A Study of Ratnagotravibhaga,Takasaki,1966 | Buddhist Philosophy | Nāstika

S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

ROMA

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathagatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA

R O M E
I. II. III. IV. V. VI* VII. VIII. IX. 1.

O R I E N T A L

S E R I E S

Already published:
— Tucci G., The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings. — PETECH L., Northern India according to the Shui-ching-chu. — FRAUWALLNER E., On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasubandhu. — ROCK J . F., The Na-khi Nāga cult and related ceremonies. Part I and II. — Conferenze, Vol. I. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by — CONZE E., Abhisamayālañkāra. Introduction and Translation from the original text, with Sanskrit-Tibetan Indexes. — Conferenze, Vol. II. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by
H. CORBIN, N. EGAMI, M. ELIADE, J. FĪLLIOZAT, P. HUMBERTCLAUDE, J. MASUI, E. H. DE TSCHARNER. G. CCEDES, J. J. L. DUYVENDAK, C. HENTZE, P. H. POTT.

IX. 2. X.

XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

— FRAUWALLNER E., The earliest Vinaya and the beginnings of Buddhist literature. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I. Containing A s a ñ g a ' s commentary on the Vajracchedikā edited and translated; Analysis of the commentary on it by V a s u b a n d h u ; Mahāyānavimśikā of N ā g ā r j u n a ; Navaśloki of K a m b a l a p ā d a ; Catuhstavasamāsārtha of A m r t ā k a r a ; Hetutattvopadeśa of J i t ā r i ; Tarkasopāna of V i d y ā k a r a ś ā n t i . With an appendix containing the Gilgit Text of the Vajracchedikā, edited by N. P. CHAKRAVARTI. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I I . First Bhāvanākrāma of Kamalaśūa. — Materials for the study of Nepalese History and Culture: 1. Tucci G., Preliminary Report on two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal. 2. GNOLI R., Nepalese Inscriptions in Gupta characters. Part I, Text and Plates. 3. PETECH L., Mediaeval History of Nepal (c. 750-1480). — GNOLI R., The aesthetic experience according to Abhinavagupta (out of print). — ROCK J . F., The Amnye Ma-chhen range and adjacent regions. A monographic study. — CONZE E., Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā. — Le Symbolisme cosmique des Monuments religieux. Actes du Congres qui a du lieu â Rome sous les auspices de l'ls.M.E.O., avec la collaboration du Musee Guimet, Avril-Mai 1955. Conferences par R. BLOCH, J. DANIELOU, M. ELIADE, M. GRIAULE, C. HENTZE, C. LEVI-STRAUSS, H. C. PUECH,

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX.

— — — — —

XX.

G. Tucci. WYLIE T. V., A place name index to George N. RoericK's translation of the Blue Annals. FERRARI A., mK'yen brtse's Guide to the holy places of Central Tibet. Completed and edited by L. PETECH, with the collaboration of H. RICHARDSON. Orientalia Romana. 1, Essays and Lectures, by E. BENZ, H. CORBIN, A. GODARD, L . HAMBIS, V . MlNORSKY, S . P . TOLSTOV. ROERICH G., Le parler des Amdo. Etude d'un dialecte archaīque du Tibet. VAN GULIK R. H., Chinese Pictorial Art as viewed by the Connoisseur. Notes on the means and methods of traditional Chinese onnoisseurship based upon a study of the Art of mounting scrolls in China and Japan (about 600 pp. Size 30 X 22 cm.). Limited to 950 copies. MAHLER J . G., The Westerners among the Figurines of the 'Pang Dynasty of China, /•

XXI.

— Un Editto bilingue greco-aramaico di Aśoka. La prima iscxizione gteca scoperta in Afghanistan. Testo, traduzione e note a cura di G. PUGLIESE-

XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII.

troduzione di U. SCERRATO (out of print). — L E E P. H., Studies in the Saenaennorae: old Korean poetry. — GNOLI R., The Pramānavārttikam of Dharmakīrti. The first chapter with the autocommentary. Text and critical notes. — Tucci G., Deb fer dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text) [in the press]. — WYLIE T. V., The Geography of Tibet according to the 'Dzam-glingrgyas-bshad. — CONZE E., The Gilgit manuscript of the AstādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitS. Chapters 55 to 70 corresponding to the 5th Abhisamaya. Text and English translation. — GNOLI R., Udbhata's Commentary on the Kāvyāīamkāra of Bhāmaha. Sanskrit fragments from Pakistan. Edited with critical notes. — ROCK J . F., A Na-khi-English Encyclopedic Dictionary, Part I . — A bilingual Graeco—Aramaic Edict of Aśoka, Text, Translation and Notes by G. PUGLIESE-CARRATELLI and G. GABBINI, Foreword by G. Tucci, Introduction by U. SCERRATO. — GNOLI G.f Le iscrizioni Giudeo--Persiane del Gūr (Afghanistan). Text, Italian Translation and Notes. — AUBOYER J . , Introduction â Vetude de fart de VInde. — SCARCIA G., Sifat-nāma-yi Darvīs Muhammad Hān-i Gāzî. A Muslim Crusade against the Kafirs of Lagmān in A. D. 1532. — TAKASAKI J., A study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the TatLāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

CAHRATELLI e di G. LEVI DELLA VIDA, con prefazione di G. Tucci e in-

Special series:
Orients P oli a no • Studies and lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. on the occasion of the 7th Centenary of the birth of Marco Polo (1254-1954), by E. BALAZS,
P. DEMIEVILLE, K. ENOKI, L. CABRINGTON GOODRICH, E. HAENISCH, L. HAMBIS, A. MOSTAERT, L. OLSCHKI, A. NILAKANTA SHASTRI, E. H. SCHAFEK, B. SPULER, R. WITTKOWEB.

Forthcoming Works:
TūCCl G., Deb ter dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text). ROCK J . F., Na-khi Culture as expressed in their literature: an encyclopedic Dictionary. Part II. RUEGG D. S., The life of Bu Ston Rin Po Che. Orientalia Romana. 2, Essays and Lectures, by V. S. Agrawala, P. Beonio-Brocchieri, P. Corradini, L. Lanciotti.

Works in course of preparation:
PENSA C , - Vimuklisena's Abhisamayālankāravyākhyā. Sanskrit Text. Tucci G. - GARGANO A., The Abhidharmasamuccayakārikā by Sañghatrāta, text and commentary of a hitherto unknown work, the Sanskrit manuscript of which has been found in Tibet. Tucci G. - PETECH L., Grub-mHa-sel^gyl-me-loñ (Crystal mirror of the philosophical and religious systems), translated from the Tibetan. TtJCCl G. - PETECH L., The Fifth Dalai-Lama's Chronicle of Tibet, translated from the Tibetan.

IL

ISTITUTO ITALIANO MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

SERIE ORIENTALE ROMA
SOTTO LA DIREZĪONE
DI

GIUSEPPE

TUCCI

VOLUME XXXIII

LA REDAZIONE DELLA SERIE E CURATA DAL PROF. ANTONIO GARGANO

ROMA Is. M. E. O.

S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

R O M A

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA
ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER IL MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
PACE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PREFACE INTRODUCTION SYNOPSIS OF THE TEXT TRANSLATION AND NOTES

ix xi 1 63 135

APPENDIXES

I. - Supposed form of the Original Sloka-grantha II. - Corrections & Emendations to the Sanskrit Text III. - Description of the Ultimate Reality by Means of the Six Categories .

393 396 400

INDEXES

1. Index of Sanskrit Terms 2. Index of Works, Authors & Schools

411 437

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(for Synopsis and Notes on the Translation)

= Sanskrit text of the Ratnagotravibhāga ed. by E. H. Johnston Sanskrit term X ' = Tibetan translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition, Tohoku, No. 4025) Tibetan term Ç = Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Daizokyo Edition No. 1611) Chinese term O = Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, by E. Obermiller (Ada Orientalia, XI, ii, iii, & iv) J = E. H. Johnston's Preface & Notes on the Ratnagotravibhāga K. = Kārikā v. = verse Taisho = Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripitaka Tohoku = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, ed. by Tohoku University, Japan (1934). BHS = Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit BHSDic.= Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. by F. Edgerton (1953) M. W. = M. Monier-William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary PTS = Pali Text Society's Edition of the Pali Tipi^aka = Abhisamayâlânkāra of Maitreya, ed. by G. Tucci (Gaekward's Oriental Series No. 62) AAĀ = Abhisamayâlañkārâloka of Haribhadra, ed. by G. Tucci (ibid.) AAN = Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta (Taisho, XVI, No. 668) AĀS = * Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Taisho, XVI, No. 669) = AbhidhS = Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra AcintA = Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa (Taisho, X, No. 302) AksP = Aksayamatipariprcchā (Taisho, XIII, No. 397 (12)) AN = Añguttara Nikāya (Pali, PTS Edition) ASP = Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of the Abhisamayâlañkārâloka) AvatS = Avatamsakaśūtra (Taisho, IX, No. 278) BBh = Bodhisattvabhūmi, ed. by U. Wogihara BGŚ = * Buddhagotraśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1610) DAS = * Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1627) DBS = Daśabhūmikasūtra, ed. by J . Rahder AA

S

No. Tib. Nanjio = Madhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna (ed. by M. by J . No. ed. Kern & B. 374) = Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (ed. by Sylvain Levi) (P) = Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. Levi = Source unknown (*) Sanskrit titles with the sign * are restored from the Chinese materials. Prof. 397 (8)) = Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra (Taisho. 353) = Samyutta Nikāya (Pali. XIII. No. 397 (11)) = Ratnadhārikāsūtra (Taisho. 235) f = Vimalaklrtinirdeśa (Taisho. TAKASAKI = Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (Skt. ed. by V. Taisho. tr. 397 (3)) = Ratnagotravibhāga = * Sadāyātanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśisūtra) = Sāgaramatipariprcchā (Taisho. Nozawa. XIII. 224) = Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (Taisho. ed. No. VIII. No. XVI. XIV. (Taisho. 475) = Vijñaptimâtratā-trimśikā. . XXXI. Levi. by Poussin) = Majjhima Nikāya (Pali. No. C. No. ed.J. 397 (1-2)) = Gaganagañjāsūtra (Taisho. XXX. Yamaguchi's commemoration Volume) * = Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta (Tibetan KG. 666) = Yogācārabhūmi (Skt. No. PTS Edition) = Mahāparinirvānasūtra (Mahāyāna) (Taisho. by S. XII. ed. 397 (5)) = Āryaśrîmālāsûtra (Taisho. ed. by B. No. No. Lamotte) = Saddharmapundarîkasūtra. by Stael-Holstein. No. XIII. 1595) t = Mahāvyutpatti (Wogihara's Edition) = Prajñâpāramitā = Ratnacūdasūtra (Taisho. XI. ed. Bhattacharya. Part I. ed. PTS Edition) = Sandhinirmocanasūtra (Tib. Sde-dge Edition Tohoku No. 357) = Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra) ed. XIII. No. No. XII. Nanjio = Tathāgatagarbhasūtra (Taisho. No. XIII. by E. by Paramārtha (Taisho. 1579) = Vajracchedikāsūtra. 310 (23)) = Lañkāvatārasūtra. XII. by E. by S. Mūller (Taisho. Fragment.

I wish to express my gratitude to Prof. I also must acknowledge the helpful suggestions given to me by Dr. V. Dr. It consists of two parts. under the auspices of the Indian Government. Y. Nakamura of the University of Tokyo (my faculty adviser in the Post-Graduate Course). Ui on July 14... but others. I owe much to his interpretation in modifying my translation. Alex Wayman of Berkeley. Gokhale of the Fergusson College (presently of the University of Delhi) during my stay at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Fortunately. doctrinal and canonical references. Ui. Some are involved with the present work. V. kindly suggested that I publish my work in the Serie Orientale Roma. H. Dr. Dr. Therefore. I would like to give a list of my articles so far published in order . Gokhale who instructed me in reading the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the text throughout the two and half years of my stay in India and to Prof. while the second consists of a Japanese translation of the Sanskrit text.PREFACE The present volume was originally prepared under the guidance of Prof. author. since I felt my work inadequate and the presentation of it in English imperfect.S. U. from August 1954 to January 1957. and other Japanese scholars too numerous to mention in the matter of doctrinal interpretation.D. kindly made suggestions. Poona. 1963. I felt it a great honour. but I could not immediately respond to this kind proposal. who was one of the examiners of my dissertation. etc. published the « Hoshoron Kenkyū» (A study of the Ratnagotravibhāga) in 1959. especially those written after sending the manuscript to Rome for printing. although points on which I disagreed with him are kept intact. and was submitted to the University of Poona as a doctoral dissertation. an eminent Japanese Indologist. are not touched upon in this volume. It is indeed with deep regret that I must note the passing away of Dr. Prof. H. Tucci. Ui. R. The first part consists of a critical and detailed studies on the text.A. When I was awarded the degree in September 1958. V. Prof. Chinese translator. In the meanwhile I wrote several articles related to the text. Karmarkar of the Bhandarkar Institute from whom I received much guidance on Indian philosophy and the Sanskrit language in general. G. Wayman. Ten years have passed since I started work on this volume.

pp. JIBS. adhimukti. 155. Mar. VIII-2. 1961. p. pp. 89-110. § 3. 382. Translation. 1960. If the reader has further interest on the subject. 9.IV. Mar. Dec. viz.) (Aśrayaparivrtti and āśrayaparāvrtti). of. § 7). 168-171). >». 86-109. pp. 48-53. V.4). Kawada. pp. 144. 1958. « Tenne» (in Jap. (cf. 24-33.) (The Texual cture of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the Supposed Form of Its Ori1 Text). Nihon kyogakkai Nempo. VI-1. Vol. «The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and Ratnagotravibhāga — with special Reference to the Term ' tathāgataisambhava' — ». 22. « Nyoraizo-setsu ni okeru Shin no Kozo » (in Jap. Mar. Appendix III). II and Appendix I). Introduction. chanda. 7. 14cf. 23. JIBS. «Kegon Shiso». 5. pp. 4. « AMUKTAJNA no Gogi ni tsuite» (in Jap.J. n. 1958. 1962. Mar. pp. 1960. Chap. (cf. compiled by Nakamura and K. Buddhism). JIBS. I hope that they will consult these articles. pp. (This is an article in which the structure and significance of a set of three terms on faith. Introduction. pp. p. I l l . Mar. gunavattva. Vol. Translation. IS. No. n. 2.) (On the Meaning be Term amuktajña). 1960. IV. (cf. 1. « Description of the Ultimate Reality by means of the Six Catees in Mahāyāna Buddhism ». 20] in relation to śraddhā. 26-33. Kyoto. Vol. prasāda. Vol. «Structure of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Wu-shang-i-ching)». Jan. 186-190. JIBS. 30-37. Chap. Introduction. Vol. The Journal of Religious Studies. 3 mentioned ye).) (The Struce of Faith in the Tathāgatagarbha Theory).). 8. P. X-2. etc. 1958. TAKASAKI to cover the shortcomings of the present volume. No. (cf. (a detailed investigation of the same subject as No. Introion.) (The Hua-yen osophy and the Tathāgatagarbha Theory — Development of the L of gotrasarnbhava in India — ) . Mar. IX-2. « Kugyoichijohoshoron no Kozo to Genkei» (in Jap. VII-1. Vol. Komazawadaigaku-Kenkiyo (Fac. astitva. Translation. 163. «Kegon-kyogaku to Nyoraizo-shiso» (in Jap. § 7) 6. Chap. « A Comment on the Term Ārambana in the Ratnagotravibhāga. abhisampratyaya. 3. Chap. 25. and abhilāsa are traced back to Abhi- . pp. and śaktatva [cf. 275-332. 1964.

