriyā) of the Tathāgata in Chap. 1} 2) yoni.. there is one śloka with reference to the question. 24) = sarvajña (in c o m m . T . ?RÇ _£.

t h e R e a l i t y . B y r e m o v ing such ' kleśa '. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . AĀS 469 6 (beginning of Chap.e. a n d this change of basis is called ' parāvrtti \ See my I n t r o d u c t i o n I I I . C. C. And also. being ' cittaprakrti '. when it is characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis (āśrayaparivrtti) 6 ) in the Stage of Buddha. these four subjects are inconceivable 1 0 ) for four reasons. therefore. p . the Matrix of Tathāgata. 7). characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis. luñ-bstan-pahi gtam. this dhātu becomes manifested fully. i. gnas yoñs-su gyur-pa. Only because of ' āgantukakleśa ' a t t a c h e d t o i t . etc. respectively. fixed or completed. ' ālayavijñāna ' n o longer r e m a i n s t h e same when ' āśrayapāravrtti ' t a k e s place. dri(-ma-dañ) bcas(-pahi) de-bshin-ñid. dri-ma med-pahi de-bshin~ñid. without end9 ) .e. i. where t h e uses of these t e r m s i n t h e Sūtrâlañkāra a r e discussed. Jp--|! r E p . V. is regarded as t h e s a m e as ' dharmakāya '. C. So. which continues to give prophecies 8 ) to Bodhisattvas. 8) 9) anisthita. c o m m . ' anisthita' means ' always not coming to an end '. n > See note VI-2.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā g a And it is inconceivable in fourfold For four reasons. 4) ' The Buddha's Act ' means the automatic 7 ) . T. coming to an end.e. T h e t e r m ' āśraya-parivrtti ' seems t o h a v e somehow a different sense t h a n t h e ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' often used a m o n g t h e Vijñānav ā d i n . jlM. they are called the Sphere of Omniscience 1 ] ) . 10 > Cf. C. 7) pratisvam. unreleased from the sheath of defile4 ments'. T h e prophecy vyākarana-kathā. unceasingly. highest act of these Qualities of the Buddha. T. C. IfÇ. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. respectively. ready. for which four reasons ? 4) samalā tathatā. 73. i t c a n n o t manifest itself fully. Then. while i n case of ' āśrayaparāvrtti '. ' āśraya ' signifies also ' dhātu ' b u t i n t h e sense of ' ālayavijñāna ' (see S. ^flj -""M ?P|£ 5) nirmalā tathatā. 2) The Reality apart from pollu5) tion ' (nirmaîā tathatā) is a term for the same Essence.e. [ 187 ] . o n t h e verse q u o t e d from t h e Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra). // 24 // Here. T . 10 Powers. so-so-rañ-gi (of its own). H e r e ' āśraya ' signifies ' dhātu ' or ' gotra ' i n t h e sense of ' tathāgatagarbha ' (see v . fift pFfcl î t f • vîfv rfcî 6) T . T. T . This point is called ' parivrtti '. as being t h e reality itself. i. without interruption. A n d here ' dhātu '.. T h e difference is p r o b a b l y d u e t o w h a t is m e a n t b y ' āśraya '. ^ ^ ( • ^ ^ $ 3 £ ) p C • on t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e Highest E n l i g h t e n m e n t . 1) * The Reality mingled with pollution (samalā tathatā) ' 4 ) is a term for 4 the Essence (dhātu). 3) ' Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha ' means Supermundane Qualities of the Buddha—10 Powers and so on—in this Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. ^ (?) ' nisthita ' means ' being done. med-par ma gyur-shiñ* C. i. II). y f^ (natural).

though it is originally not defiled by pollution. C. 0 Goddess. C. 22. So does AĀS. and [The Acts are] effortless and of no discrimination. 16 15) 14) »> DRS 20 6. AĀS 473 c (end of Chap. [ 188 ] . It seems the following saying is an old aphorism taken from some other source. T. mentions * śrāvaka ' along with v pratyekabuddha '. de-ni de-kho—na bshin śes-so (tat tattvavad jñānam. O Goddess. ' inconceivable ' is] in the sense that even for the Pratyekabuddhas who believe in the way of profound Doctrine 1 4 ) . [The Absolute Body is] of no impurity. C. III). this point is inconceivable 1 3 ) . // 25// Here. yet it is purified afterwards. ( e n d of C h a p .J. spyod-yul-du ma gyur-pahi yul. pft jA| ^ ^ f £ • C. J § . (JtU * . Because it is said 1 6 ) : " O Goddess 1 7 ) .. >& * tat tathaîva jñānam. This is the real knowledge as 21) 22) it is . . these two points are quite difficult to be cognized. too. the heroine of the Sūtra. pure and defiled. Because it is said 1 9 ) : 20) " The mind is clear by nature . so C. 5). It is difficult to be cognized that the mind is pure by nature. this point is inconceivable. The doctrine of relativity (pratîtya-samutpāda). Therefore it is said : [the Tathāgata] perfectly enligh12) 13 avinirbhāgadharma. C. these two points are to be understood only through the faith in the Tathāgata "18>. T. I I ) . for the other Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. 17-18). j$Ç M i J . 12) [The Qualities are] of inseparable nature [from the Absolute [Body]. It is also difficult to be cognized that this very mind is defiled. agocara-visaya. p . £P 'l> tt 20} 41 c in W. p. 2 1 . i 22> prakrti-prabhāsvaram cittam. at the same time. Inconceivability of the 4 Subjects. TAKASAKI § 1. 18) Cf. 2) ' The Reality apart from pollution '. [Here. this is not an understandable sphere 1 5 ) . ( = S. A Ā S 470 c. ( = S. >> * ifijta * in & £p. T . 11. Because. ^ p >f|j ^ff* . > ŚMS 220 c. and yet purified. 17 * Indicating Srīmālādevī. 1. ^V* i ^ R T P Î PjÎE f2»» > Cf. 1) 4 the Reality mingled with pollution ' is always. those who can hear these two points [with understanding] are only either yourself or Bodhisattvas who are endowed with the great qualities. [the Germ is] pure but defiled [at one and the same time]. rnam-par dbye-ba-med chos. but DRS itself has this sentence saying ' ^ _ § ( fig llf '.

2 (asañgena tathāgatajñānena). instead of laksana). ' The Avatamsakasūtra.The Ratnagotravibhāga tened the Supreme 2 3 ) Perfect Enlightenment by the Intellect endowed with contemplation at one moment 2 4 ) . ' anuttarā '. l\j* ^ Q J ^ (citta. skad-cig-ma gcig dan Idan-pa. IV). Because it is said 2 8 ': 44 There is no one among the group of living beings in whose body the Wisdom of the Tathāgata does not penetrate at all 2 9 ) . p. C. hdu—śes—kyi hdsin—pa. C. )S PO). This is a modifier of ' prajñā ' by which the Buddha has attained ' anuttarā samyaksambodhi '. dar-yug (a narrow ribbonlike piece of silk stuff (Jāschke). Tathāgatotpattisambhava—parivarta (itU This Chap. * dar ' & ' j " & ' both mean silk. sña—phyir. And indeed. |^f^ .' asañga' is a modifier of [Buddha's] jñāna. XXXII. ^JÇf V ^ . [ 189 ] . 291). " [p] . See my Introduction IV. ' prajñā ' in which both prajñā and dhyāna are associated at one moment. self-born Wisdom. I. XXXII is identical 26) 27 > Cf. C. ^ t * MM ^EC I tr. Nevertheless. ' ekaksana—samāyukta'. he cannot cognize the Buddha's Wisdom [residing in himself]. makes its appearance again unobstructedly 3 1 ) . AĀS 475 c (end of Chap. C. 32 ' mahāpusta (big book). 3\U >îs. 278).e. 1. 27). T. Chap. The use of such silk is for painting. of the size equal to the Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds. see S. 11. the Wisdom of Omniscience. O Son of the Buddha. Next. ^gn ^§f (roll of scripture). By removing this taking of conceptions. Lank. " " ^ . |§I| |Σj. p. 22. have it. T. T. of no differentiation through the inseparable nature [from the Absolute Body]. lj|f| pel] (viparyasta). ekânta. 3) 'Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha' are always 25 ' found? even in the stage of those ordinary people who are absolutely 26) defiled. as taking [wrong] conceptions 3 0 ) . Taisho. shows the form of the ' big book '. according to the manner peculiar to each country. IX. ' buddhajñānântargamāt' (v. So do T. 1. 16.S. 29 ' ' tathāgatajñāna ' in this Sūtra is identical with ' dhātu' and igotra\ and shows the origin of the tathāgatagarbha theory. ')$£. 14.8-9). The Great Earth would be described in 23) 24 The text om. 30 ' samjñā—grāha. gcig-tu. 241. T. (-. & C. on this big cloth. 623 c-624 a (No. T. suppose there would be a big painting cloth 32 '. the whole Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds would be described completely. but both T. 157. Cf. p. ilaksana'> after 'ekaksana" in the Text should be omitted. T. No. 96. i. Gaudapāda-Kārikā IV. thogs-pa med-par.). 25 ' paurvâparyena. by Dharmaraksa. 28 ^ tt with another independent Sūtra named Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa (C. C. Cf. 31 ' asañgatah. & C. mentions the material and C. T. this point is inconceivable 27) . C. Taisho.

ri-rab. sa—la spyod—pahi 14) kāmâvacara-d. C. T. ma-lus-pa (aśesa) and om.) (T. j ^ I y C | T T v r .. according to the Buddhist cosmology. the Eastern Continent of Videha. but T. T. gliñ bshihi hjig-rten-kyi khams. U 2) (mahācakravāla) (S. ([/£| ^f* j i [ yTl). T. C. [ 190 ] . has ^KÇ I*-1. too. C. the [Western] Continent of Godāvarī. but T. . -'J'* ~~| 1HT T f i |* . stoñ-gi hjig-rten-kyi . W( ^jf|. C. T. T. ['y] y\.. that of Gods living in the Sphere of Desire. (but usually. 33 khams. sarfla. the Mount Sumeru. anya but retains sorra. All the terms mentioned here are as follows: 1) trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. (Hu J'^c i ā . Furthermore... om. the Four Continents. ^ f 13) bhūmyavacara—devavimāna. the Palace of Gods living cm the earth. C. śar—gyi lus hphags-kyi gliñ. . T. 1. 15) (rūpâvacara-d. C. yy|)» 12) sumeru. stoñ-gsum-gyi stoñ-chen-pohi hjigrten-gyi khams. Mvyut. C. T. in the same way.Jg£ /T| or mm 9) pūrvavideha—dvīpa. the Northern Continent of Kuru. TAKASAKI the exact size of the Great Earth. has it). C. byañ-gi sgra-mi sñan-gyi gliñ. rgya—mtsho chen—po. nub-kyi ba-lañ spyod-kyi gliñ ( = avara godānīya-dvîpa).): lhahi gshal—yas-*khañ. T. C. in each of all the other 3 5 ) l particles of atoms. . & C. ston-gñis-pahi. sa chen—po. T. C. 153-155. 5) sāhasra-lokadhātu. khor-yug chen-po. 6) cāturdvīpika. A ^J^ *af C. See below (S. ffity T. 7) mahāsamudra. paramânu. hdod-pa-na spyod-pahi. The 2-thousand Worlds [would be written] in their own full size. '\x\ J \ ^ . C. 13: tathāśesebhyah paramânubhyas. C om. gzugs-na spyod-pahi. 8) jambudvīpa. C. T.. T. . [In the same way] the thousands of Worlds. from larger one to smaller one. om. Just as this big cloth lies within one small particle of an atom. this very big cloth would enter within one particle of an atom 3 4 ) .) after ' rūpâvacara-d. C. ^ Uj (~F. And [thus] this big cloth would have the same size as the expansion of the Great 3-thousand thousands of World's. 11) uttarakuru-dvîpa.\ but it is not the case here. the Greai Ocean. ' godāniya"1 is preferable. . om. om. Cf. and of Gods living in the Sphere of Form 3 3 '. there enters a big cloth of the same size.J.. om. . the Southern Continent of Jambū. anya. 4) dvisāhasra-lokadhatu. hdsam-buhi gliñ. rdul-phra-rab. T. 3) mahāprthivī.).. [§] {-f. T. ~y\ Q (ārūpyâvacara-d. om. Suppose there ' This passage describes various worlds. C. T. ~ | * IHT yf~ '. 35) 34} C. 10) godāvarī-dvīpa. om. all of these would be written in their own size.

39 ' C. the last bhavana. which appears in the next sentence in S. T. clever. Only the ignorant. ' sūksma—vajrena '.. o m . asañ- gajñānam).e.. 40) The reading is preferably ' tathā śesebhyah ' instead of * tathâśesethyah '. C.. verb. T. 48J C. t h e whole sentence. the profitable wisdom for all living beings 42> . he would break this small particle of an atom with a subtle diamond 39 ' and would make that great cloth useful for the world as was his intention. And every mental disposition of a living being has the same size as the Buddha's Wisdom 4 5 ) . is also apramāna. 45) T . I will break this particle of an atom by the force of great efforts 3 8 ) and let this great cloth become useful for the world. * 7 ) anu-\ bhū. ma-tshañ-ba med-par (aśesena). Therefore. sems-kyi rgyud. A S SI ffil). .. Not only for one particle of an atom but also for [all] the remaining 40) atoms. which is the immeasurable wisdom. t h i s s e n t e n c e . o m . Similarly. 42) 38) C. (upāyena or upāya-sawjanayitvā).ye-śes dan hdra-bar tshad med-do. C. o m . o m . anutisthate T . M @| M ( S 38 M 181 . intelligent. being bound by misconceptions 4 6 ) does neither know nor cognize nor understand 4 7 ) nor realize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within himself]. reads ' lus-pa med-pa mthah-dag-las\ as S. T . adds ' vajrena '. well learned. he would act in the same way 4 1 ) . With these divine eyes he would perceive [and say]: Why does this big cloth of such a great nature stay 3 7 ) here in such a limited small particle of an atom! It is of no use to anybody! So he would think: Now. Then. O Son of the Buddha. however. gnas ( = sthāna). to the big cloth). And his divine eyes were perfectly pure and clear. producing the strength of great efforts. A* 5 £ n=j 'Ij* (not producing faith in.). ' h a b i t ' ) . C. having observed the state 4 8 ) of all the living beings in all the universal re36) 37) mīmāmsā. 44) citta-santāna. But T. instead has ' :J|y? /I'M f=3 HH^» vftv t?(l f^3 ^ H £ ' (animittajñānam T . "> samjñāgrāha.The Ratnagotravibhāga should appear one person. C. C. the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. the Tathāgata. om. [ 191 ] . thoroughly 4 3 ) penetrates within the mentality 4 4 ) of every living being. spyod-pa ( = caryā. [^fC £ £ ] J§[\ See BHS Die. wise and possessed of the skill 3 6 ) to approach there (i. being endowed with tathāgatajñāna. 41> C. 43 ' sakalam. ' santāna \ Often ' santāna ' alone is used in the same sense. (Ātmanepada). C J|7J \ p fj jlcî. (sattvasantāna.

p. 1. 24. Therefore. by accepting the power of the Holy Path. ^V* p g ^ I N j j | ^ . 12) C. without efforts. p. mtshañ-ba Die. med-ciñ. ' guna'). 25. 4. 1.) (For this mārga. Bj 'j'LJ. rjes-su mthun-par. 60 ' ' āryena mārgopadeśena ' in the text. 4) ' the Buddha's Acts ' proceed forth at one time. without discrimination. 1. 3). V) where the following quotation from DRS is utilized. reads jñāna. this point is inconceivable 5 4 ) . are taught as if 49 ' sarvadharmadhātu-sattvabhavanāni. S5) DRS 21 c. T. though they are unlimited. ' dharmadhātu '. chos-kyi dbyiñs sems-can-gyi gnas thamscad-la. 24. T. in conformance with their merits 5 3 ) . according to [the faculty of] the living beings who are to be disciplined 5 1 ) without fault 5 2 ) . they remove all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions through the teaching of the [Holy] Path of the Tathāgata. probably by mistake). and it makes the meaning clear instead of ' vainaikesu '. p. ( = S. hphags-pahi lam. also that they would obtain equality with the Tathāgata '. cast off the big knot of conceptions and would recognize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within themselves]. AĀS 476 b (end of Chap. ' aksūna'). But it should be corrected into ' āryamārgopadeśena \ since 'ārya' modifies 'mārga' but not ' upadeśa '). TAKASAK1 gion 4 9 ) by his unobstructed Wisdom. resolves to be a teacher [and says:] 'What a pity! These [living beings cannot cognize properly the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. C. |^|^ . ksūna = dosa (see B H S anugunam. Because it is said 5 5 ) : " In order to enroll the living beings [in the Buddha's Doctrine] 5 6 ) the Acts of Tathāgata. gdul-bya) aksūnam. always. . But cf ' sarvadharmadhātuprasrtam tathāgatajñānam ' (Rāsfrapālapariprcchā. (|§t )lH "5J <ffc *fc £}£ fll H i ) . Now. C. And when all the obstacles created by wrong conceptions are withdrawn. ' Cf. everywhere.3=L iU=L • See below (S. T. p. regards ' sarva ' as relating to bhavana. T. and supports the reading 'yathā ' in the text.J . 5: āryamārgabalâdhānena. the reading is preferable ' -vaineyikesu (vaineyika > vineya C. T . 66 > I accepted C reading ' ^ — " t $ ^ ^£ A ft V Î tf* (in buddhadharma) \ [ 192 ] . T. then this immeasurable Wisdom of the Tathāgata becomes useful to all the world " . 5S) 64 s2) «> So in C. C. though it penetrates them. om. 9. T. O ! I shall try to withdraw all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions for the sake of these living beings through the teaching of 50) [8-fold] Holy Path . according to the intention [of the living beings]. 1. in order that they would by themselves.'[f{ (probably om. [In accordance with this declaration].

C. AĀS fog. . reading corrected by T. but it is preferable to read ' . without casting off the indescribable nature of his 67) 44 68 pramānatah.""*. 4 T . indescribable by letters. Then. T. \~ ^rf (tryadhvasamam). of no differentiation 6 1 ) as being the act of the universal essence " 6 2 ) &c. AĀS. -JftÇ J j ^ 5>»T ^yx* Art-. reading is here accepted. rnam-grañs hdis.v a m ś a . 68) 69) t r i r a t n a . Cf. . S9) adhisthita. that which is the true act of the Tathāgata is immeasurable. established 5 9 ) in all Buddhas' lands. agree t o p u t one epithet more before ' triratnavamśa. C. kha-na-ma-tho-ba T . o Noble Youth. C. A^ «]* Hñf (AĀS $ f § ^ ) . the Buddha never casts off the sky-like nature of his body 6 9 ) and he shows himself in all the Buddhas' lands. and not interrupting the lineage of the 3 Jewels 6 8 ) . gnas-pa. T. with summarized number 5 8 '. T. C. Y{\ I t t ^ p R|K (by this example). *. 1. T . UL dañ rjes-su hbrel-pa (tryadhvânubaddha). & C. ") See S. . T . See B H S Die. jifft ^ ^ fJZ -Mf". However. ^ Ç ^ § ( A Ā S _~ZL ^ C I ' ) ' ākāśasvabhāvatā. precious Vaidūlya stone 6 3 . |P~ WL (prob. word and mind. C. C. dus gsum 62 * 6 ) anena paryāyena. '•/[* yf. ^g. ^ ffi f p l f £ . [ 193 ] . hbad-rtsol dan bya-ba. T . So in T. p . C. related to the three divisions of time 6 7 ) . as T. dkon-mchog-gsum-gyi gduñ. of no discrimination as being equal to the sky. it is taught as follows 6 4 ) .M>tS} * dharmadhātu-kriyā. in this manner 6 5 ) . inconceivable. ^pj J§T . Residing in this inconceivable Act of the Tathāgata. •*) D R S 21 c. 67) T. nirnānākāranam (Ms B.kārana '. But AĀS is apparently correct. T. O noble youth. C. T. this Buddha's inconceivable Act should be known as rendered in equality [with all the Buddhas]. C. by deed. > ābhogakriyā. Hereafter t h e reference is to t h e 3 actions.). far beyond all works of exertion 6 0 ) . karana ' instead of 61) 60 ' . ' nānākarana '. 5. om. Cf. > samksepamātrakena. C. . uncognizable by all the world. C. 9 ff.. C. ' shows a different reading (apratipraśrabdha). f£C |fE « S (dharmadhātu-svabhāva).. failed to catch this point. ". '. nowhere blamable 66) . text) is acceptable. tha—dad—du dbyer—med—pa. Chowdhury in his introductory note to the Skt.The Ratnagotravibhāga they were somewhat limited 57) . rendered in equality with all the Buddhas. tshad-dañ Idan-par. ••> anavadya. med-pa. 476 b. after showing the example of pure. difficult to be acquired by others.

in this sense the third subject. p. 11. . Ace. Only through the attributes of Enlightenment is there instruction for others. T . respectively. 2 (v. C. jffj 'Li"* 4~T" (om. and being apart from all objects of the mind 7 0 ) . still he can understand the deeds and intentions of the minds 7 1 ) of all living beings. 72) Four subjects from the standpoint of Enlightenment (bodhi). —" 'fcJJ i^K £ j £ *lj"» jy\ ^^ H I . translation of the first line 1 4 !&£ 73 ^&C \Ck (bodhana. 110 (v. 76) Of these 4. Also see S. // 26 // Indeed. to T. "fife # S | ft (bodhyañga) %\\ . 39. the first subject should be known as c the object to be enlightened' (boddhavya)'?4:). the Enlightenment. N o t e C. 26. Being the portions of enlightenment. IV. they are called Buddha's attribute. p. [The remaining] three are the conditions For the purification of the former 7 3 ) . otherwise ' ca' is to be removed as a n excess. he teaches the Doctrine for the sake of living beings through the proper word-communication. of these four subjects. 73) i. 3J9? H ) . in this sense the fourth subject. The object to be enlightened. t r a n s l a t i o n of ' ārambana' by f^t or jy\ . [Of these four]. One subject signifies the cause. = [ 194 ] is as follows: * 0 f ft (bodhya) # j g ££ (bodhi). TAKASAKI speech. t h e reading is preferably corrected into ' cittacaritān āśayāms ca '. Cf. the reading bodhanā is to be corrected into bodhana). See Note III-5. § 2. 4 the attributes of the Enlightenment (bodhyañga)' is to be known. C. AĀS. ' the act to instruct the Enlightenment (bodhana)9 is to be known75). AÂS J ^ | •§f). 9).. It correspond to ' gotra ' itself. 71) cittacaritâśayāmś ca. C. with reference to their inclusion of all knowable objects. sems-kyi spyod-pa dan bsam-pa yah. (Cf. has confusion in its interpretation. āśaya). 'the Enlightenment' (bodhi) should be known in the sense that the object to be enlightened has been awakened. ^ f ^ t f ^ J ^ ^ (citta-indriya-āśaya?). Thus with reference to these 70) sarvacittârambana. The attributes of the enlightenment. g^ I|JL» and compare to S. The second subject.e. 73): nirālambe (C. The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its four Aspects.J.1. where ' ārambana ' is translated by ' 3 î L ftp£ '. 74 > 'bodhya* in v. C. The act to instruct the enlightenment 7 2 ) . ' the object to be enlightened '. therefore it is the Enlightenment.

as being the seed of the supermundane thing. Thus " [the remaining] three are the condition " . S. by which the people attain the enlightenment'. a detailed and analytical explanation will be made known in the remaining chapters. but in the verse C. Hereafter. which corresponds to ' pratyātma ' (each own) with reference to ' hetu '. C. being endowed with the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha. p . having realized the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. has no interpretation in the prose commentary. 76) Cf. the arrangement of the Germ of the 3 Jewels in the state f cause and conditions is to be known. of these four subjects.^ JH ' should be taken as an *•• Mug mSfermsto [ 195 ] u . 1. and the remaining two as ' parâr- e last pada ' ^ £|* jfjj . etc. However. 16 ( a c e . Of this correspondence. Here. of these four subjects. How are there three conditions ? The Tathāgata. again failed to catch the sense and regards the former two subjects as relating to ' svârtha '. 10 Powers. 77) paratah. applies each phrase for each subject in the prose commentary. adds 2 padas showing this. manifests the Act of Tathāgata of 32 features 7 6 ) . Thus " one subject signifies the cause " . Nevertheless. the first one. C. C. ^ ^ 9t ^ S '• Tli explanatory adjective to ' bodhana % and be read ' bodhana. should be understood as the cause (hetu) of origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to its ( = of the Germ) purification based upon ' each own ' correct thinking. This is to be understood as the condition (pratyaya) for the origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to the purification of Germ based upon the voice of others 7 7 ) . 6. t o D R S ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga four subjects. It is obviously wrong.

D. mainly depends. No. 667 ~)\. have the Buddha's Wisdom. the Sūtra says: tū&MM (TGS. I observe that all living beings. By which meaning is it said thus 2 ) ? x) This formula shows a principle common to a group of Sutras and Sāstras which express the tathāgatagarbha theory. After the first sentence. (ibid. the Sūtra furthermore says: * I?. with reference to ' t h e Reality mingled with pollution'. 666 ' ^ C ~J^ ^ i # P 3fv ^ ^ ' tr. see Note VI—28. (With Buddha's eyes. p. though they are among the defilements of hatred. 29. 457 r). C. m * Bg. to%i& & ft 'A* 'H. This formula runs in C. and by combiNote 2 on foil. TGS. SAMALÂ TATHATĀ VII. Tohoku No. The Sūtra. text is missing now. p. 73). and my Introduction). Buddha's eye.D. & C. i. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh) (quoted in S. it is said: All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata X ) . by Amoghavajra in the 8th cent. by Buddhabhadra between 408-429 A.). A. Kg Mdo XXII. Now. (esā — dharmānām dharmatā. 258. as follows: î l ffi H & Prior to this sentence.I. and No. Buddha's body sitting firmly in the meditating form). 666 will be used for the reference with the abbreviation.e. [ 196 ] . of which the Skt. it is clear that TGS borrowed this idea from that Sūtra and established the above formula. " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh ' and as this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna is expressed in the Avatamsakasūtra (Tathāgatotpattisambhava—pariv. Hereafter C. No.: T. THE SERMON: ALL LIVING BEINGS ARE POSSESSED OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA. This shows the reason for the statement mentioned above. This third one shows that the formula is the eternal truth. anger and ignorance. The first appearance of this formula seems to be in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra on which the Ratna. is retained in both T. ~}j | | f # 0 ^ ^ ^M ' tr. Taisho.

he next explained its features and functions summarized in 10 points. As regard this point. all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. the 9 illustrations in order to show how living beings are covered with defilements. Its result 5 ) manifests itself on the Germ of the Buddha 6 ) . And the Germ [of the Buddha] exists [in the living beings]. N o t e V I I . tshogs. & C. dharmakāya. ^ ). C. 3) 4) rāśi. ' ? J f 4 ^ ' identified with it ? 6) bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt.e.The 3> Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikā 5) The multitudes of living beings are included in the Buddha's Wisdom 4 ) . Is C. B u t T . (In t h e sense of * carati '. 22. Reality is of undifferentiated nature. 2 * The order of the text differs among S.1 ) . Here in the Ratna.. 29 with no heading. It is difficult to identify it with the present Skt. on the contrary. p . the author analysed and systematized the tathāgatagarbha theory. v. reading. and v. // 27 // [What is shown by this śloka ?]8 ) The Buddha's Body penetrates everywhere. ñer-brtags. T . as t r a n s l a t i o n . First of all. or of sattvarāśi.e. the main purpose of the teaching is to emphasize this point and. 28 is followed by v. S. starting with the commentary verse (v. Therefore. j ^ R t^3 (being n o t separated from B u d d h a ' s W i s d o m ) . resides). translation of this line is as follows: fîfc . i. 27 after ' tathāgatagarbhasūtrânusārena nirdeśo bhavisyati ' with the heading: as said in the Kārikā text (V{. equal to all the Buddhas).. 7) sarve dehinah = sarvasattvāh = [sarva] śarīrinah (in t h e following verse). has clearly confasions in the prose commentary as J suggested. 'A^* p|ji. [ 197 ] . ' buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh ' m e a n s g r a m m a t i c a l l y t h a t sattva-rāśi goes into buddhajñāna. 28). But from ' pūrvataram tu ' up to ' uddānam ' is missing in C. This idea is shown i n t h e Avatamsaka q u o t e d i n S. C. the author picked up the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in the 3 meanings.. T.\\ |$g /QÎ. C. keeps quite a regular order starting with the Kārikā (v. T. 27). it looks all right and it is imaginable that the text used for C. it puts v. we can get the main doctrine of the sūtra. // 28 // ning these three sentences together. ffi. (anena kim darśitam /). buddhatā. 28) like T. and lastly. e t c . 8) Inserted according to the conformity. Therefore. it is said: all living beings 7) are possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. basing himself upon the TGS. ffijC \\\ jJ īra DP• f ' \\\ Oj/J īra D P i i^ "^f **-* |_E =^T» (because of the body of real nature. 27 was put after the explanation. F o r upacāra. translation had this order. but omits the usual heading before the next commentary verse (v. Their immaculateness is non-dual by nature. T. (see above./&) 3 ^ . About C. J-TÎ -îdte. 5) T h e result of i m m a c u l a t e n e s s i.

The threefold meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha mentioned below (S. T. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d for e a c h s u b j e c t . Equality through dharmakāya. p. Cf. 72. C. With reference to that as well.J . That is to say. I shall now explain. 2) tathāgata-tathatā-'vyatirekârtha. T . Three terms in BGS are as follows: 1) A/T Vvî $& : tathāgata. 2) the Tathāgata being the Reality (tathātā). . T . 13) aviśesena. T h e t e r m ' sambhava ' would m e a n b o t h ' b e i n g ' a n d ' b e c o m i n g '. 7-9) as well as in BGŚ (795 c-ff. as well as the ground of the statement: sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. however. p. are applicable to any subject (sarvatrâviśesena) and are already used in the scripture.) is also an implication of this same idea. 70. T . in comparison with the phrase: ' gotre. 2) BH» vīL $$û '• garbha in which tathāgata is ' hidden '. it is said by the Lord that all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of Tathāgata.lL. pravacana. See Appendix I I I . de-bshin-gśegschos-kyi skus hpho-bahi don. the [detailed] explanation will be made below n ) according to the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. T. upacārāt ' in v. See Note X-139 140 150 151 169 170. tathatā and tathāgatagotra is also a point of emphasis in the text. 27. beginning with svabhāva. 'yod—pa' shows t h e first sense. by the following three meanings: 1) the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) of the Tathāgata penetrates all living beings. the sense ' origination ' or ' manifestation ' is to be implied here. b u t i t seems t o b e not enough to express the idea contained here. T. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi rigs yod-pahi don. de-bshin gśegs-pahi de-bshin-ñid rnampar dbyer med-pahi don.e. 12) [ 198 ] . 9) UP p £ ' respectively. 16-18.7 3 . reads this word as the subject (gsuñ-rab) See below. p p . These three are the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha. as garbha in which sattvas are ' enveloped '. Significance of this sentence is as follows: The 3 meanings mentioned above are applicable exclusively to Tathāgatagarbha. is the undifferentiated whole. 3) tathāgata-gotra-sambhavârtha. 6 9 . 17). 69. there is [another] meaning by which this meaning in all its aspects is indicated in the Scripture 1 2 ) with no variance anywhere l 3 ) . 1. of garbha ' enveloping ' tathāgata. Prior to it. p. These are called pahi * trividha-svabhāva ' of tathāgatadhātu (S. That is to say. and the 3rd shows the existence of 'gotra'' among sattvas. on the other hand. p.. TAKASAKI In short. 1. the following meanings. 1. ^ P $Q . And of these three subjects 1 0 ) . / > See S. by three kinds of meaning. BGŚ 808 a. The first one shows the all-pervadingness of' dharmakāya ' the 2nd should be applied to ' samalā tathatā ' in the sense ' sarvakleśakośopagūdho dharmakāyah'. 3) Hb tPRF $lxi'•sattvas possessed of garbha of tathāgata. *ii* IL. and 3) there exists the Germ of the Tathāgata (tathāgatagotra) [in every living being] 9 ) . 10) n arthapada. This sentence is missing in C. don-kyi gnas. i. V ^ r% . 1) (sarvasattvesu) tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. C. 71. 1. 10-12. uJ I f § | .

are as follows: 1) Ao-bo. 3) B) 6) C. 4) the function (karman) [towards the purification]. C. The qualities always unchangeable and non-diiFerentiation. <$? | | | | y\. Artt • v y+. sdom. 5f? * . it seems that this uddāna was composed by the commentator prior to explaining following Kārikās. 3) the result (phala) [of its purification]. though it is mentioned in the Kārikā text of C. with reference to 4 ) these 10 meanings. don-dam-dbyiñs. ^ . 4) abhisamdhāya. What are the 10 meanings ? They are namely : 1) the own nature (svabhāva) [of the Germ]. function. 2) the cause (hetu).VIII. This verse on the 10 meanings (v. 5 § | / . order of the excellent meanings). Therefoie. C rendering of tathāgatadhātu here is ' \fç$ |f£ '• 7) sarvagatva i n t h e v e r s e . Various states and all-pervadingness. Because it follows immediately upon the word ' vaksyāmi ' in the last sentence. C. paramalattva — jñānavisayas tathāgatadhātuh. 9) unchangeability (avikāra) [of the Germ through various states]. 29) has a doubtful position as the original Kārikā. 0 .e. |f\ . of tathāgatadhātu. gotra). . . "jfg īij . there should be understood the various aspects 5 ) of the Essence of the Tathāgata. | f | . 2) rgyu.ifctf2) x> 5f? (succeeding paramârtha-dhātu. which is the sphere of the highest true knowledge 6 ) . T. uddāna. 'tH. C. An explanation of the term para- mârthadhātu in the verse. 3) hbras[-bu]. In these [points of view]. there should be known The implication 2) of the Absolute Essence 3) . T . union and manifestation. . // 29 // In short. 8) all-pervadingness (sarvatraga) 7 ) [of the Germ]. mam-par gshag-pa. & C. f£^ jffE (dhātu in t h e sense vyavasthā. 6) the manifestation (vftti) [of the Germ]. C. 5) the union (yoga) [of the Germ]. 4) las. arthasamdhi. T . i. The result. and 10) non-differentiation (abheda) [of the Germ with the Reality] 8 ) .J i . T. [ 199 ] . dgoñs-don (implied meaning). 8) Corresponding terms for these 10 in T. ANALYSIS OF THE GERM FROM 10 POINTS OF VIEW Summary 1 J : The own nature and the cause. I ventured to omit this verse from the line of Kārikās. ' J . 7) the various states (avasthāprabheda) [of its manifestation]. 5) Idan-pa.

T. H ^ 3*[? /j'J (kāla-prabheda). XXX. C. karunā. > Cf. comm. 2. respectively.. Identity. C. II).. See below. (Taisho. rañ-bshin. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. BGŚ 796 b (I. 4) ^ | g ffi . 8) kun-tu hgro-ba.(I) SVABHÂVA & (II) HETU 9) Now..). dbyer-med-pa. DAŚ 892 a (3. // 31 // •T0 J/£*» 6) hjug-pa. #'] . The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata. 5) M ^ 12) —* ft. 3ή ' %}] | © . 3) g ft . 12 * dharmâdhimukti. n ) -anvaya. MSA. 36 a). is also observed in YBh. § prakrty-asamklista. . adhiprajñā. C. ^ Q f£J. etc. A. ft. T. 8) $T fi. the sky and water. and being moist. from svabhāva to vrtti. 9 10) dhicitta ' (DAŚ 892 a). IX.. Also the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa—śāstra (DAS) mentions 12 categories with respect to ' bo- 6) # ft. [ 200 ] . 13) sādharmya. T.las byuñ-ba (come out from. 9) mi-hgyur-ba. See Appendix III. 10) S ft£ ^ fI]. 45. y p £ . and the application of the same 6. 7) 31 Ife. Cf. the first 6 are common to the 8 categories on ' nirmalā tathatā ' (Chap. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of its own nature of power. 0 ) . which show the cause of purification. 56-59. It follows after n ) the faith in the Doctrine. 9) ffi |K. The highest Intellect. Like the pure jewel. 2) 0 ffi .. Meditation and Compassion 12>. Here. the sky and water. svabhāva & II hetu). 5) jffi 3§il ft J a n ' °^ these 10 categories. ii) f£ ^ ^Ij. // 30 // § 1. ^ W$ ffc . (Kārikā 6) 4 own nature' and ' cause * [The Matrix of the Tathāgata] is always undefiled by nature 1 0 ) . in these [three points] [The Essence of the Tathāgata has] a resemblance l 3 ) To the quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. For prakrti. namely: 1) J|c. 3) ^ ffi . samādhi.^ !>§£. 4) J | | ^ . om. 4~r '•> 7) gnas-skabs-kyi rab-tu dbye-ba.BGŚ7966: 1) g f | ffi . The subject term for this and the following Kārikās is ' jinagarbha ' in v. 2) g j . chos mthun-pa-ñid.

bsam-pahi don. 16) cintitârtha. in v. ^ ^ ' j ^ . khoñ-khro ( h a t r e d . which are already mentioned above 1 4 ) . i. § ft 2) 18 j] . 0 f fçj\ (C. gshan-du ma-yin-pa-ñid-kyi ño-bo. T. 28 and its commentary. ^ ^ . Now. C. a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling jewel is to be known of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. C. C. e n m i t y ) . And now. but it puts ' JS» '/m ' (cmfā £t£) * before ' tathāgatadharmakāye ' and it seems to correspond to ' jQfr fÇ lH? '. A resemblance to the sky is to be known of the Reality. this very resemblance [of the Essence] to the purified qualities of wish-fulfilling jewel. first of all. respectively. praligha. grub-pa (= siddhi). with reference to its moist nature (snigdhabhāva) of mercy towards living beings as the particular characteristic. ffî ^ (as T. T . BGS TfîÇ . what is shown by the latter half of the śloka (v. ' 0 f ft ' after ' 0 f &% ' is probably a misreading of prabhā for bhāvanā). 31. fulfillment of desired 16) objects etc. C. the own nature of powers (prabhāva). of all t hese. A resemblance to water is to be known 1 7 ) of the Germ of the Tathāgata. T. 31 of C..). B G Ś 797 a. 17) For these 3 terms showing the similarity in particular characteristics.. C. but not found in S. absolutely. the resemblance of the Essence of the Tathāgata to the purified quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. w r a t h . 30) ? There are four kinds of Obstructions 1 9 ) : Enmity 2 0 ) to the Doctrine and perception of the Self. sgrib. brlan-pahi rañ-gi ño-bo. & BGŚ (796 6) runs as follows: _ 1) T. 3) T. C. with reference to their being undefiled always.e.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga * In these ' three [points]. C. Obstructions and Causes of Purification 18) . 27. with reference to its particular l5) characteristic. u ) vv. 19) 20) [ 201 ] . the innate purity as the common characteristic. trividhasvabhāva of tathāgatadhātu. āvarana. the sky and water is to be understood. mthuhi ño-bo-ñid. Now. s\* ^ ç . BGŚ #H ^ rañ-gi XJ f^ f^. C j^C Wv» BGS ^p^ ^fl* 'KX • > Cf. has a lacuna after samrddhi up to the end of the commentary on v.e. i. 1B) samrddhi. T . the sky and water. should be known with reference to its particular and common characteristics. by nature. |*!p. § 2. pjj (abuse). T. T . C. with reference to its own nature of identity [everywhere] (ananyathābhāva) as the particular characteristic.

T. p. C. Cf. srid-pa-dañ bral-bar hdod-pa. Cf. 3) those who wish neither of both (tadubhayânabhilāsin) 26>. The word * iha ' here means ' in this religion ' but not ' in this world '. Those are only seeking for Phenomenal Life and not for Nirvana.). AA II. mu-stegs. 6. it means one who longs only for worldly pleasure ( = bhavâbhilāsin.. [/jQ yj\j {£Z '-p] Pflj :Ja£ JpJ \\L (as same as Icchantika in their position). 23) 22 21 tīrthya.// 32 // [These are respectively] of the Icchantikas 22\ Of the Heretics23) . ' The reading should be ' sattvârtha—nirapeksatā ' (or -arthe nirape-) instead of * -artham nirapeksatā ' in the text. C. The capacity for Enlightenment of this Icchantika is usually denied as being ' aparinirvānagotraka '. hdod-chen. // 33 // In brief there are those three kinds of living beings among their multitudes 2 5 ) : 1) those who cling to the worldly life (bhavâbhilāsin). > icchantika. have definitely fallen into the former's way 2 9 ) . see below). are The four Causes of purification. C. C. v. 2) T. As a Buddhist technical term. which is used in this sense in Vibhañga 245 (PTS Die. 1. ^ 3 T ^ f . ^ $j? ffc ^ (within the Buddhist fold). > svayambhū in the text (T. s. But from the viewpoint of the tathāgatagarbha theory. T. 1 fli. A^ ' T. TAKASAKI Fear of Suffering in this world. 29) i. sems-can don-la Itos med-pa. res- C j S . y\ j g [ ( = anyatîrthika) — ttrthika. 37. 27 ) « de-gñis-ka mñon-par mi-hdod-pa. the faith [in the Doctrine] etc. T. 2) those who seek for deliverance from it (vibhavâbhilāsin). one who abuses the Buddhist doctrine. The virtues. 1) those who cling to the worldly life ' should be known as twofold. @ 5t£). AĀS 471 a. C. more strictly.). Of them. esp. C. s. BHS Die. > T. Pali idha. 24 26) Of these 3. chos hdi-pa-ñid. vSÇ /r£ 5 5 I-E • This sentence and the next show the definition of Icchantika.J.). C. And indifference to the profit of living beings 21 ). rañ-byuñ. although belonging to this Our Religion (ihadhārmika) 28>. 1) T. a) The people whose intention is against the path to Emancipation and who never belong to the family of the perfect Nirvana (aparinirvānagotraka)27). <K l K IH. 28 [ 202 ] . the Śfāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 24>. . And b) Those people who. (—' W] J H ) (of this literal meaning. F P <î^ "W î pectively.e. yoñs-su mya-ñan-las mi-hdah-bahi rigs-can. ' sarnsāram eva icchanti na nirvānam '. BGŚ 797 b ff. that of Mahāyāna. srid-pa hdod-pa. C. v. With reference to them. Some of these are hostile to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. the Iochantika is said to be able to get Enlightenment as taught in this text (S. ") Cf. HR J § .

though being faithful in [Buddhism]. 39 40) 41 C. C. various kinds of Heretics (anyatīrthya). the Carakas35). what are they ? They are namely. (and AAN as well) ' I will call them icchantikas\ instead of ' tamobhūyisthā '. hdi-las phyi-rol-tu gyur-pa. the Parivrājakas 36 '. The word ' itobāhya ' is literally an adjective to ' tîrthya '. Next. C. wanderer). i. & BGŚ. C. 33) 32) as well. C. from gloom to greater 31 gloom ). dkah-bahi Ita-ba hdsin-pa (durdrstigrāhin). Cf. 38§ ? R i l l ~/J iSl î 2) T. take hold of bad conceptions 39>. but whose conduct is in common with the Heretics 3S\ They. So do AÂS. T . 35) 36) caraka (lit. mun-pa-las kyañ ches. C. the Jains 3 7 ) . ~^C y\. \ja\ . (lit. C. PP) a s a n example. / £ | $ £ |Sfcî ^=f J t £ "j • ' durgrhītagrāhin. l j | | | |33 (viparyāsagrāhin). gcer~bu-ba (naked people). & T. T. 2) i those who seek for deliverance from this worldly life ' are also twofold. ii) those who have the perception of the substantial Ego (pudgaladrsti) 4 0 ) and have no faith in the Highest Truth. 1) T.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Lord said as follows 3 0 ) : " I am not their teacher. [ 203 ] . 31 > tamasas tamo * ntaram andhakālān mahândhakālagāminah. 37) nirgranthi-putra. they are not my pupils. T . the Lord said 4 1 ) : " One who has no faith in Non-substantiality is not different from the Heretics " . mun-pa chen-por hgro-ba. into one. 30 > AAN 467 c. om. regards t h e m as t h e S ā m k h y a (If rgyu (one who goes everywhere). a) Those who have fallen into a methodless way (anupāyapatita) and 6) i those who are in [the correct] method ' (upāyapatita) 3 2 ) .. This seems to be the original reading. mentions Vātsīputrīyas (^fH ~J * The source is unknown. 34) In contrast with ' ihadhārmika '. i) Outsiders of this Religion (itobāhya)34>. '£<£ j^J y\. etc. ii) & Hi) Insiders of Our Religion. respectively. With reference to them. as migrating from darkness to another darkness. 'those who are of no method' are again divided into three 3 3 ) .e. Here. reading is accepted in this translation. C. I say of them that they are chiefly filled with darkness. tsa-ra-ka. i. Then. Of these 2. thabs-la shugs-pa. religious wanderer). T. kun-tu C. C.e. T. thabs ma-yin-pa-la shugs-pa. O Śāriputra."J^C • But T. AĀS 471 a. ^ | <fc i H /J US. ' two '. "$£. combining the latter two in S. C. regards them as the Vaiśesika (Hi "tit $$). T.

talented faculty. But as they are intoxicated with this Non-substantiality. 1. ^y The same use as in ' ihadhārmika '. mi—gnas—pahi mya—ñan—las—hdas-pa. 146. And next. āpti had better be accepted. T T [Mj ' f T . sbyor-ba-can. they intend not to stay fixedly in the Nirvana (apratislhitanirvāna) 4 9 ). Cf. 48) āpatti in the text. T. but. p. (Taisho. Lank. T. See S. adds brten—pa (āśrita) after nir- vana). A^ ft VM 5 S A ft Btl S iSS). XI. (T. 61) [ 204 ] . nor are they those who are in no method like Heretics. Here. p. C jpÇ >fJi ^ c *y* (Ratnakūtasūtre). BGŚ 797 b (quotation from AĀS). S. b) 'those who are in [the correct] method' are again twofold. om. C. 47 ' pratipanna. C. 49 45> * T. T. see Note V—23. C. i) Those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and ii) those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha. yañ-dag-par ñes-pa-ñid. AĀS 471 6. T. 35. TAKASAKI Hi) Those who have the conception of the Non-substantiality and are proud of it are doubtless at the door of Emancipation through the Nonsubstantiality 4 2 ) in this religion 4 3 ) . their activities 5 0 ) are based upon Phenomenal Life 5 1 ) but without being defiled by it.J. having entered 47> the Path to obtain 4 8 ) [the intuition of] the equality of this Phenomenal Life with Nirvana. 3) ' those who wish neither of both the worldly life and deliverance from it' are the people who are standing firmly amidst the Great Vehicle and are of the highest. (Cf. brten-pa(= āśrita). but T. iha. nor those who are in the correct method [for deliverance] like Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. p. 50) prayoga. 2 ff. 4 samatâpti-mārga-pratipannāh). jl|£ 4 T • samsāragata. really even such a conception which maintains substantial Ego as much as Mt. p. H For ' -gata '. and their root is perfectly 42) 43) tad-vimoksamukhe. shugs—pa (to enter). 29 1. offers no help). This is a passage in Kāśyapa-parivarta of the Ratnakūtasūtra. (C. C. C.This is the highest and ideal feature of nirvana in the Mahāyāna doctrine. [Both of them] have proceeded on the fixed way of rightfulness 4 6 ) .'s suggestion. he ( = the Lord) said [in the Scripture] 4 5 ) : " O Kāśyapa. the whole compound. They are not seeking for the Phenomenal Life as the Icchantikas do. 46) samyaktva-niyāma. 634 a). Sumeru is better than the conception of Non-substantiality on the part of those who are proud of it " . thob-pa. it follows for them that Non-substantiality itself becomes a [wrong] conception 44) . 11-13. With reference to these. As by J.

H e r e ' anāvarana ' indicates strictly N i r v a n a . reference is m a d e t o t h e 4 kinds of people a n d t h e i r i m p e d i m e n t s . 66) anāvarana-gāmin (one who goes w i t h o u t a n y obstacle). I preferred C. 3) The notion of Suffering (duhkhasamjñā) [or rather] the fear of Suffering {duljkha-bhlrutva) in Phenomenal Life. T. has it. o m . 84 ' ' ca ' should be inserted before ' ihadhārmikā '.). ^ . B u t T . s?) S. 65) Hereafter. 2-o) ' Those people who seek for deliverance from the worldly life but have no method ' are called (B) the group of people unconformed (aniyatafi s. the Icchantikas and5 4 ) those who. sgrib-pa med-pa rtogs~pa (one who knows t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d thing) and C. i.). & T. 1) the enmity 5 8 ) to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmapratigha). T. 2) The conception of the Self (ātmadarśana) on the separate elements (dharmesu). h a v e i t . ' caturvidha '. 1) those people who cling to this wordly life. This is the Obstruction of the Icchantikas.e. lhag-pahi bsam-pa. Y^£ ^ | ' u * (the intention to attain Nirvana). C. there are four kinds of Obstructions on account of which they cannot understand or realize the Essence of the Tathāgata. have definitely fallen into the former's way are called (A) the group of people who conform in the wrong way (mithyātvaniyatah sattvarāśih). the Heretics. b u t b o t h T . sñañ-ba. and its Antidote is the practice of Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect (prajñāpāramitābh. •JC /J^ -/Hfe |*ip. 69) [ 205 ] . though belonging to this Our Religion. 2-6) ' Those people who seek for deliverance with the correct method ' and 3) ' those who wish neither of both and have entered the path through which [the intuition of] the equality [of the Phenomenal Life with the Nirvana] is attained are called (C) the group of people who conform in the right way {samyaktvaniyatab s. flfjfc j J L (one who seeks for t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d w a y ) . 68 > T. Of these [four groups].e. Cf. reference is made to the relation between the 3 kinds of people above mentioned and the 3 groups of people. 3?J fpj . though it is missing in S. And here 5 3 ) . BGŚ fff C. gñen-po. What are then the four Obstructions ? That is to say. & C. %%. and its Antidote 5 9 ) is the practice of the faith in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā) by the Bodhisattvas. * Hereafter. Of 55) these [groups of living beings]. pratipaksa. the Icchantikas. the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. other people are [fourfold] 57\ i. 62) 63 adhyāśaya.The Ratnagotravibhāga pure as being grounded in the firm Compassion and Superior Intention 52) . This is the Obstruction of the Heretics. C. keeping aside those people who stand firmly in the Great Vehicle and follow the unobstructed way 56>. t r a n s l a t i o n .) by the Bodhisattvas. C.

they become the sons of the Religious King in the Buddha's family.) by the Boddhisattvas 61>. 62) ^f. The same idea is expressed with slight difference in the following Sāstras. p. 4) Aversion to the profit of living beings {sattvārtha-vimukhatā) or Indifference to the profit of living beings (sattvaartha—nirapeksatā). 11: dharmâdhimuktibījāt pāramitāśresthamātrto jātah dhyānamaye sukhagarbhe karunā samvardhikā dhātrî C. XXXI. And having practised the four kinds of Antidotes to these Obstructions. Gaganagañjā 6 0 ) etc. has no corresponding verse. the faith [in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle] etc. At least. •• ^5 And the terms for the 4 causes of purification. JJ=J f£C» 2) śes-rab [-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa]. •ffâ fSftt: ^ = * ^j< ^r. pfjj "p^ \VT J J "Q*. \ IJJC. 73X. This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and its Antidote is the practice of Great Compassion {mahâkarunā-bh. Q Q ~W* ( J3 f\^r 61) 3) hkhor-ba-la sdug-bsñal hjigs-pa. C. =g* «pQ. How are they ? It is said 6 2 ) : 6 °) T. • 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la mos-pa. Jan. adds ' śūrañgama ' /Ht) as a name of samādhi. by the Bodhisattvas. 5 6 6). . These are the four kinds of Obstructions of the four kinds of living beings. And. The following verse is probably a quotation from some canonical work. ^£? ^ ^ (ākāśagarbha). the idea must be borrowed from an old source. the highest truth. & C. i. are as follows: 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la sñañ-ba. Q ~h£> fâffc Jjtftl -nSdu i L . >J. regards it as its own. 9 .e. The terms for the 4 obstructions in T. however. but in the commentary there is a passage saying: Ā ? L # t [ 206 ] (Taisho. the Absolute Body. 3) tiñ-ñe-hdsin. i. each of them..This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and its Antidote is the practice of Meditations (samādhi-bh. p5!? ft* • 2) bdag-tu Ita-ba. C.. T ». 1) MSA IV. 4) sñih-rje chen-po. AX.e. the Bodhisattvas attain the highest purity. y\^ ^ ^ . nam-mkhah-mdsod.). 4) sems-can-gyi don-la mi-ltos-pa. Yf~f ILL. accompanied by these four causes of origination of purity.

with reference to the meaning of i result ' and ' function '. A . should b e understood essence or t r u t h itself. • guna'jinagarbha' i n v . t h e N o n . [These] are its results [of the purification] 67) . āfman. shi thob-pa. bdag. 67) As being i n t h e series of K ā r i k ā s . Whose mother is the transcendental Intellect 63 \ On account of the origination of Buddha's Doctrine. whose subject or viśisya is 86) 68) śama-prāpti. C. r/es[-su] s&yes. longing for and praying for the acquisition of Quiescence 68) . >(0 " H ^ ^ P (together with ' pu«ro ' ) . [ 207 ] . (Kārikā 7) The Supreme Virtues 65) of Purity. i n i t s t u r n . the after-comers 64> of the Buddhas.The Ratnagotravibhāga Those whose seed is the faith in the highest Vehicle. V T Î 5+S ( = nirvana) and om. Cf. and siddhi like dhātrl). C. // 34 // (III) PHALA & (IV) KARMAN Now. there is one śloka. yon-tan pha-rol[-tu] phyin-pa. T .). T . C. ^ ^ = paramâtman. Unity 66>. Whose abiding womb is the blissful meditation And whose nurse is called Mercy. C. They are the sons. āśraya like ^C ffi ¥L • 63) 64) 3) DAŚ v.s u b s t a n t i a l i t y (nairātmya) and individuals. C. Aversion to Suffering. Zl 1fc j h #H Hit Ba » IZQ Jffij jg/fc W -fL 1% (hetu is like pitr. pratyaya garbha. 35 a b h a d b e t t e r pāramitā-phalah ' ( B a h u v r ī h i comp. [Towards this purification] it has the functions. // 35 // 2) BGŚ 798 a: — H #[I 3£ ^ 5 h ~~ l # #H f*f. v . H e r e ' ātman ' in t h e sense of ' dharmakāya ' or ' dharmadhātu ' as t h e universal which r e p r e s e n t s . f in the Prajñāpāramitāsūtra. prāpti. like mātr. Bliss and Eternity. sMMMcUf prajñāpāramitā anujāta. T . of s e p a r a t e elements b e r e a d as ' •. 65) guna-pāramitā. 45. '$>C _ ^ «Çj} f ^ .: is often called ' buddhamātrka ' T . translation of the Ratna.

Being opposite to this notion. it will be easier to catch the meaning. According to the prose commentary. C. though it has no support in T. caturvidha-viparyāsa. ( = rūpâdi-vastuni anitye). 'viparyasta'' used in a bad sense. dharmakāye viparyayah (instead of viparyayāt). ^ § § @J $£ . respectively. 4 the faith ' etc. T. & C. phyin-ci ma log-pa. bzlog-pa. and impure regarding just those separate 69 > Cf. full of sufferings. gñen-po (antidote to poison).. as well as C. 71) pratipaksa. This word does not include the or 'viparyāsa ' is always 70) sense of ' wrong ' or ' mistake '. there should be known 4 the fourfold non-delusion (aviparyāsa) 7 5 ) . -=^? 38v l ī l "^P" ^P• T. is 72) supported by T. etc. 73) The insertion of ' uktāh ' after viśuddhihetu. viparyaya. respectively. these 4 pāramitās should be the antidotes to ' viparyāsa—viparyaya '. Chowdhury. blissful {sukha). i. C. shown as pratipaksa of viparyaya of the 4-fold viparyāsa in dharmakāya. as being correspondent to ' viparyāsa '. T. BGŚ 798 a. AĀS 471 c. l||f| [îi] [<£]. // 36 // Those terms. in short. (T.e. 75) T. " C. of being pure (śubha) regarding the separate things consisting of form and others 7 4 ) wh:ch are really non-eternal. C. Or otherwise. there is a notion of being eternal (nitya). in short. the notion of being non-eternal. C. of substantial Ego (ātman). viz. [f||£ 4T"j 3?J I O VS « viparyāsa. respectively. and pratipaksaprabhāvita. ' Of these [four causes] '. this ' caturvidhaviparyāsa'' should be taken as including two kinds of '4~fold delusion'. Here. C. T. picks up three phrases. [nj j|J£). deceptive). The results of these [4 causes] are. JjQ t**. indicated by T. On the other hand. The context of this verse is not so clear. Such a notion is called 'the fourfold delusion' (viparyāsa). TAKASAKI § 1. of no substantial Ego. full of sufferings. of no substantial Ego and impure. [ 208 ] . The Four Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 6 9 ) . Which four ? That is to say. See below.] represented as the Antidote > 72) To the four kinds of delusion . in brief. reversed). bśad-pahi. C. as C. by the reading ' caturvidha-aviparyāsa '. phyin-ci-log (anything wrong. 71 [The Purity. 74) rūpâdike vastuni. |$j] (lit. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of the change of value 7 0 ) in the Absolute Body. translation shows the following meaning: " These results are. In this sense. ' viparyāsa-viparyaya ' and * gunapāramitā '. T. instead of ' caturvidha-viparyāsa '. the four kinds of Supreme Virtues {gunapāramitā) of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata are to be understood as i the results' on account of their being Antidotes to the opposites of four kinds of delusion. aviparyāsa.J. Now. have been taught 7 3 ) as the causes of purification of the Essence of the Tathāgata.

166. but C. They have a notion of eternity on the non-eternal things. and the Supreme Purity (śubha-p. | ^ £ fjj '.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga things of form. C. C. t 209 ] . thugs-las skyes-pa. .2pC jjyf / j N adrsta-pūrva. MPS. slon-pa-ñid-kyi ye-śes. Being the Antidote of this notion. T . there is established the fourfold Supreme Virtue of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. and have a notion of purity regarding impure things. 80) upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. Even all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. That is to say. And again. etc. Manu Smrti IX. J ^ . Usually when ' pañca-upādānaskandha ' is spoken of. śūnyatā-jñāna. T. if there would be the people who have the notion of Eternity. So C. O Lord. bshuñ. 77) These 4 pāramitās are t a u g h t in SMS. p. 81) C t H @] § J }pi (the reading '/f* ' before ' H ffij ' in the Taisho edition. 78) grantha.)77>. see S. 79 > Ś M S 222 a. the people have a miscomprehension regarding the phenomenal things consisting of five personality aggregates which cling to existence 80 '. T . of substantial Ego regarding non-substantial things. a notion of bliss regarding painful things. raised). and Purity [regarding the Absolute Body]. instead 82> has ' jj=3 |9p īfrj B \ ' (because of their believing in the Buddha's word). And this subject 7 8 ) is to be known in detail according to the Scrip79) ture . O Lord. 5 ^ ^ 3 . the Supreme Bliss (sukha-pāramitā). [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. T h e first appearance of this theory is probably in SMS. Cf. Such a notion is called the fourfold Opposite of delusion (viparyāsaviparyaya) 7 6 ) . 83) aurasa ( < uras) (produced from the heart). zin-pa (finished. T. etc. ~Jr and adds ' ^yt I/P M ^ī^ (produced from the Buddha's mouth). the Supreme Eternity (nityapāramitā). The meaning is ' skandha in the form of individual or phenomenal things and not in the form of each separate element '. About this śūnyatā-jñāna. 76 (a quotation from the same Sūtra). fâ ] £ ffi 3 i ^ '?£ ft ^fe 1 # V£ tfe M* being as the explanation of the word ' aurasa putra'. the Supreme Unity (ātma-p-). T. they would be the legal 8 3 ) 76) should be removed). this sense is implied. AĀS as C. For upātta (Pali upāta). C. also have a miscomprehension in regard to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is the sphere of the Wisdom of Omniscience and has never been seen before 8 1 ) just because of their knowledge of Non-substantiality 82 '. and are peculiar t o t h e garbha theory. etc. Unity. Bliss. jpl. merely ' 'M. But in the last sentence of this quotation. C. O gives the translation: as far as manifesting themselves in an individual. o m . sñar ma mthoñ-ba. this very [notion of non-delusion] is implied as ' delusion ' with reference to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata whose characteristics are eternal.

And again. mentions t h e actual order Q^p* 3>C ~§§ ^ ). slu-ba-daū Idan-pa falsehood). the Tathāgata has attained the highest supremacy. A Ā S 471 c f. And this very thing as has been perceived by the Heretics does 90 not correspond with ' the [real] characteristic of Ego. a d d s 'sarve' after * te'. gff ^ X • For ' ātman' (slu-ba. C. perceive perfectly. Indeed. of t h e Heretics. the Supreme Bliss. 9 1 ) [knowing 92)] non-substantiality of all the phenomena by means 84) T . AĀS 472 a f. T .. 2) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the perception 8 9 ) of unreal Ego by the Heretics who perceive an Ego in the individual things consisting of five personality aggregates. of these four Supreme Virtues of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. regards 'para' as an attribute to ' nairātmya\ [ 210 ] . (/JJ. Concordance between 4 Supreme Virtues and 4 Causes of Purification 8 6 ) . 86 > Cf. 92) So C. O Lord. Cf. C. O Lord.. etc. dgah-ba. uses t h e ^ jilj.). * 88) abhirati. ' para ' in the sense of ' parama '. T. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Purity is the result of ' Practice of the Faith in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle' by the Bodhisattvas. B G Ś 798 b f. hence it is always non-Ego. On the contrary. T. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Unity is the result of 4 practice of supremacy in the transcendental Intellect'. C. C.. C. dam-pahi pha-rol-tu C. }jfi[ -%£ j phyin-pa brñes. O Lord. as the Ego though they are of the unreal nature. bzlog ste. one should know the reversed arrangement 8 7 ) according to the order of causes. 89) term 'jjfljl 90) 91 T . visamvāditva. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is verily the Supreme Eternity.sons of the Buddhas and be of no miscomprehension. mñon-par graha. T . ^ p . those people 8 4 ) who perceive the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata in this way. [verily] they would be of perfect perception. hdsin-pa. all the other Heretics consider the things consisting of form. For what reason ? [Because]. ['L*] ^ r c ? a n d adds ' g § •HX ' (graha). H?IJ Çf^ IK.85>. ^ ' . T. ' para-pārami-prāpta. 1) being opposite to the taking of delight in 8 8 ) the ' impure ' Phenomenal Life by the Icchantikas who have hatred against the Doctrine of Great Vehicle. 0 Lord. § 2. the legal sons of the Buddhas " &c. Here. Those who perceive perfectly are. 85) 87 ) pratiroma-krama. (for t h e whole q u o t a t i o n ) .

S3 (om. And this very non-substantiality 94) has been perceived by the Tathāgata is quite consistent with the a s characteristic of non-ego. it is said that they attained the great body. the Absolute Body (5f| — " VPf î ^ j | .Hence. Here ' attained the great body ' (^Tf y\. he does exist. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called the being (/^). The verse mentioned at the top has a similarity to the verse IX-23 of the [ 211 ] is .The Ratnagotravibhāga 93) of his Wisdom perceiving the truth . as has been said: 44 He stands by application of no standing place" 96) . by taking non-Egoity {nairātmya) in the meaning of Ego. And again. C. T. -*T ) means that the Tathāgata has attained the highest pure Reality. C. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called * non-being ' (TîiÇ). For this reason. adds a verse with commentary thereon. At the same time. And furthermore. while the latter is the Buddha that has attained the ' mighty Ego '. Because [all phenomena are] of non-substantial nature (?!»Ç T?C ^TH)' °f tne nature of non-being (Tkfç V2* T0)* Hence he cannot be called ' the being '. Because. C. Therefore the Buddhas *s are said to have attained the pure controllingfpower] ('frf Vñ Î^F @ 'TE)* ^ n sense the Buddhas could be the highest powerful Ego (5fy * ^]^^ 0 /ffc TA. The Buddhas obtained the pure body. 96 ) C. > yathābhūta-jñāna. as his feature.) ". 3(0 jH. this quotation whose source is unknown. It runs as follows: Having attained the highest Non-substantiality. and adds the explanation of ' nairātmyam eva ' (ts|J 7»ÎÇ T?C) and ' ātmâbhipreta ' ( ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ J ^ > 0 ' saying that the former is in the sense of the absence of the Heretical ātman. when Heretics asked the Buddha whether the Tathāgata would have body (fâ Jf" 1 $ ) after death or not ( ^ J^f* jf|$). Therefore. om.. he did neither explain (A* ff2) nor reply {/V* ^ . > ātmâbhipreta. he himself is absent (flW ^ C ^ ^U 7 £ 38£ W^). sY* fm>. _ 94) avisamvāditva. yañ-dag-pa ji-lta-ba-bshin-kyi instrumental case-ending). we cannot say there is no Absolute Body. as his nature. with reference to the same meaning. As the pure and real emptiness.KU V £ which is the real nature ( gÇ •PC) °f ^11 the Buddhas. C. Having attained the self-controltn g ot the pure body (Vpf î ^ * ^ " ) . hence there is always the implication of Ego 95) (ātman) . etc. KN 38Ç ^ C -%3 y«nf ^rl ^ C a n ^ seems to omit ' nairātmyam eva ātmani krtvā'. with reference to this meaning. ling body ( y /ffc 1S)> ne ^). Only because his body is the Reality itself (J^X PfE ^ 1 I K jl|« KU ^ C WEL). 3 C » 7 r DUt PR] • 95 93 ye-śes.) in the Immaculate Sphere. with reference to this ' supreme Ego '. Because.

Also. /JjX. fffi 13Ī <J5Σ. p. " ' asamsarga. C. it along with ' abhirati ' and instead has ' b h î r u ' (fear). na bhavatîty evam ādir avyākrtanayo matah // (MSA p. om. however. it was probably not in the original text. but without commentary and regarding it as a ' sūtragāthā ' As for the prose commentary. S. T. (paramasukhapāramitā). it should be understood that the Bodhisattvas' practice of Great Compassion has the acquisition of the Supreme Eternity as its result.g. text has a lacuna of this passage.3) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the cessation 9 7 ) of Sufferings of the Phenomenal Life alone by those who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka and who have fear of the sufferings of Phenomenal Life. is the acquisition of the Supreme Bliss 9 8 ) concerned with all matters. which runs as follows: " śūnyatāyām viśuddhāyām nairātmyān mārgalābhatah / buddhāh śuddhâtmalābhitvād gatā ātmamahātmatām // ". etc. add parama. we can find a similar passage of the prose commentary mentioned above in the following passage of the Sūtrâlañkāra along with the next verse (IX-24) and the commentary thereon. it should be understood that the result of the practice o" various kinds of meditation. Most probably the verse kept in C. but we have no definite proof for saying this. 71) and the present Skt. 37-38). mundane and supermundane. upaśama. 98 ' T.). which has parallel passages with the Ratna. T. [ 212 ] . because practising [for the sake of others] Sūtrâlañkāra. throughout the text. 4) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the isolated 9 9 ) abode by those who belong to the Vehicle of Pratyekabuddha and who are indifferent to the benefits of living beings. One strong reason for this supposition is that BGŚ. and C. also mentions this verse in the equivalent passage. ñe-bar shi-ba. It runs as follows: " tatra cânāsrave dhātau buddhānām paramâtmā nirdiśyate / him kāranam ? / agranairātmyâtmakatvāt / agram nairātmyam viśuddhā tathatā sā ca buddhānām ātmā svabhâvârthena tasyām viśuddhāyām agram nairātmyam ātmānam buddhā lābhante śuddham / atah śuddha-ātmalābhitvād buddhā ātmamahātmyam prāptā iti paramâtmā vyavasthāpyate I j na bhāvo nâpi câbhāvo buddhatvam tena kathyate / tasmād buddha tathāpraśne avyākrtanayo matah // tenaîva kāranena buddhatvam na bhāva ucyate j pudgaladharmâbhāvalaksanatvāt tādātmakatvāc ca buddhatvasya / nâbhāva ucyate tathatālaksanam bhāvāt j ato buddhatvasya bhāvâbhāvapraśne bhavati tathāgatah param maranān. # M 3fe B & S # W (|^ osamsargavihārâbhirati). is a quotation from the MSA by the commentator from the same source he quoted in other passages (e. C. RET ^ or 97) % »). named Gaganagañjā. hdu-hdsi med-pa (samsarga means ' company '). saying: Zl ^ E « ^ tŚic$H$C© (798.

hence ' yoñs-su sbyor-ba ' might be the translation of ' paligodha ' . C 3 £ H i >ft =il • On this passage.' (in one compound). yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba (D) (pariśodha. without interruption. through the practice of phaligodha in the text. p. he reaches up to the limit of the space and he lasts as long as the utmost limit [of the 102) world] . C. ^ jtfc 0 f|§ — " g j %\\ ^ ®H^7]t3cffi. their attachment to the benefits for living beings is perfectly pure. the Tathāgata. The reading ' sarvatra parama. we should record this form as a varia lectio. AÂS 472 a: tV-XâL^ 103) R i£. 545&. namely. Pali paligedha). Unity. Indeed. reaching u p t o t h e l i m i t ) . sbyoñ. the Tathāgata is the highest Absolute Essence. nam-mkhah Itar) is relating t o nisthâgamana. but most probbably it is a wrong reading. For this meaning we have a word ' paligodha ' (BHS Die. These are used there as modifiers of 'pranidhāna' of Bodhisattvas. just as the l04) sky [reaches up to the limit of the world] and. 14). Daśabhūmikasūtra (ed. r e n d e r s t h i s passage as follows: T h e T a t h ā g a t a completes t h e sky-like dharmakāya through [the 104) realization of] t h e absolute ( ^ L _^L nistha) n o n . hence he has become the highest Absolute Essence. Cf. B Ś 7 8 : G 9c « m ft 5f ^ * * *ś nisthâgamana (lit. 4 kinds of Supreme Virtues named Purity.) T. Thus. [the Tathāgata] has realized perfectly the non-substantiality of living beings and of the material world. As for the form ' phaligodha ' instead of paligodha.S u b s t a n t i a l i t y of bhājana-loka ( o m .The Rat na g o t r a v i b h ā g a 100) as long as the world exists. s. by J. [ 213 ] . l01) And because of these four [Supreme Virtues in the Absolute Body] it is said. the Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect. cf.' is to be corrected into lsarvatra-parama. ākāśopama ( T . T. the Meditations and the Great Compassion. T .). etc. through the practice of faith in the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. 101) 102) 100) Cf. sattva). v. (' pali ' is a rather common transformation of the prefix ' pari ' in Middle Indie. B. the meaning ' attachment ' or ' clinging to ' seems better. Cf. Rahder. Bliss and Eternity are brought about on the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata as the result of Bodhisattvas' 4 kinds of practices. respectively. B Jit m H — V) in * T tt^^ft^JI (therefore it is taught by the Buddha). AÂS 472 a. those of Faith [in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle]. Through the practice of the supremacy in 103) the transcendental Intellect. but from the context. shows a sense similar to ' pariśuddha '. " dharmadhātu-vipulam ākāśadhātu-paryavasānam aparântakotinistham " % i£ s. has attained the highest state of the Absolute Essence which is the ultimate purity. same as Ms. we get this meaning.) and if we change a letter ' ñ ' into ' r' in T. BGŚ 798 c. mthar~thug-pa-ñid-tu rtogs-pa.

110) aāsravadhātu. (Cf. dbah-thob-pahi byañ-chub-sems-dpah. 18. 107 > f. C. |*Jp. t h e Rāstrapālapariprcchā. I n B U S . los) prama-dharmaiśvarya. B G Ś 799 a. show i t b y a b l a t i v e case-ending only. C. That is to say. & C. Therefo3. 2) 4 phenomenon of cause' (hetuf laksana)3) 'phenomenon of origination (sambhava-laksana). 109) zśitāprāpta-bodhisattva. chos-kyi dbañ-phyug dam-pa. Ā: 4) # & ^ j . 1 fF. it is said he lasts as long as the utmost imit [of the world]. 3) hbyuñ- bahi mtsha-ñid. p . with reference to 1 0 6 ) this point. 1. for the acquisition of these four kinds of Supreme Virtues of the absolute Body of the Tathāgata. y ^ ~J\ pj* ^ 1 • t is not necessary to limit this qualification to those Bodhisattvas who abide on the 10th lūmi as mentioned in the Tibetan commentary. r e n d e r i n g of t h i s passage isas * sarvatra sarvadharmesu aiśvarya-prāptatvāt \ 108) pādāya. T . i$fc 7^. [ A | 4*0. 2 ) 4 H i . a r e as follows: 1) kyen-gyi mtshan-ñid. Am now. Cf. 4 inpediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 1 0 7 ) . Lañkāvatāra. C. AĀS 472 b. T . he reaches up to the limit of spaci [And lastly]. 274. Because of these two acquisitions. through the practice of the Great Compassion. i t is m o s t l y concerning t h e obstacles or i m p e d i m e n t s i n B o d h i s j t v a s for a t t a i n i n g bodhi. 1. 2) rgyuhi mtshan-ñid. We can regard this ' vaśitāprāpta ' asan epithet for Bodhisattwas in general. 1 U ) C t h e s e 4 t e r m s . 3 ) f * . 108) ^ gegs. TAKASAKI various kinds of meditations named Gaganagañjā. T . 21: sarvabodhisattvahūmisu vaśitāprāptah). Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisatvas who have obtained [10] Controlling Powers 109) . 1) ' Phenomenon of condi on' means the Dwelling-place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmi) 1 1 2 ) . ^j£ ^ g . 1) 4 phenomenon < condition' (pratyayar-laksana). p. ma-rig-pahi bag-chags-kyi sa (avidyā-vāsanā— [ 214 ] .. 2) m B 4 5E. he has perfectly perceivd the omnipresence 1 0 5 ) of the power of the highest truth everywhere. A S l ) 4 ! l l . 3) :# ^f £ 5E.J. 4) $£ C 5{{Ç W/j pE «Ha b u t T. [he has mercy towards all living beings beyond the limitation of time. etc. 4) hjig-pahi mtshan-ñid. j ^ j | | 7^ * * 9i (ffl U 1& B). I t is e q u i v a l e n t t o ' lokottara ' a n d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t is ' sāsrava ' equivalentto ' laukika '. Eś: i) ^ in 4 5E. there are four Impediments (paripatha) 1 0 8 ) even in case of the Arhats. . T h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n anāsrava a n d sāsrava will be seen i n t h e following assage. Here. and 4) 'phenomenon of destruction ' (vibhava-laksana)1U). U2) «. & C. § 3. though they are abidng in the Immaculate Sphere 1 1 0 ) .

while * avidyāvāsabhūmi * (T. Zl. B reading. to SMS (220 a). it is said. 2) 'Phenomenon of cause' means the Immaculate Action (anāsravam karma)ll3) conditioned by the Dwelling-place of Ignorance [as the cause of the Body made of mind]. JZy ^ ī | [ >HX . As for the meaning of * vāsabūmi*. C. therefore. v. of which avidyā—vāsabhūmi is the basic and the strongest. 17-19).. t-L i3< t E -^a» T. 3) 4 Phenomenon of origination ' means the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind (manomayâtmabhāva. Furthermore. T . translation of the Ratna. . H e r e ' upādāna' is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h The four upādānas are usually. it is the strongest..or paryutthāna-kleśa) come out. C. is compared to samskāras in the sense that karman is the cause of the next birth.) 1 1 5 ) . C. hdod-pahi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . lls) T. T .. seems to regard * samskāra ' of avidyā-vāsabhūmi as something different from * anāsravakarman '. yid-kyi rañ-bshin-kyi lus. I 215 ] . The other four are 1) C. 33. says ' hetulaksana ' means ' avidyāvāsabhūmi-pratyayā samskārāh '. See S. there are said to be five vāsa—bhūmis.). = kleśa.)t and are said to be the basic Mesas from which all the defilements in the form of intense outburst (paryavasthāna. to perfume). p. just as * vijñāna ' is produced from ' samskāra '. 1) kāma. conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance and caused by the Immaculate Action. this kîeśa is said to be that of Arhats.The Ratnagotravibhāga [It is the condition of birth of the Body made of mind for the Saints] just as Ignorance (avidyā) is [the condition] of Predispositions (samskārāh) [for ordinary people]. >^J ^5^ pE J l H . 1. 117) 118) T. and T. T. In this sense avidyāvāsabhūmi is here related to the defilement existing in Bodhisattvas (in another passage in the Ratna. The second interpretation is also shown in this Ratna. ^ p . ñe-bar len-pa bshi. which agrees with Ms. just as the origination 116) of the Three-Worlds (tribhava)n7) is conditioned by 4 kinds of Graspings (upādāna)118) and caused by the Passioned Actions bhūmi). . these four are ' ksanika '. n. p. C. zag-pa med-pahi las. the other is shown in T. gzugs-kyi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . J^jf. But it may not be the case here. I.. 67. 2) C. 'ij/C 2sc 1l£ J u l . 115) ( _ manomaya-kāya). srid-pa gsum. there are traditionally two ways of interpretation: one is shown in C.). 2) drsti. 3) śīlavrata and 4) ātmavāda. ma—rig—pahi gnas—kyi sa) is ' anādikālikā ' and cannot be destroyed except by ' bodhijñāna ' of the Tathāgata. . The body of the saints is said to be consisting merely of ' mano-skandha '. m * C. T. [and it is to be] compared with the Predispositions [of ordinary people] 1 1 4 ) . * ~LJJ J^a tEE -HHI » T. instead of 5 upādānaskandhas as in the case of ordinary beings. C. 3) C. has confusion in interpreting this passage. £ £ :£§•. (*rūparāgasthita-v. . mñon-par grub-pa. or from vas. 116) abhinirvrtti. 6. 130 where the term ' vāsanā * is used for indicating ' avidyāvāsabhūmi '. C. T. 7 T ( = tridhātu). Jrçj. Ita-ba gcig-la gnas-pahi gnas-kyi sa (*ekadrstisthita-vāsabhūmi). and 4) C. srid-pahi hdod-chags-la gnas-pahi. there is conditioned * anāsravakarman '. Here anāsravakarman. It relates more or less to the etymology of the term vāsanā (from V r o s » to dwell. translation of SMS. (*kāmarāgasthita-v. C. see S. Ace. and from this samskāra. of which the exact counterpart is sāsravakarman. ^JÎÇ î^|j ^ ^ . (*bhavarāgasthita-v.