However. and that Vasubandhu. who set my rather complicated manuscript into print and gave it a nice arrangement.E. V. Yūki for his Sixtieth Birthday. M. etc. R. « Shintai-yaku Shodaijoron-Seshin-shaku ni okeru Nyoraizo Setsu» Jap. Introduction. Tokyo. 241-264.O. the close relationship between the Ratnagotravibhāga and Paramārtha's said translation is made clear after picking up the parallel passages in both texts. the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhyā.) 10. . consequently deprived of his authorship on the said parts as well as on the Buddhagotraśāstra.The Ratnagotravibhāga dharma Buddhism.3). the responsibility of the final result rests solely with the author. including works of the Vijñānavāda such as the Mahāyānasamgraha—bhāsya. Antonio Gargano. and the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarâśrayasūtra as well. the Vij ñaptimātratā-trimśikā--bhāsya. In conclusion. especially Prof.. cf. TAKASAKI. the author suggested that the additional parts of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya unique to Paramārtha's translation are probably written by Paramārtha himself on the knowledge of the Ratnagotrabvibhāga as he might have done the same with the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarāśrâyasūtra. I also wish to acknowledge with many thanks the troubles taken in the past three years by the people at Is.) (The Tathāgatagarbha Theory Appearing in Paramārtha's Translation of the Mahay ānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu). (In this article. pp. 1964. (JIBS = Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies). might have contributed little to the development of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. " Bukkyo Shiso Ronshū " — Commemoration Volume for Prof. as well as those of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory such as the Ratnagotravighāga.. Tokyo. Chap. In conclusion I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the professors mentioned above for their valuable assistance and encouragement without which I could never have brought the book to completion. J. § 2. 25 th August 1964. the Buddhagotraśāstra and Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyāna samgraha-bhāsya.

INTRODUCTION .

and Traditions concerning the Author 1. 4 Aspects of the Germ 3. . and the Vijñānavāda 3. The Commentary and Later Additions Keypoint of the Discourse 1. The Ratna. as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā 2. in Mahāyāna Buddhism 1. The Ratna.INTRODUCTION CONTENTS PACK The Ratnagotravibhāga. 10 10 12 18 19 20 20 23 26 32 32 34 35 36 37 39 40 Works on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory Contemporary with or Succeeding the Ratna 45 1. The Anuttarâśrayasūtra 49 4. Translations & Traditions concerning the Author The Structure of the Text 1. The Absolute Genealogy of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory 1. The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra 53 The Position of the Ratna. The Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra 5 5 6 . The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 5. . Text 2. Basic Text and Commentary 2. The Âryaśrīmālāsūtra 6. V . Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna 54 54 57 61 . its Text. The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 7. Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa 3. Supposed Form of the Original Text 4. Buddhajñāna in the Avatamsaka 4. The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 45 2. Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga 2. Translation. The Buddhagotraśāstra 47 3. the Germ of the Three Jewels 2. Chinese Account of the Basic Verses 3. Ratnagotra.

op. H. the discoverer of this fact and the editor of the Sanskrit edition of this text. This edition is based upon two Mss. 43) and XXIII. XXI. fn.. Patna. suggested the use of " Ratnagotravibhāga " as the proper title showing the main subject of this text 4) . ) The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra. found by Rev. Rāhula Sāñkrtyāyana in Tibet. vol. In China. p. iii & iv. and seen through the press and furnished with indexes by T.. E. however. p.I. they used the name " Ratnagotrctr-śāstra" as its title. on which this present study is made.S. 2. H.. H. The first introducer of this text to the world of modern study was Dr. THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA. 3 > " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra in Sanskrit". Johnston. Salu monastery. AND TRADITIONS CONCERNING THE AUTHOR § 1. Johnston. 242). Vol. The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāśtra.. . *' E. by E. D. quite recently that the Sanskrit manuscripts were discovered and critically edited l j . ITS TEXT. 1931. W. 31 (III. A. It was. 2 ' " The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation. 1935. Johnston. M. Part 1. Chowdhury. x . vol. p t . Before then. 34 (VII. About the Mss. Johnston. Litt. Acta Orientalia. ' will be used for this p.. XIII-5. E. IX. The reference is to pp. and this title was justified by the discovery of a Sanskrit fragment in Saka script in which we find the title "Ratnagotravibhāga". XI-5. v. Vol. being a Manual of Buddhist Monism. however. see JBORS. H. Salu monastery. The reason for this will be made clear afterwards. parts ii. 3 ) Dr. Obermiller who translated the Tibetan version into English and made this text famous under the title of " Uttaratantra" according to the Tibetan tradition 2 ) . cit. (hereafter the abbreviation ' J .O. This seems quite reasonable and I followed him in this study. ed.Text. it was known only through the Tibetan and Chinese versions. VIII. D. No. S. by H. TRANSLATION. Bailey & E. 86 & 87. the work of Ārya Maitreya with a commentary by Āryâsañga ". 1950. is one of the treatises on the Mahāyāna doctrine written in Sanskrit. No.

. probably of the same source as the present manuscripts. I believe my work. references will be made to traditions about the author in Tibet and China. Buddhist scholars should regret that Dr. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan-bcos rnam—par-bśad-pa {Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra-vyâkhyā). and should continue to give it critical study. There are two versions of the Ratna. TAKASAKI About the manuscripts. 4025. according to the colophon of these translations. . Both were translated. it will be necessary to refer to the translations in Tibetan and Chinese. especially of the latter.Translation and Traditions concerning the Author. shows his remarkable skill in editing Sanskrit manuscripts and is an excellent contribution to Buddhist scholarship. has its importance because of its antiquity. and consequently the latter. however faulty. On the other hand. Tohoku Catalogue No. I have found some words and passages to be corrected in the light of the Tibetan and Chinese translations. Prior to describing the contents of the Ratna. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan—bcos {Mahay āna-uttaratantra-śāstra). about the end of the 11th . Some notable points for the present study are: 1) they belong to a considerably later period in comparison with the date of the Chinese translation. sub-sources of the present work. in the absence of any material in the Sanskrit manuscripts. § 2. and 3) no mention of the name of the author leaves room for taking the Chinese tradition into consideration.J. so that we can further consider the authorship and date of the Ratna. 2. will cast some new light on the implications of this text in Mahāyāna Buddhism. 4024. in Tibetan Tanjur: 1. by Bloldan—śes—rab (Matiprajna) at Srinagar in Kashmir under the guidance of Kashmiri an pandits. the first one consists merely of verses in the Ratna. 2) they are identified almost completely with the Tibetan version. Besides this. Johnston passed away before completing his learned analysis of this text. Ratnavajra and Sajjana. I have nothing to add here to Johnston's description as I have had no chance to examine them. The second one is a full translation of the Sanskrit text. the basic text of my English translation. Nevertheless. although it is called vyākhyā. Johnston's critical edition. Tohoku Catalogue No. though it differs from the Sanskrit edition in several passages.

there are said to be two translations. I t was tran- slated by |Ratnamati (*$] ffi | | | Jj|-) in c.).D. in the period between the 8th. at Lo-yang. and 12th cent. (Tohoku University Copy). No.). as the work of Bodhisattva Maitreya 1 0 ) .D. No.). This name Sajjana reminds us of the author of the Mahay ānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. This shows that Maitreya was regarded as the author of the Ratna. pp. entitled " Chiu— ching yi-cWeng pao—sing-lun " ( 9 ^ Jfa. Vol. MDO XLIV. of which nothing is known except what Johnston tells us. 1611). Chinese tradition offers a different name as to the author. The Blue Annals.D. given as Satyajñāna by Johnston from the Patna manuscript 6) .D. 5 . (This is an English translation of a history of Tibetan Buddhism called Deb-ther sñon-po. 129 a 5 ff. see George N. p. and regards the Ratna.' or ' T '. cit. About the authorship of Asañga on the commentary. (hereafter the abbreviation ' O '. Hereafter. quotes the opening verse and the first few verses of Chapter I I I in the Ratna. 129 a 5. The present Chinese Tripitaka retains one translation of the Ratna. however. A. of the Ratna. his date is 1059-1109 A. 5 ) . as one of " five treatises written by Bodhisattva Maitreya. not only in Tibet but also in Central Asia. See JBORS. an ancient Chinese catalogue of the Tripitaka (730 A. 6 ) This work was reported by Rāhula Sāmkrtyāyana as one of three Mss. 9 ) See. one by Ratnamati and the other by Bodhiruci. A. 325-6. and probably in India. If we can identify both names. to Ārya Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa) and the prose commentary (vyākhyā in the second). VIII-6. being bis ultimate doctrine based upon the Prajñāpāramitā " 9) .Uttara— ekayāna-ratnagotra-śāstra) (Taisho. 511 A. Ngor monastery. 347-350. op. the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. Patna and to Prof. the references to the Tibetan version are made according to this edition with the abbreviation. 81 f. According to the translator's calculation. i. 68). > Sde-dge Edition. 1Q ) " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra". ' Tib. to Ācārya Asañga (Slob—dpon Thogs-med) 8). Obermiller. p. which. 328.D.e. XXI. This attribution to Maitreya of the verse section is traced in the Saka script fragment referred to above. too. the verse section of the Ratna. Part I. and the point is undecided. For the date and personage of Blo-ldan śes-rab.The Ratnagotravibhāga cent. p . nothing is mentioned anywhere else. Vol. will be used for this p. ) I have intention to edit this work and have already asked for permission to the authority of the Jayaswar Research Institute. According to the K'ai-yuan che—chiao mo-lu (||f] jfc Tpp i^ |=J pf. the capital of the Northern Wei dynasty. pp. Roerich. Calcutta 1949. Tucci who has got another photographic copy of the same Ms. 8 > Tib. 86-89. G. 33 (IV. 31. Tibetan tradition attributes the first one. 7) will be assured of its date in the same century . '—* PPI j § ! f^î pR8 •> ^.

the Ti-lun (ifcjfl. 2149. 4 i i tathāgatagarbha ' against vijñaptimātratā ' and ālayavijñāna ' of the Fahsiang ( ^ ^Q) school founded by a disciple of Hsiiang-chuang ( ^ ^^)« Thus Ratnamati and Bodhiruci were standing opposite to each other. Vol. 13 12 ) H . ^ flt M Iw » H %. a missing catalogue compiled in c. 540 b.). and there is no evidence of Bodhiruci's translation of the Ratna. Cf. âfî ^ (tnis an §^r I Jffii jlffl " S ΫE TT ^ ^ JC are also translated by Bodhiruci). 637 6. 2154.D. Bodhiruci made his own translation separately 1 2 ) . Namely. founded by a pupil of Ratnamati. 5|* ^jp^ | a i Sffl 29 ^§? (Ratnakūtasūtraśāstra t_. 541 a-6.D. Hoshoron-kenkyū ( i n J a p a n e s e ) . 664 A. fjfjg) school based upon the Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra of Vasubandhu divided into two branches. 540 b. This record seems reliable at a glance since it is said to be taken from the Pao-cK'ung-lu ( ^ fl|jj sift). the Daśabhūmikasūtra-śāstra and the Ratnakūtasūtra-śāstra.). Taisho. N o . 518 A. 55. proclaiming Bodhiruci and Ratnamati as the nominal founder of each branch. Li-tai san- pao-chi. 12 vols. ) Ibid. and there might be room for such misreading in the circumstances of Chinese Buddhism in those days. _C JH p B PJT j/E l/îît _>C 3Z Î^P (two treatises mentioned above are also translated by R Bodhiruci). but later on. Taisho.. p p . 714 a. the Ta-fang nei-fen-lu (^J^ Jflf p^J jBL Śg|ç . as the result of critical examination of this record. Takakusu. The record of the K'aiyuan—lu is perhaps created by misreading of these catalogues.). 55. . and "> Taisho. 608 c-609 a. p. at all 1 3 ) . a few years after the date of translation of the Ratna. Nai~t'en~lu. because of the differences of opinions between them. Avatamsaka) school which emphasizes ' cittamātra ' theory of the Avatamsaka-sûtra along with ' dharmadhātu '. but upon the preceding catalogues such as the Li~tai-san~pao~chi (||f /f^ zL 5H $2» ^97 A. However. No. 690 6. 4 vols. H ^ 1 14 (Hatnagotra-sastra. p. 3-16. and this division is said to have had its root in the differences of opinions due to the interpretation of the relation between 4 ālayavijñāna' and ' tathāgatagarbha' or ' tathatā'14). Furthermore it is said that both translators collaborated at the beginning. 1956).J . 1959. T o k y o . where the record mentioned above concerned two other works. p p . these two ) J. 866 6-c: + ^ 6 M Iffl + H ^ (DaŚabhū- mikasūtraśāstra. 114. 2034. 269 b: + ft& M tiffl ? ^ £ S i Pit 5? ft Ira. The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (First Indian Edition. No. 49.. TAKASAKI which is lost now n ) . caused in later days the rise of the Hua-yen (3J£ Jjg. The branch of Southern Path of the Ti-lun school.). Vol. d tne Daśabhūmika. U i . it is clarified that the catalogue was not directly based upon the Pao-ch'ung-lu. Vol.D.