J^x. About avidyā-vāsa- bhūmi being the ground of all upakleśas. gives no translation of daurgandhya and has instead ' avidyāvāsabhūmigata-mala '. apakarsa-paryanta (lit. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained (10) Controlling Powers. Cf. ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa. C. AH TPî r>V (ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa gañ-gāhi kluñ-gi byema-las hdas-pa sñed-kyi rten-du gyur-pa). upa). . have not extirpated the Dwelling-place of Ignorance which is the ground of all the subsequent Defilements121). as an attribute to ātmapāramitā. and C. T. 127) [ 216 ] . mi-khyab—par yoñs—su bsgyur—pahi hchi-hpho—ba. rgyun-chad-pahi hchi-hpho (death as the interruption of flowing). 122) . C. And. 121) upakleśa. T. takes it probably as an attribute to anabhisamskāra. C. . a t J ' s suggestion. T h e reading anabhisamskāram is. apakarsâparyantatvāt ' (7JC -fTf TjC KJ$Q instead of ' yogāt \ sūksmanimitta-prapañca. Both T. . on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance and Immaculate Action caused by the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance. the Arhats. T. dañ Idan—pahî phyir '. zag-pa dan bcas-pahi las. C. but connects drir-ba with mala. seems peculiar to SMS). 124) 125) C. C. see SMS 220 a: j \ • • • EH. reads as ' . hdus ma-byas-pa. Now. 126) C. they cannot attain ultimately 1 2 6 ) the Supreme Unity which is characterized as no accumulation of Active Force 1 2 7 ) . & C. T . y]C \īf jM. and because of their being accompanied with 1 2 4 ) the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view 125) . TAKASAKI (sāsravakarman)119). drir—bahi bag—chags. . J) . . But the reading is not clear. And. T./yH *|^ (om. ) . take ' paryanta ' as ' atyanta ' and attach it to śubhapāramitā as an attribute. POFE • • • (apakarsâparyantatvāt). there is [still] the arising of the Mind-made aggregate 1191 12 T. ending with the removal of • . ^ W /f^ ^|)£ pflg . . . About apakarsa. •^Y* f j j™> g ^ | ^ ^ •zh y^U (cyuti means literally ' fall '). ^ U » T. 123 ' daurgandhya—vāsanā. ^J* $ | Jf|. hence they cannot attain the Supreme Purity as the end of removal 122) of all the dusts of defilements with their bad-smelling impressions123). SMS 219 c (this term. 4) ' Phenomenon of destruction ' means Death as the inconceivable Transformation {acintyā pārināmikī cyuti) 1 2 0 ) conditioned by the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind. It corresponds to the Decrepitude and Death (jarāmarana) conditioned by the Birth (jāti) [in the Three-Worlds]. . 5{îÇ yñ?& • C. on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance. See above (Note VIII-113)- °) T.J. The counterpart of this death in the case of ordinary beings is called C. takes this as a n a t t r i b u t e to all t h e 4 pāramitās along w i t h atyanta. reads instead ' bag-chags . C. anabhisamskāra. r^y T-f itX _ £ . t o b e corrected into anabhisamskārām.

The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (rnanomaya-shandha)128). duhkha is mentioned (C. C. 3^S. [Thus] O Lord. but C. being conditioned by the dwellingplace of ignorance and caused by the immaculate actions. regards it as an apposition to anāsravakarman. ff£* . 134 » tisrsu bhūmisu. Consequently. the Dwelling-place of Ignorance is purity of Defilements [in the case of ordinary of Immaculate Action corresponds to the the 3-fold origination of the Body made Inconceivable Transformation corresponds nation1 3 2 ) . . The performance 1 3 1 ) Impurity of Actions. Pratyekabuddhas Bodhisattvas. 129) C.. in these 3 Bodies made of mind of the Arhats. Bliss i2s) f>t yid-kyi rañ-bshin-gyi phuñ-po. atyanta). Actions and Originations. for janman. T. And [lastly]. C. . there are produced the three spheres of existence. (om. 131) 132 ^ samkleśa (T. has instead ' dharmakāya \ 13 and See above (Note VIII-115). \^ • . to be compared with the Impeople]. om. connects atyanta to nityapāramitā. r i * for the three). Here. just as. kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa. karman and janman are included. gshan—du gyur—pa med—pa. there are no Supreme Virtues of Purity. [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. they cannot attain the absolutely unchangeable 1 3 0 ) Supreme Eternity. 133 > ŚMS 220 a. Unity. likewise. for the birth of the 3-fold Body made of mind in these 3 lands 1 3 4 ) and for the origination of the immaculate actions the dwelling-place of Ignorance is the [inevitable] condition. [jfcfc] J H ^ [ 217 ] ^ (the lands of the 3 vehicles). Sometimes.^f jjjg . °) atyantânanyathābhāvu. T.Pv H a • G. C. they cannot attain the ultimate Supreme Bliss as the extinction of this Spiritual Aggregate. also. '/l>* 2 ^ abhisarnskāra. being conditioned by [4] graspings and caused by passionate actions. they cannot remove Death as the Inconceivable Transformation. Therefore. &c". it is replaced by ' vipāka ' or iskandhadhātv-āyatana \ In all cases what is meant by them is the same Phenomenal Life. ^ < ) is a general term for all the process of samsāra in which kleśa. [And] of mind and Death as the to the Impurity of Origi- And this passage is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture 1 3 3 ) . Thus. O Lord. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained the [10] Controlling Powers. T. unless they realize the Essence 129> of the Tathāgata as being arisen from the entire extinction of all impurities in forms of Defilements. there are born the 3 kinds of body made of mind of the Arhats.. C.

140) usual. 139 > prativedha. 4) } § 3 C I B (trouble by fault or death). § 4. C. ffj£. too. namely: 1) %g| '(pśl Ifi î 2) S I SB. TAKASAKI and Eternity. AĀS 472 b. the Supreme Bliss. The Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 136) Verily 137) . removal of pollution is not innate to living beings. treats these two verses in prose and regards them as the commentary on the quotation above mentioned. ātma-. T . the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity " . it is peculiar to the Buddha and shows the superiority (jffi) of the Buddha. G. | A | * R & Jj/T .J. 3) & īft. J|_ âfc ] g # ] # 1g M flf)136) Cf. C. and 2) because of the removal of false imagination concerning non-substantiality by rejecting »»> ŚMS 222 a (C. as Here ' sāmānya ' means common to all living beings. as the common feature. On the other hand. He is the highest Unity because he is quiescent. it is said1 3 5 ) : " Only the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is the Supreme Eternity. That is to say. // 37 // He is blissful because the Mind-made Aggregate And its causes have been removed [completely]. The Supreme Unity. pjfl. He is eternal because he has realized 1 3 9 ) The equality of the Phenomenal Life and Nirvana. o m . Therefore. it is the cause (|S|) for the attainment of the highest purity. Having destroyed 1 3 8 ) the dualistic view of Ego and non-Ego. 138) 137) ksaya. Both of them have one passage preceding to it. Therefore.T R » r e s p e c t i v e l y . sāmānyalaksana & viśesalaksana. and 2) through his being perfectly pure by the removal of pollution. . o m . therefore. BGŚ 799 b. C. T . the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is pure Because of his innate purity and removal of Impressions. T . f § . by two reasons there should be known the Supreme Purity in the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. // 38 // In short. as the special feature [to the Buddha] 1 4 0 ) . should be understood by two reasons : 1) because of the removal of false imagination of Ego by rejecting the extremity peculiar to the Heretics. and the Buddha got his appellation because of his attainment of this purity. on the 4 troubles (ff]£) corresponding to the respective impediments. [ 218 ] . ( h a v i n g r e m o v e d ) . rtogs(-pa). Ā C. 1) through his being perfectly pure by nature.

(But the meaning is the same) Of these two columns. [ 219 3 . The Supreme Bliss is to be known likewise by two reasons: 1) because of the abandonment of the origination 141) of o f all suflferings as well as the extirpation of succeeding origination Impressions. § 4' (The Unstable Nirvana). Hence the reading should be nirvānâsamāropana-). and 2) because of the realization of all sufferings as well as the realization of extinction of the Mind-made Aggregates142). C f£C \ 4 • For this passage. And it would never be the True Perception at all " . have kāya instead of skandha. though it has some confusion on the way. BGS 799 C nayamukha. which means ' t o impose' and is close to samāropa (T. this view would be a Nihilistic Perception1 4 6 ) .T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a the extremity peculiar to the Śrāvakas. T. T. snon-pa) in its sense. It would never be the true perception at all. For apakarsana. & C. therefore. mtshams-sbyor-ba. this view would be an Eternalistic Perception 147 '. it would be better to consider the annihilation of duhkha and that of vāsanā as ' two reasons '. 143) ^ in) anapakarsana & asamāropana. C. the reading in C. C. its cause. being indiscriminative of both [the Phenomenal Life and anusandhi. C. there is no duhkha in the ultimate sense. by this introduction to the theory 1 4 8 ) of the Absolute Essence. [And finally] by two reasons the Supreme Eternity is to be known: 1) Because he does not fall into the Nihilistic Extremity through his not diminishing143'. O Lord. it is said from the highest view-point that the Phenomenal Life itself is Nirvana. tshul-gyi sgo. Therefore. shows this way of interpretation. because [the Bodhisattvas] realize the Unstable Nirvana (apratisîhitanirvāna). 141) 146) fa 147) ucchedadrsti 148) & śāśvatadrsti. i. O Lord. om. neglecting the non-eternal Phenomenal Life. It is said as follows 1 4 5 ) : " If someone would perceive that all the Phenomenal Worlds are non-eternal. 2) nor does he fall into the Eternalistic Extremity through his not intensifying 1 4 4 ) the eternal Nirvana. (a negative particle is required before samāropa. If someone would perceive that the Nirvana is eternal.e. to annihilate duhkha means to realize that duhkha is extinguished by nature. and similarly ' duhkha ' signifies that of ordinary people. respectively. cf. has hbrid-pa. 145 > ŚMS 220 a. BGŚ ' / | > % 3 j | *$% & 3S§ ^W ^Si > resp. 1) shows an actual ' annihilation ' and 2). From the context. T. In other words. ^V* $s|ç & sv* -tjA» respectively. This ' vāsanā-anusandhi ' corresponds to manomayakāya of the Saints. seems better. Logically. 142) Both T.

(One who has non-discriminative [Wisdom] distinguishes neither Phenomenal Life nor Nirvana. hence. he is not remote from them since he never abandons them owing to his Great Compassion. owing to his Great Compassion. the foundation of the Highest Enlightenment. This verse has a similarity to some extent with v. he does not abide in the Nirvana. This is the means for the acquisition of the Supreme Enlightenment of which the Unstability is the essential nature. they are neither entirely involved among all living beings nor remote from them 1 5 0 ) . completely. These facts seem to show that the original text was as C. C. Then. TAKASAK. It signifies śrāvakayānika & pratyekabuddhayānika.e. in whom the mind of Compassion towards living beings is lacking. in this world. as do those who seek only for Quiescence (śamaikayānagotra)153).I Nirvana] 1 4 9 ) . 39. 150) āsanna-dūrl-bhāva. Here. S. for the sake of others. for two reasons. aparinirvānagotra and śamaîkayānagotra.J. By means of the Intellect. The term pada signifies actually nirvana. 153) T. he does not stay in the Phenomenal Life as the lineage of no Nirvana (aparinirvānagotra). but it is difficult to identify both verses. Bodhisattvas may be termed as ' parinirvānagotraka '. hence. 154) This verse seems to be a quotation even if the preceding prose commentary is genuine. and perceives the equality of both Nirvana and Phenomenal Life). [ 220 ] . for which two reasons ? Here. having activity 1 5 2 ) in this Phenomenal Life. the explanation will be made merely about how to attain this Unstable stability 1 5 1 ) . 39. Being opposed to either of them. 39 in its contents. this apratisthitanirvāna. [At the same time]. Moreover. Thus these two qualities (i. T. shi-ba bgrod-pa gcig-pahi rigs. [So it is said] 1 5 4 > : [Though] Having destroyed affection for himself By means of the Intellect. the following sentences along with v. near and remote state. in the ultimate point. i. being deeply intent towards the Nirvana for his own sake. he never abandons those suffering people. But C. the Bodhisattva is not entirely involved among all living beings because he has completely rejected all tendencies of desires by means of the Transcendental Intellect. have no further explanation. and parinirvāna is. Lit. indeed.e. therefore. C. m ' apratislhita—pada. T. the Bodhisattva has exterminated without remainder the tendency of desire. the Intellect and Great Compassion) are the root. 152 ' prayoga. 149 » ubhayathā'vikalpana. sbyor—ba. [At the same time]. puts one verse which explains this point: & T. om. j J t jfcfc Z l ffi A^ 'ft fy\ tfc • Of this point. (but the verse is a quotation) and that later on that verse was replaced by the following passage along with v. mi—gnas-pahi gnas.

(T. mam-par dag-pahi rigs. (Cf. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. brten—nas. 156) samvrti (covered) and nirvrti (dis-covered) in the text. T. // 40 // So it is said 44 159) : O Lord. f)b I P .This is an apposition to buddhadhātu. <\* _/£. C. C. 6. The Saint approaches neither this world nor Nirvana 1 5 6 ) . karman).e. Yñ î^F I n | 2 | (viśuddhi-hetu). 158) sacet (BHS). BGŚ 799 c-800 c (4. with reference to the subject of ' function' which is previously maintained (in verse 35). There will be no aversion to Suffering. p. i. // 39 // K 5. nihsyanda for nisyanda). ñe-bar gnas-par byed-de (upasthita). BGS. Nor prayer for Nirvana. That is to say.) ' aniyata-' seems to be the original reading. C. T. even of those people who are fixed in the wrong way 1 6 1 ) has the two kinds 162) of foundation of its actions. The form nih—śri is etymologically a wrong reading for ni-śri and probably caused by actual pronunciation. Here. Thus standing on 1 5 5 ) both the Intellect and Mercy. Now. 162) cause [ 221 ] . insertion of Visarga after ni. ^ffc . does not approach Quiescence because of his affection for the people.' the Icchantikas are implied and this passage does not refer to the Icchantikas. These two means of Enlightenment. Nor will there be desire nor earnest wish. See Note VIII-211. lei) F o r mithyātvaniyata-. since by the term ' mithyātvaniyata~ s. (e. pratyupasthāna. See S. T.• • ( t o to work). 1. in brief. 167) Cf. 160) viśuddhigotra. T. the Essence of the Buddha. it produces disgust * nihśritya. The Functions of the Germ for its Purification (IV) 1 5 7 ) . (aniyata-sattvarāśi) and BGS agree with C. Pali sace. as S. as samsāra and nirvana.g. being full of Mercy.. 159 155 > ŚMS 222 6. then there would arise neither aversion to Suffering nor desire for Nirvana. Ypf }^r* ifE).before double consonant bearing a sibilant at the head. what is shown by the latter half of that śloka ? jf 158) there is no Essence of the Buddha. 9. nor earnest wish for it or ptfayer for it ".The Ratnagotravibhāga The Saint. the perfectly pure Germ 1 6 0 ) .

. ) . BGS. o m . C.J. /[* | 2 ^ î p § . But T. phyogs-pa (abhimukha. For prârthanā. The rendering from T. tshol-ba. E3 *VPV ( kuśalamūla). earnest wish and prayer for the Nirvana. C. de-la hdun-pa ni mñon-par hhod-paho. Cf. C. t o T . hence it is the fault. b r i g h t l o t . and that Nirvana is blissful. śuklâmśa. parimārganā is a unique form in B H S for Skt. jjf R ^ (mukti). j g 5JC & j j | j fnj . ^5t WFC f° r sukhânuśamsa. ' Prayer' (pranidhi) means ' will ' (cetanā) or 4 manifestation (abhisamskāra) of the mind ' 1 6 8 . Indeed. lvi) >phe r e a d i n g should b e corrected i n t o * pāpâsamuccheddayogena samucchedayogena (ace. Here anuśamsa stands for guna in the following verse and corresponds to dosa in case of samsāra. "jj/Ç *\jf.. 168) 169) cetanā cittâbhisamskāra. P a l i sukkâmsa. dkar-po [hi] cha / (so J ' s fn. — The former is full of Suffering. C. is as follows: tatra cchando * bhilāsah 166) T . // 41 // The perception that Phenomenal Life is full of suffering. TAKASAKI witn Phenomenal Life basing itself upon 1 6 3 ) the perception of the fault of Suffering. basing itself upon the perception that happiness is the merit 1 6 4 ) .jjjg f|* ft (punya). i t . — this perception belongs to those people who are possessed of good virtues 1 6 9 ) and exists only in case the Germ [of the Tathāgata] exists. * longing ' (chanda) means * expectation ' (abhilāsa)165>. T . T. it would exist even with 163) 164) nihśrayena. without causes and conditions and were not brought about through the extirpation of sinm > . i«5) This sentence is lacking in S. hence it is the merit. . The context shows its necessity. f l v . Here. if it were without Germ 1 7 0 ) . and it calls forth longing. anuśamsa. The latter is of bliss. = C. C.). together with an explanation of this Cf. ' from pāpa- [ 222 ] . parimārgana. (śukladharma). om. don-du gñer-ba (to provide for. term (3 amśas. i S 3t§ fr (adhigama)). b u t D. desire. C. ' Earnest Wish ' (prârthanā) means ' searching for ' (parimārganā)167) the means to attain the intended object. has a similar sentence. f o r t u n e . T . t o strive t o pro167) cure). C. 170) gotram antarena. T . ^ p " JJ (as S. going ahead). therefore it is the merit. T. phan-yon. * Desire ' (icchā) means 4 unco war dliness ' (asamkoca)166) for the attainment of the intended object. cetanā. hence is the fault. Thus this perception does not take place without causes or without conditions. dkar-pohi chos. It exists only in case the Germ of the Buddha exists. & C. {\j^ ^jj* ^ y / f T » b u t T . And does not exist with people of no Germ. The perception of Phenomenal Life and Nirvana.

2) j g ^pp TCP |fj£. BGŚ 787 c-788 c ( $ J 2^L 5}" W> H tf* #JÎE '}* =31 î f t p p W> —')» de—hi hog—tu .. T . . but most probably for catuhśukladharma).). adds jñāna after tathāgata. ^<j£ JS\ =P Hfc TlE H*-i T ' ī=î (tasmād uktam Avatamsaka-gotrotpattau j tatah paścād . ' j ^ £ | (to practise). C. which are. They are the 4 wheels of the great vehicle. ^ t (C. according to O. . 178) Tjjg reading ' yatra hy āha / tatra paścād' is somewhat doubtful. 3) mi-dge-bahi chos skyes-pa spoñ-ba. According to C. T. B u t a sentence closer to this q u o t a t i o n is found i n J A Ā . ' stands for > samavadhāna. There is. translation. ' anyatamadharma). however. and 4) sublime vows and correct appreciation. yañ-dag-par hbyor-ba.•£?. 173 * ^ J . but C. 1) the reliance upon a saintly personage. 242 c. Really. 175) It ha^s an explana- T. 4) fff 7^ ^ y r&i. another fourfold group in Tibetan under the name of ' catuhśukladharma (dkar—pohi chos bshi) ' or ' caturākaraśukla (dkar—po mam bshi) ' (they are namely: 1) dge-bahi chos ma skyes-pa bskyed-pa. 177) Avat S. it is called ' JiiJ ā p fjj ' (catuskuśaladharma.. according to C. [ 223 ] . 3) to contemplate the meaning of the doctrine. -îjjj. gañ-gi phyir. shes gsuñs—so ' (yata āha I tatah paścād . The latter fourfold group seems not relevant to this passage.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Icchantikas who are of the lineage of no Nirvana. which are 1) # 0 *?£ ft US ~T. and 4) mi-dgebahi chos ma—skyes—pa rnams mi—bskyed—pa. tion of the term ' cakra '. as laymen. and 4) to practise according to the teaching. Cf. catuhśukla. to produce good quality which has not been produced. 3) |=} Spo) 1/Ç . and its four items are 1) to approach the personage of high virtue. 179j T. skyes-bu dam-pa. and C. (The saying: the Icchantikas are of no Nirvana. 3) a favourable dwelling-place. it cannot take place unless they bring about the Germ which is purified from accidental pollutions and the faith in any one of three Vehicles 1 7 2 ) through being endowed with 1 7 3 ) the 4 kinds of good actions 1 7 4 ) . satpurusa. T. 2) the accumulation of virtue. .^»P H f e ' which includes monks as well where discussion is held around t h e existence of ' buddhagotra ' a m o n g various schools of B u d d h i s m . to avoid the bad quality already produced. C. 3 2 : Tathāgatotpattisambhava-parivarta). chos. : "•> Cf. 616 b (in Chap. hkhor-lo bshi (catuścakra).). to prevent the generation of bad quality which has not yet appeared). ) . 2) skyes-pa mi-ñams-pa. T . . to retain what is produced. BGŚ (Z9 i f } 1= fflg (catur[ārya]cakra as T. The third and perhaps the most suitable one is found in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 174) of Mahāyāna. . beginning with having contact with a personage of high virtue 1 7 5 ) . 2) to attend and accept the teaching. (as O's note). is only conventional) 176) It is however said [in the Scripture] 1 7 7 ) : " After this 1 7 8 ) the rays of the disk of the sun-like Tathāgata179> 172 > dharma is here used for yāna.

this being the cause of their being Icchantikas and refers to a certain period of time 1 8 3 ) . This sentence a n d t h e following verse are missing in C. jiv VRÇ ER mf . 180) Ace. 188) dhruvadharma. ^j< ^H ^*'J iSfc • iZ^ 182 (śukladhamra). de- dag-la phan hdogs-par hgyur shin. C. T. o m . / (T. Indeed. they cause them to thrive with virtuous qualities 1 8 1 ) . See Note VIII-242. tha-ma dan Idan-pa. C. the Lord has said again 1 8 6 ) : " Though being beginningless. [The Phenomenal Life] has its end 1 8 7 ) . Just as the gold 1 8 9 ) concealed 1 9 0 ) [in sand and dust] " . (ifc). [ 224 ] . T . About this beginningless nature of samsāra. T . Cf. ' t h e shape of gold '. indeed. see S. &c. ruñ-pa-ñid. f 4 . 18 7) avasānika. And furthermore producing the cause of future [bliss] [in them]. T . to T. 186) Tjjg s o u r c e u n k n o w n . dus-gshan-la dgoñs-nas. have the possibility 185) of being purified. • T . with no difference. 72 11.$K. And also the saying : " the Icchantikas are by all means of the nature of no Perfect Nirvana " 1 8 2 ) is taught in order to remove the hatred against the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. T. as there exists the Germ which is pure by nature. ' In the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. 190) paricchādita. The meaning is that the Icchantikas remain as aparinirvānagotraka only for the certain period of time when they have hatred against the doctrine of Mahāyāna. [This nature] is however invisible. 13-16. & C. p. with reference to the fact that all living beings.J . but not forever. \ y. 184 185) > -dharman bhavyatā. . TAKASAKI fall upon the bodies of even those people who are fixed in the wrong way and make benefits for them 1 8 0 ) . It should be noted that samsāra is not endless. bsgribs ( = vrta). gser-gyi gzugs. Therefore. none could be of the absolutely impure nature 1 8 4 ) . one phrase of ' tān upakurvanti ' should be inserted. Being covered from outside By the beginningless sheath [of defilements]. 183) According to O's interpretation. It is endowed with Eternity 1 8 8 ) . 189) suvarnabimba L i t . BGŚ 786 c: jj§ j ^ ffi£ tf* . Being pure by nature. C.

The Union of the Germ with the Factors of its Purification. And this union is an unseparable accompaniment (samanvāgama. Lvirtues. That is to say. a sattva is called dhātu: and just because he is dhātu. e. sambaddha. One is the union of dhātu. ^pf . and through this Under this subject of 'yoga\ two kinds of ' u n i o n ' are discussed. 192 ' ākara. There is shown the similarity of the Germ with the ocean. khams. Here. « A C. C. consisting of prajñā and karunā. respectively. T. i. * j g ft S f f i . jñāna and āsravaksaya. avyatireka. phala. ^ ^ ^j£ |5l sattvas are ' dhātu' because of their being ' dharmadhātu-samgraha ' of dharmakāya. inserts ' samādhi ' (>çH.The Ratnagotravibñaga (V) YOGA 191) Now. because of its nature of Being endowed with properties indivisible [from it] 1 9 3 ) . gnas. dhātu. in the sense of dharmadhātu. It is akin to the lantern. where ' āśrayaparivrtti ' and ' nirvana' are discussed along with this subject. yoga). consequently he is endowed with abhijñā. Through being receptacle. Of the Buddha's Wisdom and Compassion 1 9 5 ) . there is one śloka. [ 225 ] . what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because it consists of the sources 1 9 4 ) of the Absolute Body. // 43 // On account of three points. here in the sense of ' hetu '. with dharmakāya. The other is the relation of dhātu. with its properties. 194) 19sJ 191) »> Cf. C. the Essence of the Tathāgata has a resemblance to the great ocean in three ways. dhātu. jewels and water. Cf. (Kārikā 8) Being the inexhaustible storage 192) of jewels of immeasurable [The Germ of the Buddha is] like the Ocean. being possessed of hetu of dharmakāya.) between jñāna and karunā. avinirbhāga). // 42 // § 1. in the sense of hetu. See commentary. T. with reference to the meaning of 4 Union ' {yoga). BGS 801 a (5. D Ś 893*: JÎD * ? | ft ft.

Here. Here. ( D ) h a s ' kāya '. About ' pravrtti '. has. in all the 202 world. /fJEJ 4~T [ 226 ] . C. simply ' tasyām aparimeya—aksayatvāt' a n d o m . C. This coherence (sambaddha)204) The practice of Bodbecause.e. laksana. hdu—ba (mixing u p ) . which are the three points ? 197) They are namely: [its being provided with] 1) the cause of purification of the Absolute Body {dharmakāyaviśuddhihetu) . T . 199) Against J ' s note. which is apparently one taste ' and om. it manifests the highest moisture with the feature of one and the i.J . the subject ' Union' should be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is provided with causes [of its purification] (hetu-samanvāgama) 196) . -dah Idan-pa. C. B G S s a y s ' XtL H~^ 198> ^ equal to S. 41" ( = pravrtti). rgyu dah Idan-pa. always translates i t into * hjugs ' without prefix. The practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation has a similarity to ' jewel ' because of its being indiscriminative and being endowed with inconceivable and powerful virtues. T . C. 203) >p# reads ' its nature of the highest moisture in all the world is endowed with teM^S^C ftaSffi®:. 202 ' samavasarana. 2) the cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom (buddhajñānasamudāgamahetu). 200) Great Compassion 201 . "$C P 9 ^P? ^ ffi< Wt ' dhātu-samgraha ' in the verse is h e r e explained b y this ' hetii—samanvāgama '. 2) ' t h e cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom'. but C. there is an accumulation > of the jewel of Intellect and Meditation as well as the water of Compassion which are immeasurable and inexhaustible. B u t T . T. h a s ' ^ f f ' (prāpti) i n s t e a d of ' vrtti '. Then. the practice of faith in [the Doctrine] > of the Great Vehicle has a similarity to the ' receptacle' because. hisattva's Compassion has a similarity to ' water' same taste 2 0 3 ) . in this [receptacle]. (D) has ' tathāgatamahākarunā (de-bshin-gśegs-pahi thugsrje chen-po). 197> Against J ' s n o t e . 201) T . 200) i ^ distinguishes t h e karunā of t h e B u d d h a from t h a t of t h e Bodhisattva b y using ' thugs—rje ' for t h e former a n d ' sñiñ-rje ' for t h e latter. ' prajñāsamādhiratnakarunāvāri—samavasarana '. 1) ' the cause of purification of the Absolute Body' is to be known as the practice of faith in [the Doctrine of] the Great Vehicle. the practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation. B u t . For prayoga. and 3) the cause of the manifestation of Buddha's Great Compassion {tathāgatamahākarunāvfttihetu) 198) . h a s ' dharma ' after ' mahāyāna '. Here prayoga has the sense of ' presentation or manifestation ' in connection with the term laksana (laksana—prayoga. T . hjug-pa. T . and 3) ' t h e cause of the manifestation the practice of Bodhisattva's 199 ' of Buddha's Great Compassion'. which C.®: fft-W-fflfflT. the accompaniment 196) x. TAKASAKI similarity.

The Ratnagotravibhāga (samanvāgama)2 0 5 ) of these three things (the Absolute Body and others). $j|j ^ff (vaimalya in the verse. vimalâśraya is synomynous with dharmakāya.-a. [-dan] hbral-pa. " > Cf. they have a resemblance to a lantern..-s. C. 206) 207) C. The Union of the Germ with the Result of Purification. C.-a. fp| i § ) . the 5 Supernatural faculties 210) have a resemblance to ' light of flame ' because they have a characteristic of engaging in 211) the extinction of darkness which is opposite to the know- §2- 204) T. 209) T . through its similarity to a lantern in three ways on account of three points. ñe-bar gnas-pa (originally from Pali paccatthāna). [ 227 ] . T. for these 3 terms are respectively: 1) mñon-par śes-pa.-s.-s. i f s ( = Jjîîp l i s ) . jfcW $|§ īgtf ^ 3 (jñāna in the verse. 14. T. the supernatural faculties. 210 > 1) rddhi-visaya-jñāna-sāksātkriyā-abhijñā. dri-med. 2) the Wisdom by which the evil influence is destroyed. and hence. 3) zag-pa zad-pa. which are the three points ? Namely. C.-a. 211) pratyupasthāna. dri-med-gnas. the practice of faith. C.. ye-śes. ' ^ b ' °f ' Hb <O » Hb /<7§ ' stands for this term and shows the meaning of ' being capable of'. j^3). In C. etc.-a. C. T. On account of its light. ffl 'Û" • A^ ^ $jfl (absolutely inseparable). 7Î»Ç 7 0 v r (vimala-dhātu). ^ 5 . 2) divyacaksuh -j. and 3) the Extinction of Evil Influence (āsravaksaya)209). & 5) pūrvanivāsânusmrti-j. T. Then. // 44 // The subject. heat and colour 208 '. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? In the immaculate basis 2 0 6 ) . Cf. •with these three causes. respectively. is here called ' Union'. The Wisdom and Immaculateness 2 0 7 ) are inseparable from Reality. [the Essence of the Buddha is endowed with] 1) the Supernatural Faculties (abhijñā). i f t | . DAŚ 893 b (v. Mvyut. 38§ "Çrî > f ° r respective term.. Here. -dan Idan-pa. Here āśraya is used for dhātu.-s. Now. 2) zag-pa zad-pahi ye-śes. 13): #0 * • W 3& fe H j B t § S ffi #H M. Therefore. 4) paracetah-paryāya-j. 205 > T. & C. 4 Union ' is here to be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is accompanied by the results [of its purification] (phala-samanvāgama). 3) divyaśrotra-j. fll ^ vimalâśraya. (āsravaksayajñāna).

C. C. C. these two are occasional defilements). don ñams-su myoñ-ba. from its light. reads ' ftj g ft t f ^ f 1 fL ~ J i ^ 4 S tS ' (its being the body ' aśaiksa—sāntānika. lAiiASAKI ledge which perceives an object 2 1 2 ) . 218) A A N 467 a. T . 216) prahāna. I n s t e a d of ' sapta '. inseparable]. In the same way. DAS 893 b. Thus.. being āgantukatā. jñāna. The Wisdom by which the Evil Influence is destroyed is similar to * heat' because of its characteristic of engaging in consuming the fuel 213) of the Active force and Defilements. t h e whole p a r a g r a p h after ' esa ca yogârtham. And with reference to this subject of 4 Union '. . 21S C. h a s a peculiar t r a n s l a t i o n .j. C. om. ' \~ -=2f a p ? j ^ ' {samânvāgama ?). [it is] indivisible [inseparable]. taking prakrti as cittaprakrti. " O Śāriputra. 5a£ / f ] ^ p . bud-śiñ). just as a lantern is of indivisible nature and its qualities are inseparable from i t 2 l 9 ) . not different [from each other] and coherent with 2 1 7 ) the Absolute. is o m i t t e d . are in the Immaculate Sphere. pjfl. colour and shape. 219) avinirmukta-guna. pure (viśuddha) and radiant (prabhāsvara). in brief. . 214) T. 'J£f| TE*I • I t s t a n d s for āśrayaksaya. i. O Śāriputra. inseparable from each other. C. Here. The Extinction of Evil Influence as the [result of] the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis has resemblance to ' colour ' because of its characteristic of being perfectly stainless (vimala). 313) 212) of innate purity. the Wisdom destroying the Evil Influence and the Destruction [of Evil Influence]216). Here t h e word jñāna. it is ' stainless ' because it has destroyed the 0b» struction caused by moral Defilements. reads as ' tad-ubhaya-āgantukalā-aprakrtitah ' (glo-bur-pa-ñid-kyi rañbshin ma yin-pahi phyir-ro. indhana (T. taught by the arthânubhava. heat and colour. a d d s anāsrava before abhijñā. It is ' pure ' because it has destroyed the Obstruction on account of knowable things. T. This point is here called 4 Union '. spañs-pa. they are not the innate character). c o u n t s 6 anāsravajñānas a n d prahāna s e p a r a t e l y . from light. the example of a lantern is to be understood in detail according to the Sūtra 2 1 8 ) . That is to say. T. -JJ^ îrfi -£f . The precious stone is also [indivisible. [ 228 ] . T . leaving no residue. om. the Absolute Body. C. It is 4 radiant ' [by nature] because these two [Obstructions] are merely of an occasional nature 2 1 4 ) . '. which a p p e a r s i n t h e case of dharmakāya (avinirmuktajñānaguna). the 5 Supernatural Faculties.e. Cf. mi—slob~pahi rgyud. 217) j r o r samanvāgama. the properties of those people who have nothing further to learn 2 1 5 ) summarized in these seven. o m . which q u o t e t h e same passage. T. C.

Therefore. it has been taught. and the Buddhas. — They are indivisible from Reality 221) . JfjjJ. etc. as locative. 2 2 3 ) And being of the perfectly 224) right conception. 224) 225) mukhâvadāna. the Matrix of the Buddha 222) exists among [all] living beings. The Ordinary People. also as loca- tive. in the Prajñāpāramitā. — Thus it is taught by the perceivers of the Reality.e. of the qualities inseparable from. [indivisible. bden-pa mthon-ba. (Kārikā 10) i manifestation' (vrtti).. The Buddhas are apart from the dualistic view. ^ Ç yathāvat = samyak. // 45 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Ordinary People are of erroneous conception. as usual. from the Properties of the Tathāgata which are far beyond the sand of the Gañgā in number ". Wisdom (i. vrtti). That is to say. inseparable]. the Saints.The Ratnagotravibhāga Tathāgata is of indivisible nature. but C. ^ reads as ' tathatā-vyatirekatah ' and inserts vrtti (manifests the tathatā in way). [the Saints are] the perceivers of the truth. for the Bodhisattvas that the Essence of the Tathāgata 226) has the general charac220 > 221) different 222 * 223) Cf. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. (6. sgo-la gdams-pa. 226) T. it shows a [ 229 ] . Consequently. jinagarbha = tathāgatagarbha. drstasatya = tattvadarśin (C. T. [ (3 ] f£C | J (in the sense of dharmamukhâvadāna). Being opposite to them. Enlightenment). in the sense ' with reference to tathāgatadhātu (^jj ^N i S V r T/« '. b u t regards dhātu as dharmadhātu slight difference in t h e meaning. C. BGŚ 805 c f. C. (VI) VRTTI 220) Now. ' n ) » T. // 46 // In connection with the introductory teaching 2 2 5 ) of the Non-discriminative Wisdom.

abhilāsah. 314 6): 1) samjñāviparyasta means ' anitye vastuni nitya-parikalpa-pravrttih. have destroyed the delusion. On the basis of this general characteristic. XXX. ' of the perfectly right conception and of no dualistic view ' is because the Perfectly Enlightened Ones have dispelled the Obstructions of moral defilement and of knowable things along with their Impressions. 231) samjñā. Also cf. C. Yogācārabhūmiśāstra vol. 2) drsti-v. of the Saints who perceive the Truth and of the Tathāgata 2 2 9 ) who has attained the ultimate purity.e. i. [first of all]. AĀS 469 c. of the Ordinary People who do not perceive the Truth. respectively. . T. C. drsli. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation '. & C. Ita-ba. BGŚ 806 a. [And lastly]. TAKASAKI teristic of being Reality. there are threefold different manifestations (pravrtti)228) of three kinds of people:. ' of the right conception ' (aviparyasta). Here. ' different states (avasthāprabheda) ' among these three kinds of people. . ^ . In other words. has the same translation as in the case of vrtti. sems. citta. Cf. with reference to the subject. 230) G. 232 > Cf. C. ī£5 . T. the Suchness227) of all the elements. [partly] pure and [partly] impure. And perfectly pure — these are said of tathatā. ' of the erroneous conception' is because Ordinary People have delusion on account of their conception. means ' tatparikalpite chandah. and 4 of the perfectly right conception 230) and of no dualistic view '. Here. and 3) citta-v. other four subjects should be understood through the detailed explanation [on each subject]. here samyag-aviparyasta. 228) _ Vrtti. means ' abhilasitakleśasya kriyā '. the perfect purity. (Kārikā 10) Impure. BGS 806 a. 8 (Taisho. 227) [ 230 ] . T. In this translation. there is one śloka. p. 229) C. being opposite to them. 'Of the right conception ' is because the Saints. mind and perception 2315 . they are ' of the erroneous conception ' (viparyasta). T. (VII) AVASTHÂPRABHEDA 232) Hereafter. I repeated the word tathatā twice in order to make the meaning clear. respectively. hdu-śes. it should be known in brief.J . om. ' I J * . adds dharmakāya after tathāgata.

' function ' [towards purification]. this Absolute Body.'tM & ft§ H • • • [0T IK][ 231 ] . ? £ ft f § • anāsravadhātu. That is to say. For dhātu. A Ā S 469 c. koti (-gūdha). 'union' [with the cause and result]. beginning with ' own nature '. III. j^K f E • Here sattvadhātu stands for prthagjana. the Tathāgata.The Ratnagotravibhāga The Ordinary beings. C. 236) nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu. in accordance with its 3 states. And the Tathāgata. respectively. as forming sub-divisions of the sixth category. bye-ba mthah-yas-pas (gtums-pa). ' cause' [of purification]. C. the Bodhisattva. V £ |£E. and 'manifestation' 2 3 8 '. 240) A A N 467 b. 239) 2 37 ) C. 241) aparyanta. being carried by the stream of 2 3 p o r ārya in the previous Kārikā. see Appendix.. and 3) in the ' perfectly pure ' (suviśuddha). [hitherto briefly explained] By these six subjects. taught by the Lord in detail through various divisions of Scripture 2 3 7 ) is hitherto briefly summarized by six subjects. T. 1) in the ' impure ' (aśuddha) state [the Essence of the Buddha is named) ' the Ordinary Beings ' (sattvadhātu)239). C. This very Essence of the Buddha is here to be known as being taught through the teaching of 3 different names in accordance with its 3 states. Designated by 3 different names. whereas the remaining four subjects are peculiar to the tathāgatadhātu. when it is covered with the limitless 2 4 1 ) sheath of defilements. Ife * # # gl ft ft fit * P 235 » For dhātu. // 48 // Any teaching referring to the immaculate Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 6 ) .. 2) in the ' [partly] pure and [partly] impure' (aśuddhasuddha) state. ^jfī *]§. ' own nature '. C. namely. ' result ' [of purification]. It has been said by the Lord2 4 0 ) . Here it is specified that ārya is par excellence 3) the Bodhisattvas. T. khams. // 47 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 5 ) . respectively 234) . the Bodhisattvas 2 3 3 ) . f£C 1 J (mukhesu = dvārena). ^ $$. vrtti See note VIII-8. (koti is regarded as a unit of number). 238 ' It shows us that the 6 subjects mentioned above are the fundamental categories by which any kind of teaching can be summarized. Cf. Is. " O Śāriputra. As for the six padârthas.

vol. *j]q£. [ 232 ] . this term was interpreted in two ways. T. however. l i t . 3s*Ç 5 o ^N (°f beginningless time). has attained the unexcelled. bhiksavo. ^ £ P ^ (= ffi H e . T. abiding in the Absolute Essence which is the highest point of purity 2 4 6 ) . Here I suppose that the term anamatagga had originally the sense ' pūrvā kotir na prajñāyate '. . 178. has retained the original sense of this term. O Sāriputra. SN II. 247) 24S ālokanîya. V. 245 » dharmaskandha. which seems to mean ' whose beginning is unknown '. but from the literal meaning of its Sanskritized form ' anavarâgra '. p. It is used in nearly the same sense as dharmaparyāya or dharmapitaka. . this very Absolute Body. it has become pure. 234-5). chos-kyi phuñ-po. when. T. 246 > paramaviśuddhadharmatā. is called 4 the [ordinary] living beings '. 243) ' pranidhi\ ' bala\ and 'jñāna' are counted under this. C. Besides the 6 pāramitās taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. (an'-amata-agga. 1) uktam hi Bhagavatā j Anavarâgro hi. C. V Î S b . By Sanskrit^ zation. On the contrary. 218) (Cf. ABORI. Furthermore. it is called 'the Bodhisattva'. P. O Śāriputra. having been perfectly released from all the sheaths of defilements. doing the practice towards Enlightenment by means of the 10 243) 244) Supreme Virtues as including and representing all of the 84 245) thousands groups of Doctrines . Poussin. manly strength 2 4 8 ) among all 2121 anavarâgra. 244) daśapāramitāh. when it has become averse to the Suffering in the stream of Phenomenal Life and become free from all the objects of desire. translation shows this sense. ^ j ^ fft ^ VÎ. 144.J. C. having rejected all stains of subsequent defilements. . This same Absolute Body. p. ascending to the stage to be looked upon 2 4 7 ) by all living beings. T. XXXV. Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. TAKASAKI the Phenomenal Life and moving to and fro between death and birth in the course of the beginningless 2 4 2 ) Phenomenal Life. gñis-su med—pahi skyes—buhi mthu. (viz. samsaratām . . r e p r e s e n t e d b y or s u m m a r i z e d i n [ t h e 10 p ā r a m i t ā s ] . a new interpretation of ' nadir nâpi paścimam ' was added to its meaning. 193: III. C. it has its origin in Pali anamatagga. a prefix of intensitive sense). jātijarāmaranasamsāra iti j avidyā—nivaranānām . antargata. sattvānām . fj\ H&. Bap at. We have a good example in Candrakīrti's Prasannapadā. blta-bar bya-ba. perfectly pure. As an epithet to samsāra. anamata was changed into anavara (reason unknown) and regarded as the compound of ' an-avara-agra '. 151. etc. C. thog-ma dañ tha-ma med-pa (of neither bottom nor top. .). having surpassed all the Sufferings. pūrvā prajñāyate kotir nety vāca mahāmunih j samsāro'navarâgro hi nâsyâdir nâpi paścimam j / (MK XI. -JftÇ iSr 'flf (there is nobody superior to him). In Sanskrit sources. and. on'— anu. . without beginning nor end).The number of group is usually counted as 84 thousand. * advitīyam paurusam sthāma. ip*. T. pūrvakotir na prajñāyata iti II {Prasannapadā. C. ' upāya '.

see next (IX) Avikāra. (VIII) SARVATRAGA 2 0 5) The Essence of the Tathāgata is ' all-pervading (sarvatraga) ' in these three states. mthar-thug. 264) C. cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu. 252) dosa. C. there is one śloka. 253) rūpagata ( = rūpa). [ 233 ] . sems-kyi "u)j P-Ip. as in the Kārikā. 2B1) dbyiñs. sarvatraga). or superior. T. Space pervades everywhere. T. of the Saints and of the Buddhas has a common feature in these three states. T. the virtuous and the ultimate 2 5 2 ) . s. virtuous or the ultimate point of pure virtue. whether clay. C. T. viz.. then it is called the Tathāgata. BGŚ 806 b (8. JEJ |_E TRÇ ^ 3 " LJ* (prakrti—vaimolya—citta). pijfl: Cf. Either inferior. // 49 // What is shown by this Śloka ? It pervades with common feature The defective. gzugs-. guna. it is all-per249) 260) 254) anāvarana-dharma. With reference to this meaning. (Kārikā 11) Just as being of indiscriminative nature. Of these three. yon-tan.T h e R a cn a g o t r a v i b h ā g a knowable spheres. sgrib-pa med-pahi chos-can. just as space penetrates all the receptacles regardless of material. nisthā is replaced by ' gunaviśuddhinisthā ' in the commentary. £j} jî@ . // 50 // That which is the indiscriminative Innate Mind (cittaprakrti) of the ordinary people. T. The immaculate nature of the mind 2 5 1 ) . rañ-bshin dri-med T. AÂS 469 c-470 a. JHQ . irrespective of their being defective. and has attained the Controlling Power on all separate elements. § ft î H ^ p 'l>. ^ | 5 J ^ . T. gñes-pa. Similarly all-pervading is the Essence. C. the Perfectly Enlightened One " . C. nisthā. Therefore. BHS Die. f*^ . respectively. Just as space occupies all the visible forms 2 5 3 ) . which is of no obstruction 249 ' and of no hindrance. middle. the Arhat. silver or gold. v. C.

256 > AAN 467 b. (IX) AVIKĀRA 257) Now. connecting nirviśistā with this phrase. immediately after the explanation of different states: " Therefore.J. samkleśa-vyavadāna. equal.. 0 Śāriputra. and bhañga. J f f^ | § . there are 14 ślokas. the summarized meaning 2 5 9 ) of these ślokas is to be known by the following verse: Being possessed of faults by occasion. ' ' "tj/J ftf ^ . C. viz. and the Absolute Body is nothing but the living beings. [ 234 ] . ^fc fjf (impurity and purity). which is quoted in BGŚ (806 b) with a heading ' ]£\\ vRv _Ll YI\ nixi ī=l ' ( a s n a s been said in the Anuttarâśrayasūtra). C. Furthermore it adds the 9 illustrations on kleśa there. For dharmatā. // 51 // In the impure state as well as in the pure and impure state. It is. is. it treats ' avikāritva ' from 6 points. pravrtti. however. These two are non-dual by meaning.We cannot. the [ordinary] living beings and the Absolute Body are not different from each other. TAKASAKI vading. sthiti. C. 258) samkleśa-vyavadāna. jāti. respective255) prāptā sarvakālam. being all-pervading in these three states. has ' dus tham—cad—du khyad—par med—par gyur—pa '.^ ^ . For this reason. 25 7) Cf. Avikāra) Under this subject. all-embracing. find out any similar verse in the present texts of the Sandhinirmocana. P)fy B/£ . With reference to this subject. BGŚ ^ g . bsdus—has-pahi don. rçç. T. however. 259) pindârtha. The living beings are nothing but the Absolute Body. endowed with virtues by nature. BGS 806 c (9. moreover. 260 > The same vexse appears in BGŚ 806 c: ^ ||| ^ {|| ffi ^f § ft f^ Ā£ #H J 5 ^fe SP IB J § 3S£ 18 JH ffl • It is regarded in BGŚ as a verse from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra ( ^ n 1 ^ @ ^ ® ^ ? ^ ^ t S l S P Î f f i S f l l W). and different merely by letters " . [Prior to the explanation of these ślokas]. C. T. A quite equivalent passage is found in AÂS (469 c). the Essence of the Tathāgata. it has been said in the same scripture 2 5 6 ) . of no difference and is present always 2 5 5 ) . pūrva-paryanta. Therefore it is of unchangeable character In the beginning as well as afterwards 2 6 0 ) . unchangeable (avikāra) either by Impurity or through puiification 258) . which are shown by the [first] 12 ślokas and by the [next] one śloka.

The Ratnagotravibhāga ly. indicating the identification of this verse with v. bral mi—śes or C. with reference to the subject of ' unchangeability ' [of the Essence of the Tathāgata] in the Impure State. also ' y)p j f £ ' ) . bodhi. reads the second line as ' sarvasattvesv avasthitas tatha'yam ndpalipyate / Here ' sattva' seems to be used in a collective sense. XIII.). is of absolutely unchangeable character throughout different states 2 6 4 ) . it is 4 essentially ' endowed with the Buddha's virtues 261> which are indivisible [from the Absolute Body]. B) is raised by Prof. 1955. (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State First of all. T. {A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. Presented in Honour of Prof. Gokhale. Cannot be polluted because of its subtle nature. being the subject noun for ' ayam '. 261 // 52 // ' dharma —•.guna. V. what is said in 12 ślokas ? (Kārikās 12-23) Just as space. See Note 1—23. 55 & 76). treats this passage in verse. 54. as far as the independent use of ' ayam ' is concerned. 90—91). j t #P tt . seem to support the reading in loc. A similar case is found in v. the same as sattvadhātu- 264) [ 235 ] . amuktajñu (BHS. S.e. & C. 265) A doubt about the reading ' sattve ' in the text (for satvo in Ms. Therefore. Similarly. ' -M^ /JJu ' (unreleased) does not exactly convey its meaning. [On the contrary]. being all-pervading. showing inseparability of guna from buddhajñāna. Studies in Indology and Buddhology. 263 262) > For dhātu. [the Essence of the Tathāgata] is possessed of faults caused by fundamental and subsequent defilements ' by occasion '. translates ayam into ' j^p '(££ '. abiding everywhere among living beings 2 6 5 ) . Therefore it is explained that the Essence of the Tathāgata 2 6 3 ) . This [Essence265*] remains unpolluted [by defilements]. Kyoto. denoting the same subject of cittapraknivaimalyadhātu (C. 3 & 39) and its first use is probably in SMS (see quotations from SMS in S. It should be ' ye—śes dan ma bral—ba '. suggested the reading ' sattvas ' instead of sattve. Yamaguchi. shown by the 14th śloka. who. T. 52 = Bhagavadgltā XIII 32. This is an abbreviated form of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' which occurred in a quotation from AAN (S. C. pp. This is a special adjective to buddhadharma or -guna. (So C. since this verse is in a series of Kārikās and ayam denotes ' cittaprakrtivaimalyadhātu ' in v. like space. V. where enam is also used independently. 32 in the Bhagavadgltā. pp. i. but T. However. in the perfectly pure state. pp. inseparable from Wisdom 2 6 2 ) . adj. there seems to be no problem. buddhadhātu). C. inconceivable and far greater in number than the sands of Gangā. 49.

58. no support In any [of the worldly] phenomena. // 56 // The Irrational Thought is founded In the [innate] mind which is pure2 7 4 ) . .DAŚ893«(v. Similarly. T. mrtyu. Space has. on the basis of the Innate Essence 2 6 6 ) . •»)Cf. 273) ayonimanaskāra = ayoniśomanaskāra. It seems to indicate cittaprakrti (see v. y Q . The innate mind has. PH . ^ 274) # S 'fft. C. na-ba. l j > . // 54 // The earth is supported by water. vyādhi.l2):in— 268) 269) S70) -eJffrH dagdha-pūrva. // 55 // Similarly all the component elements [of Phenomenal Life] 272) Have their foundation in the Active Force and Defilements. however. Water by air. ( = anāsravadhātu). lE S 'I"S. Grammatically the form should be ' pradahanti ' instead of ' pradahati*. tshul-bshin ma-yin yid[-la] byed[-pa]: C. phuñ-po [dañ] kham [dañ] dbaû [-po] ( = skye-mched). all the Phenomenal world is indicated. ^Ei * resp. By these. hchi-ba. 57). ii). By the fire [at the end of the world]. Likewise the fires of death. T. jfj^f . // 57 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life 266) asamskrta-dhātu. of illness and decrepitude 2 6 9 ) Cannot consume 2 7 0 ) this [Essence of the Buddha] 271». ^ C. Vpf ÎT [ 236 ] . no support Neither in air. however.J.# £n H ft A ^ $3 M Â S in Jb 9 272) skandha-dhātv-indriya — skandhâyatanadhâtavah (vv. prakrti. hdus ma-byas dbyiñs.^ f H ( 1 ^ . jarā: T. ayoniśomanasikāra. // 53 // Just as space has never been burnt 2 6 8 ) . T. rga-ba.^ A ) . The sense-organs appear and disappear 2 6 7 ) . cittasya prakni. And the Active Force and Defilements exist always On the basis of the Irrational Thought 2 7 3 ) . and air by space.^ IE iâî cittaviśuddhi — cittaprakrti. C. C. nor in water.. TAKASAKI Just as the worlds have everywhere Their origination and destruction in space. 8 3 a (v. 61). nor in the earth.

M L ^ 5) Jv\ • It stands for ayoniśomanasikāra. yañ-dag min rtogs. four periods within one Kalpa. ālīna (ā lī) (c. however. abhūtakalpa. j ^ | . // 59 // Abiding in 2 7 6 ) the Innate Mind. This word reminds us of ālayavijñāna. // 61 // The Innate Mind is like space. There occurs the irrational action of mind 2 7 7 ) . And the Active Force and Defilements of living beings Are known as akin to water. . Just as [the world repeats its] evolution and devolution 2 7 8 ) . T. 281) [ 237 ] . shows negative sense: ' ñon—moñs mi-hgyur '. a circle of world process. The 4 are namely: vivarta (/PC). // 62 // The innate nature of the mind is brilliant And. C. See Note VIII-305. C. T. . etc. and for vivarta ( = vividham vartate). ^ 0 'Û* • 280 ' T. tshogs-pa. Being of no cause or condition. See S. *£? fjH iVfff But C. // 60 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life. By the Irrational Action of mind. It bears. with respect to pollution by āgantukakleśa seems to be the usual way in Tibetan tradition. T. 279) sāmagrî. gnas. Show their appearance and disappearance [repeatedly]. has ' de-bshin ' (ladvat). and samvartasthāyin (£??. p. // 63 // 275 > For ' tad '. empty). Originated from the water-like Active Force and Defilements. Which are of accident and produced by wrong conception 2 8 1 ) . 3 (vikalpa = ayoniśomanasikāra). 1. The Innate Mind is like space. the impurity 2 8 0 ) by stains of desires. These are two of 276) 277 278> C. T. C. 12. The Active Force and Defilements are produced. like space. Or complex [of producing factors] 2 7 9 ) .. as S. Nor even stability [between two points]. tat-samvarta-vivartavat (lit. (-TrT H& Al^ Negative interpretation of T. ' ayoniśo manasah krtih = ayoniścmanasikāra. For samvarta.The Ratnagotravibhāga Are known as akin to the earth. fl\ . JJX. C. Being of no root and of no support 2 7 5 ) . // 58 // The Irrational Thought is known As having resemblance to air. T. ace). devolution and evolution). has no transformation at all. T. vivartasthāyin (tī£)> samvarta (JiPI). hchags-pa. hjig-pa. It has neither origination nor destruction.

( = samcaya.( | j | ft S . rluñ-gi dkyir-hkhor. & T. the term ayoniśomanasikāra is required by the prose commentary and also there might be terms such as loka or skandhāyatanadhātavah in verses. C. since this text puts always a certain number of commentary verses after original Kārikā or Kārikās. 64. ) vāta—mandala. // 64 // The origination of t h e world classified into [5] elementary groups. astamgama. how is the unchangeable character of the 282) Essence of the Tathāgata in the impure state explained ? I t is said 283) as follows : The accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements 284) Cannot produce this space-like [Innate Mind]. ^\* ^ p sY* j r H . And. of illness and old age Cannot consume [this Innate Mind]. T. 288) of illness and decrepitude arises in order to destroy the world classified into five elementary groups. both S. and the next sentence as that of the next two. T. [18] component elements or [12] bases of cognition is conditioned by the accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements. TAKASAKI § 1. seem to have a lacuna of two verses here. run as follows: 283 282 i)*īESt8S ttitfiCtii*. om. as J suggested. regards the first sentence in the commentary as the explanation of the first verse. rāśi. > vivarta = abhinirvarta. #fl ^R ft • ' C. Two verses in C. to have failed to catch the contrast between vivarta and samvarta by treating ayoniśomanasikāra and kleśakarma as something of destructive force. T. which is. Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind. But this origination 286) of t h e world never causes the evolution of t h e Innate Mind which has 287) a resemblance to space. inserts ' ft ' (samskāra) after karma. From the context in the following commentary. 64 as a quotation is not reasonable. 286 287) 288) 289 skandha. C. C. But even by this ari> For dhātu. C. jEfc ( = nirodha). Bñ'^'AQ 'S&fâ. /5Î\ îpj|j} . tshogs. 285) based upon wind-circle of Irrational Thought. J's further suggestion of v. ' Y$~^ >i9fy ' is p r o b a b l y a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . f S 7fc). And even the growing fires of death. seems. C. C. [ 238 ] > C. 18 component elements or 12 bases of cognition which is founded on t h e accumulation of air-like Irrational Thought and water-like Active Force and Defilements 2 8 9 ) .J.— fe C. accumulation). T . C. 284) 285 abhinivartayati. in its turn. F o r ' vivarto na bhavati '. By this analogy of space. sñiñ-po. hjig-par byed-pa. has other two verses before v. In the same way. however. a group of fires of death.

124 c). *^ prakrti. it should be known that the Innate Mind Thus. space is more powerful 298 ' than any of the other three elements. has no foundation. ^ & ^ $ 1 PO J § A (Taisho. It is also firm. C. ' anupacaya' (for anapacaya. j R ) . drañ-sroñ-chen. in the impure state. from mūla ' to ' parikalpāh kleśāh '. And this example of space which refers to the introduction to the light 291) of doctrine on the Innate Purity [of the mind] is to be understood in 292) detail according to the Scripture : " O Honourable Men. om. XIII. C. T. C. neither increasing nor diminishing 299 '. C. p. mrsa?).. Defilements are merely accidental. rañ—bshin—gyis rnam—par dag—pa ni rsta-baho. jj$j ~f" ( ^ ^ "J"). Ihag-mthoñ. 5»8î H S ( — mārsa. A^* fjpt. T. it is explait a ned as being absolutely of unchangeable character. of Active Force and Birth show their appearance and dis290) ppearance like the material world . f2^ I J» ' dharmâloka' would mean ' dharma as āloka '. earth.of the fires of death. immovable. C. For example. 643 b-c). Defilements are of weak power but the 296) correct intuition is powerful. But space. mun-pa JSSL 3 C . translation is better. T. hgrib-pa med-pa). = maharsi C. Defilements are the darkness . «) vipaśyanā. but the Innate Mind is indiscriminative. Water is supported by air. neither originated nor dest293) 294) 290) 291) bhājanaloka. and ' chavi' here seems to mean 'coloured' or 'dark-coloured' ( = krsnacchavi or black-cloud?). C. In contrast with ' āloka'. ( = prakrtiviśuddham mūlam). / / P 1 p (neither composing nor scattering himself). of no origination and destruction. But. Thus. ^jjj |U" | 0 j (opp. C. XIII. vol. f Defilements. translated. and hence dharmâlokamukha means dharmamukha as C. and air is founded on space. 8 (Taisho. ^C M ~X J ^ ^ 293) 294) IK # K ffi PPI M. T . though all the Impurity a nnot be destroyed. kavi (probably chavi is t h e b e t t e r reading). etc.The Ratnagotravibhāga :na. Jit jftj 28 ft. in its turn. the Pure 295) [Mind] is the light. ' prakrti ' here stands for cittaprakrti. [ 239 ] . among these four gross elements. this quotation is from the Gaganagañjā-pariprcchā as O found. ( = tamas). to sattvaloka). O Honourable Men. chos snañ-bahi sgo. T . ft ^ ^ $ R (usually. T. 292) Against C. 297 ' mūlaviśuddhā prakrtih. 298) T h e reading ' ball yo ' i n t h e t e x t should b e corrected into ' ballyo ' (comparative degree). this great earth has its foundation in water. T. water or air. 299) anupacayo '•napacayo. dharmâlokamukha. o m . Defilements are of wrong discrimination. 297) but the Innate Mind is of a pure root . T. attribution. like space. Cf. Therefore. snod-kyi hjig-rten. ^ j | § § ? Ñ. the Innate Essence of the Tathāis. • .

C.q£ } U* seem to be two ways of interpretation with respect to ' pollution '. XXVIII. yun riñ-du mi-gnas-pa. XXV. p.J. adds anitya and nitya after vikāra and avikāra. rañ-gi hañ-gis. 140 b). Q f£^ . respectively. and the style looks as the commentator's own explanation. 306 The reading ' tatra paścād ' is somewhat doubtful. the quotation seems still to be continuing. It is clear that T. C. (rasa = dharmatā. like the Vibhajyavādin. TAKASAKI royed and is stable with its own essence 3 0 0 ) . but. IV. 3os) ip# «na klisyate ' (ñon ma moñs-paho). from the context and C. but space is by no means changeable 3 0 3 ) . . (Most probably for arranging the style of the Chinese sentence). p. " In a similar manner 3 0 4 ) . [but it]is polluted by the occasional defilements 3 0 5 ) " . T. 304 ' Hereafter. [On the contrary]. where this theory is attributed to the Vātsīputrīya. mentions it as an opinion of the Vibhajya3fl3) vādin (#• g\\ m. **£*#»!rest. 9-10. saying:!! . This sermon has its origin in Pali canon (e. H Z3C pîflî) attributed to Nāgārjuna. interpretation has no foundation in the sūtras as far as its literal sense is concerned. But it seems that not all the Buddhist schools accepted it. The Active Force and Defilements are founded on the Irrational Thought and the latter has its support in the Innate Pure Mind. JJJÇ f3£ *|§]§? pfc ( = abhūtadharmā ?). Therefore. T. The Mahāvibhāsāśāstra of Sarvāstivādin. saying: y/X. T. C. But. > acirasthāyin. After this passage. flttt'fr+ewîP. T. (Someone. which mentions * mārsāh ' or ' kulaputrā' between sentences. S there o [ 240 ] . C. ^IJ Jj\) ^\* pE • C. the Active 300) 301 302 svarasa-yogena. or 12 bases of cognition have their support in the Active Force and Defilements. being polluted by accidental defilements. these three gross elements [other than space] are possessed of origination and destruction. nature). all the component elements [of the Phenomenal Life classified into] 5 elementary groups. M ft JS'l tñ # . SP>. See also ^ ^ ] }$J W % j i g Wft{Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra ?) (Taisho. 5. it is said: the Mind is radiant by nature. 18 component elements. XVIIX. the Irrational Thought. p. unstable 301) and of no long duration3 0 2 \ It will be perceived that these three gross elements are changeable. Ñ. it is continued as follows 306) : "Now. * #1 'l> tt M W. 1-2). its feature is impure) (Taisho. the Skt. 204 a). 697 b). text has no vocative case (mārsāh). om. but we have an example of the same interpretation as T. AN I. has the opinion of viśuddhi cittaprakrti. the whole. They say that the mind is pure by nature. * anavasihita. has simply de-la (tatra). who did not accept this cittaprakrti theory. ^S^SJHISBfSfe (Taisho. namely whether or not cittaprakrti can be polluted. in the Mahāprajñāpâramitāśāstra (yK. shifts*. all these phenomena. mi—gnas—pa.g.

Therefore. rtsa- ba yoñs-su chad-pa. being founded on the Innate Mind. C. • mūlaparicchinna (which is t o b e inserted ace. We have not. of no root " . T . ) . On the contrary. all phenomena are completely devoid of any root 3 0 8 ) and based upon an unreal and unstable foundation. AAS 496 b.The Ratnagotravibhāga Force and Defilements. the fire at the end of the world. 310) [ 241 ] . a n d all of these stand for the counterpart of ' avikāritva ' of cittaprakrti or tathāgatadhātu. mgohi nad. it is said:—. B . § 2. hjig-pa. and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are originated by the complex of their causes and conditions. being produced from the former two. C. respectively. T . the Innate Mind is of no cause nor condition. C. [dañ] bral. have a resemblance to the earth on account of their characteristic o f fruit ' (vipāka). 307 308) ) visāmagrî (losing complexity). however. So. [because they are of unreal nature. ' vipāka' a n d ' upasarga '. the Irrational Thought is like air. the Irrational Thought and the Active Force and Defilements. ^ 78v T P C • ' T ^ • T h e whole saying is as follows: sarvadharmā mālaparicchinnā asāramūlā apratisthānamūlāh śuddhamûlā amūlamūlā iti Cf. upasarga. as well as T . have a resemblance to air and water. Consequently. / ^ Q ( a n analogical t r a n s l a t i o n ) . T. t o Ms. Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind. the Innate Mind is like space. T h r e e aspects of ' vikāra ' i n t h e P h e n o m e n a l W o r l d a r e n a m e d here ' hetu '. but at the same time] they are founded on a pure [essence] which is. in its turn. and [lastly] all of the Component Elements of Phenomenal Life. jflZ. C. 3*Et nL> ( c a l a m i t y ) . the Active Force and Defilements are like water and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are akin to earth. illness and decrepitude to 309) the gross element of fire as being the cause of the annihilation of Life 3l0) and on account of their characteristic of being ' infection ' . We have already explained that in the impure state the Innate Mind has a resemblance to space on account of its i unchangeable ' (avikāra) characteristic. on account of their characteristic of ' cause' (hetu). Here. discussed the similarity of the fires of death. tcçk. 309) vibhava. . When these causes and conditions lose their complexity 307) they are immediately extinguished. it has no complex [of cause and condition] and hence there is neither origination nor destruction of it. on this point it is said as follows: The three fires. T .

which means the readiness for the next birth. This vyavahāra is also used as a synonym of ' samvrti' in connection with ' satya \ C. 312) 313) 311) vicitra-kāranânubhavana.yv] (fire made by human being). Here in connection with anu-bhū. T. f t • 318) [ 242 ] . // 65 // These are to be known respectively as the analogy For three fires. C. 178. it is said [in the : " 0 Lord. & C. hjig-rten-gyi tha-sñad. lokavyavahāra. thob-pa ( = prāpti). ^ | . has two senses. 315) Ś M Ś 222 6. V. being delivered from Pali kārana. Bapat. W. and mixing both. T. and 3) [old age] leads the Active Forces to their ripening Even by these fires. I I . have ' duhkha '. hgags-pa (— nirodha). repetition of life in samsāra. om. something is born. Lord. However. prākrta. T.J. The similarity of death. Something is born 0 Lord. 38 'kāranā' 1. such sayings are merely a worldly usage means. y\. p. for three reasons. C. vyavahāra. 'punishment'. ABORI. T. P. PTS Die. prādurbhāva. translation shows this meaning. bdag-gi-ba med-par byed-pa (bdag-gi-ba stands for mamatva). the sense ' usage' is attached to the term vyavahāra. C. this phrase and regards the other two as part of a verse. The word kāranā (f.). origination of new sense organs. 2) [illness] makes sufferings of various kinds of tor'. has a sense of 'torture' or 'torment'. gives the meaning * pain '. to make pain on somebody by torment \ Cf. C. T. ' to feel pain as a result of experiencing torment. sdug-bsñal sna-tshogs myoñ-bar byed-pa. Prof. The saying something is dead'. to destruction ments 3l3) 312) [Which are the three reasons ? the 6 [internal] bases of They are cognition 314 namely]: 1) because [death] leads . [$£] I t | $ [ R f 8 ] . XXXV. never decays. in the sense to make punishment. O Lord. T. respectively. as the sanskritized form of Pali vohāra. [. A Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. something is dead. TAKASAK1 The fire of hell and the ordinary 311 ' fire. of sickness and old age. which is picked up from Daśakumālacarita). 3 b 1 P 'ffi i"M c f • For kāranā. the Essence of the Tathāgata in its impure state cannot be changed at all. 317) 318) i this means the destruction of sense organs. BHS Die. (M. 0 316) . Scripture] 315) With reference to this point. nirmamī-karana (cause to destroy something conceived as ' mine'). Cf. C. illness and old age to fire should be known. ' samskāra-paripāka. vyāhāra (speech) and vyavahāra (behaviour). C. 235. we can easily find out the sense. T. tha-mal-ba. 317) 316) 314 uparodha. and is often used along with kr. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is never born. 'kārana'. that of death. . p.

. 54 (na pradahanty enam mrtyuvyādijarāgnayah. being beyond the sphere characterized as being caused and conditioned. Ace. has ' fj£ y j j ' for janmâdivyasana. to C. for that reason. constant. i n s t e a d of ' vimuktā \ should b e a d o p t e d . r e a d i n g is n o t clear. hpho-ba. 322) 319) vyasana. (B) Unchangeability in the Pure and Impure State Now there conies one śloka referring to the meaning of Unchangeability ' in the pure and impure state [of Bodhisattvas]. They assume the cause of calamities 3 2 3 ) . phoñs[-pa]. enam = cittaprakrtim). etc. The Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva. C. 320 ' ananyathā. 321) jijjg r e a ( i i n g « -vimuktām '. T. 68). 2§^ (to change. de~yi rgyus for tan-nidānam. tan-nidānam . however. Cf. illness and decrepitude cyavate ( < cyu). is eternal. I . never passes away 319) or arises [again]. The Bodhisattvas have no calamity 3 2 2 ) of birth and so forth. Still. T . quiescent and everlasting " . C. So C.The K a t n a g o t r a v i D û a g a never deceases. bhajante. T. v . (Kārikā 24) Having truly 3 2 0 ) realized the Innate Mind As being released 3 2 1 ) from birth and death As well as from illness and decrepitude. . to move from one place (life) to another place (life). O Lord. take place. T. 323) [ 243 ] 17 . nidāna seems to mean the existence (bhava) on which janman. regarding this term as an adverbial use. See BHS Die. S. because of the rising of Compassions towards the world. For what reasons ? Because. C. 3UJ 13^ • ananyatha'vagamya = yathābhūtasya darśanāt (v. 295 (under ' nidāna ' ) : tan-nidānam. // 66 // § 1. ji-bshin—ñid. /J> •? -^R _l£ v$C (assume the existence of origi»& nation and destruction). C. p. the Matrix of the Tathāgata. What is shown by this śloka ? The sufferings of death. T.

» dhātu. .ASAKI Are destroyed by the Saints to the root. yañ-dag-par sbyor[-ba]. hdas gyur. (References to the Scriptures) 324 325 ' upādāna. T .. C. kun-tu sbyor-ba. because of their contact 3 2 8 ) with the virtuous root 3 2 9 ) . Bodhisattvas attach themselves 330) to the Phenomenal World consisting of three spheres. basing themselves upon 3 3 1 ) the power of origination by their will 332) . of old age. T. In the pure and impure state. Because 333) . ^ . make appearance Of birth. khams. 331) fjjg form samnihśraya for samniśraya is notable. 334 335) I n s tead of ajāty-anutpatti. has anutpatty-anirodha.J. etc.). jJg. T. 325 They. there is no appearance 3 2 6 ) whatever of such a cause that we can know of. C. ^fC ( = pūrvika). 329) 3301 kuśala-mūla. death. of course. etc. there are in reality no such phenomena of birth. they have truly perceived that the Essence [of the Buddha] 3 3 4 ) is of no birth and of no origination 3 3 5 '. C. C. decrepitude and illness. There is a birth by the power of Active Force and Defilements. Still. being full of mercy. flîp ! § ! • T. adds srid-pa (bhava) before samyojana. ñe-bar len-pa. > T . 4§T m • TO sam]/ślis T . Also they make appearance of birth. however. C. Because of their perception of the truth. As there is no birth [of such a kind] The saints have no root [of defilements]. C. // 67 // Now. // 68 // Indeed. 1AK. Though they have got rid of327) birth. illness and decrepitude is the Birth based upon the Irrational Thought. bsams-bshin-du. C. 326 3271 328) samyojana (== samprayukta). C. om. just as the fuel [is the causa materialis of ordinary fires]. (ind. T . duhkha. of illness and of death. f f c ' I j * . ~7Jj ( t o m a k e a p p e a r a n c e ) . Jpf # 0 ft f 4 • [ 244 ] . T. in the impure state. ' anābhāsa—gamana. there is also no flame of fires of suffering at all in the Bodhisattvas who have attained the Body made of mind. dge-bahi rtsa-ba. snañ—bar med—par gyur—pa. yi\ . the causa materialis 3 2 4 ) of the fires of sufferings ' like death. 332) samcintya 333 ' yathāpi is omitted in T. among them. 7jC v$L «tfg • vinivrtta T . the Active Force and Defilements. T. C.

?P£ 4^J |ff^ / £ . T.. paripāka. & C . p. ^ i l l S ^ I S ^ ī S i i S l f t (Taisho. by these Defilements of such kinds Bodhisattvas attach themselves to the Phenomenal World. 46-74). 18. [—' \ĪJ] ^ f»$j] ^ ? ffe • 342) 343 344 kimkaranīya. C. bya-ba ci-yod-pa. And this state of Bodhisattvas is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. 1. O Lord. ' saddharma. T. Efforts for the perfect apprehension 343 ' of the sublime Doctrine3 4 4 ) . C. Endeavour 3 4 5 ) after works to be done 3 4 6 ) for the living beings. C. ^ § : f § : 4i3< (kuśalamūlāni). T. 337 338) 36 3 Taisho. It is said 3 3 6 ) : Which are the Defilements endowed with virtuous root 3 3 7 ) that cause [Bodhisattvas] to reside in the Phenomenal World ? They are namely: ]Non-satisfaction338) in searching for the accumulation of merits 3 3 9 '. by I f & of Suang. • . yoñs-su smin-pa. . T. Non-abandonment of propensity 347 ' of desire for phenomena. T. 400).. chos. XIII. Then [Sāgaramati] asked: Why then. 346 345) > utsukatā. C. Acceptance 340 ' of existence through origination by their own will.CJ 339 340 ' punya-sambhāra. are the virtuous roots called 'Defilements ' ? . ?% î § # K W fri W ^P ?£ ñ & 0*. but they are never affected by the fault of Defilements. 347) 348 anuśaya. p. O Sāgaramati. C. C. ^ flp. Unweariness towards the perfect maturity 3 4 2 ) of living beings. bsam-pa (intention). See S.. hgrus-pa. bsod-nams-kyi tshogs.J_4y. R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Defilements endowed with Virtuous Root. C. 68 a. C. J. 13. T. . ' samyojono r 245 ] . C. thus are the Defilements endowed with the virtuous roots by which the Bodhisattvas attach themselves [to this world]. T. XIII. Jj^. The earnest wish to meet with 3 4 1 ) the Buddhas. dam-pahi. \Lk • ' parigraha. This passage is in Taisho. ' parigraha. 6. T. Nonreluctance from fetters 3 4 8 ) of the Highest Virtues. mi-ñoms-pa. •-§* >^|K ^*pi J>E> A§l 'U*I • atrptatā. C. . simplified.. p. but quite ' kuśalamūla-samprayuktā kleśāh. No. O Sāgaramati.The S 2. * for the living beings '. ^pp *JX • 341 ' samavadhāna. ^5^. phrad—pa. [The Lord] answered: Because. C. And this Phenomenal World is of origination 44 > The Sāgaramati-pariprcchā.. the same as above (Note 340). y. ' 7pi\ ^^T ' i s implying the sense.. T. T.

adhyālambati (BHS). 352) Both T. ' upāya—kauśalya. lament and would cry out. but it is not the case. There. affectionate353) quite agreeable in his appearance 354 *. Thereupon the mother and relatives355* of this boy would see him fall into the impure pit. The parable of a Householder. not disagreeable). This parable is also found in AĀS (470 a-b). 8. 351) Continuation from § 2 (quotation from the same Sūtra). •fff ||5Ç -|āj" . om. Upon seeing this they would deeply sigh. C. it is called ' Defilements endowed with the roots of virtuous qualities. take the boy out3 5 6 ) by entering into the pit. and would see his only son fallen in the pit of night-soil. Suppose he were beloved. T. They could not. Upon seeing that sight. After darśanena. 357) T h e r e a d i n g ' ekaputrakâdhyāśaya—premânunīta' is d o u b t f u l as J said. hdon-pa (pulls out). would fall into a pit of night-soil while playing. in the sense of ' taking out.from Defilements. So ' śrestino vā grhapater vā ' would be a better reading. C. handsome. to this very Phenomenal World. &J . but not because of [actual] defilements on the mind " . there should be a Danda.. 354 ' apratikūlo darśanena (lit. which reads ' bu gcig-po hdon-par hdod-pahi sred-pas byas '. 0 Sāgaramati. After that the boy's father would come to that place. T. thabs—la mkhas-pa. insert a word for ' vā '. T. 1. seems 356) to omit this word and reads: ^j£ —" -~f~ afl [ 246 ] S i jsc nl> *& (having ekaputraka . But C. simply med-pa. Therefore. fzî yj • anvādhāna. & C. C. 48. however. yj \J*z. Bodhisattvas attach themselves at their own wishes by their skill of means 3 4 9 ) and through producing 350) the power of virtuous roots. The word ' hdon-pa ' is used in the preceding sentence for ' adhyālamba '. [^Pç] j ^ \ . " For example 351) . Bodhisattvas' Compassion. pulling out '. p. suppose there were an only son of some distinguished person or 3 5 2 ) householder. mthoñ-na mi-sdug-pa C. he being affected by the intention to pull out his only son 3 5 7 ) . T h i s translation is according to T. J^j. T. Now suppose this boy. § 3. skyed-pa. and for ' abhyutksepa ' in S. T. 350) 353) 349 manāpa (BHS). being a child. yid-du hoñ-ba. [It is called so] inasmuch as they attach themselves to the Phenomenal World. C. 355) C. (For the previous three. inserts ' pita '. C.