wrote the Ratnagotravibhāga uttaratantraśāstra. p. two authors on the Ratna. takes the theory of the tathāgatagarbha as its basic standpoint and is highly estimated by Fa-tsang O?Jc līJc)' t n e ^rd patriarch of the Hua-yen school. > Ta-cVeng-fa-chieh-wu-cKa-pieh-lun-chu Taisho. to settle this problem. in Central Asia. and 2) the whole work including the prose section but excluding certain number of verses in the Kārikā text. The reason is that there is no name of the author in the Chinese translation nor in any of the old catalogues. an extract of certain verses in the Ratna. and since then the Ratna. This Kārikā text is quite different from that of the Tibetan version. on the line of the Vijñānavāda. Still. there remains some doubt. he did not do it. namely: 1) the Kārikā text. As far as the Chinese tradition is concerned. was ' a Bodhisattva on the first stage ' (jfcjjî. was not recognized as the authority for the Chinese Vijñānavādins. the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and others16>. At least. As will be made clear afterwards. He said in his commentary on the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa-śāstra (yC PPI VC W' vKi : ā i /Vi z Ing) 15> that Bodhisattva Kien-huei ( § ^ jjj). was thought not to be an orthodox Vijñānavādin such as Asañga and Vasubandhu. 1626 and 1627. Nos. and this translation consists actually of two parts. 16 15 . > Taisho. heard by Fa-tsang from Devaprajña (%£ ^§g mC ^jrf) the translator of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and a monk come from Khotan. till the end of the 7th cent. is reliable to some extent. probably due to the fact that the author of the Ratna. one heing that of the basic verses and the other the commentator on it. _£. 1838. 44. No. Here one may naturally call to mind the Tibetan tradition. we may say Sāramati was believed to be the author of the Ratna.D. in Sanskrit. A. We shall now proceed to the next stage. we should examine the whole contents and characteristics of this Ratna. the Ratna. seems to be unchangeable. ^ ifsl). in that it omits those verses which seem to be supplementary to the basic verses. And it was he who left the record on the authorship of the Ratna. Sāramati ($$ | g ^ jg. Actually however... 63 c. the authorship of Sāramati on the Ratna. at least. But. born in Central India 7 centuries after the Buddha's Mahāparinirvāna as a member of a Ksatriya clan who after learning Buddhism. From this fact we feel the need of assuming the existence of.). This report. And we cannot find any other tradition concerning the author of the Ratna. in China. Vol.The Ratnagotravibhāga this conflict between them led people to imagine that Bodhiruci could translate the Ratna.

we may be able to compile the Kārikā-text of the Ratna. too. Emphasis on the respect for the ' dharmabhānaka' was probably a reflection of the historical circumstances in those days. The fact that Paramārtha's translation of the 17) [ 10 ] . I. Besides these 18. we have another additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text in the last chapter maintaining the respect for the teacher of the Doctrine (dharmabhānaka). it offers us a fairly good account of the basic verses. THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT § 1. including the example given above. 4 & 9 to be typical. one basic. seems to be composed by the translator 17>. p. is in verse and in prose and the prose section of the commentary which follows the commentary verse or verses explaining their meaning with quotations from various sūtras is quite detailed in Chapter I. I. For example. while the verse section consists again of two parts. The peculiarity of the Ratna. But we cannot accept the whole text as basic. the commentary. in verse and in prose. while another part. 5 with a prose explanation of it and the latter is again explained in detail by the following three verses and a prose commentary which continues up to p. To clarify this characteristic. In most cases. I. In other words. lies in the fact that it consists of two parts. 9 followed by commentary verses and a prose commentary with a structure similar to that of v. we find that the Chinese Kārikā text gives a fairly good account of those verses which are basic or original. let us take an example from the text. That much is regular in Buddhist literatures.g. More precisely. The verse I. 1. They seem to be written by the Chinese translator. the Chinese Kārikā text is one of the aids for determining them. There are also a C. the ' dharma-ratna '. or something like that. this verse. From the structural point of view. and for this. — Basic Text and Commentary. Then the text proceeds to the next subject. but quite scanty for other chapters. persecution of the Buddhists by the Huns.. beginning with v. 820 c. the present text of the Ratna. As its idea matches that of the 18 introductory verses.II. the basic part of this text is merely of verses. If we take such verses as I. is a combination of the basic text and a commentary thereon. e. 4. and the other supplementary. 10. 14. the first 18 verses in that text are to be omitted from this line as they are not available in either Sanskrit or Tibetan versions. 4 which expresses devotion to the ' buddharatna' as the refuge (śarana) is followed by v.

73. because of a unique terminology used in this verse (e.The Ratnagotravibhaga certain number of verses whose originality is doubtful to judge from the contents. but these two are certainly the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. This is no doubt a kind of selection. . It shows the fact t h a t the passage up to ' uktah śāstra—sarnbandhah / ' is the introduction by the commentator who thereafter begins to explain the meaning of the ' ślokas'. the basic verses. I. which is. Only one thing we can say definitely: those verses which are omitted from the Chinese Kārikā-text are by no means the original ones. Being the explanation of the meaning of śloka. 18 ) All the commentary verses in Chapters II-V. II. and V. e. confused after vv. 156-157 where the prose commentary disappears except for headings. e. This limited usage of the word ' śloka ' becomes. have the Anustubh metre except for v. XXX. however. and I feel no necessity to change my former supposition. And. in the heading to that verse. I. ' maharsi ' is used for the Bodhisattva). i. it is said: Uktah śāstra-sambandhah // Idānīm ślokānām artho vaktavyab J — / atas tat-prathamato buddha— ratnam adhikrtya ślokah / And. omits this verse is another powerful proof in support of this supposition. it is said: Ato buddha-ratnād adhikrtya ślokah / dharma-ratna-prabhāvaneti tad-anantaram tad— This word ' śloka ' is not used for the supplementary verses in these cases. but to go beyond this. which are called ' śloka ' in the text. can ' śloka ' be construed as one kind of metre. and the word ' śloka"1 is used for both basic and supplementary verses. in turn. Prior to v. missing in the Chinese version. So the third assumption has no inconsistency.g. furthermore.9. Can we ascribe it to the commentator's caprice or forgetfulness of the rule ? Shall we assume another commentator in order to explain this change of style ? Again. I. 270 a-b). How to interpret this confusion seems not so simple. I. p. 16-28 at the end of the work (Taisho. which retains Ratna. Neither the Chinese Kārikā text nor the use of the word i śloka ' can give the final account of the basic verses. it seems to be a quotation from some old canonical work. i. we should seek for other grounds. IV. this selection of v. V. 4 as the first basic verse is identical with t h a t in the Chinese Kārikā text (except the 18 verses referred to above). the commentary seems to be called the ' Slokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna' as appeared in the colophons of Chapters I. as the heading to v. 1. 4 is the first verse for which the word ' śloka' is applied. and v. Anustubh7 when it is used for the commentary verses? 1 8 ) One of these three possibilities must be in point. 4.

8. 30. vv. Except for the 19 verses referred to above. a series of verses expresses a united meaning under one subject word. 8 categories in regard to the ' nirmalā tathatā' i. and those verses which are found in the Chinese Kārikā text and called ' śloka ' will be accepted as basic. according to the commentator. 45. 1) v. however. 52-63. (16) In this table. 1. 69. 62. 30.Chinese Account on the Basic Verses. The result is as follows: Chapter I. 38-41. 79. however. they are followed by the supplementary verses. let us pick up those verses which are called ' śloka ' in the Sanskrit text. vv. 156-157. 3. This question is posed regarding v. The structure presents no doubt as to its originality. 23. vv. For them. 29. 1*. 35. vv. (27) Chapter II. they have independent meaning and are understandable by themselves19). First of all. 13* 41*. It shows. 47. 42. Formally. and whose terSometimes. 9. Not all of them are. 13. 1. 19) . this verse is followed by the commentary in prose and verse. 66. e. all are doubtless of genuine character in their contents as well as their style. 1-6. require some more careful examination. i And in this commentary verse called uddāna ' (summary). vv. 35. 45. 42 & 45. e. I. except for verses with the sign ' *'.' The verses with the sign ' * '. 9*. all the verses in the Chinese Kārikā text are found in the Sanskrit text. we shall evaluate all verses in the Chinese Kārikā-text. vv. I. the subject word is ' jinagarbho 'yam ' in v. . They express the fundamental doctrine of this text and maintain a fairly archaic metre. itself has no independent meaning. 84. TAKASAKI most powerful bases for the selection. Furthermore. On these points. This verse is of doubtful originality for the following reason.g. (4) Chapter V. In this way. the point at issue is whether or not the author of the original text tried such categorization. 1-2. 49. 29. (14) Chapter III. there will be no objection if we regard them as the 'basic verses. 16-25*. we shall try to reconstruct the original text of the Ratna. of the same character. 18-20. (1) Chapter IV. Through their classification into certain groups. 8 2. the * dharmakāya ' and without other supplementary and explanatory verses. mentioned in the Chinese Kārikā text but called merely ' uddāna' in the Sanskrit text. 4.J . the same categories are repeated in different terminology. II.

See Appendix III. 361 a). all of these. And those verses explaining the 9 examples are. II. About its structural character. svabhāva. al 20) > T. Hence. 13. in showing 10 categories of the ' tathāgatagarbha. we incline to omit v. against the Chinese tradition. yoga. 29 seems clearly to be a commentary verse. 13. I. Therefore the question is to be limited to the categorization itself. I. hetu. the commentary sentence preceding this verse says: pūrvataram tu yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tadarthasūcanam bhavati. . It is called. The omission of that verse therefore. 30. by the commentator. This verse. as will be set forth below. Ill. I. IV. 9. Ill.' In comparison with v. II.The Ratnagotravibhāga urinology is exactly the same as v. 29 and II. As a consequence of denying the originality of v. verses to be similarly considered are v. 3) v. 2. however. the categorization of the tathāgatagarbha into 10 aspects also will be denied of originality. illustrated in the Tathāgatagarbhasûtra and utilized in Chapter I. 4 and vv. § |ft H f& . there is no doubtful point. expects the existence of detailed explanation which follows this verse. are ' uddāna1 . 2) v. II. and vrtti. 2. like v. and hence. Furthermore. II. IX. regardless of the author. I. 1. phala. the commentary verse on v.verses on the See note on my translation. karman. of rather doubtful originality. In the same way. A further discussion will be made below along with examination of these illustrations. This verse is composed with a view to succeeding detailed explanations of 9 examples of defilements which cover the tathāgatagarbha. 29. this v. II. e. Of them. although it retains a comparatively old terminology 20) . the first six. Of the terms used for such categorization in w . IV. 96-98. depends on the originality of the latter verses. and are actually taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. 1 from the line of original verses. XII-11. there is no scope to treat this as original. are identical with those used in the Sūtrâlañkāra (commentary on vv. ' sūtrasthānīya—śloka ' (a stanza based upon the scripture) and the following verses illustrating the examples in detail are called i vistaravibhāganirdeśa '. 59-60) and in the Yogācārabhūmi (on 'śabda-vidyā\ Taisho. Without a knowledge of those explanations. p. v. tad apy adhikrtya nirdeksyāmi / This ' nirdeksyāmi ' (I will explain) is immediately followed by ' uddānam '. 2. it cannot be understood independently. including v. ' sdom-ni \ C. II. 4 is called ' uddāna ' according to the Tibetan and Chinese versions though not mentioned in the Sanskrit text 21\ In fact. 9. i. viz. This seems to show that such categorization was commonly held for any subject.

though it follows immediately after v. The headings for these verses are missing in the Sanskrit text but the Tibetan and Chinese versions retain them well. III. 4) v. and 3) vv.S A JVl illustrations taken from certain scriptures. even though it was kept out of the table. I. The Sanskrit text shows ' śloka ' before this verse. On the other hand. V. II. 2) vv. There is one verse to be taken as basic. 96-98. Ill. IV. 71-76. and v. 27-30. with some hesitation. 88. 27. In the first group. we cannot call them ' genuine ' to this text in the same degree. I. 41. the possibility of their being original depends on the originality of the illustrating verses which follow them. It expresses the fundamental idea of the Ratna. they are to be termed ' sūtrasthānīya-udâharana '-verses. Both the Chinese and Tibetan versions have confusion in arranging this passage. As the result of examination. they are no doubt basic." On the other hand. Actually. based upon the Ratnadārikāpariprcchā. and is so important that we cannot imagine the contents of this text without. As far as the structure is concerned. 13 as being & sūtrasthānīya-uddānaS Verses II. but the Chinese commentary says in the heading: " a s it is said in the Kārikā text (yathoktam śloka. In general. 27 are included.J\.or kārikā-granthe). 5) vv. 5—26. 44-52 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). namely: 1) vv. This is the three series of verses to be called ' udāharana' taken from certain scriptural passages.X J\SS. 16-25. 4. and v. 67-68. I. taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 29 and. v. this verse. 16-25. those verses mentioned in the table without the sign ' * ' except for vv. these verses differ from those in the first group in their being taken from a scriptural passage. From the structural point [ 14 ] . V. 9 udāharanas on the Buddha's Acts. I. 9 udāharanas on the Essence of Buddhahood covered with defilements. It is v. taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. In this sense. explanations on the 64 buddhagunas. 99-126. 34-35. and because of this characteristic. the second group includes w . and we have no need to discuss its originality separately. I. 55-57. v. 28. 1 are also to be cancelled. 27. In this sense. is clearly a commentary verse and possibly the original Sanskrit text had a heading between these two verses. this one is in the series of verses illustrating 9 examples on the acts of the Buddha. There is another kind of verses among the Chinese Kārikā text. IY. I will divide these verses discussed above into two groups: 'pure'—śloka and ' uddāna—śloka''. I. 9 remain of doubtful position. ī. 41. & 89-91. but the Tibetan and the Chinese texts do not. 64-67 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). They have no original idea of the author but are merely ' newly composed verses' by the author out of the basic scripture.

This last point will be proved by the examination of the third case. 89-91. In each example these verses have the same contents as those kept in the Chinese Kārikā text. against Tibetan tradition. It seems to show that even the Ratnadārikāsūtra is composed after Maitreya and as far as this part is concerned. however. 113. although it agrees with the Ratnadārikāsūtra22). vv.1. and verses 59—62 along with a heading are clearly the later additions because of their contents and style. 4. III. 20 and p. we shall be obliged to suppose the existence of a second author between the author of ' pure ' -ślokas and that of the commentary. It depends more or less on the reliability of the Chinese Kārikā text as showing the original form of the text. We have another kind of question for Chapter IV. attributed to Maitreya. vv. 104. The second case concerns vv. at the end of the first udāharana with a heading saying: anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti. And. Of those verses contained in this passage. as they are followed by a certain number of verses showing ' udāharanānām pindârthah \ The question is whether the same author of the 4 pure ' —ślokas had a share in composing this group of verses or not. As this part is among the series of i udāharana '.1. sometimes it also changes the order. In this connection. The third case is less simple than the previous ones. Maitreya was not the author. The first one is.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a of view. and vv. It is in the passage between p. furthermore. 14-26 in the first udāharana. 1. if not. vv. all the udāharana groups and hence the uddāna group as well. 53-54 in the 4th. according to the Sanskrit ' note on 23 * Chapter 22 Detailed comparison on each ' mark ' among various scriptures is given in my the equivalent passage in the English translation. . Of these omissions. 42-43 in the 3rd. 1. 88 is placed in the Chinese version immediately after v. 12. It contains actually more than 32 marks and some of them are not available in works such as the Abhisamayâlañkāra. 102. one thing to be noted is the counting of the 32 ' mahāpurusalaksana ' in Chap. The Chinese Kārikā text omits a fairly large number of verses which are kept among the udāharana-xerses in the Sanskrit text and. they seem not to be the commentator's work. Note that such repetition of the same idea is seen in the udāharana verses in I. and the Prajñāpāramitāśāstra attributed to Nāgārjuna. v. 31— 33 in the 2nd. it is difficult to decide whether the verses were added after the Chinese translation was made or whether the Chinese translator omitted them intentionally 2 3 ). 76. v. In the first case. 1 and p. the verses 36-40 along with the passage between p. and vv. 63 in the 5th. 69-70 in the 6th udāharana. 112. seem to belong to somewhat later days in comparison with the * pure ''-śloka group.

i. 25) In the said sūtra. the problem is not of their genuine character but of their place in the text. 41 does for the 2nd: 2) The Jñānâlokâlāñkārasūtra. TAKASAKI text. op. the second Chinese translation. 88 as simple summarization of the three udāharanas by a certain Sanskrit copyist of later days. cit. (" The textual structure of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the supposed form of its original text " . 88 yields another proof for this supposition MK However.25) and conI have previously expressed my opinion that the whole of this passage is a later interpolation. 155). Such a kind of verse is observed in every udāharana up to the 6th with a special heading like ' atatprahitānām ātmâparādhe ' before v. Verses as such are lacking from the 7th to 9th udāharana in the present Sanskrit text.J. 46 (3rd ud. e. ' bhājana-vimātratāyārn' before v.e. 88 must have represented them in the basic text for the Chinese translation. The Journal of Religious Studies. If we admit such an omission by the Chinese translator himself. 70 in the Chinese Kārikā text. There must have taken place an artificial selection by the Chinese translator. the omission in the second case in general will also be ascribed to the Chinese translator and the reliability of the Chinese version will decrease. the anutpādânirodhatā of the Buddha is repeated at the end of every udāharana up to the 4th. Addition of vv. in the absence of the illustrations of dundubhi and the following two.. in Jap. but is kept in the basic text of C. The verse in the said sūtra is as follows: 24) [ 16 ] . etc. one of 4 ślokas which show the udāharana—samgraha. Ui's opinion. this summarized verse comes immediately after the 1st ud. whether they belong to the Kārikā text as the Chinese version does. 85-87 and v. 88 for the 7th-9th. The Chinese treatment is acceptable for the following reasons: 1) These verses show the significance of the 1st udāharana as v. the sūtra has a summarized verse on this point. This verse occupies the same position for the 6th udāharana as v. 88 is a verse which shows the significance of the three udāharanas beginning with the 7th. has a similar verse between the udāharanas. p.). vv. it poses another question about the omission of v.. But why was only one of the four kept in the Chinese version ? V. i. or to the commentary as in the case of the Sanskrit text. Difference of metre between vv. i. Here I have corrected it according to Dr.: and C omitted the three verses by mistake. 8587 with the heading must be the result of misundertanding of the role of v. No. and at the end of the 4th ud. [In the oldest version of the sūtra. As for the next ones. See H. the basic scripture for the 9 udāharanas. 41 (2nd ud. 265.). Ui. this ' udāharana—samgraha seems to be a later addition since its terminology is never seen in other passages and this part is situated after the udāharana—pindârtha of 9 examples. As a whole. those omissions in the second case may be added to the Udāharana group. e. v. 89-91. tr. and as a result.

however. At the same time. 81 2 7 ) . however. 89-91 along with an additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text were originally kept at the end of the 1st udāharana but with slightly different terms in the second pāda of v. 84: ayarn ca prakrto ' trârtho navadhā darśanâdikam / janmântardhim rte śāstur anābhogāt pravartate // v. 1. 91. 12.7 ( = Taisho. 112. 2) their contents and wording are quite like to the commentary verses. 92 as given by the Chinese version seems to be consistent. p . As far as this point is concerned. we should treat vv. and one perceives this and that appearance (although) the dharmakāya has neither origination nor destruction and is eternal as long as the world exists. # (Taisho. p. It can be otherwise translated into the following way: This action takes place without effort. there remain some difficulties in accepting it. 89-91 as the commentary verses. C. the Sanskrit copyist shifted them to the commentary. 91. 91 2 8 ) . the Chinese version recovers its reliability to some extent. especially the term i darśanâdi' in v..The Ratnagotrav. IV as well as the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra 26) . the case was most probably as follows: vv. 18-20). 9. Vol. 25). 240 6). ibid. r T7 1 . 251 a) 26) 27 See a b o v e ( n . 91: ayatnāt krtyam ity evam darśanâdi pravartate / dharmakāyād anutpādânirodhād ā bhavasthiteh jj v. but afterwards. 84 and v. 91 is akin to 4 navadhā darśanâdikam ' in v. p. T h e Ratna. Namely. being a part of the udāharana—pindârtha. ) v. 242 b) (ibid. but unless we could reconstruct the original form of v. in the thought that the subject is not exclusive to the 1st udāharana but common to the whole passage. changing some words as seen in the present text and adding an explanatory heading (p. Thus the Sanskrit text also can claim its reasonability of their treatment. 1) the subject 'anutpādânirodhatā'' of the Tathāgata is the basic point throughout Chap. 84 which expects the existence of v. 81: darśanādeśanā vyāptir vikrtir jñānanihsrtih / mano-vāk-kāyaguhyāni prāptiś ca karunâtmānām // M > For v.ibhāga tinuity between v. 11. In view of the antiquity of the Chinese version.. p .

The reasons are 1) w . even the existence of the Kārikā text of such form at the time when the Chinese translation was made is doubtful. . & the C. starting with those in Chapter II as well as v. and the form of the original text. II. as it matches the use of the title of the commentary. 23 from the line of original verses. And even if the Chapters after II were the later M) It is. 156-157. and regard them along with v. The problems remaining after this examination are the treatment of v. of course. As the result of examination of the Chinese Karikā text. This seems consistent in its form.Supposed Form of the Original Text. all kinds 4 of classification' are deprived of this text. ' ślokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna '.—group as consisting of the original form of text.J. which express the ' deśanāprayojana\ can stand for a kind of conclusion and by this passage. however. II. 9. This supposition. 23 of Chapter I from the line of the original verses. One way to solve these problems is to treat v. & C. however. B. Another way is to cut out all verses. In this way only 27 verses in Chapter I remain as original. By this. and 3) those verses retained in the Chinese Kārikā text are to be divided into 3 groups: A. I. and 5) of these 3 groups. (v. I. udāharana '-group. ' pure '-ś/o&a-group. There is no possibility of abridging the original form of the text more than this. are somewhat of later days. increases the importance of the supposed second author with regard to establishing the system of the tathāgatagarbha theory as appearing in the present Sanskrit text. we can get 59 verses as original. B. Strictly speaking. TAKASAKI S 3 . .-groups as the secondary addition. That is why I omitted v. and C. but 2) it keeps a fairly good account of those verses which are ' not the commentary verses '. ' uddāna '-group. 9 and verses in the B.—and the C—group by the second author. 4) in Chapter IV some verses among the Sanskrit text are to be added to the C—group. it leaves us in some doubt regarding the inconsistency of numbers in each chapter or subject 29 ). we have arrived at the conclusion that 1) the Chinese Kārikā text does not stand for the original text. e. 25) which expresses the faith in the Buddha Amitāyus is not essentially connected with the contents of Chapter I. i. not necessary to presume the existence of a text with 3 chapters. in Chapter I. Denial of the originality of chapters other than Chapter I consequently means the denial of the idea of the 4 aspects of the ratnagotra. II. 2) the last verse of Chapter V. and regard the A. Thereby. 9 as an insertion made simultaneously with the B. the tathāgatagarbha being the ratnagotra is sufficiently explained.

1. C. 1. 11. I shall treat in my translation all the verses in the A. 64 (p. 9 as the ' basic verses ' for commenting (it means neither original verses nor ' śloka 's) under the name oîikārikā '30>§ 4. p. Besides small differences between them. 1. will be mentioned in Appendix I. 829 c-830 o) 3) a quotation on the parable of a castle taken from the Eatnacūdasūtra after ' nagarddāharaiiam/' on p. p. r 30) in 1 . 16 (before samsāraduhkha—) (C. being the supposed form of the original text. 15 (before na hi jātu. 16 (C. 1. B. including v. 12 3) p. 16. 3-12. and felt no necessity for detailed comment on other Chapters. 1. . . Other minor points with respect to the structure of the text will be noticed in each passage of the translation. 112. the passages to be added to the commentary as missing in the Sanskrit text and subtracted from it as additions in later days. One thing to be noticed here are the omissions and additions in the Sanskrit text as compared with the Chinese version. 51. which will be referred to in the notes on my English translation. and no explanation will be necessary for the present. 843 c) 4) two commentary verses before v. 50. 20 . 1. Omissions 1) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. 31. 1. are as follows: A. 2) p. C. 27 verses. p. groups. 108. In this sense. Its style is consistent throughout the text except for the fact that the prose commentary disappears after Chapter II.The Ratnagotravibhāga addition. Most of these passages were already noticed by the editor of the Sanskrit text. p. 8 (with a heading 'aparah ślokârthalj..p. This fact is construed as indicating that the commentator attached the main importance to Chapter I.) (C. II. 1. 832 c) B.'') — 10 verses and prose commentary. probably 4) p. There seems to be no difficult point to discuss about the commentary.The Commentary and Later Additions. they had been no doubt composed before the commentary was made.18-20. 10 —p. 53. Additions 1) p. 102. 1-13. 1. 104. 46. 825 b) 2) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p.

the word ' Absolute ' contains an idea somewhat different from that in Indian philosophy and hence it is not perfectly proper to use this word for expressing the idea which is to be discussed here. But since Buddhism denies the existence of such an eternal substance as Brahman. there is a variety of forms. Though monism is one. See H. TAKASAKI III. may generally be characterized as Monism (or Absolutism) which admits the unique Absoiute 3 1 ) or Ultimate Entity. the difference of standpoint means: " to which aspect of the Absolute. every phenomenon has the characteristics of being 'real' and is 'identical' with each other as they stand for the Absolute in one of its various ' aspects' 32>. KEYPOINT OF THE DISCOURSE } 1. But. I dared adopt the word ' Absolute ' as a general term for what is immutable in Buddhism. Still Buddhism has its own idea of something immutable (asamskrta). > cannot he the Entity different from other phenomena. 99 (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. the Germ of the 3 Jewels. though its character is quite different from that of Brahman and there is no fixed term like Brahman to express it. The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. Nr. In the case of the Vedānta Philosophy. is the emphasis given in the text ? " In this sense. or Ultimate Entity from its aspect of ' ratnagotra '. and this difference of standpoint gradually causes the division of various schools within Mahāyāna Buddhism. through its being i identical' with the Absolute. — Ratnagotra.J . the Brahman (or Atman) is nearer to the Absolute in Western philosophy in its character than what is corresponding to it in Buddhism. 31 . In this respect. or form) of the Absolute. 40. Geistes und Sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse. is to be characterized as monistic in its philosophical approach. just because . we may define the characteristics of this text as a treatise. S. and itself has no reality. v. the use of the word' Absolute ' seems quite improper. proved through the essential identification [advayatā) of various phenomena. Mahāyāna Buddhism. And each phenomenon. p. and this variety of forms is due to the different emphasis in each text. the so-called Hīnayāna Buddhism whose representative is the doctrine of the Sarvāstivādin may be characterized as Realism declaring each element (dharma) as real. See Th. This > Having come with connotations of Western philosophy. Stcherbatsky. Glasenapp. being a treatise on Mahāyāna Buddhism. in its philosophical approach. f its being merely an aspect (or face. feature. 32) On the other hand. 8). This work. In other words. analyzing (vibhāga) the Absolute. Buddhismus und Gottesidee. Jahrgang 1954.