C. because Bodhisattvas have a notion of the only son towards all living beings. 4 * . ' Mother and relatives ' is a name for those people who belong to the Vehicles of Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. ' a pit of night-soil' is a name for the Phenomenal Life.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a would hurry to enter the pit with full speed without any feeling of disgust. has attained the direct perception of the immutable Absolute 361) . T. For pada. unpolluted. T. C. he preaches the Doctrine " . C. have it. T. T. don. C. dum-bu. nirdeśa. =§f| (artha). since they. for the sake of others. i The distinguished person or 3 6 0 ) the householder ' is a name for the Bodhisattva who is pure. vā. 364) [ 247 ] . by the powers of virtuous roots and Compassion. om. *Jjj.). he is not polluted by the world owing to the powers of means and the Intellect. having seen the living beings fallen into the world of transmigration. 5îw >is\j J^« >flj V £ v r ' (dharmadhātu). Being possessed of the skill of means and the Transcendental Intellect. T. pratisam V dhā. he again assumes 363) the origination into Existence. he is never affected by impurities. phyuñ-ba. connects himself3621 to the Phenomenal World by his own will. as S. being perfectly free from all bondages. mtshams sbyor-ba. AĀS jg/» " j ^U^ j§[. are distressed and lament. regards this passage as a quotation from the same Sūtra (SāgP. this example was made in order to make known a special meaning. & C. of unpolluted mind.. samjñā and premâdhyāśaya). O Sāgaramati. but C. in order to extirpate all the bondage of Defilements from the living beings. but still. asamskrta-dharma. ' adhyālambanatah ' would be preferable to accept). but T. but. and would take out 3 5 8 ) his only son. 3581 abhy-ut\J ksip. at the same time. p j . 4p. (Instead of ' anunīta '. C. By this explanation of words in the Scripture 3641 . but have no capacity to rescue [the living beings]. len-pa. S. Which relation 359) should be known [between illustrations and illustrated meaning]? O Sāgamarati. i An only son ' is a name for the living beings. om. T. O Sāgaramati. and. there is explained the pure and impure state of Bodhisattvas who have the Controlling Power through two points: [namely] the Bodhisattva attaches himself at his will to the origination in the world. Cf. > upa\/dā. such is the Great Compassion of the Bodhisattva that. in order to bring living beings to the maturity. T. 3591 3601 3611 362) 363 prabandha.

a h y b r i d form. For example. Believing in the fact that separate elements are created illusorily sn\ O Sāgaramati. rin thañ-pa (mahārgha). 367) asvāmikatā. Cf.v. T . p . he knows correctly the essential nature 3 7 3 ) of separate elements.). O Sāgaramati. and s t a r t s t h e n e x t quotation with t h e parable of t h e Vaidūrya stone. C. 5k»> | ^ . gshan-du mi-hgyur-bahi chos (ananyathābhāvadharma) is probably caused by a misunderstanding of the term dharma. Cf. (But the second Chinese translation of the SāgP. C. o m . It is said: '* O Sāgaramati. T . t h e s a m e ) . T. For nirātmatā. well polished. TAKASAKI § 4. C. i t k j ^ ^ M ^ î ^ l f l l f E l t S l (this word of the Sūtra has already been t a u g h t ) . bdag med-pa-ñid. bdag-po med-pa-ñid. B H S D i e . ' tathā vithapyante vithapitāś ca samānā'. of caus. This point 366) should be understood in detail according to the [same] Scripture. these elements are illusorily created 3 6 8 ) according to desire. 36 6 > T. T. 373 ' dharmatā. 368) vithapyante (pass. suppose there were an invaluable 376) Vaidūrya stone. 374) samnāha. 375) C. chos-ñid. 370) prakalpayati. well cleaned. offers no help to fix the meaning of ' vithapyate '. He will be possessed of the pure and immaculate perception based upon the Wisdom that there is nothing which causes benefit or harm 3 7 2 ) . 3. well purified. non-existence. SāgP. T . And thus he does never cast off the armour 3 7 4 ' of the Great Compassion 3 7 5 ) . no origination. T. s. 365 > dharmatā. Now. of no creator. T . after adjective) (Pali. 372) upakāro vā 'pakāro vā. After all. of no personality and of no owner 3 6 7 ) ! Indeed. T h e q u o t a t i o n is from SāgP. byed. pham-hdogs-paham gnod-par byed-pa. Thus. Cf. ' thousand years '). > anargha. the Bodhisattva does never produce the feeling of disgust for any phenomenon. of no substance. of vi \f sthā. then 365) he can obtain this essential quality as a Bodhisattva. 371) dharma-vithapanā. T. T . v . Bodhisattva's Perception on the Pure Mind.: ' hundred years '. om. vistarena. when a Bodhisattva has attained the correct perception of the Essence of the Tathāgata as being of no birth. 36 " samāna ( = sat. B H S D i e . s. u p t o here.J. o m . go-cha. perceive that separate elements are of no real essence. rab-tu rtogs-par . AĀS 469 b-c. they cannot cause [one] to think or to imagine 3 7 0 ) . ^} @ f £ H . Suppose it might be thrown into mud and would remain there for a thousand years 377> . . lifeless. As being 3 6 9 ) illusorily created. 377) 376 has [ 248 ] . • Cf. 68 a. . T.

cannot be excited 384) by any means. As being washed well. T. In the same way. perfectly cleaned and polished. om. ' | ^ &fâ (timid). He perceives also that the same mind is defiled by the accidental defilements. sbyañ-ba. C. 11. o m . p. 78. They are powerless.The Ratnagotravibhāga After the passing of a thousand years [in mud]. (S. when they are inspected by the real and correct perception 3 8 3 ) . rab-tu hbro-ba (but it should be -hgrol-ba). e t c . 11. pure and immaculate. ' na punah ślesah '. āgantuka and instead has upakleśa. with great intensity. A* fJb 'frf )E= (cannot rise). insertions equivalent to other passages of the Ratna. 7) is quoted in Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya as from AĀS. . Being accidental. It is notable that Paramārtha's translation is. P r o b a b l y from Pali ollyanā ( S k t . shum-pa. p. B H S Die. the Bodhisattva knows the innate radiant nature of the mind of living beings. passage than to AĀS. it is a good thing not to be contaminated by defilements. These defilements. C. 1. C. These defilements would never penetrate into the radiant Innate Mind of the living beings. of weak power. H | jfjQ. 1. these defilements are the production of unreal. h a s ' £). ?) Cf. 45. 17-20. 9—p. />«. 383) yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. I can teach the Doctrine for the sake of these living beings in order to remove their accidental 379) defilements. IE J€ • 384) 385) na kupyanti. Then the Bodhisattva thinks as follows: . not a good thing to be contaminated 385 '. [/JC] f$Q • T. Indeed. ^ j £ A H ÎP*l C. avalīyate. Again he thinks as follows: These defilements have no power and ability. (MSbh (P) 259 c-260 a). They should be investigated by us so that they might not contaminate again. ji—lta—ba-bshin—du tshul-bshin—du yid—la byed— 382 > -antike. he gives rise to the intention towards liberation 381) in the case of382) living beings. in turn. C. C. C. thad-tu. rather closer to the Ratna. Thus. he never has his mind demoralized380) and. which has. this stone would be drawn out from mud and would be washed 3 7 8 ) and cleaned. 380) avalîyana 381) avaliyanā. These defilements are [produced] by incorrect discrimination. A* [ 249 ] . 49. T. T. a n d for t h e former p a r t . }Çp }$£. opt. T. anavallyanatā. 50. of V lud). it would never abandon its nature of jewel. O Sāgaramati. They have no real foundation at all. wrong discrimination. v . T . . though abbreviated. p. pramoksa-citta. 3-9). s. 379) This passage (S. If I were contaminated by 378 > lodyeta (caus.

it is the World of Transmigration because it is manifested 388) under the influence of immaculate roots of virtue. it is said 3 8 9 ': " Therefore. ffi i^T • T > ŚMS 221 b. Because. § 6. being endowed with the manifestation of mind and mental 390) 391) states mixing both. in order to remove these bondages of defilements ? Oh ! really. as C. C. by which we are bound to the world of transmigration. 0 Lord. inserts ' f ^ 4 T »ff $ £ %&. usual. this is called ' the pure and impure state '. /Çf\ \tyt \ffli 1 ^ V £ . conditioned as well as unconditioned " . » citta - 892) T.3% gj [ 250 ] . 387) -pratibimbaka. the expression ' World of transmigration' (samsāra) implies the three kinds of Body made of mind in the Immaculate Sphere. T om > abhisamskrta. There is the Nirvana. C.. ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva. And here. C. hdres-pa. Indeed. And moreover. we should be attached to the defilements . om. S ' ( t0 practise pāramitās). it is the Nirvana because it is not manifested under the influence of the passionate Active Force and Defilements. we are not attached to defilements.. gzugs-brñan-yid. C * Cl» Wi V ^ • samślista.J. |f| >^C. At the same time. T. how could I teach the Doctrine for the sake of the living beings who are bound by the bondages of defilements. TAKASAKI defilements. Here. there is the Phenomenal World. 388 389 T. > 390) 391) citta-caitasika. we shall teach the Doctrine to the living beings in order to remove the bondage of defilements. therefore. the conditioned and the unconditioned. conditioned as well as unconditioned. in order to bring the living beings to 386) their maturity. And this state is predominantly established in the 6th Stage of Bodhisattva called Abhimukhl (ready for the Enlightenment) 392) . which are at the same time endowed with the roots of virtues " . With regard to this point. mñon-du gyur-pa. § 5. C. being an image similar to that 3 8 7 ) in the Phenomenal World. 386) C. Bodhisattva in His 6th Stage.

396 > sattvadhātu. 173-184. but the path towards its gates were steep and dark. he does never realize i t ' . 397) x. Having heard of the pleasure within the castle. Taisho. By skilful means. there is an illustration of a castle 3 9 7 ) in the Scripture. Why? Because. However. but probably S. . C. ^p* (C. 394) The word abhijñā in both S. No. as usual. 47th Parisat) (originally called ^ §i ^ I H l/f |PJ #X> Ratnacūdabodhisattva-pariprcchā). ' t o reach the gate of the castle ' is for [the attainment of] 5 abhijñās. 3fc flś^. 395 > C. RatnacūdabodhiChap. . he. T. he could pass over the steep path and reach a gate of the castle. he does never realize the Enlightenment. ' a castle' is the parable for mahāparinirvāna. XIII. Having accumulated them and being ready for the acquiring of āsravaksaya.The Ratnagotravibhāga rjn this Stage]. it and instead has moksa. which has many gates. According to C. the people who could enter this castle were enjoying a lot of pleasure. the other leg remaining outside. T. facing the acquisition 393 ' of the Extinction of Evil Influences 3 9 4 ) through his practices of unobstructed Highest Intellect and the Great Compassion395). Suppose again there were one person who had an only son and loved him. For the sake of the people. The illustration of a castle is available only in C. still does never realize that acquisition in order to protect all living beings 396 '. O noble youth. he accumulated the 5 abhijñās. C. 2) ~fc fl* ^ |§ ^ |5J ~p ~fc Hf ® Us i^T $ * W (Mahāratnakūtasūtra. (D) has mi(= nara) instead of nagara. is better omitted. without making use of his abhijñā for āsravaksaya. and full of dangers. 80 thausand in number. . But it is not the case. omission) 3 9 8 ) . the Bodhisattva. there were a castle of one square yojana. the illustration is as follows: " Suppose. he wanted to enter that castle leaving his son behind. namely 1) y\C J] Ç ç 3 ^ ^^ f^| p p _5f$ | * (Mahāsamnipātasūtra. O noble youth. H ^ | § £ is a mistake for 5 | Iff |§£). does act among the world of ordinary beings. But when he stepped inside with one leg. With reference to this Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences. It runs as follows: (. 'the steep p a t h ' is for the various actions of demons. ' the only son ' is for all living beings wandering in 5 paths (gati): * to remember his son' is for the Great Compassion. ^ ffi. Chi^=f J\. p. & T. 310 (47). Here. O noble youth. this is due to [the Bodhisattva's] [ 251 ] . om. ' Though having the capacity of attaining the Liberation. XI. 11. the Bodhisattva is also like him. he would remember his son and think: Why hadn't I accompanied my only son! Who could nourish him and let him get rid of suffering? And rejecting the pleasure in the castle. sattva-parivarta). ' many gates' are for the gates of samādhi. he would go back to his only son. due to his compassion towards living beings. and ' to go back to his son' is the parable for [the Bodhisattva's] leading of living beings. C. ' the other leg remained outside ' is for the Bodhisattva's non-realization of moksa. & T. 393) -abhimukhī. Taisho. . mñon-du phyogs-pa. regards mahākarunā-bhāvanayā as being connected with asāksātkarana. 3 8 » > The Ratnacūda-pariprcchā nese Tripitaka retains two versions of this Sūtra. ' stepped inside with one leg ' is for [the attainment of] the Wisdom. have a lacuna here.

C. for the sake of the living beings who are facing the world of transmigration. Having cultivated the Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences in order to rescue all living beings through the origination of the mind of Compassion. unclear. but not in order to taste it [by himself] 4 0 6 ) he turns his face 4 0 7 ) away from Nirvana. he becomes ready for the Extinc401) tion of Evil Influences. 40 °) parikarma—krta. bodhyañga. C. bsam-gtan dag (pi. T. T. drdhâdhyāśaya.J. owing to the Great Compassion. XIII. JO . byañ-chub-kyi yan-lag. [Jll] vipratipanna. Taisho. one can be born in t h e World of F o r m (rūpa-dhātu).). 0 noble youth. jâ^ jjjj. T h e y are said to be 7 r 252 ] . clear. reads as ' drdhâdhyāśaya-pratipattyā '. & C.. Thus. still wishes to save the living beings who are on the wrong way 4 0 4 ) . Having the mind purified 4 0 0 ) by the contemplation and Supernatural faculties. But both T. I ventured to omit this vocative word in this translation and treated the whole passage as an explanation by the commentator. RCP. 401) parijayam krtvā. the > [samyak-]pratipanna. 405 406) 407) T . T. ^\* ^ Q " . read as abhimukhasya. om. though having practised 4 0 3 ) correctly for his own sake. yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba. In this way is explained the 4 pure ' state of the Bodhisattva who has obtained the power for realization of the Extinction of Evil Influences in the [6th] Stage of the Bodhisattva named Abhimukhī. 181 a). not anāsvādana. lhag-pahi bsam—pa brtan-pa. For parijaya. log-par shugs-pa. suparikarmakrtacetāh. ro mi-myañ-ba. skilful means (upāya). 402) 403 404) 399) »y- -ill- 11 y—*i £ • inserts an explanation on • [eg 47*. I t is said t h a t b y t h e practice of these four dhyānas. yañ-dag—par rtogs—pa. [y an-dag-par] shugs-pa (to enter). produces the unobstructed Intellect in the 6th Stage and again becomes ready for the Extinction of Evil Influences. C. While cultivating the means for the bliss of the Quiescence. Though abiding [in the desireless World of Form] with [4 kinds of] contemplations 4 0 8 ) in order to accomplish the factors for the acquisition of Enlightenment 409) . he. through the origination of the Great Intention [towards the Nirvana] 3 9 9 ) by great efforts and exertion. C. T. C. saying: I will lead the others also to this true practice 4 0 5 ) . ' samyakpratipatti. T. §|£ [yj *U\ T. C . & C. yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba byas—pa (pariśuddha—krta). he. T. p. The following passage is actually not a quotation. C. C. C. [On the other hand]. in number. JZ3 f ^ > . C. T. 409) T. the Great Mercy and Compassion of the Bodhisattva is inconceivable " . which seems better. with perfectly purified mind 402>. TAKASAKI Thus. ^ J H . and the word ' kulaputra ' (S. vimukha. the Bodhisattva gives rise to the 5 Supernatural Faculties. (Cf. T.) is probably an excess. ^ § * jfvV **-^ 4T« attainment of the 4th and 5th Stages (bhūmi) here. 408) (catur)dhyāna.

414 ) ārya—gocaj a. bya-ba sgrub. See S. (Another interpretation of the verse 66) 4 1 2 ) . From these points mentioned above his state is explained as ' not perfectly pure '.The Ratnagotravibhāga ke voluntarily assumes 410) again the existence in the World of Desire J wishes to work for the sake of living beings as quickly as posn( sible 411)« [Thus] he has obtained the power for manifesting the body f ordinary beings by assuming various births [even] in the form of anio mals. There is another meaning of the śloka (Kārikā 24. 415) krtya-sampādana. BHS Die:'pratividhyati' (Pali pativijjhati). The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha. The Highest Means and Compassion. The son of the Buddha. parigrahana. 411) 410) [ 253 ] . yoñs-su hdsin-pa. o m . 412) C. Cf. 1. Similarly. om. the whole of the following paragraph. B. ' yāvad āśu '. rtogs-nas (having understood). Is still perceived by the ignorant In the appearances of birth. $lHj £ J £ . he is. T. // 70 // Being superior to all kinds of worlds. T . He is nevertheless not apart from the world. C. He is nevertheless seen among ordinary beings. for the friends of all the world.:This is really wonderful! // 69 // Having attained the position of the Saints 4 1 4 ) . v. p. though having understood 413> that This Absolute Essence is unchangeable. He acts in the world for the sake of the world Without being affected by the worldly pollution. T. 52. 66). 19: dharmatā—prativedhāt. // 71 // Just as a lotus flower growing in the water Is not polluted by the latter. s 7. though having been born in the world He is never polluted by worldly matters. The heading ' aparah ślokârthah' also supports this suggestion. Therefore. // 72 // His intelligence is always burning like fire 415) For bringing about the welfare [to the world]. C. which is therefore probably a later insertion. {gocara = caryāvisaya). as Chawdhuri noted) would be better than prativicya in the text. etc. 413) The reading pratividhya (Ms.

Such difference as lies between the atom and the earth. tshul ( = naya). was found b y Prof. 236-246. With no effort and with unobstructed Wisdom. ' pūrvâvedhavaśāt ' or ' pūrvâvedhāt' is t h e usual form. he is always practising 416) Meditation and concentration on the Quiescence 4 1 7 ) . TAKASAKI At the same time. //75// In such a way. knowing who is to be trained In what manner and by what means [Performs it] in the proper manner: By means of teaching. And because of being free from all discriminations. Bring benefits for the living beings Among the world. *23) samtārana. sambhoga-k. 421 ' -paryanta. & nirmāna-k). 109. See B H S Die. R o m e . 418) āvedha.J . to the other shore. 422) F o r gati^ x . I s M E O . of two apparitional forms 4 1 9 ) . T . // 77 // There is however a great difference Between Bodhisattvas and the Buddha. a n d is edited along with t h e T i b e t a n version b y h i m . //78// Of these ten verses taken respectively. he does always. T. sñoms-par shugs-pa. T. 417) This a n d t h e following 5 verses ( v v . w h i c h suggests t w o rūpakāyas (i. (Minor Buddhist Works. // 73 // Owing to the continuing force 4 1 8 ) of the previous life. gospada in Skt.e. Tucci. T. p . B u t T . [the first] 9 verses refer to the comparison [of the state of Bodhisattva] with the absolute impurity of those who rank below the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva named Pramuditā pratipanna. // 74 // The Bodhisattva. mthah Mas (ananta). G. By conduct [of ordinary life] or by religious observances 4 2 0 ) . 74-78) were q u o t e d i n A m r t ā k a r a ' s T ī k a on t h e Catuhśubha of N ā g ā r j u n a . 419) j?OT deśanyā rūpakāyābhyām. limitless 4 2 1 ) like the sky. A m r t ā k a r a ' s quotation reads deśanā-rūpakāyābhyām. 1958). 420) īryā-patha. 424) gospada (BHS. 416) [ 254 ] . āvedha (2). deśanī is a r a r e form. Or in [the water] in a foot-print of a bull 424) and in the ocean. bstan dan gzugs-sku dag dan ni. of which a Sanskrit M s . I I p p . sbyod-lam. yañ-dag sgrol-ba. The Bodhisattva becomes equal to the Tathāgata On account of his act of conveying 423) the living beings In various worlds.). T. He does not use any exertion at all For bringing the living beings to their maturity. // 76 // Having obtained this position4 2 2 ) . hphen-pa (— āksipta).

425 > T. [In mameghā comparison with the states. (C. by the first and second verses. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is practising the way to the acquisition in the Stages beginning with [the 2nd named] Vimalā 4 3 0 ) up to [the 7th named] Dūramgamā (Far-Going)4 3 1 ) .The RatnagotraviDûaga (Joy) 425)> a n d the 10th verse refers to the comparison with the supreme purity of the Stage above the [10th] Stage of Bodhisattva named Dhar(Cloud of Doctrine) 4 2 6 ) (i. prati\/ vyadh). and.e. because [in these stages] he practises the unpolluted practices. The combination of these 4 groups with the 10-bhūmis seems to be the latest development. the 3rd. dri-ma med-pa (C. For viśuddhi. but how to combine both sets is not determined. From the point of wiew of the development of the bhūmi theory. The four kinds of Bodhisattvas are as follows: 1) He who has resolved upon the acquisition for the first time (prathamacittotpādika). 2) spyod-pa-la shugs-pa 428) 427) f< (C. This is probably a mistake. [ 255 ] . By the 5th verse. T. Often these four are identified with the first. 3) phyir mi-ldog-pa. WK T. 429) prativedha (BHS for Skt. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities 4 2 8 ) of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the Stage of Pramuditā resolving upon the acquisition for the first time. these four stages are regarded as older than the 10—bhūmis theory of the Daśa bhūmikā. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has got the irreversible next birth (ekajātipratibaddha) 427) . also has ' yon-tan '. 428) -phg reading ' gana ' in the text is corrected into ' guna \ in comparison with the following three examples. T X i a ) . there is explained in brief the purity and impurity of the four kinds of Bodhisattvas in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva. -^1^ ^ S $!r). --jjjfj jgç iU^). 430 > T. j n s tead has mi-gyo-ba (acalā. yoñs-su dag-pa (pariśuddhi). the first one is said to be equivalent to darśanamārga and the second to bhāvanāmārga. T. V S j ^ sems dañ-po bskyed-pa (C. because [in this stage] he has understood 4 2 9 ) the highest supermundane Essence which had never been seen before since beginningless time. ^) skye-ba gcig-gis thogs-pa (C. the 8th Stage). the Stage of the Buddha). the 7th and the 10th of the 10 vihāras (C. T. By the third and the fourth verses. 3) He who has ascended the irreversible stage (avaivartika). 2) He who is practising the way towards the acquisition (caryāpratipanna). ' * ^•p ' j ^ Ifeîi). respectively. both below and above]. mthoñ-bahi phyir (darśanāt for prativedhāt). | | 43i) T. Of these four. 4) He who is expected to be the Buddha in the Here. rab-tu dgah-ba (C. chos-kyi sprin (C. \ j i ) .

because [in this last stage] he. because [in this stage] he has firmly stood in the meditation as the practice immediately connected with the acquisition of the Great Enlightenment. (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure State. By the 9th and 10th verses. 7th and 8th verses. [ 256 ] . is connected with the Stage of the Buddha by one and the last birth 432) on account of the acquisition of the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. Also it is of undestructible nature Because its own nature is not created [by conditions] 4 3 5 ) . ananyathâtmā.J. anaparântakoti. having attained the ultimate point of means for fulfilling all the benefits for his own as well as for others. f l A^ ^ L . 79 d. T. gshan-hgyur-min-bdag. which is difficult to be identified with S. -A^ 2§B J ^ 1 • See v * 66. C. there are explained the equality and difference between the purity of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has reached the ultimate point with regard to the aim of others and of his own. It is always non-dual Because it is indiscriminative. and that of the Buddha's qualities. C. (Kārikā 25) This [Essence of the Buddha] is of unalterable nature4 3 3 ) Because it is endowed with inexhaustible properties. It is the refuge of the world Because it has no limit in the future 4 3 4 ) . By the 6th. nor does it die. Now. It does not suffer [from illness]. 432) buddhabhūmy-ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha. // 79 // What is shown by this śloka ? It is not born. C. T. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the 10th Stage named Dharmameghā. phyi-mahi mthah-med myur-thug. we have one śloka with reference to the meaning of 4 unchangeability ' in the perfectly pure state [of the Buddha]. TAKASAKI state in the [8th] Stage named Acalā (Immovable). Because it is eternal. 3»§? 3i§ |?J> • 433) 434) 438 > For v. ^ * fi^ ffl W^ j lj* J] $fc . nor is it decrepit. being expected to be the Buddha in the next birth.

C. shi-ba. C. Being ' everlasting ' in regard to its end. in case it is abiding on the Stage of the Buddha which is absolutely immaculate. (asamskrtadhātu in the prose comm. it is not born Even with [the form of] the Body made of mind 4 3 7 ) . etc. T . C. the meaning of Eternity. By each couple of terms. brten-pa.^kitst C. it does not become decrepit By the accumulation of the Passionless Active Force 4 3 8 ) . is ' eternal' in regard to its beginning. phala of bodhicitta) D ^ $fr #fl ^fc ftb ^ —-BJ tt *a ® * % R & * * & £ mm 439 440) 441) w«. Being everlasting. ^^ $6m. don-med-pa. Thus. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. gyuñ-druñ. respectively. 4) śāśvata. T. Bodhisattvas are regarded as ' partly impure '. it is never born even in the form of Body made of mind. And. JMT ( = t h e world of transmigration). 5»îv i^H J ^ 9 r (anāsrava-). and consequently never becomes decrepit through the transformation brought about by the Passionless Active Force. Because of the birth in the form of manomayakāya and others. it has no suffering From the illness of subtle defiling forces. C. ^ 437) . 438 > Cf. C. // 81 // Being quiescent. //80// Being eternal. y)\ gîpj: (parigrhīta). it is ' constant '. are of Bodhisattvas and don't belong to the Buddha. it does not die Even with the Inconceivable Transformation. // 82 // Indeed. ma thog-pa.w ffi* Si anarthāL_@. T. Therefore. it does not die in the manner of the inconceivable Transformation. C. F o r apatita. [ 257 ] . it never suffers from illness depending on 4 3 9 ) the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. hdus-ma-byas-kyi dbyiñs. quiescent and costant 4 3 6 ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga Everlasting. In regard to the immutable Sphere 4 4 1 ) Is to be known. > parigraha. 3) śiva. rtag-pa. fff ^ . anartha. pure and radiant by its own nature. T. Here. T. manomayakāya. being constant. C. 2) dhruva. beginning and end.). not falling into misery 4 4 0 ) . Being ' quiescent ' in regard to both.. DAŚ 892 b: (under the item 1. T. T. T. this Essence of the Tathāgata. A^ 8 § . /\ patita is t o b e resolved i n t o anartha-apatita. etc. f{3 . // 83 // 436) These 4 terms are as follows: 1) nitya. asamskrta-pada.

r e n d e r i n g is helpless to fix t h e m e a n i n g a n d C. ' everlasting '. There is no Nirvana. according to the Scripture 4 4 3 ) . (Kārikā 26) It is the Absolute Body. T .) adds two verses here. & # t mm^—m mm^mm m us at mm mm [ 258 ] ī £ IP J t *D # #U j | . JLAJi-ASAKI Of these four terms. namely ' eternal'. akrtrima-dharma. o m . respectively. Does i t m e a n Nirvana of the Buddha and not that of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha? 445 444) Cf. 447) -phe c o m b i n a t i o n of paramârtha w i t h nirvana (nirvrti i n t h e t e x t ) is peculiar. DAŚ 893 c (on Ekatva): jft IP M. bstan—pa & bśad— pa. respectively. Also it is the Holy Truth. is Everlasting. apart from the Buddhahood. A s a m b h e d a ) . because it exists as far as the farthest limit. (10. it is the Tathāgata. // 84 // * 4 2 ' uddeśa & nirdeśa. Being of uncreated nature 4 4 4 ) . the Highest 4 4 7 ) Nirvana. 0 Śāriputra. 0 Śāriputra. ' quiescent ' and ' constant% the distinction of the meaning of each term in regard of the Immutable Sphere is to be understood by each couple of terms showing ' statement ' and 4 explanation ' 4 4 2 ) . C. ^v!p. T . ^ p | p V S . (as well as Ms. With reference to this meaning of ' undifferentiation ' we have one śloka. is Eternal since it is of unalterable nature through its inexhaustible properties. This Absolute Body. being indivisible from qualities like the sun with its rays. > Cf. T. B . C. 0 Śāriputra. B G Ś 8 1 1 c ff. O Śāriputra. does n o t h a v e t o b e corrected w i t h ' -garbhasya '. b e c a u s e i t was t h e u s u a l case t o use t h e t e r m dhātu i n such h e a d i n g s i n this t e x t . It is said as follows: " This Absolute Body. paramârtha. (X) ASAMBHEDA 445) The Essence 448> of the Tathāgata characterized as having reached the ultimate point of perfect purification in this pure state is of undifferentiated (asambheda) nature. 446) ^ h e r e a ( J i n g ' tathāgatadhātor ' i n Ms. of undestructible character ". this Absolute Body is Constant.J . Therefore. the everlasting refuge. a n d t h e r e is no essential difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s . B. m ) AAN 467 b. of non-dualistic nature. JQ±. this Absolute Body is Quiescent. which are no doubt interpolations. Being of indiscriminative nature.

C. § f $ 7J£ ^ ^ 0 J ¥ ' should be ' ^ ' according to the meaning). // 86 // 1) The first meaning: [the Essence of the Buddha] is indivisible from the Buddha's properties. ^ ^ ^ ^ . K 1) — '8J ft ?£ f t ^ ^ ffi 81 i amuktajña.: W < l # G «2» ŚMS 221 c. // 85 // In short. B Ś ibid. 154-5 and commentary thereon. An explanation of the meaning of ' tathāgata '. Here. In accordance with these 4 meanings. C . Then which are the 4 meanings ? It is indivisible from the Buddha's Properties. Lit. And it is quiescent from the very outset 4 5 1 ) . [ 259 ] . There are 4 synonyms. 450) amrsāmosadharmitva. -^f (ft for tadgotrasya "9» tathāgama. 3) # g B M ffll V£. Cf. in brief. inseparable [from Wisdom] 4 5 4 ) and are greater in number than the sands of the Gangā " . T. C. T. p. T. miñ—gi rnam-grañs. 453) aśūnya. 448 * nāmaparyāya.^: tathāgamah). C. 76. indivisible. further explanation will be given in S. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not empty 4 5 3 ) [because it is endowed] with the Buddha's Properties which are inconceivable.The K 1. f 2 * U s ^\* /MM: 3 C • 451 > ādiprakrtiśāntatā. tathāgatagarbha is not empty of buddhadharmāh (buddhadharmair aśūnyam). de-bshin thob-pa. C. 464) 2) — 'W m @ £H. Its Germ has been perfected as it is 4 4 9 ) . there should be known 4 synonyms 4 4 8 ) . vv. the Absolute Body and others Since [the Germ] in the Immaculate Sphere Has four meanings from different aspects. it is said as follows 4 5 2 ) : " O Lord. JpÇ #H ("$•£ JpÇ $D f. ^ ^ /0U (lit. mi-stoñ-pa. Ratnagotravibhāga Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata. unreleased from the wisdom). It is not of false. T. bral mi-śes-pa. On this conception. C. 4) * ^ 3g P . there are four meanings in regard to the Matrix of the Tathāgata as the Immaculate Sphere (or Essence). deceptive nature 4 5 0 ) . what is shown by the former half of the śloka ? It should be known. With reference to this meaning.

a d ā y a t a n a s ū t r a seems t o have h a d a structure similar t o t h e SMS. deceptive nature. TAKASAKI 2) The second meaning: Its Germ. someone is expressing his understanding i n front of t h e B u d d h a a n d t h e B u d d h a acknowledges i t . jffc. a n d I could n o t find t h e exact passage i n SMS. 197 b). V s U s ^* 459) .J. tādrśah. 3) The third meaning: It is not of false. the Innate Nature has been 455) 456) perfected in an inconceivable manner . 2—4 (on prakrtistha-gotra). It stands for tathā in the verse. (i. it is said as follows 4 6 2 ) : 44 Being in Nirvana from the very outset. AksP. [ 260 ] is preferable from t h e context. 457 ^ C. whose nature For what reason ? Because the Germ is eternal is undeceptive.e. 462 > J Ā A 241 c. brgyud-nas (from ancestors). C. T. reference to this point. I suppose this quotation is also from t h e Sadāyatanasūtra. a vocative ' bhagavan ' is also inserted i n t h e previous quotation and t h e S. 461) T # reading shi-ba(śama) 2§£ H>C (śāśvatadharmatayā). has come down since beginningless time from one existence to another existence 4 5 8 > assuming 4 5 9 ) various forms consisting of six organs of cognitions. does not mention t h e n a m e of t h e source. ^EcX which is missing now. 4) The fourth meaning: It is of the nature of absolute quiescence. i . — āgama (in the verse). The following quotation shows a quite unique interpretation of the word tathāgata. the Arhat. the Perfectly enlightened One is of neither origination nor destruction " . because. BGŚ quotes the sentence as from AĀS (812 a) f/S | $ for ? £ Hf). Cf. O attributes i t t o SMS. it is said as follows 4 6 0 ) : 44 44 With Here. T. C. de-hdra-ba (connecting with sadāyatanaviśesah). bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pahi rnam-pa. C. (Cf. that which is the Highest Truth is Nirvana. by its being quiescent " 4 6 1 ) . 1 460) The source is uncertain. 3. thob-pa. 11. BBh. samudāgama. acintya-prakāra. having attained the Absolute Essence. [ y \ ^pc] % 4 _/£ . mentions the name of the source. the Tathāgata. it is said as follows : [This Germ]. according t o C . With reference to this point. T. in the form of various living beings) " . 458) parampara. T. i. With reference to this 457) point. b u t C.e. has no literal translation. AĀS 469 b — * %/J ^ flj?^?.e. Sadāyatanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśi—sūtra) 458) 455) I a -£*T3 "H^y ^ 7 7 ? ( y \ \\X.

what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? Being the Perfect Enlightenment in all aspects. The Absolute Body is. respectively. there are four synonyms. O Lord. o m . 220 c. O Lord. O Lord. See c o m m e n t a r y . And being the removal of pollutions along their root4 6 5 ) . " Under the name of the Extinction of the Suffering. " O Lord. [ 261 ] . 3) the Highest Truth. 464) 466) 467) C. " The Sphere of the Nirvana. 468) these four are one in their sense.st o n e j s f or buddhatva a n d t h e n e x t o n e is for nirvana. and that which is called 'Nirvana' because of its removal of pollutions along with their remaining forces which takes 467 a . the following fact is to be known. Namely. is the name for the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . 465) T n e fij. reads ' inseparable from t h e highest truth ' ( / p J|ft I f ? —* ffH). [?£] f*^ (' /f* | | 8 — ' V Î f*l 'f* Pjji: * f^ *gg' for advayadharmanayamukhena).The Ratnagotravibhāga For these four meanings. T . 1) the Absolute Body. tshul-gyi sgo-nas. Now. Therefore. A n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e 'na' is t o b e inserted before ' a n y o dharmakāyah' (-gato nānyo dharmakāyah). 222 a. there is indicated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. * yq'C (ekarasa). by means of the Doctrine of non-duality. // 87 // These four synonyms of the Immaculate Essence converge into the 467 undifferentiated ' meaning of the Essence of the Tathāgata. Buddhahood and Nirvana Are one and the same in the highest viewpoint 4 6 6 ) . these both are not different from [each other 4 6 4 > . that which is called ' Buddhahood ' because of its Perfect Enlightenment regarding all kinds of phenomena. for which C. being endowed with such properties " . namely. The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana. 468 > nayamukhena. O Śāriputra. T. C. nothing but the Tathāgata " . abbhinna. the Tathāgata and the Absolute Body. respectively. and hence. Ś M S 220c. § 2. It is said as follows 4 6 3 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata. is the name for the Absolute Body. 2) the Tathāgata. and 4) the Nirvana.

which are Of all kinds. [On the other hand] it is said: 4 7 7 ) : " By reason of having attained Nirvana. sarvākāra.' in the text should be corrected. adds one epithet m o r e : sy* ^*g pjjffc (avinirbhāga). p. it is said in the Scripture 4 7 3 ) with reference to the Nirvana of the Arhat and Pratyekabuddha: " [Here]. The place in MPS remained untraced. C. 58. O Lord. By this passage it is explained that this [Nirvana of the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas] is a means made by the Perfectly Enlightened Ones who have the highest Controlling Power on [all] phenomena 4 7 4 ) in order to protect them (i. 472 473) 476 rfy ī ? atavî.e. inconceivability and purity ". O Lord. buddhatva & nirvana. . ^ ^ ^ ^ *^§ § S $£ tf1 {yata aha Mahāparinirvānasūtre). asamkhyeya. that is the Tathāgata ". T. HH 5!*. > ŚMS 219 c. [ 262 ] 1. By this passage it is explained that. innumerable. TAKASAKI place simultaneously with 4 6 9 ) the Perfect Enlightenment. having realized the Nirvana which is characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment 4 7 8 ) mahâbhisambodhāt. See S. Also. 470) 469) C. T. C. the Perfectly Enlightened Ones are endowed with properties showing the ultimate point of the entireness. nisthāgata (in the quotation). are lacking the heading. B u t T. ^ f^. 9 & 12). Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas) against retreat. dub-pa. it is just like the illusory city in the forest 4 7 5 ) made for the travellers who are tired 4 7 6 ) after their long way [in order to encourage them]. the Arhats. immeasurebility. & T. T. But C. these two are non-dual. the Tathāgatas. These 4 are called ' caturākāragunanispatti ' in the commentary.J. as S. amala. 477 > pariśrānta. hbrog-dgon. respectively. This Liberation. [So it is said] 4 7 1 ) : " Liberation is of the characteristic Indivisible from the properties. C. unthinkable and immaculate 4 7 2 ) . An epithet of the Buddha. 473 > ŚMS 219 c. 471 > Both S. indivisible and inseparable 4 7 0 ) in the Immaculate Sphere. grub-pa. o m . which makes t h e meaning clear. ap? j^L. 474) dharma-parameśvara. 0. adds lhan-cig (together). 478) nispatti (the reading ' nispatsv. C. acintya. C. the Nirvana is merely a means used by the Tathāgata ".

Cf. . The Parable of the Painters. 38§ | ^ A —-— (kasyacid . 2) aprameya. the four terms are as follows: 1) sarva. T. 484) This illustration of the painters is originally taken from the Ratnacūdasūtra. C. t h o u g h t h e former is often used). [Each of them] expert in a different sphere. T . 481) 482) T. 483) 486) avadhārayati (to understand). zin-pa (to apprehend). the Perfectly Enlightened Ones identify themselves with Nirvana 4 8 0 ) . therefore. (having accepted 488) 489) pratiśrutya.m M m m $. // 88 // Then a mighty king would give them A painting cloth 4 8 7 ) with the following commandment: On this [cloth] ye all should draw my portrait 4 8 8 ) . // 89 // Then the painters. T. Here (in SMS). Cf. ^ ^ ^J] (_. T. BGŚ 8 1 2 c : ^ ^ C . T . C. no one 4 8 1 ) can realize Nirvana apart from Buddhahood. T. . — ^ Z —" 'HI % tadātmakam bhavati. quotes the original account after the verses. Suppose there were some painters 4 8 5 ) . The others could not understand 4 8 6 ) . C. Buddhahood and pftrvāna. na). hbri. Of these [painters] engaged in this work. the Buddhas are possessed of all kinds of properties since they have accomplished 4 8 2 ) the Non-substantiahty endowed with all sorts of excellency 4 8 3 ) . hgah yañ (= kaścid). 7JN * ^ . J^. om. C. This is here to be known through the illustration of the painters 4 8 4 ) .The o Ratnagotravibhāga f properties of four kinds 4 7 9 ) . j j | (î>£) i t ] H . C. 479) See Note 471. would be b e t t e r in sense. [ 263 ] . Would start their work of painting. gzugs. K 3. C. So that whatever skill possessed by one of them. . t o draw. in the Immaculate Sphere. ri-mo hdri-byed-pa (for hdri. RCS 176 a. m i§. 4) viśuddhi. thos-gyur t h e c o m m a n d m e n t of t h e king). T. = # s *i B 480) 3) acintya. ras. /\\. 485) citra-lekhaka. are endowed with inseparable properties. as both of these. te (having heard of i t ) . TO abhinirhāra. ( U ^ 8 -9J f^ ^ * . C. pratikrti. having promised 4 8 9 ) [to the king]. (ffS). C. mchog ( = śrestha). 487 > dūsya. vara. mñon-par bsgrubs-pa. Now.

tshad med-pa. T. \X • These are the so-called sat—pāramitāh. 4 9 5 ) . 258 b. the Non-origination of [all] the elements 4 9 7 ) is realized. ' non-completion of the king's portrait' means the non-endurance of the knowledge of non-substantiality. BGŚ 8 1 3 > . // 91 // The painters who are meant here are Charity. On the basis 490) viyoga. anutpattika-dharma. 5) viksepa (C. [Bodhisattvas can] ascend to their 8th Stage called Acalā (Immovable). 491 492 493) aparimita. faultless 4 9 8 ) . om. C. on t h e relation of t h e 4 characteristics t o t h e Stages of Bodhisattva. 3»W iSk • This is for aprameya. 7^E)î a r e vipaksas of dāna. mi-skye-bahi chos-ñid. The Non-substantiality is called the picture 492>. â [ 264 ] f£^ (natural). without any break and bearing its own taste 4 9 9 ) . 5Sv | H i (without interruption). > I* . mala. On account of its number and power. vīrya. /f\ PuL). ksānti. dhyāna. having exterminated the remaining force of pollutions 4 9 4 ) by its enemies. 49S > 1) mātsarya (C. ^ an f ^ ) . Morals. -jftÇ* T. (D) inserts unnecessarily one Pada between c and d of v. 92. respectively. ma tshan (incomplete). [each virtue] is to be known as being ' pure '. TAKASAKI One would have gone abroad 4 9 0 ) . Cf. C. \$f /§»). through practice by means of Meditation on the Nonsubstantiality endowed with all sorts of excellencies. each one is differentiated into limitless varieties in accordance with the Buddha's Sphere [of activity]. for which C. Patience and other dispositions 4 9 1 ) Being endowed with all kinds of these excellencies. Because of this realization. C. T. 3RT £ E I S 3o> ( = anutpattika-dharma-ksānti). but C. it should be known as 'immeasurable' 4 9 3 ) . śila. ākāra. charity and the rest. adds one verse saying: ' One painter is absent' means the lack of one ākāra. // 92 // Here. 3) dvesa (C. saying: de-la mñon-par sbyin rnams-kyi. it should be known as being ' inconceivable ' and. 4) kausīdya (C. in the form of ' envy '. T. Now 4 9 6 ) . has it. MSbh (P). Thus the parable is made. Therefore. d 6) moha (C. 496) Hereafter.J. T . 2) kaukrtya (C. om. // 90 // Because of his absence during his being abroad This picture would remain Without the completion of all parts. and prajñā. C. ' C. Bji). etc. T. the 2nd of the 4 characteristics. 494 > T. skyon med-pa (without defect). where they can get the knowledge of the Path which is indiscriminative. f|g). of these [excellent virtues]. 498) 497) niśchidra.

the Wisdom and the Liberation. As the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas cannot perceive 5 0 4 ) these four knowledges. C. the highest ' purity ' of Buddhas' properties is completed. they can obtain the knowledge 5 0 1 ) for assuming the immeasurable properties of the Buddha. the entireness of Buddhas ' properties in the Immaculate Sphere is completed. reads brgya-stoñ ( = śatasahasra). And they are inseparable 5 0 6 ) from [the Absolute Essence]. On the basis of this knowledge. Ikog-tu ma gyur-pa. radiant. The Intellect. ŚMS 219 c (after the explanation of ' caturākāraguna ' of the Tathâgata): C. basing himself upon the knowledge revealing 5 0 2 ) the secret 5 0 3 ) state of all the Buddhas. aviparoksa. the Wisdom and the Liberation Are [respectively] bright. Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun. on the basis of knowledge which leads to the liberation from all impediments on account of Defilements and Knowables along with their remaining forces. T. The rays. Cf. tha-dad-med. 603 > guhya. ' to be '. Immediately after this stage. but C. the 4 inconceivability' of Buddhas' properties is completed. ^ J . the foundations of these Stages [above Acalā]. C. and clear. T. and the disk of the sun. aiming at the acquisition of the Stage of Buddha. they are said to be far from the Sphere of the Nirvana 5 0 5 ) characterized as being indivisible from the accomplishment of the properties of the [above mentioned] four kinds. 501) 502) C. On the Bodhisattva's [last] Stage called Dharmameghā.o r samudra. Therefore. T. T. T. ffî£ . calls t h i s jñāna ' śūnya(tā)-j ñāna ' (^-r^ ^ 3 ).The Ratnagotravibhāga f this knowledge. C. [ 265 ] . (as Parasmaipada). by means of immeasurable forms of Meditation and magic formulas like the ocean 5 0 0 ) . // 93 // That which is indicated as the Sphere of the Nirvana characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment of four kinds of properties through the Intellect. the 4 immeasurability ' of [Buddhas'] properties is completed. they are similar to the light. § 4. 504) 605) 506 > abheda. gsañ-ba. 5ft Bill • samdrśyate. is explained to soo) p. On the Stage of Bodhisattva called Sādhumati /perfect Knowledge). mthoñ-ba.

om. and 4) As these three are undifferentiated from the Absolute Essence..J. 1) The transcendental Intellect which is supermundane and indis criminative is. i. [ 266 ] . ' tribhir ekena ca kāranena '. through its engaging in the destruction of darkness [that hides] the highest true essence of everything cognizable. C. om. C. into ākāra. T. darśana. simply |g (in comparison with prajñā 510) S11 > jāla. T. C. 514) sāmnidhya. 616) 617) For dharmatva. there exists the essential nature 5 1 5 ) of the indivisible properties of Tathāgatas. T. There is no attainment of Nirvana. T. has a resemblance to the purity of the disk of the sun through its being perfectly free from pollution and its being radiant.rjes-lathob-pa. from sāmnidhya up to upahite. by three aspects 507> on account of the Intellect. without exception. Therefore. śes-bya thams-cad-kyi ye-śes (sarvajñeyajñāna). spañs-nas. Therefore. C. Avoiding 5 1 2 ) its light and rays. 508) ( T . prajñā. T. respectively. within the Essence [of the Buddha] which is endowed with 5 1 3 ) the virtuous qualities as its own nature constantly associated 5 1 4 ) since beginningless time. akin to the light [of the sun]. namely. jñāna-darśana. o m . 3) The Liberation of the Innate Mind. for which C. buddhasāntānika. there is a similarity to the light and others through their indivisibility [from the sun]. C. T.T. akin to the radiance of the net 5 1 1 ) of rays. C. the true introspection 5 1 7 ) by the Intellect 5 1 8 ) free from attachment and of no 507) kārana i n t h e t e x t . through its penetrating everything knowable of all kinds. ye-śes-kyi gzigs-pa. T. om. C. C. etc. without the acquisition of Buddhahood. S18 > T. has ' § J U ' .e. nir V vri-> P a n nibbajjeti). Just as it is impossible to see the sun. dra-ba. yon-tan mam-par dbyer-med-pahi chos-ñid 613) 512) yin-pa. rnam-pa). -dañ Idan-pa. -tva. the basis of the above two (Intellect and Wisdom). j^p 1 <£C =*7 • * %)J ^t)« 509 > sarvajña-jñāna. J H | P | . 2) The Wisdom of Omniscience 509> 510) which is attained subsequently is. unless the Buddhahood 5 1 6 ) . I t is preferably corrected. and by one [in general]. ñe-bar gnas-pa ( = upasthita). upahita. T. {J^ =Ef (— dharmakāya). om. T. and instead has anāsrava. prsthalabdha. sañs-rgyas-kyi rgyud-la mñah-ba. // 94 // Thus. nirvrjya (fr. ^ ^ ^^j . Here in the Buddha's body 5 0 8 ) . tathāgatatva = buddhatva. 616) avinirbhāga-gunadharmatva. TAKASAKI have similarity to the sun in four aspects. C.

with Wisdom 519 523) O Lord. Therefore. V$ . furthermore. prior to the quotation has an interpretation of this subject.). If there were a difference among the causes. there should be another nirvana than this. is understood. T . C. those who . it is for those who have the Wisdom of equality. we cannot say we get one result on the basis of higher or lower causes. b u t C. [it is of one and the same] taste and Liberation " . have the liberation of equality 521) Lord. (DAS 894 a). [ 267 ] . it is said the Sphere 5 2 2 ) of the Nirvana is of unique taste. it is said : " O Lord. S20 DAS also quotes the same passage and. has i t . It runs as follows: " I t should be known. That is to say. of equal taste. the acquisition will not take place. o m . that there is only one way of the One Vehicle.e. or those who have attained the Therefore.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hindrance. (Lit. true introspection through the liberation of equality. > ŚMS 220 b. available [only] to [those who know] the equality of all the elements. 621 * B22) sama—vimukti. If otherwise. 0 The acquisition of the Nirvana is. How may it be possible for the superior nirvana and the inferior nirvana to exist within one dharmadhātu? Also. just as we cannot see the disk of the sun without a 5l9) perceiving its light and rays. the realization of the Sphere of Nirvana characterized as the liberation from ll the impediments. ' hina—pranlta—dharmānām (Bahuvrīhi comp. dhātu. T . therefore she (= Śrlmālādevl) said). i. 6!!3 > vidyā. [In other words]. O Lord. rig-pa. there would also be a difference among the results " . there is no acquisition of the Nirvana for [those who maintain] the inferiority or superiority of [all] the elements 5 2 0 ) .

anādi-. And hereafter. 467 6. For aparyanta . C. likewise associating since the beginningless time. it should be understood. 8) sāmnidhya. TGS 457a-460 6. chos-ñid. T h i s f o r m u l a (aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidyamānatā) is. C. (f8& # p 1 f r •§?' :$£). 4) as eternal as the ultimate limit [of the world] . rig-par bya-ba-ñid. dharmatā. BGŚ 806 c-808 c. C. See my Introduction. koti. is essentially connected with it [as being its own nature]. this Matrix. T . C. 66. (thog-ma med-pahi dus-nas) and C. 5) asambaddha. ' covered ' in the meaning. But S. T. and the pure Essential Nature. T . j [ 268 ] .. THE 9 ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE GERM COVERED WITH DEFILEMENTS « § 1. as concealed by the covering of defilements Is to be known by the following illustrations. ^ samvidyamānatā. n. T . // 95 // Thus. originally taken from AAN. with reference to the fact that the covering of defilements is essentially unconnected 5 ) [with the Innate Mind] although associating with 6 ) it since the beginningless time 7 ) . T. C. together with the next two formulae (on kleśakośatā and śubhadharmatā). x) 2) 2) 3) C. phyi-mahi mthahi mu dan mtshuñs—pa. by 9 illustrations based upon the Scripture 8 ) . with reference to the existence of the Essential Nature . om.IX. Thus have been explained the characteristics Of the Matrix of the Buddha from 10 aspects. The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. we have hitherto explained the characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata from 10 points of view. Like honey surrounded by bees. 3) 4 7) 8) 9) So T. m ® t S 0 Î 1 8 PO I S A • Cf. Which are the 9 illustrations? (Kārikās 27-57) Like the Buddha in an ugly lotus flower. VzC flU • * aparântakoti—sama. Now. that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the limitless 9 ) coverings of defilements. ñe-bar gnas-pa (upasthita). ma hbrel-ba. n o t clear..

hbras—chuñs. lto[-ba] (belly). aīpd). impurities and the ground. like a tattered garment. Like gold fallen into impurities. the Highest Lord of the world. C. Then the Lord started his pronouncement on the Essence of the Tathāgata abiding within each living being. praklinna = pūti (v. 10) sāra. Like a sprout. honey. hrul. But still there was the Buddha sitting within each flower. This idea of the origination of the Tathāgata is probably borrowed from the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of t h e Avatamsaka. T G S 457 c. ' jathala.. ^ ($£ ^ ) . T h e s t o r y given i n t h e S ū t r a is as follows: Once t h e L o r d . there abides this Essence // 97 // 13) 14) 15) // 96 // woman. {EE • • • T ^ . 98) T .The Like kernels of 10) Ratnagotravibhāga grains covered by the husk. The (I) excellent Essence has a resemblance to them. In such a way. pollutions are like A lotus flower. The edible part of grains. gold. ' jaghanya. Like a woman of misery. . treasure. T . C. shining with a thousand marks [of virtue]. T. husk. mi-bdag. The Defilements are like the ugly sheath of lotus flowers. // 98 // 16) . T. but all at once they became faded and began to give a bad smell. In the living beings obscured by occasional stains of defilements. • - la) 13 14 ' nrpatva. ñan ( u g l y ) . x1 ' alpa—phala. T . . J g ^ Jfjç @ ^ |H!2 (poor a n d u g l y ) . And the Buddha. 98). showed a miracle. sñiñ-po. [In these illustrations]. C. etc. and like earth tormented by the fire of pains. ^ ^ . (om. and Suppose the Buddha.. C. Bodhisattvas were surprised at this sight and asked the Lord for the explanation of this miracle. Like the kinghood in the womb of a poor And like a precious statue in the earthen mould. Jp|p $flfl -3Î. bees. Like a treasure under the ground. A Nyagrodha tree. sitting in the assembly of Bodhisattvas. 17) Cf. They came to blossom at the same time. T. ^ . There appeared thousands of lotus flowers having the apparitional Buddha within and shining with splendour fragrant. [ 269 ] C. Were abiding in the inside 1 8 ) a faded lotus flower.hi khoñ gnas-pa. 16 18) 16) garbha-vestita. cleaned kernels And a purified precious statue. jfr1] j§£ ^ — dvipâgrâdhipa (v. the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the Buddha 1 7 ) . C. Like the bark of a fruit. T . a precious image. grown from a small fruit U ) . susâra. 12 Like an image of the Buddha wrapped in a tattered ' garment. (cakravartin). .

C. sahasra-koti-niyuta. t h e Lord. ] H ^ 'Q. t h e Great Sage. T . thum[-pa] (something packed or wrapped up). ) . ' kleśa '. C. with his Buddha's eyes.. T. T. 22 > C. T . // 101 // (II) The Defilements are like honey-bees. 2l) sammiñjita. sgrib-pa ( = āvarana). // 103 // Just as a man who is desirous of getting honey Hidden by thousands. TAKASAKI And a man of immaculate divine sight would perceive him And release him from the sheath of p e t a l s 1 9 ) of lotus. hjoms-pa. — // 102 // Similarly. T . T .J. 19) 20 pattra. reads padma instead of pattra. being immaculate. having seen Honey surrounded b y 2 6 ) cloudy bees. — // 99 / / Similarly. and t h e Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the h o n e y 2 5 ' .|?§). C. > = being eternal (C. as S. for niyuta).4 5 8 a . The Matrix of the Buddha. Perceiving this Essence known as akin to honey. C. covered with the sheath of stains. | M | i3>u (as T . 26) 27) 28) upagūdha (concealed). similar t o T . Q |* ffi ffl E& "fill. |Vij£ ( t o r e m o v e ) .(ffl EÎ3 "ftfe = nayuta. rab-tu spoñ-ba ( = prahāna). "> Cf. ^ g . Desire. And rends asunder t h e petals [in order to draw him out]. Accomplishes the non-connection 2 7 ) of t h e Essence With t h e bees-like obscurations. T. completely. C. T. Perceives his own nature even in those who are in the lowest world And. etc. [ 270 ] . millions 2 8 ) of bees. And wishing to get it. // 100 // Just as a person of divine sight perceives A faded 2 1 ) and ugly lotus flower and the Buddha within it. 7fâ Tfp . the Lord perceives t h e world. 23) 24) nivarana. T G S 4 5 7 c . 23) 24) And kills its Obscurations because of Compassion. bskor (surrounded). Hatred 22>. reads analogically ' ^ £ ^ ^ ' (petals). Here pattra stands for kośa. reads jalaruha as locative. Would deprive t h e bees completely of it. aślesa. In t h e same way. T. possessed of the eyes of the Omniscience. with skillful means. nir\Jhan. instead of accusative in S. Suppose a clever person. standing at the utmost limit 2 0 ) and being full of Compassion He releases them from the obscurations. bya-ba khrab-khrig ston (niyuta-koti-sahasra). C.

and the Defilements are like bees. It cannot perform the Acts of Buddha in the 3 Spheres. sel-ba. nas. barley. the Buddhahood in the living beings Is polluted with the stains of Defilements. As long as it is unreleased from the husk and not cleaned well 3 4 \ Cannot be the sweet edible for the people. the religious king 3 5 ) residing in the living beings. ^ %r (killing). which gives a b e t t e r sense. t o remove). of madhu (neut. C. B u t T . wheat. a r e hbru. C. //106// Just as the kernel of grains like rice.) is peculiar. etc. ^ 3 5 }§? fâ . T. knows how to remove the stains. 31 > Cf. p. hbru ( t h e second one 29) is a kind of wheat). f | $ . and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the inner kernel 31 '. respectively. 32 ' annâdibhir (inst. ft § ^ V£ fE • [ 271 ] . t h e i r equiv a l e n t s are n o t so clear. Those who wish to utilize it as food and the like 3 2 ) Take it out from the husk. All these a r e varieties of grains. vi-ni\Jhan). 62.3 3 ) . In the same way. jfjj .) is g r a m m a t i c a l l y peculiar (usually i n l o c ) . sg. Does not become one who can grant the pleasurable taste of the Doctrine. To the people who are afflicted by the hunger of Defilements. 30) T h e form madhvā as i n s t . like that man. vrihi seems t o s t a n d for corn or grain i n general. T G S 458 a. //107// 1/104. (III) The Defilements are like the outer husk.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga and makes Drives the bees away 2 9 ) use of the honey 3 0 ) as he wishes. — // 105 // Similarly. The kernel of grains covered with the husk Cannot be eaten by any person. 33) kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrihi.// vinihatya (fr. The Buddha. for which T . | f ^ff . 34 ' khādy-asusamskrta. And unless it is freed from the association of stains of Defilements. & C. gra-ma-can legs-par ma bgrus (having hairs and not yet cleaned) (bgrus means ' to step on the bag filled with corns in order to remove the husk). C. T . the immaculate Wisdom in the living beings Is like honey. T h e last o n e . > dharmûśvara. (Is i t a special form in some P r a k r i t or m e r e l y a wrong reading of madhunā?). sālu. Having his feature unreleased from the husk of Defilements. Similarly. C. ^ § . See J's note 1 on S. bra-bo. bsal te (fr.

dhāna stands here for ādhāna. om. & C. 42) . 41) T . Ijan-ljin-kyi gnas. 38) samkara-pūti-dhāna. and the Essence Suppose there were an inexhaustible treasure Under the ground within the house of a poor man. the Buddha. 43 > Cf. 37 > Cf. T . samkāra is replaced in verses by samkara. Ijan-ljin rul-bahi gnas.g y i s ) i n s t e a d of malāt. r e a d s ' bālāt' ( n a n . 42) tola. p. // 110 // Just as a god. 407 b). — // 109 // Similarly. You should purify it and make use of it as a treasure. C. T. without changing its quality. fresh 39) and the highest of precious things. i t . perceiving a piece of gold. and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to gold 37) . 39 > nava. Suppose a traveller would happen to drop 38) A piece of gold in a place filled with impurities . TGS 458 b. 36) [ 272 ] . B u t C. TGS 458 a-b. 40) T . 0 . r e a d s ' kun-tu dgah-bar by a phyir ' (in order t o g l a d d e n them. mthil (depth). And the gold would stay there for many hundreds of years As it were. XII. T. — // 108 // Then a god possessed of immaculate divine eyes Would see it there and tell a man: — Here is a piece of gold. MPS (Taisho. Fallen into a dirty place filled with impurities. Teaches the Doctrine to the living beings in order to purify the treasure. TAKASAKI (IV) The Defilements are like a dirty place 3 6 ) filled with impurities. perceiving the treasure of the Buddha in the living beings Which is fallen into a big pit of impurities of defilements. which is p r o b a b l y a m i s r e a d i n g for ' kun-tu dag-par bya phyir '. Also cf.J . In the same way. samkāra-dhāna. ) . o m . the most beautiful one. the Buddha perceives the quality of living beings Drowned in the Defilements which are like impurities. And pours the rain of the Doctrine over the living beings In order to wash off that dirt of defilements. as S. T. simply ' impurities '. // 111 // (V) The Defilements are like the underground 43) of the Tathāgata is akin to a treasure of jewels . C. Would show it to the people in order to purify 4 0 ) it from dirt 4 1 ) . However this man might not know about that treasure.

The

R at na got r av ib h ā ga

And the latter could not say to him 4 I am here '; — // 112 // Similarly, though there is a treasure of immaculate jewel, The inconceivable, inexhaustible 44) properties in the mind, The living beings of the world, without knowing it, Constantly 4 5 ) experience the suffering of poverty in various ways. // 113 // Just as a treasure of jewels in the house of a poor man Would not say to him 4 1 am here ', Nor the man could know ' here is a treasure of jewels '; Likewise is the treasure of properties dwelling in the house of the mind 4 6 ) , And the living beings are like a poor man; To enable those people to obtain this treasure, The Sage makes his appearance in the world. // 114 // (VI) The Defilements are like the bark-covering [of a seed], and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the germ within a seed 4 7 ) . Just as the germ of a seed inside the fruit of trees Of Mango, Tāla 4 8 ) , etc. is of an imperishable nature, And, being sowed in the ground, by contact with water, etc., Gradually attains the nature of the king of trees; — // 115 // In the same way, the pure Absolute Essence, abiding in the living beings, Covered by the sheath within the bark of the fruit of ignorance and the like, [Grows] gradually by the help of this and that virtue And obtains [finally] the state of the king of Sages. // 116 // Conditioned by water, by the light of the sun, By air, soil, time and space, From within the husk of the fruit of the Tāla or mango There comes out a tree; Similarly, the germ of the seed of the Buddha, Residing within the bark of the fruit, the defilements of living beings,
44)

aksayya ( = aksaya), ajasram, T . rgyun-tu, C. o m . 46) R e m i n d of a similarity w i t h t h e ālayavijñāna theory. 47 > Cf. T G S 458 c. 48) T . o m . tāla, C. s i m p l y ' v a r i o u s kinds of t r e e '.
45)

[ 273 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Thrives by the help of this and that virtue, Resulting in the tree 49> of the Highest Truth. // 117 // (VII) The Defilements are like a tattered garment, and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a precious image 5 0 ) . Suppose an image of the Buddha made of precious jewels Wrapped in the tattered garment of bad smell Were cast off51) on the road, and A god, perceiving it, would speak to travellers About this matter 5 2 ) , in order to retrieve it; — // 118 // Similarly, the One who has eyes 5 3 ) of no obstacle Perceives, even among those in the world of animals 5 4 ) , The nature 5 5 ) of the Buddha concealed by the stains 5 6 ) of various kinds of Defilements, And, for the sake of its liberation [from Defilements], Provides the means 5 7 ) [of deliverance]. // 119 // Just as a god with divine eyes, seeing the Buddha's image Wrapped in a bad-smelling garment, and rejected 5 8 ) on the road, Would show it to the people in order to retrieve it; In the same way the Lord, perceiving even among animals, The Essence [of the Buddha] thrown on the road of transmigration,

40) vitapa (small plant), T. hthon (coming out), C. \Jp y C f £ JX1 for dharmavitapa. so) Q£t XGS 458 c-459 a. The story given in the Sūtra is as follows: There was a person who kept one golden image of the Buddha. He was on the way to another country along a dangerous path. For fear of robbers, he wrapped that image in tattered garment so that nobody could notice of it. As this person passed all of a sudden on the way, the image was abandoned in a field and left unknown to travellers who thought it merely a dirty cloth of no value. There happened to come a man of divine eyes, who, recognizing the image within the tattered garment, picked it up out of the garment and saluted it.

61)
62) 63) 64) S5) 66) 87)

F o r ujjhita, T . gnas (placed), C. ^ £ or E J [ / £ £ (fallen) in v. 120.
etam artham (this thing). T . o m . caksuh, w h i c h C. h a s . C. ' in the lowest world (avici) '. ātmabhāva, T. dños-po (nature), C. [KH yjv] -*J" ( = kāya). T. om. mala, which C. has.

abhyupāya, T. thabs, C. ~/J ]§*,. For vidadhāti, T. ston-mdsad, C. fij (preaches the highest doctrine). B8) ujjñita in the text should be corrected into ujjhita.

t 274 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a

With the covering of the tattered garment of Defilements, Taught the Doctrine for the sake of its deliverance. // 120 // (VIII) The Defilements are like a pregnant woman 59 ' and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to an Emperor contained in the Embryonal elements 6 0 ) . Suppose an ugly woman without a protector 6 1 ) Were abiding in an orphanage 62) , And, bearing the glory of royalty as an embryo 6 3 ) , Might not know the king in her own womb 6 4 ) . // 121 // The generation of worldly existence is like an orphanage, Like a pregnant 6 5 ) woman are the impure living beings, And the immaculate Essence in them is like that embryo 6 6 ) , Owing to the existence of which, they become possessed of protection. // 122 // Just as a woman, whose body is covered with a dirty garment And having ugly features, experiences in an orphanage, The greatest pain when the king is in her womb; Similarly the living beings abiding in the house of misery, And whose mind is not quiet by the power of Defilements, Imagine themselves without a protector Though the good protectors 6 7 ) are residing in their own bodies. // 123 //

āpanna-sattva-nārl, T . sems-can shugs-pahi an e m b r y o ) , sattva here m e a n s a n e m b r y o .
60)

59)

mi-mo

(a w o m a n w h o is b e a r i n g kalala is

kalala-mahābhūtagata. For kalala, T. mer-mer-po, C. flf/V #lâ [3&E]« t h e first s t a g e of e m b r y o . Of t h i s e x a m p l e , cf. T G S 459 a.
61)

anātha (Lit. without a protector) T. mgon-med, C. j|J\ $ § • (^* m e a n s 'abandoned by her husband', or ' widow '). 62) anātha-āvasatha, T . mgon-med hbug-gnas, = anātha-śāla ( T . . . . khyim), anātha( T . . . . khañ-pa), C. ^ ^ 3§«J " | § * . garbha, T . mñal. mñal m e a n s ' w o m b ' a n d n o t ' e m b r y o ' , b u t h e r e garbha seems to m e a n e m b r y o . See below. 64) kuksu, T . he (centre), C. ' inside of b o d y '. veśman
63) 65) 66)

antarvat,

T . mñal-ldan

(garbhavat),

C. | f ! t ) j o (possessed of e m b r y o ) . ( = garbha-sthita, t h a t w h i c h is within

tad-garbhavat.

F o r garbha, T . mñal-gnas

t h e w o m b ) , C. ^ ^
67)

T ^ JjP ( e m b r y o w i t h i n t h e w o m b ) . T . mgon-bcas, C. >^J mfi fvC &&. • B o t h t a k e s i t as sanātha.

sannātha,

[ 275 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(IX) The Defilements are like an earthen mould 6 8 ) and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a golden statue 6 9 ) . Suppose a man who knows [how to make a statue], Seeing that the statue, filled with melted gold inside And covered with clay outside, had become cool, Would, for purifying the inner gold, remove the outer covering; — // 124 // Similarly, the One who has got the highest Enlightenment, Perceiving always 7 0 ) the radiance of the Innate Mind And the occasionality of the stains, Purifies the world, which is like a mine of jewels, from obstructions. // 125 // Just as a statue made of pure, shining gold Would become cool within the earthen covering, And, knowing this, a skillful jewel-maker would remove the clay; In the same way the Omniscient perceives that The Mind 71) , which is like pure gold, is quiescent 72) , And, by means of a stroke 73) [called] the method of teaching the He removes the obscurations. // 126 // Doctrine 7 4 ) , The summarized meaning of the illustrations is as follows: Inside a lotus flower, amidst bees, Inside the husk, impurities, and the ground, Within the bark of a fruit, within a tattered garment, In the womb of a woman, and inside clay, respectively, Like the Buddha, like honey, like the kernel of grains, Like gold, like a treasure, and like a tree, Like a precious image, like the Emperor, And like a golden statue, // 128 // The Innate Mind of the living beings Which is pure from beginningless time,
68)

// 127 //

89

mrt-pañka-lepa, T. sahi hdam gos-pa, C. > Cf. TGS 459 a-b. 70) T. om. sadā, which C. has.
71

> manas, T. yid, C. ^fC J 2 . |y|j |zfc • manas here stands for cittaprakrti. ^ (firmly). C. ^*[£ ( h a m m e r ) . prahāra, T . brdeg-spyad,

72

> For Siva, C. f | |

73) 74)

dharmâkhyāna-naya, T. chos-hchad-tshul, C. îpt V S •

[ 276 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ā ga

And is not bound by the covering of Defilements, Though being within them from the outset is thus illustrated 7 5 ) . // 129 // In brief, by this explanation of the illustrations given in the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, there is shown the fact that, for all living beings, the defiling elements [which cover] over their mind from the beginningless time are [merely] of an accidental nature, whereas the purifying elements existing in the mind since beginningless time were born together [with the mind], and hence, they are of an indivisible nature 7 6 ) . Therefore, it is said 7 7 ) : " Owing to the impurities on the Mind, the living beings are defiled; owing to the Mind [itself], pure [by nature], they are purified ". § 2. 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities on the Mind
78)

.

Here, which are the impurities on the Mind, with reference to which the 9 illustrations, a sheath of lotus flower, &c, have been explained? Desire, Hatred and Ignorance 7 9 ) , and their intense outburst, [Ignorance in] the form of Impression 80>
75)

C. a b b r e v i a t e s t h e s e 3 verses i n t o two b y avoiding r e p e t i t i o n of t h e 9 e x a m p l e s . a n d cittaprakrti b y using ' ^pj ' for t h e former

C. distinguishes t h e s i t u a t i o n of kleśas

and ' -£3- JEp ' (endowed w i t h ) for t h e l a t t e r . 76) H e r e is given t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n citta-samkleśa-dharma and citta-vyavadānadharma, n a m e l y t h e former is merely āgantuka, while t h e l a t t e r is sahaja a n d avinirbhāga, a l t h o u g h b o t h are anādisāmnidhya (S. p . 5 9 , 1 . 12 ff.) w i t h sattvas. This c o n t r a s t is explained in a previous passage b y t h e t e r m s asambaddha a n d sambaddha. 77) T h e source of t h i s q u o t a t i o n is u n k n o w n , b u t we h a v e a similar expression i n the Vimalakîrti-nirdeśa (Taisho, X V , 563 b). This i d e a seems t o be q u i t e old a n d p e r h a p s we c a n t r a c e b a c k i t s origin as far as t h e P a l i N i k ā y a s (e.g. SN I I I , 151). 78 > Cf. B G Ś 806 c.
79)

C. a d d s a word ' ^*y 7fcf| ', of which t h e e q u i v a l e n t in S k t . is n o t clear. P r o b a b l y

it s t a n d s for anuśaya or bandhana (literally ' ^ R f£fp| ' is near t o bandhana, b u t in t h e comm e n t a r y , these t h r e e kleśas are said to be in t h e s t a t e of anuśaya, a n d f u r t h e r m o r e , bandhana is usually rendered in Chinese b y ' /£n 151 % while in this t e x t , t h e same ' flip (JJ^' (or / { | Q ) is often used for anuśaya. If so, even m o r e curious is t h e use of this ' jppf > | | Q ' for tivra-paryavasthāna in this verse. I t seems q u i t e wrong. F o r paryavasthāna, T . has kun-ldan ( = kun-nas Idañ-ba) (— paryutthāna). See v. 137. 80) H e r e vāsanā s t a n d s for avidyāvāsabhūmi. See prose c o m m e n t a r y on this verse. This use of vāsanā seems to s u p p o r t t h e T i b e t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m avidyāvāsabhūmi. See N o t e V I I I - 1 1 2 .

[ 277 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The pollutions [which are to be removed by 8 1 ) ] The Path of Perception and that of Practice 8 2 ) , And those remaining in the impure and the pure Stages [of Bodhisattva, respectively], // 130 // These 9 kinds of [defilements] are illustrated By the example of the sheath of a lotus flower and others; In their variety, however, the coverings of Defilements 8 3 ) Extend beyond the limit of extremity in number. // 131 // In brief, these 9 kinds of Defilements make always their appearance [on the Essence of the Tathāgata] as the incidental [attachment]8 4 ) , although the latter is perfectly pure by nature, just like the sheath of a lotus flower [covering] over the Buddha's image, and other examples. What are the 9 Defilements? They are, namely: 1) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state 8 5 ) of Desire (rāgânuśayalaksana-kleśa); 2) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Hatred (dvesânuśayalaksana-k.); 3) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Ignorance (mohânuśayalaksana~k.); 4) the Defilement characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance (tīvrarāgadvesamohaparyavasthānalasana-k.); 5) the Defilement contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmisamgrhīta-k.); 6) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Perception (darśanaprahātavya-k.); 7) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Practice (bhāvanāprahātavya-k.); 8) the Defilement remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (aśuddhabhūmigata-k.); & 9) the Defilement remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (śuddhabhūmigata-k.) 8 6 ) .

81

' T. inserts spoñs (= hey a, prahātavya) after mārga. It is better for understanding. drñ-mārga-bhāvanā. upasamkleśa, But T. & C, in usual order of darśana-bhāvanā-mārga. ñon-moñs, C. , K | | jpSa . T . ñe-bahi

82)

83)

86
86

> anuśaya, T. bag-la ñal, C. ^ (BGŚ |5f| > For these 9, T., C. & BGŚ have as follows (BGŚ in parentheses): 1) hdod—chags bag—la ñal—gyi mtshan—ñid—kyi ñon—moñs—pa, J ^ [§^ J^\ |pq «

m n m. m is*

2) *«*.*, m m ® t i . <ffi BE B« m m*
3) Pi-mug, M fâ. 'JR t i , M SS M ® 1%;

4) hdod-chags dañ she-sdañ dañ gti-mug drag-pos kun-nas Idañ-bahi mtshan-ñid,

S t i , (M B m ^ S S -t 'li'SR* «
[ 278 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga

Now first of all, l)-3), there are those Defilements which are in the bodies 8 7 ) of those worldly people who are freed from 8 8 ) Desire, and, being the causes of Forces which accumulate the motionless State 8 9 ', give rise to the Material and the Immaterial Sphere, and which are to be killed 9 0 ) by means of the Supermundane Wisdom. These are here termed the Defilements characterized as the dormant state of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. 4) Next, we have those Defilements which exist in the bodies of those living beings who indulge in Desire and the rest, and which, being the cause of Forces that accumulate merit and demerit, give rise only to the Sphere of Desire, and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom, [obtained] through the Contemplation of Impurity 9 1 ) , etc. They are called the Defilements characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. Then, 5) there are those Defilements which are in the bodies of the Arhats, and, being the cause that produces the Immaculate Actions, result in the birth of the pure Body made of mind, and are to be killed by the Tathāgata's Wisdom of Enlightenment. These are called the Defilements contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 9 2 ) . There are two kinds of individuals who undergo training [on the

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sāntānika, (of santāna, lit. flux, stream), T. rgyud-la yod-pa, C. vita, T. -dan bral-ba. C. failed to catch the sense, but BGŚ {|ft âniñjya-samskārâpacaya T . mi-gyo-bahi hdu-byed-la sogs-pa, ^\.

88) 89)

C. /y* JUJifQl ^ f e

jy\ 3^v. About āniñjya ( = anijya, aniñjya, Pali ānejja), see BHS Die. s. v. Along with punya and apunya, this āninjya forms samskāra which accumulates the Phenomenal Existence (bhava). See below.
90) 91

vadhya, T . gshom-par bya-ba, C. Hflf. ' aśuddhabhāvanā (text reading bhāva should be corrected), T. mi sdug-pahi sgom-

pa, C. /f* ^ Î H . See BHS Die. s. v., Mvyut. 52. 92) About avidyāvāsabhūmi, anāsravakarman and manomayakāya, see Note VIII112, 115. (where Bodhisattva is also included in this group).

[ 279 ]

21 & 55). 'ārya\ here. and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained] on the [first] 7 Stages 9 6 ) and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [obtained through] the Practice of the 3 Stages beginning with the 8th. This passage is merely 961 95) 93) [ 280 ] . It seems to be a good interpretation of this prathama. î | p J\. (Mvyut. i.e. C. These 9 8 ) śaiksa. these are called the Defilements remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. That is to say. See above. 94 ' T. these are called the Defilements remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. 8) Those which are in the body of Bodhisattvas who have not reached the ultimate perfection. It is said to be the meditation in the highest stage of practice. [Lastly there are two kinds of Defilements associating with Bodhisattwas]. 8. 97 * vajropama-samādhi. They may be called ' bodhisattvayānika '.J. TAKASAKI Path] 9 3 ) : a) the ordinary beings and b) the Saints.e. Paramārtha gives a detailed explanation on this subject in his commentary on BGS (BGS 807 b). ^Ts. Mahāyānist. T. obtained through] the Meditation called 'the Diamond-like' 9 7 ) . 6) the Defilements which exist in the body of ordinary beings training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the first 94> Perception of the Transcendental Truth are termed the Defilements to be extirpated by means of Perception. But usually the attainment of darśanamārga is said to take place on the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva. 9) The Defilements which exist in the body of Bodhisattvas who have reached the ultimate perfection. ^ C EĪ JĪ^L *gî ' (anādikālâdrstapūrva) before prathama. C repeats lokottara and seems to render this prathama by prathamalokottaracitta ($) pj \jt ffl] 'L^). ' prathama ' means that this darśana has never been observed by the Hīnayānists and is to be attained ' for the first time ' by the Mahāyānist. 7) the Defilements which exist in the body of the Saints training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the Transcendental Practice of the Truth according to their [Transcendental] Perception 95> are called the Defilements to be extirpated by Practice. Now. those which are not exterminated by the Wisdom attained in the first 7 Stages. 98 ' The following verse is. in comparison with ' yathādrsta ' in the next. in comparison with no. slob-pa. i. 3?M J^Q J ^ J (yathā-pūrvadrsta). seems to denote those Bodhisattvas who are below the 1st Stage. not a verse at all. yathādrsta. C. as J suggested. And.But BGŚ inserts ' 3f|§ $pj I . and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained through] the Practice on the (last) 3 Stages beginning with 8th and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [of the Buddha. regards prathama as prathamabhūmi.

one. therefore. 99) Qf^ T G S ( T h e second f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). Being taken in short. 2) the Arhats. Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and the 9 Defilements102'. keeps the original form. is here explained by [the first] four. 131 ab and the following sentences are those of v. And the Bodhisattvas is [explained]. 102 > Cf. 131 cd. to the sheath of a lotus flower and others. (Variety of Living Beings according to their Defilements). Here. § 3. By these four. two and two kinds of pollution. on account of [which they cannot identify themselves with] the Immaculate Sphere. T G S ( T h e first f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). in short. [the next] one (the 5th) and two (the 6th & 7th) and again by two (the 8th & 9th) kinds of Pollution. fourfold: namely. // 132 // And.The Ratnagotrav1bñaga Nine Defilements. Desire and the rest. [these Defilements] which are differentiated into 84. 100) Cf. ( T h e r e a d i n g garbha be corrected into garbhā iti). the Buddha's image and the rest? an explanation of v. Now. beginning with Desire. Their impurity. C. T. 3) the individuals in training [on the Path]. 101) respectively. The impurity [retained] in the ordinary beings. if taken in detail. 101) kleśa-mala. and 4) the Bodhisattvas. are as infinite as the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. respectively. and how should the similarity be understood between the Essence of the Tathāgata and [the examples]. mala. respectively. BGŚ 807 c-808 a. how should the resemblance of 9 Defilements be known. the individuals in training [on the Path]. On this point. it is said that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the coverings of Defilements which extend beyond the limit of extremity in number 9 9 ) .000 groups. 'all living beings ' are said to be. respectively. om. 1) the ordinary beings. Perhaps iti is t o [ 281 ] . That of the sheath of a lotus flower and others. Are illustrated by 9 examples. // 133 // It has been said by the Lord that all living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 0 0 ) . The Arhats.

103 ' mano-rama. bsgribs—pa. But janāh is the subject word of āpunyur and is used for both illustrating and being illustrated. T. But later on [when it withers]. shows this reading by repeating janāh. In a similar way. Likewise those who have got rid of desire 110) [Regard] Passion as something disagreeable. // 135 // Just as the kernel of rice 1 0 6 ) and others Are concealed 107) by the outside husk.' (virāgin) in the parallel passage. i n comparison with t h e illustration above. being excited. corn). T. 113) -phe reading * avidyāvāsabhūmy-āvrtā h a d preferably b e corrected i n t o -âvrtam. // 137 // Just as the people 111 '. ^ ^ . los > sārârtha. quite artificial. // 138 // Just as a sprout and the like. as J suggested). no) jp o r * kāmā virāginām *. it is no more attractive. But C. 104 The analogies in the following verses seem ' bhramarāh prāninah (pi. And BGŚ has ' jsjP: /y\ tcL. ' andakośa (lit. C. T. reads ' chags dañ bcas rnams-kyi ' (kāma-avirāgi108 109 nām. The outburst of Passions is repulsive like impurities. T. U1 ' T. J\. yid-dgah. which supports the text reading. In the same way. they cannot obtain the Buddhahood Hindered by the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 113 '. because of their ignorance. the perception of the Essential Truth 1 0 8 ) Is hindered by the covering 1091 of ignorance. C. C. interprets: ' when they are making honey. Hatred.). 107 ' avacchanna = samcanna. T. Sting sharply [and cause pain] 1 0 5 ) . being aroused. egg-shell). they bite the flowers '. J^J ^ ^ . 'nor ni bsgribs-pas na ' for this a n d ' mi-śes gter ' for ajñānād nidhi is a misreading caused b y t h e reading of jane for janāh. ffp 3*fî. is still close to S. reading ' jfj flp£ J i ^ yS* p$g ' (similar is the case with the wise man's observation of rāga). hbras ( = vrîhi. 112) [ 282 ] . srog-chags sbrañ-ma. & C.Just as the lotus flower born from the mud Is delightful103) in its first appearance. Similar to it is the delight of Desire. JQi * " P . Being characterized as devoted to [such] Passion. C. // 137 // Just as the honey-bees 1 0 4 ) . Cannot obtain the treasure hidden under the ground 112 '. Produces suffering in the heart. growing gradually. 106) For śāli. Similarly. // 136 // Just as the impurities are somewhat disagreeable. though being far from the literal translation. vasudhā-antarita. being a n adjective for svayambhūtvam. ' C. C. So h a v e T . reads as jane (skye-la). T .

hjig-tshogs sniñ-po bcom rnams-kyi. . g ft ffl" ^ >\j\ %W ^K j g | ' and connects them [ 283 ] . dañ hbrel-pa T . C. . says: ' darśanamārga removes the defilements and makes the Stages grow up gradually '. Similarly. The resemblance of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. e. . C. with each of trividha svabhāva. // 142 // Thus t h e 9 pollutions. bdag-ñid ( = anubaddha). chen-po. The 3-fold Nature of the Essence. | § # H . And the non-discriminative Wisdom has a resemblance To the matured form of an embryo delivered from its covering. T . ( = sambandha). C. rjes-hbrel T . // 143 // § 4. . C. Desire and the rest. dañ mtshuñs. . Have a resemblance to a lotus flower and others. "2) C. Those Defilements are removed which are to be extirpated by 114 Perception ). consisting of 3-fold nature. i. i»> Cf. the Purifying Element within the Mind. sāra. being the cause for puri122) fying the Mind . respectively. o m . BGŚ 808 a (#0 ^ H fll S tt). And the Essence [of the Buddha]. their Defilements which are to be rejected By the Wisdom of Practice are said to be like a tattered garment. in 9-fold. . 119) 120) C. 7^[J ( k n o w n ) . Therefore. Bears a similarity to the Buddha and the rest. C. mñal—sbubs dri—ma. which is n o t correct. $fj!f *JC • garbhakośa means 117 > prakhyā. T . And are to be destroyed b y the Wisdom of the Buddhas 1 2 0 ) [Obtained through] Meditation called ' the Diamondlike '. and its Concordance with the 9 Illustrations 1 2 1 ) . 116) anusañga. mahâtman. by the Intuition of the Truth. //141 // The stains connected w i t h 1 1 9 ) the [last] 3 Stages Are known as being like t h e earthen mould. j j n fy\ ffijj? . to the image of the Buddha and so 114) The analogy is not clear. //139// Those who have destroyed t h e ground of conception of personallity 115> 116) Are following in the [Practice of the] Saintly P a t h . 118 > garbha—kośa—mala. reads *££=(•. // 140 // The stains remaining in the [first] 7 Stages Are like 1 1 7 ) the impurities of the receptacle of an embryo 1 1 8 ) . T . 115) hata-satkāya-sārānām. T .The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga Break out the husk of the seed. uterus. anugata. C. y*C H īff| " S * $ 1 1 .

rgyu-mthun.e.'. the highest Lord of Universe. ratnatraya is ultimately resolved into one ' buddha-ratna '.1 forth. [One] is the Absolute Entity which is perfectly immaculate. 23 (K. 27 and v. the precious image. is to be understood in the reference to the 3-fold Nature (trividhah svabhāvah) of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 2 3 ) . 126) ^jjg r e a d i n g ' dharmadhātor avi. avi. In this sense.SAJ4. From the viewpoint of ekayāna. It is also to be compared with (I) svabhāva (the first of the 10 meanings of tathāgatadhātu. one and five. . C.' is t o b e corrected i n t o ' dharmadhātur B o t h T. a) Dharmakāya. and the golden statue. Three. p. Usually. T. * "^r vīîi ')• This is interpreted in the commentary by ' tat-prāpti-hetu '. & C. 27). Here. how is the Absolute Body? The Absolute Body is to be known in 2 aspects. 28 (S. (E|[ -ffî* (which is a peculiar translation. 1231 C. that of gold. 24. . its being of the nature of the Germ (gotrasvabhāva) from which the 3 kinds of Buddha's Body are originated 124) [is to be understood]. [respectively]. the tree.e. v. 126) [Namely]. its being of the nature of Reality (tathathāsvabhāva). i. i. // 145 // The Absolute Body of the Buddha is to be understood in 2 aspects. 4) & v. 124) Cf. as well as the Germ. [ 284 ] . honey and the kernel [of grains]. this Essence is to be understood as being of the nature of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya-svabhāva). those of the treasure. and by [the remaining] 5 examples. 26). ^"]§î ^p^ HS • The following passage is a detailed explanation of v. What is the 3-fold Nature? The Nature of this [Essence] is the Absolute Body. The Reality. the teaching Of the profound [truth] and of the diverse guidance. Which is known by the examples. S. where gotra is explained as the germ of ratnatraya. read i t as nominative. those of the image of the Buddha. 125) nisyanda. 1) the perfectly pure Absolute Entity itself (dharmadhātu) .XAJVA.e. i. By one example. these two different explanations of gotra are identical. p. [The other] is its natural outflow125). // 144 // By the 3 examples.

. nidāna. flpffl . P . They are here regarded as the doctrine for Srāvaka. 13 6 ' sūtra.. 268 c: JÇ #P ?£ & IE t £ Wi. 1$C . respectively. sūksma. & audārika. 129) 130 C. gey a. &c. whether subtle or extensive '. p. C. gāthā. 10 ff. ' yathāvainayika is to be corrected into yathāvaineyika. 133) 134 T . p. p. rgya-chen. Lank. the Statement 136) of subject matter. C. ~>fâ . T . C.) and on śaranatraya (S. 5]* f t • So has BGŚ (0f -ft). and this is to be known in the reference to the Truth realized by the Tathāgata through introspection (pratyātmâdhigama—dharma). respectively. 174). 137) These two divisions of deśanā-dharma correspond to nītârtha and neyârtha. r e s p . nothing can be given As an example for the Essence. 131 ' See back. This teaching is again divided into two. BGS: ^ ^ .).and Pratyekabuddhayānika. and 2)-2) the Aphorism. 62). 1. rnam-par rig-pa. respectively. vyākarana. ' bodhisattva—pitaka. C. 171: siddhānta-naya & deśanānaya. Of these two divisions of dharma. p. Also cf. it is shown in its similarity 127) 128 In the sense that. 2)-l) the Code of Bodhisattva . which are the teaching by various kinds of means for exposition of the Doctrine and are related to the Empirical 137) Truth (samvrti-satya) . BGŚ: j £ ^fff ffi Jj« & I E tSl ' ? £ " % . the Prophecy. 14 ff. { ^ WL for vyavasthāna-naya-deśanā.. C. C. 132) vyavasthāna. 2) the natural outflow of the perfectly pure Absolute Entity {dharmadhātu—nisyanda) as the cause for its attainment 1 2 7 ) . T . the Mahayānasamgraha-bhāsya (tr. [ 285 ] . 134) Namely. 147. by Paramārtha).The Ratnagotravibhāga which is the acting sphere of Non-discriminative Wisdom. (Cf. Wogihara's Edition. Taisho. the Scripture in prose and verse. Abhidharmakośa-vyākhyā. T . gdul-bya ji-lta-bar. udāna. These are the first 6 of dvādaśâñga-dharmapravacana (see Mvyut. . by means of deśanā-dharma. T. T. the passage on dharmaratna (S. hbyuñ. > prabhava. sattvas are led to bodhi. 18. owing to the difference of 132 133 means for exposition ' of the Doctrine. And. dharmavyavasthānanayabhedāt. o m . byañ—chub—sems—dpahi sde—snod. Cf. Jjfej. vijñapti. rnam—par hjog—pa. Therefore. in this world. the teaching by the profound 135) means for exposition of the Doctrine referring to the Highest Truth (paramārthasatya). XXXI. And this is to be known in the reference to the Truth as the doctrine 131) to be taught (deśanā—dharma) . om. īf^ (?). the Verse. which produces 1 2 8 ) the communication1 2 9 ) 130 among other living beings according to their faculties in discipline '. T. phra-ba. p f ^ ^ -TZ-C zllxi • 135> T. gggg. the Solemn Utterance. vyavasthāna. C. Being supermundane. 0 ^ J\ R>J Jfcfc j f l £gg . Also cf.

J . v . there is no one among the living beings 1 4 1 ) who stands outside the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 4 2 ) . This is the first way of interpreting the term tathāgatagarbha.e. it is said that sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh \ respectively. ' garbha ' means ' interior '. translates the above sentence into ' de-bshingśegs-pahi sñiñ-po-can (being possessed of the essence of the Tathāgata). t o t h e c o m m e n t a r y o n M S A . i t 1 4 4 ) is held to be always all-pervading. see M S b h ( P ) . Because it is said 1 4 3 ) : " Just as space is considered to be all-pervading always. 8 : sarvasattvesu tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârthena. the Matrix in which the Tathāgata penetrates). profound means Is to be known as being akin to honey of one taste. khams. 27 a : buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh. B G S r e g a r d s t h i s p a s s a g e as a q u o t a t i o n from s o m e s c r i p t u r e (808 a ) . Similarly. Similarly. inserts ' tathāgatajñānād bahir ' after ' dharmakāyād bahir '. T h e m e a n i n g of anda here is n o t clear. 139) £ £ § > p^ 26. as u s u a l (for dhātu. as a collective n o u n . (i. C. [ 286 ] . shows no difference between this and the subsequent other two interpretations (^pj >(U -^ $|xî). Indeed. sattvakāya is indivisible from buddhajñāna \ & ' therefore. By the way. a c e . it pervades all the multitudes of living beings " . // 146 // [The Doctrine] taught by subtle. Also. // 147 // Thus. and hence the compound has the sense of ' one who is within the Tathāgata '. t h e aggregate of living beings. Just as space pervades all visible forms. C. saying: ' similarly. just as no kind of physical form can exist outside of space. T. F o r t h e 2 n d and 4th Pada. 140) tathāgatasya ime garbhāh sarvasattvāh. the honey and the kernel. & 1. T . are penetrated by the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 3 9 ) . regarding this Bahuvrīhi compound as consisting of two words whose interrelation is the dependent determinative (Tatpurusa). This meaning comes from the idea of ' antargama of buddhajnāna '. 15 (which h a s rūpagana i n s t e a d of rūpagata). T . In this sense. has a rather free rendering. Here. the penetration of the Absolute into everything from inside and this signifies the all-pervadingness of the Absolute. ( . i.e. As being similar to the kernel of various grains l 3 8 ) . 28 a: sambuddhakāyaspharanāt. -5r)» 142) C. those of the image of the Buddha. are the Matrix (interior) of the Tathāgata 1 4 0 ) . in reference to the meaning that all living beings. v . BGŚ calls this 1st meaning ' /3/f $uf UK' (garbha in the sense of samgrhīta). with no exception. it is explained that 'these. by 3 examples. C. 138) anda-sāra. all living beings. T . sbubs-sñiñ ( = kośa-sāra). & C.y | | ^M) J P ^ '*fc (of different t a s t e ) . 252 b. C. 144) " tat " s t a n d s for buddhatva. 141) sattvadhātu. 143) ]V|SA I X . TAKASAKI To the [apparitional form of the] Buddha himself. And taught by various kinds of means.

it is explained by the one example of gold. garbha being tathāgata. tathāgatagarbha is a special n a m e for tathatā w h e n i t is h i d d e n b y (or covered w i t h ) kīeśas. T. i n which t h e t w o words tathāgata a n d garbha a r e r e l a t e d a p p o sitionally t o each other. the pure and non-dual Essential Nature 1 5 2 ) . 3):MW teH (8086). i. v . with reference to the sense that Reality is the undifferentiated whole 1 5 0 ) . rjes—su hbrel.. F r o m this point. Because of t h i s identification w i t h tathatā. BGS calls this second interpretation ' \fâ f § ^ ^ ' (garbha in the form of upagūdha). i.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a Tathatā. In this sense. C. Thus. 148 > T . T h e difference. 153 > JĀA 247 a. is unable to be shown as being alterable because of its being radiant by nature. it is called 'Reality' in the sense of being unchangeable like excellent gold. C. This is t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m tathāgatagarbha. Therefore. tathatā which is r e p r e s e n t e d b y tathāgata. 28: tathatā'vyatibhedatah. being Reality. A n e t y m o l o g y of t h e t e r m tathāgata. the inner essence) of these living beings 1 5 1 ) . om. H e r e t h e word garbha m e a n s ' essence '. v. kalyāna. is [identical with] the Matrix (i. T . since all of them are not different by nature. 150) £f_ g^ p^ 26. though it is śuddhi. t h e former being ' śuddhim āgatā tathatā'. 8: tathāgata-tathatā'vyatibhedârthena. tathāgatagarbha is called ' samalā tathatā '. if t h e r e is a n y . that ' the Tathāgata. 149) viśuddhim āgatas. it is said by the Lord 1 5 3 ': 145 H f & H . ' anugata. dharma. . therefore. . o m . 151 ' tathāgatas tathatā esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. whenever it perfects the purification149' from all accidental pollutions even in the case of those living beings who are ranked among the groups in the definitely wrong way. though it is associated with 1 4 7 ) the phenomena 1 4 8 ) of Suffering [caused by] innumerable forms of Defilement. 2) J?Fj ) mandalaka.e. 152) C. For these three qualities. 2 7 : tam—nairmalyasyâdvayatvāt.e. BGŚ : 1) f^ ^ § J | § Jîl. t h e whole sentence. ' nirmalā tathatā ' a n d t h e l a t t e r being ' samalā tathatā '. This very Mind gets also the appellation of i the Tathāgata '. i. See t h e q u o t a t i o n below.e. b e t w e e n tathāgata a n d tathāgatagarbha is m e r e l y i n t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e . by nature. Sublime 1 4 5 ) . Having in view [this] Innate Mind. 146 147 > C. and perfectly pure.e. o m . [ 287 ] . o m . Reality is illustrated By the analogy with a piece of148) gold. reads this passage curiously as that ' cittaprakrti. // 148 // That which is the Mind. gzugs ( = rūpa). still is advayadharma by nature. Being unchangeable. a n d 1.

it is considered 1 6 % The 3 Bodies of the Buddha are obtained . thob-par hdod-pa yin (prāptir matā). paripusta or samudānita). T . BGŚ I . Reality. i6o) -pjjg r e a d m g ' matā ' is acceptable in the light of T. bdag-gi ñe-bar len-pahi gshi-rtsa. Is [called] Buddhahood. C. īfa ffîi ^ • F o r § ^ ^ ) BGŚ ^ parijñātāvin. purification. BGŚ BE E3 piî T_£ • BGS gives 6 points of similarity of prakrtistha-gotra to a treasure. // 149 // From this twofold Germ. rañ-bshin gnas-pa. T. dharmakāya seems to be divided into two: one is dhar' i 288 ] . v. The Innate 1 5 8 ) [Germ] existing since the beginningless time And that which has acquired the highest development 159) . 189 > samudānita (-gotra). the first Body. Being like a treasure and like a tree [grown] from a seed. the Tathāgata is one who has the full knowledge about the root of his own substratum 1 5 4 '. ^ P . 155) 156) It seems that to know ātma-upādāna means to purify his mind '. C. ' kāro ti ' should g r a m a t i c a l l y b e ' kāreti '. T. \$£ \ ī [3fP? _L] i f l . T. y ^ J . rtogs-pa ( = āgata). therefore. anugata. lei) J ? r o m thi s statement. All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of Buddhahood ". the latter two 1 6 1 ) . T. 157 > M S A I X . G. but they are exactly identical with those in Ratna. That which is the purity of his own and that which is the purity of the living beings. From the first one. C. C. O Mañjusrī. [Also] it is said 1 5 7 ) : 44 Though being undifferentiated among all. from the second. 4.37. they cannot be divided into two 1 5 6 ) . MSA I I I . 22 (S. yañ-dag blañ-ba. 44 TAKASAKI Here. BGŚ *J [ t-M | _ £ . The Germ [of the Buddha] is known to be twofold. § f 4 trt ^ C^. comm. Cf. Cf. he has understood 1 5 5 ) the purity of living beings.J. Through his self. T. p. c) Tathāgatagotra. in case the purification is perfected. M4 fSjJfc. these two are one and the same. And. I. 20) where ratnatraya is referred to. & C. as ' protected by parijñā '. As for these two kinds of ' gotra '. 158 > prakrtistha (-gotra). // 150 // 154) ātmopādānamūla. 3. see BBh p. (prakrtistha.

and the other. fP^ j/jtjL . Cf. through which the similarity to pratibimba is observed: 1) ^pj /fQ (having apparitional form). It was BGS which. II. the result of purification of dhātu. The Apparitional Body167) is like a golden statue Since is has the nature of being an image 168) . BGŚ \\i *§* • The same terminology on trikāya is used in MSA (IX. T. C. A^ ^ H I (unchangeable). a Lord of the Universe. 2) |±î -Ç/J y j (produced by 'pranidhāna"1 (therefore. BGŚ maintains 3 characteristics of nirHP māraa. in the refermadhātu or tathatā which is called here the first body. ño-bo-ñid-sku. T. Since. // 151 // The [Body of] Enjoyment165' is like the Universal Lord Since it is the great Emperor of Religion166). dharmakāya as bodhi. 165) to gold. 60: svābhāviko ' t/io sāmbhogah kayo nairmāniko. 59): svabhāva—dharmasambhoga—nirmānair. T. basing itself on this passage. by nature. by these 5 examples. 1) rK \\\ (based upon the former merit). C.The Ratnagotravibhâga The Body of the Absolute Essence 162) is pure And is known to be like the precious image.. [ 289 ] . it signifies the separation of jñāna from dharmakāya remaining the latter as pure reality or truth. i«2> svābhāvika-kāya. 3) lK J~p ( = J[£^ •flj. BGS mentions 4 kinds of similarity of dharmakāya fy\ •yîj ' (sama-prāpta). viz.. not clear in this text. which is included in the second kāya being (sva-) sambhogakāya. "fl^ ft. a tree. ^ yV^ <2C ~H \ V. reads ' chos chen rgyal-srid-du Idan phyir ' (mahādharmâdhirājyatvād '). This point is. made this point clear and regarded sambhogakāya as a part of dharmakāya being svasambhoga. ibid. just as gold does not belong to any particular person ( ^ P iMl vPi īfîj 3 E •> ^ r t s^ ^ C -T3 ) ( 8 0 8 c )sāmbhoga. rdsogs-loñs. it is non-artificial163) And is the substratum 164) of precious properties. namely. BGŚ J ^ rtf*. and 4) I r t *3C / n (sambhoga) and regards each of these qualities as being correspondent to that of cakravartin. those of a treasure. C. (attaining the position of a great religious king). Probably it is a better reading. III). ^ f| ({J§ Sfi | | "ftf f | ) . 3) ^ ^ ^py (having beginning and end. i. not eternal) (808 c). 2) [fl £l£ ( = Jrt§ "1 rf > prāptavya). In other words. BGS gives 4 qualities to this kāya. however. therefore. Of them. BGŚ 0 f > akrtrima. T. » nirmāna. and a golden statue. 168 167 ) pratibimba. T. 3 ^ i^fc . j=( ft ffi ^ 163 (BGŚ ? £ J§«). C. // 152 // Thus. "*) āśraya. prāpta). gter ( = nidhi). and in a later passage dharmakāya is spoken of as being the truth inseparable from wisdom (Chaps. sprul-ba. gzugs-brñan. C. t h e last one is called ' *\* ^ p which means t h a t anybody can obtain dharmakāya. a precious image. C. C. om. 166) p o r ' mahādharmâdhirājatvād '.e. T. T. byas-min. t h e first three are t h e same as those mentioned here. artificial).

it is said that the Essence of the Tathāgata is the cause for the acquisition of these [3 Bodies]. instead of by ' khams' and ' ' p t ' as in this text. ed.e. there exists the Essence of the Tathāgata arisen. that which contains the Tathāgata). ' essence' or sex. BGS gives a name of * fjft •$%% ^llxj' (garbha in the sense of samgrahaka. T. p. 174 ' garbhagata. 2 7 : bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. C. a n d 1. ill 171) 169) nirvānadhātu. The different way of translation seems to show the difference of meaning implied by these different theories.. * region '. of which no S. the cause) of the Tathāgata '170)t Indeed. it is quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (MS bh (P). rab-tu phye-ba. ' •yj"r' is used for dhātu of skandha—dhātv—āyatana. p. In the case of C . ' garbha ' here means inner essence (dhātu). So it is said 173 ': 44 And now. S. v . word dhātu. 37). sñiñ—por gyur—pa. ' universe ' and is usually used for the ' dhātu ' of dharmadhātu. 170) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. It is usually used for the tran- [ 290 ] . This Sūtra is regarded as one of the important sources of the Vijñānavāda and often quoted in the works of that theory.J . But as a matter of meaning in each language. and derivatively. * character '. C. 157 a) and also in Sthiramati's commentary on the Trirnsikā of Vasubandhu (Skt. garbha. T. 175) A quotation from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra. As for this verse. The idea is close to the Avatamsakasūtra. 173) fhg s o u r c e o f this quotation is not yet identified. In these two cases. the Buddhahood is usually manifested 1 7 1 ) in the 3 Bodies of the Buddha. Here. are used synonymously. This stands for the original sense of the term tathāgatagarbha. traidhātuka. dhātu is translated by ' dbyiñs ' in T. but is merely a translation of the Skt. in the case of Trimśikābhāsya. version is available now. 26. in every living being. it is said that 4 the Matrix (i. v. and by ' v r ' m C.. 172) Throughout this text. the word dhātu is applied to ālāyavijñāna. This last sense|cannot be derived from the Chinese word 'yf*'. 2 8 : gotratah. being possessed of the meaning of ' hetu \ And this hetu means ' āśraya ' as will be explained. lokadhātu. -fśf -fo fpfc (has got the appellation). T . p .e. But these living beings do not know about it " . this quotation. This is the third interpretation of the term tathāgatagarbha. Hence. showing the sense of 'element'.. At the same time. being the cause (hetu) from which the Tathāgata is arisen. the inner essence) of these living beings is the Essence (i. Cf. 8-9: tathāgatagotrasambhavârthena. gatra. i. prthividhātu. prabhāvita. or C. in the form of embryo 1 7 4 ) . the Chinese word ' p t ' n a s a sense of ' nature '. par Sylvain Levi. om. ' yf'' means originally ' boundary ' ' sphere of certain limited extent'. the distinction is not so clear. etc. On the other hand. and dhātu. the word * dhātu ' (essence) is especially used in the sense of i hetu' (a cause) 1 7 2 ) . ākāśadhātu. those terms.e. or sattvadhātu. (Reference to the Abhidharma-sūtra on the i Essence ' ) 1 7 5 ) . One interesting point to be noted is that. TAKASAKI ence to the nature as the Germ from which the 3 Bodies of the Buddha are originated 169) .

(Hfc # . j § V£ ^ S | . while the latter. p. • These four. See Note V I I I (VII)-242. it is said as follows 178): u O Lord. ' dbyiñs ' always relates to something transcendental or heavenly. 178 177) > gati. 178. translations. dhātu. I I . in the cases of lokadhātu. and derivatively to things smaller than the human body. Cf. ^ .t _ C #īic > H \~E Vfl î^F %®t. T . SMS 222 b:' ~\£2 -H?-. In short. C. where two other epithets are given of t h e tathāgatagarbha which £ 5 E * ik ftl * m. the former shows the meaning of something spatial. the tathāgatadhātu of whicL. this Matrix of the Tathāgata is the transcendental Matrix. Here. But it is quite suitable here (' |££ ' is also used for ' gotra ' here. which is usually replaced by ' J x '). 1. lokottara[-dharma]-g. words as ' svabhāva\ 'prakrti* and *-tā'. like each of 18 elements. As far as this text is concerned. but as the translation of Skt.. it has been taught and ascertained by the Lord: " A n initial limit is not to be perceived" 1 7 7 ) . the distinction between ' dbyiñs ' and ' khams ' is not so clear as between the two C. BGS mentions them [ 291 ] . this formula is a n explanation of samsāra (cf. perfectly pure by nature ".. regards this whole sentence as a quotation from SMS (cf. are used in a later passage (S. o n anavarâgra). the Matrix.t r a ' .) as corresponding to 4 kinds of people. while the latter. shows a better and clearer distinction between the two senses of the word dhātu. MSbh (P). the former is used in the cases of dharmadhātu. 193. viz. About the 4 Essence '. SN. 121 #H * m ft ffi * P g * "5T ftl'). #H $t &. To translate dhātu into ' p £ ' as in this text is a rather peculiar case. affixes showing an abstract sense. all Phenomenal Life176). dharmadhātu-garbha. and ākāśadhātu. 16 ff. Both Tibetan words have a similar sense of ' place ' or ' region '. (Quotation is a p p a r e n t l y from S N ) . ' .The Ratnagotravibhâga Indeed. I t is SMS which has inserted ' tathāgatagarbham adhikrtya ' t o this famous formula for t h e first time in order t o show t h a t t h e tathāgatagarbha is t h e basis of samsāra. ft T0T | n l . 18 component elements. On the contrary. dhātu. and also to worldly things in general. of something internal or essential. p . e t c . and in this text. nirvānadhātu. 157 a. how is it that 4 it exists since beginningless time ' ? With reference to this very Matrix of the Tathāgata. we are now speaking. it is said [in the Scripture] as follows: " The Essence that exists since beginningless time Is the foundation of all the elements. and prakrtipariśuddha[-dharma]-g. In the case of Tibetan. sattvadhātu. the 4 elements other than ākāśadhātu. of ' •jç'' and ' p £ ' as translations of Skt. V£ # ^ . As well as the acquisition of Nirvana exists ". C. station of such Skt. 178) SMS 222 b. Originally are mentioned in C. *f| • _^ C. dharmakāya-g. But this distinction is not absolutely fixed. Owing to its existence. Originally ' khams ' seems to relate to the human body in the sense ' physical state of body ' or sometimes ' body ' itself. 76. hgro.

with tathāgatagarbha as the 5 meanings of garbha ('It. and its originality seems to be due to Paramārtha himself. T.. from ŚMS). T. i^e. The statement 4 Owing to its existence. 179 > ŚMS 222 6. of ŚMS does not 181) For dharma. have it. and the substratum 1 8 0 ) of the immutable elements (properties) 1 8 1 ) which are essentially connected with. ādhāra. Cf. amuktajñāna in case of asamskrda-dharmas. from ŚMS). 157 o). and separated from Wisdom 183 '. there is all the Phenomenal Life ' means as follows 1 8 4 ) : " Owing to the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. . amuktajñāna. 0 Lord. the foundation. [At the same time]. 796 6). 0 Lord. mchis-na. $ £ j£. rten. this. and another. MSbh (P) 157 a (Q. resp. ' asambaddha. y)\j fA (Buddha's Properties). has one more word ' f3* "J^f ' after ' -frf '. T. pratisthā. muktajñāna. vinirbhāgadharma. O Lord. adds acintya and some more adjectives. On the other hand. 'Y* fljfl: ^ (not separated from jñāna). Paramārtha makes use of this 5-fold meaning of garbha established in BGŚ twice in his translation of MS-bhāsya: once explaining ' dhātu '. T. this very Matrix of the Tathāgata is also. of SMS says: * . lows 1 7 9 ': " Therefore. we have another modified application of this set of meanings to the explanation of ' svabhāva ' of trisvabhāva (parikalpita and others) in the Hsien~shih-lun (JHf| Hip? pjflj) translated by him. indivisible from [the Absolute Entity]. These terms are used as adjectives to samskrta-dharmas in contrast with sambaddha. buddhadharmas. reads ' . 183 182) 185) -pjjg rea d i n g ' iti parikalpam asya vacanāyiti ' is doubtful. the support. 264 b). explaining ' dharmadhātu ' (ibid. C. C. of ŚMS.e. MSbh(P) 157 a (Q.|Jgxj =J§3$. 180 along > niśraya. passage (MSbh (P). which are by all means disconnected. gshi. in the passage equivalent to this Ratna. C. C. Also.g£ ^ § c» HAL ' (this is called a good saying). T. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is the foundation the support. there is Phenomenal Life. "*) ŚMS 222 b. bral mi-śes-pa. is the proper saying on account of the Phenomenal Life 185 '. reads for the whole sentence ' de-bshin-gśegs~pahi sñiñ^po mchis-na (tathāgatagarbhe sati). This theory is unique to those works translated by Paramārtha. C. gnas. i. differentiated [from the Absolute Essence]. but C.The statement ' The foundation of all the elements ' means as fol. . respectively. f$C . and the substratum of the [worldly] elements that are produced by causes and conditions. de-la hkhorba shes tshig-gis gdags-pa lags-so (samsāra iti vacanena asya prajñaptam) '. tr. T. C. hkhor-ba shes mchi-na ni. tshig de rigs-pa [ 292 ] . tr. C. C. Cf. and unreleased from Wisdom 182>. avinirbhāgadharma. tr. which agrees with C. *Jvf .

. so I read it according to SMS. from ŚMS).. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. earnest wish. samsāra iti yuktam etad vacanam). laes-so (. "•> ŚMS 222 b. reading should be corrected into ' iti parikalpitam. but parikalpitam probably means here ' prajñaptam* as given by T.The Ratnagotravibhāga The statement ' There is also the acquisition of the Nirvana ' is said the following sense 1 8 6 ) : " 0 Lord. Cf. [ 293 ] . &c.. '. or arise desire. But SMS shows better sense. At least the Skt. or prayer for Nirvana " . MSbh(P) 157 a (Q. there would not take place aversion to Suffering..

exists everywhere. reads this passage x) as ' dharmakāya(-vat) vipulah ' and C. s) « dharmānam dharmatā. avipralabdha would be better than avipralambha). T. (In this case. means ' dharmatā is pramāna. this word has to express an idea similar to ' parispharana '. ' ^t s "SL #H Sv ffi ^ ' (probably ' . C. i.e. On the other hand. ñes—pahi rigs—kyi rañ—bshin. C. i. M. THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA § 1. Now. being united with 1 } the Absolute Body. or whether they do avipralambha.^ 2 ~ /7\I ' i connected with tathatā and is a translation of asambhinna). this Matrix of the Tathāgata. chos-ñid tshas-mar byas-nas. having the characteristics inseparable from Reality. ' united with '. niravaśesa-yogena. i. though it is probably caused by a misreading. this is indeed to be perceived in the light of the Absolute Essence as the [highest] logical ground 4) . If the reading is correct the only meaning which can construe the sentence would be ' not disunited '. khyad-par med-pahi tshul-du. C. W. jlfc ? £ ft f £ f § ffi @ f 4 1?î ffi .X. records a sense of ' disunion ' for vipralambha as taken from Wilson's vocabulary.e. The reading is not clear. T. B > TGS 547 c. and being of the nature of the germ properly fixed [towards the attainment of the Buddhahood] 2) . C. T. reading. such is the essential nature of the elements 6 ) . T. only the truth is the authority for knowledge '. The Saying: All Living Beings are Possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata — is the Highest Logical Truth. It is said 5) : " O noble youth. Whether the Tathāgatas appear in this world.) 4) dharmatām pramānîkrtya. In comparison with two other epithets. those relating to tathatā and gotra which stand for trividhasvabhāva along with dharmakāya.e. at whatever time and without exception3' among the living beings. TGS > [ 294 ] . 5I»T ^ J 3n£* (' khyad-par med-pa ' nirviśesa. C. 3p? _5TL /^ [yp |££ ||_s. We can get some idea from T. ' -fo^ J^L' (atyanta) is also not the proper translation at all. 2 ' niyatagotra—svabhāva.

T . jarāmaranam. In a similar manner." » r$C V A Im '• 12 ' citta—nidhyāpana {nidhyāpana fr. uppādā vā tathāgatānam anuppādā vā tathāgatânam. Also see Lank. p. For instance. adds: ' i t is therefore acintya. Actually. 9) (' ii% *^a ' seems to be a repeated translation of dharmatā). sbyor-ba & thabs. rtogs-pa (— adhigama). This expression is quite popular since the Pali Canon. In this example. pratiśarana. yukti. in Pali). This corresponds to pratiśarana. =fg #H 3fc ^ & Ufc 5g ^ & Ufc . the mode of proof (yoga) and the means [of cognition] (upāya) 9 ) . This corresponds to [ 295 ] . except for a reference to ' dharmadhātu-sthititā ' being ' dharmatā-naya ' (iZ* pp j JtE3r 3-^F.). takes som. sems yañ-dag-par śes-pa (T. meditate). we have no equivalent passage in the present text of the Sandhinirmocana. BGS has a similar quotation regarding it as from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. ' \j\ V S •> tK. 258) ( f f i f H . fi\ (or j ^ ) . idampratyayatā = pratîtyasamutpāda) as the eternal truth {dhātu. & C. these living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata " . 143. J< {de-la de—bshin—gśegs—pa rnams byuñ yañ ruñjma byuñ yañ run stejchos gnas—par byabahi phyir. C. ni V dhyai. 25: " jāti paccayā. That which is meant by this i essential nature ' (dharmatā) is here synonymous for 8 ) the ' argument ' (yukti). T. thitā va sā dhātu dhamma—tthitatā dhamma—niyāmatā idappaccayatā " . 10 * evam eva tat syātj anyathā naîva tat syāt. C.in the sense of somyafe-). where the eternity of truth is called ' dharmadhātu-sthititā '. C. Both T. C. reads for ' dharmataîva X1) pratiśaranam. ^Ij* {^" {citta-pariśuddha). in the sense: — such is the real state of things and not otherwise 1 0 ) . rigs-pa. saying: 7) g ?£ (812 a). gives the best sense. T. f S ^"H JtfE.^P. bhikkhave. and om. T. Lamotte's Ed.. the emphasis is on idappaccayatā (Skt. V S j ī iffi. 13) citta-samjñāpana. only the Absolute Essence is the argument for the proper understanding 13 ' of utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā. C. ^L^ _/£. fem. to observe. So I take it as a predicate. 8) paryāya. 2. p. p. SN vol. sems ñe-bar rtogs-pa. C. yukti. {/£ . this expression is here used for emphasizing the garbha theory as the eternal truth. chos-ñid dbyiñs gnas-pa-ñid gañ-yin-pa de~ni chos-ñid-kyi rigs-pa yin-no) (E. however. have no translation of this word. dharmataîva yuktis '. where the phrase ' utpādād vā tathāgatānām anuntpādād vā'' is used. In any case only the Absolute Essence is the resort U ) for the contemplation of the mind 1 2 ) . T.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga not 7 ) .

T. This essence itself is not accessible to imagination nor to discrimination. hjig-tshogs-la Ita-bar Ihuñ-ba. 19 ' navayāna-samprasthita. BGS 812 a if. (Commenting of MSA verse quoted. 21) satkāyadrsti-patita. the reading of this sentence is preferably corrected into the following: . 20) Ś M S 222 a. phyin-ci-log-la hdod-pa. there are four kinds of individuals who are defined as being blind 1 8 ' with regard to the perception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. £ acaksumat. reads paramârtha as the subject (śraddhyaîvânugantavyah paramârthah svayambhuvām /). (T. The Highest Truth of the Buddhas 1 6 ) Can be understood only by faith. paramârthasatya and nirvana.J. 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. and for those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Non-substantiality" 2 3 '. 22 ' viparyāsâbhirata. Here the translation is ace. and 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle 19 '. to T. T. C. It is said 2 0 ': " O Lord. stoA-pa-ñid-las sems rnam-par gyeñs-pa. ^f mñon-par JrçJ. respectively. C. [ 296 ] . & C. and om. . ' Ace. 2) the Śrāvakas. . 18) 14 i"Cf. where the 4 kinds of people are connected with the 4 synonyms for dharmakāya. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not the accessible sphere for those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality 21 '. T. Who are these four ? They are namely: 1) the ordinary beings. . 15 ' Cf. C. § 2. // 153 // In brief. HJ-£). na vikalpayitavyā [kevalam tv\ adhimoktavyeti /. The 4 Kinds of Individuals to Whom the Faith in this Essence is Necessary 15) . cintayitavyā. -^/J -£5f !j>3£ ' u * (nava-bodhicitta). C. tathāgata.) 16 ' svayambhū. hbah-shig—tu. T. anugantavya. Cf. TAKASAKI the mind. to T. viz. dharmakāya. C. See VIII-(X).).ŚMS222«:i|#n£lî'^ . for those who are attached to delusion 22) . the eyeless one cannot see The blazing disk of the sun 1 ". i^ 23 ' śūnyatā-viksipta-citta. It is accessible only to faith 1 4 '. . Indeed. JE^ / fe -fc H H Ç ^ Jīi H $&. reading is uncertain but reads paramârtha as a locative and connects it with śraddhā (paramârthe śraddhā. ^-p |=| J\. theg-pa-la gsar-du shugs-pa.. C. MSbh (P) 258 b-c. T. om. (jātândha). C. C.

due to this conception. bsgom-par bya-ba. [ 297 ] . C. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as ' blissful' in its transcendental sense. & C. which are possessed of Evil Influences 2 6 ) . they nevertheless cling to the practice of meditation on the idea of 4 non-Ego ' [of the separate elements] instead of concentrating their mind on the notion of the Unity of the former. sāsrava. C. Likewise. though the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 pure ' in the transcendental sense. as being the real Ego and its belongings.). beyond'. s. Being so. . Thus. ' upagamya.P3p: ==r J^L ^f-f v$(t īftp (nirodhasatya represented by the removal of satkâyadrsti. and. Now. instead of atyanta. but cannot notice nityatva of tathāgata behind the phenomena. 24 25 ' The reading should be atyantam (adv. C. For anāsravadhātu. 80 ' C.T h e R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Here. how is it possible for them to cognize the Matrix of the Tathāgata which is the object accessible only to the Omniscient ? There is [absolutely] no room for it. inserts sarvadharmesu.in the text. J • EX ' C. hjig-tshogs hgag-pa. v. ^_ ^ £ ' (amrta-dharma). Why ? Because. J ^ j ^ \~$ (T. T. C seems to read ' atyantâbhūta—rūpâdi—skandhān dharmān ' ' ahamkāra & mamakāra. C. om. Indeed. and adds ' "p ^g. The sense is that those people know only about anityatā of sarvadharma. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 eternal' in its transcendental sense 29) . ñar-hdsin-pa & ña-yir hdsin-pa. om. 4 those who are attached to delusion ' represent 2) the Śrāvakas and 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. Although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be regarded as 4 the [highest] Unity '. uttari). satkāya-nirodha (as an adjective to anāsravadhātu). 29) etc. uttari bhāvayitavya. etc.). they devote themselves to the practice of meditation on the notion of the 4 impurity ' [of the Phenomenal World] without doing meditation on 4 Purity' of the former. (BHS Die. T. ffPj i ^ fffc.). khas-blañs-nas. ' uttari' as a preceding part of a compound has a sense of ' further. So it seems not to have so important sense in this compound. they cannot believe even in the Immaculate Essence which represents the annihilation of the [conception of the] existence of real individuality 28 '. still they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 suffering ' [of the phenomena] instead of meditating upon the 4 bliss ' of the former. having fully 24 ' admitted 2 5 ' those elements classified into [5] groups and others. they are clinging to the conception of 4 Ego ' and 4 Mine ' 2 7 > . 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality' are the ordinary beings. T. they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 evanescence ' [of the phenomena 30) ] instead of meditating upon the 4 eternity' of the former. 26 27 28) C. T. And.

e.). Impersonality and Impurity [as the almighty maximum]. T. But S. C. T. too. were playing in the water with various ornaments and equipments for their individual pastime 3 6 '. The concrete idea is uncertain. prasādhita. has no literal translation. jātya. one who is experienced and clever would really get the jewel out. reads as ' drstvâ ' instead of sthitvā. rigs dañ Idan-pa. seize them and draw them out. shows a clearer sense. all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas are attached to the Path which is quite opposite 31 ' to the realization of the Absolute Body. would dive into the water. )ffo ^ i 7Jp $j}£ ^|)£ (playing bathing and boating). C. leaving aside their ornaments. (jlT. C. and the Supreme Purity. About 32) this inaccessibility of the Essence to those who are attached to delusion. 37 ' sthāpayati. It runs as follows 3 4 ) : " Suppose. . the people. thinking: I have got a jewel. After having stood 39 ' on the bank of the pond. Suppose then. and hence the Essence [of the Tathāgata] which is characterized as the Supreme Eternity. . owing to the power of that jewel. for instance. 33) > 35 ' to have 36 ' 34 MPS 377c-378a. is said not to be accessible to them. . that in the hot season. They would mistake pebbles and gravels in the pond for the real jewel. dañ hgal-ba.in such a way. all the people. C. 0 brethren. svaih svaih mandanakopabhogair. . 19). and would notice how that jewel had great quality 4 0 ) . ' T. putting on the bathing underwear 35 '. reading. Suffering. gshag-pa. the water of that pond would. Thus. This compound word seems not been recorded anywhere else. the Lord has made it clear 331 in detail in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra with the example of a jewel in the water of a pond. reads * mandanaka (= alañkāra) and upabhoga (any equipment for pastime) '. i. they would notice: It is not the real jewel at all! At that moment. 1. ' Better to change the paragraph after ' yathā ca sa viparyāsa . om. 39 38) [ 298 ] . T. who have the notion of Evenescence. and seeing that water sparkling. In the same way. 0 monks. the Supreme Bliss. T. in order to get this Vaidūrya stone. ye who are ignorant of the real 31 32 ' vidhura. T. shine as if water itself were shining. 40 ' C. Thereafter. Here I followed T. the Supreme Unity. y^_ (has lost by mistake). T. khrus-ras (bath-cloth). rab-tu bsgrubs. /J dag-gis. p. ' aho manir iti guna-samjñā pravartate ' and instead has ' just as one sees the moon in the sky '. But C. (S. rañ-rañ-gi rgyan dañ ñe-bar spyod-pa T. they would say: O the jewel is still there [in the water]. om. 74. M^ . . C. someone would cast 3 7 ' into the water the genuine 38 ' Vaidūrya stone. salila-bandhana.

this repetition. i those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Nonsubstantiality ' denotes 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle. B G S ^ [ 3Jw» This conception a m o u n t s t o t h e nihilistic view. 3 vimoksa—muhhas. What is m e a n t here is t h a t t h e garbha theory represents t h e real m e a n i n g of śūnyatā. Cognition of N o n . J l ^ . the Purity 4 4 ) . tshul-du (śunyatā-nayena. 49) uttarakālam. practise the meditation [on that conception] repeatedly. T . reads ' after destroying existence. O monks. -~xL. ñams-pa (disappeared). C. dharma). . the Bliss. 46) tathāgatagarbha-śūnyatârthanaya. om. is [in reality] of no use. 44 ' ' śobha ' in the text is a misprint for ' śubha '. maintaining the general conception that all things are evanescent. artha) as adverbial use and reads ' tathāgatagarbhatah vipranastāh'. Therefore. There are also some people 41 ' dharma—tattva. O monks. (śūnyatā-tathāgatagarbhârtha. stoñ-pa-ñid-kyi om. dus phyis. and the Highest Unity". i. jy\ by practice). ghatita. there exists [an essence which represents] the Eternity. thinking that the perfect Nirvana means the Extinction. Thus should be understood in detail.s u b s t a n t i a l i t y is one of t h e is for bhāva.The Ratnagotravibhāga essence of things 4 1 ) . 45) 42) [eg î p | (being accumulated vipranasta. vimoksa-mukha. 43) C. Lastly. the destruction of the elements [for the Phenomenal Existence] in future 4 9 ) . and increasingly. C. bhāva-vināśāya. the teaching of the incorrectness with regard to the feature of the highest true nature of the elements. ñe-bar gshags-pa ( = upasthita). nirvana'. and on which ye practise the meditation [on that notion] repeatedly and increasingly 43) . suffering. T . [since] they are deprived of45) [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality 4 6 ) . ye should become skilful in order not to be determined by this [false conception] like the pebbles and gravels in the pond. a s if ' dharmârtha—tattva \ C. [ye should keep in mind]. i\U ^N$g\£ ||=§. ?$£. T. that there is only suffering. C. T. Jil 5 ^ I B J | ^B? • ' S U S ^ ' (things changeable) T . o n e c a n g e t Cf. But all that was attempted 4 2 ) by you. impersonal. 48) 47) C. according to the Scripture. and that everything is impersonal and impure. the meaning that tathāgatagarbha is śūnyata).e. They are the people who look toward Non-substantiality as the medium of Liberation 47) in order to destroy the substance 4 8 ) . }=% ( a p p a r e n t l y o m . /*pp ftfc \ J . with those elements which ye maintain to be in every case evanescent. C. and impure. [ 299 ] . C.

v. which has a little difference in b.). BGŚ ^ ^f. 4) Saundaranandakāvya of Aśvaghosa. 21. brten-pa. (not in verse). They are: 1) Tibetan version of Pratîtyasamutpāda—hrdaya—kārikā. T . and. 1. • 53) This is one of the most famous verses in Mahāyanistic literature. Gokhale. om. V.). S. Festschrift fur Willibald Kirfel. (a similar idea attributed to the Buddha. Then how is what is called here i [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality' ? Here there is nothing to be removed And absolutely nothing to be added. and that is the one which we should understand. the original Skt text.J . however. pratisarati. 44. 8) Madhyântavibhāga-vyākhyā by Sthiramati (as a quotation. TAKASAKI among them who think that there is something substantial called 4 the Non-substantiality' which is quite different from ' f o r m ' and other [elements]. This conception represents the eternalistc view. BGŚ 812 b. saying: [ 300 ] . attributed to Nāgārjuna. 12. § 3. 101 ff. Wogihara's ed. And he who sees the Truth becomes liberated 60) 51) 53) . 48. fancying 50) Non-substantiality in this way. 155 as a quotation (812 b). V. Suzuki's tr. Bonn. BGS mentions this verse along with v. and hence the authorship of Nāgārjuna for this verse is doubtful.. there are 9 occurrences of this verse recorded in Melanges chinois et bouddhiques. Cf. XIII. 5) Abhisamayâlañkāra. 394. p. dmigs-pa. 57 (not in verse). Cf. 9) Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda. C. s. part I. See V.The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as Representing Non-substantiality 5 2 ) . // 154 // upalambha. Der Sanskrit-Text von Nāgārjuna's Pratîtyasamutpādahrdayakārikā. 52) The following is actually a part of the explanation on ' śūnyatāvikasiptacitta '. Besides this occurrence in the Ratna. 7) Bodhisattva-bhūmi. p. 2) Nāma-samglti (Tib. upon which we should meditate.. C. by Nāgārjuna (Ace. they are persuaded of51) Non-substantiality. V. 6) Śuklavidarśanā (Bendall Mss. (prakseptavyam na kimcana). v. 1955. BHS Die. Cf. Gokhale's report. to Prof. 3) Sumañgala-visārani of Buddhaghosa (in Pali). it is identical with that in the Abhisamayâlañkāra). has merely 5 kārikās. V. 'fTf. 7. The Truth should be perceived as it is. T. Studia Indologica.) 6-5. We now can add one example to this list.

. C *U Jg JJl M ^ S t i . 14). of the same in the Ratna. T. since it is by nature indivisible from the pure properties [of the Buddha] 5 6 ) . See below. C. perfectly purified by nature. Thus. T. *ū * fP ā I i MN - m ' 104 . As for the second verse. B4) 55 śūnya. 56) T. // 155 // What is explained by this ? There is no defiling element 5 5 ) which is to be removed from this Essence of the Tathāgata. cf.(Suññata-vagga. Also.The R a t n a g ot r a v ib h ā ga The Essence [of the Buddha] is [by nature] devoid 5 4 ) Of the accidental [pollutions] which differ from it. and hence it is not necessary to regard this v. C.«te'). (For sad. 33* . Cū- [ 301 ] . DAS 813 6 (v. B7 > Ś M S 2 2 1 c. tr. this is observed 58 ' as 'void' (śūnya) in that place (tend). there is no purifying element which is to be added to it. T. C. 154 as a quotation from any particular source. %\\ ^^_ Jrfj 7»U • sam. whatever remains there. wherever something is lacking. on account of this verse lies in its application to the explanation of ' garbha—śūnyatā—arthanaya ' shown in the second verse (v. inconceivable and far beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number ". T. But it is by no means devoid of the highest properties Which are. gañ—shig gañ—na med—pa de—ni des stoñ~ño . 58) reads * . 69 ' yad yatra nâsti tat tena śūnyam iti samanupaśyati j yat punar atrâvaśistam bhavati tat sad ihâstîti yathābhūtam prajānāti I. one knows that this being must exist here 5 9 ) : This is really the true [conception of Non-substantiThis is no doubt a quotation from the Ratna. inserts dharmatā after suddhadharma.5 > e t c . The originality of the Ratna. . 4ll &. essentially. simply ' kleśa '. In the case of such a verse of widely applicable idea. T. sam-anupaśyati. kun—nas ñon—moñs—pahi rgyu—mtshan. The Matrix of the Tathāgata is by no means devoid of the Buddha's Properties which are indivisible. stoñ. it is said [in the Scripture] 5 7 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata is devoid of all the sheath of Defilements which are differentiated and separated [from the Absolute Essence]. ' samkleśa—nimitta. indivisible from it. inseparable [from the Absolute Essence]. This is an original sense of the term śūnya. there was probably a custom in those days to borrow the same expression without permission or mention of the source in order to express one's own idea freely.= samyak. iX i*J ^ |K $«. and shows a closer translation of the original than C. gañ—shig lhag—par gyur—pa de—ni de—la rtag—par yod—do. yañ-dag-par rjes-su mthoñ(-ba). On account of this point. since it is by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. 155).

mukha. t-tr. where t h e t e r m ' śūnya' (suñña) is t o be t r a n s l a t e d into ' e m p t y of'.' of samanupaśyati a n d ' yathābhūtam '. There are two kinds of usages of the term ' śūnya' : 1) ' A is śūnya of B ' (B with instrumental case-ending). absent. bral-ba. to separate). tarn santam idam atthûti pajānāti. Implying this point. hgyur-ba. without the introduction 6 5 ) to the knowledge of the highest truth of Non-substantiality. 2) ' B is śūnya (in A) ' (A with locative case-ending. T. . . ' śūnya ' is s y no ny mous with ' na asti' (na hoti). dbyiñs. (phyin—ci ma—log—pa) a n d C. abhisameti). 48. a n d this usage relates t o t h e ftieaning of ' śūnya ' i n B u d d h i s t doctrine as appearing i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : śūnyam sarvam '. Jrçj . C. And lasuññata—sutta) yam hi kho tattha na hoti. and for nayād. 60) I n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . or * devoid o f ' . yam pana tattha avasittham hoti. C. B B h . as used in the aphorism mentioned above. 68 > ŚMS 221 c. tena tarn suññam samanupassati.ASAKI ality] 6 0 ) . B3 61) 44 C. as in the case of ' śūnyo dhātuh '. r e s " pectively. by removing the extremities of affirmation and negation 6 1 ) . instead of śūnyatârtha- simply ' /\* ^|īj fjfgi ' (ayogyam). we call them by this very reason 4 those whose mind has deviated from [the true conception of] Non-substantiality. 62 ' The reading ' aparyantam ' is to be corrected into ' aviparyastam ' according t o T . om. — yathābhūtam). Indeed. turning in various directions . [Thus]. (jjt\\ fS^. and. rnam-par hphrol (hphrol fr. p . ' cittatn viksipyate visarati'. i n t h e preceding illustration). T . T . inserts śuddha between t w o a n d [ 302 ] .J. for dhātu. Cf. the real 6 2 ) characteristic of Non-substantiality is explained b-ir these two verses. 64) * j ^ p 3-Jfī •yf'' (buddhagocaravisayād). ^ 2 | -Tflv. sāksāt\jkr. mñon-par hdu-bya-ba * ^U*. sgro-hgod-pa & skur-pa hdebs-pa. . sometimes in BHS with instrumental). 63) visarati. ^ W 7J # ' J *^x V T • T . ' v o i d of'. It signifies cittaikâgratā 86 * T. TAK. samāropa & apavāda. nobody can attain or realize 6 6 ) the non-discriminative Sphere 6 7 ) [of the Tathāgata]. avikalpa-dhātu. it has been said 6 8 ) : The Wisdom cognizing the Matrix of the Tathāgata is nothing but the Wisdom about Non-substantiality of the Buddhas. Now. The first usage is also observed in the same Pali canon (migāramātu pāsādo suñño hatthi-gavâssa—valavena . . those individuals whose mind has deviated from this principle 63) of Non-substantiality. 67) C. T. ekâgri bhavati. See N o t e XI—14. ' true ' represents b o t h . >«. I n t h e second usage. 66) (— abhisamayati. . C. neither me64) ditates nor concentrates upon it. ' sam. rtse-gcig-tu .

inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the properties. adds ' samyak'' before it. in 3) T. Here. has never been realized by the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 6 9 ) " &c. T. dharmadhātu in place of dharma. and C. -Mj ^ ^ ekanaya. the commentator tries to combine the 4 meanings of tathāgatagarbha mentioned in SMS (see Note IX-178) with the 4 kinds of people to whom the former 4 have the power of being pratipaksa. it is said not to be accessible to ' those who are attached to delusion '. " }f/^. by means of the cognition of the unique 72) introduction to the Wisdom which is essentially connected with the Absolute Essence. C. as dharmakāya. T. 70 * Hereafter. it is said that [even] those Bodhisattvas who are abiding in their 10 Stages ' C. this Matrix of the Tathāgata. is identical with those mentioned in SMS. inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Essence. and lokottaradharmagarbha are not accessible to viparyāsâbhiratāh. in 4). since the [Buddha's] pure virtuous Properties 71) . and adds ' J L 3(Q ' (tathatā) as the [ 303 ] . [the Matrix of the Tathāgata] is said not to be accessible to ' those whose mind has deviated from Non-substantiality '. instead of prakrti. & C. object of darśana. as ' dharmakāya '. C. yon-tan-gyi chos. $ 0 *J=^ jî. adds śūnya. T. . implies here the True Intuition 7 3 ) . T. dharmakāya—[garbha]. T. T . being represented by the Transcendental Absolute Body which is indivisible from them. perfectly pure by nature. C. because the Absolute Essence is an antidote against such erroneous conception 7 0 ) .The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a this Matrix of the Tathāgata has never been seen. dharma. But S. om. 69 For 1) dharmadhātu. [Furthermore]. etc. resolves ' jñānadarśana ' into ' jñānena samdarśanam '. adds a few sentences more which are not available in the present SMS except for the passage ' only the Buddha can obtain it ' and are probably an insertion by the translator. See note IX-178 71 ' guna-dharmāh. are by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. or the Matrix of the Transcendental Element. On account of this perception. since the Transcendental Element is spoken of as being an antidote against the mundane elements of such nature as evanescence.\\ Jj^. tshul gcig-po. tathāgata. is said to be a sphere not accessible to 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality '. Inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Body. 72) * H^C ^ = f H^C (ekarasa 73) yathābhūta-darśana. to perceive that the Transcendental Absolute Body is perfectly pure by nature. prakrtipariśuddhadharmagarbha is not accessible to śūnyatāviksiptacittāh. respectively: 1) 2) 3) 4) dharmadhātugarbha is not accessible to satkāyadrstipatitāh. samarasa).

e t c . C. C. seems to have failed to catch the meaning of this verse by omitting one pronoun ' te ' in the third Pada. regards this verse as a commentary verse and adds one verse in the middle showing the sense that śrāvaka cannot see the Buddha. C.3 ^ ( t h i n cloud). Just as here the sun. ' m t / i o n ' is t o b e c h a n g e d i n t o • mthoñs'. regards this sentence as a quotation from some Sūtra. For tala. C. T. w h i c h m e a n s ' a n o p e n s p a c e i n a d e n s e f o r e s t ' . of pure intellectual vision. Even by the Saints. nabhas-tala. The source of this quotation is unknown.J. Jjut § E f° r t n e whole. Cf. s m a l l hole ' . Since their intellect is still partial. 77) 76) [ 304 ] . thou art unable to be seen fully. Indeed thus it is said 7 5 ) : [ 0 Lord]. h e n c e d e r i v a t i v e l y . 4 slit. T . ^I|j[ . only those whose Wisdom is illimitable Can completely perceive thy Absolute Body Which pervades everything knowable That is infinite like space " 7 7 ) . TAKASAKI can [but] slightly understand the Matrix of the Tathāgata 7 4 ) . dbyiñs (dhâtu). sprin-mthon. T. 75) 74) chidrâbhra. T . in the sky with torn clouds7 6 ) . O Lord. MPS 41 a.

o m . ' linam cittam. T. and the second is the answer 4 ) . yañ-dag chos-la skur. BGŚ 787 a-b (Nidāna-parivarta). which is at the same time the basic scripture of the Mādhyamikas. igpj. 1} 2) C. 10) 7 |_E (C re- [ 305 ] . contempt against those who are inferior 8 ) . See v. T . vyākarana (explanation). sems shum. C. 6 ' Especially in the Prajñāpāramitā. T. ^ C. Clinging to things unreal 9 '. •' abhūtagrāha. T. (Kārikās 58-59) It has been said here and there [in the Scriptures] That all things are to be known everywhere As being 4 unreal'. MK. then what is the use of this instruction to the ignorant and ordinary beings ? [For replying to this question]. 3) 4) 6) r¥* Aft. C. and illusions 5 ) . speaking ill of Truth 1 0 '. Cf. '. Whereas. 8 ' hīnasattvesv avajñā. C. THE PURPOSE OF INSTRUCTION 1 ' [Someone may ask]: If this Essence [of the Buddha] is thus so difficult to be cognized inasmuch as it is not fully accessible even to the Saints of the Highest rank who are abiding on the Stage characterized as being completely free from any attachment 2 ) . 162. ījOj* *[§£ |ffj| ^pC 'ffi . yañ-dag mi-hdsin (bhūta-agraha). bstan-pahi dgos-pa. 35: yathā māyā yathā svapno gandharva-nagaram yathā / tathotpādas tathā sthānam tathā bhañga udāhrtam //. T . 161.XI. {Jftfy I^J 5JS. 165 a b. rSf. [Of them]. Cf. ^ ^ jifâ 3 c V2* • See v. 8116. [visions in] a dream. lam bstan-pa. See v. adds: ' i t is accessible only t o sarvajña m §§| tft pp H ! . 163. sañs-rgyas sñiñ-po ( = buddhagarbha). we have two ślokas summarizing the purpose of instruction 3 '. g Ç JpÇ J£\\ mt gards this bhūtadharma as tathatā or buddhadhātu. C. VII. R7L). C. like clouds. /zrt deśanâ-prayojana. jfP ^ f^. T. buddha-dhātu. one is the question. C. bhūtadharmâpavāda. why has the Buddha declared here That the Essence of the Buddha 6 ) 4 exists ' in every living being ? //156// There are 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]: The depressed mind 7 ) . T. |2^ IpJ ^L*. sems-can dman-la bsñas-pa. C. See v.t .

13) krtyakriyā. // 157 // The meaning of these two ślokas is briefly to be known by the following ten verses. C. C. H e r e t h e t e r m ' tantra ' (for which C. Undertaking of Actions 1 5 ) is like the enjoyment 1 6 ) in a dream. J ^ L pfflj .J. māyā-nirmita. like clouds. fffi f^ C. As for the use of bhūtakoti in the plural. since ' bhūtakotisu viviktam ' here stands for śūnyam in the Kārikā (usually vivikta is used for denoting purity of moksa or nirvana. 56 ff. etc. upabhoga. nirmita). g y Mf ^% }Jîîp 5X ( = ātmadrsti. The meaning is simply ' doctrine ' or ' philosophy '. In one sense. T. ' vipāka ' stands for janman or duhkha. The Group of elements are like illusions made by magic 1 7 ) . T. ^ . dben-pa (solitary) for vivikta. From the context. // 159 // So has it been ascertained 4 before ' . I could not trace it anywhere else. sgyu-ma spral-ba. the author of the Ratna. 2 J ( o m . where vipāka'* is replaced by skandha-dhātv-āyatana. Being the Results made by Defilements and Actions. C.. bya-ba-yi las. T h i s is t h e word which gives this work i t s title. [ 306 ] . Also see vv. But now. pjflj = śāstra) h a s n o t h i n g t o d o with Tantric Buddhism. -Jx. by which is meant here clearly the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā and of the Mūlamadhyamaka. // 158 // The Defilements are like the clouds. See v. 15) 16) 17> 18) 5) $ci*L. Significance lies more in the word ' uttara' than in ' tantra \ since by the term ' uttara'. )īîfi 3 c f ° r the whole. made by causes and conditions And known in the forms of Defilement. in this ' u l t i m a t e ' Doctrine 1 8 ) . Of these 5. o m . reading seems better. C. ātmasneha. I. T. Action and Result 13> Are. 14) viviktam bhūtakotisu. but it is not the case here). declared his aim and the position of this theory in the currency of Buddhist philosophy..). in the sense ' separation from kleśas. llj 12) adhikah. T. lhag-pa (which is connected to ' sneha '). C. It has been said [in the Scriptures] All kinds of phenomena. TAKASAKI And besides X1 \ affection for one's self*'. 165 c d. [The teaching about Essence of the Buddha] has been taught In order that those who are possessed of these defects 1 2 ) Might get rid of their defects. and regards bhūtakoti as the subject and reads ' bhūtakoti (the reality) is apart from samskrtam '. These three are the principal factors of samsāra or samskrtadharmas. bgag-cag. See Note VIII-132. bla-mahi rgyud. this theory is opposite to that of ' pūrva'. T . deprived of reality 1 4 ) . uttara tantra. BGS gives the following terms: kleśa-karma-vipāka. T . C.

In this 3rd defect. Then he. emphasis lies on the ignorance about tathāgatagarbha. BGŚ 811 b (after the = Una. this ' buddhadhātvastivāda' is a synthetic śūnyavāda of śūnya and aśūnya.e. the Buddha has taught tathāgatagarbha-'' asti '. while ' tasya ' of the next verse can stand for that which is described in this v. C. for removing it. For these two. khams. T. in other words. // 163 // [Indeed] 2 4 ) . Some of them. if [the people] have not heard of this teaching. being possessed of depressed 20) mind. 22) For ' bodhicittodaye 'py asya\ T. ^H . which causes the affection toward the unreal thing. (such a man of self-pride). and hence. and hence. This self-depreciation is the first defect. however. C. C. puts the word '** 7»l-I' (does not know) and regards this verse as explaining the 4th defect. and towards those people having this defect. //160// Indeed. BGS says. The Will towards the Enlightenment does never arise in them. om. BGS: 23) 21 [ 307 ] . 162 without any relative pronoun. C. bcos-ma. The true knowledge will never arise. being proud of it. and hence it is the ' ultimate '. as S. cf. the defects of living beings are unreal Because they are non-genuine 2 5 ) and accidental since the ' former ' one emphasizes ' śūnyatā \ i. But in relation to the preceding verse. ' hla-ma"1 shows this sense. T. // 161 // Even if someone has resolved towards Enlightenment 22 '. 19) dhātu. saying: I am superior to [others]. unreality of things. as we had already known by previous passages. C. 25 ' krtrima. bdag~-la brñas-pa. May have a fault of self-depreciation21'. H H§ t H A . He clings to unreal things [as if they were real] And does not cognize the true meaning. It is shown that the Essence of the Buddha 1 9 ) exists.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a In order to remove the 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]. T. reads as ' bodhicittâdaye yasya ' and relates this ' yasya ' to ' tasya' of the next verse. the word api ' is quite necessary. In another sense. i. but a real successor of the former. but C. ff^ ^ ' ātmâvajñāna. this doctrine is not against the former. T. 20 ft^ For these 3 verses.e. > nlca. shum-pa. as being the ' answer '—giver to the problem which has never been explained ' before '. T. it is taught that ' sarva ''-sattvāh tathāgatagarbhāh'' (BGS). while this ' latter * one emphasizes ' astitva ' of buddhadhātu. J|p£ | y =Ej*. Will produce the notion of inferiority for those Whose mind is not aroused towards Enlightenment. krtrimatva & āgantukatva. This ' self-pride ' is the second defect (lack of the notion of ' equality'). 24 ' This verse expresses the true meaning (bhûtârtha). T. // 162 // With him who thinks like that 2 3 '. J|Ç jflj explanation of buddhakāyatraya).

h e m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g real. // 165 / / On the contrary 2 9 ) . ston-pa-bshin gus. Consequently. 34) 33) n For niravajya. pure by nature. which represents ' navayānasamprasthita-bodhisattva '. [ 308 ] . because of ' mahākarunā '. These 5 properties having become originated. . About the 5 gunas. C. ^ ^ . And depreciates [their] virtues which are real. . representing ' tatprsthalabha-jñāna ' being laukika jñāna. a n d hence this conception is nothing but the ' depreciation of reality '. T . if one hears of this teaching. byams-pa. BGS y C f|2>). is the natural consequence of the 4th defect. This 4th defect seems to be the most important among the 5.(1) (BGŚ $j$ 1 ^ 4 J | ) . H e is intelligent because h e c a n perceive ' dosâbhūtatva '. T. T. b u t this knowledge is merely one side of t h e t r u e knowledge. Intuition. a n d this is real. T. 27) dhîmat.J. m e a n s t h e ' e m p tiness ' of dosa. He cannot obtain benevolence 28) by which One regards [other] living beings as equal to oneself. which is the 5th defect. while ' jñāna '. (2) 31 > śāstr-gaurava. Wisdom 321 . 29) Hereafter. which runs: Hfc B^f ^ towards living beings. Manifestation of the reality is for the sake of living beings. $Ht $& 1fr ^ T. C. It clearly implies the defect caused by certain Mādhyamikas whose position gave rise to the appellation of ' nāstika ' for Buddhists. Obtaining equal regard [for every body]. That is. spro. Here ' prajñā ' represents 'prajñāpāramitā'' of the Mādhyamika or iavikalpajñāna'' of the Vijñānavāda. // 164 / / If a man of intelligence 2 7 ) perceives [only] That the defects [of living beings] are unreal. being free from [self-] depreciation 3 4 ) . C ^ | S j ] (BGŚ ] E jfj >\j*) . and its function is said to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. referring to the 5 gunas which are the antidotes for the respective 5 dosas. ^ 4 ^ J | ^ ^ ^ C ffi ^ (having aroused the mind of respect 32) prajñā (3) & jñāna (4). 3 28 26) »> protsaha. ' guna ' being opposite t o dosa. he produces śāstrgaurava. " ^ & ^IE* » 0 n a n opposite order). bdag-med-pa. AÂS 469 b-c. the virtues [of living beings]. TAKASAKI But the non—substantiality26) of such defects is real. Respect [for all living beings] as for the Teacher 3 1 ) . But the best explanation is given in AÂS. catches the meaning better. nairātmya. cf. // 166 // He. hence BGS interprets that prajñā and mahākarunā (instead of mentioning of jñāna) are the two upāyas by means of which one can attain the state of apratisthitanirvāna. There arises in him great exertion 3 0 '. The lack of maitrī. and great Benevolence33'. <\* 3J3 f ? (avivarta). C. ' maitrī. that is to say. J§§ . C. has a function of ' manifesting the reality • ( G ft £ ffl #& © % ffi IS If %• BŚ maitrl (5) = mahākarunā (C.

T . Attains the State of Buddha 3 6 ) at an early date. bodhi). T .The R at n a g ot r av ib h ā g a Being devoid of defects and possessed of virtues. o m . C. has no equivalent t e r m . J§. Cf. with the commentary [named] ' t h e Summary of Meaning of the ślokas ''37)'. equally for himself and for living beings 3 5 ) . t h e ablative case-ending. C. AĀS ^ K A W f ^ S t ^ t i (bodhi- [ 309 3 . // 167 // Finished is the first Chapter entitled ' the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. sañs-rgyas-ñid. Having love. while ' śloka ' s t a n d s for t h e basic K ā r i k ā s . ' ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyāna ' seems t o b e t h e n a m e for t h e comm e n t a r y . 36) 6 ?!§? J ^ (regarding \yft ^jjff J(£ buddhatā ( = buddhatva. 37) ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyānatah. J\l — " %)] ^ < £f£ f(\\ ^ C ^ all living beings as n o t being different from himself).. 38v _ t (anuttarabuddhabodhi). a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. » ' F o r ātmasattvasamasneha. BGŚ ^ sattva c a n e n t e r t h e avivarta s t a t e ) . C.

śuddhi and so forth. THE ENLIGHTENMENT i> 2. ^Tf.C. C. T. H o w e v e r . 8) action in behalf of oneself and others . 3. what is this ' Reality free from Pollutions ' ? It is that which is called ' the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis (i. the term Buddhahood may be suplied here as the subject term. Then which are the 8 categories ? [The The The And 11 Buddhahood 4 ) is] the purity 5 ) .e. 6 • A S 470c: f| ft g f t ] 81 ft $£ M # — tfl W 7}t ft $ | 1$ > Ā » śuddhi. (3). . we shall speak of the undefiled Reality. visamyoga. j j £ ^ This reminds us of the ' jñānâpti' .. C. . C. . }§? . (1). 7) liberation [from obstructions] . (2). . rañ-gshan-don. dag. . thob. 6) 7) 8) 9) svaparârtha. bral-ba. And this undefiled Reality is to be known in brief in the reference to the 8 categories3' [which show its characteristics]. (tad-) âśraya. ft i L • • • (5). S£ TW 3) For ipadârtha\ T. . C. T. as all those terms. T.*» rfeoj n o \/T% ifcīiī / i • < 5 H T r/J 1&" (' . GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REALITY FREE FROM POLLUTIONS We have finished the explanation of 4 the Reality mingled with Pollutions '. T. show the various aspects of ' buddhatva '. 4) T h e whole of this verse seems t o b e m e r e l y a r o w of t e c h n i c a l t e r m s . F Cf. {=§ "fty. simply ' don ' (artha). t.MALĀ TATHATĀ XII. ^ I J . adds ' ^ [ 310 ] ] | S ' (yoga) before .Hv ' f° r ' āśrayaparivrtti '). C. 470 c-473 c.. NIB. the Germ of the Buddha) ' (āśrayaparivrtti). the attainment 6 ) . the foundation 9 ) of these two kinds of actions . (4). since. in v. in the Immaculate Sphere of the Buddhas. T. (de-)brten.. Hereafter.CHAPTER I I . prāpti. Now. [this Reality] is [absolutely] freed from all kinds of pollutions 21 . I. AÂS Chapter III (Bodhi-panvarta).

includes i t within t h e Kārikā-text. W i t h t h e same probability as for v . 4) las.B Ś 811 a. and is to be written without separation from the succeeding ' audārya ' (gāmbhīryaudārya-). 8) ^ ft (nitya).<6). ' t a t \ These two subjects have the same characters as ' yāvadbhāvikatā ' and ' yathāvadbhāvikatā ' used in the characterization of the Jewel of the Community (IV-§ 1). give t h e following terminologies: 1) ño-bo. 6) the manifestation (vrtti). . C #H ^L 0 T ^ (The latter matches S. 1) y 'pf. 2) the cause (hetu). In a manner as it is U ) . Thus. ji-srid-dus.?fc. |Zi| . Cf. C. 1) First of all the Essence [of the Buddhahood]. A S 472 c.. 2) J|j . these 8 subjects are indicated according to order. C. 9) ^ ^ (āvenika). 6)hjug-pa. namely: 1) the own nature (svabhāva). 1) # gg. t h o u g h C. 29 i n Chap. 2) | 2 | ?rcK (hetu). by this verse 12) . and reads ' r$C | 1 . S. But in the commentary. (svabhāva). when it is ' perfectly purifiāśraya. the first 4 are identical with the first 3 subjects of 10 categories on 4 tathāgatadhātu ' in Chap I. S. a n d also w i t h o u t this verse. T. 4) the function (karman). T. |if|. J^. A* ^ J fâ* § § ! . 13) F o r these 8 subjects. Such is n o t t h e case with Kārikā-verses which we have picked u p i n Chap. viz. 3) the result (phala). Sctfc. AÂS 470 c. The term ' /f*p J ^ ' has probably no ground in the Ms. (paripantha). 7) rtag-pa. / ji-lta-ñid. It [manifests itself] as long as the world exists. 1) # gg fit Q!. magnificent and magnanimous. 2) Jg| ^ . gāmbhīryaudārya—māhātmya. Of them. 7[f\ lf§| in the Kārikā text. 3) ffl # . 7) the eternal (nitya). we c a n u n d e r s t a n d the idea expressed i n this Chap. 12) I t is quite doubtful whether this verse belongs t o t h e Kārikā-text. One reason is t h a t this verse is merely a row of certain terms and does n o t m a k e a sentence b y itself. I . 10) The reading should be ' gāmbhlrya ' instead of ' gambhīrya ' in the text.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Being profound 10) . translation. T . £ $ t * I .?f^ (phala). "Jf^ H i . I . and 8) the inconceivable (acintya) character [of Manifestation]1 3 ) . 2) rgyu. ' i n connection with the next subject.. 7) ff (acirelya). used for C. For this 6th category. G n ) For these two categories. om. and 8) mi khyab-pa. better). 5) \ p ^fl. while the latter 6 agree in their contents with those (4)-(8) in this chapter (9th is a part of ' yoga ' here). See Note VIII-8. 10) >5 ~5j S fff . See m y I n t r o d u c t i o n . which is called by the Lord l the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' when it is unreleased from the sheath of defilements. Cf. 6) ^ P ^ f (yoga). 3) jgj* pjp. 4) ^ p . <fj*. this verse is t o b e omitted from t h e line of Kārikā text.k.(karman). // 1 //. T. yathā ca tat. I I . is to be understood. regards it as the term indicating the fifth subject. 5) the union (yoga). and ffif ||j( ^H $L 7 ^ in the commentary. & C. Another reason is t h a t these terminologies are n o t utilized i n t h e following Kārikās a t all. yāvad kalam. [ 311 ] | § (vrtti). Ā 3) H f l S t 31. zab dañ rgya—che dañ bdag—ñid— chen-po. which mentions 10 categories. 5) Idan. 3) hbras-bu. ffj .