Significance of ' gotra ' in the Brahmanical system was sought for by J. a Translation of the Gotra-pravara-mañjali of Purusottama-Pandita with an Introduction". but the basic line of interpretation for this word among the Buddhist literatures is 'gotra' = ' dhātu ' = lhetu\ or ''gotra ' = ibīja' 33>. 322). 20 (dhātu means gotra). 23) as ' visayah paramârthadarśinām śubharatnasargako yatah '. what is ' ratnagotra ' ? This word is interpreted by the commentator as ' gotram ratnatrayasya ' (v.v. 1. and analogically. ' nidhāna '. 3. ' nidāna ' (for ' cause '). as synonyms of 'gotra' with the range of senses. p. a more detailed and thorough investigation on this subject based upon the Pali. while 'ratnatraya\ its result. ' sāra ' (for ' essence '). 11. ' hetu' and ibīja'.The Ratnagotravibhāga is the significance of the title ' ratnagotravibhāga '. Journal of the Linguistic Society of India. ' yoni\ ' garbha' (for 'matrix'). 1. and hence it may be translated into English by ' element'. 33) . Wogihara). 72. by U. ' sthāna ' (for ' basis ' or ' ground ' ) . the Germ of the 3 jewels. 16. Yogācārabhūmi. 'svabhāva\ iprakrti\ 'dharma ' (for ' nature '). however. I. and the Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-ka. " The Early Brahmanical System of Gotra and Pravara. In his opinion. and Chinese sources will be required.10 (hetvartho'tra dhātvarthah). ' mūla '.' gotra ' means something original. gotra s. p. it is used in the sense of' germ '.'ground'. It gives a good summary of the development of the idea from the Vinaya to the Yogācāra system through the Sarvāstivāda and the Sautrāntika. Chatterjee Jubilee Volume. 1957). ' cause '. Actually. ' clan ' or ' lineage ' 3 4 ) . The word ' gotra' is one of the special terms difficult to be conveyed by any other language. p. in the word ' gotra '. Calcutta. The Ratna. Brough in his work. ' āśraya '. by a common use. of Jam-yañ-shad-pa).. Cambridge. 24). Part 1. we can get various words such as ' pada '. ' origin '. Abhidharmakośakārikā. and by this the contents of the text is fully expressed. p. ' mine ' or ' matrix ' 3 5 ) . all of these senses are included. Vol. (ed. a commentary on the Abhisamayâlañkāra by Tsoñ-kha-pa. and explained in the śloka (v. I. In India. ' ākara ' (for ' m i n e ' ) . BHS Die. ' source '. 26. As for the development of the idea of 'gotra'' within Buddhist thought. by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharva. ' nidhi'. and besides ' dhātu '. 34 * ' Gotra ' is originally a term used in the Indo—Aryan society since the pre—Vedic age. or 'nature'. ' vamśa' (for lineage). 1953. Raghavan ("Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit". 6: gotram bljam ity apy ucyate. See Edgerton. 18-19: bljaparyāyāh punar dhātur gotram prakrtir hetuh satkāya prapañca ālaya upādānam duhkham satkāyadrstyadhisthānam asmimānâdhisthānam cety evam bhāgiyāhparyāyā veditavyâh. 'basis'. the sphere of those who have the highest perception from which the pure 3 jewels rise. 'essence'. this word means ' family'. 35) Edgerton regards the sense of 'a mine' as uniquely belonging to Buddhist texts. and signifies usually an exogamous unit of families of the same lineage within the Brahmin clan. Bodhisattvabhūmi (ed. Eight Chapters on the Pāramitā. Sanskrit. Here. an objection is raised by V. see Obermiller's introduction to the Uttaratantra. Then. Indian Linguistics. but as it is merely based upon Tibetan information (the Gser-phreñ.

49). (v. par excellence. bodhisattva. it is the ' buddharatna '. Through the purity of the innate mind. irrespective of their conditions or appearances. not essentially connected with them. but merely temporally associated with them as the accidental defilement (āgantukakleśa) and itself has no reality because ' All of these terms are taken from this text. I. despite the existence of purity. the living beings differ from each other owing to their appearances. how are these terms ' tathāgatagarbha ' or ' tathāgatagotra ' . I. 28). 47) they are classified into ' sattvadhātu. those who have the Matrix of the Tathāgata. a name for * sattmdhātu'.nd combining these terms of both sides. TAKASAKI parlgraha ' (for ' family ') etc. by that of the Body of the Absolute (dharmakāya) (v. however. The point of its identity with the Absolute lies in its 4 essential purity ' (prakrty-asamklistatā) (v. e. 30) which is found in the 4 innate mind ' (cittaprakrti) of living beings (v. This ' impurity' is. viz.mployed ? The tathāgatagarbha is. In this ense. all living beings. i. I. I. e. 37 36 . sarva—dehinah. according to the text. On the other hand.J . The existence of this purity. ' ratna ' or ' rattatraya ' is a name for the Absolute when it is regarded as the ' śarana ' refuge). in a concrete way. This 4 sattvadhātu \ or sattvarāśV (in other words. 'the ordinary beings'. 2) it is by nature identical with purity. 4 ratnatraya ' 9r. or the object of worship. we can get those terms like tathāgatagarbha '. and tathāgata '. 4 buddhagarbha\ ' jinagarbha '. as synonyms of '"ratna\otra '. At the same time. e. Par excellence. 47) 38>. ' tathāgatadhātu \ 4 budIhadhatu'. just because 1) the Wisdom of the Buddha penetrates it. I. in other words. but essentially there is no difference between the two kinds of classification (the Saints are par excellence' bodhisattvas ' in the Mahāyāna Buddhism). the ' dharmaratna' and 4 sañgharatna ' are merely he 'natural outflow' (dharmatānisyanda) of the former 37> (p. 38) In another place. called ' tathagatagarbhāh '. Then again. namely the different degrees with regard to the ' impurity' on the pure innate mind. and have various names. i. 27). common to all living beings. ' ratnatraya ' is synonymous with 'buddha'. and 3) it is the igotra\ through which the result. i. the Absolute. or ' the Buddha ' (v. I. all living beings) s. is proved by the all-pervadingness of the Wisdom of the Buddha. the Tathāgata makes its appearance (v. Thus we know the word ' ratnagotra ' used in the title indicates /vhat is called ' tathāgatagarbha ' and this text is a treatise on the Tathā'}atagarbha theory. ' tathāgata\ or 4jfma\ \. 7). are identical with each other. * This point is taken from the Śrlmālāsūtra and is called the ' ekayāna"1 theory being one of the characteristics of Mahāyāna Buddhism. itathāgatagotra\ 'buddhgotra\ etc. 3 6 ). the multitude of the living beings. 'the Saints '. md the other two. sarvasattvāh.

3) samalā tathatā. 23) 39) The whole account of this passage on the [fundamental characteristics of the ' ratnagotra' was taken from what I considered as the original text. (v. 41 ) The commentary mentions the 3 Jewels along with 4 aspects of the Germ in its open verse and calls them the 7 vajrapadas. dividing the Chapter on the Tathāgatagarbha into 7. 3). . 23 and which show its inconceivability in each respect (v. nirmalā tathatā.4 Aspects of the Germ. sattvârthakrt. 3) Guna. (v. But this division has probably no source in the basic text for the Chinese translation.The Ratnagotravibhāga it is constructed by the ' irregular thought ' (ayoniśomanasikāra) (v. agrabodhi (jñānâpti). and 5) Anuśamsa. I. i. 24) while Chapter I includes 3 ślokas on the ratnatraya and the commentary thereon. these 4 aspects of the gotra form the basic frame of this text and the authors refer to them in various places with various denominations. which are mentioned in v. bodhi. It would be better to pick up such denominations before analysing their characteristics and significance. On the basis of the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha referred to above. Thus. karman. the text explicates the doctrine in five chapters 4°). But this categorization does not have as much significance as the 4 aspects of the gotra. (v. 1) dhātu. and its pure innate mind is regarded as the Buddhahood (buddhatva) or the Essence of the Buddha (buddhadhātu). vimalā buddhagunāh. which at the same time constitute the core of the doctrine described in this text 39>. it is removable from them and when they remove it by realizing its accidental nature. § 2 . jinakriyā. Therefore. when they accomplish the purification. 1) 2) garbha (jñānadhātu-āptinistha). they become the Buddha. I. Because of this possibility. I. I. Those are the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha. 40) The Chinese version gives 11 chapters. the sattvadhātu is the ' gotra ' of the Buddha. the last chapter is the conclusion in which the merits of having faith in this doctrine of the tathāgatagarbha are described. 4) Tathāgatakrtyakriyā. 60-63). 2) Bodhi. The other four stand for the 4 aspects of the gotra. Of these five. I. along with the commentator's introduction 4l>. guna. I. dharmāh. respectively. . e. under the titles: 1) Tathāgatagarbha.

they are ragarded somehow as the natural outflow of the Buddha's Compassion (karunā) towards living beings (v. (v. e. 4 cause ' and ' result '. karman (v.) and similes of lantern and ocean are used for its explanation (v. gotra has obtained its name of i cause '. buddhakrtya. the tathāgatagarbha is said to be endowed with the same qualities and acts as those of the Buddha. arthasādhana. though it is common to both. samalā and nirmalā.4 ff. I. what is to be called the Absolute. I. 43) V. 26) buddhadhātu. V. Gotra is different from the Absolute in its being actually not enlightened {abudha) (v. and for the 'result'-aspect. tadparāvrtti. V. 4). Here. On the other hand. Taking an example from the table mentioned above. amuktajña (avinirmuktajñāna) (p. bodhana. p.19 (anādicittavyavadSnadharmasahajâvinirbhāgatā). etc. Because the Buddha is one aspect of the Absolute. the acts of the Buddha. 66. 42). ' to be enlightened ' or * capable of getting bodhi'. (v. Here we may notice that there are two aspects of the Absolute. (gunaprakrtiyogatah). they are to be termed as ' bodhya ' and ' bodhi '. 25) āśraya. 49. 1) vyavadānadhātu. and the second. Thus.J. the Absolute. because of its identity with the Absolute. the fourth. samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā. 155 and v. buddhabodhi. 4 c d). V. being the natural outflow of the Buddhahood. these two latter aspects are less independent and less important than the former two and can be included in one of them. the Absolute as in common with the The relationship between the Absolute and attributes is often expressed by the term ' avinirbhāga. bodhyañgāni. so to say A2\ At the same time. Because of this capability. the latter two are said to relate to the Absolute as being * attribute ' and ' function ' inseparable from the Absolute or ' substance '. being inseparable from him. 43>. The interrelation between these two is that of ' cause' and ' result'. I. I. the third aspect signifies the attributes or the qualities of the Buddha. i. gunāh. buddhadharmâh. Therefore. the difference between two aspects is shown by each attribute. This relationship is expressed in another couple of terms. but it has a relation to the latter in its being ' bodhya '. while the identity of both is expressed by the term tathatā. the first aspect represents the tathāgatagarbha or the gotra. 42 and commentary thereon (on yogârtha). 3. the 4 aspects of gotra are fundamentally reducible to two aspects. tadgunāh. these two are regarded as 4 aspects ' of the gotra. In this respect. I. bodhi. 7) Of these four. I. (v. 42) [ 24 ] . &c. TAKASAKI 4) 5) 6) 7) bodhya. and this capability is sought for in the fact (or postulate) that gotra is (or is to be) essentially identical with the Absolute (tathatâvyatireka). For the acts of the Buddha. amalā bodhi. Tathatā. is characterized as nirmalā in comparison with gotra. I.

4 while from the standpoint of the Absolute. tathatā will be regarded as 4 medium '. the former is to be regarded as 4 cause ' and the latter. while tathatā is explained as tathāgata in the sense ' tathatā śuddhim āgatā '. tathatā. By examining in this way. if we restrict the observation only to the relationship between dharmakāya and tathāgatagotra. If we apply the same idea of ' medium ' in this case. According to the commentator. 2) tathāgatas tathataîsām garbhah sarvasattvānām. and 4 result ' is considered 4 to become one with 4 4 the ground. dharmakāya and tathatā are either result' or ground'. respectively.The Ratnagotravibhāga gotra is the ' ground '. i. however. I. buddha) under the name of bodhi in comparison with the gotra's being hetu. the Absolute can be established as ' result ' because it is in common with the gotra. taking this structure into consideration and subsequently clarifying 4 4 the process from cause' to result'. Here. . (p. 44 ' The word tathāgatagarbha is interpreted in the Ratna. It may be termed ' ground'-aspect or 4 medium'aspect. 44) Such is the fundamental structure of the Absolute and its aspects in this text. The first application of the 3 aspects theory is v. and regarded as ' result'. let us examine the characteristics of the Absolute. In other words. dharmakāya is interpreted as the Absolute itself. being the 4 ground ' which renders gotra as * cause '. and more important. namely: 1) tathāgatasya ime garbhah sarvasattvāh. as common to both cause and result. is therefore to be regarded as the third aspect which is necessary to establish the relationship of cause and result. respectively. Here the third aspect is characterized as 4 medium ' (pratyaya) and on the basis of bodhi as medium. In this case. 27. For ground ' of cause '. division of the 3 aspects is what is called svabhāvatraya of gotra (p. the Absolute '. 3 aspects are often used for analyzing the tathāgatagarbha in this text. the third aspect is preferably called 4 ground '.17). e. 70. From the stand 4 4 4 point of gotra'. 69. and tathāgatagotra. and tathāgatagotra. Another kind of. and dharmakāya as 4 result' since the word dharmakāya stands for one aspect of buddha showing his essential nature. e. See my translation of each passage. we know. They correspond to dharmakāya. and 3) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. cause and result are called bodhya and buddha. gotra is result ' as well as 4 cause '. This Absolute. 17 ff) by the commentator based upon v. tathatā stands again for 4 medium '-aspect. in three ways. as * result '. we come to know that these aspects are interchangeable according to the respective standpoint. Next. I. and including this aspect. 26 where the Absolute is on the one hand regarded as phala under the name of ratnatraya and on the other hand as pratyaya for establishing ratnatraya (i. tathatā. The names of the 3 aspects are dharmakāya.