For ' āśrayaparivrtti prāpyate '. reads as ' jñānâdhigamo eva (tat) phalam / '. characteristics of ' āśrayaparivrttV. AĀS 470 c: ffî Hf£. hdis thob-pas na thob-paho. i t is preferable to read ' tatphalam visamyogah/ '. . madhātusvabhāvatah). ffijiC Vpf" ^=p* jg£ £fc jplp j | \ V ^ . This supermundane and mundane Wisdom is the ' cause ' of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis 18>. one who has no doubt about the Matrix of the Tathāgata as it is concealed under the millions of coverings of all defilements. 14 > Cf. 18) 19) ace. C. F r o m t h e context. 3) The ' result' [obtained by] these [two kinds of Wisdom] is the 4 liberation ' (visamyoga)20>. 15) 1 6 ) 4) 3jj£ ^ ^ " ^ * ^ ^ *jX" * ! § WC (pariśuddhadhar- Ś M S 2 2 1 6. completely agrees with S. F o r this. vinirmuktes tathā. f$C I^L ir{ •> "f^f ( t m s sentence is to be placed i m m e d i a t e l y after ' ^ £ . (Ace. and the liberation from the obstructions on account of the knowable things. 21) ' yathākramam ' before ' svaparârtha-' should b e connected w i t h t h e preceding [ 312 ] . t o T . . non-discriminative [Wisdom] ' and the other. ' tatphalam dvividham j ' is doubtful. vinirmukte tathāgatadharmakāye 'pi\ i n s t e a d of ' . to v. J^ 2) $9G ^ff /rlK WC (nirodhaniśrayadānatvāt)'. 1) T . TAKASAKI ed ' (viśuddhi)14). . for ' . therefore. (utpattiniśrayadānatvāt). 2 & 3. namely 1) *-p jpCt / * C uX.\ 17) ' laukikam ' is t o b e i n s t e r t e d after prsthalabdham. W h a t is signified b y t h e t e r m dvividham is quite uncertain. . . tyupāya. ^p. and is indicated by the word ' attainment' (prāpti). I l l . the Mundane 1 7 ) Wisdom which is acquired afterwards [based on the former]'. There are two kinds of liberation. respectively21).q§. It is said 1 5 ) : " O Lord. and omits ' dvividham '. I I ) . T h e reading. ft l h 4~T • (prāpti means here t h e means of a t t a i n m e n t = prāp- ' neneti prāptih.J. 20) p . 3) JjQ ^ffk j|»^ E . C. . [Here] it is called ' attainment' in the sense ' that by which something is attained '19>. although T . C. 2) There are two kinds of knowledge. . . One is the ' Supermundane. 80 1. the liberation from the obstructions of defilement. a n d Ms. viz. dvividham/ '.T J y ^ 1^1 '• See below). B . the sūtra mentions 4 -Cz^jt* ~4*J£+ »t _ -t*i~| 3(fJ ^ R $ixi. The reading should be ' . Jy\ 7^4 f S Trv WC p~ (vipāka-mano-jñeyadharmaphalatvāt). shall likewise have no doubt about the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is 1 6 ) freed from the coverings of all defilements " . i t m a y refer to ' visamyoga-phala ' a n d ' vipāka-phala '. as the 'own nature' of the [Reality] characterized as the 'Perfect Manifestation of the Basis'. b u t t h e t e r m vipāka is used nowhere in Chap.| f (dhātu) ^C $fe ® tS! ® > 3fe t f t 4 a whereafter.

should be as follows: ffiifirfHlft±*T%".q£ ( (There is no correspondence between each of the two kinds of visamyoga and of the two kinds of artha-sampādana). magnificence. rten[-pa].\ g ^ ^ Q ) . and magnanimity. d h ) Here C. we may interpret it as follows: The union means that the immeasurable qualities which are obtained by svaparârtha (-sampatti) are always and ultimately united with the foundation (yoga iti svaparârthaprāptânumeyagunânām nityam acintyam adhisthāne yogah /). m e n t i o n s nitya. ' |$g Jff jtSL PāP: Ī5JC » ^fe "IB ' should be placed after ' jîpÇ ^£\ jM. reads: u te 22) T 0 J>8' r^f ^ | p JAS WC.). |~h "jvf (=āśraya in the verse). there is the establishment [of the Essence] 24 In Buddhas' Stages >. and the result. māhātmya).e. 22 5) [The point that] the foundation (adhisthāna) > of this function j s ' provided (samanvāgama) with ' [the inmeasurable properties] is [here called] ' union '. acintya a l o n g w i t h vrtti. For the whole sentence. C. ence. ($P .The 4 R at n agotr av ih h āga 4) The function * is the accomplishment of one's own aim and that of others._jMmflimu«vi m. and the manifestation. 23) && 24) buddhabhūmi (pi. the cause. respectively (gāmbhīrya. 30.I* ^ *î i difficult to render this C. C. It signifies Buddhahood characterized as muktikāya and dharmakāya (v. 2 3 6)-8) The ' manifestation > means that [this Perfect Manifestation of the Basis] manifests itself in the forms of three Bodies of the Buddha which are characterized by profundity. and [manifests] ' eternally '. II. [ 313 ] . has again confusion in its arrangement.flM#. (-visamyogaś ca yathākramam / sva-). 4 4 i. and in an inconceivable ' manner. Its eternal and inconceivable character. By these points. The function.££©»>«lit. ^ ^ Jii. So does C. Pîlfc '• The correct arrangement of these passages in C. (<\~X» | ^ i . 30). translation. The own nature. Summary. but in the light of v. the union. as long as the world exists '. audārya. •ffln#. s T. C. ^mnft#. // 2 // sentence.

style peculiar to the Buddhist text? 5) akalpana & pravicaya-jñâna. C. Buddhahood. rab-dbye-ba (prabhinna). Therefore. we have one śloka on Buddhahood and the means for its attainment1) referring to the subjects of 'own nature' and 'cause' respectively. . which is represented by 6> The indivisible virtuous properties. 8 POINTS ON THE UNDE FILED REALITY (I) SVABHĀVA & (II) HETU Now. It stands for 'prāpti' ( = hetu) in the preceding passage. mi-rtog & rnam-hbyed ye-śes. (Kārikā 1) Buddhahood has been spoken of as being radiant by nature. ' / l > * Ji /jlj l§ff ^ £ -frf 7RÇ $ ī § . chos-la mi-rtog. Being endowed with all the the pure properties of the Buddha. B u t b o t h T . āśrayāt. dharmânām. Or is it an irregular Skt.e. says instead ' the sun and the moon '. C. 6) prabhāvita. And is attained when the elements [of existence] take resort 4 ) To the Non-discriminative and Analytical Wisdom 5) .^ M (dharmesv avikalpād. [however] as being covered with the net of the multitude of clouds. 11 2) •Ct D Ś 893« (v. & C. t o t h e two kinds of jñâna. This Buddhahood is now eternal. // 3 // The meaning of this śloka is to be known in brief by the [following] 4 verses. In the form of [obstructions on account of] defilements And knowable things which are of accidental nature. for this line. vJyj JO J7IJ Jffj V/^ . T . T . however. respectively] 3). [ 314 ] . . H e r e t h e reference is. t h e reading ' dharmānām* is somewhat doubtful. i. everlasting and constant. Just as the sun and the sky 2> [are often interrupted by clouds Though they are radiant and immaculate. anāsrava-tattvajñānam āpyate). has no e q u i v a l e n t word for i t . C. avikalpajñāna a n d tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. 10: « ft tyj îf H ' S g ^ f l T S I f & t i B S ) A 4) prāptyupāya. read this dharma as connecting w i t h avikalpa: T .Xin. C.

// 4 // It is endowed with all the properties of the Buddha. 9 And whose manifestations are indivisible [from itself] ). of two kinds. $fc ffc V £ . and in the commentary. T . & dri-ma med-pahi rnam-par dag-pa: C 0 & raff Vñ Î R ^ » respectively. 1) the ' innate purity ' (prakrtiviśuddhi). 15: svabhāva-śuddham mala-śuddhitam ca (^ f^ ]& ^ tyfi . avinirbhāgavrtti (Bahuvrīhi comp.t #Jffi• [ 315 ] . rañ-bshin-gyis [S. viślesa. T . ^ § ^ 5 S T H S • lx 12) ^ āvrti. T. C. 13 Which is again considered as ) of two kinds. 10) svabhāvâparinispatti. visamyoga is regarded as ' phala'. to b e intended).). sgrib—pa. Taisho. Vñ ^ rnam-par dag-pa. two kinds of prahāna. '|£E jfpp /J3î & "fvf Ppp /JTJJ)' I n this sense. Namely. obtained afterwards . T. C. and the latter. C. visamyoga).e. // 6 // 12 The cause of dissolving ) these two obstructions is Wisdom.The R at nagot r av ib h āga Has a resemblance to the sun and the sky 7) In both its characters.£fc jc (prahāna) are non-dual'. T . Cf. p. Of them. and 2) 4 the purity. C. j S . // 7 // (III) PHALA It is said that the own nature * of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis is the * perfect purity ' . byas-min. rañ-bshin-gyis ni ma-grub. u The obstructions > of defilements and of ignorance Are illustrated as being like clouds. and reads ' " Q (jñāna) and Pf . C. 8 7) i > akrtaka.). T. 15 ' T . dbye-med-par hjug-can. C. The former is characterized as ' vimuktir na ca visamyogah '. This purity is here. takes ' dvaya ' as ' advaya ' (^^ . C. XXXI. F o r ' tatprsthalabdha '. i. as prahāna-dvaya. distinguishes both purities by the terms ' Vpî ' & ' Q ')• Also Sīiffl « * fit ÎP. in short. -dañ bral-ba. F3rt ( = 13) 14) F o r ' isyate '. as the result of purification ' (vaimalyaviśuddhi)15). | 1 \ /(J>C / / î i*f • There is no correspondence between each of t h e t w o obstructions a n d t h e two kinds of wisdom. One is the Non-discriminative [Wisdom] 14) And the other is the knowledge. C. 8 And are radiant and of uncreated nature >. ^\* $$• /(JJ[ om 9) ~§C HH ( « vrtti). fS] (to intend. C. // 5 // 10 Because of their being unreal by nature ). MSA XII. knowledge and removal . Because of their pervadingness and occasionality. ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca ' (C. Which are beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number. 620 b. 1) ' the C. |*Jji.

see v. Like the sun. snañ-ldan (bhāti-yuktam) de-ñid-do. C. as the result of purification ' with reference to the subject of 4 result' 17>. Like the full moon delivered from the jaws of Rāhu 1 9 ) . MM >*u J*|-» "iSL l § (probably as S. liberated from ' moha '. (Kārikās 2-3) Like a pond. Becomes abundant with flowering lotus gradually18). C. 18 (893 c) #0 J Ś 2 § tfl" 20) 8k ffi tfef and in ?S M IS t * $c t t H Bf^ B ^L M St (^93 b. A simile for t h e i m m a c u l a t e n a t u r e liberated from ' rāga '. see v . Indeed. B u t t h e 1$L ^ fe M (v.. though being radiant. Now we have two ślokas about c the Purity.e. as the result of purification ' represents [that which is] essentially free and actually. 164. v. Manifests itself as being liberated 2 l ) . see v. // 8 // 16) F o r visamyoga. ^ g OiB^) ^ s a personification of «the phenomenon of eclipse and is counted one of ' nava grahāh \ see Mvyut. reads in negative (-^I^ pafc). 17) 18) H e r e again C. whose rays have been released From the covering of clouds and others 20\ This [Buddhahood]. 16). 16 liberated from [all pollutions] \ Because. DAŚ t\l I S $D ' j t t ®C I K i grow in dirty water. rgyas. 9i). filled with pure water. is not [always] separated from the accidental pollutions. 14. [i.J. impurities. 13. C. Cf. the radiant Innate Mind is completely liberated from the accidental pollutions. 16: $f ^ . C. 2) 4 The purity. ' rāhu * (T. W 21 ' bhāti muktam tad eva. For the second half of this line. etc. being endowed with pure properties. the Innate Mind. fll fll f t $ 5 Hf M * S ^ W Slit suggests the word ' druma ' as in Ms. A simile for the immaculate Wisdom. B. D Ś 893c: M B * ft. DAŚ v. lotus is usually said to point of similarity is not clear. on v. Cf. Reality mingled with pollutions]. too. for which T. TAKASAKI innate purity ' represents that which is essentially free [from all stains] but actually associated with them. [ 316 ] . 12. The last 5 letters are for ' ādhya'.17)> # 0 ftfc ?K 0 T 1& f S WC ( 8 9 3 c)Rather. reads i n n e g a t i v e ( / p ftjfl. 19> A simile for the immaculate compassion liberated from ' dvesa '. T. ft « W S M* M + ift & # *U H H^ ^ A kt ± m i t f (v.). JZU ft ?$£ ?ffi W ft comm. Ct. sgrag-can. just as water and the like become purified from dirt. " XJj {j* •> sarvadharmâvisa- myogah).

T. it should be TO l7P ( 24) ^A ī. Being pure [as the result of the removal] of Desire and other accidental defilements. munivrsa or C. and hence the originality of this verse is quite doubtful. is said to be akin to a pond and others. C. // 13 // a2 > jinatva. just as avikalpajñāna is immediately followed by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. And because of its sprinkling 27> the water of meditation On the disciples who are like lotus flowers. See my Introduction. like a golden statue 24>. 27 > abhisyandana. 26 > kālusya. ~~\ Tl. C.)- As all of these 9 examples a r e t h e s a m e as those spoken i n C h a p . The meaning of these two ślokas. C. [ 317 ] . hbab. ^ /]<. in short. ?JC (ambu). C. ' 9iff£ J Q ' is probably a mistake. U 28 > For amśu.. #fl 2J£ -if-. 23) (= munirsabha). like a an immaculate precious image of the Highest Lord of the world. om. 25 ' The significance expressed in these two verses is as follows: The visamyoga of dhātu is immediately followed by the manifestation of buddhatva accompanied by buddhagunas.The This Like Like Like Like And Ratnagotravibhāga Highest of Sages23). Buddhahood 22) is [also] like the honey. is explained As the actual sight of the Buddha's state Possessed of all kinds of excellency25). the Buddha. hod-zer. like gold. T. but T. great fruit-tree. Attained on the basis of the former. rgyal-ba-ñid. like the kernel [of corns]. T. Such is n o t a characteristic of t h e genuine k ā r i k ā s i n this t e x t . // 11 // It is like a pond filled with shining water Because of its rejecting the dirtiness 26> of the dust of Desire. a precious store of jewels. 1. // 9 //. // 10 // [On the other hand]. // 12 // It has a resemblance to the immaculate full moon 28\ Since it has been released from the Rāhu of Hatred And since it pervades all the world With the rays 29> of Great Love and Compassion. the result of Wisdom. § 28 ) pūrnavimalendu C. f-\. is to be known by the following 8 verses: The result of the Non-discriminative Wisdom In short. this k ā r i k ā c a n n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y itself unless there is assumed t h e knowledge of t h e 9 examples on tathāgatagarbha. ^ JH.

obtained afterwards on the basis of the former i2\ are the cause of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis. 32 33) 30) C. 31) It stands for desanādharma. being freed from the poverty By the richness 35) of its properties. And being free from the outer covering32) [of Defilements]. And because of its removing the darkness of the world With the rays of its divine Wisdom. rkañ-gñis bdag-po mchog. // 14 // Being possessed of the unequalled30) properties. again misreads this line. f W / £ -i§^ • * dharmakāya. and the atulyatulya. But it is absolutely a mistake. jf£ H f (?). 36) 37) 3B C o m . // 17 // (IV) KARMAN 41) It has been said that the two kinds of Wisdom. respectively. T . prakrtisthagotra a n d samudānita-gotra. And being the giver36) of the fruit of Liberation. y!y (?). and a tree. the supermundane Non-discriminative Wisdom and the mundane knowledge. pavitra. This line stands for > phalgu. It is like a precious [image]. C. T . 40) Indicating nirmāria-kāya. Its being the Highest Lord of the human beings39). Because of its being free from the clouds of Ignorance. nidhi (avaria Indicating lectio i n Taisho edition gives u s t h e reading: f^L ^ ^ -^fr* W\ §īk • The correct reading is therefore ' |f£ ^ 38) ^ HJ" 0 ^ '). [respectively] 37). C. reads ' sugata ' as the subject.. AĀS M . Bringing forth the essence of the Highest Doctrine31). T . $ | | |§p£ (Pali.b y e d \ s t a n d for tathalā. AĀS 472 c. (5) ff ^ ( #S M ^ [ 318 ] ift «> For these two jñānas. These t h r e e 34) > dravya. It is like gold.. a king and a golden statue. «) Cf. It is like the Buddha33). TAKASAKI And this Buddhahood is similar to the immaculate sun. C. pheggu). C. C. i f f _ t I t indicates p r o b a b l y sambhoga-kāya. And its having the appearance of the most precious form 40). śun-pa ( = tvak). which is called ' the result of the liberation'. like honey and the kernel [of grains]. T.//15// Being pure34). T. 39) dvipada-agrādhipatya. adhigamadharma. // 16 // By its body's being made of the jewel of the Doctrine 38 '. viw ^vf ^ x (~ osamasama). C. T. \iz. like a treasure. . dag[-pa].J. mi-mñam mñam. rjas. 'smin-byed'' for dāna is t o b e corrected i n t o ' s b y i n .

C. sadāyatanāni. In the pure audition of its perfect preaching. And that which comes after the attainment of the fulfilment of one's own aim. rasa. 44 ' From the context. i. Immaculate and all-pervading. and everlasting. [ 319 ] . [both of] which continue as long as the world exists. 1) appearance in the forms of two bodies 44 '. Then. sparśitavya and dharma. This "Isatām' (gen. // 18 // It gives always the cause [for enjoyment] In showing the miraculous apparitional forms. C. in t h e sense B u d d h a h o o d itself animitta). we have three ślokas. gnas. T . | ^ f $fa # 0 ^ med-pa. reads ' 5»ÎÇ * p ' for kārana (with a negative. and 2) the teaching by means of them. constant and unchangeable47). T .-^g ^ " (dhlmat). 28. (C.The E at n a got r av ib h ā ga * function ' of the Wisdom is the fulfilment of one's own aim and of that f others. by means of twofold power43'. viz. fffi. 49) sat. T . AĀS ZZ ^ H . The same term is used in v. śabda. Quiescent. being the foundation 46 '.e. ' dag-pa(śuddha)' is probably a corruption. it is called the 'fulfilment of the aim of others'. and parârthasampatti as caused by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna.^ ) .) is c o m m e n t e d on as ' dhīrānām^ (v. The correspondence between each of the twofold jñāna and of the twofold arthasarnpatti is not clearly observed here. hpho-ba. But AĀS regards svârthasampatti as caused by avikalpajñāna. Jgfc . dbañ-hbyor-ba. whose account is given in the next verse. pi. like space. gandha. About this fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of others. with reference to the subject ' function '. what is the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of o others ' ? That which represents the attainment of the undefiled Absolute Body. (Kārikās 4-6) Buddhahood . the cause 4 8 ) for the Intelligent 49) To experience the objects through 6 sense-organs 50> . 45) 46) 47) 48) 43) 45) tathāgatatva. Of unperishable nature. /[* X a * acyuta. T. vibhutva. Bo) sadindriya-visaya. namely: rūpa. as being freed from the obstructions due to Defilements and knowable things along with their potential forces is called the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim '. Two-fold means ' deśanā & darśanavibhutva '. -ŚJ-. pada. 28). C. Z 2 ^ H $fr ^§* . Is. C. C. is C. and represents the manifestation. JEJ ^fc j \ . ' kāyadvaya ' here probably means the twofold rūpakāya. without any effort.

respectively. C. is probably a mistake). C. (dharma). J7p pafE }mt. sublime and highest Doctrine. M > naya. U $% $r? JîS =%» * S Nf wm =%. Consequently. in brief. *&$• (giving). C. ^ 53) 64) 5B) T. Namely. 53) [But].-« % i*. ) muktikāya. gahvara. Here the muktikāya seems to represent vimukti (as the characteristic common to samalā tathatā and nirmalā îathatā). like space. the dharmakāya in its result aspect (III.J. is to be known by the following 8 verses. . visamyoga (as the characteristic unique to bodhi). while from the aspect of ' visamyoga '. is to be known as follows: [One is] the fulfilment of the Body of [innate] liberation. ' sūksmacintā-paramârtha-gahvaram ' for the whole line. The function of the twofold Wisdom In short. T. ^ £ s M). being the Highest Truth. From the aspect of ' vimukti '. its function is characterized as the purification of itself. 55) The Tathāgata himself. are to be known as one. -f^. C. grol-bahi sku (hgro-ba in D. [The other is] the purification of the Absolute Body 56> . and dharmakāya. ^pjj /jyjC. phalârtha) is characterized as ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca'. respectively. om. T. bde—mdsad (śamkaram). And in the cognition of doctrine 5 2 ) . TAKASAKI In the pure scent of the Buddhas' morality. In tasting 5 1 ) of the taste of the great. ^ ^ /^H It should be ' \j\$ /flu. tshul. for which T. C. f^ •*§". paramārtha. zxL mm-. nimitta-varjitam. C. these two functions represent svârthasampatti. [Although] being two [in their functions]. profound by its nature. ms tit m. C. is of no visible mark . the thicket of quite subtle 5 thinking *). these two also correspond to the prakrtistha-gotra and the samudānlta-gotra. rgyu-mtshan rnams dañ bral. As far as this characterization is concerned. These two kāyas show the two aspects of the dharmakāya. »we aPPiy [ 320 ] the character of the samudānltagotra to the second function. // 21 // The Body of innate liberation and the Absolute Body. See my Introduction. it may be termed parârthasampatti because the dharmakāya as samudānitagotra is the cause of the rūpakāya which works for parârtha. BU. 61) vindana. myañ (enjoying). and the dharmakāya. the function of the dharmakāya is characterized as the perfection of Enlightenment. in regard to its function. // 19 a In the enjoyment of the pleasurable touch of meditation. the Absolute itself. T. So does the AĀS say (472 c fpj ^ § ^ J . // 20 // The meaning of these three ślokas. 58 is a misreading (reading ' tathāgato viyomanimitta—varjitah).

' constant' and unchangeable '. 64 * yogatah. jffll 3^. being itself of no cause. C. // 24 // 4 60) The Evanescence ' is to be known as of four kinds. shortens this verse omitting many words. Wisdom is considered as ' pervading ' Since it has neither attachment nor hindrance. of smells. interpretation is. 63) For kāyadvaya. rten. Which is explained by the words. 7 V î/ilj) vyāpitva (C. bsam mi—khyab—par hpho—ba. 61) ' Annihilation ' and ' death in an inconceivable way ' . chad-pa. C. 61) pūti. C. etc. of tastes. 62 > āspada. T. 57) And are the immaculate substratum . since the Kārikā refers only to Buddhatva and the rūpakāya is nothing but a term for buddhatva or dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. C.) and asamskrtapadatva (C. hjig-pa med-pa. Does it mean muktikāya and dharmakāya ? But see Note 44. HH . 67 ' anāsravatva (C. C. rnam-hgyur. not untenable. T. // 27 // In the same way. Is the cause of perceiving. 7»»Ç ft . [They are namely]: ' p u t r i d i t y ' . 60 > nāśa. Of things touchable and of substances respectively. C. T.. ^P< /$L (fundamental statement). C. '^L JTL K Cf. y\j. ' avināśitva. of sounds. ' i ^ f*J iilf* jf§)| 2 | * . f^ Stf . Being the counterparts of ' everlasting ' and the rest. C. ^Y* 5^C • 69) uddeśa. it i& known to be 4 4 Everlasting '. ' quiescent'. // 22 // 4 It is free from passions ' Since the Defilements are resisted along with impressions. AĀS. C. T. C. C. Since it is the support 6 2 ) of [all] the pure elements. And this immaculate Wisdom is the ' substratum '. and acintya—namana—cyuta. It may be more natural to regard it as the twofold rūpakāya. ' everlasting '. hearing and so on Of form. [ 321 ] . vikrti. namely): — " ^ " ^ S Zl ^ *fi $S JIl <§" 3R 3§ . the twofold [apparitional] Body 6 3 ) . On account of its connection with 6 4 ) the undefiled character. however. 68 3 gunas.The Ratnagotravibhāga Because they are free from passions and all-pervading. myags. C. T. 4 59) [Here] imperishability' is a general statement . respectively. T sbyor-bas (by means of). // 25 // Because of their absence. ucchitti. 'disease'. § ^1] ^ F $=| ^ ( | H V} Wi ft" (svârtha is avinirbhāga from $& @ ) . T. jmjf. ^ . // 26 // Just as space. // 23 // The ' absolute immutability ' is caused 58) By its nature of imperishability . has no equivalent word.

and perfectly pacified. . I l l (on > Cf. 71 [ 322 ] . 752 a. jffi (J|) > parusa. T. * =§§. (6) ^ g $ H . the 18 E x c l u s i v e Properties). This refers specially68) to the absolute and exclusive character of the Buddha. // 28 // (V) YOGA 66) It is said that the Buddha has the character of space 6 7 ) .g. to be known by the following 8 verses. too. 42-43. 67) 68) 66 abhisamdhāya. Also see Chap. The [fulfilment of] one's own aim and of that of others 72) Are represented by the Bodies of Liberation and of the Absolute . // 29 // Now. C. the universal monarch. T. Skt. And. 65) dhlra (— dhīmat. 20): tathāgata-vyoma. Taisho. eternal and ever-lasting. T. constant. there is one śloka about the highest character 7 0 ) in reference to the subject of i union '. AĀS 472 c . dgoñs-pas. bstan-pa (śāstr). the meaning of this śloka is. would turn to be a Buddha ". C. in short.J . See a b o v e (v. e. 69) 70) The Vajracchedikāsūtra. f i \ (?). p . 7 2 > See note XIII-55.) T. Now. C. don dam-pahi mtshan-ñid. p . So it is said 6 9 ) : " If the Tathāgata could be recognized merely by the 32 marks of a superman. (Kārikā 7) Being inconceivable. C. It has neither attachment nor hindrance anywhere. JĀA 243 c. being devoid of rough 7 1 ) sensation. Being quiescent. /ff\. rtsub. Being all-pervading and apart from discrimination. The pure and immaculate Buddhahood is like space. It can be neither perceived nor cognized. X I I . . paramārthalaksana. TAKASAKI Is the cause for wise men 6 5 ) to give rise to Immaculate virtues in the objects of sense-organs.

btsas-pahi khyim-(g)nas. It is ' quiescent'. It ' has no hindrance ' in regard to everything [knowable].iñe Katnagotraviûnaga On this foundation 73) of one's own aim and of that of others There is the ' u n i o n ' of properties. It is not accessible to the mundane meditation and the like. see VIII-(IX C). Therefore. trijñāna.e. T. £fc ^4 • gahvaratah). to T. 77) So T . 78) C. T. 80 81 > As for these 4 epithets. 79) sūtikā-sadma-sthita. C. It is ' non-discriminative ' as it has no insistence8 1 ) . //33// It is ' eternal'. zab. C. SMS 222 a: $ 0 -\l an a*MBit. since it does not disappear. i.& Pratyekabuddha-yāno. ye—śes—lus—can. / / 3 4 / / It is ' perfectly pacified ' as being the Truth of Extinction. 75 ' jñānadehin. 'inconceivable' and others. 73) āśraya. all these words. The reading is there- fore to be ' sadma ' instead of ' madhya '. regards this ' ārya ' as those Saints who belong to Srāvaka. ( = dhlmai). I. And is 'constant' because of endurance of Reality 80 '. om. Being the Highest Truth. Cf. // 30 // Buddhahood is accessible only to the Wisdom of the Omniscient. being the impenetrable Absolute Essence7 6 ) . P r o b a b l y t h e r e a d i n g is ' r ū p a ' i n s t e a d of ' f e ā y a ' (or kāya i n t h e sense of rūpakāya. 74) 76 J dharmatā-gahvaratvatah. Like the disk of the sun for infants lying in their mother's bed 7 9 ) . ace. And. śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-jñāna. [ 323 ] 22 . // 32 // Because it has never been seen before by ordinary persons. And ' has no attachment' since it rejects defilements. C. \i\. ) apratisthāna. T. // 31 // Being of subtle character. it is not the object of thought. T. gnas-pa med[-pa]. because it is free from dualism. Like the visible forms77) for those who are born blind. It is 4 everlasting ' . (depending upon svaparârtha). C. nor even by the Saints 78>. And is not the object of the 3 [kinds of ordinary] knowledge 7 4 ) . ' / 1 > * {EE . chos-ñid zab phyir. It is ' all-pervading ' since it cognizes everything . C. \ś\ p j "jtr* pfv jf\ (lokottara— For gahvara. // 35 // Being purified from all the obstructions of Ignorance. (vv. collective of forms). a n d C. C. gzugs. om. as it is devoid of birth . it is not the object of study. it is to be known as ' inconceivable ' [Even] for those people of intellect 7 5 ) . ^ . 80-82).

T. . (apratigha).). So. T. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation'. and Wisdom. // 36 // Being immaterial. yorâs-su sbyoñ-ba. /fr\ī\. 5) / p prativedha). » ' parikarman. (D) has sñiñ-rje ) ādāna-nimitta. 82) mrdu-karmanya-bhāvatah. T. 19) £g^ Ypf (amaîo). 84) And is ' immaculate ' because of its removal of pollutions ./ i'* BJ J ^ (adrśya). 85) Cf. they should be written without separation). It is ' pure ' since it is pure by nature. 89 88) C. it cannot be perceived. 15) ^ ^ ) ^ ^ " J ^ ' J (avikalpa). due to its possession of properties uncommon to others. T. ^ ^ . AĀS 4 7 3 a. // 37 Jj (VI) VRTTI85) Now again it should be known that this Buddhahood. B G Ś 809 a . gñis-med lassu ruñ-bahi phyir (advaya-karmani bhāvatah). 86) ' . " I & jlf (acintya). without interruption. Great Compassion. But for this line. pijft. sgrub-pahi rgyu. (In Deva- • For these three. . C. 16) [ ^ |l(M (arausāra?). . 6) ffj£ iFfj jig (dus(praśānta). ^ fâ ^ #& & ffc # f^ . as long as the world exists. amalai stribhih' should be corrected into ' . ' the Body of Abso4 lute Essence (svābhāvika)'. and 87) * the Apparitional Body [nairmānika) . /ppj • 84 ' AÂS makes 19 dharmas possessed by bodhi out of this passage. manifests itself. 4) j j | Î J | ^ (gambhīrya-naya. f f fâ .. = dharmatā-gahvara?). it is 'incognizable'. Namely: 1) . C. 83 ' animitta. 9) S 13 ^ 11) t r t Z S (*""*). without cessation. . amalais tribhih\ nāgrī script. . 7) ^ (nitya). I 2 ) M î f f i («y«pO. Of them. 2) ft $ 9 (sūksma). or asa/bta). 10) tt3 (śāśvata). 6) and 16) have no equivalent in the Ratna. It is devoid of rough sensation '. mtshan—ma med. ^ ^ . 8) ^ £ (dhruva?). and with no effort. 3) j Ç flf (paramārtha). T. 14) ft| " ^ (asa/iga (agrā%a). 2Çc wC ( a s S. viz. C. JL7) ^f* S J ^ 18) yV^ ^ * (śufefia).8 1 1 a ( u n d e r A v i k ā r a ) . [ 324 ] . the Body of Enjoyment (sāmbhogya)'. C. . in 89) order to be the support of the welfare and happiness of all living beings.Being of soft and light-moving nature 4 82) . though by means of a manifestation which is inseparable from its immatable qualities like space. there are 4 ślokas about the distinction of [three kinds of] Buddha's Body. between thabs chen-po and śes-rab. 83> And being of no [visible] mark . Against J ' s note. with various inconceivable appli88) ances like the Great skilful means. 86) still in the forms of three immaculate bodies.

// 39 // One who exerts in concentrating for 9 7 ) the liberation of the world. liberated in three ways 9 1 ) . • 91 > tridhā vimuktam. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . 94 ' F o r ' tat-prayatnāh * yarn dharmadhātusvabhāvam 95) > yogin. striving after it 9 4 ) . J t r S S . And this reading is supported by the commentary But C.. C. next verse.T.iff ^ unmūlita. dhātuh '. Has a resemblance. rgyu.^ i f e S S i n J e A (connectin '. T. Appearing in various forms. seems b e t t e r . C. grub-la brtson-pa (siddhyudyamah).^ ^ • b u t a r e inseparable from t h e Absolute. j S . have not their own substance"). in various worlds. ^ P S i j j | . 3tSL PāJH /J^ —\ v T and adds «^p . . See t h e ' vigraha.The Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikās 8-11) That which has neither beginning. in his acts. rnal-hbyor-pa. Immaculate and non-discriminative. Is indivisible 9 0 ) . HW . and surpassing the sands of the Gañgā in number And has rooted out9 6 ) all the defects along with impressions.$«£• amalah. dbyiñs. . F o r ' tathāgatānām sambhogakāya). 9 3 with samāhita). to the king of wish-fulfilling gems. 45: kleśa-jñeya-samāpatti-trayāvarana-nihsritam). unequalled. //40// That which is the cause l 0 0 ) . |~f§ 5ñÇ y\f>. 97) 98 For samāhrta-udyamah. verse (v. C. C. %W 3fv dhātu. middle nor end. o m . C. 99 ) All bhāvas are of nihsvabhāva. With the body 9 8 ) in the form of different coloured rays of the Highest Doctrine.and Pratyekabuddha-yānikas). 92) (tridhātu-muktam). B u t S. T. » > For abhinna. T . Who are concentrating their mind. T. . Jfck -^ç pfC < ^ y r ^Tv //T 7»[j (unknown to Śrāvaka. Innumerable. T . That represents the nature of the Absolute Essence 9 2 ) . . de rtogs-pa (tad-adhigacchanti) ( c o n n e c t i n g tad w i t h ' ) . M tyfi f § (insertion of ' #j? ^ J§< ' (rūpakāya) suggests that C. // 38 // This [Absolute Essence] is nothing but the pure Essence 9 5 ) of the Tathāgatas. #j? ^ 96) Jf. . 100) nidāna. as S. however. C. C. rnam-spañs-pa. T . C. which. C. And is perceived by the Saints 9 3 ) . sku. Which is endowed with properties. inconceivable. C. H H . For ' yarn dharmadhātu-svabhāvam '. non-dual. [ 325 ] . regards this verse as referring t o T. and I guess this was the original reading.

and of Magnanimity. C. [•A'* îqjf:] /$• U s • nirvrtih paramā. both T. Consequently. abiding in). //45// 101 102 ' śāntipatha (C.. Represented by the quality of Profundity. C. For bringing to full development and for giving prophecy. takes paramā separately and Tegards it as indicating ' paramârtha '. 38).J . and the inconceivable Arhatship . T. // 43 // • ) The Body of the Absolute Essence a (svābhāvika-kāya)107). 103) 104) Which also abides always in the Absolute Essence . B u t C. Of Magnificence. the Body of the Absolute Essence Of the Buddha. // 44 // It is * immutable ' and 4 indivisible '. i n t h e sense ' i n dharmadhātu-svabhāva ' (v. And being possessed of five kinds of properties. // 41 // The summarized meaning of these 4 ślokas are to be known by the following 20 verses: That which is called Buddhahood Is the Omniscience of the Self-born. gzugz. bsam-med dgra105) 104) bcom. 105> 106) The highest Nirvana . which is peculiar to the Bodhisattva. mchog-tu mya-Aan-hdas. As the visible forms in the element of space. 39. 40. ' pratyātmaveditā ' is to be corrected into ' pratyātmaveditam'. T . in short. // 42 // This [Buddhahood] manifests itself in the variety Of three Bodies. los) "phis is the first appearance of the ' trayâvarana' theory in the text. etc. And is 4 delivered from the 3 Obstructions ' Of defilement. C. i. loe) jr o r acintyaprāpti. 101) Here. 102) That is the Apparitional Form [of the Buddha] . [respectively]. T. gnas (avasthita. avaruddha (enclosed in). sV* j©> jj^l V2* J>© 1?c)» which is to be accepted here.( = nirmānakāya). 107 * Commentary on vv. • Is 4 devoid of the two extremities'. is to be known As of five characteristics. the Body of the Absolute Essence. 103) > bimba. ignorance and distraction 1 0 8 ) . i l l ^ $ j | f 0 Jf. The third āvarana. TAKASAKI For advancing into the Quiescent P a t h . [ 326 ] .e. /J»5£ ffjfr Ifefc) means nirvana. ^\* j*jfi: • atra. Which is realized through self-introspection. samāpatty-āvarana means the obstructions on account of samādhi. read as acintyârhattva (T. C. & C.

except for the omission of ' avikalpatvād ' (the second pada. W 112 (810 b-c). There seems to be confusion of the word arrangement in v. [ 327 ] . And being accessible to the Saints. ' innumerable ' . regards ' prabhāsvaram ' as the fifth laksana and reads ' viśuddha ' in the ablative. 4* of j j . & 5) prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. 4) trayâvarana-nihsrta. the present translation is done according to the Skt. ' incomparable ' And representing ' the highest point of purity'. text. // 47 // Being magnificent112) and numberless. prabhāsvaratayā ( y j^E ^PJ ^ r " ĪW » ^) visuddham. I will suggest below the most reasonable rendering of this verse: And (5) it is ' pure ' (viśuddha). rgya-che. 4) J& — W Bl 5) g ft i f ?§* J (473 a). For the reference. Because it is non—discriminative (2).The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a Being free from all stains and thought-construction. 4) asama. T r H\). > udāra. ) 4) 8 8 PS ffiî 5 ) tpf ^ $=J (809 a-810 b. (5) respectively. ^ 3 J ^ . with a detailed explanation). For them. 3) antadvayavivarjita. vaimalyād Ç . >f> 3t. ' 1) aprameya. C. but as it is difficult to establish which is the original reading. 2 ftS— M ffl (IS #] S). The last one is not clear. namely: 1) asamskrta.^. [53i£ ^qp. T. // 46 // Immeasurable'. Because it is free from stains (vimala). J j ^ •yp'. 3) M H & ffl. and BGŚ: 1) ${§ Jg Jg. T . yogīnām gocaratvatah (. 2) asambhinna. And because it is radiant by nature (prabhāsvara). 46. 2) asamkhya. however. & respectively. avikalpatvāt (TJjft 73 /J'J R5C)' 3) antadvayavivarjitam. dharmadhātusvabhāvatah ( Q '[^ ĪJ3C). The Body of the Absolute Essence is endowed With 1 1 0 ' these [5] kinds of virtuous qualities 111 '. It is ' radiant and pure ' Owing to the nature of the Absolute Essence 1 0 9 ) . & 5) viśuddhipāramiprātpi. (4). • M j \ WC ')• BGS clearly mentions the 5 reasons in accordance with the 5 laksanas: ^ 1) asamskrtam. ^ ~ñf gj( .. ' inconceivable '. 110) t i l l -v* ff- - īfta "5ÇB -I—*11 B 3 -fA* al1 T. 3) acintya. adds ' yañ-dag-par ' (samyak) before ' yukta '. 2 ) ^ f f l « | . fig ^ . AĀS. and thus makes 5 reasons for these 5 laksanas. AĀS: 1 ) « Ā . C. 2) abhinnam. For these 5 gunas. y\. Because it is the acting sphere of the Saints (3). reads as S. should be ' 3 ^ J\. but the concordance between each laksana and its reason is uncertain. 4) āvarananihsitam. Because it is the nature of the Absolute Essence (1).O (The last two reasons should be interchanged). 109) These are the 5 laksanas. 3 ) f f i Z l * .

§ /££ [vibhutva ?]. The variety 121) of [its manifestation] is said to be 5-fold. 4) J&| f£ 119) X # ^ ^ ^ (anābhoga). /}*> «5Fjj ^ ^ ~^^ *^g. these 5 appearances. It is 'immeasurable' and so on. [ ^ t ^ K I7M1 3ÎU /^. C. =p|X ' after kramāt (^7V . T . W ' vyavasthiti. namely: ! > $ ! § # • $\ . kaivalya for which T. BGS & AĀS offer no reference. and 5) *||0 alt — * ^ F ff ^ N "fjjīf ^j< ^ p (nitya-vyāpi & sattvânupeksā) anabhisamskrti. C. It manifests itself the Doctrine. AĀS makes 5 gunas. TAKASAKI Being inaccessible to investigation. ^fC ^ f^f ^ g ] —• ^ in order to make the meaning clear. [ ^ . mñon-par hdu-byed med-pa. respectively114'. T. C. Being unique113) and devoid of the defiling forces. ' atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. has hbah-shig. T. 3) % ^ ^ ^ ff M ^ (sat- ^V* ^ § pfc (dharmakāyâvinirbhāga). whose meaning is n o t clear to me (' T R ' = sambhoga ?). in uncertain). de-yi ño-bo mi-stoñ(-pa). >^C * M T i l <2C W^» /J> 5nL WfJ J(!y cL (vicitradharmarasasambhoga-rūpâvabhāsatah). C. rañ-bshin (in t h e sense of ' svarūpa'' ^ . C. being dyed with various colours. 40. It works uninterruptedly for the sake of living beings. // 49 // It fulfils the aim according to the wish Without thought-construction and with no effort. m ) 122 120 For citratā T. ?). Being the natural outflow117) of pure Compassion. in acting ceaselessly.J. possessed by sāmbhoga-kāya. ^ /f* ^ . om. 117 118 ' For nisyanda. 2) M tvārthakriyā). sna-tshogs. out of these two verses. 113 1W ' C. 115) Commentary on v. [ 328 ] . T. for this line. And in its appearance of illusion120'. And acting with no artificial effort119*. adds ' / p fijjj. // 50 // In teaching. in the visible form.Çfy). C. Does not make manifest its real essence122'. 116) rūpa. // 51 // Just as a gem. It means ' being apart from all \ ' C. T. [By these points] the Body of Enjoyment is characterized118' Due to its power like that of the wish-fulfilling gems. / / 4 8 / / 6) The Body of Enjoyment (sâmbhogika-kāya)115). deśana (teaching) in neuter stem is notable. owing to its nature 1 1 6 ) Of enjoying the Doctrine in various forms. C. j/fC rfg^ ft^ OC (for which the equivalent in S. mam-par gnas. (thus is sāmbhogya-kāya). adds bhāsa(snañ) > atatb/mra.

p4B P • ' śilpasthānāni (6). khyab-bdag. 125 ' lokavid ( a n e p i t h e t of t h e B u d d h a ) . (5). kauśalam C. T. 54-56) a r e t h e list of B u d d h a ' s ' mahāvastu ' i n t h e world. T. T h e whole verse is missing i n C. BGŚ /$L ^ £ . these 14 will b e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e N o t e one b y o n e along with t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t i n B G Ś (810 c) a n d A  S (473 a ) . and the birth [in this world] and works . // 53 // 129) Without being separated from his Absolute Body. 125 Buddha]. 4 1 . ' jātakāny-upapattim ca ' is missing in C. 126) >phe w o r ( J * darśayati ' is suplied from v . AĀS ^ T J ^ (18 vidyās). 0ff y\. ^ 130) garbhâvakramana (4). dgah-ldan-nas ni hpho-ba. BGŚ /\. and descent from i t 132) . T . T. /JP . but connecting with next one and reading ' jātakâbhyupapattim (skye—ba mñon—par skye—ba dan). AĀS W W f^ 131) 132 janman BP . gzo-yi gnas-la mkhas-pa. C.). 131 . Qgç 7 u x v M t 4 (kumārasthāna). btsun-mohi hkhor-gyis dkyes-rol. whose n u m b e r is c o u n t e d 14 according t o 124) B G S ( In J^y -ip-). the Lord never shows its real natuie. 128 T. or 18. with Great Compassion. // 54 // 133> '. T h e following ( v v . 129) > upapattim ca tusitesu (2). C. 12. > vibhu. s. ^ \ . 56. v. Commentary on v. hjig-rten-mkhyen. T . connects ' tusita ' with next one. B G Ś p 4 B P . antahpuraratikrīdā (7). * ^ ~\" /K ^ñ ^ C. of which the number is often mentioned as 8. AĀS | ^ . 127) jātakāni (1). T . # t î 3J£. *f$£ Tusita and this world). T. ( H Ç£) and BGŚ ( ^ ^ ) seem to [ 329 ] . arts entertainments among ladies in the harem . Jjp . 128) forms. AĀS ^ before (6): fJL ^ 133) support this reading. C. [various] previous births The birth in the Tusita-heaven The entrance into the womb The skilfulness in various Pleasurable 123 1301 . BGŚ |gī| JjQ ^ j i g (abiding midway between ^ 5 ^ ~ F .The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a 123) Similarly. O regards this verse as explaining sambhogakāya. BGŚ ^ £ jfe Jftl $ ^ » A A S H * 9B ^ P ^ • cyutim tatah ( = tusitāt) (3). C. Perceiving fully the world. £ j E p q ^ ]>C H ^ » AĀS inserts one more BGŚ ^ ^>t ftb . ^ . For śilpasthāna the Pali equivalent is sippatthāna (PTS Die. T. Manifests himself The ' in various 127) apparitional . AĀS ^ C ^ £ <2. according to the conditions of the living beings. Though it appears in various forms. Hereafter. skye-ba. Ihums-su hjug. being the knower of the world 126 '. c) The Apparitional Body [The (nairmānika-kāya 124) // 52 // ). i p £ . C. bstams-pa.

x c nJJ JjQ T. he leads143) them into Nirvana. y\. as long as they exist. C. T . (T. mya-ñan-hdas-par gśegs-mdsad. C. dkah-ba spyod-pa. rdsogs-par the next one). AĀS ^/î|| ]yp J ^ . [|9Çl . Passage to the Excellent Seat of Enlightenment136). And who imagine that they have attained Nirvana 145).. J|fft ^ / ^ $f | t | ^ < . niskāma). . s/uri. > dharmacakra (13). C. ^Hç j | ^ lavana. 13ā > duhkhacārikā (9). AĀS j ^ ft H . '. BGŚ |f sambodhi (12). TAKASAKI The renouncement of the world134'. C. And the departure into Nirvana 140) . practice of asceticism135*. /$5£ 145) 'prāpta-nirvāna-samjñinah' would be better. since T. all of them He shows in the impure worlds141'. 3tiL 3j%?j . 137) before this. .J. . C. T.\ BGŚ & AĀS. & C. y\. |f|J ^\ ^ Q (devoid of desires) for naiskramya shows that this f jf term came out of Pali nekkhamma. j S ^C %$? S 139 # . T. AĀS & I S ^ $J ^ f £ $ffl (setting d/iarmacafera forth at Varanasi). 4 suffering '. And by the word 4 quiescent'. C. the knower of means 142). lust. Setting into motion the wheel of the Doctrine139). T . | % f ^ ^ C. (used as an epithet of the Buddha). shi-bahi lam. byañ-chub- (asking for t h e w a y t o various tīrthikas) sñiñ-po. BGŚ îlSBS ¥ • 138) AĀS om. byañ-chub-sñiñ-por C. "«> naiskramya (8). /ff/t {cj. 140> nirvānâdhigamakriyā (14). mya[ 330 ] . T. BGŚ Jj% \% . In Pali. C. T. seems t o have combined this with ^ _ h V£ Iffl . chos-kyi hkhor-lo. . /] pratārayati. mārasainyapramadana (11). combined in meaning with nikkāma (S. indicates Kusinagara). // 57 // Those who have entered the way to Quiescence144). which is. (T. The conquest over the army of Evil Demons137). T. ni byañ-chub $11 ^pC . f f bodhimandopasamkrānti ^ f fif = BGŚ & AĀS. bdud sde hjoms. For ksetra apariśuddha. i§i 'pj ^^ 142> 143) 144) śāntimārga. C. // 55 // The [acquisition of] Enlightenment138). ^@ $ 4 'M. C. C. agree with it. T. ^ gśegs-pa. in its turn. ' renunciation or to become a monk ' is often explained as ' to reject the worldly desire. // 56// [The Buddha]. ^T • 136) (10). 141 ' ksetra. ñes-hbyuñ.This does n o t m e a n t h e actual obtaining of E n l i g h t e n m e n t . creates an aversion To the Three Worlds among the living beings By the words. $ f V£ Iffl . 4 non-substantial'. C. 4 evanescent'. upāyavid. T . F o r bodhimanda. T. rab-hjug. etc.

C f=f $C ^flf ffi ^ j | ) . prabhāva. C. T. C. 147) Through the teaching of the True Doctrines In the Saddharmapundarīka and other Sutras. rab-hdren. // 60 // Here. // 58-59 // 149) Being subtle. mthu. C. ^ J3 pfe.^ ^ ~)\. With reference to this subject. > rūpakāya.). $ M . And gives prophecy for them to attain the Highest Enlightenment. C. From the context. 146 ^ > nivartya. As the Profound. T. 3tE3 T K I^IE iM. bzlog ste. has an ' eternal' character [in its manifestation]. don-mthun. T.fc. ^ * £ £ (sattvo). gzugs-kyi sku. T. // 61 // (VII) NITYA154) Now this threefold Body made manifest in order to be the support for the weal and happiness of the world. ñan-hdas-thob hdu-śes-can. (C. As the visible forms appear in space. analogically C. C. # ffi ^ ft ?£). sna-tshogs for sampatti is probably a misreading for phun-tshogs. adds ' "^f Up (Sfi A . sārtha. 15 °) ativāhana.The Ratnagotrav ib hāga 146) Them he diverts from their former prejudice.~J\. respectively. T. T. 153 These latter ' appear on the basis of the former. the Magnificent and the Magnanimous. T. For grāha C. — In these points [the Buddha] should be known. T. embracing Wisdom and Skilful Means. And. 147 148 ) dharmatattva. Therefore. 152 151) 149) "4> Cf. _ £. & T. (surpassing the treacherous path). as S. sārtha means a caravan or traders. [ 331 ] . ~/^. 153J antya. fZ\\ ~^ ^ 5 • > Denoting the Mahāyāna. interpretation of ativāhana seems better.rj. reads ' J f | Z l ' (the second) for paciśmau. C. we have one śloka. 152) And the latter two are the Bodies in visible forms . AĀS 473 a {% . it should be 'the latter two '.t±r J. the first Body is the Absolute Body. C. uttamayāna. accomplishing the power 150) 151) And toiling excessively for the company of ordinary beings. chos-kyi de-ñid. the last. ^ ^ J } . lit. C. Makes them mature in the Ultimate Vehicle 148) . C. BGŚ 811 a-6. M E ^ *fo. theg-pa mchog..

Miraculous Powers 1 5 6 ) . // 63 // In his Buddhahood.J. The lord of the World 1 5 9 ) is eternal. reads as if caryā. T h e r e are said t o b e 4 . T . T. JpC JjyC • Ace. ] f § <J»$£ pj^p" (svabhāva-praśānta comm. C.. C. C. there is made manifest Compassion. rfe-yis gnas-par spyod- pahi phyir. 161) uttarana. zhu JñL W\ • .i p . T . This saddharma-samgraha is t h e 1st cause standing for hetv-ānantyāt in the Kārikā. [ 332 ] . 162) ādipratijñā. T H " . C. T . j ^ l {!£ $g§ j [ t B • »•> rddhi. Cf. ^ipf }\% . samgraha. & 4) mīmāmsā. M v y u t . // 64 // 166 > hetv-ānantyāt. (Az . (J^X 'tK y 7 ' K i t ) - S. He fulfills161' his first vow 1 6 2 ) . // 62 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be known by the following 6 verses. hjig—rten-mgon—po.^ vrW. T. He has preserved 160) the Highest doctrine. Having an endless number of living beings to convert. life and property. Wisdom and Bliss15?)? Governing all the elements. 2) citta. jZ!j ^ Q ^ . C. And representing non-substantiality 158) . which is explained in t h e lokanātha. 165) 164) So C. By which power he abides in the world 1 6 5 ) . T. pure and immaculate 163) . sampatti stands for ' sukha-sampatti through meditation '. vanquishing the demon of Death. C. hphrul. rdsu-hphrul rkañ-ba.. T. F o r (3) kārnya(-yogāt). For śakti. C. He shows his [four] bases of Miraculous Powers 1 6 4 ) . TAKASAKI (Kārikā 12) Having infinite causes [for the attainment of his state] 1 5 5 ) . T. 40. t o t h e coinm. BGS: 160) 163) T h i s s t a n d s for ( 2 ) sattvadhātv—aksayatvāt. phun-tshogs. mthar-hbyin. Being endowed with Compassion. %\\ ^§t • sampatti. naihsvābhāvya. 159) 168) 157) ?). rddhi-pāda. tair avasthitaśaktitah. Casting off his body. Cf. For the benefits of all living beings. hdsin. dañ-pohi dam-bcas. T. n a m e l y : 1) chanda. as being asamskrta and ādipraśānta. This is (4) rddhi-(yogāt). styi ||!f| (pūrvapranidhi). C. 3) virya. C.

C. ^|| fâ (sukha & śiva).4 7 . The Lord is perfectly pacified from the outset 1 7 1 ) . 5) $ $ 'jf $\ M i t (karunânantya). B u t B G S .The Ratnagotravibhāga Owing to his Wisdom. reads ' citta-'. C. 171 ) F o r (9) naihsvabhāvāt. [ 333 ] . He partakes of the complement of bliss 1 6 8 ) . mrtyumārāvabhañga). // 65 // While he is acting in the world. t h o u g h likewise counting 10 causes. Because of these [10] points. he is 4 eternal'. 8) ff M # iffi A^ Ife A ffi Qoke vicarato f astadharmair anupalepah). 7) g£ %. 4) # 0 ft |«§ (avikalpajñānânantya). 172) This is counted as t h e 1 0 t h cause. By his constant practice of the inconceivable 167) meditation. he is liberated from The dualistic conception of Samsāra and Nirvana 1 6 6 ) . bsam-yas. 178 | ^ ^ ī | £f£ ^ > For sāstr. as t h e 1 0 t h cause. // 66 // Being of an immutable nature. 169) He is unaffected by the worldly elements . b u t T. 4§F ^ î (sugata). " t i t ffc . ft (rddhyānantya)./$£ ^ it is anutpādânirodha). B G Ś : F o r acintya. 2) ^ &$ j l l (sattvadhātvaksaya). // 67 // The first 7 of these motives show The eternity of the Preceptor 1 7 3 ' in his Apparitional Body. And he gives a refuge for those who have no shelter 172) . t o BGS are as follows: 1) 3) [^ 7»v»' ^ Wk ff»§ i f t (hetvānantya). 168) This is for (6) sampatti-yogāt. 169) lokadharma. I t seems t h e c o m m e n t a t o r m a d e this m e a n i n g of śarana. 9) Jj Ug. C. T h e 10 causes ace. This is for (7) dharmaiśvaryāt. 170) p o r (3) mrtyumārāvabhañgāt. b u t has no correspondent t e r m in t h e K ā r i k ā . & 10) . omits this last one a n d counts ' samādhi' i n d e p e n d e n t l y o u t of sukhasampatti. 6) ' ( ^ ^pfc 7$$> /]£. The latter 3 demonstrate the eternity From the viewpoint of the Absolute Body. jv? 1?A (sadā samādhānânumeya). About sukhasampatti. ^54 f£r )M ^ ^ T ' U ZM (amrta-śama-prāpti & ^ ^ (being as it is by nature. // 68 // 166) p 167) o r (5) jñāna(-yogāt). He leaves no room for [the activity of] the demon of Death 1 7 0 ) . Having attained the state of quiescence and immortality. See N o t e V . o u t of lokanātha.

It is 4 inconceivable ' since it is unutterable. T. It is 4 the Highest Truth '. t h e word ' vyupameya ' is more suitable here. (Kārikā 13) Being unutterable. And by the 6th. T. vyupameya (ace. a n d t h e 6 t h is ' anudgraha '. C. With reference to this 4 inconceivability '. pjff: 175) idea of ' n o t relating t o b o t h ' is t h e expression of ' apratisthita-nirvāna / -r*. 178) He is inconceivable because of no identification 174 > Cf. It is 4 beyond investigation ' as it is incomparable 176) . It is 4 the supreme ' since it is not included [Either in the Phenomenal World or in Nirvana]. and relating neither To the Phenomenal World nor to Nirvana 1 7 5 ) . containing the Highest Truth. B G Ś 810 cf. srid-shis ma bsdus. on account of his Apparitional Body. 178) atattvabhāvitva. // 70 // It is 4 incomparable ' since it is the supreme. AĀS 473 ft. 40: vici- [ 334 ] .. Being the supreme. yXs <rc ^ f e 176) • =0v • AAS mentions these 6 as t h e causes of inconceivability. we have one śloka. since it cannot be constructed by thought. t o C. Cf. & S. this method of the attainment [of Buddhahood] by the Buddhas which represents the 4 Perfect Manifestation of the Basis' is to be understood as of inconceivable character. TAKASAKI (VIII) ACINTYA174) Now. BGS 3k§. The sphere of Buddha is inconceivable even for the Saints. Inaccessible to investigation and incomparable. de-yi dños-min [phyir] (— tadbhāvâbhāvāt). *A* JfX -^j V~fc > j ç • This '. 177) F r o m ' u n u t t e r a b l e ' t o ' t h e s u p r e m a c y '. It is 4 unutterable ' since it is the Highest Truth. v. // 69 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be understood by the following 4 verses. bhava-śānty-anudgraha. 4 Not included ' means the Buddha abides in neither of the two And never regards [in a one-sided manner] That Nirvana is of merit and the other is of defect. ^JSj 4=f Pjpt >[!)• T h o u g h T . // 71 // 177) Being subtle by the [first] 5 motives He is inconceivable in his Absolute Body.J. agree i n their reading ' vyanumeya '. since i t is supported b y t h e reading i n t h e K ā r i k ā : upamā-nivrttitah.

as in the case of the Mahāvastu. next to that of the Buddha. &c.1 ". this final stage of tuâ Buddha Is unknown even to the Great Sages 179) Who have attained the stage of Initiation 180) . On this point. Therefore. With the Great Compassion and other virtues. The different usage of the term ' rsi ' in this verse is also suggestive. om. [ 335 3 . But C. reads ' J^X Tvf p3 ffit y3Ç' (because of his obtaining aiśvarya). 179 * maharsi. this verse. / / 7 3 / / Finished is the second chapter entitled 4 the Enlightenment' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. contrary to the common usage of this term for the Buddha. C.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga With either Nirvana or Phenomenal World. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. who has attained the ultimate point of virtue. 180) abhiseka. dbañ. this verse (v. 73) seems to be an old verse and is probably a quotation. Here 'maharsi 9 . denotes the Bodhisattva of the highest rank. This abhisekatā or abhisekaprāpta was regarded in the old fc/iūmi-theory as the 10th and the highest stage of Bodhisattva. // 72 // Being endowed with the Highest Wisdom. Is inaccessible to human tho. trabhāvo na ca tatsvabhāvān. The Buddha. T.

C. B. stands for t h e present Skt. m e n t a l case. we have one śloka referring to the distinct characteristics 4 ) of the Buddha's Properties. a d d s ' atas tad '. 10 balas. as we h a v e t h e s a m e construction i n t h e beginning of Chap. 6) samvrtikāyatā. 4) guna-vibhāga. < £ =§§| g j ( ) . & 68 18 āvenikadharmas are T . i t is n o t necessary to change the Skt. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUDDHA'S PROPERTIES We have finished the explanation of l the Reality free from Pollutions '. [ 336 ] . before ' anantaram '. BUDDHA-GUNA l) XIV. comp. [Consists in] the Body of the Highest Truth 5 ) And the Worldly Emanations 6) based upon it. though one syllable is in excess by adding ' ~tā '. p p . (Kārikā 1) The aim of one's own and that of others. 5) F r o m the point of meaning. Cf. also a d d s ' atah ' ()ŚX . 473 m e n t i o n e d 180 āvenikadharmas i n c l u d i n g 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. AĀS C h a p . 2) abhinna-prakrtayah ( B a h u . kun-rdsob-sku-ñid. immediately after [the exposition of the Reality]. being indivisible from Reality by nature 2 ) as the brightness. N ) . IV.CHAPTER III. Therefore3'. pi. 1} c-475 c. I V (Tathāgataguna-parivarta). Hereafter. B u t T. The t e r m 'vibhāga'' corresponds to iprabheda'< in K 1. A m o n g t h i s l a s t g r o u p . 4 vaiśāradyas. I t is sometimes allowable in such an old-style Kārikā to keep an irregular metre. i n w h i c h a r e 80 anuvyañjanas. m . the reading 'paramarthakāyatā'' of Ms. F o r this. is preferable. r e a d s as a n instru- 3) T. dharmas. C. B u t . \\fr ffc£ jf?|J "HI. THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA 3. t e x t . we shall speak of the ' Properties ' which are based upon the Reality and are perfectly pure. colour and shape of the jewel are inseparable from the latter. text. and c o u n t e d besides 36 o t h e r dharmas. T. dbyer-med-pahi rañ-bshin-ñid-kyis.

T h e R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga Representing the state of Libiration and Maturation 7 ) , The result is endowed with Properties, Which appear in 64 varieties. // 1 // What is told by this śloka ? The Body which represents the Highest Truth Is the support for the completion of one's own [aim] And the support for the fulfilment of others' [aim] 8 ) Is the Emanational Body 9 ' of the Buddha 10>. //2// The first Body is endowed with properties, [10] Powers and so forth, as [the result of] Liberation, And the second one, with [32] marks of superman, As the properties [obtained by] the Maturation [which follows after Liberation] U ) . // 3 //
visamyoga, T . bral[-ba], C. i M . p a t t ; a n d vipāka, T . mam-par smin-pa, C. f = p ;fvV » respectively. Here ' visamyoga-phala ' means the dharmakāya characterized as āvaranadvayavisamyoga in Chap. II, while ' vipāka-phala ' means the rūpakāya characterized as the result obtained by causes (e.g. practices performed in the previous lives as in the case of sambhoga-kāya). 8) T. translates ' para ' by ' pha-rol\ but it should be ' gshan-gyi '. • sāmketikam vapuh, T. brda—yi sku, C. ~|U. \fe- *||j§f ( = samvrtikāya). )
10 7)

> rsi, T. drañ-sroñ, C. #Q 3 ^ ^

^ 1 . Both T. & C. regard * rsi ' as a plural.

vaipākika, T. rnam-smin, C. - ^ ^ 5 £ ^fc ¥ R m l (f° r vaipākika-guna) (that which represents the enjoyment of bliss as the reward of previous practices). As for the attribution of qualities to each of the two kāyas, i.e. paramārthakāya and samvrtikāya, C. says that to the first body, infinite qualities of the Buddha are attributed, while to the second body, the 10 Powers, etc., are attributed. Attribution of the infinite qualities to the paramārthakāya accords with the dharmakāya's ' union' with paramārthalaksanas which are indivisible, unthinkable, etc. as told in Chap. II, but as far as the 64 Proerties are concerned, C. attribution does not match the commentary below.
u)

[ 337 ]

XV.

64 PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

Hereafter, the text refers to which are the [10] Powers and other properties and how they are to be understood1*. Summary 2 '. (Kārikā 2) The Powers [of the Buddha] are like a thunderbolt, In [breaking] the hindrance caused by ignorance, His Intrepidity 3 ) in the assemblage is like that of a lion, The Buddha's exclusive properties are like space, And the two kinds of corporeal forms 4) of the Lord are Like the moon and its reflection in the water. // 4 // (I) THE 10 POWERS It is said that the Buddha is possessed of [10] Powers (balânvita)5). (Kārikās 3-4) The knowledge of the proper and improper place 6 ) , Of the result of former actions 7) , and of the faculties 8) ,
T h e reading should b e ' tathā-tad-adhikrtya T . de—ltar dehi dhañ—du byas—paho.
2)
l j

' i n s t e a d of * tathatām

adhikrtya

'.

T. & C. add t h e word ' uddāna ' before t h e n e x t K ā r i k ā . ( T . sdom-ni,

C. =f=r wL

viśāradatva, T . mi-hjigs-pa, C. 7k(ç fy\ "PC • 4) dvidhā-darśana, T . bstan-pa rnam gñis, C. . >y]§[ Jj^J,. 5) Prior to this sentence, C. inserts one sentence showing the following meaning: " Hereafter, the remaining verses in Chap. I l l expose the 64 properties of the Buddha, 10 Powers and the rest, according to the order mentioned in the previous Kārikā. Its detailed explanation is to be known according to t h e Dharanîśvararājasūtra ". D R S has, however, no explanation about t h e 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. Also C. changes t h e order of verses in the commentary (the K ā r i k ā - t e x t is arranged in t h e same order as t h e Skt. text), namely, the verses showing the similes, vajra, simha, ākāśa & dakacandra, are placed among commentary verses. 6 * (1) sthānâsthāna, T. gnas dan gnas—min, C. )fg& y\"~ Ifeît • About the 10 balas, see M v y u t . & D R S 14 c-18 a, AĀS 475 b, R D S 34 a-b. 7) vipāke ca karmanām = (2) karma-vipāka [-jñāna-bala], T . las rnams-kyi rnamsmin, C. 7fc ? R • • • 3^FC (reads vipāka
8)

~ ®'
3)

:

)

mm

a n d karmanām

separately). C. ffg ^PC •

indriya

= ( 3 ) indriya-parāpara[-jñāna-bala],

T . dbañ-po,

[ 338 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a
9) 10)

Of the component elements and of the faith , 11} Of the path which leads to everywhere , // 5 // Of the impurity and purity in contemplation, etc. 13) Of the memory of the previous abodes , Of the Divine Eyes 1 4 ) , and of Quiescence 1 5 ) , Such are the ten kinds of Power [of the Buddha]. It is said, [these Powers are] like a thunderbolt (Kārikā 5) [Being the power of knowing] about the proper and the improper, About results, about elements and various faiths of the people, About the p a t h
17) 16) 12)

,

// 6 //

.

, purity and impurity,

About the complex of faculties, the memory of former abodes, About the divine eyes, and how to destroy the Evil Influences; The Powers pierce, break and cut down
18 19)

The armour, the mountain fortress ', and the tree of ignorance, Therefore, they have resemblance to a thunderbolt (II) THE 4 FORMS OF INTREPIDITY 2 ) 0 . // 7 //

It is said that [the Buddha] has attained the 4 kinds of intrepidity (caturvaiśāradyaprāpta). (Kārikās 6-7) [The Buddha's] Intrepidity is of four kinds, namely: In his perfect Enlightenment of all the elements,
9)

dhātu

= (4) nānā-dhātu-j

ñ.-b.,

T . khams

mams,

C. ^lE •

10) n

adhimukti = (5) nānâdhimukti-jñ.-b., T . , mos-pa, C. |]=5 . ' mārga sarvatragāmini = (6) sarvatragāmini—pratipaj—jñ.—b., T . kun—hgrohi lam, ' dhyānâdi—kleśa—vaimalya,
=

12

T . bsam—gtan sogs ñon—moñs dri—ma med—pa, C. pjffc - vimoksa - samādhi - samāpatti - samkleśa ^ vyavadāna-

v P tÎH W$* /$L jñ.-b. (7).

sarvadhyāna

13) nivāsânusmrti, T. gnas-ni rjes-su dran-pa, C. | ^ , ^g^ J © "ZC T T = (8) i>"r" H vanivāsânusmrti-jñ.-b. 14) 15) 16) 17)
18)

divyā-caksus, T. lha-yi mig, C. y C »X = (9) cyuty-upapatti-jñ.-b. śānti, T . shi-ba, C. ^ £ f j p = (10) āsravaksaya-jñ.-b. C. p u t s t h i s verse before v . 2 9 . nay a. I t stands for mārga.

• * na

acala-prākāra, T . go-cha rtsig-brtan, C. l_L| ?||jīf. About t h e simile of ' vajra ', see v. I, 4. 20 > catur-vaiśāradya. Cf. Mvyut. 8, D R S 18 a-19 a, AĀS 475, R D S 34 6.
19)

[ 339 ]

J.

TAJ4.ASAKI

In rejecting all obstacles, In preaching the Path, and in acquiring the Extinction 2 1 ) . // 8 // He himself knows 22) and causes others to know All the things cognizable in all their forms; He destroy everything to be rejected and causes others to reject them 23>; 24) Serves [himself and lets others serve] in the method to be practised; And himself attains and causes others to attain The Highest and Perfectly Pure State which is to be attained; Thus, teaching the Truth 25) on account of himself and of others, The Buddha 2 6 ) , wherever he might be, is not paralyzed by fear 27>.

II 9 II

It is said that [the intrepidity of the Buddha] is like [that of] a lion 28 '. (Kārikā 8) Just as the king of beasts in the forest Has always no fear and acts without fear 2 9 ) among beasts,
21

' The 4 vaiśāradyas are as follows: 1) vaiśāradya in sarvadharmâbhisambodhi, T. chos-kun rdsogs-par byañ-chub, 2) vaiś. in vibandha-pratisedha, T. gegs ni hgog-par byed-pa, C. jlHi lîîj m4 J S . r-?- '•> 3) vaiś. in mārgâkhyāna, T. lam-ston-pa, C. Īf/Q i j j . ; 4) vaiś. in nirodhâpti, T. hgog-thob (D's ston is probably a misreading), C. \*f

v8v vB3 (flnāsravâpti). This order agrees with that in RDS, but Mvyut. and others put the 4th one before vibandha-pratisedha, under the name of āsravaksaya (-jñāna). 22) ' svayam ' should b e connected with ' jñānād ', a n d hence i t is t o b e w r i t t e n with separation from jñāpanād. 23) hāni-kārana-krti, i n t h e sense hāni- & hānikārana-krti, T. spans dan spoñ-mdsad. C. reading in this and the next phrase is not understandable. 24 ' vidhi. T. om. it. C. om. the whole phrase of ' sevye vidhau sevanāt'. About the idea that ' mārga ' is ' sevya', see Chap. IV, v. 52. Also these 4, i.e. jñeya, heya, prāpya and sevya correspond to each of the 4 satyas, respectively. 25) satya, which denotes t h e 4-fold āryasatya. 26) ārya (in plural), T . drañ-sroh ( = rsi), C. o m . Z7) astambhita [-tva], T. thogs-pa med ( = apratigha), C. ^ ^ "p^ ( = abhaya). (Cf. astambhin, adj. not paralyzed by fear, BHS Die). For this, BHS & Pali form is ' acchambhita % which is parallel to ' abhlta', ' asamtrasta ' or ' asamvigna ' (BHS Die. s. v.) and more or less synonymous with ' viśārada '. (chambh Skt. stambh, ' to fix'). a8) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 32.
I9) anuttarasta-gati, T. skrag-pa med-par rgyu-ba, C. £3 /p^ (for gati, T. rgyu-ba = carati).

[ 340 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga Similarly, the lion who is the Lord of Sages Abides among the assembly of attendance, Independently 30) , indifferently31', with firmness and victory 3 2 ) . //10//

(III)

THE 18 EXCLUSIVE PROPERTIES 33)

It is said that the Buddha is endowed with the 18 Exclusive Properties peculiar only to him (astādaśâvenikabuddhadharmasamanvāgata). (Kārikās 9-13) With the Preceptor, There is neither error 3 4 ) nor rough speech3 5 ) , Neither loss of memory 3 6 ) nor distraction of mind 3 7 ) , Also, there is no pluralistic conception 3 8 ) ;— // 11 // He is not indifferent, nor without consideration 39) , He knows no deprivation of his zeal 4 0 ) , and of his energy 4 1 ) , Of his memory 42) , of Transcendental Intellect 4 3 ) , and of Liberation 4 4 ) ,
30)

ll) 32)

svastha, T. legs-gnas ( = susthita), C. n * H (su-sthita). 7T~ E H nirāstha, T. Itos-med, C. A* "PC (without fear). sthira-vikramastha. T . r e g a r d s i t a s o n e a d j e c t i v e (brtan-pahi rtsal . . . ) , but

ace. to comm. verse (v. 34) and C, it is to be read ' sthirastha & vikramastha ', C. ī ! ^ | p | & si
33)

^"TV -, respectively. For these 4 adjectives, see vv. 33-34. F o r t h e 18 āvenikadharmas, see M v y u t . 9, D R S 19 o-21fe, A Ā S 4 7 5 6, R D S 34 6 f. skhalita, ravita, T . hkhrul, T . ca-co, C. 3 © -*• nāsti skhalitam C. p j " -> n. ravitam (2). nams, C. 3 c j3i> " ^ r ^ ^ "*" (^) # ma bshag thugs, C. -^i^ /£. HPC ^LJ^ "*" (^)* (1).

34)

36)

36)

musitā smrti, T . dran-pa

s

' ' asamāhita

citta, T . mñam-par

38)
39)

nānātva-samjñitā, upeksâpratisamkhyā

T . hdu-śes sna-tshogs, C. ^ § | ^g? ^ § i j § -> (5). (apratisamkhyāya is a B H S form for -yāyām (fern, loc.) ft jH[
j

of Skt.), T. ma brtags btañ-sñoms, C. 3S£ f^
40)
41)

^ -»• (6)(or-tah) hānih ( 7 ) .

chanda,

T . hdun-pa,

C. ij/V . . . n ā s t i chandasya

vīryo, T. brtson-hgrus, C. )fpj j £ . . . n. vîryatah h. (8). C. ^ £ t . . . n . smrteh h. ( 9 ) . h. (10). h. (11).

42

> s m r t i , T . dran-pa, prajñā, vimukti,

43)
44)

T . śes-rab, C. 3 § f . . . n . prajñayā T . rnam-grol,

C. J y p jjjjT . . . re. vimukter

[ 341 ]

J . TAKASAKI

And of the intuition of this liberation 45) ; — // 12 // Has [three kinds of] acts 46) are preceded by Wisdom 47) , And his Intuition acts unimpededly in three states of time 48>These 18 and others 49) are the Properties Of the Preceptor, which are not common to others. // 13 // The Sage has neither error 50) nor rough speech, Neither loses [his memory] nor distracts his mind 51) , Has neither pluralistic views52) nor indifference53) to one's own taste, He is never deprived of his zeal, effort and memory, Of pure, immaculate Intellect and Liberation, Of the intuition of freedom 54) and of showing all things knowable; — //14// He makes manifest on the objects the 3 kinds of acts 55 ', Which are preceded by 56) all kinds of knowledge, And brings out the Wisdom, well extensive, without hindrance 57) , Constantly, throughout the 3 states of time; Thus is Buddhahood 58) , endowed with Great Compassion,

*5) vimuktijñānadarśana, T. rnam-grol-gyi ye-śes-gzigs-pa, C. [ppp nju] 7»H J^l ...(12).
46

Mvyut. & DRS instead have ināsti samādher hānih (C. / £ . / 1 ' * XS).

' karman, T. las, C. p p | . There are 3 kinds of ' karman ', i.e. k. by kâya, by vāfc & by manas, and they stand for (13)—(15).
47

' jñāna—pūrvamgama,

T . ye—śes sñon—hgro, C. •J^J i i A , 2 ^ . .

try-adhvan, T . o m . tri a n d s i m p l y , d u s . C. *, "(tr . ijñāna<> acting i n each s t a t e of t i m e , i.e. atīta, anāgata & pratyutpanna, is c o u n t e d separately a n d consists (16)—(18) of t h e āvenikadharma.
48)

anye ca, T . . . . dañ gshan, C. /&. S*R ' ' i ^ īvL -^§ • I t is u n c e r t a i n which are c o u n t e d b y this word ' anye '• 60) praskhalita = skhalita. 61) The reading should be ' musitatâcitte ' (as a Dvandva-comp., dual, nom., i.e. musitatā & acitta) instead of ' musitatā dtte ' in the text. ' acitta* here stands for asamāhita-citta. (T. bsñel dañ thugs-g'yo). 62 ) n o sambhedatah samjñā. {sambhedatah = nānātva-)T. tha-dad-kyi ni hdus-śes. 63) abhyupeksana = upeksā. 64 ' T. om. nidarśana of muktijñāna-nidarśana (reading apparently ' vimuktijñānadarśanāt). SB) I n p l a c e of ' arthesu ', T . h a s ' yasya '.
66)

49)

purojava,

T . sñon-hgro

(— purvamgama),

C. . . . ^fo?{/ -2f£.

67)

aparāhata, T . thogs-med, C. TJJJÇ |*!p. PK] .

68)

ymotā, T . rgyal-pa-ñid,

C. # 0 ^ l ^ . r 312 i

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

And perfectly realized 5 9 ) by the Buddha; And on account of this realization, he sets in motion in the world The great wheel of the fearless 6 0 ) Supreme Doctrine. // 15 // It is said that [these properties are] like space (Kārikā 14) The nature found in the earth and the rest Is not the nature of space, And the properties of space represented by Non-obstruction, etc., are absent in material things 6 3 ) ; The earth, water, fire, wind and the sky 6 4 ) , likewise, Are common to all the [material] worlds, But the Exclusive Properties of the Buddha Are not in the least 6 5 ) common to those worlds. // 16 //
62) 61)

.

(IV)

THE 32 MARKS OF THE SUPERMAN 66)

It is said that the Buddha is possessed of the corporeal form endowed with the 32 marks of the Superman (dvātrimśanmahāpurusalaksanaTūpadhārin).
B9)

60)

F o r ' avabuddhā ', T . brñes (avalabdha), b u t C. as in t h e t e x t . The reading ' abhayadam' is to be corrected into ' abhayam' (one syllable is in

excess). So T. hjigs-med, and C. ^ ^ "pC [fibu ?& Vz*] (Lit. i t is an adjective to cakra). Cf. v . I. 4. (abhayam mārgam dideśa). 61) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 35.
62)

dharmatā, T. chos-ñid, C. ffc .

) rūpin, T. gzugs, C. P-|/ (that which has form). C. om. the word for sky from this line of elements, sothat the sky is to be distinguished from the other elements. Did the author of this Kārikā regard the sky as something material unlike ' space ' which, in its turn, is compared to the Buddha's āvenikadharma in the first two lines ?
88
S4) 65)

āśv api. T. dul phran tsam, C. Jj

- P ^!w — * ^ ^ (even not a single dharma).

T. om. ' buddha ' of ' buddhāvenikatā, for which C. " ^ f$j #fl ^R 0 T ^ft Ifâ -SJ W> •
66

> Of the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas, see Mvyut. 17, AĀS 474 a-b, RDS 37 b-c. Also

cf. AA, AAĀ Chap. VIII, The Prajñāpāramitāśāstra Ç/^, ^ J§£ fpg) attributed to Nāgārjuna. Of those ir the Ratna., see V. S. Agrawala, The Thirty-two Marks of the BuddhaBody, Journal of the Oriental Institute, M. S. University of Baroda, vol. I, No. 1. Sept. 1951, Baroda, pp. 20-22.

[ 343 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(Kārikās 15-23) The feet are firmly placed, marked by circles on the soles, And with broad insteps and leveled heels which hide the ankles67> The fingers are long 6 8 ) , and those of hands and toes alike Are connected with each other by a web 6 9 ) . // 17// His skin is soft and fine like that of youths 7 0 ) , His body is round with 7 elevated parts 7 1 ) , His shanks are like those of the deer 7 2 ) , and The private parts are concealed as with an elephant 7 3 ) . // 18 // The upper part of the body is like that of a lion7 4 ) , The parts between the shoulders are closely set and elevated 7 5 ) ,
67)

supratisthita-cakrâñka-vyāyatotsañga-pādatā (1), which contains actually 4 marks f ^ J ^y* $ § (flat *

on feet, namely: 1) supratisthita-pādatā), T. legs-gnas (loñ), C. / £ ,

the feet); 2) cakrâñka-p., T. hkhor los mtshan-pa, C. -_&• Jç£ ^ " Jp^g !pj|j; 3) vyāyata-p., T. yañs- (cf. AAĀ, āyata-pārsnitā); & 4) utsañga-p., T. mi-mñon (' not evident', ' hidden '),

C. f r 3) & 4)îg 9)t K ± I t (but^^ftfftî o
4) AEÎ 1E?C t^î | f l ) . For ' utsañga ', AAĀ & Mvyut., ucchañka (or ucchañkha), which is an equivalent form of Pali * ussañkha' and which retains the original meaning of this peculiar mark. T. translation ' mi-mñon' matches better ' ucchañka ' than ' utsanga ' . The form ' utsañga ' is, therefore, probably a wrong Sanskritization of Pali ' ussañkha*. C. traditional interpretation of this mark also supports this sense of'hidden ankles'. ,i_īy -I-Ki k l i ^yfcfc fcś 68) dīrghâñgulikatā (2), T . sor-mo riñ, C. g^g" ^ Q ^gj $JPS j ^ . 69) jālapānipādâvanaddhatā (3), T. phyag-shabs riñ dra-ba-yis ni hbrel-pa, C. ^jfjg

/T||
70)

TX

iB
(4), T . pags-hjam gshon-śa-can legs-ñid, C. -f* / £ , J ^

tvañmrduśrltarunatā

ÎTTC W V (instead of ' tvak', C. h a s ' hasta-pāda '. I t agrees w i t h AAÂ & Mvyut.). T . gshon-śa-can (for taruna) h a s t h e meaning, ' one who h a s flesh of y o u t h '.
71)

7 utsadas
72) 73)

saptotsada-śarīratā ( 5 ) , T . sku ni bdun-dag mtho-ba, C. |flf /Çf\ — L | | m /ppj , a r e n a m e l y : 2 hastas, 2 padas, 2 skandhas & 1 grīua. eneya-jañghatā (6), T. byin-pa enaya-hdra, C. f^* nāgakośavad-vastiguhyatā (7), T . gsara glañ-po bshin-du /^ ^ ^ . ^ | ^ [j^]. nub, C. ^ ^ | . i t

sbubs-su

74)
75)

simhapūrvârdha-kāyatva

(8), T . ro-stod señ-ge hdra-ba,

C. _ C . —p ^ ( 0 pījl ~j •

nirantara-citâmśatā (9), T. thal-goñ bar-med rgyas-pa, C. ^ x /Ti h^r Ls| i n î •

Cf. AAĀ citântarâmśatā. T. thal-goñ (for amśa) means the part between shoulder and PFt BTÎC ~ T viffi T collar (goñ-pa, collar). C. often interprets it as indicating ' a r m - p i t ' (|WJ /J$£ p (pft , AĀS).

[ 344 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga And his shoulders are well heaped arid round 7 6 ) ; His arms are fleshy, tender and of no unevenness 7 7 ) , // 19 // And are hanging low [down to the knees] 7 8 ) . The body has a radiant, pure halo around i t 7 9 ) , His neck is immaculate like a white conch 8 0 ) , And his jaws have a resemblance with those of a lion 8 1 ) . // 20 // He has forty teeth all of which are equal 8 2 ) , And are clear and closely set8 3 ) , pure and straight 8 4 ) , And his eye-teeth are white and of excellent form 8 5 ) . // 21 // His tongue is broad and long 8 6 ) , [by which he tastes] The highest taste, infinite and unthinkable 8 7 ) ; The voice of the Self-Born is like that of the Kalaviñka 88), And has the most excellent sound 89) . // 22 //
76) 77

samvrtta-skandhatā (10), T. dpuñ-pa legs-zlum, C. (Wj ^ JJJJ ' vrttaślaksnânunnāma—bāhutā (11), T. phyag—hjam riñ zlum—shiñ mthon dman—med—

pa, C. f^ fyj _ l l |* /4'ifT • This is n o t m e n t i o n e d i n AAĀ. M v y u t . counts t h i s m a r k along w i t h t h e n e x t o n e saying * sthitânavanata-pralamba-bāhutā.
78)

79)

pralamba-bāhutā (12), T . phyag riñ C. j £ f|fc ^ ^ Jj^r . śuddhaprabhāmandala-gātratā (13), T . yoñs-su dag-pahi hod-kyi

dkyil-hkhor

dag

dañ Idan (om. gātra), C. Jtj- Jf? ^t B |M .
80

'

kambu-grivatvam

amalam (14), T. mgrin—pa dri—med duñ—hdra, C. J j | 3ÎI-I "XL

'g^

~H . This is lacking in AAĀ, Mvyut., as well as in RDS.
81

' mrgendra—hanutā

(15), T . hgram—pa ri—dags rgyal—po hdra, C. |îipl ^ J ^ ^ p i p ~ j . (16), T . tshems ni bshi-bcu mñam-pa, C. |_l ^ i f i y

82)

s o m ā catvārimśad-daśanatā

83)

svacchâvirala-dantatā

(17), T . rab-dañs

tshems

thags bzañ~ba,

C. p f c ^ i | * P 5

84

* viśuddhasama—dantatva

(18), T . rnam—dag

tshems

mñam—ñid,

C.

JL. P | ^ )

¥^.
85)

śukla-pravara-damstratā

(19), T . mche-ba rab-mchog

dkar-ba-ñid,

C.

. ^ J [Zj

]tgij P ^ .
86)

This is lacking in AAĀ & Mvyut.

M"tîā, & * * ± Ifc.
88

prabhūta-jihvatā (20), T. Ijags riñ, C. ^ffl 'p§[ J ^ ; ^ "Q" . 87) anantâcintya-rasarasâgratā (21), T . mthah-med bsam-med-pa ro bro-ba-yi mchogñid (T. seems to regard 'anantâcintya' as adjectives for the previous one), C. jy\ J^.

> kalaviñka-ruta (22), T. kalabiñka-yi sgra, C 3ijū ^ ^ "JJO S •A A A ' RDS om. it. 89) brahma-svaratā (23), T. tshañs-pahi dbyañs-ñid, C. ^ y Q pfC J5L 5

[ 345 ]

J. TAKASAKI

He, the highest of living beings 9 0 ) , is of beautiful eyes, like a bluelotus, with eyelashes like those of a bull9 1 ) , Of handsome face, endowed with the immaculate Urna-hair9 2 ) , Of a head adorned with the Usnīsa 9 3 ) , and of skin, Purified, subtle and of golden colour 9 4 ) ; // 23 // Hairs on the body grow separately from each other, Soft and subtle, turning upward and to the right9 5 ) , Hairs on his head are of pure blue colour like sapphires 9 6 ) , And his figure is fully circular like a Nyagrodha tree 9 7 ) . // 24 // He, the Great Sage, whose body is firm and possessed of The power of Nārāyana 98>, looks sublime and incomparable9 9 ) ;

90)

agrasattva,

which is a s y n o n y m of t h e B u d d h a a n d n o t o n e of t h e * m a r k s '

at all.
91)

nīlotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (24). This actually consists of two marks, na1) nilotpalalaśrî-netra, T. spyan-bzañs utpala, C. . (3 $fk ft\\ ^ 3 , . . . Sj] "f^

mely:

2) vrsa—paksma—netra, T. khyu—mchog rdsi—hdra[—spyan\, C. o$rp Bp^ Zf^ ~~p* _*T*. .
92

' sltâmalornodita—cāruvaktra

(25), T . shal—mdses

dri—med

mdsod

spu dkar—bar

93

94)

> usnīsa-śīrsa (26), T. gtsug-tor dbu-ldan, C. J j | _ C ^*§ twj MH. vyavadātasūksma-suvarnavarna-cchavih (27), T. dag-ciñ srab-pa dañ pags-pa

gser-gyi mdog-hdra, C. # fe ffi ^ %ñ . S tfc & fe &. & îfc ^ ^ f
AAĀ counts this one as two. 95 * ekaikaviślista—mrdu—ūrdhvadeha—pradaksinâvarta—sūksma—roma (28). T. ba—sphu legs phra, hjam shin, re-re-nas, sku-yi gyen-du g'yas phyogs hkhil-ba, C. C • -jlj — *

^ âî.^^tfc-tJU.ÎK^ffl^fiîl&
translation, i.e. 1) ekaikaviślista;
96

This is

2) ūrdhvadehâvarta; & 3) pradaksinā—āvarta.

originally o 3 m r s a f ak s

* mahendra—nīlâmala—ratnakeśa (29), T. dbu—skra dri—med rin—chen mthor mthiñ—

bshin, C. H ^
97

^ flf ^ , P|? #P H P t M • This is lacking in AAĀ.
(30), T. ñya—gro râsogs—pahi Ijon śin dkyil—

* nyagrodha—pūrnadruma—mandalâbha. ' nārāyanasthāma—drdhâtmabhāva

hkhor hdra, C. # J|Jjf ^g ^ ?#, JP ^ tSj ffi 3E .
98

(31), T. sred—med—bu—yi stobs mñah (sred—med—b.*

means Visnu), C. ^
got this mark.

f^ ^

§ £ [§I , | § jftj SP M J î • AAĀ & Mvyut. have not
(—ātmabhāva) (32), T . kun—tu bzañ—po dpe—med, C. ~ j ^ * - ^ *

" ' samantabhadrâpratima

' • ^ "J 5 ^ (which reads apratigha for apratima). It is doubtful whether this stands for one of the 32 marks or not. C. does not count it among the marks. T. is not clear. And no other text includes it among the 32 marks.

[ 346 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

These 32 features of infinite splendour are taught By the Preceptor as the marks 1 0 0 ) of the Lord of Men. // 25 // It is said that [the Buddha, with 32 marks] has a resemblance [to the moon and its reflection in the water 1 0 1 ) . (Kārikā 24) Just as, in autumn, the form 1 0 2 ) of the moon is perceived In the cloudless sky, as well as in a big pond, Reflecting this blue sky on its water-surface; Similarly, the disciples of the Buddha Can perceive the manifestations of the Omnipresent On the surface of the pond-like sphere of the Buddha. // 26 // Thus these 10 Powers of the Buddha, 4 kinds of Intrepidity, 18 Exclusive Properties of the Buddha, as well as the 32 Marks of the Superman, being united under one head, make up the number sixty-four. These 64 properties are to be understood, Along with their causes for attainment, One after the other, according to [the same] order, Through the investigation of the Ratna-sūtra103). //27// Now, of these 64 properties of the Buddha, which have been explained above, the detailed exposition is to be known , according to the same order as before, through the investigation of the Ratnadārikā—sūtra. Also, there have been made illustrations of four kinds about these [4] points, respectively, viz. examples of a thunderbolt, a lion, the space, and the moon reflected in the water. Of these examples, the summarized meaning will be given in the following 12 verses.

100)

cihna, T. mtshan, C. 7ft\ ( = laksana).

" 0 dakacandra, C. 7jC *P M , T. chu-zla.
102)

vibhūti,

T . gzugs

( = bimba, rūpa),

C. ^

~j\. C. p u t s t h i s K ā r i k ā before v . 3 7 .

103) _ Ratnadārikāsūtra, T. bu-mo rin-po-chehi mdo, C. jpf >C flEE • There are two translations of this sūtra in C. : samnipātasūtra), Taisho, XIII, pp. 28 6-40 b. This one is used here for reference with the abbreviation of RDS ;
2

I ^ i S t f i S S H

( hp Ill o t e Mahā C a. f h

) 9, ~iC f$\ fBÎ I S (Ratnadārikā-pariprcchā), Taisho, No. 399, vol. XIII,

pp. 452-472.

[ 347 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Being [respectively] impenetrable104', with no misery105', Perfectly unique 106) and indifferent107), [The Buddha's Properties] are illustrated By the examples of the thunderbolt, the lion, the space And of the clear moon with her reflection in the water. // 28 // Of the [10] Powers, six, three, and one, Taken respectively, remove all [the obscurations] On account of the knowable, the concentrations, And of defilements with their potential forces. // 29 // As if they were piercing an armour, Breaking a wall, and cutting down a tree, The Powers of the Sage are like a thunderbolt, Being heavy, solid, firm and unbreakable 108). // 30 // Why are they i heavy ' ? Because they are ' solid '; Why are they ' solid ' ? Because they are 4 firm '; Why are they i firm ' ? Because they are ' unbreakable '. And being 4 unbreakable % they are like a thunderbolt 109). // 31 // Being fearless, being indifferent, Being firm and accomplishing victory, The lion of Sages is like a [real] lion, Has no fear amidst the assembly of audiences110). // 32//

nirvedhikatva, T . mi-phyed-pa, thunderbolt can break everything).
105) nirdainya, translation). 106) 107)

104)

C. iMj J{RJ (breakable, in t h e sense t h a t t h e

T. mi-shan, T. mtshuñs-pa

C. 3ttÇ īiâî ^L* (without m e r c y , which is n o t a proper med, C. sy* 5 Ç |t!i (nib,' i n t h e sense of ' atyanta1).

niskaivalya,

avikalpa

nirlha, T . g'yo-med ( i m m o v a b l e ) , C. ^Sç ^u* (indifferent). a n d nirlhaka (cf. C h a p . I V , v. 19). T . brliñ ( D . gliñ is a m i s t a k e ) , C. j f î ; sāra, T . sñiñ,

T h e reflection is C. gyr ; drdha,

108) guru,

T. brtan, C. \S[ ; & abhedya, T. mi-byed, C. ~A* ^T $jS J H , respectively. 109) C. neglects t h e first 3 padas of v. 3 1 . 110) parsad-gana C. adds one m o r e verse before v . 32, indicating t h e āryasatya, which m a k e s t h e analogy quite clear. I t r u n s as follows:

4-fold

tamisfti® M f t ^ s

m.mm.»m nmmM^-

(The Buddha, having known the duhkha of sickness and its hetu, and having been devoid of duhkha-hetu, preaches the āryamārga, that is an excellent medicine, in order to cause the people to remove sickness and to realize the nirodha).

[ 348 ]

water. Because they sustain all the world. Therefore. // 37 // [On the other hand]. For this line. takes ' -pañcadhā tu ' as if ' pañca-dhātu (Tl. we have illustrations in five kinds 1 1 6 ) . visible and causing delight 117) in the body. 115) ekānta-cārin. laukika. £J£ | f t S • [ 349 ] . 113) ' Indifference' in the sense that he does not try to see whether he is superior or inferior. //33// He stands * firmly ' since his mind is always Concentrated on all the elements of existence. // 36 // These 32 Properties mentioned above Represent the Body of the Absolute.It denotes the Pratyekabuddha. C. f3? 4T. ^f|p | X . ' ^ | E ' is p r o b a b l y for ' nirāstha '. The pure manifestation of the Corporeal Body is twofold. the Intellect is subtler with one after the [other. As with a gem. o m . 117 > ahlādaka. tshim-byed. with the Śrāvakas. ^ J ^ f S f\j ffe H ^ ^ fpf J ^ J^l ^ ^C ?RÇ ^ T (ātma-asama-darśanatah). With those that act in solitude 115 '. T. he is unequal by nature even to the people of purity 1 1 3 '. And he is i of the highest victory ' Since he has transcended the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. T. 116 ' C. // 34 // With the worldlings114). C. gañ—las kyañ hjigs—med. Because his characters surpass everything mundane and supermundane. Since they are indivisible from it. C. abides "independently' 111 ' from any fear 112) . the 32 marks are The properties. * \J)J }fin± s^ ~U<C • 112 ' akutobhaya. // 38 // To those who are far from purity and near to it. fire and wind. And with the Buddha. And are based on the two Corporeal Bodies The Apparitional Body and the Body enjoying the Truth. colour and shape. C. 114) C. with the Wise.The As He He As R at n a g ot r a v ib h ā g a he has got all the supernatural faculties. // 35 // [The first four are] like the earth. T. [But the Buddha] has a resemblance to space. mam-par gnas. y\^ = pañca-mahâbhūta). C. i n ) svastha. T. is 4 indifferent ' [about his superiority]. mthah-gcig-su spyod. the lustre.

TAKASAKI [One is] in the World. Just as the moon shows her form in both the sky and the water 1 1 8 ) . 37. whose content is almost the same as v. adds one verse more after v. and [the other] in the circle of the Buddha. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. 39. // 39 // Finished is the third chapter entitled 'the Properties of the Buddha'. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. C.J. the difference is only the use of the word * rūpakāya ' in place of * dharmakāya \ 118) [ 350 ] .

T. dvau. 3) 4) 6) 4) x) 3) but it has noth- vibhu. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA We have finished the explanation of the 4 Immaculate Properties of the Buddha '. e. and 4 uninterruptedly ' (apraśrabdhitah). // 1 // 7) Having completely established the Vehicle . "f^ jj§u ^ p Hvp (in accordance with proper place and time). and its functions [In accordance with the capacity] of the converts. JINAKRIYĀ XVI. i. THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA I) 4. gdul-byahi khams. S j T U !^fC 3i • F o r ' gamana '. 4 without effort' (anābhogatah). They are said to be manifested in two modes. 2) T . Iftf j $ j g vineyadhātu. C. C.CHAPTER IV. ^Pv • For nispādya. F o r the whole taddeśakāle gamane ca. 7) Par excellence. C. AĀS has a chapter of the same title (Tathāgatakriyā-parivarta). phrase. So. 4 the Acts of the Buddha '. (Kārikās 1-2) The acts of the Lord are always effortless 4) With regard to the constitution of the converts . 5) The means of conversion. 6) Working in [proper] place and in [proper] time . I 351 1 . i. Now we shall speak of the functions [associated with those Properties]. C. T. T . it denotes the Mahāyāna. khyab-bdag.. reads vineyakriyā for vinayakriyā. e. T. ^ \ . ing to associate with RGV in its contents. gśegs-pa (going). [Therefore] immediately there follow two 2 1 ślokas referring to the Buddha's Acts which are characterized as ' of no effort and interruption ' (anābhogâpraśrabdha). /£fc J\. o m .

• The Ocean is usually said to be the ' treasure of jewels '. T.(yena jñānena).J. ' yāvat. 10) And having perceived that Buddhahood . C. or 'garbha*. like wind. 3) (jñāna) om. which stands for ' yatra ' in the next verse. * nirviśistam. and (constitution. 4 Who ' means 4 the constitution 1 6 ) to be converted % 4 By what means ' 1 7 ) denotes ' the manifold means [of conversion] '. y^. Pervading extensively and of neither limit nor middle. f b & f^ I^t ^ ^E • . $ § : 7|C _^.. by what means. ^ Instead of upāya. C. the ' place and time ' [of conversion] '. As the treasure 1 3 ) of the immaculate virtues. Exists everywhere U) in all living beings 12) . ^ ^ ī | j | . 15) 16 > For dhātu. The Buddhas' Compassion. And 4 where and when '. C. khyad-med. C. chu-mtsho (ocean). gdul-byahi bya. like space. T. (-^g in v. there is no rise of discrimination. To whom. respectively. C. 17) [ 352 ] . Blows away the net of the cloud-like [Obscurations] Caused by Defilements and Ignorance. // 2 // The summarized meaning of these two ślokas is to be known by the following two and eight verses.)* ^ n e compound should be separated after raśmi and before pravisrta. bhūrinā. About these matters. 10) 11 12 1S For buddhatva. $|î£ • It has a sense similar to ' gotra"1 (mine). T. Therefore. how far 1 4 ) . C. 14 ) nidhi. // 3 // On account of the action of conversion 15) . C. 9 * punya and jñāna are called the two sambhāras (accumulation that brings about the Enlightenment. vinīti-kriyā. ^ ^ .. 3âBl ' sarvasattva (sattva in a collective sense) = sattvadhātu. T. p f q/£ J C fîii. And endowed with the rays of the sun of Merits and Knowledge 9>. faculty). Because. the Buddha's Act of conversion Is [working] always ' without effort '. C. gter. and when. [this act of conversion is] non-discriminative 8) ratna-svagarbha. misreads this passage and connects it with the next ' buddhatva '. C. TAKASAKI The ocean 8 ) of knowledge filled with the multitudes of the excellent virtues.

read ' bhūmayah ' (T. The Enlightenment has a resemblance to space. T. Like clouds and like the wind. C. respectively. The highest Vehicle 2 3 ) is like the ocean. C. The former includes those pāramitās of ' dāna. fff 22) 20) bodheh sattvah parigrahah. // 5 // [Here] 4 Deliverance ' means the 10-fold Stage [of Bodhisattvas]. niryāna. T. sa-rnams. Here the living beings are called ' bodhisattva ' in the sense of those who accept (pari. But T. // 8 // Being [the treasure] of the water of knowledge And of the jewel of virtuous properties. 24) Being of the nature of the Perfect Enlightened One . rton—pa. ksānti. yoñs-hdsin. 19 18) I* stands for ' upastambha (in the sense. C. 6) ' parigraha' is here used in the sense of ' nidhi ' (that which contains something). the pronoun ' tad ' in each case. -ppf pj !j/E H3^ /»3 \§i* Jāī8 f° r sattva). 4 Its cause ' means the 2-fold Accumulation 21) . Sub-defilements and Impressions. Jfi (satya). [ 353 ] . T. 4 The result of this Accumulation' is the Highest Enlightenment. yañ-dag-rdsogs-sañs-chos-ñid-phyir. parigraha. The phrase 4 The condition by which the obscurations are removed And which works for all time ' means Compassion. Like space and like a treasure. C. T. p 4 jJā. The twofold Accumulation is like the sun. // 6 // The phrase 4 The obscurations which cover this receptacle ' means The innumerable Defilements. 4 [Its] receptacle ' means the living beings Who accept the Enlightenment 22) . £|& J F $ (to enter the path. And to the obscurations [which cover] this receptacle and the condition by which these obscurations are removed. denotes the preceding one. As keeping alive all living beings.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga With regard to Deliverance 18) and its support 1 9 ) . // 9 // Being extensive and of neither end nor middle. $qf *\\ ($$ in v. byañ-chub-sems-can yoñs-su hdsin. J=J -^3 ' samyaksambuddha-dharmatvāt. ślla. and the latter. punya—sambhāra & jñāna—s. Hereafter. that of iprajñā\ For sambhrti. ñes-hbyin. 23) 24 agrayāna. & C. C. // 7 // These six points are to be known. Like the ocean and like the sun. To the result of [partaking of] this support and the receptacle 2 0 ) which accepts this result. 21 * sambhrti—dvaya. T. viz. fffj Jffli). that which causes ' niryāna '). vīrya & dhyāna '. C. C.)' yāna ' in the Kārikā.]/grah) the ' bodhi '.

an adverb to anispatti (unreal everywhere). and unreal 2 7 ) . // 12 // 25) a8) sattvadhātu. T. For vyāpi. 28) 27) 29) pratyupasthāna. // 10 // Being accidental. And having works of no termination. puts these two phrases after v. C. TAKASAKI The living beings 2 5 ) are akin to a treasure 2 6 ) . ñer-gnas. // 11 // Performing Deliverance for the sake of others. Cf.J. ma-grub. C. ' u)} . C. jr*-j . And. 10. pervasive. C. T . and regards it anispatti. nidhāna. Their defilements are like a multitude of clouds. bringing about 2 8 ) the dispelling of these. (note VI-28) C. J i (treasure under the ground). ^ adding the following phrases before them: ' J § %$ $ £ T 354 ] . jaR 3 C . Compassion is like a strong wind. the Avatamsakasūtra. [The Buddha] Acts ' uninterruptedly ' as long as the world exists. gter. Considering the living beings as one's own self29). T .

y\. [lhahi] rña. [^C 3) megha. like an echo. nor-bu rin-chen. 7) pratiśruti (pratiśrutka-śabda). T. rab—tu phye—ba. C. C. C. It was said that Buddhahood is characterized 1} as having neither origination nor extinction. 9 ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BUDDHA'S ACTS § 1. y C ~=P* ( p r o b . Buddha's Magnanimity. jrjj 5) arka (sūrya). and like the sun. are as follows: 1) śakra. in order to produce the faith in the sphere of the Buddha on the part of those people who have misconception and doubt about the Buddha's nature of magnanimity 3) . T. C. F o r māhātmya. C. 6) maniratna (cintāmani). C. for mahākriyā). T. T. & C. and as long as the world exists ? [To answer this question]. T. without discriminination. X ¥] tyj? â £ . how is it possible that from such an immutable Buddhahood. -^jj . Like Like Like Like Such 1 (Kārikā 3) Indra. T. sprin. 4) names of t h e 9 similes i n S. we have one śloka with regard to this magnanimous character of the Buddha. ~~Z~~ liJ^f St~~*~ V V s ^ prabhāvita. like Brahma. ^Tv ^ f ! I ' (mahāyāna-kriyā). £ p . C. tshañs-pa [chen-po]. space and like the earth. /EL. ?*g-. T. SY* "^ <fX ^ P l • I n t h e Kārikā t e x t . C.XVII. ftj. 2) apravrtti-laksana. T . characterized as of no manifestation 2) . // 13 // T . §iE.— is the Buddha [in his acts] 4 ) . 4) [mahā] brahman. rgya-byin. clouds. ñi—ma. the Acts of Buddha manifest in this world. the wish-fulfilling gem.. ' y\. C. ^ff 4^P î 2) [deva] dundubhi. without effort. says 3) C. Jm. 9) prthivī. |Z|. like the divine drum. sa. 8) ākāśa.. without interruption. nam-mkhah C. T. Being such. sgra-brñan C. [ 355 ] . T.

C. T. p. of this śloka which represents the topics in the Scripture 5 ) a detailed exposition will be given topic by topic in the remaining part of the text according to the same order. mam—man. (Kārikās 4-20) 7) Suppose here were a surface Made of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone. And. C. JĀA 240 b-c. in order to obtain 1 4 ) that state. while C. * vibhūti. T . Jāschke's Dictionary. the multitudes of men and women Abiding on this surface of the earth. T . 528 s. v.). 1X 10) [ 356 ] . there were seen on it The chief of the gods. 1.). owing to its clarity. in Chap. divaukas. & 13 in S. in a short time. with the multitude of Apsaras 8) . agrees with S. As well as his great place 9 ) called Vaijayanta. T . mdohi gnas Ita—buhi [tshigs-su—bcad—pā]. Some Kārikās in each simile are missing in C. Consequently. Kārikā text which are equivalent to vv. om. T. T. 6 > Cf. Kārikā text. For Vaijayanta. // 15 // Suppose then. at an early date12) . lha-dbañ (devSndra). T. Other gods 10) and their various dwellings Along with their divine glories U ) . Now. lha-gnas. Become like that chieftain of the gods ! " 1 3 ) And. yañ-dag-blañs te. vv. T. rnam—par—rgyal-ba. (Prior to this passage. T. Hereafter. Kārikā number starts with No. 14) samādāya. 14-26. Text reading i-pratibhāsatvād iti ' is to be corrected into ' -pratibhāsavad iti '. J E ^ ^& rfflL $13 *vv ī|=§î (Ivy) (sūtrârthasamgraha-śloka). 2. (T. (see my Introduction. 13) tridaśâśvara. the arrangement of Kārikās varies much between C. (One whose residence is in heaven). (I) It is said that [the Buddha has] a resemblance to the form of Indra6 ) . & S. 12) T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' vayam apy acirād ' i n s t e a d of ' adyaiva na cirād ' i n S. ñed kyañ riñ-por mi-thogs-par (riñ-por mi-thogs-par — after a little while. in the following passages. we have three verses in C. khañ—bzañs. 7) *' prāsāda. lhahi bu—mo. Would perceive this vision And make the following prayer : // 16 // 44 May we too. 4). IV. TAKASAKI § 2. 5 // 14 // * sūtrasthānīya [ślokd]. 8 ' For apsaras. has more than three verses which are not available in S. II—2) Mention will be done in each case about omission and addition in C . and the verse number in C. 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. C.J.

and who has the great glory. // 22 // Having seen him. hchag-pa. They. W e h a v e a similar expression in Lank. dpe-byad. %~J / Q i ^ HjK). it would appear on the earth. the people who are filled with desire. 18) vyañjana. Abiding in concentration of mind and showing The various miracles 2 0 ) . 22) T h i s is a n expression of t h e ' cittamātra ' t h e o r y . // 17 // Though having no notice that this is merely a vision. it appears in the world.). // 24 // Ordinary people do not notice That this is merely a reflection of their own mind2 2 ) . sa-steñ (for abl. nisanna & śayanasthita. Who acts in manifold actual behavior like Walking. cho-hphrul. C. C. // 19 // In the same way. it is an illusion. faith and the like. tisthat. g'yo—ba—med. // 18 // After all. And were endowed with 1 7 ) virtues. (svacittadrśyamātra. T. the living beings.. // 20 // Who is endowed with the visible features and marks 1 8 ) . reads as loc). I ? fjt)- [ 357 ] . Of no thought-construction and no activity 1 6 ) . hdod-pahi go-hphañ. standing. Still this manifestation of the Buddha's features bhū. Being associated with a great benefit. Being associated with a great benefit.. Nevertheless. 21) lam. //21// Preaching the Doctrine of Quiescence.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga They would abide adopting the virtues. T . And. bsheñs-pa. See below. T . T. owing to their virtuous conduct. ' laksana-vyañjana ' signifies 32 mahāpurusalakranas a n d t h e 80 anuvyañjanas. ' nirîhaka. Nevertheless. having brought the factors to development They do attain the desired state 21K // 23 // After all. These are called ' Iryāpatho ' ( T . sgam-pa (bhāvanā). Of no thought-construction and no activity. If they were pure in their faith and so forth. n a m e l y ' bodhi '. T . T . Would perceive in their own minds the vision of the Buddha. it is an illusion. īpsitam padam. sitting and sleeping 19) . being silent. 19) cañkramyamāna. Undertake the attainment of the Buddhahood. 17) F o r bhāvita. T . T . Would pass away from the earth 1 5 ) and be borne to heaven. l6 16) bshugs-pa 20) & gzims-pa (Cf. spyod- prātihārya.. T h e r e a r e said t o b e 3 prātihāryas. in S.

C. y C -F*. %ift. Have gradually established themselves in this method 2 4 ) . y\[ -f* . C. 30. having become completely free from unevenness 2 7 ) 28) And having become pure from within . C. brtul-shugs (vrata). C. as this earth would gradually lose its qualities. 26) madhyastha. //26// Suppose. would be as clear and white As the Vaidūrya stone. there would appear on its [surface] The palace of Indra 2 9 ) occupied by gods around him 3 0 ) as a vision. and seems to om. Whose mind intends to perform charity and the rest. The sons of the Buddha. T . //27// For obtaining that state. smon-pahi sems. for obtaining the shadow of the Lord of Sages 3 4 ) On their mind which is radiant like the Vaidūrya stone. T. muni-pati (= buddha).J . Through observing rules regarding fast and conduct 3 2 ) . And. For this passage. T. T . {cf j-pfj |* . (sthānā'ntaramalā). Perceive. But. samanta-vyapagatavisamasthāna. T . 23 ' avandhya (not barren). K 6. Similarly. 27) 24) There is n o t so m u c h difference i n i t s sense. jl^g. bsñen-gnas (upavāsa). with the eyes of transcendental wisdom. T. don-yod [hgyur] (sārtha). 25) 26 The Body of the Highest Truth within themselves >. // 25 // Indeed. TAKASAKI Is useful for 23) fulfilling their aim. ' upavāsa-vrata-niyamatayā. The vision [thereof] would subsequently disappear 31 '. the multitudes of men and women. It F o r naya. -ñes-par. marutā). 28) antar amalā. One Avagraha should* be inserted between sthānā and antar-. 25) saddharmakāya. theg-pa (yāna). [ 358 ] . lha-dag gnas-tshogs lha-dbañ lha-hi gzugs-śar te (which reads bhavana in pi. T. [because of its] being possessed of The immaculate qualities of jewel and of pure even surface. the earth. C. nañ-gi. kun dman-pahi gnas gshan dan bral (includ- ing antar by reading antara as • other '). those who. surapati. denotes ' mahāyāna '. having seen this vision. owing to its purity. 33) 34) pranihita-manas. Would scatter flowers with minds full of sublime desire 33) . T. thub-dbañ. with minds full of delight. T . ||f£ "JTIJ 31 29) —r * > 32 ) C . not clear (lha-dag is a mistake for lha-bdag? 30 ' māhendramarutā. puts this verse after f jc | v.

'. ¥. [respectively]. from forms of mind 4 2 ) . in this world. The divine 4 1 ) drum. being apart from efforts. Owing to the previous. in the heaven of the gods. ( I I I ) megha & (IV) brahmā are lacking).|0 . namely : ( I I ) devadundubhi. the Buddha who is all-pervading And free from effort and the rest. adds 4 verses here with t h e heading: ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata i t i ' . So one should not see it as either real or unreal. Similarly. Teaches the Doctrine by his voice dtra. of which 3 are equivalent t o vv. ' dharma-'. 31-33). T. (Kārikās 21-25) Just as. C. on the pure surface of the Vaidūrya stone. This seems to correspond to ' śarlra ' in v. From a particular place. etc. tffj j g j /i~T«> C. • / 1"* 4J&1.The Produce various R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga pictures 3 5 ) [showing the Buddha's life. // 30 // 39) (II) It is said that [the word of the Buddha] has a resemblance with the celestial drum 4 0 ) . // 32 // Similarly. on the pure surface of the mind in the world. By producing the sounds of i evanescence '. 43) C. reads cittāni for citrāni. T . Ajid from thought-constructions 4 3 ) . 39) 38) [ 359 ] . 89-91. Whether it be pure or impure 3 8 ) . J Ā A 241 a ( I n t h e oldest version of J Ā A . as the feature [of Indra or of the Buddha] Is seen only as a vision in this world. //29// The appearance and disappearance of this reflection Occur due to the condition of one's own mind. this and the following 2 verses (vv. 42) mano-rūpa. // 31 // Alarms all the inattentive gods again and again.] 3 6 ) // 28 // Just as. 41 > T . 37 > C. 40 > Cf. 3 s6) anāvilata & āvilata. C. T. There appears the reflection of the body of the Highest Sage 3 7 ) . and probably means ' manomayakāya '. K 5. this a n d t h e following t w o similes. 34. rñog-med & rñog-pa. instead of ' deva. yid-gzugs. C. K 4 . virtuous experiences. K 7. And. om. C. of 4 suffering \ Of ' impersonality ' and of ' quiescence '. There appears the reflection of the body of the highest god.

// 33 // Just as. in this world. TAKASAKI Towards the worthy 4 4 ) without exception. om. and starts again with v. K 12. T. this Doctrine. pramathana. 102. Brings forth Nirvana 4 8 '. Which is caused by the sound of drum And gives fearlessness [among the gods]. K 13. 56) C. From the structural viewpoint. in the city of gods. C. * N a m e l y : yatna—sthāna—śarira—citta. 41. // 34//49> At the time of the trouble 5 0 ) of battle. And just as the [celestial] sound. There is destruction 5 1 ) of the victorious play of the Asuras' army52). in the heaven of the gods. . Concentrations in the Immaterial Sphere54) and the rest. Now. kleśa-duhkha-pramathana-śamana = kleśapramathana & duhkha—śamana. in this world. the sound Of the divine drum arises due to their own deeds. // 35 // 5 5 ) (On the superiority of the drum over the other musical instruments) 5 6 ) . svakarma-udbhava. T. Similarly. C. T .20-104. arises [in fact] Owing to the [previous] own deeds of the people4 5 ) . C. $5^. C. C.12) is no doubt an interpolation of later days. in preaching the Highest Path. 3rC _ £fcE|3?p£ H i • citta. gzugs-med. % 61 52) 83) T. seî-ba. the Doctrine. rab-hjoms. T. 31. > ŚSnti. this passage (S. uses g'yul for samgrāma. sil-sñon. form and thought-construction4 6 ) . $ 5 . p. jSī[ M * E • > pranudana. 48 49 > C . the following prose section along with vv. [Buddha's] speech destroys 53) the defilements And pacifies the sufferings in the living beings. Though it is preached by the Buddha. C. 67) tūrya. simply /£^ (for ^Sç T / 7£S)C. T. which corresponds to ' vikalpa ' in v. devoid of those four 4 7 ) . Similarly. skal-ldan. Similarly.J. 36-40. as well as for bala. ārūpya[-samāpatti]. Brings forth quiescence. place. 56) 54) [ 360 ] . 50) Mesa. Which is due to various practices like contemplations. o m . why has the sound of the drum of Doctrine alone been referred to and not the cymbals 44) 46) 46) 47 57) and the other kinds of celestial instru- bhavya. being devoid of Effort.

In short. Owing to its distinguishing bliss from the pleasure caused by evil enjoyment 63) and to its bringing forth pleasant bliss in taking delight in the Doctrine. ghatita. 83 ' asatkāma. From this point. Then. That is to say. dbañ-gis mod kho-nar (because of their being from the power) '. owing to its delivering the sounds of ' evanescence '. we should expect the comparison between devadundubhi and divyā-tūrya. we have one verse. vaśād ghattitā eva \ T. T . and 4) unconduciveness to Deliverance (anairyānikatva). the comparison is made between dundubhi and tūrya showing the former's superiority to the latter. we will answer: They are not referred to] because they have four points of dissimilarity to the Buddha's voice.e.The Ratnagotravibhāga ment ? These are likewise produced 5 8 ) owing to the previous virtuous deeds made by the gods and make sound agreeable to the ear of deities. adds sthāna after apramatta. there is some confusion between illustration and illustrated subject. . bde—ba ma—yin-pa—ñid & ñes-par hbyin-pa ma-yin-pa-ñid. and to its pacifying all misfortune and perturbation 6 4 ) . if logically speaking. though. its 'beneficiality' is mentioned. 62) paracakra. 4 non-substantiality ' and ' impersonality '. T . Furthermore. . 1) partiality (prādeśikatva). and owing to its enjoining [them] to take heed. Buddha's voice is said to be compared with dundubhi alone. criticism can be made on this passage to decide that it is a later insertion and not perfectly consistent with the original part. 2) lack of benefit (ahitatva). pha-rol-gyi tshogs (paragana). i suffering '.) 69 * For these 4. ' produced' ' effected by ' or ' made '. s. 3) unpleasantness (asukhatva) 5 9 ) . 60 * T. an analogy was given between devadundubhi and dharmadundubhi. For this reason it is explained as being 4 not partial'. 37 refers to devadundubhi as being inferior to Buddha's voice (the reading tūrya is quite a comtradiction and is to be corrected. [And lastly]. [To this. But reference is actually made only to dharmadundubhi and not over devadundubhi. the circle of the Buddha's voice is qualified as being similar to the drum of Doctrine through these four points 6 5 ) . namely. 61) kāla-anatikramanatā (lit. 64) upadrava & upāyāsa. ñe-bar htshe-bahi phoñs-pa. respectively. it is said to be ' blissful'. i. b u t T . which are these [four] ? They are. . in the following passage. ñi—tshe-ba—ñid. (BHS Die. dam-pa ma-yin-pahi hdod. of which the latter is identical with Buddha's voice.v. In regard to distinguishing the circle of the Buddha's voice. . See below). n o t crossing time). but not with tūrya. T. Here. SB) Throughout the passage. For ' . the drum is explained as being 4 conducive to deliverance '. v. dus-la mi-hdah-bas. . T . phan—pa ma—yin—pa—ñid. [On the other hand] the drum of Doctrine summons the multitudes of inattentive 6 0 ) gods without exception and sounds at the right time 6 1 ) . Even [ 361 ] . ghattitā ' in BHS has the same meaning as Skt. First of all. 88 ' The reading aghattitā should be corrected into ghattitā. Owing to its protecting [gods] from the fear of calamity caused by the invasion 6 2 ) of Asuras and others.

a n d this illustration is also given i n t h e basic t e x t . Are the causes for increasing the elation of mind. are doubtful of i t s originality. ) . reads krpātman. B. i n v. however. As far as this illustration of ( I I ) devadundubhi is concerned. because. reads ' sambuddhabhūmer upayātV and T. etc. v. though they be pure and pleasant. 35 clearly shows us t h e role of devadundubhi as being t h a t of encouraging gods t o t a k e p a r t o n t h e battle-field against asura. A. the sound of the drum 6 7 ) of Buddha Reaches even those in the lowest sphere of Samsāra. i. There should be a term synonymous with dundubhi. hetu. gtoñ-bsam-pa (the t h o u g h t of sending. The voice of the great 6 9 ) Buddhas. And being endowed with the threefold miraculous power The voice of the Buddha is superior To [the sound of] the celestial cymbals. however. the divine cymbals of a million kinds Sound only in order to kindle the flame of desire. 69) Instead of mahātman. 68) T . // 38 // The sounds of cymbals in heaven. and rather -it is quite a contradiction. 70) arpanabhāva (the s t a t e of fixing u p o n . we may accept Ms. ' tu ' is not essential for giving contrast between Buddha's voice and that of devadundubhi. TAKASAKI Being universal. which are lacking i n C. // 37 // In heaven. Here. B reading by making a slight change from bhūmer to bherer (bheri = dundubhi)..). J Z ^ ]$$ H § or J Z l 7 J ^ * H ) . 66) [ 362 ] . C. . 32.e. though be great. gives a word for dundubhi (rña). Speaks of the concentration 7 0 ) of mind in meditation. // 36 // 66) . E x p l a n a t i o n is given in detail after v . Ms.J. Now. // 39 // verses 31-33. T . T. T. The sounds of drums in heaven. 67) T h e reading ' sambuddhatūryasya tu ' given b y J . the role of devadundubhi is said t o be t h a t of m a k i n g t h e sound of 4 mudrās. From the context. of these four points. a brief explanation will be given in the following four verses. is n o t likely t o be a c c e p t e d . But one voice of those full of Compassion Sounds in order to extinguish the cause 6 8 ) of the fire of suffering. and in the absence of Ms. On t h e contrary. i n J Ā A . T h e cause of suffering m e a n s ' kleśa '. o m . anitya. which is t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o dharmadundubhi. a r r a n g e m e n t as t h e original. I a m inclined t o t r u s t C. From this point. there is no reason for using tūrya to illustrate the Buddha's voice. 40. . bringing benefit and bliss. prātihārya-traya. Cannot reach the ears of those abiding on the earth. cho-hphrul gsum (Cf... In this world.

there is one śloka8 4 ) .). dbyañs-ñid. T . 74 * vikurvita. & rjes-su (C. And. but T. 71) anantāsu lokadhātusu (f. like space.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga In short. ñes-pa. zab-mo (gambhīra). f £ pratipad. with reference to the Path 8 0 ) leading to Deliverance. And in respect to those 7 3 ) points. F o r paryāpanna. 78 * cetah—paryāya. 77) tat-paryāpanna (tad d e n o t e s cetas). T. ma-gtogs-pa ( = na prajñāyate). 73) For āgamya. bstan-pahi T . however. but still this voice cannot be caught everywhere or in its full extent. rtogs-pa. ) . T . Jjî^ | § § T J N > J J . Is the voice 72) [of the Buddha] which manifests Pervadingly in the world leaving no residue. rab-tu brten-par (prañtya). ^ bstan-pa. The illumination of the thicket 7 6 ) of mental conduct of living beings. 76) 79) 80) B1) 82) 75 T. M v y u t . T . ) . rdsu-hphrul-gyi cho-hphrul. lam. This is. (C. ' C. reads divi and ksitau as a genitive and makes them relate to sukhakārana. kun-brjod-pahi cho-hphrul. C. In order to explain this point. T . gahana. [ 363 ] . This is called 4 the manifestation of miracle through instruction ' {anuśāstiprātihārya) 82) Thus the circle of Buddha's voice is. C. with reference to the self-fault of those who are not attentive. pi. . it is indicated that the all-pervadingness [of the Buddha] through the manifestation 7 4 ) of body in all the worlds of the ten directions shows [his] 4 manifestation of miracles by the supernatural power ' (rddhiprātihārya) 75)'. thus it is illustrated. hdoms-pa cho-hphrul.). & anuśāsana. // 40 // Now. 72) praghosa. M v y u t . cho—hphrul ( = prātihārya). this is called the ' manifestation of miracle through mind-reading ' (ādeśānā-prātihārya) 7 9 ) . In heaven. > T . unimpeded and acts without interruption. j | ^ . as involved in the mind 7 7 ) . ^ ^ jffJî. T. T. sems—kyi rnam—grañs. on earth. starts again with this heading (atat—prahitānām ātmâparādhe). [the Buddha] preaches and instructs 8 1 ) that Path [to the others] by the example of the utterance of his voice. rjes-su | | j j ( 7 J N *|§L. avavāda T . as well as In all the other numberless worlds 7 1 ) . not at all the fault 8 3 ) of the circle of the Buddha's voice. T. C* 7J> ^ Mvyut. For a[tat]pra- hita. 83 84 » aparādha. by knowing the variety of spiritual elements 7 8 ) . (C. that which is the cause of bliss. T.

' i n t h e t e x t . the Buddha Discharges the rain of the Highest Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion. // 41 // 8 7 ) (III) It is said that [the mind of the Buddha in its activity] is like a cloud 8 8 ) . // 44 // 93) Bearing Wisdom and Compassion. (interchanging the order with the next one). in the rainy season.sasyesu (loc. 86) 85) avabhrtka. //43// Just as the clouds discharge the rain. Not all sounds become audible 8 5 ) . . karma-. For 9 0 ) [bringing] the crops of virtue among the living beings. has no equivalent word and. . T . 43). o m . with no searching thought. . Is it a mistake for ' can' (having) ? C. 91) kuśala-karma-patha T. Agitated by the wind. 92) C. T . i n s t e a d of ' āyāntj. con- 93) [ 364 ] . Causing abundance of harvest 8 9 ) . T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' . K 14. om. 89) sasya. (Kārikās 27-30) Just as. C. r e a d s parama as a n indeclinable (mchog-tu). this a n d t h e n e x t verse (vv. K 16. has instead ' chen ' (mahā). without any effort. T. reads something like ' pravrtka' (jrtl). C. . Similarly. upon the earth where The people behave in the path of virtuous actions9 1 ) . the cloud that is the Buddha Pours the rain of the Highest Doctrine As the virtues are increased in the world 92) Owing to the wind of Compassion. T . Or even to a man of divine ears. 88) Cf. āyāti nikhilam '. r e a d s " sasyahetu ' a n d r e g a r d s i t as a n adjective t o saddharmasalila. . 42. The Doctrine.J. . 87 > C. // 42 // In a similar manner. lo-tog. The clouds discharge. Similarly.) i n t h e sense of ' i n order t o bring h a r v e s t '. 90) . of subtle character. TAKASAKI (Kārikā 26) Just as a deaf person cannot hear a subtle voice. being the object of the most 8 6 ) subtle Wisdom. The multitudes of water on the earth. J Â A 241 b-c. becomes audible Only to one whose mind is free from defilements.

T. K 1 7 . and light 9 8 ) Is the rain descending from the cloud. Becomes of tastes of much variety. (Kārikās 32-34) Those who have faith 1 0 3 ) in the Highest Vehicle. But having touched on earth the places filled with salt. neither perishable nor imperishable 9 4 ) . // 46 // 101) On the impartial attitude1 0 2 ) . "> āryâstâñga. sna—tshogs—ñid (vicitratā). 98) Of these 5. But. K 1 5 . -fcfe. Itos-pa med-par hjug-pa C. which seems to be merely an ' alankāra ' in comparison with the 8-fold Holy Path. t h e taste of rain changes '. Those of intermediate nature. // 45 //9 6 ) With reference to the unequality of receptacles in measure9 7 ) . The cloud-like chieftain of sages Causes the pure crops in various worlds. jj=j . clear. A . soft. abhiprasanna. ^ ] 100 101 *[j* j | | . [ ^ > C. Descending from the cloud. gzuñs. etc. owing to the variety of conditions of individuals 1 0 0 ) . 95) dhāranī. produces the Compassion). 97 * vimātratā. sweet. o m .. T. mkhan) and reads this IUJ> ' u * (Having known the ' existence '. T . C. C. ' C. ' depending on bhājanaloka. C. But C. for prasanna. T. T . 102) nirapeksa-pravrtti.The Ratnagotravibhāga Abiding in the celestial sphere Without affecting anything. nects ' bhavesu ' (in various worlds) with ' samvit' line as follows: 7»H ^rl r 94 (wisdom. rgyud. C. T . and those who resist the Doctrine. ksarâksarâsañga—. And being the womb of the pure water Of meditation and mystical formulas 9 5 ) . »6> C. dan = dvañ-ba. says ' / V Sjj f^ 7JC' (water endowed with 8 qualities). ^ ç yjg Jç'J 'u*. It assumes many kinds of taste in the living beings. 103) [ 365 ] . T . (Kārikā 31) Cool. C. I I S • > santāna. Similar is the rain of the 8-fold Holy Path 9 9 ) . *frf. the womb abundant with Compassion. dañ-ba ( b e i n g p u r e ) .

adds one verse before v. khagā (= cātaka). bdag-lta.J. respectively. C. > C. K 18. [ 366 ] . C. TAKASAKI These are the three kinds of living beings. hail and lightning 1 1 0 ) . C. shows the opposit sense. C. C. methods and rules. T. ^>£ * P J^l • But the genitive case for ātmadrsti in T. 105 108> > preta. Does not mind anywhere those who are of Defilements. Whether [in the burst of] egoistic view or in a dormant state 1 1 2 ) . In the rainy season. C. C. R 107) vyomny—aprâcārāh. 109 » C . mkhah mi—rgu—bahi bya. * 110) aśani & vajrâgni. 112) fne reading should be ' kleśagatâtmadrsty-anuśayān ' instead of ' kleśagatān drsty-anuśayān ' (one syllable short). C. is not correct. the one who holds the waters of Wisdom and Compassion. // 47 //106> Towards the end of the summer. C. J g fj^ :ggî . K 21. // 48 // 109) Discharging the gross drop of rain. The non-arising and the arising of the water of Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion [cause suffering in each turn]. because of much rainfall. [Discharging them] with various means. Both T. agree with this reading of ' ātmadrstV'. gives a free rendering for this passage. And have similarity with men. Men and those birds who cannot fly in the sky 1 0 7 ) Experience sufferings [from lack of rain]. C. %& <j$& j | ) . rma—bya. // 49 //113> 104 ' cātaka. being of no cloud. yi-dags. i^xsx *fifj ' < IE £ at * £ W « ^ . explaining the 3 groups of sattvas T. Similarly. î S f ^ I f ^ 3 & śaila-deśa-gamika. Nor about those who are on a trip in the mountains U 1 ) . jt^jivj ^** >"t/ • (The peacock is said to be delighted when he sees clouds). & C. t * . Those desirous of the Doctrine 1 0 8 ) and those hostile to it. This is the point of similarity. rdo-than & rdo-rjehi me. however. T. T. The ghosts in the ground experience sufferings. (gamika). subtle or gross. \X J\. The cloud does not care about the subtle living beings.y_i_» pel 108) j r o r dharma-ākāñksin. In the case of the living beings in the world. 48. T.£ * # J£ ? £ lit ?B Jl âft £ 5E>. reads ' kleśagata-anuśaya ( Q 113 U1) ^p^) and ātmadrsti. ri-yul soñ-ba^ C. T. peacocks 1 0 4 ) and ghosts 1 0 5 ) . K 20.

and a remedy used 122) . K 2 2 . and. Suffering. C. Just as excretion has no good smell at all. its Cause. o r 122) F 123) sparśitavya. there is no happiness. The Wise men never seek for the best glory u 9 ) among gods and men.— Its suffering is constant and as if produced from The contact with fire. C. reg-par-bya (D's rig-par-bya is to be corrected). [ 367 ] . swords. 5+c. 124 > C. Because of their following the faith in the Buddha's words. its cause removed. (Kārikās 35-37) The [succession] of birth and death in beginningless time Is the Samsāra. Extinction and the Path. ^ fl| ^ ) . It is because of their Transcendental Intellect. T. 52). removed. ice. " This is suffering. duhkha). 1 R . The searching for the objects of desire 118) is the suffering. Cf. for the human beings. dbañ-phyug mchog. salt and so forth. 119) 120 121 aiśvaryam uttaram. // 50 //116> Having known that the transmigration [from heaven] 1 1 7 ) Is the suffering among gods. T. hgro-ba. to pacify it. C. And in these five Paths. sevya > F o r prāpya. C. Like that. C. Health should be attained 1 2 1 '. And [consequently]. K 22. }fj|^ Jpq-y. //51//"») Illness is to be cognized. tfAe 117) 118 > paryesti-duhkha. 112. touched 123) and observed. Mvyut. Are to be cognized. /§lil • The term is here used in the sense of ' to be experienced '. * j | ^ < 1 § (īfc One of the 8 duhkhas. |*f . yoñs-tshol-sdug-bsñal. O n ' anavarâgra \ 115) 116 srjan (V srj). and this is its extinction " . > C. K 23 (placing after v. C. T. But. T.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga On [the function of] calming the fire of Suffering. in whose course 1 1 4 ) there are five Paths. 114) samsrti (course of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ) . because of their realizing analytically. this is its cause. (nisevya alike). the cloud of Compassion Lets fall 115) the great rain of the Highest Doctrine. // 52 //124). hchi-hpho (om. jg£ ( t o b e p r a c t i s e d ) . C. rab-tu hbebs (pravarsate). ^Es nf. » C. cyuti-duhkha. C. see Note VIII-242. |EJ ffi*. T . T.

And causes them to remove all the stains 1 3 0 ) forever. without any effort. C. — sarvaloka (v. Similar is the Buddha. Manifests his apparition. / ^ ^ j^f ^ * ^ . but T. Similarly. though not moving from the Absolute Body. 54). though he never moves from his palace. 54-56). 135) 136 Merry life [in the harem] . 55).yC . 134) 135 C. . C. mi-snañ-ba (om. divides ' āranyapravicarana ' into plj ^§< (naiskramya) & /\~f vicarana or duhkhacariyā). mthu. n all the worlds 128) . C. the Buddha. without moving from his palace.(IV) It is said that [the Buddha's apparitional form] is like the great Brahma 1 2 5 ) . // 54 // Just as with Brahma. C. And of the pure experiences 1 3 2 ) of the multitudes of gods. without moving from the Absolute Body. yul-la dgah-ba spoñ-byed. // 55 // 131) Because of his own original vow. skal-ldan. II. inserts ' śilpasthāna—kauśala ' before rati—hrlda. His manifestation. T . His sight is seen by the worthy people. C. Is seen by gods and causes them to remove the desire of objects 1 2 9 ) . 125 126> > Cf. always pervading the World of Desire. K 2 5 . 55). see S. ' C. It denotes here. 128 ' sarvadhātu. 136) f-\ <f~J* {pT<1' [ 368 ] . // 56// 1 3 3 ) On the invisibility1341 [of the Apparitional form to some people].— // 53 // 126) . On these vastus. by means of his Apparitional Body. in all the worlds. anābhāsa-gamana. ]5j\ç £ £ (in v. (Kārikā 42) Descent from [the Tusita]. 127 ' bhavya. entrance in the womb. 87-88 (vv. the Mahayānists. dben-par spyod. Birth. p. HK ^L vf" • 130) m ) 132 F o r mala-hara. C JT§ • 133) ' anubhava. 56 & v . T . 55). wandering in solitude '. Comes to the sight of the worthy 1 2 7 '. om. JĀA 242 a. 129) visaya-rati-hara. T. 53. In the world of gods everywhere. C. C. and the arrival at his father's palace. ^ ^ -A^ y^ (ābhāsânābhāse). M . K 26 (interchanges v . (Kārikās 38-41) Just as Brahma. T. Similarly with the Lord. par excellence. With his apparitional form. this and the next verse (vv. Brahma manifests his apparition without any effort. gamana). without any effort.

' muktā ' means ' a flash delivered from the s u n ' . there are the simile of the sun-lotus and the simile of the receptacle of pure ' C. 139 > For adhanya. 142) tapat (<r \Jtap). There are two kinds among the living beings: one is the non-converts and the other is the converts. C. Jfft . Lets the lotus flowers come to blossom. 63. 141 > Cf. 147) eka-muktābhir. jf^a ^ | 3 £ . The attainment of the Supreme Enlightenment. J Ā A 242 b. T. and this passage be an interpolation. 144) > 146 ' seems to 145 137 Yor guna & dosa. C. //57//14<» (Y) It is said that the Buddha [in his Wisdom] is like the sun 1 4 1 ) . T. K 2 7 . 138) C. T. shi-bahi groñ-khyer. C. hereafter up to the prose commentary before v. inserts cakravartin before this. But the sun has no discrimination in regard to the water-born flowers Similar is the sun of the Saint [in his acts] in the world In regard to the awakening of virtues and closing of defects 1 4 4 '. with reference to the converts. Does not come to the eye-sight of those who are unhappy 1 3 9 ) . With his own rays. ^1* ^ | § . T. (On the two kinds of people compared to the two kinds of waterborn flowers)146>. Of them. —r^ (study under the guidance of tirthas) before [y mārapramathana. respectively. [ 369 ] .^ & >p] | J p . C. And the teaching of the Path leading to the city of Peace 1 3 8 ) . water. The Buddha. C. though demonstrating such events. but C. Just as the sun. skal-med (abhavya). om. inserts ^Fjj Jj £ yv Ja. For praśamapura. (Kārikā 43) When the sun becomes shining 1 4 2 ) . 14 °> C. K 2 8 .The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a The victory over the Evil One 1 3 7 ) . 143) A kind of lotus or water-lily. cig-car spros-pa-yis (ekatra kâlasamaye = sakrt). simultaneously everywhere 1 4 7 ) . which is said to open its flower at night. at one and the same time The lotus flowers awake and the Kumuda 1 4 3 ) folds its flowers. ¥§. ^ J . without thought—construction. gduñ-ba (tapati).

> bodhi—manda. hbab (prapatati). // 62 // Thus the Buddhas. manifest themselves with visible forms and by teaching among the three categories of living beings according to order. 152) f ne r e a ( J i n g S ' visrte ' & ' buddhasūrye ' are to be corrected into ' visrto ' & buddhasūryo '. With the rays of the Highest Doctrine. C. Spreading out his thousands of glorious rays. For this. // 59 // Similarly. So T. For nipāta. Shines 1 5 7 ) upon the mountains. 149) 157) 148 pratapati. s t a r t s w i t h t h i s h e a d i n g . 156) saptasapti. Rising and illuminating the whole world. everywhere in the [mind of] converts Who are like receptacles 1 5 0 ) of pure water. (manda = sāra). T . middle. byañ—chub—sñiñ—po. there is a simile of mountains 1 5 1 ) : (Kārikās 44-45) Although the sun of the Buddha pervades 1 5 2 ) Always and everywhere the sky-like Universe 153 '. snod (= bhājana). T. T. the sun that is the Buddha. s a y i n g : ' krame ślokah '. i n s t e a d of ' śailopamatā '. Appears with no thought-construction. With reference to this order. om. Also ' vineyâdri ' should be changed into ' vineyâdrau ' (loc. 153) dharmadhātu. The sun 1 4 9 ) of Omniscience pervades the world With the rays of the Transcendental Wisdom.) and be separated from ' tannipāto '. Arising in the sky of the Seat of Enlightenment 148) . but C. chos-dbyiñs. // 63 // 156) Just as. T . Appear simultaneously innumerable reflections Of that sun which is the Lord. }j^ (as in the text).J. Upon the converts resembling lotus flowers. He casts his rays 1 5 4 ) upon the converts Who are like mountains. in this world. according to their merit 1 5 5 ) . T. respectively. TAKASAKI And lets the other come to ripeness. high. and low. // 61 // From which. T . (sūryasya nipāta). ji-ltar hos-par. sūryopamatā.. 154) tan-nipāta. 155) yathāirhatah. 150) āśaya. though they are non-discriminative. C. the sun . hbab. // 60 // With the body of the Absolute and that of Apparition. gradually. [ 370 ] . dinakrt. this verse. 151) T .

C. & C. Therefore. which runs as follows: (The one w h o is of t h e n a t u r e of compassion. hphro. . [ 371 ] 25 . F o r jāla. C. 169) 17 pada. K 3 2 .^ ffâjî $[FJ (abhrajāla). °J C. (C. But those who are of the nature of Compassion. T . om. C. J l l # P C. $ $ ( ^ g J ^ V ^ . ^ ^ l j ( t h e great benefit). 167) And. like space. //64// On the superiority of [the Buddha's] light to [that of the sun]. cognize how to remove the net of h a r m . l^m . T . 163) >p. has no equivalent word and has instead ' A^ Wi ' ( n o t break). t o cover. > bhānu.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a Similar is the sun of the Buddha which shines 158) Upon the groups of living beings. ārnava ( B H S ) ( P a l i annava ?). P e r v a d e s . according to their order. ' ekaikaroma-udbhavair '. // 65 // When the Buddhas enter the city. 3 i l l /ff! . And are obscured by the darkness of false views. having seen it. 166) Those who are of no eyes perceive the object . tshogs. T . T. C. o m . 164) 165) And manifest all things knowable . Manifesting t h e t w o bodies. <gf^ g g &PR 162) visara. jjffj (several). // 66 // 1 7 0 ) 158 159) 160) 159 > C. s p r e a d ) . 162) Illuminate the world with spreading bands of rays. t h e whole world. C. there does not exist the all-pervadingness In all kinds of lands and in the whole sky. mtsho. t h e B u d d h a is n o t t h e same as t h e s u n ) . C. C. tshogs. K 29. C. a p p a r i t i o n a l a n d of W i s d o m . T . ~} 165) C.— (Kārikās 46-47) Of the sun . Nor does he show all things knowable [by removing] 161) The thicket of the darkness of ignorance. T . And [likewise] even those blinded by ignorance. K 30) 166) 167) 168) F o r artha. adds one verse before this. 160) parispharanatā. Who have fallen into the sea 1 6 8 ) of the Phenomenal World. bkab ( < hgebs. C. Have their intellect illumined by the light of the sun of the Buddha. anarthajāla-vigama. And come to perceive the T r u t h 1 6 9 ) unseen before. 163 Produced from each hair ' and filled with various colours. 164 > For jñeyârtha. gnas. 161) gahana. K 31.

Having approached 174) the wish-fulfilling gem of the Buddha. 178) pâtâla-stha. T. TAKASAKI (VI) It is said that [the Buddha's mind in its act] has a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling gem 1 7 1 ) . 179) durbhaga. — " fhj* jpj |j§£ p p . (Kārikās 48-50) Just as the wish-fulfilling gem.J. Similarly. avikalpam. K. skal-ñan. // 70 // 171 > Cf. and for maniratna. 177 * bhāva. T. 34. without effort. separately. cintāmaniratna. even though the people so much 178) Long for it in the depth of the ocean or under the ground . in this world. C. it is quite rare To obtain the pure gem. brten-nas. as long as the world exists. T. sa-hog gnas. C. without effort. having no thought-construction 176) . T. According to their merit. the Lord always benefits others. Come to hear the Truth in its various aspects. om. Fulfills all desires of those Living in the same region 1 7 3 ) . om. iv2) yugapad—gocara-sthāna. the sight of Buddha should be known as Not easily achieved in this luckless 179) world " By those whose mind is afflicted by various passions. T . Similarly. Though itself is of no thought-construction. cig-car-tu spyod-yul gnas-pa. 17S > C. 174) sametya. for others. K 33. the whole verse as well as the next one along with its heading. // 69 // It is said that the Buddhas are 1 7 7 ) difficult to obtain. Produces the desired treasure. (Kārikā 51) Here. 176 ' T. hbyuñ-ba ( s t a t e of being). But the Buddha has no discrimination regarding them. // 67 // 1 7 3 ) Similarly. C. reads as ' durlabhaprāptas tathāgatabhāvah '. | p j "££ (living together) and adds ' Jjv jgç >\j*' (on the mind of Compassion). JĀA 243 a. [ 372 ] . 173 > C. // 68 //175> Just as the precious jewel. those who are of different inclinations. T.

> Cf. either inside or outside. But. the sky is seen as low and high 1 8 9 ) . * > C. T .). J ^ J f (as T. 186) niskimcana. om. C. JĀA 243 c. the Buddha is not like that. (IX) //74// 1 9 0 ) . In a similar way. sa-las skye—ba. $»»£ TW • 187 188 ' nirālamba. -*p. Formless and incapable of being shown. But. 182) jr o r anābhoga. mtho dañ dmah (high and low). the voice of the Buddha Arising through the voice of others Is of no discrimination and of no effort. 189) 192 [ 373 ] . T. either inside or outside. C. ' u * ) . activities] Though being so. dmigs—pa med. rnam-rig. / | V . T . cuñ-zad-med. It is said that [the Buddha as the foundation of all is like the earth 1 9 1 ) . Similarly. ' mahîruha (== mahiruh). K 37. // 72 / / 185) 184) And has no foundation. in reality. 36. it is not like that. K. 184 ) C. C. // 71 / / 183) has no foundation. -jjtfç ftpE- 190 nimnonnata. T. C. JĀA 243 b. (Kārikās 56-57) Just as all plants 180 192) . T. in reality. 185) Cf. 181) vijñapti. // 73 / / 1 8 8 ) 187) Surpassing the way of eye-sight.K3 5 . 183 > C. (but in the next verse. C. bzo-med. (VIII) It is said that [the Buddha's body is] like space (Kārikās 54-55) Being immaterial Without support 186 . and without foundation. > C. T. »«) Cf. J Ā A p u t s this simile a t the end). ' and invisible.The (VII) Ratnagotravibhāga 180) It is said that [the Buddha in his voice] is like an echo (Kārikās 52-53) Just as the sound of an echo Arising from the voice And 181) . J Ā A 243 c (after t h e simile of prthivl. K 38. of others effort 182) Is of no discrimination and of no . all kinds of forms are seen in the Buddha.

. thrive 1 9 3 ) and expand. // 77 // Its purpose [of teaching] is explained By the very name of that Scripture. 196) T. J§y[ for vrddhim upayānti). 19 7) >phe r e a ( J j n g ' ālokâdy-alañkrtāh ' had better be changed into ' ālokād alañkrtāh '. Summarized Meaning of the Illustrations given by the Commentator. Come to grow. reads as ' kriyām rte"1 and om. j$C wu (^ *^ trt F&it** -*-Ji. * 194 > C. brtan-pa (become firm). Where these nine illustrations Are demonstrated in detail. and for vaipulya. K 40. 195 > C.J. T. C. J[jl£ . C. . according to T. de-don (tad-artham). prayatnam. 3-g . TAKASAKI Taking resort to the earth Which has no searching thought. o m . C. 199) In this sense . n e next verse however. the roots of virtues in the world. 199) tasmin. you should know their summarized meaning. /PC. ' ādi ' gives no sense. // 76 // 195) § 3. [ 374 ] . C. which reads ' . // 78 // Adorned with l 9 7 ) this light of the great wisdom Which is the result of study. n a m e l y t h e Sarvabuddhavisayâvatāra-jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. there are nine examples Illustrated by the reflection of Indra On the surface of Vaidūrya stone. connects ikaścid^ with ikriyām\ C. T . T . 198) ity artham. Proceed completely towards growth. o m . Therefore. Summarized meaning of these examples is as follows: The performance of actions without effort Connot be seen by us 1 9 6 ) . K 39. The ninefold examples have been related In order to clear the doubts of the converts. hdis brgyan-pa ' (etena alañkrtāh).— // 80// 193) vairūdhi. om. This verse stands for t h e title of t h e s ū t r a . // 79 // For this reason 1 9 8 ) . and the rest. Taking resort to the ground of the Buddha Who has no searching thought. // 75 // 194) Similarly. The wise men enter rapidly In the whole region of the Buddha. . dehi (tasya).

T. T . /p(. But C.. y \ . & 9) ' prāpti ' for bhūmi. These 9 meanings are given to each of the 9 illustrations. With reference to this meaning (or subject). means the Buddha or the Bodhisattva. Jji^ pîjP. // 83 // And here the 4 subject in discussion' is that These nine. we have other four ślokas. rañ-bshin-dow (prakrtyartha). 8) ' kāya-guhyaka ' for ākāśa. hchi. 4) 'vikrti' for Brahma. In the next verse. I incline to interpret that this ' karunâtmānām '. thugs-rjehi bdag-ñid thob-pa-ñid. | f | j ^>p| gives n o s u i t a b l e sense. The ' logical reason ' is the non-discriminativeness of mind. // 81 // [The Buddha's] mind 2 0 3 ) . 204) prakrtârtha. T. Namely: 1) ' darśana ' (darsanā ?) for śakrapratibhāsa. C. 202) karunā-ātmānām prāptih. As for the treatment of this group of verses.The Ratnagotravibhāga [Namely]: appearance. 7) ' vāg-guhyaka ' for pratiśrutika. 20 °) darśanādeśanā.). Without effort. etc. Shall we accept '•darsanā* as an irregular form for darśana? If so both terms are to be written separately. 6) ' mano-guhyaka ' for cintāmani. om. 88 at the end of the illustration of prthivī. being of no thought-construction. Secrecy in acts by mind. . II. C. C. Karunā-ātmā. ' appearance ' and the rest. =|=§. being the summary of all the examples. // 84 // § 4. see my Introduction. [ 375 ] . as vicitra-artha. 3) ivyāpi'> for megha. 203) dhl (text. this passage up to v. T. 2) ' deśanā' for devadundubhi. thugs. 87. in order to establish the 'subject in discussion' 204 '. Summary of examples given in Kārikās 2 0 6 ) . 201) vikrti. A doubtful reading as J suggested. the form of Indra. 205) antardhi. § 2. pervasion.ft£&ftjjÇ ^y^ SPA •Q faf. speech and body. respectively. but mentions v. There are given i examples '. Are manifested without any effort And without birth or death 2 0 5 ) of the Preceptor. (to establish the meaning) (/PC i s used in the verse for ' susiddha '). // 82 // The ' proposition ' is here the pacification of effort. î06) C. Is such in which all the movements of effort are pacified. 5) ' j ñāna-nihsrti' for sūrya. C. beginning with the arising Of the reflection of Indra on the pure Vaidūrya stone. (Kārikās 58-61) The one who acts for the sake of others. and emanation of Wisdom. T. Ajnd acquisition of those whose nature is of Compassion 2 0 2 ) . And. as long as the world exists. in pi. pg|fc £|£ Pjflf Jjfljî iffl (janmântarddhim rte). Transformation 201 '. which as a genitive case is connected to all these 9. . sprul. teaching200*. As given in the examples.

srid-rtsehi bar-du. i. the Buddha's bhūmi is āspada of śukladharma. dkar-pohi chos-kyi sman. Brahma. āspada. an echo. . the Buddha Shows himself variously with the apparitional forms. He pervades an unlimited number of living beings. T. like the sky and like the earth. Like space is his body. he shines always. T. . like the wish-fulfilling gem. the remedy 2 1 4 ' of the whole world. If we take ' agra ' as ' beginning '. [ 376 ] . îl6 > C. which shows the proper interpretation of the simile. and om. yi-ge-min (om. Being the seat 213) of all virtues. Up to the highest limit of existence 209) . 209) according to T. gshir gyur-pa. the meaning is ' since the very beginning of the world '. ' anaksara-ukta. The Buddha is sudaiśika. The translation is T. like the divine drum. . And like the earth is the State of Buddha 2 1 2 ) in this world. formless and eternal. T. // 87 // Like an echo is the Buddha's voice. 208 ' sudaiśika.J. which denotes ' anāsravadhātu '. dharmakāya.e. — • yJ Wa 7$ Mî 213) 214) and § ^Jr }$ *$£ |j|§ (as the earth is āspada of ausadhi. Not being expressed by letters211) . sañs-rgyas-sa. ā bhavāgratah. like the sun. C. J ^ >fa -^p> ^Hç īj/£ wliich gives proper sense. śukladharma-ausadhī. //86// Like Brahma. Without moving from the immaculate place 2 1 0 ) . takes de- vadundubhi as relating to this word. YS\. Having the great sphere of the clouds of Wisdom and Mercy. is [the Buddha] who knows a means [of precept]2 0 7 ) . rnal-hbyor-rig. Being all-pervading. like clouds. (as an epithet of the Buddha). His voice is like the [sound of] the divine drum. T. C. \ffi IQ1. // 88 // 215) Like Like Like That 2 0 7) yogavid. spreading the light of Wisdom. T. Like the sun. K 41. And his mind [acts] like the wish-fulfilling gem. T. // 85 // The excellent teacher 2 0 8 ) has an appearance Like the reflection of the chief of gods on the jewel. 81 °) anāsravāt padād. . T. 212) 211 buddhabhūmi. TAKASAKI īndra. ' vibho rutam '. C. ukta). . legs—par hdoms—mdsad. . being ausadhi). C.

without effort and without interruption ? [To answer this question. K 10. K 11. -A^ Jsj?t. then. '^jjj» jf|j |-»rj^. T. The forms of the Buddha appear and disappear. The Lord does never appear nor disappear. in this exposition of examples. puts v. 223) So-called ' vyatirekâlañkāra ( 0 ) . § 2. C. explained to be seen with appearance and disappearance and as having actions. Are manifested without any effort. C. is the Buddha. C. As long as the world exists 221 '. Why. > C. along with one additional verse and with the heading ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti ' at the end of the 1st illustration. apparition and the rest. II. om. to work among all living beings. The verse added in C before v. // 89 // 218) Owing to the appearance and disappearance of purity. Like the Vaidūrya stone. in his Body of the Absolute 219) that is like īndra. which never arises nor disappears. 9. The Point of Dissimilarity 223) This is the summarized meaning of similes And this very order is told in order to show That the dissimilarity of the former example 2i6) This passage is again doubtful with regard to its position in the text. 84.The § 5. From the Absolute Body. the purity in the mind Is the cause of the Buddha's appearance. //91// 2 2 2 ) § 6. mi-zlogs-pa. > C . ' śakrapratibhāsavat' (after v. K 219) 220 C. 28). see my Introduction. And this purity of mind is intensified By the irresistible 217> faculty of faith. // 90 // 220) Thus. But. who is always of neither origination nor extinction. 221 222 ' ā bhavasthiteh. 1 Ratnagotravibhāga Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood 216) . dharmakāya. 89 is as follows: #H t ā î S ^ S c 217) 218 $£ I asamhārya. there are three verses]. As for the treatment of this passage. C. [ 377 ] . his actions. > C . 92 immediately after v. inserts the following 3 verses.

reads ^Y* U *]vf. having no seed of virtue 225) . is not like him. // 97 // ' ' . Since he is the ground and foundation 229) For the achievement of all the virtues Of living beings. he is like the sun.J . quite against the other cases in this text. 70) as a point of similarity to the Buddha. ' being acala like Brahma ' % 2 2 7> Here we cannot get the proper similarity of echo to the Buddha by means of the same operation as it is used in former examples. It is. not being the basis of virtues.. where ' ākāśa ' is [ 378 ] . he is like great Brahma. don-med-pahi sa-bon spoñ min (for ' na sārtha. is the nearest simile for the Buddha. Brahma is not like him. Which however.kramah punah / pūrvakasyottarenokto vaidharmyaparihāratah / ' = punah. ~J~~ /-\* -fcii 229) C. however. //94// [As the cause of perfect maturity]. v. is not like that. // 95 // The Buddha has a resemblance to an echo 2 2 7 ) . rim—pa yañ sña—ma phyi—mas chos—mi—mthun spans-pahi sgo—nas brjod—pa yin. [As the darkness-breaker]. C. But the sun cannot remove darkness fully. . mundane and supermundane 2 3 0 ) . [Being the root of virtue] 2 2 6 ) . . After all J's reading seems correct. But the reflection. ^H ^"J? TpQ ||fj ^"Jjl ~jp. '). It shows the sense that ' megha ' cannot remove ' anarthablja '. 228) £ £ ' tathāgatavyoma nimittavarjitam ' (II. Since it is not everywhere making benefits. is not as difficult to get as he is. being a dissimilation of ' prthivl ' with the Buddha. 226) C. Echo cannot be 'durlabdha'l Furthermore. being unable to ripen perfectly. being of no voice. ' megha ' cannot distinguish either ' sārtha ' or ' anartha '. the Buddha] is like The divine drum. pūrvakasya vaidharmyasya uttarena parihāratah '. But. JTQ JlgiJ frf* fî% /fc3t 224 225) sārthabîja. kramo uktah. C. TAKASAKI [With the Buddha] is removed by the latter one 2 2 4 '. so it is not like him. which however does not match him. T. is not like him. ' durlabdhatva ' of cintāmani was mentioned previously (v. the author seems to have had an opinion that the earth is the foundation of everything. he is like the wish-fulfilling gem. Which. T. [Being endowed with voice. and consequently. 230) In this series of illustrations. he is like a big cloud. But it is not the case.. Which however. // 93 // [Being beneficial everywhere]. is not like him. however. [Being of no cause] 2 2 8 ) he has a resemblance to space. // 96 // The Buddha resembles the region of the earth. 20). being a product of causes. //92// Buddhahood is like the reflection [of īndra]. in another word. Which.

a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] ' the Summary of Meaning of the ślokas'. Mvyut. apramāna. dhyāna. There arises the supermundane Path. 98. at one and the same time). // 98 // Finished is the fourth chapter entiled ' the Acts of the Buddha'. 232) 231) C. ārūpya. for the sampatti in 4 kinds of ārūpyadhātu (Cf. we may be allowed to say that those Udāharana-kārikās in Chap. And as this very ordex was arranged in the Udāharana—kārikās against the order given in JĀA (which puts the simile of ' ākāśa' at the last). | i v ( = āśritya). karunā muditā & upeksa (Cf. There emerges the Path of virtuous actions. brten-nas. T. Mvyut. C. [ 379 ] . without effort. /& Pile (Buddhas perform these actions. Mvyut. 'apramāna'' stands for those. ' dhyāna"" stands for the 4 kinds of dhyāna (Cf.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga By resorting to2 3 1 ) the Buddha's Enlightenment. and hence. maitrī. IV were not composed by the same author as that of the Basic verses in Chapter I. Consisting of meditation. saying: £JL~~ Jl~w |3 Ji f •tit*. 69). in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. 67). adds one verse more after v. 162). respectively. agamy a. // used as the most suitable simile for the Buddha. abiding always in [various] worlds. and 'ārūpya'. | p 3fU j$£. the immeasurable mind And the absorption in the Immaterial Sphere 2 3 2 ) .

the Enlightenment of the Buddha. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . reads -gunâbhilāsāt. They are inconceivable even to those of the pure mind 3 ) . with reference to the advantage of faith X ) possessed by those who are believing in these [4] subjects 2 ) which have been duly described above. [ p j ~|tr] {=p" A - 4) 6) 6) nāyaka. 23 of C h a p . B u t T . and the Buddha's Acts. | p | -*A/ \I&& • 2) Namely: Samalā tathatā (or tathāgatagarbha) in Chap. in Chap. T. I . we have six ślokas. THE MERITS OF HAVING FAITH IN THE DOCTRINE OF THE ESSENCE OF BUDDHAHOOD § 1. as if ' buddha '. C. (Kārikās 1-6) The Essence of Buddhahood. IV. Buddhagunāh. The Buddha's Properties. I I . C. I. C. & C. being possessed of the desire [to obtain] The inconceivable properties [of the Buddha]. 6) And. T. [ 380 ] . / / I // But the wise one. Nirmalā tathatā in Chap. hdren-pa. I l l . Becomes a receptacle of the whole collection of properties. T. The Superiority of Faith over Other Virtues in Regard to Their Merits. whose intellect 5 ) accepts the faith In this exclusive sphere of the Buddha. 3) śuddhasattva. • T . add ' catursu ' before ' sthānesu '. T . For guriâbhilāsayogāt. YJW • T h e verse c o r r e s p o n d s t o v . buddhi. dag-pahi sems. and Buddhakriyā in Chap. I * ' adhimukty—anuśamsa. Hereafter. THE MERITS OF FAITH (ANUŚAMSA) XVIII.CHAPTER V. mos—pahi phan-yon. C. Being the exclusive sphere of the Leaders 4 ) .