' tathatā' or itattva'> (suchness). . Thus the all-pervadingness. Being the nature of things. From the standpoint of the development of the idea or from the literal meaning of each term. as this 'impersonal' truth shows the real nature of 'things'. On the other hand. and hence the universe is called 'dharmadhātu\ the realm of truth which is the essence of the nature (tattvasya laksanam) and is regarded as the Absolute itself in the sense of ' reality '. these terms can be divided into two groups: to one group belong those expressing the Absolute from the ' ground 'aspect. But in its fundamental characteristics. Firstly. Originally and basically the Absolute in Buddhism is dharma. to the other those doing the same from the ' result '-aspect. or by the terms. śūnyatā. pratītyasamutpāda. and hence. and based upon these two characteristics. is characterized as ' adhigamadharma\ Thus the Buddhist Absolute. 45) The following description does not exactly follow a historical development of the idea but is made with a logical approach. such a division seems possible. . this nature is also regarded as the Absolute under the names of ' dharmatā' ( = dharmasvabhāva). This truth is to be realized by oneself ('pratyātmavedanīya'') as the Buddha did for the first time. the character of being ' attainable ' introduces the ' result '-aspect and is shown by the absolutization of the Buddha caused by veneration and glorification of the Buddha as the founder among Buddhist followers. nirodha and mārga. it penetrates all things or phenomena including the living beings. the Buddhist Absolute expands its contents in two directions 45>. The Absolute is expressed in various terms in this text. This is a kind of ' personification ' of the Absolute. is ' impersonal ' and ' attainable '. or the highest truth (paramârthasatya). Of course both aspects are interchangeable as has been seen in the case of 'dharmakāya'' and '•tathatā'' in the preceding passage. is introduced into the conception of Buddhist Absolute. however. etc. in those two points we can find the peculiarity of the Buddhist Absolute. This is nothing but the 4 ground '— aspect of the Absolute. samudaya.J. TAKASAKI § 3. which is unchangeable and immutable (asarnskrta) and whose contents are expressed by the 4 āryasatya of duhkha. the universal law. being the truth. Sanskrit terms mentioned with quotation marks in the following passage are the technical terms on the Absolute used in the Ratna. and hence the oneness of the Absolute.The Absolute.

in the case of ' nirvana '. in other words. Originally.The Ratnagotravibhāga but even in this case. however. and consequently there is no strict distinction of use between both terms. are. This term was absolutized even in the Pali and in the Adhidharma Buddhism as an idea contrary to samsāra and is stated to be the realm of peace (' śāntipatha '). the intuition (prajñā) or wisdom (jñāna) by which the Buddha attained the enlightenment occupies an important place and is elevated to identity with the Absolute under the name of 4 prajñāpāramitā ' or 4 buddhajñāna ' as the essential nature of the Buddha. though they are actually not the Buddha. we cannot overlook a rather primitive and magical idea that to know something is to become itself. like ' bodhi'. Both of these attainments of ' jñāna' and ' vyavadāna'. since he realized the truth and his essence or nature as being ' buddha ' lies in his realization (' bodhi ') of the truth. however. it shows the ' result '-aspect of the Absolute. nirodha) of defilements (kleśa) and hence the term nirvana is much related to the purification of mind (cittavyavadāna). combined in one as the sine qua non for the realization of the Absolute. the existence of an innumerable number of Buddhas is possible and even ordinary beings. ' dharmadhātu'. if one may discuss the matter apart from the religious feeling* the Buddha is regarded as * impersonal'. In this sense. Thus the absolutization of the Buddha consists in making the Buddha impersonal and this Buddha as the Absolute is called ' dharmakāya'. At the same time. and even of the medium or instrument for such an acquisition. there is another important term for the Buddhist Absolute. This same nature is called ' gotra ' or ' dhātu ' and the existence of this nature is explained by the expression ' dharmakāyapa~ rispharanatā'' or ibuddhajñānântargama''-tva. It is ' nirvana '. the emphasis is on the disappearance or extinction (ksaya. the term ' buddha ' is originally applicable to any person as an adjetive. Besides ' buddha ' and ' bodhi'. by ' nirvana' is meant a state 4 attained ' by the Buddha and hence. On the other hand. For the introduction of such a conception. ' nirvana'' and ' bodhi'. of the attained state. the state of 'buddha' is attainable as the result of practice. which is believed commonly in India . Namely. Introduction of the ' result'-aspect into the Absolute thus effected the absolutization of Buddha. and Nirvana was regarded as synonymous with ' dharmatā'. In the case of ' bodhi '. the manifestation of the truth. Mahāyāna Buddhism rebelled against the dualistic conception of Nirvana and Satnsāra and emphasized the oneness of both in the sense that Nirvana is the only reality. anybody can become ' buddha ' if he experiences and practises what the Gautama Buddha did. are postulated to have the same nature as the Buddha. or ' dharmakāya'.

however. (Mundaka Up. Among the 3 jewels. In this characterization the process from cause to result is observed. TAKASAKI since the Vedic Age 46>. In this last point lies the significance of the tathāgatagarbha theory of this text. the jewel of the Buddha came to be regarded as the only ultimate refuge. Emphasis was placed on the Buddha rather than the Dharma and effected the ' ekayāna ' theory of the Buddha. viz. Establishment of the Buddha as the Absolute under the name of dharma46> e.J. of the tathāgatagarbha) or jñānâpti. vi-1-1: yo ha vai jyestham ca śrestham ca veda. which is characterized as ' āśrayaparivrttV (Revolution of the basis. And when Buddhism developed itself into Mahāyāna Buddhism. In relation to the term tathāgatagarbha. and this process is understood as the removal (' visamyoga'') of two kinds of obscuration. And for explaining the possibility of anyone's acquiring the Buddhahood. e. It was also the basic idea for the theory of the oneness of Brahman and Âtman in the philosophy of the Upanisads as well as of the later Vedāntavāda 47>. jyesfhaś caśresthaś ca svānām bhavati. 47 ' 'sayo ha vai tatparamambrahma veda brahmaîva bhavati'. of knowable things (jñeya-āvarana) and of defilements (kleśa-ā. it could not but take the appearance of Monism as a result of Absolutization of the Buddha. and the Vijñānavāda). On the other hand absolutization of the Buddha made Mahāyāna Buddhism more religious than Abhidharma Buddhism.g. Rather. Up. Brhad. iii-2-9) is regarded as one of the important authority for the Vedāntavāda. the Absolute is often spoken of as the dharmakāya of the tathāgata. and approach the Upanisadic thinking in its philosophy. * 8) See VI. i. observed in the use of terms such as 'samalā tathatā^ and '•nirmalā tathatā\ 'vaimalyadhātu\ 'viśuddhicittaprakrti'' or by the definition of tathāgata as itathatā śuddhim āgatā\ and of tathāgatagarbha as 'sarva kleśakośakotigūdhas tathāgatagarbhah\ Such terminology is characteristic of this tathāgatagarbha theory compared with stress on jñānâpti in the vijñānavāda as the ultimate goal 48>. it is an inevitable character for all systems which declare their philosophical standpoint as Monism. At the same time. the Monistic philosophy was used as the background. the stress lies on the purification of mind from the defilements. one thing to be noted here is the development of Buddhology. etc. In relation to the conception of the Absolute in 4 ground ' and ' result ' aspect. . Basically. This theory is in one sense an inevitable result of the development of Mahāyānistic Monism in its religious expression. § 2.). the purpose of religious practices was made to be the acquisition of the Buddhahood rather than the Arhatship of Abhidharma Buddhism. (The Ratna.

as has been observed above. In turn. e. to leave the dharmakāya m its pure character of truth or reality. II. namely. and the manifestation of these Buddhas is regarded as for the sake of people.' and hence the dharmakāya's original character as ' result ' is still retained. it is to be called ' svasāmbhogika ' in contrast with the sanibhogika which represents parârthasampatti.). On the other hand. in this text. 1). Here. is ' result ' and the dharmakāya is ' ground' for the second body. immediately followed by the triple kāya theory. the Buddha's own nature means. and by it. Of them. This division of two bodies corresponds to the two aspects of the Absolute. 43 ff. I l l . paramārtha and samvrti. future and present are signified. This was originally a problem of how to treat the historical Buddha in the Buddhist doctrine. the historical Buddha is defined as 'nairmānika'. and is hence included under parârthasampatti. the fact of being the Buddha's own nature. these latter two are called parârthasampatti. Literally sambhoga means enjoyment or bliss of the dharma by the Buddha himself as the ' result' of realization of dharma. Therefore. e. but by this term all the Buddhas in ten directions and in three divisions of time. (v. the Apparitional Body. this second body is called ' rūpakāya' (v. ' buddhajñāna' is replaced by dharmakāya without interpretation (v. i. Why is its Junction limited to para-sambhoga ? If the dharmakāya is regarded as svârthasampatti. however. ' svābhāvika' is for the dharmakāya. and called 4 paramārthakāya'' and *samvrtikāya. the interpretation of sāmbhogika leaves some doubt with us. sāmbhogika means para-sāmbhogika. and dharmakāya is called svârthasampatti because of its including jñānâpti within itself. 1. It may be more logical to include the dharmakāya's character of jñānâpti or svârthasampatti ln to the second body of sambhoga. I. the rūpakāya. 27 and 28). This double kāya theory is.151-2. ' sārnbogika' and ' nairmānika' are of conventional character. Also. referring respectively to the body for the assembly of Bodhisattvas and to the body for common people in order to lead them towards the Enlightenment. 1).The Ratnagotravibhāga subsequently caused another aspect of the Buddha to rise besides the dharmakāya. by dividing the second one into two. II. past. An usual nomination for the three is ' svābhāvika\ ' sāmbhogika' and 'nairmānika\ respectively (vv. Furthermore these two are said to represent 4svârthasampatti'' and 'parârthasampatti\ respectively (v. ' bodhi' or ' buddhajñāna. This triple kāya theory seems to be basic for the Ratna. In comparison with the dharmakāya. the Body for other's enjoyment. However. I l l . the former being lokottara and the latter being laukika. i. r oo . Here. That is why. 61). it corresponds to the division of two satyas.

. which is characterized as 'parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. Shall we then consider that the svârthasampatti is represented by this second body. which is caused by means o f avikalpajñāna ' and ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna ' (v. e. 70). the muktikāya remains without arthasampatti ? An answer is not clearly given in the text. * 9) In Mahāyāna Buddhism. and the first body. svârthasampatti is to be regarded as inherent to the muktikāya or dharmadhātu. Thus being the case.. but it is apparently ' no '. and in the same way. since it is nothing but the samudānītagotra being the result produced by the prakrtisthagotra (v. and lastly resulted in another kind of the triple kāya theory. the dharmakāya stands for the ' result ' aspect. In Chinese Buddhism reference is often made to these two kinds of the triple kāya theory calling the former ' K'ai-ying-ho-chen (pfj J|/j>|| / py J|l. but it may be proven in the light of another commentary passage. the dharmakāya. These two kāyas correspond to i prakrtiviśuddhi ' and ' vaimalyaviśuddhi ' (p. in the sense 'the Body which represents the innate liberation'. Here. in comparison with the latter. it stands for the 'ground' aspect of the dharmakāya. I. It is one of keynotes to decide the date of Mahā- . and we may conclude that the complete separation of the ' result ' aspect from the dharmakāya is not observed in the Ratna. the muktikāya is to be identified with the Absolute Essence characterized as ' dharmadhātu\ ' cittaprakrti ' or ''prakrtisthagotra''. In turn. even in the commentary 49>. 21).) ' and the latter ' K'ai-chen-ho-ying S * 'PJ* MH) '» respectively. The development had taken place from the double kāya theory in Nāgārjuna's philosophy to the triple kāya theory as in the Ratna. which constitutes ' deśanādharma ' characterized as ' parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. whose characteristic lies in the division of the dharmakāya into two kāyas. represents ' adhigamadharma '. respectively. In this description. and (2) ' tadnisyanda '. the correspondence between each of the 3 couples of terms is not clearly observed. the natural outflow of dharmadhātu. TAKASAKI In this respect. or separation of the jñāna from the attributes of the dharmakāya. the former might be said to represent svârthasampatti. attention should be paid to the division of dharmakāya by the commentator into ' muktikāya ' and ' dharmakāya ' in regard to its function (v. or to ' prakrtisthagotra ' and ' samudānītagotra ' (v. in contrast with the former. being the realm of avikalpajñāna. the commentator divides the dharmakāya into (1) dharmadhātu which. i. Commenting on the dharmakāya as one of the svabhāvatraya of the tathāgatagarbha (p. Buddhology occupies an important part among its doctrines. II. II. 150). the said twofold Body is referred to as the substratum of sva-parârthasampatti. 30). but it might well have done so. which it calls ' the realm of avikalpajñāna '. 80). Being 'innate'. 149).J. I. Here the text does not call the latter the realm of prsthalabdha-jñāna. Namely.