The latter would reap merits far more than even the merits of the mystic absorption. Which suppresses the fire of defilements in the 3 worlds n '. 16) svarga. T. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits 1 0 ) of an offering. Suppose one would give himself up to the mystic absorption. C. a d d s ' bhāvanā _ ^ ^5( ( to ' (bsgoms). And meditation is conducive to the removal of Defilements. To the Lord of Doctrine. Would offer golden lands. Cf. 14) For bhoga.T h e R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā ga He surpasses the abundance 7 ) of merits of all living beings. from t h i s religion. samskrta. After hearing of it. But the Transcendental Intellect can remove 7) 8) 9) 10) X1) prasava. Would be irreversible 13 ' from the means of Enlightenment. would have faith in this Doctrine. punya. Would keep pure moral conduct by his body. After hearing of it. // 5 // 14> Charity brings people only to [worldly] enjoyment . After hearing of it. if he hear but one word of this teaching. C. T . C. 3© / C 4 T 'tK ^ P • F o r acyuta. . mtho-ris. being anxious to obtain the Enlightenment. 6 ) . tribhuvana. having been transferred 12 ' to the abode of Brahman in heaven. C. Another if he hear but one word of this teaching9 ) . 2 8 . ito-bāhyas ( S . // 2 // Suppose there were one who. Another. And. _ I ^ ^*. T. . ] [ 381 .p . would have faith in this Doctrine. 15) Morality leads people to the blissful world . in course of innumerable aeons. spros-pa. speech and mind. not clear. C. ^ £ A ^ T3. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits of morality. being desirous of the Highest Enlightenment. 12) 13) For pārami-gata. om.. (3»>Ç). srid-pa gsum. constructed 8 ) by jewels As innumerable as the sands in the Buddha's lands. Without effort. r e a d s ' h a v e n o . 'fīf ^ g et richness as merits). T . T . ' itas '. o m . C. Another. if he hear but one word of this teaching. day after day. C. itah padam. // 3 // Suppose a wise man. always. would have faith in this Doctrine.

93) a n d r e p r e s e n t ' punya-sambhāra '. T . power and virtue Therefore. ^ ^ _£. Of t h e s e 4. ' āryasatya '. ^pj . its transformation ). 11. Hsūangchuang's tr. counts 4 points of faith). (e. J s . C. 194 6-200 c. MSbh (P). gnas. 795 c-796 a (applied to the 3 meanings of tathāgatagarbha).<j£. and BGŚ. Taisho 31. p. [yjC\ J y î Tyf. g. etc. 24-30. as J . is) "plug j s t h g only case w h e r e t h e t e r m ' parāvrtti ' is used i n s t e a d of ' parivrtti (T. This is for ' buddhakriyā '. p. C. VMT Bhāsya. go-hphañ. This theory of ' 3 points of faith ' is often found in the works of Vijñānavāda with the order of ' astivta-gunavattva-śaktatva '. yod[~ñid]. /XXr Spfc? T . gyur-pa. probably under the influence of the Ratna. With regard to its existence. BGS makes use of these 3 points in various passages: 794 6. // 6 // The summarized meaning of these ślokas should be known*by the following 9 verses. C. T. In these four aspects of the sphere of Buddha's Wisdom. Which have been explained above. The Its basis [of Buddhahood] 17) . don-grub. TAKASAKI All [the obscurations of] defilements and ignorance. explaining: " T h e r e f o r e . 26. artha-sādhana. (bhavyatā in the sense of ' excellence ' and is regarded as an apposition to 'tathāgata-padâpti').£§*. 19) 20) 17) '. C. -tā) C. C. . bhavyatā. 812 c-813 a (as the 3 fundamental points of discussion of the work). B u t t h e r e is n o proof for this suggestion. and ' triratna '. 799 c (adding ' acintyatva ' . āśraya. adds 3 padas a b o u t t h e merit of having faith W S H S E W itb ^ f a ^ ) "• T h i s arrangement of the 4 pāramitās (which a r e c o n s t r u e d w i t h t h e 6 pāramitās b y t h e c o m m e n t a t o r ) seems t o show t h e p r e vious stage of t h e 'pāramitā' d o c t r i n e . T. of welfare 19) 18 properties and the performance . 16) Therefore. as he is full of devotion and faith exists ' this inconceivable sphere. ffi ft S I • [ 382 ] . of MSbh. t h e first 3 a r e called ' punyakriyāvastu ' (Cf. ^+^ JñL i r f » W?f 4AJ îāīlî •> resp. nus-ñid. he quickly attains the potentiality Of acquiring the state That there 16) 4 22) of the Tathāgata. śaktatva & gunavattva. skal-ldan (om. yon-tan-ldan-pa. where it is applied to 'gotra-astitva'. M v y u t . Intellect is the supreme one [of all virtues] And its very source is the study of this Doctrine . and not to ' gotra'. 350 b. | 5 \ p y f £ * Wf" C. after hearing of t h e doctrine (. The // 7 // 20) 21) wise one has become full of faith . astitva.J .). Its application to gotra seems to belong only to the Ratna. śruti is t h e supreme. 811 b (as the first 3 of the 5 meanings of garbha explained through 9 illustrations). // 8 // Indeed. I t d e n o t e s ' dhātu' o r 'tathāgatagarbha'.P r o b a b l y t h e original r e a d i n g w a s ' -parivrttau' suggested. (Cf. but the reference is to ' karma-phala'. Needless t o say.). 22 21) > pada. T.

But Exertion is the merit common to all. energy. It is this study that is the most important. like me. contemplation. // 11 // 4 The [Highest of] Merits ' means the [first] 5 Highest virtues.The 4 R at n agot r av ib h āga 23) That it can ' be realized by one like him . Charity is the merit consisting of granting gift.. And this sphere. has been attained. [ 383 ] . 4 Its accomplishment ' is owing to his being non-discriminative 28) With regard to the three aspects [of activity] . )y\ J O V S • T h e reading 'easya' is to be corrected into 'câsyā"1 (being a p r o n o u m for prajñā). According to T. byaû-chub-sems. That i$ the Obscuration of Ignorance. T. 28) I t is explained in v. C. pūri & pariśuddhi. And both Patience and Meditation. // 10 // 25) As this mind constantly exists . 29) 80) 3 are ' g i v e r ' . etc. & C . B o t h are to be t a k e n as c o n n e c t i n g w i t h punyapāramitā '. Transcendental Intellect. 4 And the perfect purity' is caused by his removal of the opponents. ' r e c e i v e r ' F o r vipaksa. 27) With regard to the Highest of Merits . C. // 14 // But. 26 And he reaches the accomplishment and the perfect purity '. B u t it is n o t t h e case (see v. The son of the Buddha becomes irreversible. Comes to exist always. 12) C. And. // 13 // Discrimination regarding the 3 aspects of activity.. Memory.t i^T "SI ^ • 25) into ' 26) For 'pūri'. Morality is the merit consisting of moral conduct. reads vikalpa. // 9 // 24) So in him the mind intent on Enlightenment . ' endowed with such virtues '. which corresponds to ' punya-sambhāra '. 14 as ' trimandala-pariśuddhi. // 15 // 23 ' lit. Therefore. = p J ^ gg JJÎC %A 27) punya\ T. is that of practice. The other 5 cannot be the cause of their removal. punya-pāramitā.. as the source of i t 3 0 ) is the study [of this Doctrine]. without the Highest Intellect. (mādrsa). rdsogs. They are the Obscurations of Defilements. T. Being a receptacle of virtues like zeal. 3 S . etc. C. For i 24 > bodhicitta. the Highest Intellect is the supreme one of all. bsod-nams. jealousy. t h e r e a d i n g ' taccittapratyupasthānād ' is to b e corrected tannityapratyupasthānād'. T . and ' g i f t ' . The opponents 2 9 ) [to the 5 Highest Virtues]. £j) f^. = p ^ .

on the basis of the authoritative Scripture and of Logic 32) . First of all. 24. i. of MSbh (Taisho 31. seems to divide the first one into ' āpta ' & ' āgama ' and says ' |§f$ jfti yfc ^ £ . and C . This one is according to C. Similarly. 32) āptâgama & yukti. including those two. Those possessed of vision can perceive objects. The topic of each śloka is. given in the commentary verse. the heading for v. C. however. there is one śloka™]. 26-28) along with heading thereon is inserted with exact order aVid wording in Paramārtha's tr. this is in order to assist 33) Those intelligent people who are endowed with faith And accomplishment of virtues 3 4 ) . T. of the moon and the sun 3 6 ) . and Characteristics of This Text Being the Correct Doctrine. and how this doctrine has been explained and what characteristics it has. ' anugraha. I have expounded this treatise 31) The headings which are given in brackets are missing in S. Motive. 'kirn artham » 34) 36) bhāskara. has all of them. Except for this and the last one. param yataś ca yannimittam ca yathā ca yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokāh /) tatra yamāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. f^ j3> ff| ^ Q | | j | ' (' āpta ' in the sense of ' āptavacana ').. But C. rje-su-gzuñ. according to T. retains all the headings. Of a precious stone. (Kārikā 7) Thus. exclusively. o m . [ 384 ] . 16-25) and 3 commentary verses (vv. Authority. ^ g . of lightning. 35) katham (or yathā) udāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. however. At the same time. TAKASAKI § 2. p. The following passage containing 10 Kārikās (vv.e. C. Emendation: (atah. for what motive. 270 a-b). //16// [Next we have one śloka stating how this treatise is explained] 35) (Kārikā 8) Just as. C. T. with reference to the basis and motive. T. kuśalâpasampadā. yid-ches-luñ & rigs-pa. This treatise is expounded by me in order to attain Perfect purification for myself. 88 iti. ' kuśalasampad '. [Hereafter we have ślokas mentioning on which basis. with the aid of a lamp.J.

gives clearer sense though the original S. t o T . C. ~J\Z tj/j (illumination. a n d s e p a r a t e s i t f r o m dharmapada 41) 42) 43) ārsa. This term ārsa is. As the doctrine has such a benefit. used originally for the Vedas. 19. (f$C $L $ i i^O. 432). V ^ / f ī j . // 18 // [Next we have one śloka stating by what means this treatise is explained]45>. C. spobs ( O . gsuñ. like āptâ- viparita. 46) uddiśat. pada). ^ Jji] | J C • T i l i s verse is q u o t e d i n t h e Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā (Bibl. by the light of the Buddha's doctrine.^ J ī§§$. . p u t s here t h e heading which is t o be p u t before v . [Then we have one śloka stating the characteristics of the correct 39 doctrine] >. C. light) is for either ' prabhākara ' or ' pratibhā '. ffi U . chos ( o m . T . F o r v . C. C. And all others are of perverse character 4 4 ) . T . hod-mdsad-pa (illuminating). drañ-sroñ-gsuñ. C. Is conducive to removing the Defilements in the 3 Worlds. Ace. those possessed of vision of intelligence come to see. the word 40) 37) prabhākara. (Kārikā 10) Whatever is spoken by those whose mind is not distracted And who refer to4 6 ) the Lord as the only Preceptor.'yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah '. Such a word is that of the Great Sage 4 3 ) .B u t T . reading of this verse is r a t h e r 44) [ 385 ] . "j^j jgj£ [ ^ gama. don-ldan. T. reads: (Similarly. flash of idea). T . was probably as T. yenâdāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah. C. And can demonstrate the advantage of Quiescence. C. arthavat. 17 c d. dharmapada. dbañ-byas (uddiśya or adhikrtya). bzlog-pa. T. (Kārikā 9) Whatever that is connected with the scriptural texts41> It pursues the [ultimate] aim [of living beings] 4 2 ) . C. ( ^ | IpBî* T . I have expounded this teaching). . I n d . This topic is called ' nisyandaphala ' i n t h e c o m m e n t a r y . C. 46) Ace.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga // 17 // Relying upon the Lord who is the sun 3 7 ) Manifesting38) the Doctrine of great welfare. to C. 38) pratibhā. T . 40 39) > vacas. edition. \^i~jr^ yT*»l ^I->ft j £ j ^ ] . B u t T . p .

g ^ . That is also to be accepted with respect 4 7 ) As if it were taught by the Great Sage. No other who is omniscient and knows completely The highest Truth according to the right method. and himself is hindered b y t h e stains. t o T. ' ātmaraksanâpāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau /. ^ .J. // 19 // § 3. even t h o s e words could be accepted [as t h e correct t e a c h i n g ] . or [the word spoken b y ] one who accepts a l i t t l e p a r t of t h e B u d d h a ' s doctrine. Needless t o say. it will do harm 5 1 ) to the Highest Doctrine Because of destroying 52) the teaching 53) of the Buddha. C. C. T. which is. a l t h o u g h he preaches t h e dharmapadârtha [in order to] rem o v e t h e kleśas i n t h e tridhātu. t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h e sūtra which is spoken b y t h e B u d d h a s who h a v e r e m o v e d t h e suffering caused b y kleśas a n d are of t h e i m m a c u l a t e Wisdom is to be accepted. ^ī> f§§ ? nlti. neya [-artha]. 51) pratibādhana. b y t h e head). gnod-pa t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e B u d d h a and is opposite to laid down).. par excellence. T . J . Otherwise. 50) fa&ftin* SSSSIfi* mmM^A nīta. byed-pa. rgyal-pahi bstan-pa hbah-shiggyis dbañ-byas. the Scripture should not be interpolated 4 9 ) . T . 63) [ 386 ] . It is as follows: (The [word] of one who.§§. Which is discoursed 5 0 ) by the Sage himself. instead of ātmaraksana. 49) vicālya ( < vi— •/cal). Therefore. C. 48) Ace. rāga. T. T.. or t h e beneficial words spoken in t h e worldly books. (lit. 52 » bheda. 19 6 (śāstāram ekam jinam uddiśadbhih). gshag ( < hjog-pa. // 20 // difficult to identify with S. F o r v. C. gshig ( < hjig-pa). [Here we have two ślokas referring to the means of preserving oneself from becoming deprived (of this Doctrine) 48) ] (Kārikās 11-12) Indeed in this world there is no one wiser than the Buddha. T. tshul. 47) mūrdhnā. C. still has vision whose intelligence is covered b y avidyā. The Means of Preserving Oneself within the Doctrine. TAKASAKI And is favourable to the Path of the [2] Accumulations which lead to Emancipation. spyi-bos. dharma-raksana. etc..

mithyādrsti. i. B6) 66) vimūdha. |§ lobha-gredhatā. ksatihetum ' adhimukta-śvkla—viraha. *3i£ T J . rmoûs. [With reference to the causes of the loss of the Doctrine. (Kārikā 13) Want of intelligence. Both Zofe/ia & gredha have the same sense. T . & C . C. there is one śloka]5 9 ) . ^§5 /|jÇ ^ Ç ^ j ^ TJJ[3( (adherence to worship and respecting). * 4 ) darśana in the sense of drsti. tshon-gyis ārabhya C. 64) apa-\Jvad. only clean cloth can be dyed 5 8 ) But not one that is spoiled by oil and dust. dkar-mos bral. F o r t h i s defect. dran-don. // 21 // foolish56) § 4. t a k e kleśa t o g e t h e r w i t h vimūdhâtmānām a n d m a k e t h e sense of ' of o r b y those whose n a t u r e is afflicted b y kleśa a n d vimūdha'. rnam-bsgyur. rañga-vikrtim upaiti. . ārabhya. 67) abhiniveśadarśana. '. shen-lta. T . [adherence to] false conception 64) . T.( O D S C U " ration caused by the dharmâpavāda in the past). T . S\* J == $ (imperfect meaning). T . T . But it is not the case. your mind should not be attached To the dirt of the prejudiced conception.e. Probably it is merely a repetition for arranging syllables. [ 387 ] . Obscured nature through the rejection 6 1 ) of the Highest Doctrine. J{§> 7JIJE • T . phoñs-pa. C. C. V garh. All this is the Defilement of those whose nature is And is created by a prejudiced conception 57) . Therefore. brñas. C. C.The R a t n a go t r a v i b h ā g a The fact that people abuse 5 4 ) the Sages And blame 5 5 ) the doctrine taught by the Sages. vyasana. Interpretation of the conventional sense 6 2 ) as the [ultimate] Truth. Indeed. C. " | $ fâ\ f j E . g Ç . want of faith in the virtuous Doctrine6 0 ) . T . f p y . C... Greediness 63) . 5 © ~ £ R5> V A l-^. Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine. T. C. * / l'^' JJ=J j u j / ^ . neyârtha. ' saddharmaksatim B8) 69) 60 A c e . J s | t . greed of 63) 62) 61) attaining something) and C. Devotion to those who hate the Doctrine. ślokah /. C. skur-pa. t o T . rñed-la brtam (lābha-gredha. Indulgence in false pride. But T.

j£C ( t 0 approach). Of violent poison of snake. a snake. T. bya—ba— min = anācarana (vice). 66) 67) 8 C. translator. ' J ' * ^J^t Vz* • hīna. chos-hdsin. ' mams'1 is a mistake for 'hams' (ksati). T. n e a r o r f a r ) T . father. and lightning. C. and this addition corresponds to the Introductory verses in C. // 22 // [With reference to the result of this loss. see J's note on this word. ^ ārabhya dvau ślokau / '. 76 ' For ācaranakrt. thog. adds sf* \=f j[j§ ^ 69) fī[| as the general cause. bsriñs. by these causes. and one additional verse after v. And delighting in the inferior Doctrine 6 7 ) . 4 a %\\ H ^ So C. T . repeatedly serving 73) bad friends 7 4 ) . C. bya—ba—min—byed (to do what is not to be done). Ace. adds |^f 71) T. // 23 // Even one who. t o T . 73) 72) pratisevya. pāpa-suhrd. fj^f f$j . dharmabhrt. (Kārikās 14-15) The wise one need not be so much afraid of fire. As he should be afraid of the loss 7 1 ) of the profound Doctrine72>. C. there are two ślokas] 69>. may deprive one of [this] life But one will not go. 75) [ 388 ] . At most. adds /X. 65) āra ( d i s t a n c e . j § L {iijjj§. 24 referring to the necessity of having respect towards ' dharmabhānaka '. By all this. s t a n d s for hīnayāna. See below. and the Saints 7 7 ) . C. 77) arihat (BHS) = arhat (ari-han. T . ™> For aśani. C. an enemy. C. of murder. here. & C . i\±-> 7»P RBX • J 74) buddha -dustâśaya. C. [ [ 3 $fe J S ] | $ B • C.J. C. To the most terrible world of Avīci. About this form. It is probably an intentional addition by the C. or of lightning 7 0 ) . 'dgra-bcom-pa' for Arhat is according to this etymology). sdig-grogs. T. TAKASAKI Keeping at distance 6 5 ) from those who convey the Doctrine6 6 ) . gÇ f £ ^U gg)( (blame of those who know the doctrine). one becoraes deprived of the Doctrine of the Saint 68>. ^ lj^ p j )ffi ]ffl_ (to injure the Buddha with bad intention. Because a fire. one who kills the enemy. and commits the acts 7 6 ) Of killing mother. ' ksatiphalam « > For arhat. Is hostile to the Buddha 7 5 ) ..

&. May all living beings come to perceive 78) These 5 are regarded as t h e worst sins for t h e B u d d h i s t . 3 i | \ >2/> • I n s t e a d of dharmârtha. adds one verse more referring to the necessity of having respect towards the dharmabhānaka. The 3 Jewels. and is reconstructed according to C. he is as our parents and is a good leader. T. T h e first one in this t e x t comes a t t h e end a n d is called ' tathāgatasyântike dustacitta-rudirâtpādanam ' as C. the genuine character of this verse as a Kārikā is somewhat doubtful. turn away from the wrong view and enter the right path). the [Buddha's] Properties and Acts. pancâ- nantaryâni. T. Hi&m. how would it be possible for the Liberation to arise 81) In one whose mind is hostile to the Doctrine ! // 24 // § 5. Ypî Î^P '|~£ • = tathāgatagarbha. . 81) C. Cf. The Immaculate Enlightenment. It runs as follows: 80) 79) (If one lets the people study this doctrine and teaches how to believe in it. 122. Note that this additional verse is not found in MSbh (P). T . TJJÇ ( H J | f | i ) . These 7 are called ' vajrapada ' by the commentator in the open verse of this treatise. a wise man. But.&nmPfc & [ 389 ] . Therefore."If.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga And breaks the unity of the Highest Community 78) . has * dharmatva ' a n d C. rnam-par-byañ-khams. M v y u t . m m ft st n Cf. ñes-par bsams-pa. C. (Kārikā 16) I have thus duly expounded the 7 subjects. Conclusion. Even that one can quickly become delivered from that sin If he meditates upon 7 9 ) the meaning 8 0 ) of the Doctrine. the perfectly pure Essence 8 3 ) . C. (itv ^ s . (C. nidhyāna. because he lets the people. 82) tit * 0rn ?# $ . ' saddharma '. after the Buddha's parinirvāna. at the end we have one śloka in order to turn the merit acquired by the author through this teaching towards the people] 8 2 ) . By the merit I have acquired through this. /si H %)• 3£K^*nSHIt f 83) vyavadānadhātu. reads (see N o t e 75). MSbh (P) 270 a: This heading is lacking in T. [Here.

^ 86 ' ātmasamraksanopāya. Pfl * K ^ • samsāra-mandala. tshe dpag-med. 17. 89) 90) ksānti. reads samśodhana. How and what is expounded [in this treatise]. And one. // 27 // And finally. C. the acceptance 8 9 ) [of the Doctrine] By those living in the world of Sāmsāra 9 0 ) And their acquisition of Enlightenment. And then. C. 20. chos-brjod-pa. This topic. and the 5th in v. the [following] two ślokas88) Explain the result of this loss. // 28 // Thus is finished the fifth chapter entitled ' the Merits of Faith ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. But C. // 25 // The summary of topics discussed in these 10 ślokas (vv. 24. T . 19. It seems that there is a certain relationship between the Amitāyus—cult and the tathāgatagarbha theory. For Amitāyus. T. Owing to what basis. which C. 16. T. This prayer to the Lord Amitāyus >Ç is also found in the Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda-śātra. dharmârthavāda. mthah-yas hod-mnah. bzod-pa. 85) Of these 5 topics. // 26 // Two ślokas refer to the means of self-protection86). C. H [§ 87) 88) "% ~)$ ffi] as S. usual translation is ' f^Ç jgf ~J\Z {Jflj ' . y ^ . In accordance with the insertion of one verse after v. Instead of samraksana. owing to the arising Of the immaculate vision of the Doctrine in them. >>f£ ( = sattvāh). C.— In short. may they. 22. 24. adds the following summary: 91) £ 390 ] . 3 » jHC "^P 1/P» T. respectively. om. to the cause of the loss [of the Doctrine]8 7 ) . hkhor-gyi dkyil-hkhor. T. C.J. which is one of the treatises on the tathāgatagarbha theory. v. 21. Obtain the Supreme Enlightenment. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] 4 the Summary of meaning of the ślokas '. And. in v. And what is the natural outflow [of the Buddha's Doctrine]. the first 2 are taught in v. 18. these 2 results of teaching of the meaning Of the Doctrine9 1 ) are explained by the last śloka. 2 3 . TAKASAKI The Lord Amitāyus endowed with infinite light 8 4 ) . These topics are explained by the [first] 4 ślokas85). T. in vv. the 4th in v. for But here. 16-25) should be known by the following 3 verses. for what motive. v v . // 5 // 8l) anantadyuti. the third. having seen him. ^ ^ HI* ^Ç/J f^§ ^ . An epithet of the Lord Amitāyus. C.

APPENDIXES .

puts verse 29 as a ' Karikā * after this. § 3. ) In the present text. I.APPENDIX I RATNAGOTRA-VIBHĀGA (Śloka-grantha) x) (Śarana-traya) Yo Buddhatvam anādimadhyanidhanam śāntam vibuddhah svayam Buddhvā câbudhabodhanârtham abhayam mārgam dideśa dhruvam / Tasmai jñānakrpâsivajravaradhrg-duhkhâñkuraîkacchide Nānādrggahanopagūdha-vimatiprākārabhettre namah // 1 // (v. referring to the 4 aspects of gotra.30) for t h i s selection. 9) Ye samyak pratividhya sarvajagato nairātmyakotim śivām Taccittaprakrtiprabhāsvaratayā kleśâsvabhāveksanāt / Sarvatrânugatām anāvrtadhiyah paśyanti sambuddhatām Tebhyah sattvaviśuddhyanantavisayajñāneksanebhyo namah // 3 // (1. 23) between this and the next one. I I . 2 lj [ 393 ] . see Introduction. 4) Yo nâsan na ca san na câpi sadasan nânyah sato nâsato 'śakyas tarkayitum niruktyapagatah pratyātmavedyah śivah/ Tasmai dharmadivākarāya vimalajñānâvabhāsatvise Sarvârambanarāgadosatimiravyāghātakartre namah // 2 // (I. 27) 3 ) Sadā prakrtyasamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / Dharmâdhimuktyadhiprajñāsamādhikarunânvayah // 5 // (1. we have a śloka (v. 3 ) C.13)2) (Gotra) Buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśes Tannairmalyasyâdvayatvāt prakrtyā / Bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārād Uktāh sarve dehino buddhagarbhāh // 4 // (I.

[ 394 ] . sarvasattvesvavastithas tathâyam nopalipyate. 59) Cittaprakrtim āllnā 'yoniśo manasah krtih / Ayoniśomanaskāraprabhave kleśakarmanî // 19 // (I.itā // 16 // (I. T. 54) Prthivy ambau jalam vāyau vāyur vyomni pratisthitah / Aprathisthitam ākāśam vāyvambuksitidhātusu // 14 // (I. J's text teads pradahati. pāramitā phalam. 63) Nirvrttivyuparamarugjarāvimuktām 7 ) 4) 5) 6) 7) J's Text & T.alyadh. 56) Ayoniśomanaskāraś cittaśuddhipratisthitah / Sarvadharmesu cittasya prakrtis tv apratisth. 52) Yathā sarvatra lokānām ākāśa udayavyayah / Tathaîvâsamskrte dhātāv indriyānām vyayodayah // 12 // (I. 45) Aśuddho 'śuddhaśuddho 'tha suviśuddho yathākramam / Sattvadhātur iti prokto bodhisattvas tathāgatah // 9 // (1. 42) Prthagjanâryasambuddhatathatâvyatirekatah / Sattvesu jinagarbho 'yam deśitas tattvadarśibhih // 8 // (I. 53) Yathā nâgnibhir ākāśam dagdhapūrvam kadācana / Tathā na pradahanty 6 ) en am mrtyuvyādhijarāgnayah // 13 // (I. B. 61) Na hetuh pratyayo nâpi na sāmagrī na codayah / Na vyayo na sthitiś cittaprakrter vyomadhātuvat // 21 // (I. TAKASAKI Śubhâtmasukhanityatvagunapāramitāphalah 4 ) Duhkhanirvicchamaprāpticchandapranidhikarmakah // 6 // (I.J. satvo. 55) Skandhadhātvindriyam tadvat karmakleśapratisthitam / Karmakleśāh sadā 'yonimanaskārapratisthitāh // 15 // (I. 57) Prthivldhātuvaj jñeyāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Abdhātusadrśā jñeyāh karmakleśāh sarlrinām // 17 // (I. 35) Mahodadhir ivâmeyagunaratnâksayâkarah / Pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayuktasvabhāvatah // 7 // (I.atuh sarvatragas tathā // 10 // (I. Ms. 60) Karmakleśâmbusambhūtāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Utpadyante nirudhyante tatsamvartavivartavat // 20 // (I. 62) Cittasya yā 4sau prakrtih prabhāsvarā * Na jātu sā dyaur iva yāti vikriyām / Āgantukai rāgamalâdibhis tv asāv Upaiti samkleśam abhūtakalpajaih // 22 // (I. 49) Yathā sarvagatam sauksmyād ākāśam nopalipyate / Sarvatrâvasthitah sattve 5) tathā 'yarn nopalipyate // 11 // (I. 58) Ayonisomanaskāro vijñeyo vāyudhātuvat / Tad-amūlâpratisthānā prakrtir vyomadhātuvat // 18 // (I.47) Sarvatrânugatam yadvan nirvikalpâtmakam nabhah / Cittaprakrtivaim. J's text reads vimuktā.

157) iti ratnagotravibhāga-ślokagranthah samāptah // [ 395 ] . 156) Līnam cittam hīnasattvesv 4 avajñā bhūtagrāho bhūtadharmâpavādah / Âtmasnehaś câdhikah pañca dosā Yesām tesām tatprahānârtham uktam // 27 // (I. 84) (deśajiāprayoj ana) Śūnyam sarvam sarvathā tatra tatra Jñeyam meghasvapnamāyākrtâbham / Ity uktvaîvam buddhadhātuh punah kim Sattve sattve 'stîti buddhair ihoktam // 26 / / (I.The Ratnagotravibhāga Asyaîva prakrtim ananyathâvagamya / Janmâdivyasanam rte 'pi tannidānam Dhlmanto jagati krpodayād bhajante // 23 // (I. 71) Sa dharmakāyah sa tathāgato yatas tad āryasatyam paramârthanirvrtih / Ato na buddhatvam rte 4rkaraśmivad Gunâvinirbhāgatayā 4sti nirvrtih // 25 // (I. 66) Ananyathâtmā 'ksayadharmayogato Jagaccharanyo 'naparântakotitah / Sadā ldvayo lsāv avikalpakatvato 'vināśadharmā 'py akrtasvabhāvatah // 24 // (I.

2) (T) (T. B.) (cf. C) (context) (Ms.2 18.10 18.1-2 (T) (Q (T.6 16.C) (T) (misprint) (cf.16 4.7 22.4 15.9 3. S.2 10.8 20.2 12.9 19. bhavati j (should be inserted) upaklmârtho -śuddhyaifa (or śuddhyā hi) avaivartyā bhabodhisattvayânifeān gambhīra-pratityadhaTtaa bhavati / syād vadhakapuruse / tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayaZafesopa— virāgadharma— pāramārthikam ekam euâtrane sarvâfeāra (to be omitted) (mahācakravālapramānena mahācakravālah 1) (Source)*) (T) svaprajñayā drasturn vā bhagavan tathā-dharinā / avi-parivartānugatāni anyonyam bodhisattva upafcaranatām utksālya viçhapati abhāvasvabhāvāt —any atamâvi śista— abhisambuddhabodeh sarvāramwana -dharmā / —saîyadarśana(after) sprśanti / (before) katham upakleśârtho -śuddhyā avaivartyāe? bhabodhisattvān pratītya gambhira-dh.9 11. bhavati syād vadhakapuruse tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayavirāgadharmap āramārthikamevâtrane sarvâcāra laksana— (grammar) (cf. 22.11 10. 39.6-7 20. S. [ 396 ] .5 19.9 16. Chinese Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Edition).17) (T. used by Johnston for editing the Sanskrit Text.8) (C) (context) (Ms. T. 44.14) (T. S. Tibetan Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition).19 15. 12 9. S. & B. Ms.15 22. S. S. C) (context) (T.10.5 15.4 3.APPPENDIX II CORRECTION & EMENDATION TO THE SANSKRIT TEXT OF THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (This table excludes those errata which were already corrected by the publisher).C) (T) (context) (T) (before) mahāprthivī- ** T.14) (T.7 10.1 5.10 20.2 12. 11. C. those Mss.) -anyatamâvaśisÇaabhisambodhibuddhyā ? sarvāramftana -dhavmatayeti —tattvadarśana nâpi dttam samfeîistam. line) 2. A. 49.15 for read svapraj ñay ājraīium vā drasçum bhagavams tathā[vā —dharmā'vi— -parivartāc? anugatāni anyonya-bodhisattvaup ahar anatām unmīlya ? vithapeti abhāvasvabhāvāra (Ace.2 3.14 5. 13.C) (cf. Corrigenda (Page.

BGŚ) -samatâpti(T.17 39.15 24.17 25. 29. p. C) vaineyikesu (vineya) nirna/iāfcaranam (T.16 29.13 24.2 46. 32.14 28.17 42.9 26.6 46. C) (C) (T. 27 sattvârtham nirapeksatā trividhāh -samatâpatti —patitā ihadhārmikā sattvās tadyathā —pāramitā phalam/ -hetava esām (before nityapāramitā sarvatra parama— -nirvāna-s amārop amithyātva—niyata— (after pranidhim iti / pāposamucchedanipatanti * * * anāgataki -sādharmya avinirbhāgadharmā / avinirmuktagunah / yad-upagūdhah / sarapradahati balī yo (before sarvadharmā esa / —vimuktā asyaiva sresthino grhapater ekadarśanena sa ca ekaputrakâdhy ā śāya— premârcunīto śres^hi grhapatir iti āsravaksaydt/ii//îâ&/wmukhydrdhayā'dhyāśayapratipattyā pratiiHcyemāmbodhisattvaga no tathā śesebhyah (Q —āryamārg opadeśena (T.7 28. context.17 51.13 38. B.) (context) -hetava uktā esām (Ms. C) (T) (T) [ 397 ] . line) 23.2-3 48. C) (T) pāpâsamuccheda— nipatanti tān upakurvanty anāgata— (T.AĀS. C) darśanena / sa ca (context) -ipremâlambanatah ? (T) śresçhī vā grhapatir t. C) (misprint) kim —sādharmyam (misprint) avinirbhāgadharmā'i'i— nirmuktaguno yad— (context) -upagūdhah sara(context) pradahanti (grammar) balīyo (comparative degree) insert) mūlaparicchinnā (Mss. C) insert) bodhisattvānām (T.(T. C) —'pāiaiaitāphalah / (bahuvr.12 36.17 47. T.2-3 36.11 34.9 50.4-5 27.11 52. T) esa/i/ (grammar) » —vimuktā— masyaiva (vimuktām asya—) (Q sresthino vā grhapater uoîka.9 46.19 for Ratnagotravibhāga Corrigenda read (Source) tathâśesebhyah -ārye ria-mārgop ade śena vainayikesu nimitāfcāranam (before) triratnavamśabodhanā—padam after v.4) -patitāś cehadhārmikā (C) s attvāfe caturvidhāh /tadyathā (T. C) bodhano—padam (grammar) (anena kim darśitam) (context) sattvârt/ie nirapeksatā or s attvârf/mnirapeksatā (T) duividhāh (C. 32.13 50.cti āsravaksayâbhimukhydrçf/iod/iyāśayapratipattyā pratired/iyemām— bodhisattvaguno(T. 29. 30.19 36.. BGŚ) insert) tatra cchando 'bhilāsah j (T.The (Page.10 24. 30.6 40.4 24. C) tryadhvânubaddha (to be inserted) (T.. C) (T) sarvatraparama nrvānâsamāropa(C) aniyata— (C.13 45.11 44.7 47.18 48.17 37. S.5 36.

con.11 79.8 71.3 70.7 -śabha-aparyantam śūnyatatphalam dvividham / -visamyogaś ca / yathākramam gambhīryaudārya-vinirmuktestathāgata(after)-prsthalabdham j ātyandhafcāy a vat sūtikāmad/iyasthita -amalai stribhih acintyoprāj3ti^ pratyātmaveditā prāpyanirvāna- (context) (misprint) (T.3 70. C) sūtikāsadmosthita (T) (context) -amalais tribhih (to be connected in Devanāgari) acinty ârhattvam (T.13 88. .B) (insert) laukikam j ātyandharūpavat (T.5 71.15 79.19 for tathâgatagarbhasya ki samadharmatayā tathāgato 'nyo ni sp ats v-as amekena ca kāranena jagat ujjñitamrāgâdidviehnoha aśubhâdibAouojñāna(v. C) pratyātmaveditam prāptonirvāna(T.2 55.11 76. C) vikārā— (misprint) sarve(misprint) tatra (misprint) -advaidhīkāreti (gram. . (misprint) vaineyika— (<vineya) dharmadhātur avi(T.6-7 68. ' and connect 'tad yathā'pi nāma. C. context) tathāgatagarbhā iti (context) -āvrîam (T. context) (context) gāmbhlryaudārya (context) -vinirmukfe fathāgata(T. C) into prose) (C.21 67. .6 73.16 68.13 61.18 84. C) (context) (C.J .13 84. A) aśubhâdib/utvanājûāna(T.14 72.7 79.19 56. C) (T) 75.) mahādharmâd/iirā/yatvāt (T) iti parikalpitam asya vacanam iti (context) vikalpayitavyā kevalam tv adhimoktavyā te ' tyanfam sāsrava(change the pargraph from ' yathāca s a .8 86.12 79. .3 57.15 74.4 67.9) (T) (misprint) (misprint) (misprint) (Ms.16 79.2 58.1 64.5 73.7 74. line) 55. 132 tathāgatagarbha iti —āvrtâ dbidhā vainayikadharmadhātor avivikārā sarve tatra-advaidhīkāro ti mahādharmâdhirdjfatvāt iti parikabpam asya vacanāyeti vikalpayitavyā'dhimoktavyā te'tyantasāsravaread (Source) tathāgatad/iātor kim samadharmatayā tathāgato nânyo nispatty-asamekena câkārena jagatujjTutamrāgâdicbiñmoha (Ms.19 85.) śubha aviparyastam śūnyatatphalam visamayogah / -visamyogaś ca yathākramam / (T. B) (misprint) (T) (context) (S.6 70. Ms. ' after 'prasādhitah/ 'without changing paragraph. TAKASAKI Corrigenda (Page.) dvidhā. C) [ 398 ] .13 69.9 71.12 71.7 55. 58.

2 98. context) tathatâmadhikTtya (before v.3 118. C) (C) [ 399 ] . context) (metre) (context) (T) (context) (T.16 111. 4) svayamj ñāpanā apratisamkhyāpahānir ace.16 104. v. v. oy (T) (T. C) (T.The (Page.1 116.4 vyanumeyo R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga Corrigenda read vyupameyatah vyupameyo tatAā-tad-adhikrtya (add) uddānam / svayam jñāpanā— apratisamkhyāya hānir (as in the text) musitaîâcitte abhayam -arkaraśmi pravisrta(to be separated) —vad iti vayam apy acirād —sthânā'ntaramalā -vaśād gha\titā sambuddhafe/ierer upoyāti āyāti nikhilam / kle śagatâtmadsrÇyvisrto buddhasūryo vinetâdrou fannipāto -ālokād-alamkrtāft (insert) catursu tanrutyapratyupasthānād câsyā mūlam (C. to J's correction) musitatā citte abhayadam —arkara śmipravisrta— -tvād iti adyaiva na cirād -sthānāntaramalā -vaśād agha^çitā sambuddhaîūrya tu yāti āyānti nikhilam / kleśagatān drs£y— visrte buddhasūrye vineyâdri-tannipāto -ālokādy-alamkrtāh (before sthānesv-) taccittapratyupasthānād câsya mūlam .3 100. B.5 vyanumeyatah 90. line) for 90. C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T.5 117.13 117.15 92. (Source) context) .14 91.16 108.14 106.9 117. v. 16) (before (before (before (before v. . 25) tatra yadāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah / yathodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yenodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ ātmaraksanopāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau / ksatihetum ārabhya ślokah / ksatiphalam ārabhya dvau ślokau/ āptapunyaparinamane ślokafc / (C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T. context) (T. context) (context) (T.11 102-21 103. 17) 18) 19) 20) (before v.15 119. . .15 108. 23) (before v.6 91. v.5 (before v. • v.11 93.11 118.6 115.17 118.10 101. C) (context) (The following headings had better be inserted:) 117.10 94. 22) (before v. ms. C) (context) (T.14 117.6 108. 69 (C.9 100.6 93.

I the following ten categories: namely.e. 1958. & gotrasambhavârtha. are made) with no variance anywhere in the scripture 1 } . *' This article originally appeared in The Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies. This statement. About this threefold meaning. see my article: The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratngotravibhāga (Uttaratantra). the statement mentioned above probably means that these ten categories are commonly used in the scripture for describing the tathāgatagarbha. while the remaining two are (7) nitya and (8) acintya. (7) avasthāprabheda. the first six categories are the same as those used in Chap. No.. (9) avikāra. Of its eight categories in all. As for the ten categories in Chap. I. 5-10. I. (2) hetu. 26. After a brief explanation of the threefold 2) meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha made on the basis of v. No. 1. I I as categories for describing the ultimate reality.e. I I I .e. 2) RGV.1 1 . Also see Introduction. 348-353. the Buddha's nature). i. (1) svabhāva. vrtti. 2. The 3 meanings are: dharmakāyaparispharanārtha. i. § 2. IX. (5) yoga.APPENDIX III DESCRIPTION OF THE ULTIMATE REALITY by Means of the Six Categories in Mahāyāna Buddhism *' To describe the characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha (the matrix of the Tathāgata. namely. while the threefold meaning belongs only to the RGV. 11. 1961 and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor. p. vol. with special reference to the term tathāgatagotrasambhava. the RGV says in the commentary that there is a (tenfold) category by which all kinds of explanation of the meaning of the tathāgatagarbha exist (i. The Ratnagotravibhāga (RGV) uses in Chap. the phala aspect of the tathāgatagarbha. I. Similar terms are used in Chap. Vol. 1) yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tad ( = tathāgatagarbha)-arthasūcanam bhavati tad api. (1) svabhāva to (6) vrtti. 27 .e. p . & (10) asambheda. [ 400 ] . i. VII.. R G V . 26. needs to be corrected to some extent by the following descriptions in the same RGV. after explaining the sixth category. however. (8) sarvatraga. 1 0 . the commentary says: (3) phala. 11. (4) karman. (6) vrtti. pp. tathatâvyatirekârtha. Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies.

Then how is this set of six categories used in the scripture (pravacana) and what is meant by the. i. sadā prakrty—asamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / dharmâdhimukty—adhiprajñā-samādhi—karunânvayah/ (v. with reference to this very category of vrtti. svabhāva. the other [remaining] four categories are to be known through separate explanations 3 ) .k a r m a k a h /1 ( I .term pravacana ? At first. but the first six categories beginning with svabhāva. 30) śubhâtmasukhanityatva-gunapārmitā-phalah I 6) d u h k h a n i r v i c . 40. 3 5 ) (1) . 40. . 16-18. . p. B) tribhir gāmbhiryaudāryamāhātmyaprabhāvitair buddhakāyair nityam ā bhavagater acintyena prakārena vartanam vrttih. is not the whole of the ten categories. we shall see how it is applied in the basic verses (śloka) of the RGV. where the seventh and the eighth categories are said to be included in the sixth. What we come to know from these passages is that a set of categories which is commonly used. phala. karman. yoga and vrtti 4 ) . The reason for the correction will be shown below. 11. .The Ratnagotravibhāga After this passage. and thirdly that the RGV added four categories to the regular set in order to explain the mode of manifestation (vrtti) of the tathāgatagarbha. 79. (2) (3) . RGV. p. . vrtti 5) . [ 401 ] . •' -tā phalam / in the text.c h a m a p r ā p t i c c h a n d a p r a n i d h i .e. 12-14. 5—6. I. This is proved from the use of the same set of categories in Chap. And also: All those teachings on the immaculate Ultimate Reality (anāsravadhātu) taught by the Lord in detail through various forms of doctrines are contracted in brief into these six categories. and hence the basic one. RGV. RGV. as showing special characteristics of the vrtti aspect of the Ultimate Reality characterized as bodhi or āśrayaparivrtti. but is the Ultimate Reality in every aspect inclusive of the aspect of tathāgatagarbha. 11. 11. . 4) ye kecid anāsravadhātunirdeśe nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu bhagavatā vistarena nirdistāh sarve te ebhir eva samāsatah sadbhih svabhāva—hetu-phala—karma—yoga—vrttyarthaih . . . (4) mahodadhir ivā 'meyagunaratnâksayâkarah / s) atah param etam eva vrttyartham ārabhya tadanye catvāro 'rthāh prabhedanirdeśād eva veditavyāh. and that the object to which is applied this set of six categories is not the tathāgatagarbha alone. hetu. II. p.

— Thus is it taught by those who perceived the Truth). the sky and water: Following after faith in the [Mahāyāna] doctrine.. tā phalam/ ' in the text is corrected for the same reason as above. the excellent intellect. 58fy svabhāva-dharmasambhoga-nirmānair bhinnavrttikah / dharmadhātuviśuddho yam buddhānām samudāhrtab // (IX. See note 6. .J. Having aversion from the Suffering and desire for and vow to the attainment of the Quiescence as its functions. These four verses. an imperishable receptacle of treasures of innumerable qualities. are no doubt composed in a series. happiness and eternity as its result. 59) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 7) Being appositional t o 'jinagarbho 'yam'. 56) sarvatas tathatājñāna—bhāvanā-samudāgamah/ sarvasatva-dvayâdāna-sarvathâksayatā—phalah// 8 ) (IX. like an ocean.— And as its [various manifestations in the forms of] ordinary beings. which has 'hbras-bu-can''. . 8) ' . IX. 42) pfthagjanârya—sambuddha—tathatâvyatirekatah/ sattvesu jinagarbho '•yam deśitas tattvadarśibhili // (I. Quite a similar application of the same mode of description in a series of verses is found in the Mahāyānasūtrâlamkāra (MSA). sarvadharmadvayâvara—tathatāviśuddhi—laksanah I vastujñāna-tadālamba-vaśitâksaya—laksanahj/ (v. though they are interrupted by the commentary passages. whose subject word is 4 jinagar~ bha1 in the last verse 7 ) and in which is applied a mode of the set of six categories previously known to the author. TAKASAKI pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayukta—svabhāvatah // (I. [ 402 ] . the Sages and the Buddhas are not differentiated from the Reality. As being by nature united with its properties inseparably. t h e reading ' -pāramitā-phalah' as a Bahuvrīhi comp. 57) kāyavākcittanirmāna-prayogopāya-karmakah/ samādhi-dhāranī-dvāradvayâmeya-samanvitah jj (IX. should b e accepted. See also Tib. 45) (5) (6) (Being always ujidefiled by nature. as a lantern [is inseparable from its light and others].— Being. like the pure [character] of a treasure. [there exists] this Matrix of the Victor ( = Tathāgata) among the living beings. unity. Meditation and Compassion:— Having the climax of qualities with respect to purity.

BBS (Nishio's text. Phi. avikalpajñāna and tatprstalabdha.— It is originated from the practices of wisdom with regard to the Reality in all respects. because according to Prof. 12 b. I. speech and mind as the means of appliance. And is the inexhaustible controlling power of the knowledge of the nature and the object of its cognition. as for the ślokas or basic verses in Chap. It is endowed with the gates of meditation and mystical formulae and with the immeasurable accumulation of the two [i. Vol.) (Studies on the BBS and the Buddhabhūmi-vyākhyāna. but. has many traces of the influences of the MSA on its doctrine (e.g.e. Thus in the application of the same mode of description. etc. Repr. it was no doubt the RGV which imitated the MSA. versions. about the commentary passage of Chap.— It manifests itself variously by the Body of its own essence. 1940..) These four verses in a series are said to be the ślokas on the topic of tdharmadhātuviśuddhi' which is. Nishio's information 10) . at the same time. p.e. It is especially certain about Chap. the RGV and the MSA show a close relationship between them. the subject word for the whole sentence. translation & the Tib. by that of Enjoyment of the doctrine. p. and as the RGV quotes the MSA in the commentary.— Its function is the transformation of body. Bucchikyoron no kenkyū (in Jap. The following is a comparative table of the 4 verses of BBS & MSA in their Tib. benefit and happiness] by all possible means for the sake of all the living. like 'jinagarbha' in the example of the RGV. 2 Vols. II of the RGV which. It is the result of the inexhaustible formation of the two [i. almost the same ' The same is possibly said. and by that of incarnation:— [Thus] is explained this immaculate Ultimate Reality of the Buddhas. 7) /chos rnams kun-gyi de—bshin—ñidj /sgrib-gñis dag-pahi mtshan-ñid-can j /dños-po śes-pa de-la dmigs / jdbañ zad mi-śes mtshan—ñid do II /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad—nas j 9 [ 403 ] ?7 . I. Nagoya. 23) jchos mams kun—gyi de—bshin—ñid/ jsgrib gñis Idan dag mtshan-ñid-can / /dños-po śes-pa de dmigs-pa/ /dbañ tshad mi—śes mtshan—ñid—can// /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad-nas/ MSA (Peking Mdo-hgrel. texts). But the MSA cannot claim its originality of the use of the six categories. 10) Kyoyū Nishio. the influences of the MSA are scarcely observed except for the application of the six categories mentioned above. the triple kāya theory.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (Its characteristic is the purification of the two kinds of obscurations with regard to the Reality of all phenomena. 2-5. studies. 108. though there is no example of application of the same mode in a series of verses as above. 9 ) . bliss and wisdom].

304). There seems to be no use of such a set of terms in Sanskrit grammars although most of the terms used for the six categories are the technical terms of grammar. Furthermore. in which is also found the mention of the same set of categories U ) . Vol. has not such a clear theory as that found in the BBS on the buddhakāya or has no exposition of the four kinds of wisdom (i. 30. there are other passages in the MSA where the doctrines taught in the BBS are summarized. 5-6.. and at present we have no objective proof to fix the order of composition between the two treatises. bya-ba (kriyā).).) Peking Mdo-hgrel. it is found in the passage where the science of grammar (śabda-vidyā or vyākarana) is explained as one of the five sciences (vidyā-sthāna). 361 a. not necessarily to be affixed to any special scripture or treatise. are as follows: no-bo-ñid. curious enough is the manner of mention of the said categories in the YB. pratyaveksa-jñ. and hence the originality seems better to be ascribed to the BBS. ādarśa-ñ. there is another mode of application in the MSA. hjug-pa.. we shall proceed to examine the extent of application of the said categories. p. even in the days of the composition of the YB. therefore. (Repr. samatā-jñ. [ 404 ] . It is found in a couple of verses /bsgoms-la yan-dag hgrub-pa-can / /bsgoms-pa las ni yañ-dag hbyuñ/ fsems-can kun-la gñis bskyed-pa/ jsems-can kun-la rnam-kun-tuj jrnam—kun mi—bzad hbras—bu—can// /gñis bskyod mi—zad hbras—bu—can// jlus dañ ñag dan sems sprul-pahi/ jsku dañ gsuñ dan thugs sprul-pahi// jsbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can yin/ /hbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can te / /tiñ—ñe-hdsin dañ gzuñs sgo dañ j jtiñ-ñe-hdsin dañ gzuhs sgo dañ j / dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /rañ-bshin chos~rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /rañ-bshin chos-rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /sprul—pas tha—dad hjug—pa—canj /sprul de—dag—gi(s) tha—dad—hjug/ /sañs-rgyas rnams-kyi chos~kyi dbyiñs/ jhdi-ni sañs-rgyas rnam-dag-gi/ /mam dag hdi ni yañ-dag brjod// jchos-dbyiñs rnam-par dag-par bśadj/ u > YB (Tib. but is to be understood as 4 the word of predecessor'. 230 a. In this respect. Because the Yogācārabhūmi (YB). Now. Namely. Dsi. but without any detailed comment. hbras-bu. I suppose that the set of terms are put or rather inserted in that passage in connection with the word 4 artha ' (meaning) just because there was a traditional usage of those terms as a mode of description among the Vijñāvādins. p. Besides their application to the dharmadhātuviśuddhi. TAKASAKI verses as in the MSA mentioned above are found in the Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS) towards the end of the text as a kind of concluding verses. (Ch) Taisho. rgyu. [khyad-par-du] sbyor-ba (viśesa-yoga). krtyânusthāna-jñ. Also. both of which are the central topics of the BBS. The six terms in Tib. Vol. It is however still difficult to regard the BBS as the only source of the set of six categories.J.e. What is meant by the term ' pravacana' in the RGV is. 109..

Thou art perceived in various worlds and in the circles [of the assemble of Bodhisattvas through thy two apparitional Bodies]. . and Vasubandhu's authorship is somehow doubtful. 4) aksayair asamair yukto gunair. Peking Ed.Vol.The Ratnagotravibhâga at the end of the work. 13) However. 31. lokesu drśyase / (5. 112. ") AS. 46 b 3-6 (Repr. which are a kind of eulogy on the Buddha. Mdo-hgrel. these two verses refer to the characteristics of the Buddha (buddhalaksana). ( 6 ) (Thou art the one who is perfect-transcendental. 143 b 3-5 (Repr. 111 a (No. p.Vyākhyā. 1593). 141). According to the Commentary. 31. 150 b (No. and this is commented upon by Vasubandhu: 'the highest' means 4 belonging only to the Mahāyāna. a commentary on the Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS) of Asaûga. Vol. not common to the Hīnayāna' 1 3 ) . Taisho. Śi. among which we find the triple Body theory under the category of vftti. 1592). inexhaustible and unequalled. [ 405 ] . sarvabhūmi-viniJjisrtah / (1. They run as follows: nispanna-paramārtho 'si.e. adfśyaś c as a r v a t h ā d e v a m ā n u s a i f y // ( 6 1 ) . who has come out of [the practices in] all stages. Tib. who has attained the highest point among all living beings. 113. Peking Mdo-śgrel. . The same verses are quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha (MS) of Asaûga 12) explaining that they refer to the highest qualities of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya). p. 2) saTvasatvâgratām pTāptah. However invisible is thy [Body of Essence] by all means to those who belong to the world of gods and human beings). 1594). 6) mandalesv a>py. p. They run as follow 14): /rtogs-pa des gnas dri—med don j (1) Jgañ çpyod rgya-mtshohi ia pha-rol gśegs / (2) > MS Taisho. The third mode of application of the six categories is found in the first two of the dedicative verses placed at the head of the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhā. Cf. Li. i. 334).— And who is endowed with virtues. sarvasatvavimocakah 11 (XX-XXI 60) . 131 a (No. 31. this is found only in Paramārtha's translation (No. 258 a). 1595). . It seems to show that the use of this set of categories belougs only to the Mahay ana. and makes them liberate. M X ' h Ś t *¥ ^ H j& ^ Wt M ^ -h (Taisho. (3.

(C.) ed.) Taisho. in treatises of the Vijñānavada. ibid. hetu etc. Santiniketan. & C ) . No. [ 406 ] .J . to Jinaputra (Rgyal-babi sras). (4) (4) (5) (6) (I bow to the Buddha.. i. 16) . and the Sāmkathya") According to Chinese tradition. and to the Doctrine and Holy community as well. 1950. Śi 344 a 345 a 8 (Vol. however it may be called. 17 ) AS (Tib. I think. i. pp. because— He is [by nature] the realization and the immaculate truth established by it. p. 144 a 2-3. 5555).e.— He is endowed with the immeasurable and marvellous qualities. Commenting on these verses by himself. (Skt. it is ascribed to Sthiramati. 693 b. (Sthiramati) ibid. It is divided into two parts. TAKASAKI jchos-kun dban-phyug. 31. Having reached the other shore of the ocean of practices. I must lastly refer to the Abhidharmasamuccaya in which is an explanation of this set of categories as one of the seven methods for interpreting a topic in discussion (sāmkathya-viniścaya) under the name of artha-viniścaya17). while in Tibet. a fairly good account of the idea of the six categories and their applications to the Ultimate Reality. 113. bsam mi—khyab / /hdul-bahi thabs-kyis hdren-pa-can / / Jgshal-med legs gyur yon-tan ni / Iran dan gshan don gñis-la brten / Jsañs-rgyas chos dañ hphags-pa-yi / jtshogs-lahañ de-phyir phyag-htsal-lo // (3). le ) AS Vyākhyā. we have got.e. And is the foundation of the benefits of his own and of others). 765 b-c. This explanation is exactly on the same line as in the MS. the works of the Yogācāra school or the Vijñānavādins. by P. Thus examining.) Peking. Pradhan.. He leads [the living beings] by skillful means and in an inconceivable manner. one is the collection of terms concerning the phenomena (laksana). Before giving a conclusion to this investigation. the commentator15) says that by the first two there are shown the six categories with respect to the excellent qualities of the Buddha. And having [attained] the controlling power over the phenomena. the other is that of terms concerning the interpretation {viniścaya). 102-103 (This passage is restored from Tib. the categories of svabāva. The Abhidharmasamuccaya is a kind of classified lexicon of technical terms of the Mahāyāna Abhidharma.

terms are ace. 4. . karman. utpatti-. it modified the six categories according to its own need but without losing their original character. though it is written by one of the Vijñānavādins (it may be sure at least from his knowledge of the use of the said categories). siddhi-. prāpti-. 5. . (Skt. 3.. 2. upalabdhi-. . yoga . dialogue or logic (vāda). purusakāra-. [ 407 ] . nisyanda-. 2. ānubandhiko y. however. I will give a rough observation on the modified use of this set of categories in the works belonging to the so-called Tathāgatagarbha theory. y. 5. . . but not any example of application of the whole set as examined above. phala . . sāmūhiko y. āvasthiko y. 2. paratantra. 3. Rather. 1. 2. parinati-. It shows us merely the terms of three to five kinds of each category 18) . . 5. vrtti . It may be natural from the logical point of view as the terminologies used for the six categories do not contain any evaluation in themselves. commentary (vyākhyā). and that its latest example available to us is observed in the AS Vyākhyā. 4. Being thus situated and in comparison to the other six methods. exhibition of difference (prabhidyasamdarśana). parinispanna.. 2. vyāvasāya-. aviparyāsa-. there is no example of their application to any subject other than the Ultimate Reality. pra- bheda-. and taking the explanation in the RGV referred to at the beginning of this article into consideration. because the sub-divisions of the six categories include all the varieties. 4. samskrta or asamskrta. 1. vaikāriko (6) 18 svabhāva . laksana-. and to describe its doctrine. 3. i. adhipati-.. can be described. has established the system of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. The explanation of the six categories in the AS is. visamyoga-. viparyāsa-. 4. 2. 1. pravrtti—.. avasthāna-. we may safely say that there was a traditional use of the set of six categories among the Vijñānavādins for describing the Ultimate Reality. questioning (sampraśna). vipāka-. so that by using one of them any kind of subject. Actually. 3. summary (samgraha). however. The RGV. sāmbandhiko y. 1. parikalpita. But the modification was further extend'ed until the character as categories of general use has disappeared by mixing or replacing of the new terms which show the characteristics ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5. .e. and implication (abhisandhi). kāritra-.. . 3. 1.The Ratnagotravibhāga viniścaya is the last of the four chapters belonging to the latter part. 3.. 1. it seems difficult to limit the application exclusively to the Ultimate Reality. . Additionally. hetu . this arthaviniścaya is clearly a mode of description or interpretation recognized by the authority of the Vijñānavāda. to Pradhan's text).. unsatisfactory for us. of impure or pure character.

892 o. Taisho. BGŚ.J. DAŚ. TAKASAKI of the Absolute belonging to the Tathāgatagarbha theory. As such examples we have the ten categories of the tathāgatabodhi in the Anuttāśrayasūtra (AÂS) . p. p. 470 c. 19 [ 408 ] . titles are restored from C). the ten categories of the tathāgatagarbha in the Buddhagotraśātra (BGŚ). 16. p. and their Skt. 796 6. Taisho. and the twelve categories of the bodhidtta in the Dharmadhātvavis'esaśāstra (DAŚ) 19>. 32. 31. Taisho. ) AÂS. (All of these works are kept only in the Chinese Tripitaka.

INDEXES .

353 agra-sattva ( = buddha). 154 ~ -aye vyākaranam. Terms with the mark § refer to the subject matters of the text. 314 a-kuto-bhaya. Terms in brackets refer to those not found in the Ratna. 164 acintya-namana-cyuta. 74 aksaya-dharma-yoga[tā]. 92 aksayya ( = aksaya). (B VIII). 260 acintyā pārināmikī cyutili. 311 acintyatā. 2. 192 a-gocara-visaya. 339 acalā (bhūmi). RG II). 188 a-gotra. 349 a-krtaka. 76. 258 a-ksaya. 130 acintyatva. 74 agra-bodhi (VP 5. 114 aghosavat. 92. Reference is to the pages in the present work or section numbers applied in the present work. 70. simile amśu. 82. 92. 346 a—grāhya. 92 a-krtrima. § VIII (III-IV)-5\ 40 agni (s. 23. 3. 315 akrta-svabhāva[tā]. § XIII (VIII). āvenika-buddhadharma (G III) mahāp. 326 acirasthāyin. catur-vaiśāradya (G I) bala daśa-bala (G II) āven. 317 a-kalpana(-jñāna). 90 agra. 216 acintyârhattva. 342 a-cintya. 159. 321 acintya-prakāra. 94. 68. mahāpurusalaksana (G IV) karman (RG IV) (9 illustrations) (I-IX) K s. 273 a-ksūnam (ksûna = dosa). 116 agra-yāna. 4. 240 [ 411 ] . 108. 130 a-caksumat. 289 akrtrima-dharma. for mrtyuvyādhijarā). 256 a-citta. 84. 296 acala-prākāra.INDEX OF SANSKRIT TERMS 1. 112. Abbreviations : vajrapada (1-7) VP RG ratnagotra (4 aspects) (I-IV) TG tathāgatagarbha (3 meanings) (a-c) (10 aspects) (I-X) (9 illustrations) (1-9) B bodhi (RG II) (8 aspects) (I-VIII) G guna (RG III) (I-IV) vaiś.

279 anāsravam karma. 286 a-tattva-bhāvitva. 130 atyanta-pācaka. 74. 245 atyanta-tamo'paha. 167. 182 adhiprajñā ( = prajñā). 401 anāsrava-pada ( = anāsravadhātu. 108 adhisthita. 248 an-artha. 74. 118 an-abhisamskāra. 252 a-nitya. 201. TAKASAKI a-cyuta (pada). 126. 381 ajasram. 118 ativāhana. 328 a-tat-svabhāva. 182 ~ & deśanā-dharma. 239 an-aparânta-koti(tā). 156 anābhogâpraśrabdha (buddhakārya). 86 açavī. 275 anāthâvasatha. 313 ~ -samanvāgama. 164 a-dvitīyam paurusam sthāma. 142 adhigama-dharma. 86. dharmakāya). 224 an—ādi—madhya-nidhana. 243 ananyathā'tmā. 130. 369 adhika. 120 ajñānândhakāra-vidhamana. 114 adrsta-pūrva. 371 an-avadya. 214. 205 anāvarana—dharma. 114. 368 an-ābhoga. 376 anantâcintya-rasa-rasâgratā (mahāp. 122. 232. 244. 373 anābhogatā. 104 ~ -duhkha-anātma-śānti (śānta). 92. 246 adhyāśaya. 124. 216 anabhisamskrta-kriyā. 92. 233 an-āvilata. 331 a-tulya-tulya. 70. 82. 256 an-abhilāpya. (bala 5) 120. 112 anāsrava-karman. 328 a-tarkya. 164 advayatā. 257 anartha-jāla-vigama. 110 a-trptatā. 78. 262 anda-kosa. 345 ananta-dyuti (amitābha). 339. 275 an-ādi-kālika. 102 anādi-bhūta. § XVIII (IV). 351 an-āvarana-gāmin. 128. 209 a-dvaya. 92. 116 an-abhisamskrti. 126. 363 a-tat-bhāva. 104. 70. 68. 232 adhanya. 82 a-nātha. § XVIII. 30. 231. 306 adhikrtya. 257 "*> -apatita. 217 a-drśya. 215 anāsravatva. 80. 167 anādikāliko dhātuh. 193 adhyālambati. 205 an-aksarokta. 282 anda-sāra. 390 ananyathā ( = yathāvat). 318 atulyatuly a-dharmatva. 76. 380 adhisfhāna. 147. 219 an-apacaya.J. 112. 178 an-apakarsana. 275 anātha—veśman. 104 atyantânanyathābhāva. (-bhāvanā) (TG II hetu 1). 112. 321 anāsrava-dhātu. 74 ~ -duhkha-anātma-aśubha. 116. 244 a-jñāna. 116. 273 a-jāti. 114. 92. 86 adhimukty-anuśamsa. 84. 84. 382. 114. 328 an-argha. 319. 180 adhigama. 193 anavarâgra (-samsāra). 114 an-ābhāsa-gamana. 130. 387 adhimukti. 367 an-avasthita. 126 [ 412 ] . 74. 82. 334 a-tat-prahita. 92. 297. 359 an-āsrava. 169 atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. 158 anātma-samjñā. 132. 21). 217 an-anya-posi-ganya. 185 an—ācāryaka. 26. 256 ananyath£-bhāva (svabhāva) (TG b). 130 atyanta-vināśa. 68 an-ādimadhyânta. 200 adhimukta-śukla-viraha. 376 an-āsvādana(tā). 78. 70. 82. 240 an-avāpta. 275 anātha-śāla.

170 anuśāsana. 76. 343 abhayatva. 246 a-pratigha ( = apratihata). § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 361 antadvaya-vivarjita. 239 an-upāya-patita (sattva). 356 abudha ( = abuddha). 153 anusañga.a-pratisthāna. 334 apratisthita-pada. 204. 220 a-pratihata (yāvadbhāvikatā). 84. 104 a-parapratyayâbhisambodhi. 302 aprthag-bhāva ( = yoga) (TG V). 200 anvādhana. 264 a-paryanta . 70. 76. 149 —anvaya. 124. 377 anutpādânirodhatā. 76. 15.The Ratnagotravibhāga antika. 278. 283 anusandhi (vāsanā-). 197 antargata. 161 aniyatab. 114. 245. 343 abhāva. 227 abhinirvartayati. (artha-) 219 a-nairyānikatva. 50. 241 apratisthita-nirvāna. 112 a-pratipraśrabdha (K). 158 abhaya-da. 181. 354 anugata. 363 aparântakoti-nistha. 80. 72 [anuttarâsraya]. 182 abbijāta. 24. 80. 384 anujāta. 131. 86. 114 a-niyata-rāśi. 88. 327 antar-amala. 74. 114 anutpādânirodha (tathāgata). 220 aparinirvānagotraka. 155. 213 aparântako^i-sama. 184. 202 aparinirvāna-dharma. 248 apagata-kāca. 112. 56. 128. 76 anuttara-tathāgata-jñāna-sama. 147. 126 apsaras. 80. 72. . 80. 146. 176 apramāna (catur-apramānāni). 118. 147 anubhava. . 86 a-pranihita (vimoksamukha 3). 114 anisthāgata-bodbisattva-sāmtānika. 327 apravrtti-laksana. 181 anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. 283. 191 an-uttara. 192 anugraha. 49. 147 . 342 a—parinirvāna—gotra. 151 abhijñā. 363 anuślesa. 379 a-prameya. 363 anuśāsti-prātihārya. 82 a-nimitta. 334 an-upacaya. 207 anutisçhate (anu]/sthā). 169. 156 aparādha. 176 apratighāta. 116. 128 an-udgraha. 355 a-praśrabdhitah. 387 apavāda. 330 a—parimita. 158 abhaya. 74. 114. 114 apratisthāna—mūla. 158 anugunam. 323 apratisthānatā. 268 aparāhata. 329 [ 413 ] . 156 a-parapratyayodita. 82. 185. 116. 231. 80. 98 a-nisjhita. 126. 151 a-pratikūlo darśanena. 74. 287 anugāmin. 23. koçi-gūdha. § XVII-5. 232 antardhi. 151 apaneya. 246 apakarsa. 51 anuttarā samyak-sambodhih. 86 a-pariśuddha (ksetra). 249 anya-tīrthya. 275 antahpura-rati-krīdā. sattvarāśih. 263. 394 antarvat. 124. 68. 366 anuśaya-vat (bāla). 358 antarīksavat ( = ākāśavat) (G III) antargama (buddhajñānântargamāt). 222 anuśaya. 340 anutpattika-dharma. 264 an-utpādatā. 84. 118 anuttaram karma. 324 animittatā. 368 anu]/bhū. 203 anupūrva-naya. 216 apakāra. 238 anitya-samjñā. 203 anyonya(m). 114. 205 a-nirodhatā. 351 a-prādeśikatva. 187 a-nispatti. 68. 144 an-uttrasta-gati. 268 apaj/vad. 191 anuśamsa.

348 abhyutksepa. 274 abhyupeksana. TAKASAKI abhinirvrtti. (TG X). 198 artbavat. 364 avaruddha. 166. 199. 24 amalârka (mohavisamyoga). 149 avasānika. 215 abhinirhāra.J. 59. 385 arthavad-dharmapada-upasamhita. 98. 118 abhisyandana. 88. 342 a-mala. 100 ambuda (kleśa). 199 artba-sādhana (RG IV). 164 abhiseka. 305 abhūta-dharma. 250 abhisamdhāya. 262 amalā bodhi (RG II). 98 alamkāra. 74 abhisamasya. 145. 114 arhat-sāmtānika. 76. 182 abhisamaya-paryavasāna. 236 aribat ( = arhat). 152 alpa-phala. 407 artha-sandhi. 166 abhilāsa. 326 avalīyanā. 302 . 247 abhyupāya. 124 a-yathā-bhūta (— atatsvabhāva). 390 amukta-jña (buddbadbarma). 110 amitāyus (rsi) (a Buddha). 234. 292 amūla-mūla. 259 amedhya. 199. 114. 24. 388 arūpitva. 130. § VIII (VII) (TG VII). 94. 263 abhiniveśa. 76 avikāra. § VIII (TG IX). 88. 152 avabhrtka. 230 avākyavattva. § VIII (IX a-IX c). 169 a-yoni-manas-kāra. 114. 58. 358 avabodha. 108 avikalpatah (K). 176 avabhāsa. 155 abhimukhī (bhūmi). 124 avikalpa-jñāna. 114. 106 abhūta-vastu-nimittârambaça. 165 abhisambuddha. 94 abhisambodha. 68 abhūta-kalpa. 142 ~ & vyañjana. 317 abhisamskāra. 222 abhisamskrta. 132. 355 artha. 158 abhiniveśa-darśana. 66. § VIII (IX) avasthā-prabheda. 235. 145. 82. 322 abhisamaya. 70. § III-4. 90. 132 [artha-viniścaya]. for buddhatva). 250. 100. 365 abhiprasāda. 161 avasāna-gata. 142 artha-pada. 325 abhinna—prakrti. 110 avikalpa-dhātu. 236 ayoniśomanaskāra. 70. 88. 24. 92 avidyā. 237 abbūta-grāha. 70. 252 abhimukhī-bhavati. 169 abbeda. 172. 217. 241 a-mrsā-mosa-dharmitva. 241 avikāritva. 199 abhedya. 363 avaśistatā. 108. 118 a-vikalpa. 336 abhiprasanna. 236 ayoniśo manasah krtih. 224 avasthā (a-c). 249 avavāda. 387 a-bhinna. 259 amukta-jñāna ( = amuktajña). 269 avacchanna. 168. 114 arka (s. 114. 82. 199. 222 abhivyakti-karana. 72. 108. 116 avikalpa(tā) (tva). 106. 74. 92. 237 ayoniśo-manasikāra. 282 avadhārayati. 169 [ 414 ] . 388 arhat tva. 88. 362 arbat. 382 arthânubhava. 246 abby-ut]/ksip. 94. 215 avidyâkāra. 157 abhisambodhi. 168 ~ & tatprsthalabdha. 251 abhirati. 335 abhiseka—labdhā bodhisattvāh. 228 arpana-bhāva. 210 abhilāpa. 23. 70. avikalpa-lokottara-jñāna. 70. 263 a-vandhya.

98. 198 aśani. 268. 68. 104. 172. 112 asaûgatah. 145 avinirmuktajñāna—guna. 24. 341 a-samsarga. 94. 246 asamskrta-dhātu. 212 <~ vihārâbhirati. 76 a-vivartika (bodhisattva). 292 avinirbhāga-dharman. 176 (buddha-jñāna). TG V). 20. 114 a-samkoca. 219 asamāhita (citta) (āven. 241 asi (s. 211 avaivartika (bodhisattva). 26. 68 asukhatva. 98. § VIII (IX a). 76 avinirbhāga-vrtti. 168 avinirmukta—gun a. 72. § XV (III). 236 asamskrta-pada. 228 a-ślesa. 388 a-śarana. 112. 340 astambhitatva. 74 aśuci-samsārâbhirati. 188. 100. 382 < ' -gunavattva-śaktatva.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a avidyā-vāsa-bhūmi. 88. 74. 98 astādaśâvenika-buddhadharma-samanvāgata (buddha). 118. 24. 114. 294 a-vimala (śrāvaka & pratyekabuddha). 114. 104. 120. 100 a-vyatireka. 130. 257 asamskrtapadatva. 112. 327 asambheda. 361 asatya. 171 asamāropana. 361 ahlādaka. 262 a-sañga (yathāvadbhāvikatā). 120 astitva. 130. 214 avidyāvāsabhūmi-samgrhīta (-kleśa). 189 —' & apratigha (apratihata). 327 a-samkhyeya. 212 a-samskrta. 327 a-samavadhāna. 182 asad-ātmagrahâbhirati. 143. 270 astamyādi-bhñmitraya-bhāvanā-jñāna. 92 a-vivartya (-dbarma-cakra). 82 aśubhâdi-bhāvanā-jñāna. 98. 94. 151 a—viśesana. 4). 120. 321 a-samhārya. ~ (-avasthā). 189 a-samgati. 90. 248 ahamkāra. 172 asvāmikatā. 183 aśaiksa-samtānika. 198 a-visamvāditva. 98 a-śūnya. 82. 112. 366. 156. § VIII (IX b) 88. 327 asamskrtatva. 177 a—viparoksa. 315 avinirmukta—klesakosa (tathāgatagarbha). 228 avinirmukta-jñāna. 278 a-vināśa. 172 a—svabhāva. 279 aśuddha-bhūmi. 230. 72. 98 aśuddhabhūmi-gata-kleśa. 171 a-virata. 82 aśuci-samkāra-dhāna (TG 4. (TG X) § VIII (X). 161. 171 asatkāma. 104. 144 avinirbhāga-dharmatā. 377 a-sakta. 266 avinirbhāga-dharma. 84. 174 avināśa-dharma. 74. 361 astamgama. 238 a-stambhita. 124. 297 ahitatva. 112. 278 aśuddha-śuddha (avasthā). 82. 110 avināśitva. 292 a-sambhinna. for jñāna). for kleśa) 96 a-śuddha (bāla-prthagjana). 92 avinā ś a—dharmin. 302 a-viparyāsa. 110. 114. 82 a-sama. 144 avinivartanīya-bhūmi. 156 asamskrta-dharma. 222 a-samkhya. 259 aśūnyatā. 38. 382 — asparśa-dharmin. 265 a-viparyasta. 321 avinirbhāga ( = yoga. 231 aśubha-samjñā. 208 a—vipralambha. 68. 258 a-sāra-mūla (sarvadharma). 349 r 415 . 86. 86 avinirbhāga-guna-dharmatva. 92. 231 aśuddha-bhāvanā. 255 avyatibhedatā. 106 a-śaiksa (buddha). 341 a-sambaddha. 114.

128. 100 (for tathāgata. 94. 208 ātroa-sattva-sama-sneha. 253 āryapudgala-sāmtānika. 310. (ratna-). 151 āra. 231. 360 [ārūpyâvacara-devavimāna]. 40. 21. 371 ārya. 307 ātmopādāna-mūla. tad-ā. 359 āvrti. 157. 112. 266 ākāśa (s. G III). 132. 275 [āpta-punya-parinamana]. 124. 132. 112. 60. 390 ātma-samjñā. 102. 323. see cittaprakrti āgantukatā. 22. (TG III. 183 ārsabha-sthāna. 370 āśraya. 80. 193 āmisa-rasa. 154 ā bhava-gateh. 165. 232 ālokād alamkrta. 82. 340 ārya-gocara. 289. 94. 332 ādi-praśānta. 108. 379 ārūpya (-samāpatti). 190 ārnava. 88 (for dharmakāya). 213 āgantuka. 183 ārsa-vacas. 128 ākāśa-svabhāvatā (buddhakāya). 112. 382 [ 416 ] . 205 ātma-drsti. 167. 106. 118. 211 ātmâvajñāna-dosa. 124 āgantuka-kleśa. 120 āvedha. (RG I) ( = gotra). 56. 363 ādhāra. 316 ātman. 306 ātmâparādha. 324 ādi-ksaya. 348 āryâstâñga. 193 ākāśopama (. 106. § XVIII-5. 273. 102. 368 ārambana.). 82. § V I I I (I-II)-2. § XV (III). 26. 126. 132 āptâgama. 108. ( = buddha). 237. 116. 228 āgantuka-mala. (B V. 264. 98 ārya-mārga. ( = bodhisattva) (TG VI 6). 377 ābhoga-kriyā. 8. 116 (for āvenikabuddhadharma. 159 āpanna-sattva-nārī (TG 8. nisthāgamana). 60. 213 ākāśalaksano buddhāh. s. 132 āpti-nistha. 374 āvarana. 290 ~ paryavasāna. 84. 179 [ātma-raksanopāya]. 194 ārambana-carita (bāla). § XVIII-2. 207. 157. for kleśa). 96. 170 ārūpya. 24. 292 [ānantaryāni. 170 ārambanamykr. 21. 209 ātma-prapañca. 309 ātroa-sneha. 82. 106. 118 ādeśanā-prātihārya. 290 ālīna (āi/lī). 259 ādi-nirodha. 315 ~ ksiti-pratyupasthāna. animittatva). 112 ākāśavat (buddha). āvaraça 2). 84 ātma-bhāva. 355 ākāśa-dhātu. 52. 53. for cittaprakrti). 385 ārsabha. 366 ātma-pāramitā.J. 55. TAKASAKI ākara.. 254 āśaya. 388 ādhya. 132 ātma-samraksanopāya. 80. 192 ārya-satya. 86. 288 ādāna-nimitta.. 201 āvilata. 104 ācarana-krt. 58/. 208. 126 ātmâbhipreta. K VIII). 274 ātmam-bhari. 386 [ātma-śuddhi]. 279 ānupūrvī. 365 ārsa. 72 ādi-pratijñā. 225 ākāra. 86 ālokanīya. 157 ā bhavâgratah. 388 āranya-pravicarana. (G III). 237 āloka (of pradīpa). 124 āvenika-dharma. 279 āniñjya-samskāropacaya. 132 [ālaya-vijñāna]. 122 (for buddhakarman. § XIII-2 (VIII). 122. § III-4. 132 āniñjya. § XVII-2 (II). 376 ā bhava-sthiteh. 144. 384 ~ & yukti. 130. § XVIII-3. 66. 124. pañca-]. 163. 211 ātma-darśana. 174 ādi-prakrti-śāntatā. 170. 86. 44 /—' & cittaprakrti.

118 āśv api. 202 icchā. 177 upaneya. 278 upasarga. 116 uttara-kāla(m). 157 āspada. 149 upapattim ca tusitesu. 80. 306 uttari-bhāvayitavya. 116. 295 upāya-kauśalya. 241 upastambha. 246 upāya-patita (sattva). 357 u ucchitti. 41-44. 96. 112. 147 indriya [-parāpara-jñāna-bala] (bala 3). 72. 329 upabhoga. āśrayasya parāvrttih]. 145 unmīlya. 220 ā samsāra-koteh. 376 āsrava-ksaya. 150 unmūlita. 225 upakāra. 41-44. 39. 361 upanidhāya. 157 ā samsārāt. 321 ucchitti-praty ay a. 82. XV. 122 udāharana-samgraha. 84. 190 uttarana. 339 indhana. 228 iha. 106. 343 āsanna-dūrī-bhāva. sattva 1). 68 upaśānti-pada. 187. 149 -upahita. 150 uttama-yāna. 197 upaydā. 130 [āśraya-parāvrtti. 80. (RG II) § XII-XIII. 187 āśrayaparivrtti. 176 ito-bāhya. 270 upacāra. 60. 244 -upādāya. 176 upanisad-gata. 401 ā śrayaparivrtti-prāpti-naya. 212 upaśama-prabheda-pradeśa. 254. 310.). 247 upadrava. XVII (comm. 361 upeksâpratisamkhyā (āven. 175 upakleśa. 358 upaśama. 227 icchantika (TG II-III. 297 utpāda. 80. 298 uparodha. 321 uddeśa-mukha. 104 upanyasana. § XVII-4. 114. 222 itara-prādeśika-jñāna. 327 udāharana. 86 92. 202 I îpsitara padam. 124 uccheda-drsti. 357 îryā-patha. 157 udāna. 242 upalambha. 385 uddeśa. 332 uttara-tantra. 330 upāyāsa. § IX. 162 upasamkleśa. 6). 258. 112. 227 āsrava-ksaya-jñāna. 86. 338 uddiśat. 102. 300 upavāsa. 124. 128 uddāna. 285 udāra. 203 indriya. 344 utsukatā. 130. 37. 60. 353 upaharanatā. 209 upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. 215. 28. 248 upaklista (citta). ~ & tad-parāvrtti. 120. 299 uttara-kuru-dvīpa. 216 upaVgam. 203 upāya-vid (buddha). 219 ujjhita. 46. 14-17 udhāharana-pindârtha. 16. 274 * utksālya. 341 āsraya. 12-13. 160 upaśānta. 214 upāya. 15. 84. 82. 312. 209 upādāna.). 297 upagūdha. 50. 86. 245 [ 417 ] .The Ratnagotravibhāga udaya ( = abhisambodhi). 199. 157 utsañga(-pādatā) (mahāp. 120. 204 iha-dhārmika. 266 upātta. 331 uttame yāne paripācana. 80.

72. 156. 375 karunā-nisyanda. 375 kāya—dvaya. 311 karma-kleśa. 28). 146 kanaka-bimba. 166. 118. 90 [ekayāna].) (VP 7) (RG IV). 287 kāca. 275 kupyanti. 118. 23. 96 kambu-grīvatvam amalam (mahāp. § XVIXVII. 346 ekaikaviślista-mrdûrdhvadeha-pradaksinâvarta-sūksma-roma (mahāp. 128. 122. 82 kalala—mahābhūta-gata. 68. 82. 226. 317 kimkaranīya. 332 rddhi-prātihārya. 156. 122. 26). 116 krtrima. 182 kāya-guhyaka (K 8). 124. 66. 384 [kuśala-sampat-sattvânugraha]. 180 kāra. 345 kalpa. 275 kalaviñka-ruta (mahāp. 346 karunā. 170 eka—nay a. 245 kuśala-sampad. 349 ekaika-romodbhava. 118. 303 ekaputraka(-samjñā). 302 ekânta. 255 eka-dhātu. 100. for dhātu). 6). 14). 244 kuśalamūla-samprayukta (kleśa) § VIII (IX b)-2. 22). 90.J. (B IV). 220 usna (of pradīpa). 285 audārya (sambhoga-kāya) (B VI6). 110. 313 aurasa. 199. pada-. 114. 180 kāra-kriyā. (buddha-k. 307 krpā (=karunā). 80. 346 eneya-jañghatā (mahāp. 371 ekaika-viślista (roma). 86 karunâtman. 367 AU audārika. 189 ekânta-cārin (=pratyekabuddha). 209 K kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrīhi. 342. 70. 242 kārunya. 122. 38 eka-rasa. 190 kāya. 145 ubhayatâvikalpana(tā). 224 kuśala-mūla.). § VIII (III-IV)-5. 185 kalyāna. 345 [ 418 3 . 361 kālusya. 100 ekâgrī (-bhavati). 98 kāraâvacara-devavimāna. bhāvanā. 369 kuśala-karma-patha. 245 kuksu. 384 krtya-kriyā. vyañjana-k. 180 kāranā. 346 R rddhi. 68 (jñāna--^) keśa-kambala. 70. § XIII-(IV). 332 rddhi-pāda. 344 AI aiśvaryam uttaram. 363 rsi (=buddha). 151 Ū ūrdhva-dehâvarta (roma) (mahāp.). TAKASAKI -up eta. (TG 9. 28. 271 kathā-vastu. 238. 120. 86 usnīsa-śīrsa (mahāp. 116 karman. 319 <--' ena pravrttih. 22. s. 242 kāranânubhavana. 323. 249 kumuda. 132 kuśalopasampadā. 306 krtya-sampādana. 338 karma-samkleśa. (nāma-. 253 krtyâsramsana. 364 . 200. 337 E ekakbana-samāyukta (prajñā). (TG IV). kuśala-dharma. 332 kālânatikramanatā. 118. 122. 151 kāma-dhātu. 100. 84. 124. 189 eka-jāti-pratibaddha (bodhisattva). 55. 92. 88 karma-vipāka-jñāna-bala. 108. 122.

161 ~ & jñeyâvarana. 166. 190 gospada (=gospada). (TG III) § VIII (III-IV) (4 — śubha. 118. 36. 142. 174 ksati. s. 90 geya. 311 guna ( = buddha-guna. 284. 285 gocara-visaya. 102. 124. s. 28. 114. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 108. 209 graha. ātma. 96 ksetra (apariśuddha). 100 gotrâstitva (->. 145 gañgā-sikatâtivrtta (guna). 78. 149 gotra (VP 4) (RG I) ( = dhātu) § VI-1 (ratnagotra). 218 ksānti. 86 ksanika. 210. 259. 271 khārodaka. 331 kaivalya. (TG 2. 158. 96 ksaudra ( = madhu) (TG 2. (RG III). 114 (-tva). 88 gunavat. 150 gotra-svabhāva (TG c). 128. 94. 84. 88. 303 guna—nispatti (caturākāra—g. 150 gunavattva. 100. 2) 114 guna—dharma. for samādhi).. 108. 106. 72 gati. (mani-gotra). IX-4 (gotra-svabhāva) (TG c) 21 &. ( ~ & dosa). 122. 283 garbha-gata (dhātu). -aprameyatā.) 1) 106. 290 garbha-vestita. 74. 114 kleśâvarana-visamyoga. 390 ksiti ( = prthivī) -> prthivī-tala ksiti-pati (-> cakra-vartin) ksudra-prānaka. 167 gañgā-nadī-vālukā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 141 gana-samtāna. (5 g. 130. 285 gāmbhīrya (svābhāvika) (B Via). (B VI). 116. 178 [ 419 ] . 148. 68. 320 gāthā. 49. 100. 130. -viśuddhiparamatā). -acintyatā. 70. 382 guna-vibhāga. 254 grantha. § IX-1 (1-9). 110. 265 grhapati (for bodhisattva) (parable of) § VIII (IX6)-3. 206 gañgā-tīra-rajo 'tīta (buddha-dharma). 328 kola (-upama). 108 kleśendhana—dahana. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyatikrānta (buddhadharma). 145 gana ( = samgha) (VP 3). 262 guna-pāramitā. 66. 306 kleśa-kośa. 114. 96 kleśa-karma-vipāka. 145. 82 kleśâvarana. 275 garbha-kośa-mala. 80 garbhâvakramana. 291 gamana. 222. 348 guhya. 21. 269 garbha(-sthāna) (s. 387 gahana 363. nitya) guna-prakrti. for kleśa). 37.tathāgatagarbhâstitva) godāvarī-dvīpa (godānīya-dvīpa). 313 gāmbhīryaudārya-māhātmya. buddha-dharma). 23. 116. 268 klesa-duhkhâbhāva. sukha.The Ratnagotravibhāga ' ^ avabhāsa. 387 ksaya. 330 KH khaga (vyomny apracārah khagah). 124 kleśâvarana-prahāna. 366 khandikā. 336 guru. 151 khādy-asusamskrta. 371 gahvara. 329 Vgarh. 150 gagana-gañjā (samādhi).—sarvatā. 94. 281 kleśa-viśuddhi. 254. 233. 351 garbha (=tathāgata-garbha) (VP 4) (RG I). 110 kleśa-samkleśa. 74 kleśa-nirodha. for dhātu). VII (tathāgata-gotra) (TG c). 76. 112 kleśa—mala. 369. (VP 6). 182 klesa. — g.

3). 167 [citta-mātra]. 203 caryā-pratipanna (bodhisattva). 308. 100 citta-samkleśa. 341 chavi. for dhātu). 34. 118. 236 jarā-marana. 304 jagac-charanya. 239 chidrâbhra. 266 jāla-pāni-pādâvanaddbatā (mahāp. 250 citta-nidhyāpana. 82 jambu-dvīpa. TAKASAKI GH ghatita. 269 jathala. 298 jāla. 263 cintāmani (s. 92 jagat. 90 jñāna. 72. 329 cyuti-duhkha. 76. 68. 233 citta-mano-vijñāna. 92. 277 citta-samjñāpana. 78. 84. 365 cātur-dvīpa.). 360 citta-caitasika. § XV (II). 222. 94. 190 jarā. 27. 357 caturvidhâviparyāsa-samjñā. laukika-jñāna). 359 citratā. 270 jātakāni. 172 jagat-parispharana (karunā). 172. 236 cittâbhisamskāra. 53. 346 citâmśa. 243 cyutim tatah. 128 cintitârtha. 96. 166 catuh-śukla. 190 cāru—vaktra. 104. 70. 100. 22. 35. TG a). 222 cetah-paryāya. 120. 357 citta-viśuddhi. (=buddha-jñāna) 108. 299 ghattita. ( = āsravaksaya-j. 76. for dharmakāya. 156. 216 jala-ruha. 361 ghosa. 328 citra-lekhaka (parable of) § VIII (X)-3. 151 catur-vaiśāradya-prāpta (buddha). 295 citta-samtāna. 23. 152 jāti. (na ~ sya hānih) (āven 7). 60.J. 344 jina (-buddha). § XVII (VI). 191 cittasya prakrtih. 90 cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu. 116. 317 . 120. 298 citta-prakrti. 236 ~ & āgantuka-kleśa.) 227. 420 ] . 222 citra. 70. 124 jina-garbha (=tathāgata-garbha). (for sāmbhogika). 102 cakrâñka (-pādatā) (mahāp. 223 caraka. 216 jātya. 329 jāta-rūpa. 120. 96 cittavyavadāna-dharma-sahajâvinirbhāgatā. 163. 116. 236 citta-vyavadāna. 166 cakra-vartin. 110 jaghanya. § VIII (VIII. 114. 230 (-viparyāsa). 22. 59. 82. (TG 8. 96 cittasamkleśa-dharmâgantukatva. 339 [catus-kotikā]. 344 cañkramyamāna (īryā-patha). 116. 344 citta. (=tat-prsçhalabdha. 24. 342 jinatva. ~ vat. 402 jinatā. 90. 146 jina-kriyā (VP 7) (RG IV). 329 janma-samkleśa. 96 cittavyavadāna-hetu (tathāgatadhātu). 88. 72. 255 cātaka. 229. 122. 82. 367 CH chanda. IX).. jñātr. § XVI-XVII. 106. 347 cetanā. 96. 59. (RG I). 22. s. 269 janman. 196 cihna. 363 cyavate (]/cyu). 233.

72. 161 jñeyâvarana-prahāna. 202 tathatâvyatireka. 80. 88. 100. 116 141. 198. 169 tarkâgocara. 76 tathāg ata-dharmakāy a-p arisphar an art ha (TG a). 149 tathāgatagotra-sambhavârtha (TG c). 100. 288 (-> gotra) trimandalâvikalpa. 342 jñānâpti. 154 jñāna-nihsrti (K V). 177 jñāna-dehin (=dhîmat). 198 tathāgatatva. 371 jñeyâvarana. 22. 74. & nirmalā t. 116 tathāgata-kula. 187. 100. 108. 100 tri-mandala-pariśuddhi. 291. 323 tathāgata-garbha-śūnyatârtha-naya. 145 tathāgata-dharmakāya (VP 5) (RG II). 53. 120. 110 tattva. 22. 199. ' tīvra-rāga-dvesa-moha-paryavasthānalaksana (kleśa). 36. 28. tādrśa. trayâvarana-nihsrta. 360 tathāgata-krtya-kriyā. 100. 8. trikāya. 26 taruna. 76. 286. s. 287. 226 tathāgata-śarana-gata. 23. 78. 76. 181 (TG a-c) § VII. 76. 292. 8. 74 tathâgama. 23. 395 tusa ( = bahistusa). 82. 151. 231. 24. for kleśa) tathāgata-karman. 124 tusitesv upapattih. 114 tattvadarśana-vibandha. 78. 259 tad-āśrayah (B V) ( = yoga). 23. 383 IX-4. tri-bhava. 198 tathāgatagotra-svabhāva. 110. 74. 37. 229 tathāgata (=buddha) (VP 1) (TG IX c). 260 tārā-rūpa. 108. 278 22. (RG IV).The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a ~ & karunā. 143. 24. 25. 86. 230. 327 30.. 72 198. 114. 70. 130 tathāgatagotra-sambhava. XVII jñâpana.#74. 70. 215 tri-bhuvana. 325 ^ vipranasta-citta (pudgala). 108 jyesçhi-putra. 120. 287 timira. 266 jñānadarśana-śuddhi. 36 421 ] . 60. 70. 356 299 tri-dhātu-samkleśa-nibarhana. 266. 203 tamo—vidhamana—jñāna. 375 jñāna-pūrvamgama (karma) (āven. 28. 389. 287 tisthat. 272 tat-prsthalabdha (jñāna). tri-jñāna ( = śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-j. (TG 3. 288 tathāgata-jñāna. 169 tala. VIII. 287. 78. 230. 108 tad-ubhayânabhilâsin. 340 jñeya (-vastu). 98. sattva 2). 114 jñeyâvarana-visamyoga. 80 tūrya. 90. 104. 344 tattva-darśana. 92 jñāna-darśana. 290 (-> dhātu) tathāgata-bodhi-jñāna. 80. 400 (^garbha). 112. 124 tathāgata-garbha (VP 4) (RG I) § VII-XI tyājya. § VII. 94. 132 tridhā-vimukta. 100 tīrthya (TG II. 128. 202 tathatâvyatibhedatā. 189 tathāgata-tathatā'vyatirekârtha (TG6). 315 tathatā (TG b). 126 jñeyârtha. § II-2. 319 tathāgata-dharma (RG III). 100 tīrthika. 30. 25. 163 samalā t. 96. 357 tathatā-svabhāva (TG b) § IX-4.). 104. IX. 24. 109 tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. 82. 382 tathāgata-gotra (VP 4) (RG I) (TG c) § tri-bhūmigata-mala. 154 jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra. 102. 161. 68. 259. 196. tridaśeśvara. 323 jñāna-dhātu. 258.. 369 tamas. 381 tathāgatagarbhâstitva. 13-15). 98 tathāgata-mahākarunā-vrtti-hetu. 288. 68. 198 tathāgata-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I) § VIII-IX. IX-4. 114. 102. 21 ff. 154 jñānadhātv—āptinistha. 72. 102. 202 tapat. 94. 78. 198. 78. 122.

280 (-viparyāsa) deva-dundubhi (K II). (?). 355 durgrhīta-grāhin. 80. 305 deśanī. 150. 94 dīrghâñgulikatā (mahāp. (for niryāna). 375 darśana-prahātavya (kleśa). 74 try-adhvan. 88 daurgandhya-vāsanā. (bīja-tvak) (TG 6). 128 durlabha-prāpata-bhāva (tathāgata). 387. 122. 106. 348 drdha—karunâdhyāśaya. — -nirodha. 58 traidhātuka. 167 darśana-heya (-vyāvrtti). 180 dvipadâgrâdhipatya. 342 tryadhvânubaddha. 124 daksinîya. 128 darśanā-deśanā-pravrtti-krama. 290 ^^ — pratibimbaka (manomayakāya). 82. 283. 174. 122. 278 drdha. 252 drsta-satya (— tattva-darśin). 158. 166 dvay a-graha-vimukti. 110 dina-krt. 4). 84 duhkha-nirvit. 100. 158. 124 dūramgamā (bhūmi). 118 dvātrimśan-mahāpurusa-laksana-rūpadhārin (buddha). 120 daśa-bhūmi. 80 drdhâdhyāśaya. 128 durlabh6tpāda-bhāva (of ratna). 205 duhkha-samjñā. 92. 318 dvisāhasra-lokadhātu. 169 dvesânusaya-lakasana (kleśa). 130 duhkha. 128 drsti. TAKASAKĪ tri-ratna-vamśa. ~ -hetu. 70. 122. 344 D daka-candra (=ambu-candra) (G IV). 84 duhkha-bhīrutva. 193 ~' triratnâtpatty-anurūpa—hetu. § XVII-2 (II). 92 traiyānika-gana. 110. 116. 48. 205 duhkhâgni-praśamana § XVIII-2 (III). 128. 343 dvādaśa-bhavâñga. 233. 269 dvesa. 182. 88. 70. (K II). § XV (IV). 318 dvaya. 98.). 74. 338 dvi-pada. 47. 236 darśana. § XV (IV). 203 durbhaga. 198. § XI. 344 dundubhi. 70. 285 [deśanā-naya]. (K I)./. 190 dvīpâgrâdhipa.anupaccetr. 128. 128. 356 divyā-caksus (=cyuty-upapatti-jñānabala) (bala 9). 351 deśana (nt. 185 durlabhodaya. 2). 116. 339 dīpti. 278 darśana-mārga. mārga). 232 daśa-bala § XV (I). 98. 110. 70. 328 deśanā. 370 divaukas. 375 darśanâdi-navadhortha. 96 tvañ-mdru-śrī-tarunatā (mahāp. 255 dūsya. 278 [ 422 ] . 124 daśa-bhūmi-stbita-bodhisattva. 163 dosâgantukatā. 147 trividdha-svabhāva (of TG) § IX-4. 122. 152 dagdha-pûrva. 122. 16-18). 229 drstānta. 104 dosa (=dvesa). 126. 284 trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. 254 dehin. 190 [tri-svabhāva] (parikalpitâdi). 375 deśanā-dharma. 130 dāridrya-vinivartana(tā). § XVII-3. 108. 74. 126 deśa-kāla-gamana. 193 tvak-kośa. 372 durlabhatva (K VI). 167 dvidhā darśanam. 285 deśanā-prayojana. 41. 100 darśanā. 216 dravya. 104 dāna. 126 devadundubhi-vat.J. 367 (duhkha. 330 duhkha-nirodha. 263 dm-mārga-bhāvanā (=darśana-bhāvanāmārga). 197 dosa (TG VIII a). (5 dosa). 342 tryadhva-jñāna (āven. 193 < . 116. 128 daśa-pāramitā. 98. 347 dakacandra-vat (buddha). 126 duhkha-cārikā. § XVIII-2 (VI). 120.

320. 244. 132 dharma-cakra (-pravrtti). (dkāranir āj asūtra) § 1-3. 76 193 dharmadhātu-garbha. 290. 314. § XVIII-4. 224. 405. 303 dharmadhātu-nisyanda. (VP 5) (RG II) (āśrayaparivrttilaksana . 100. § XVIII-4. 108. 292 dharma-kāya. 352 dhātrī (s. 120. 389 dharma-bhrt. 344 [ 423 ] . 167. 116 dharmatā. 403 dharmadhātu-samanvāgama. 104. 112 ~ & (vi-)muktikāya. 96. 262 dharma-paryāya. 100 dharma-kārakriyā. 102. 223 ( = yāna). 198 ~ sya śodhanam. § II. 390 dharmâloka-mukha. 70. 141. 30. 320 ~ & rūpakāya. 388 N nagara (parable of). 214 dhātu. 82 [dharmadhātu-viśuddhi]. 299. 29. 331 ~ -prakāśana. 146 dhī ( = prajñā). 106. 187. 292. 219. § VIII (IX b)-6. 94. 261 nava-candra-vat. 102. 248 dharma—skandha. 257 dhruva-dharma. 200 dharmānām dharmatā. 294. 320. 366 dharmâkhyāna-naya. 70 <~ -gunavibhāga. 22. 92. 339. ( = yāna). 120. 104. 268. 27 dharmakāya-viśuddbihetu. 343 dharmatā-gahvaratva. 80 dharma-viçhapanā. 144. 118. 308 dhī—māndya. 295. 21. 110 ~ -hetu. 104. 118. 149 ~ — mukha. 39. 22. 88. 142. 86. 322. 147. for tathatā). 70 dharmakāya-parispharanatā. (VP 2) ( = dharma). 379 dhyāna-vāry-abhisyandana. 252. 118. 74. 78 nabhas-tala. 132. 290. 26. 100. (VP 4) (RG I). 21. 238. 161.The DH Ratnagotravibhâga dharmabhrd-āra. 31. 205.. 25. for karunā). 296 nāga-ko śavad-vasti-guhyatā (mahāp. 120. 196. 74. 108. 303 dharmakāya—prāpti. 72 dharma-ksati-phala. 271 dharmaiśvarya. 142. 66 ~ -ātmabhāva. 175. 110. ( = guna) (VP 6) (RG III) 23. 102. 239 dharmeśvara. 56. 7). 225. 132 dharma-meghā (bhūmi). 325 -dharman. 132 dhīra (dhīmat). (bala 4). 225 ( = hetu). hetu 1). (VP 2). 232 dharma-sthititā. (catur-). 68 dharma-tattva. 225. 10. 339 dhruva. 110 dhyānâdi-kleśa-vaimalya (bala 7). 166. 86 dharmadhātu-svabhāva. 8. 132 dharma-ksati-hetu. 132 dharma-dhātu. 116. 30. 114. 126. 112. 31. 68. 322 dhyāna. 92. 23. 130. 78. 56. 74. 365 dhāranīśvararāja (sūtra). 295. 116. 375 dhīmat (=bodhisattva). 304 naya. 46. 330 dharmacakra-pravarta. 284. 231 nabhas (s. 26. 235. 66. 72. 234. 149 dharmarāja-putra. 226 dharmakāya-svabhāva (TG a). 339. 182 naya-mukha (-ena). 144. 323 dharmatā—nisyanda. 160. 28 ff. 325. 114 dharmâkāñksin. 66. 291. 70. 255 dharma-ratna (VP 2). ( = mārga). 370 dharmadhātu-kriyā.~). 224 dharma-pada. 80 dhāranī. 385 dharma-parameśvara. 155 dharmatva. 22. 94. 171. 235. 70 dharma-dundubhi. 268 dharma. 72 nava-yāna-samprasthita (bodhisattva). 285 dharmadhātu-parama. 294 dharmârthavāda. 252. 290 ( = hetu). 104. 74. 146. 36. 266 dharma-divākara. 110 dharma-rāja-jyesfa-putra. (TG a) § IX-4. 192. 184. 124 dharmakāya-garbha. 231 dharma-bhānakatva. 126 ' dharma-dvisa-sevana. 122. 68. 276 dharmâdhimukti (TG II. 112.

348 nirīhaka. 354 nidbi (=nidhāna). 114. 294 niyata-rāśi.~. 92. 261 ~ & samsāra. 4). 86 nirvāna-dhātu. 170 nimitta-bhūtatva. 321. 124. 208 nidāna. 344 nirapeksa-pravrtti § XVII-2 (III). 74. 21. 27. 373 niyata-gotra-svabhāva. 357 nirukti. 346 nāśa. 38. 326 nirvedhika(tva) (G I). 88. 165 nirodha-satya § III-3. 184 nispatti. 92. 122. dhruva. 74 nirmalā tathatā (VP 5. 294 nirātmatā. 84. 66 nirodha-mārga-satya. 116. 74 [ 424 J . 370 nimitta. 348 nirj/han. 270 nivarana. 258 nirdainya. 209 nitya-samjñā. 257 nitya-pāramitā. 39. 308. 266 nirvrti ( = nirvana). 184 nisthā (-guna) (TG VIII c). 106 nirnānā-karana. 328 nisyanda-phala. (B VII). 352 nidhyāna. 76. TAKASAKI nānātva-samjñitā (na ~ ) (āven. 90 nārāyana-sthāma-drdhâtmabhāva (mahāp. 270 nivartya. 120. 106 niravajya. 9). 170. 84. 116. prakrtistha-gotra). 161 niyama. 76. 365 niravajñā. 203 nirdeśa. 321 nitya. 358 niranukrośa. 264 niśraya. 31 nihśrayena. 171 nimnonnata. 357 nisevya. 352 nirvrjya. 27. 84. 70. 114. for sattva. 250. 164 niskimcana. 367 niskalpa. (TG 5) (s. 320 nimittârambana. 289 niryāna (=yāna). 257. 233 nisthā-gata. 178 nirantara-citâmśatā (mahāp. 102 nirvānâdhigama—kriyā. 310 nirmāna (-kāya). § XIII (VII). 353 nirvana. 222 nihśritya. 262 nisthāgata-bodhisattva. śiva. 102. 122 nirmamī-karana. śāśvata. 167. 102. 146 nidhāna (s. 165 nirodhâpti (vaiś. 82. 144. 373 niskaivalya. 116. 351 nisyanda. 389 niravaśesa-yogena. 122 nirīha (G IV). 70 nirviśistam. 284. 171 nimitta-grāhin. 193 nirbhayatva. 122. 122. 311 . 380 nārakâgni (s. 106. 290 nir vānâdhigama. 341 nāma—paryāya. 98 nisthāgamana. 213 nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. 74. 221 nirvrtih paramā. 258. 112 nimitta-varjita (tathāgata). 108. 5). 330 nirvikalpatā. 31). 187. 23. 116. 21.J . 259 nāma-rūp a. 389 nipāta. 341 nirāsthatva. 102. RG II). 248 nirālamba. for [dhātu. 92 nisthāgatabodhisattva-sāmtānika. 82. 120. 84. 31. for vyādhi). 208. 122. 94. 120. 76 nihsarana. 373 nirāstha. 339 niśchidra. 242 nirmala. 166 niruttara-tathāgata-karman. 340 nirgranthi-putra. 182 nihsarana-paryesin. 126. 318. 118 nirvāna-gotra. 124. 120. 122. XVI). 170. 292 nisanna. 221 nihsamkleśa-visuddhi. 158 nāyaka. 243. 348 nistha. 167. 262 nispādya. § XII-XIII. 285. 126. 108. 325 nidāna-parivarta. 331 nivāsânusmrti (bala 8). 348 nirdosa.

for kleśa). 29. 84 paramârtha. 150 paryavasāna. 24). 126 naiskramya. 324 parikalpita (or parikalpa). 277 paryāya. 199 paramârtha—laksana. 195 para-pārami-prāpta. 361 paratah. 332 nyagrodha (-> vrksa) nyagrodha-pūrna-druma-maçdalâbha (mahāp. 106 nîta. 224 parijaya. 120 paramârthakāyatā. 260 parârtha-sampatti. 318 parsad-gana. 96. 324 nairyānikatva. 386 [nītârtha]. 336 [ 425 ] . 322 parusa-sparśa-rabita. 122. 386 nllotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (mahāp. 209 pattra. 184 paryanta-kāla-śarana. 353 parigrahana. 128 parama-tattva-jñāna-visaya. 346 pañca upādāna-skandhāh. 213 pātāla-stha. 130. 120 "^ & samvrti-kāya. 367 pavitra (tā). 184 paryavadāpana. 254 paryanta-kāla. 330 naihsvābhāvya. 100. 21. 292 parikīrtana. 258 paramârtha-kāya. 74. 294 parispharanatā. 288 parinirvāna. 214 parama-nirvāça (TG X). 114 parama-bodbi. s. 371 parusa. 199 parama-dharmaiśvarya. 214 paripāka. āspada). 132 nairātmya. 68. 29. 118. 295 paryāpanna. 162 parāvrtti. 319. 348 paligodha (->• phaligodha). § XIII (VI c). § VIII (III-IV)-3. 231 parama-śūnyatârtha. 257. 210 para-pratyaya-sambhava. 186 paramârtha-dhātu ( = tathâgata-dhātu). 388 [nihsvabhāvatā]. (TG I. 116. 156. 29. 148 parigavesayat. 285. 150. 222 parivrtti. 74. 102. 252 parijñātāvin. 151 neyârtha. 203 pariśrānta. 116. 7 8 nairmānika (kāya). 110. 112. 94. 346 nrpatva. 190 paramâtman. 104 paripantha. 112. 310 padma-(kośa). 26. 187 parivrājaka. 322 paramârtha-satya. 72. 30).The Ratnagotravibhâga paramârtha-darśin (== sarvadarśin. 100. sarvajña). 124 p arama-vi śuddha-dharmatā. 383 parisat. 270 patthara-cunna ( = prastara-cūrna). 182 paryavasthāna. 142. 114 -paryanta. 130. 114. 112 parârthasampatty-adbisthāna. 269 netrī. 245. 307 nīca-citta. 262 pariśuddhi. 252 parikarman. 174 nairātmya-prapañca (-vigama). 120 parârtha-sampad. 169 paryesti-duhkha. 171 parigraha. 148 parispharana. 98 para-cakra. 285 parampara. 371 padârtha. 112. 124. 122. 66 pada ( = sthāna. 253 paricchādita. 382 parikarma-krta. 263 paryutthāna (=paryavasthāna). 104 paramânu. 387 neyârtha-tattva-graha. 308 nairātmya-koti. 193. 285 nīti. 118. 82. 21. 84 nairmalya. 58 mca. 211. 372 pāpa-suhrd. 108. 245 parimārganā.

72. § XVII-2 (VII).) ( = paramārthakāya). for bodhisattva). 106 — & karuna. 187 pratītya-dharma. 222 pranihita-manas. 80. 236. 86 ( = avikalpajñāna). § VIII (I-II)-2. 108. 96. 74. 250 pratibhā. 80. 80. 289 pratibimbaka. 342 pūti. 205 pranidhi. 383 punya-sambhāra. 201 pratighâkāra. 254 pratipannaka. 300 pratisevya. 234 pitr (s. 78 prakrti-prabhāsvara (citta). 165 pratipad. 128. 120 prajñā. 128. 120 pāramārthika (buddha). 248 prakrtârtha. 128. 128 prsjha-labdha (jñāna). 330 pratikrti. 288 ~ & samudānîta. 98 prthivī (K IX). 98. 183 purojava. 269. 112. 185 pratividhya. 130 prthivī-dhātu. 178 posin. 84. 76. 22. 363 prajñapta. 102. 315 prakrti-śuddhi. 94. 290 prthivî-tala (TG 5. 120. 183 pratibaddha. 72 punar-bhava. 82. 295 pratiśruti (K VII). 341 prajñā-pāramitā. 360 pratapati. (ekaksana-samāyukta . 80. 207 prajnāpāramitā-bhāvanā (TG II. 84. 179 pratiroma-krama. 94. 90. 291.) . 188 prakrti-prabhāsvaratā. 171. 100 pūri. 104. 308. 370 pratārayati. hetu 2). 263 pratisthā. 10). 57. 124. 128 pratipaksa. 190 prthag-jana (TG VI o). s. 189 prakalpayati. 283 praghosa. 84 ~ & jñāna. 72. 130. 104. 245 puçyâpti. s. 110 pūrna-vimalendu. 200 praklinna. 84 -^ & vaimalya-śuddhi. 383 pūrna-candra. ( = citta-prakrti) 88. 86. 108 prakrtistha (gotra). 27. 266 posa ( = purusa). 264 pratisarati. 288 prakrty-asamklisça. ( = prajñā-pāramitā-bhāvanā). 130. 70. 231 prthagjana-śaiksa-sāmtānika. 130. 21. 112. 169 pratijñā. 355 pratiśrutka-śabdavat. 317 pūrva-videha-dvīpa. 86. 149 pratirūpaka. 239 prakrti-citta-jñāna. 253 prativedha. 106. 292 prati-samydhā. 303 prakrti-pariśuddhi. 210 prativarnika. 189. 386 pratibimba. 178 puçya—pāramitā. 90 puçya. for kleśa) prthivī-vat. 263 pratigha. 74 pārami-gata. 72. 381 punya-jñāna-sambhāra. 381 pāramitā (sac) XVIII-1. 256 pratibādhana. 358 pranudana. § XVII (IX). 269 -prakhyā. 94 pindârtha. 55. 172. 84. 178 paurvâparyena. 184 pāramārthika-śarana. 205 pratipaksatā. 174 pudgala-dharmâvināśatva. 388 pratisvam. 102. 102. 27. 321 pūtivastra (TG 7. 55. 76 prakrti-pariśuddha-dharma-garbha. 142. 106 nāsti prajñayā hānih (āven. 132 pudgala-drsti. 70. for kleśa). 108.J. 30. 204. 352. 94. 128 pratiśrutya. 174 prakrti-viśuddhi. 363 pratipanna. 385 pratibhāna. 203 pudgala-dharmâkhya (jagat). 375 prakrti. TA&ASA&] pāramârtbika(m vapub. 181 [ 426 ] . 218 pratiśarana.

381 prasādhita. 318 ~ -vyapagama(tā). 2). 326 pratyātma-vedya. § XVII-2 (V) prabhāva. 104 bāla-sārtbâtivāhana. 160 prapañca. 78. 124. 94. 26. 401 pravicaya—jñāna. 361 prādeśika-śarana. 228 prahāra. 86. for kleśa). 312. 360 pramānatah. 179 PH phala. § VIII (VI). 193 pramānī-krtya. 213 pbalgu. 126. 72 pratyātma-vedanīya. 227. 92. (B III). 157 prapañcayati. 86 pradeśa. 308 [pratītya-samutpāda]. 310. 280 prathama-cittotpādika (bodhisattva). 294 pramuditā (bbūmi). 128. 249 prayoga. 130 pratyātmam. 355 prabhāsvara. 330 prāptab. 82. 198. 276 prākrta. 108. for jatā). 20). 100. 181. 176 pratyātma-lokottara-jñānadarśana. 84. (s. 345 pravacana. 122. 314 pravrtti (=vrtti) (TG VI). 367 prārthanā. 327 prabhūta-jihvatā (mahāp. (TG" III). 357 prātihārya-traya. 201 prabhāva-sampatti. 242 prākrtâgni (s. 74 prāpta-nirvāna-samjñin. 104 pratyekabuddha-yānika. 178. 188 pratyaya. 74. 365 prasava. 326 bīja. 116 bibharti. 116 prabhāvita. 285 pratyupasthāna. 159 prapācana-vyākarane nidānam. 96. 120 prāptavya. 82. 82. (B VI). 342 prahāna. 195 pratyaya-laksana (paripantha). sarvakālam. 354 pratyekabuddha (TG II-IIĪ. § XIII (VI). 98 pradaksinâvarta. 369 praśuddha. 234 prāpti (B II) ( = prāpty-upāya). 227 pbaligodha. 120 prāpya. 220. 366 protsāha. 375 prāpty-upāya (B II). 221. § XIII (III). 345 pramathana. 285 prabhā. § VIII (V)-2. § VIII (III-IV). 185 prabhākara. for prajñā). 331. 290. 255 prathama-lokottara-dharma-darśanajñāna. 72. 346 pradīpa (s. 80. § XV (I). 90 prāni-gana ( = ksudra-prānaka) prātihārya. 80. for TG V. 108. 242 prādeśika-jñāna. 248 prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. 311 phala-tvak (-> tvak-kośa) phala-vrksa (-> vrksa) phala-samanvāgama. 72. 226. 66.The Ratnagotravibhāga prasanna. 246 prabhava. 120. s. for adhimukti). 84. sattva 4). 314 pxāpana. 80 [ 427 ] . (s. 21. (K IX). 178 prādeśikatva. 338 bahis-tusa (TG 3. 254 pramoksa-citta. 108. 106. 120 balânvita (buddha). 163 pratyātmâdhigama-dharma. 90 prathama. 98 bāla-prthagjana. 179 bimba (=nirmāna-kāya). 163 pratyātma-vedita. 226 pralambba-bāhutā (mahāp. 314. 92. 230 praśama-pura ( = nirvana). 385 prabhā-mandala-viśe&ana. 312. 12). 356 preta. 114. 362 prādurbhāva. 199. 142. 110. 222 prāsāda. 116 prabandha. 204. 122. 156. 70. 86. 110 B bala (G I). 214 pratyaya-sambhava. (svabhāva) (TG a). 26. 108. 102. 298 praskîialita ( = skhalita).

§ XVII-2 (III). § IV-3. s. 88. 353 bodhisattva-karman. 24. 24. 104. 266 buddhi. 28. 142 bodhi-citta. 80. 68 ~ -gunavibhāga. 197 brahman ( = mahā-brahman. 45. 23). 132 bauddha gotra. 92. 130 bhāvanā-jñāna-heya. 27. 168 bhāva-vināśa. 72 [buddha-laksana]. 124 buddha-ratna (VP 1). 278 bhāvanā-mārga. 24. 152 bodheh sattvah. 352 buddha-dustâśaya. 22. 383 bodhi-manda. 141. 66. 24. 376 bhavāh (=tri-bhava). 226 buddbatā. 130. 98. 152 bodhisattva-pitaka. 305 ~ astitva. 376 <• -ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha (bo"' « dhisattva). 299. 404 buddha—sāmtānika. 194 bodhana (RG IV). 285 bodhisattva-bhūmi. 76. 310. (TG 1. § VIII (X)-2. TAKASAKI bījâñkura (TG 6. 94. 360. 76. § V-3. 152 bodhisattvâbhāsa. 98. XIII (VI) 102 buddha-kāra-kriyā. s. 299 bhāvita. 124. 106. ( = buddha-bimba) (TG 1. 66. 122. 224. 96. 84. § XII-XIII. 106. 180 buddha-bhūmi. 372 bhāvanā. 24. s. ( = bodhi) (RG II). 334 bhavâgra. 197 buddha-jñāna-samudāgama-hetu. 313. 106. 371 bhāva. 370 bodhimandâvakrānti. 118 bhava-śānty-anudgraha. 72 bodhisattvâlamkāra. § IX-4. m) (K IV). 76. § II. 345 BH bhañga. 100. 130. 66. 252 bodhy-āpti. 231. 24. VIII (I-II)-2. 94 buddha-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I). 110 buddha-kāya (-traya). 128 buddha-garbha (— tathāgata-garbha). 147. 191 bhava-nir vāna-d vay agr aha-vimukti. 22. 21 brahma-svaratā (mahāp. 24. 130 buddha-kriyā (RG IV). 180 bodhisattva-samgha. bodhisattva—mahākarunā. for dhātu) ( ^ buddha) buddha-bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). 96. § VIII (IXb)-7. § I V-3'. (X)-3. 353 bodhya (RG I). 66. (TG VII.J. VIII (IX 6)-6. 78. 106. 235. 66. 384 [ 428 ] . 368 bhavyatā. 126 bhāti muktam. 74. 382 bhājana-loka. 194. § XI. 66. 158. 88. 24. 100. 116 bodhimandâpasamkrānti. 380 boddhavya. 66 buddha-visaya. 330 bodhi-sattva. § XIII (I-II). 80. samudānītagotra). 22. 106 buddha-bimba. 68. 23. 72 buddha-krtya (RV IV). 59. 158 bhavya. 388 buddha-dharma (RG III). 256 buddha-mandala. 72. 66. 152 bodhisattva-yānika.-7. 307. 23. 90. 94. 128. 128 buddha-śarana. 331. 22 buddha-guna (VP 6) (RG III). 243 bhavâbhilāsin. 104. for dhātu. 194 bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). 72. IXc). 29. 128. 142. 108. 35. 355 [<~ & ātman]. 98. 48 (-> bauddha gotra) buddha-jñāna (TG a). 100 bhāvanā-prahātavya (-kleśa). 130 buddha-bhāva. 202 bhavana. 100. 336 buddha-gotra. 309 buddhatva. 76. 96 buddha (VP 1). 316 bhānu. 50. 80. for dhātu). 239 bhājana-vimātratā. 86. 261. 118. 76. 197 antargama(tva). 74 bhava. 157 bhaya-samjñā. 22. 92. 118 buddha-dharmâvinirbhāga (dharmakāya). 357 bhāskara. 78. 102. 194 bodhy-aûga (RG III).

161 mithyâbhimānâśraya. 305 bhūmi. 341 mūrdhnā. 112 mahā-vaisajya-rasa. 92. 70. 298 mandala. for cittaprakrti). 80. 190 mahâtman ( = buddha). 29). 3). 74. 128. 355. 239 māhātmya (B VI. 292 muktā. 369 mukti-kāya (^vimukti-kāya). 313. (of arka. 90. 21 mūla—paricchinna. 148. 276 manasi-kāra 169 manāpa. 197. 205 mahāyāna-samprasthita. 191 mīmāmsā. 359 manomaya-kāya-trayah. 172 (daśa-) § VIII (IX 6)-7. 308 mahākarunā-bhāvanā (TG II. 251 mahā-cakra-vāla. 262 0 mano-rūpa. 358 (mithyā)darśana. 297 mala-vigamatā. 372 mandanaka. 80 mahāyāna-dharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā (TG II. 368 maharsi (=bodhisattva). 153. s. 126 [ 429 ] . 106. 132 muni-pati (=buddha). 375 mano-maya-kāya. 120. 3). § III-4. for dhātu). s. 241 mūla-pariśuddha. for kieśa). 264 māyā-nirmita. hetu 1). c). 283 mahā-dharmâdhirāja. 74. 120. 355 māhendra-marutā. 190 mahā-bodhi-karunā. 80. 100. 320 mukhâvadāna. 84. 191 mukta-jñāna. 287 madhu. 120. 132 mithyātva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. (TG 2. hetu 4). (K). 230 muni. 255 bhūmy-avacara-devavimāna. 94' mandalaka. 271 madhyastha. 98. 74 mārga-satya. 80. 306 māra-pramathana. 122 mahā-pusta (parable of). 206. 358 muni-vrsa ( = buddha). 289 mahā-purusa-laksana (G IV). 96. 150 mani-ratna. 205 mahârya-saddharma-rasâgra-vindana. 90 mātsarya (-ādi). 346 mahodadhi. 122. 124 mātr (s. § VI-1 (III). 246 mano (-guhyaka) (K VI). 215 mano-rama. 104. 345 mrt-panka-lepa (TG 9. 100 manomaya-skandha. 30. 306 bhūta—dharma. 340 mārsāh. 114 mala-hara. for prajñā). 217 manomayâtmabhāva (=manomayakāya). 151 mahā-samudra. 362 bhoga. 80. 114. 98 bhramara-prānin. 358 manas ( = citta prakrti). 165 mārgah sarvatra-gāmini (bala 6). 84. 369 māra-sainya-pramadana. 357 bhūta. 100. 80 mrgendra-hanutā (mahāp. 82. 106 mahāyāna-dharma-pratigha. 373 mahendra-nīlâmala-ratna-keśa (mahāp. 171 bhūta-koti. s. 80. 335 mahā-karunā. 339 mārgâkhyāna (vaiś. 282 M mani-gotra. 386 bheri. 184 muni-prabhākara. 317 musitatā. 120. (for śrāvakayānika). 106 bhūtadharmâpavāda. 66 mahābrahmavat. 15). 11. 190 bheda. 330 mārga. 116. 132 mīdha-kūpa. 276 bhū ( = prthivī). § XVII-2 (IV). 279. 126. 359 xnama-kāra.The Ratnagotravibhāga mahā-maitrī. 205 mithyā-niyata-rāśi. 190 mahî-ruha. 381 bhramara. 189 mahā-prthivī. 386 mūla. 92. 342 musitā smrti (nāsti --w) (āven. 122.

102. 311 yathā-drsta.-ākrti). 70. 108. 357 līna-citta. 21 ratna (dārikā) sūtra. 311 yathā vaineyikesu. (TG V) § VIII (V). ( = r. 169 mohânda-kośa. 295. 145. 110 rūpâdikam vastu. for jñāna). 112. 197 rāhu. 368 ratna. 173. 72. 236 mrtyu-mārâvabhañga. 74. 98. 311 yoga-vid. 94 rāga. 90 mrdu-karmanya-bhāva. (nāsti ravitam) (āven. 96. 72. 141 ratna-gotra-vibhāga. 311 yāvad-bhāvikatā. 108. 90 yoga. 98. 182 megha (K III). 196. 173. 116 yathābhūta-jñāna. § IV-1. 229 yathāvad-bhāvikatā. 242 lokâlañkāra. 295. 291. 21. 106. 225 rava. 110. 102 ratna-svagarbha. 86 laksana. 20 f. 76. 98 rūpâvacara-deva-vimāna.) (s. 2). 126. r. 303 [ 430 ] . 181 moha. 290. 331 rūpa-kāya-dvaya (see dharmakāya) rūpa-gata. 110. 74. 208 rūpârūpya-dhātu. 169 rāga-rati. 116. 108. 166 rūpa. 370 yathāvat. 74. 190 rūpin. 308 moksa-mārga-pratihatâśa. 305 loka-dharma. 173. 249 yathârhatah. 278 yathā (ca tat) (B VIII). 86. 120. 112. 324 msrā-mosa-dharmin. 387 rati-krida. 186 ratna-guna-vibhāga. 141 ratna-gotra § VI-XVIII. § V-4. (of mahodadhi). 233 rūpa-ratnâkrti. (B V) § XIII (V). 20 ratna-traya. § IV-1. 74 lokottara-jñāna. 116. 328 rūpa-kāya. 325 yoni. 343 R rañga-vikrtim upaiti. 355 meghavat. 114 laksana-prayoga. 118. 175. § II-V. s. 70. 363 loka-nātha. 227 laksana-vyañjana. 120 ravi.J. 329 loka-vyavahāra. 109. 102. 80 mosa-dharma. 118. 72. 352 ratnâkara. 174. 29. 104 lokottara-dharma-garbha. 98 rāgânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 341 raśmi (arka—r. 114. 124 ravita. 122. 98 mohânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 185. 332 loka-vid (buddha). 285 yathā'śayesu. 98 yathâbliiprâya-pūri(tva). 254. 347 ratna-nidhi (-> nidhi). a). 225. 106 maitrī. 311 yukti. 166. 211 yathābhūta-darśana. 126 meghâdivat (śūnya). 118. for dhātu). 372 yugânta-(agni) (s. 96 ratna-vigraha (TG VII. 280 yathā-drsta-lokottaradharma-bhāvanājñāna. b). 124 yāvat. 118 mrtyu-vyādhi-jarā (-agni). § XV. 98 lokottara-dharmakāya-prakrti-pariśuddhi. for mrtyu). 76. (5 laksanāh) (of svābhāvika). VI (4 aspects). 76 yāna (-> niryāna). 384 yugapad-gocara-sthāna.bimba. 303 yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. 333 loka-dhātu. TAKASAKI mrtyu. 412. 316 ruta. 278 rāśi. 110. 98 rāgâdi-carita-sattva-sāmtānika. § XVII-2 (III). 173 yāvat kālam (B VII). 376 yogin.

86. 249 lobha-gredhatā. 329. 100 vasudhântarita. 366 vajropama—samādhi. 369 vikrti. 270 vinīti-kriyā. (daśabalâdi). 299 vibandha (tattvadarśana-v. 277 vāsanânusandhi. 244 vinirbhāgadharma. 337. 385 viparyaya. 128. 267 viydhā. 312 laukika-vītarāga-sāmtānika. 68. 86. 325 vicālya. 142. 375 vāta-mandala. 132. 82. 112 vimati. = timira). 120 vipula. 280 vajropama-samādhi-jñāna. 128. 341 vikrama-sampad. 166 vikurvita. 120. (for ayoniśomanasikāra). 100 vicitra-dharma-sambhoga. 31. 142 vajra-pada. 214 vibhavâbhilāsin. 124. 124. 92. 356 vibhūti-rūpârtha-vidarśana. 285. (for karma-kleśa). 74. (for karunā-vrttihetu). 114 ( ~ ucchitti). 124 vikriditā (karunā). (K IV). 110 vimalâśraya. 282 vāk-patha. 297 vinaya-kriyā. 208 viparyāsâbhirata. for āsravaksaya). 116 vijñapti. 155 ( ~ prākāra) vimala. 122 vajrâgni. for TG c). 274 [ 431 ] . 141 vibhu (=buddha). 263 varna (of pradīpa) (s. (— avidyāvāsabhūmi). 351 vineyâdri. 255 viroalā buddha-gunāh (RG III). 279 vara. 104 viparyāsa. 383 viparîta. 157. 407 vinihatya.). 386 vicitra-rasa. 338 vipāka-phala. 59 vitapa (dharma-v. 241 vibhava-laksana (paripantha). 340 vibuddha. 230 viparyasta-samjñā. 86 vaśitā. 351 vibhutva. 175 lokottara-buddha-dharmāb. 238 vāri (s. 202 vibhāga. 102. 320 vipaksa. 292 [viniścaya]. 66. § 1-1. 148 vipratipanna. 178 vaśitā—prāpta—bodhisattva. 147 vāsa-bhūmi. 23. 319 vibhūti. 141. 98 vadhaka-purusa. 239 vipāka. 209 vipaśyanā. 274 vidbi. 183 vadhya. 70. 76 vimalâmbu. 86. § XV (I). 373 [vijñapti-mātratā]. § III-4. 94. 82. 98 vatnśa. 166 vāg-guhyaka (K VII). 82. 112. for karunā). 370 vindana. 21 vacas. 340 vidhura. 124. 303 viparyāsa-viparyaya. 169 vibandha-pratisedha (vaiś. 164. 385 vajra. 252 vipranasta. 124 vinivrtta. 161 vigraha. 70. 347. 76 lodyeta (ylud). 248 vidyā.The Ratnagotravibhāga vithapeti. 88 vāsanā. 228 vimala-gunopeta. 227 lokottara-prajñā. 82. 155 vibhava. 215 vikāra. 78. 2). 120. 23. 375 vikrama-stha. 296. 68. 241. 351 vinayâbbyupāya. 208 viparyasta. 389 vajravat. 159 vithapyante. 321. 241 vikalpa. 80. 238 vāyu (s. 110 vimalā (bhūmi). 214 vasudhā. 88. 114. 352 vineya-dhātu. 120. 31. 8. 387 laukika (-jñāna).

(K III). hānih. 356 vaidūrya-mani (parable of). 120. 315 vaimalya-śuddhi. 108. for dhātu) cf. 374 vailāradya. 11). 187 vyādhi. 344 vyupadeśa. 228 <— & samklista. 70. 110 << sya pūrnam. 114. 371 isarati. 165 irāga-hetu ( = mārga-satya). 334 vyūha. 229. 358 vyavadâta-sūksma-suvarna-varna-cchavih (mahāp. 328 vyavahāra. 321 vyāyata (pādatā) (mahāp. 204. VIII (IX 6)-4. 122. 210 isara. 112. 108 vairūdhi. 315 isaya-rati-hara. 12). 130. 345 vrtti ( = pravrtti) (TG VI). 166 vyasana.l . 108. 66 vaidharmya. 282 ivarta. 118. 357 [vyatirekâlañkāra]. 218 iśodhya (-artha). 108. 1-c). 108. 18). 354. 28 iśuddhi-parikarma-guna. 24. 237. § 1-3. 165 irāgin. 238 ivikta. 52. 312. 374 vaimalya ( = āsravaksaya). 100. 161 iśāradatva. 31. 279 îrya. 337 vaipulya. 236 vyāpi. 387 dmoksa-mukha (śūnyatâdi). § VIII (VI). 94. 365 imukti. 150 iślesa. 124 vrata. bījâñkura vrtta-ślaksanânunnāma-bāhutā (mahāp. 315. 263 iśuddhi-guna-parikarman. § I I I . 94. 285 vyavasthiti. 24-2). 165. 66. āven 8). 389 vyavadāna-satya-dvaya. 338 iśuddha. 328 [ 432 ] . 90. 28 vaimalya-pariśuddhi. 346 vrsabhitā. 150 iśuddhi-gotra. 299 dyoga. 305 vyākarana-kathā. 164 irāga-dharma. 165 vyavasthā. 264 drāga.J. 112. 342 dmukti-phala-dānatva. 241 ihāra. 74. 340 vyakti. § XIII-(VI). ( = virāgatā) ( = nirodhasatya). 337 isamyoga-phala. 199. 252 dmūdha. 342 (nāsti ~ sya hānih) (āven. 110. (na ~tah. 341 dmukti-kāya. 311 vrsa-paksma-netra (mahāp. 327 iśesa-laksana. 110. 27). 66. 122. 221 iśuddhi-cittaprakrti. 148 vaijayanta. 84 vaimalya-viśuddhi. 11). 340 vrksa (TG VII. § III-2. 122. 368 isamyoga (B III). 70. 70. 86. 255 īta. 120 isamvāditva. 377 vyapagata-visama-sthāna. 152. 184 ~ laksana (virāga-dharma). 13 isāmagri. for parama-bodhi). 249. TAKASAKI dmātratā. 302 istara-vibhāga-nirdeśa. 76. 346 vyavadāna-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha) (RG I). 164 irāgitā. 110 dmukha. 142. 285. 128. for dhātu). 31. 122. 172. 387 vyākarana. 86. 122. 378 vaineyika. 114. 158 vyupameya. 306 ividhā. 150 iśuddhi-pārami-prāpti. 76 •• iśuddha-sama-dantatva (mahāp. 310. 122. 315 nāsti vimukter hānih) (āven. 227 vaimalya-dhātu. 164 vyañjana. (s. (B VI). 345 isuddhi. 148 vyoman (s. 192 vaipākika. 375 vyāpitva. 70. 70. 151. 112 ~ dmukti-jñāna-darśana. 199 vyavasthāna. 108.

82. 104 śrāvaka—naya. 27. 303 [śūnya-vāda]. 151 śūnyatā-jñāna. 329 śilpa-sthānāni kauśalam. 178 eukla-dharmausadhī. 130 śloka. 104. 118 śamaikayāna—gotra. 366 śobhā. 18. 310 [sat-padârtha] (svabhāvâdi). 365 samvidyamānatā. 80 śūnyatā-viksipta-citta (pudgala). 244. 112 śuddha-prabhā-mandala-gātratā (mahāp. 19). 309 ślokârtha-samgraha-vyākhyāna. 268 samvrti. 308 śāstra-sambandha. 329 śiva. 112. 84. 390 samvara. ( = āsravaksaya-jñāna-bala. 222 śuklâspada. 74 śruti. 80. 38. 156. 296. 114 śānta-dharmatā. 231. 114. 54. 166. 74 śrāvaka-yānika. 72. 116. 268. 400-408 [sat-pāramitā] (dānâdi). 301 śūnyam sarvam. § 1-4. 74. 179 śāstr. 84. 208 śubhâkāra. 74. § V. 72. 126 śama-prāpti. 143 śrāvaka (TG II-III. 326 śānti-pathâvatāra(-nidana). 360. 339 śānti-patha ( = nirvana). 330 śānty-anuśamsa-darśaka. 54 f śaiksa. 72. 68. 180 śaranatrayâbhyupapatti. 345 śuklâmśa. 72. 50 sad-indriya-visaya. 124. 245 samraksana. 122. 22. 84. 98 śuddha-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 155. 11. 282 śāśvata. 257 śāśvata-drsti. 380 śuddhi. 108. 118 śarīra. 106 śūnya & aśūnya. 104. 164.The Ratnagotravibhāga śubha. 112. 104 śūnya. § XVII-2 (I). 158 śakra (K 1). 122. 120. 84. 376 sukla-pravara-damsjratā (mahāp. 102 śraddhā—gamana. 169 śubhâtma-sukha-nityatva (-guna-pāramitā) (TG III). 309 śaktatva. 345 śuddha-bhūmi. 80. 333 śāstr-gaurava. 74. 106 śflnyatā. 319 samyojana. 268 śubha-ratnatraya-sargaka (gotra). 209 śubha-dharmatā. 357 śarana. 82. 90 śrāvaka-samgha. 167. 84 suci-śīla-jighrana. 106. 58. 13. 104. 207 śamâmrtapada-prāpti. bala 10). 106. 46. 219 » śāśvata-(loka-nātha). 178 samvarta. 45. 130. 72. 220 śayana-sthita. 104. 221 [ 433 ] . 72. 359 śarīrin. 68. (B I). 180. 57. sattva 3). 276 śisya. 54. 181 śīla. 130 śuci. 108. 280 śaila-deśa-gamika. 11-17. 72. 154 śiipa-sthāna. 208 śubha-pāramitā. 264 sad-āyatana-viśesa. 118 śāsana. 132 śāli. 13). 278 śuddha-sattva. 98. 130 śīla—samvara. 76 śubha-samjñā. XVIII-1. 185 śraddhā. 167. 197 śānta. 68. 200. 382 śakti. 74 śarana-traya. 68. 68. 209 śūnyatā-drsti. 116 śānti-mārga. 104. 98. 355 śakra-pratibhāsavat. 183. 237 samvit. 70. 174 śānti. § VIII (X)-3. 82.

( = prthag-jana). 227. pratyekabuddha. 332 samgrāma. 221 samcintya. 200 [ 434 ] . 296. 244 samjñā (-viparyāsa). 244 samślisja. 191 samkara-pūti-dhāna. 68. 301 samanta-bhadrâpratima (-ātma-bhāva) (mahāp. 158 satkaya-drs^i. 143. 82 samsāra-mandala. 116. 100 sapta-sapti. 230 sat (-^ dhîra). 245 saddharma-kāya (=dharmakāya). 231. 118 sattva-rāśi. 156. 358 saddharma-rasa-dānatā. 265 san-nātha. 16). 23. 285 samvrtta-skandhatā (mahāp. 272 samkāra-dhāna. 80. 244 sapta-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 182. 10). 254 samdrśyate. 72. 267 samā catvārimśad-daśanatā (mahāp. 142 samgha-kāra-kriyā. 272 samketa. 193 samgraha. 106 samalā tathatā (RG I) (VP 4). 242 samskrta. 187 samavadhāna. 151. 223. 204 samsāra-duhkhopaśama-mātrâbhirati. 80. 230 samjñā-grāha. 82 samanupaśyati. (TGVII. tīrthya. 118 samsāra-gata. 122. 74. 345 samVślis. 82. 323 samtāna. śrāvaka). 215 samskāra-paripāka. 5). 346 samanvāgata. 78. 197 sattvâtma-sama-darśikā (maitrī). 360 samgha (VP 3). 122. 84. 80 (trividha). ( = sattva-rāśi). 158 satkāya-drsfi-patita (-pudgada). 86. TAKASAKI samvrti-kāya. 297 sattva. 74. 126. 336 samvrti-pada-sthāna. 66 sacet. 183. § VII-XI. 250 samsāra. 104. samatā. 381 sa-karanīya. 170. 22. 365 samtārana. 354 ~ —aksayatva. 183 eat-kāya. 291 ~ & nirvana § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 345 samādāya. 275 samnāha. IXo). 116 sattvârtha-nirapeksatā. 132 samsrti. 235 (catur-vidha ^ ) (TG II. 390 samsāra-mandala-ksānti. karma-. 22. 72 samgha-ratna (VP 3). 78. 78. 82. 72. 74. 167 samanvāgama ( = yoga). 118 samādhi. 181. 132 saptâtsada-śarīratā (mahāp.J . 32). 206 sat-purusa. 248 samnihśraya. 245 samavasarana. 161 sattvârtha-krt (RG IV). 344 sabhaya. 313 sama-preksin. 181 samvrti-satya. 234 samksepa-mātraka. 110 saddharma-vyasanâvrtâtmaka. 286. 84. 106 sattvānām dharmadhātu. 303 satkāya-nirodha. 88. 90. 104. 370 saptârtha-pada (^vajra-padāni sapta). 290. 39. 356 samādhāna. 74. 122. III) (-+ icchantika. 340 saddharma. 251. 145. 90. 66. 301 samkleśa-vyavadāna. 80 sattva-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha). 100. 72. 132 saddharma-samgraha. 86. 22. 120 samvrti-kāyatā. 118 saddharma-salila. 367 samskāra. 68. 122. 217 samkleśa-nimitta. 76. 319 satata-samitam. 100. 189. 166 samkleśa (kleśa-. 364 sadma. 72 <~ -guna-vibhāga. 226 sama-vimukti. 70. janma-). 92. 191 8amjñā-citta-drsçi-(viparyāsa). § IV. 250. 23 sattvârtha-kriyā. 206 sattvârtha-vimukhatā. 202. 223 satya ( = āryasatya). 183 sakalam.

80. 118. 298 sa-vāsana-maloddhrti. 352 sarva-sattvârthakrt. 88. 333 samādhi-bhāvanā (TG II. 186 sarvajña-jñāna. 292 sambandha. 102. 122. 330 sambhava. 82. 116. 122 simha-pūrvârdha-kāyatā (mahāp. 216 sâsrava-dharma. 102. hetu 3). 368 sarva-sattva. 86. 98 sârtha. 29. 120. 114 sarvajña-dharmatā. 337 sâñgana (bodhisattva). 204 samyak-pratipatti. 331 sârtha-bīja. 265 samrddhi. 104 sāhasra-lokadhātu. for G II). 120 simhavat. 96. 76 sarva-dharmâbbisambodhi (vaiś. 348. 266. 194 sarva-jña. 262 sarvâkara-gunopeta-śūnyatā. 325 samudāgama. 205 samyaktva-niyāma. 268 sāmagrī. 186 sarvadarśinām vis ayah (gotra). 199 sarva-cittârambana. 208 sukha-sampatti. 76 sarvatraga (TG VIII). 192 sarva-dhātu (=sarva-loka). 130 sarva-darśin ( = sarvajña). 82. 112 sarvajñatā. 344 [siddhānta-naya & deśanā-naya]. 124 sukha-pāramitā. 24 (-avinirbhāgatā). 252 samyak-pratipanna. 102 sammiñjita. 177 samāropa. § VIII (VIII).& jñāna-). for dhātu). 94 sāmtānika. 302 sāmketikam vapuh (^samvrti-kāya). 248 samāpatti (-āvarana). 200 sādhumati (bhūmi). 332 sampatti-yoga(tva). 263 sarvagatva ( = sarvatraga). 118. 112 sukha. 214 sambhāra (punya. 80. 342 sambhoga-kāya. 199. 148 samāhrtâdyamah. 197. 114. 233 sarvathā 'rthakrt.The Ratnagotravibhāg sarva-dharmadhātu. 324 sāra. 206 samādhi-samsparśa-sukhânubhūti. 154 sambuddha ( = tathāgata) (TG Vic). 1). 124. 270 samyaktva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. 288 samudra. 124. 118 sambaddha. 32 ( dvaya) sambhedatah. 230 sarva. 326 samārūdha. 161 sādharmya. 352. 226. 285 sītâmalornodita-c^ru-vaktra (mahāp. 68. 82. 260 samudānīta (-gotra). 201 sametya. 116. 198 sambhava-laksana (paripantha). 279 sāmnidhya. (sarvaśarīrinah). 282 sārârtha-darśana. 94 sarvâvabodhitā. 68 sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. 86. 84. 372 sampatti. 114 sarve dehinah ( = sarva-sattvāh). 378 sâsrava-karman. 78 sarvâkāra. 122. 266 sarvajña—jñāna—gocara. 76. (TG 3 s. 94. 346 sukathā-śuci-śrava. 25). 130. 302 samāvartana. 364 sahaja. 92 sasya. 172 sambodhi. 382 sambhrti (=sambhāra). 269 sārârtha. 112 samāna. 84 sukhatva. 252 samyak-sambuddha-dharmatva.340 [ 435 ] . 218 sāmbhoga. 124. § XV (II). 82. 197 salila-bandhana. 8). 175 sarvatra. 30. sahasra-koti-niyuta. 289 sāmbhogika (kāya) § XIII (VIb). 82. 175. 120. 190 simha (s. 86 sambuddhatā. 209 sukha-samjñā. 353 samyag-aviparyasta. 270 sāksātykr. 21. 237 sāmānya-laksana.

120. ( = gotra. 88. 102. ( = pratyeka-buddha). 102 svabhāva-gāmbhīrya-nayâvabodhana. 376 su-parikarma-krta-cetas. for dhātu). 289. 381 sva-laksana. § XIII (I-II) svabhāva-kāya ( = svābhāvika). 283 hāni-kārana-krti. 108. 340 hitatva. 78. 130 svacchâvirala-dantatā (mahāp. 367 sauksmya. § VIII (IX c). (B I). 122. 96. 285 sūksma—vastra. āven. 120 svârtha-sampad. 21. 108. 345 svadharmatā. 126 svakarmodbhava. 112 skandha. 9). 252 su-pratisthita (-pādatā). 388 hīna-pranīta-dharma. 338 sthiti. 296. 102 hema-mandalaka (-> suvarna) heya (-vastu) (->• duhkha-samudaya). 108. II). 310 svaparârtha-sampatti (B IV). 126. 269 sūksma. 341 stuti-ninda. 120. 21. 151 sūksma-nimitta-prapañca. dhātu). āven. 290 ~ & pratyaya. 100 suvarna-bimba. § XVII-2 (V). 29. 264 svarga. 92. 146 sva-samtāna. 236 skhalita (nāsti /— m.). 157 svayam-bhū ( = buddha). 29. 112 svabhāvâparinispatti. 106. 82. 120.J . 25. 118. tathatā). 195 hetu-laksana (paripantha). IX-4 (trividdha-). 349 svābhāvika (kāya). 358 suvarna (TG 4. 120. 341 sva-karman. 120. 216 sūtikā-sadma-sthita. 114. 112 svârthasampatty-adhisthāna. 126 bina ( = hīna-yāna). 323 sūtra ( ~ . 13. 318 su—daiśika. 21. 128. 120. 128 srjat. 78. 124. 344 sumeru. s. § VIII (I-II)-l. 162 H hata-satkāyasāra. 128 sūryavat. 17). 178 svasamtānâvabhāsa. 156. TAKASAKI sugata (=buddha) (TG I. 190 sura-pati. § XIII (VI a). (B II). 341 sthairyatva. 267 hīna(yāna)ruci. 124 snigdha-bhāva (-svabhāva) (TG c). 224 su-viśuddha. 236 skandhâyatana-dhātavah. 201 sparśitavya. 100. 1). 315 svayam. 226 hetv-ānantya (-tva). 100. 102. 360 sva-citta. 367 spharana (of arka). 122. etc. 120. 202 svarasa-yogena. 86. § XIII (I-II). 161 sva-parârtha (B IV). 142 Bthānâsthāna (-jñāna-bala) (bala 1). § VI-2. 285 sūtra-sthānīya (-śloka). 108. 231 su-sāra. 356 sūrya (K V). 132 hînasattvesv avajñā. 214 hetu-samanvāgama (TG V). 124 [ 436 ] . 185 sthāna. 344 BU—pratisthita—cakrâñkra—vyāyatâtsañga— pādatā (mahāp. 311. 332 hema-bimba (-> kanaka-bimba). 94 smrti (nāsti smrteh hānih. 1). 367 sevana. 341. 225. 88. § VIII (I • II). 199. (-avasthā) (TG IX c). 282. (TG. 120. for dhātu. 68. 72 sva-stha (G II). 324 svârtha-sarnpatti. 76. 238 skandha-dhātv-indriya. 240 svarasa-vāhin. geya. 241. a. 305 hetu. 108 svabhāva (TG I). 72. 120 sevya (-viddhi) (mārga). 126 svaccha-jala-bhājana. 147 sthira (-stha).

7. 155 [ 437 ] . 269. 287. 289. 144. 258. 4952. 203. 258. 390 Amrtākara. 324. 206. 338. 171 Aśvaghosa. 44. 285 Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS). 61 Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitāsūtra (ASP). 234. 302 Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS). 188. 176. (Vyākhyā). 224. 320. 28. 144 Hûa-yen (School). 338. 234. 329. 46-49. 34. 232. 8 Devaprajña. 59. 51. 51. 9 Bodhisattvabhūmi (BBh). 21 Gunabhadra. 288. 210. 239 Gaudapāda. 261. 221. 33. 170. 218. 173. 7 Daśabhūmikasūtra (DBS). 292. 268 *Anuttarâśraya-sūtra (AĀS). . 254 Chien-Hui ( = Sāramati). 146153. 260 Amitāyus Buddha. 322. 305-9. 49 Advaita Vedānta (School). 201. 312. 33. 33. 281. 408 Brhadāranyakopanisad (Brhad. 48. 327. 189. 204. 286. 351. 175.. 150. 233. 44 *Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (->• Mahāyāna-dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra) Dharmaraksa. 62. 407. 225. 61. 32. 235 Blo-ldan śes-rab. 404 •Buddhagotraśāstra (BGŚ). 35. 343 Abhisamayâlañkārâloka (AAA). 171 Adbhuta-sūtra (Adbhuta-dharmaparyāya). 406. 204. 173. 15. 21 (Vyākhyā of Yaśomitra). 223. 300. 59 Abhidharmakośa (Kārikā) (AK). 193. 167. 339. 187. 241. 33. 209. 219. 53. 283. 233. 189. 334. 57 Jain. 300. 382. 213. 341. 203 Jñānagupta. 259. 343. 331. 52. 62. 263. 192. 341 Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (DDV). 61. 318. 260. Up). 186. 254 Añguttara-nikāya (AN). 39. 230.INDEX OF WORKS. 45. 7 Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā. 185. 193. 143 Fa-hsian (School). 188. 213. Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirde śa-p arivarta (AAN) 32. 167. 223. 210. 213 Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra. AUTHORS & SCHOOLS (Those with the mark * are the titles restored from C) Abhidharma Buddhism. 194. 34 Dhāranīśvararāja-sūtra (DRS). 61 Ārya-śrīmālā-sūtra -> Srīmāla-sūtra Asaûga (Slob-dpon Thogs-med). 7. 9 Dhammapadâtthakathā. 264. 8. 406 Abhisamayâlañkāra (AA). 8 Fa-tsang. 290. 45. 331. 315. 308. 35-36.45. 52. 200. 53 Avatamsaka-sūtra (Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa-parivarta) (AvatS). 173. 198. 51. 6 Blue Annals (Deb-ther sñon-po). 332. 408 (Ārya)candrottaradārikā-sūtra. 300. 240. 54 Âryadeva. 212. 214. 157. 311. 192. 34. 339. 189 Gser-phren (of Tsoñ-kha-pa). 218. 177. 9 Gaganagañjā-sūtra (Gaganagañjābodhisattvaparivarta) (GagS). 260. 200. 208. 334. 295. 329. 277-280. 232. 8. 260. 296. 230. 214. 324. 354 Bhagavadgītā. 385 Bodhiruci. 333. 34. 35 Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta (DrdhP). 327. 164 ff. 21. 285. 28 Catuhśubha (of Nāgārjuna). 336. 166. 290. 234. 142. 44. 8 Hsūang-chuang. 9 Chiu-ching-yi-ch'eng-pao-sing-lun. 37. 208. 228. 61 Aksayamati-pariprcchā (AksP). 310.

374 Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching. 53 Kāśyapa-parivarta (KāśP). 382. 146 Mahāsañgika. 204. 34 Lañkāvatāra-sūtra (Lank). 163. 59. 231. 405. 240. 240 Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa). 33. 286. 7. 228. 356. (Bhāsya). 45. 214. 232 Pratītyasamutpādahrdaya-kārikā (of Nāgārjuna). 6 Sadāyatanafrāśi] sūtra (SadS). 312. 33. 240 Sarvāstivāda. 37-39. 59. 57. 217. 58. 341. 203 Samyutta-nikāya (SN). 277. 304 [Mahā]prajñāpāramitā [-upadeśa]-śāstra. 372. 235. 8. 56. 260. 188. 251 Ratnamati. 39-40. 182. 369. 189. 33. Up. 4144. 300 Siksānanda. 144. 52. 303. 50. 402 Mahâyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra. 33. 291. 33. 34. 207. 339. TAKASAKI Jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra (JAA). 300 Nāgārjuna. 296. 144. 44. 262. 61 Sañghabhadra. 17. 50. 292. 150. 8 Paramārtha. 294 Sandhinirmocana-sūtra.lun-chu (of Fa-tsang). 163. 216. 57. 61. 267. 215.J. 19. 34 Mahāyānâbhidharma-sūtra (AbhidhS). 33. 343 M. 200. 34. 300. 15. 45. 267. 159-160. 167. 10. 22. 368. 44. 263 Ratnadārikāsūtra (Ratnasūtra) (RDS). 7 Saka fragments (of Ratnagotravibhāga). 33. 52. 373. 347 Ratnagotraśāstra. 53. 382. 5 Ratnakūta-sūtra. 301. 323 Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta ( = Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta). 242. 60. 260 Saddharmapundarīkasūtra (SPS). 51. 218. 305 Prasannapadā. 32. 52. 8 Madhyamaka-kārikā (MK). 31. 44 ~ bhāsya (of Stbiramati). 301. 300 Rāstrapāla-pariprcchā. 245 Sajjana. 285. 182. 21 Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (PP). 214 Ratnacūda-pariprcchā (RCP). 338. 45-46. 11. 34 Saundarananda-kāvya. 262. 250. 47. 13. 9.). 300 Ta-ch'ang-fa-chieh-wu-ch'a-pieh . 285. 211-12. 45. [ 438 3 . 62 Majjhima-nikāya (MN). 384. 204. 295 Śañkara. 9 Ta-t'ang-nei-tien-lu. 32. 289. 9. 293. 53. 46. 300 Mahāparmirvāna-sūtra (Mahāyāna) (MPS). 33. 200. 173. 359. 251. 240. 15. 56 Sāriputrâbhidharma-śāstra. 286. 209 Milindapañhā. 290 •Mahāyāna-dharmadhātv-aviśesa-śāstra (DAŚ). 257. 44. 186 Sāgaramati-pariprcchā (SāgP). 298. 300 Sumangala-visāranī. 155. 224. 32. 9 Ratnavajra. 291. 204 Laksanânusāra-śāstra. 158. 302. 305 Mādhyamika. 232. 163. 232. 60 Madhyântavibhāga (MAV). 51. 159 Sāramati. 272. 7 Kaniska. 223. 60. 48. 316. 227. 8 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra (TCS). 295 Li-t'ai-san-pao-chi. 389 *Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda (-śāstra). 28 Nāmasamgīti. 34. 206. 33. 16. 5 Mahayānottaratantra śāstropad e śa. 34. 192. 185. 290. 10. 261.' 48. 259.ahāsaaghātasūstra (Mahāsamnipātasūtra). 167. 51. 265. 14 f. 54. 62. 343. 5 Sāmkhya (School). (Parmârtha's translation) (MSbh(P)). 291. 300 Pao-ch'ung-lu. 35 K'ai-yuan-che-chiao-mo-lu. 183. 264. 390 Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (MSA). 322. 315. 145 Srīmālā [devī-simhanāda]sūtra (SMS). 35. 53. 236. 364. 61. 225. 174. 60 Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-pa. 33. 33. 52. 40. 301 Manusmrti. 209. 287. 292. 171. 293. 34 Mundakopanisad (Mund. 249. 6. 7 Mahāvibhāsāśāstra. 408 Mahāyānasamgraga (MS). 7. 54. 288. 219. 5 Ratnagotravibhāga. 143 Śuklavidarśanā. 32. 36.

47. 62. 28. 200. 40. 147 Tathāgatotpattisambhava-nirdeśa. 49. 8. 44. 322 [ 439 ] . 196. 57-61. 162. 52. 407 Yogācārabhūmi (YB). 21. 145 Tathāgatamahākarunā-sūtra. 54 Vaiśesika. 406 Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā (VMT). 203. 230. 21 Upanishad. 33. 382 Vimalakīrtinirdeśa (VimN). 294 Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatārasūtra (AcintS). 268-276. 240 Vijñānavāda. 404 36-37. 40. 61. 33. 38.The R at n a got r a v i b h ā g a Vasubandhu. 203 Vaibhāsika. 44. 47. 49. 52. 33. 40. 34 Vajracchedikā-sūtra (Vaj C). 28. 36. 48. 53. 290. 240 Vedānta Philospphy. 281. 20 Vedāntavāda. 189. 13. 5. 35. 51. 8 Tsoñ-kha-pa. 61 Uttaratantra. 405 Vātsīputrīya. 28. 39. 277 Yogācāra (School). 34. 269 ' Ti-lun School. 61 Vibhajyavādin.

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