the tathāgatagarbha. and between avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. The same relation must be observed between samudānītagotra and the twofold rūpakāya (v. is rendered into the Chinese . visamyoga-phala is used for characterizing āśrayaparivrtti. Of them. 57. Up to now I have often referred to the i result' aspect without distinction. In this case.The Ratnagotravibhāga There is another thing to be noticed here with reference to the aspects of the dharmakāya. I. This last usage actually refers to the relation of the rūpakāya to the dharmakāya in the sense that the rūpakāya is merely an aspect of the dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. 82).At the same time.4 & 11). samvrtikāya. are ' visamyoga '. while to include the nirmānakāya within vipākaphala is improper. the term vaipākika is used for sāmbhogika.) (c. i.T. 1). or dharmakāya as the result of purification or attainment of Enlightenment (p. 150). which. 1. But in regard to its contents or its relation to ' cause' or ' ground '. vipāka-phala is an entirely different one from the other two in its original character. Namely. p. in contrast with nairmānika (see BHS Die. 4»Q I7p). 308 ff. Namely. 1. II. cause and result are dissimilar from each other. * niryanda ' and ' vipāka '. representing parârtha. result is the same as cause or is involved within the cause. 8 & 18. Studies in the Lañkāvatāra Sūtra. and in the case of nisyanda. the term nisyanda-buddha is mentioned as indicating the second Body (p. On the other hand. 1. 8). 283. pp. About Buddhology of the triple kāya. 80. this term is used along with visamyoga in the same context as dharmakāya and rūpakāya (v. while in the case of vipāka. the term nisyanda is used for indicating the relation of dharmaratna and samgharatna to buddharatna (dharmatānisyanda. The terms which show this variety and which are used in the Ratna. the first one. Enlightenment or jñānâpti may also be termed vipākaphala because of its character of svasambhoga. 7) or the relation of deśanādharma to adhigamadharma as mentioned above (dharmadhātu-nisyanda). This usage seems to relate to the character of sambhogakāya as the ' reward ' of infinite practice (bhāvanā) before Enlightenment. the dharmakāya appears in its ' ground ' aspect. there is a certain variety. however. what is proper to the nirmānakāya is the term nisyanda. Now the third one. because this kāya is said to be the incarnation of the dharmakāya50>. curiously enough. see D. Suzuki. This is nothing but what I called the ' result' aspect of the dharmakāya whose ' cause ' is gotra or dhātu. If it were so. yāna Sutras and Sāstras. 56. in the case of visamyoga. cause and result are exactly the same. e. in contrast with paramārthakāya as visamyogaphala which represents svârtha. 60) In the Lañkāvatārasūtra (p. is said to be vipāka-phala. =P|X. In the Ratna. however.

(v. according to the commentator. In the preceding chapter.J. 3) Ratnadārikāsūtra. the Ratna. sometimes it uses the scriptural passage as if it were its own words without any sign of quotation. Of them. however. from which the 64 Attributes of the Buddha are derived (v. Besides the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 27. IV. The number of Scriptures utilized in the Ratna. III). and those frequently quoted are 5) Āryaśrîmālāsūtra and 6) Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta. 4) Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. from which the 7 Vajrapadas are derived as the body of the treatise. 79). illustrating how the Germ is covered with defilements are derived (p. Among the scriptures utilized in the Ratna. the Ratna. seems merely a collection of scriptural passages concerning the tathāgatagarbha theory. 66. GENEALOGY OF THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY § 1. following ones: 1) Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (or Tathāgatamahākarunāsūtra). Also. tathāgata- . . 51) ranlrājasūtra). we have examined the fundamental character of the tathāgatagarbha theory in the Ratna. 1. ratnasūtra) (Chap. 2 dhā2) Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. those relating to the Kārikā text and hence assuming important roles in the arrangement of the text are. is more than 20 and quotations or altered scriptural passages seem to occupy more than one third of the whole text. which seems to be the first treatise exposing this theory systematically and in its pure form. and its essential doctrine constitutes the core of this text. In one sense. For its explanation. the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is the most important one as it expounds mainly the tathāgatagarbha theory. 5 1 ) .18. from which the 9 examples illustrating the Buddha's Acts are derived (v. TAKASAKI IV. Sometimes it presents the whole passage by quotations without its own words. 7) Avatamsakasūtra {Tathāgatotpattisambhava— Bibliographical information of these scriptures is given in my notes on the English translation under the first occurrence of quotations or name of each scripture. from which the 9 examples garbhasūtrodāharananirdeśa) (Chapter I).Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga. has been much aided by various scriptures which expound the same theory. I l l . the main sources of the Ratna.

This last one is significant in its exposition of how phenomena are originated from one essence (ekadhātu). For this purpose. much with its ekayāna theory and the doctrine of the eternal Buddha. They are 12) Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra and 13) Mahayānasūtrâlañkāra. in the Ratna. the Ratna. They expound more or less the same theory of tathāgatagarbha. and 11) Ratnacūdasūtra are quoted. the Ratna. 52 onwards. besides its indirect influences on the Tathāgatagarbha theory. 9) Sāgaramatipariprcchā. These two seem to hold a key for solving the problems of the relationship between the tathāgatagarbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. not used in the works of Nāgārjuna. like the Vijñānavāda. There are two works. There is no quotation from the Saddharmapundarīka. which occupy a unique position in comparison with the former group of Scriptures. tr. 19) ISadāyatanasūtra (or § adindriyarāsi-sūtra) and from more than eight unknown sources. and especially nos. is an entirely new and later theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. 5 2 > See my note on the Engl. two main and basic scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. both of which are regarded as the main authorities on the Vijñānavāda. v. 18) Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra). are mentioned in the Ratna. as well as in its ascription of the cause to irregular thought (ayoniśo-manasikāra) 52>. and the tathāgatagarbha theory. quotes once from 14) Vajracchedikā and once from 15) Astasāhasrikā altering the sentences into the commentary's own form. the names Prajñāpāramitāsūtra and Saddharmapundarīka. but it is clear that this scripture had influenced the Ratna. as well as of the authorship of the Ratna. at least. Besides these scriptures on the tathāgatagarbha theory. of which one is in Prakrit. among the quotations. which corresponds to the passage. 1.The Ratnagotravibhāga parivarta). utilized them only along the lines of the tathāgatagarbha theory and never referred to the Vijñānavāda. As for the Prajñāpāramitā. (111-53). 5) 6) and 8) are the representative scriptures on this theory. 10) Gaganagañjābodhisattvapariprcchā. 17) Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa. . but it is necessary and possible for clarifying the tathāgatagarbha theory to trace its genealogy back to its origin by examining these sources. Other quotations are from 16) Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta. we will pick up some important ones and will refer to their historical order. One remarkable point is that all scriptures or parts of scriptures mentioned above are unknown to Nāgārjuna or. not often but with long passages. They seem to have appeared after Nāgārjuna. However. To discuss and examine the character of all the scriptures mentioned above is beyond our present purpose. 8) Mahāparinirvānasūtra {Mahayāna) {Tathāgatadhātuparivarta).

The peculiarity of the tathāgatagarbha theory lies in its emphasis on this point in association with the fundamental identification of living beings with the Buddha under the name of tathāgatagarbha. for which the same corresponding expression. the Gaganagañjā.Taisho. " cittasamkleśāt sattvāh samkliśyante. Milindapanhā iv-7-2. the most important and principal point of the tathāgatagarbha theory is to purify the mind. 28. Characterization of defilements or phenomena in general as ' accidental ' attachment on the mind is. 1.g. p. 5. not found among those scriptures belonging to the oldest group in the Pali canon and there was a controversy about this characterization among schools of the Abhidharma Buddhism 57) . 210 ff.Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa As has been said above. The term tathāgatagarbha was an entirely new usage but its basic idea is found in the expression " prakrtiprabhāsvaram cittam āgantukair upakleśair upakliśyate. 10). the Ratnadārikā. 27. 5. 397 (Vol. . 53) . however. 163 b). though it is not traced in the present Tripitaka. and they are probably written by one and the same group who later developed the tathāgatagarbha theory. p. etc. This purity of the innate mind is often compared to that of gold 55>. SN (PTS. 257). vol.J. 32. p. 13). No. S5 > e. the Ratnacūda. I. (p.g. 4) the Mahāsamghika—* Laksanânusāraśāstra (|*m >rn PRfl) (Taisho. p. the Aksayamati—pariprcchā. AN. vol. 151). or similar ones. cittavyavadānād viśuddhyante". SN (vol. 140 b). ".g. e. p. but was also the principle of practice from the outset of Buddhism. 697 b). etc. 1. S4 56) ^ C Jl'^f ^ C M I S . The Dhāranīśvararājasūtra together with the Sāgaramatipariprcchā. are used sometimes in the Pali canons 53>. vol. Compilation of this big collection of sūtras in the present form has probably taken place after the composition of the Ratna. A Prakrit verse quoted in the Ratna. 9-10 (PTS. 3) the Vātsīputrīya—-* Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra (Taisho. 6) seems to belong to the same line of doctrine found in the Pali canons. 2) the Vaibhāsika—Mahāvibhāsāśāstra (Taisho. Among other sects of the Abhidharma Buddhism. p... See C. > e. TAKASAKI § 2. 1. 92). 3. seems also to be old and to have its origin in the Pali canons 54>. p. 3. p. which form parts of the Mahāsamghātasūtra 56\ are also standing fundamentally on the theory of the cittaprakrti. 2. AN (ibid. 57 ' The Sarvāstivāda did not accept this theory of cittaprakrti. etc. Another expression of this same idea of purification of mind. This is not an exclusive facture of this theory. the following four are known for their acceptance of this theory: 1) the Theravāda of Ceylon—Dhammapadâtthakathā. Akanuma: Bukkyo—kyori no Kenkyū (Japanese) (Studies in the Buddhist Doctrine).

This Ratna. § 3. as for the former it has not sufficient explanation to resolve the problem even in the Ratna. It is the idea of the penetration of the Buddha's Wisdom into the living beings described in the Avatamsakasûtra and quoted in the Ratna. though it makes no use of the term cittamātra. M) 58) ' Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching (#P ^ 5 | MB $ S \ Taisho. The source of the citta-mātra theory is often sought for in the following passage: tasyaîvam bhavati / cittamātram idam yad idam traidhātukam / yāny apîmāni dvādaśāngāni tathāgatena prabhedaśo vyākhyātāni tāny api sarvāny eva cittasamāśritāni V (Rahder's ed.D. 49 c. the Gandavyûha are important and of early origin. 291. — " Buddhajñāna " in the Avatamsaka. The first exposition of these two points (consequently the first establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory) is seen in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 558 b). It describes only how the defilements come to cover the pure innate mind and how they are to be removed. this characterization of defilements led to the idea of non-reality of all the phenomena and resulted in the cittamātra theory. Still there is no doubt that the citta-mātra theory and the Vijñānavāda have their starting point in this passage. and we can find a frequent use of the above two expressions among the Mahāyānistic scriptures. The term buddhajñāna is a synonym of buddhatva or buddhatā.The R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga This idea had been fully accepted by the Mahāyāna Buddhism. . p. this passage teaches only the dependence of the phenomena on the citta. and. there is a stage of development with respect to the identification of living beings with the Buddha. into Chinese by Dharmaraksa as an independent Sūtra 59 ).. however. The Avatamsakasūtra as is seen in the present form is a collection of minor scriptures among which the Daśabhūmika. The tathāgatagarbha theory seems to put the accent on the latter of the two. The passage containing the description of the buddhajñāna (Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa) also seems old. Prior to the establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory by the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. Taisho 9. is no doubt based upon this theory. which will be observed in the passage expounding the origination of phenomena from the cittaprakrti. whose first exposition is found in the Daśabhūmikasūtra 58>. Furthermore. 22-24). no. (pp. Questions which arise pursuant to the idea of cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa are (1) why and how the phenomena of unreal character are originated and (2) how the cittaprakrti is pure and identical with the Buddha or the immutable Absolute being. Strictly speaking. p. A. and was translated early in the 3rd cent.

(p. (p. (p. one thing to be noticed here is that a scriptural passage of unknown source quoted in the Ratna. with special reference to the term ' tathāgatagotra-sambhava ' (j%\\ yjv '|£n /chi) '\ JIBS. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is a small scripture whose main part consists merely of the 9 examples illustrating the covering of defilements over the tathāgatagarbha. 73). anger and ignorance. 1958. with respect to the Tathāgatgarbhasūtra. 7. The last one is quoted in the Ratna. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh6 1 \ On the relationship between the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa and the Ratna. a Buddha sitting in the interior of every lotus flower: 1) I (the Buddha) observe. This buddhajñāna is often compared to the sun. 4) esā dharmānām dharmatā. as it appears from the Ratna. The core of its doctrine is stated in the following four sentences in the first example. they are not different from myself. 72. though they are among the defilements of hatred. In relation to this. 457 6-c. 8-9). 11. . 16.J. though they are abiding in various worlds with bodies full of defilements. with special reference to this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna. These scriptures expound on one hand the eternity of the Buddha and his acts which corresponds to the all-pervadingness of the buddhajñāna and form the basic idea of the Absolute 60>. 2) [Thus] all living beings. In their emphasis of buddhajñāna. 11. and buddhakāya sitting motionless. for which the acquisition of jñāna is indispensable. that all living beings. 1. or the Jñānâlokâlañkāra. 61> These four passages are in Taisho. are possessed of the tathāgatagarbha which is always unpolluted and. 10-11) seems to belong to the same group as the two said scriptures in the use of terms: tathāgatadhātur utpanno garbhagatah. one of the important terms in the Hua-yen philosophy and locates the first use of this compound in the Ratna. pp. 26. Tokyo. This article stresses the development of the idea of ' gotrasambhava '. No. 3) Having thus observed. the Jñānâlokâlañkāra and the Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra seem to be consistent with the Tathāgatotpatisambhavanirdeśa.The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. buddhacaksus. Vol. (48)-(53). TAKASAKI because the Buddha's nature is represented by his Enlightenment. with the buddhacaksus. p . have the buddhajñāna. 60) . the Buddha preached the doctrine in order to remove the defilements and manifest the Buddha nature [within the living beings]. I wrote an article in the Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies: " The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratnagotravibhāga. being endowed with the virtuous properties. § 4.

3) Union of the tathāgatagarbha with innumerable attributes of the Buddha. 59 & 76). 26. dharmadhātugarbha. in short. However. what is called the three meanings of the tathāgatagarbha by the Ratna. as * samalā tathatā \ 2) In relation to those faces. 28. while garbha is aśūnya since it is endowed with. Moreover. The explanation for this is that garbha is śūnya since it is devoid of kleśas "which are of unreal nature. dharkāyagarbha. (quotations in pp. The original points of thought of the tathāgatagarbha expounded in this Sutra are as follows: 1) Two faces of the mind: prakrtipariśuddhicitta and upaklistacitta. A Sūtra which deeply investigates the characters of the tathāgatagarbha in a more developed form than the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra and has a significant role for establishing the tathāgatagarbha theory is the Āryaśrīmālāsūtra. all of these points form the basic idea of the tathāgatagarbha theory and are deepened by the subsequent scriptures. 15 & 22) It is another expression of the same idea of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa '. 7-11). and they represent.The Āryaśrîmālāsūtra. tathāgatagarbha. and to know the tathāgatagarbha is said to be the same as to know śūnyatā. it occupies a much more important position in the Ratna. 27. than does the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. is the whole contents of this Sūtra. lokottaradharmagarbha. That. .. and as far as the philosophical approach is concerned. In the fourth sentence. viz.. and in relation to this. than any other scripture. It is quoted more often in the Ratna. it is expounded how this tathāgatagarbha theory is an eternal truth. e. vv. & 11. i. § 5. respectively. I. in the Ratna. but deepened the idea by the phrase " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh " •which probably was declared for the first time in this Sūtra. such an observation is regarded as the real conception of śūnyatā. which identifies the garbha with the dharmakāya.The Ratnagotravibhāga The first three of those statements are based upon the Avantamsakasūtra. and those . the so-called i 5 meanings of garbha ' (clarified in the Buddhagotraśāstra). dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. and because of this co-existence of purity and impurity on the mind. and gotrasambhavârtha (p. tathatâvyatirekârtha. Here is seen the criticism on the sarva-śūnya-vāda. & prakrtipariśuddhagarbha give the full characteristic of garbha on its pure side. 4) the aśūnya and śūnya character of the garbha (Q in pp. buddhadharmas which are inseparable from the dharmakāya which is the reality. the tathāgatagarbha has got its name and is characterized.

but its research never goes beyond this. to realize the dharma64) kāya. 35 & 73). p. In another place. e. theg-pa-gcig-gi mthah). in pp. 12. with positive expressions and thereby the character of the dharmakāya or garbha approaches the Atman of the Vedāntavāda. and declares t h a t the tathāgatagarbha is only accessible to the Buddha or those who believe in the buddhayāna. in another word. 62\ 5) Such criticism of the śūnyavāda naturally leads the Sūtra to describe the dharmakāya.. It consequently admits the Nirvana only to the Buddha (Q. 7) Lastly. as well as the garbha. However the idea of the Chinese title of the Ratna. 57). the fundamental standpoint throughout this Sūtra is the ekayāna theory. the Sūtra seeks for the basis of origination of defilements in avidyāvāsabhūmi (Q. Thus we 82 63 > Cf. i. 12. 220 c. (T. in pp. the Mahāyāna inclusive of the other two Vehicles of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. § 1. > Taisho. ātman a*id śubha. Also 4 attributes of nitya. the Ratna. in pp. or of samsāra and nirvana ( Q . dhruva. while the former has the simple explanation t h a t the samsāra exists owing to the existence of the garbha which is beginningless (anādikālika). i. 64) Ibid.J. & 20).and vyavadāna-dharmas. śiva and śāśvata are used for the dharmakāya. p. is probably taken from this term. 55 & 84). 222 6. 33) which is also regarded as being anādikālika. (cf. (Q. which is nothing but the ' extreme of the ekayāna ' . e. Introduction. And to realize this ekayāna is said to acquire the anuttarasamyaksambodhi. t h a t . 72). 72) But it does not give any account of how and why such samsāra or unreal defilements come out and cover over the garbha. is nirvānadhātu. sukha. e. p . and the problem remains unsolved. the garbha's being ādhāra of pure dharmas. the acceptance of One Vehicle of the Buddha. i. 6) Another expression of the idea of the śūnya and aśūnya of the garbha is its being the support (ādhāra) of both the samklista. TAKASAKI adhering to the śūnya-vāda are criticized by being called ' śūnyatāviksiptacittā'' sattvāh. is proved by its being endowed with buddhadarmas and its being considered the ground of having intention towards the Nirvana (Q. 9. the Sūtra contends t h a t the garbha identical with the dharmakāya of such characters is not the Ātman mentioned by the tirthās 6 3 ) . One of such expressions is the tathāgata's possession of 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. i n p . This ' extreme of the ekayāna ' is translated into Chinese by title of the Ratna. or to become tathāgata. The latter point. its original word seems to be * ekayānanisthā '. in p . (Q. According to the Tibetan translation. in p . 7. accepts the buddharatna as the ultimate refuge among 3 jewels. terms ' Chiu-ching-i-ch'eng (^L J?ĪL —* ^R) ' which is identical with the Chinese . At the same time. VI.

39). The main point of its doctrine is the nonincrease and non-decrease of the dharmadhātu. depends to a great extent on this Sūtra for its fundamental standpoints and that quite a little of its original development is added to this Sūtra. dhruva. 1 & 2 are to be explained by the 9 illustrations on the defilements covering the garbha (S. Waldschmidt which is a Sanskrit equivalent for the Pali Mahāparinibbānasuttanta. There is a small Sūtra contemporary with the Śrīmālāsūtra named Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa 65>. to the tathāgatagarbha's being covered with kleśas and to its accessibility only to the Buddha. in the Sūtra. which is abbreviated in the latter to ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña '. the following fact is to be noted here. Q. 476 6). in p. 67) This work is quite a different one from the Mahāparinirvanasūtra ed. 66) In addition. the Ratna. 59 11-14). the Sūtra ascribes it to the removal of dualistic views of various kinds. the Universe. by E. p. Referring to them. mānatā (^C ^K I S ^ ^§F 'fi A ^ ¥£). and 3) three divisions of the dharmakāya under the names of sattvadhātu. are 1) inseparability of the dharmakāya and the Buddha's dharmas explained by similes of lantern and gems (cf. tr. which exposes the eternity of the dharmakāya of the Buddha from the standpoint of the Mahāyāna and borrows In one point this Sūtra seems older than the Srlmālāsūtra.The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. it has similar terms as the Srīmālāsūtra with respect to the dharmakāya. There is however no description of the non-possibility of acquiring Buddhahood on the part of the icchantikas as discussed in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra (of Mahāyāna) 67) . and those who have such dual-conception are called. in pp. 28). bodhisattva and tathāgata (Q. 3 is explained thruogh the 10 meanings of tathāgatagarbha. namely in the use of a term ' avinirmuktajñāna '. 12 & 54). The Sūtra has a passage explaining the characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in three points (AAN. says . and consequently the full identification of the sattvadhātu with the dharmakāya of the Buddha.. to its possession of innumerous dharmas or gunas. namely: 1) anādisāmnidhyasambaddhasvabhāva-śubhadharmatā anādisāmnidhyâsambaddhasvabhāva-kleśakośatā y 85) M3 î~F i£)> 2) J%* AH TPJ rf!H ' T* Ypf î^P if3»)> and 3) aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidya- that no. Special contributions of this Sūtra to the Ratna. 41) 66 \ About the perception of the garbha as identical with the dharmadhātu. . ' icchantika ' (Q. esp. See my note on the Engl. śiva and śāśvata as the 4 attributes of the dharmakāya (Q. p. of increase and decrease with respect to the sattvadhātu as well as the dharmadhātu or nirvānadhātu.The Ratnagotravibhāga know that the Ratna. The Mahāparinirvānasūtra. 2) fixation of 4 terms of nitya. whille nos. K 6. in p. In most passages. 1-23. in p.

by Fa-hien in 418 A. as one exposition of the garbha theory.J. while exposing the doctrine of tathāgatagarbha on one hand. yjgfaflfccī ? ' — -HJ 3R !?fc © ^ ft tt ft M # *£ • . p.. but the final solution of this problem seems to be the denial of the existence of such people from the ultimate point of view through introducing the idea of the Bodhisattva's compassion or the idea of the long time needed before their achieving Buddhahood. 12. 185). Another point to be noted here is the doctrine of the icchantikas. but its description is detailed in several points. emphasizes the innate possession of the buddhadhātu in every living being. p. This version (Taisho. seems to have completed its present form in days a little 68 later than those of the Srīmālā and the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. vv. for example. 37). and the Lañkāvatāra. Taisho. It may be called a unique point of this Sñtra. ātman and śubba as the result of the! double negation of misconception (viparyāsa) as the Śrīmālā did but. The Ratna. The Ratna. however. it refers often to the icchantikas who being agotra have absolutely no possibility of attaining Buddhahood. 69 ' Taisho. 74) and applies to the tathāgatagarbha the term 69 ātman >. It describes the eternity of the dharmakāya by attributing the 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. Such descriptions are sometimes contradicted in various passages. in p. Vol.. attributed the final agotratva to those icchantikas who abuse the Mahāyāna doctrine. have on the other the same opinion on this problem as the Vijñānavāda. 31. utilizes this second idea and construes the theory of icchantikas as a conventional teaching to convert people (p. Mdo. de-bshin-gśegs-pa sñih-pohi mdo-sde chen-po. The Sûtrâlañkāra. D.(Tib.The Mahāyānasūtrâlahkāra. I. The sūtra. § 7. 12. I t is said to be a work of Maitreya with a commentary by Vasubandhu. is regarded as the oldest version of the MPS. [ 40 ] . See. . there can hardly be found any new and advanced doctrine. Vol. 97 a 6 (Photo. consisting of 68 ) It is at least sure that the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is known to the author of the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. . KJ. is enriched by detail with similes (Q. tr. p. but on the other hand. repr. 367). It is one of key points for distinguishing the pure tathāgatagarbha theory from the Vijñānavāda. TAKASAKI its style of structure from the Mahāparinibbānasuttanta of Primitive Buddhism. sukha. The Sūtrâlañkāra is the only Sāstra quoted in t h e Ratna. Some Mahāyānists. 112-114) is spoken of. No. 881 6: %\l ^. Tu. 407 b. Peking Ed. where the simile of gold hidden under the ground (Cf. As for its tathāgatagarbha theory. Such an opinion is often found in the works belonging to the Vijñānavāda. which was a sort of taboo among early Buddhists.

But whether parāvrtti and parivrtti differ from each other in their sense is somehow questionable. it describes the practices of the Mahāyānistic Bodhisattvas. 1) 6 verses beginning with v. 71) A n exception is found once i n v . to the same author. and āśraya means tathāgatagarbha or gotra nh What is meant by āśrayaparāvrtti and what is meant by āśrayaparivrtti are finally the same Absolute. t r .The Ratnagotravibhāga 21 chapters. one notable thing is the use of the term 4 āśrayaparāvftti ' or 4 -parivrtti' and its meaning. which it regards as the same as parinispanna—svabhāva. This point may be called unique in this Śāstra as showing a germ of reciprocal influence between the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. [ 41 1 . treating the subject of buddhatva has a doctrine quite similar to the Ratna. 4 tathāgatagarbha\ and the 4 trikāya'-theory of 4svābhāvika\ *sāmbhogya\ and * nairmānika % with all of which we are acquainted in the Ratna. the chapter on 'bodhi\ This chapter. and the difference lies in what is meant by āśraya. 12 we have ' buddhatvam — āśraya70) After p . It expounds mainly the theory of the Vijñānavāda. This much is clear in regard to the difference between the two theories. 4 āśrayaparāvrtti '. while in the Ratna. and āśraya means ālayavijñāna. V. In the orthodox Vijñānavāda. it is inclined to approach the trisvabhāva theory in its interpretation of cittaprakrti. ' āśrayaparivrtti '. nor has any systematization on it. attributed. 15 nairātmyameva ātmani krtvā. are found in Chapter IX. ''parāvrtti'' is used. ' anābhogâpraśrabdhakriyā' with the simile of the Divine drum. The term tathāgatagarbha is used only once throughout the passages. in v. IX are said to be referring 4 to āśrayaparāvrtti \ Of them. In relation to this. The division of chapters has a resemblance to the chapters of the Bodhisattvabhūmi in the Yogâcārabhūmiśāstra. where. the Sūtrâlañkāra has various relevant passages. In this chapter we come across such terms and subjects as ' buddhatvasya śaranatva '. 31. Including one verse preserved only in the Chinese version 70\ all of the three verses of this Śāstra quoted in the Ratna. 7. but at the same time has passages referring to the ta~ thāgatagarbha as seen in the quotations in the Ratna. 12 in Chap. As if to answer this question. 4 anāsravadhātu '. 4 tathatā '. See note on t h e Engl. Rather. 1. V I I I (III & IV)-32. As for the garbha theory.. the term āśrayaparivrtti is used for characterizing dharmakāya or bodhi. according to the Chinese tradition. this Śāstra has no development to compare with the Sutras referred to above. however. the term āśrayaparāvrtti or āśrayasya parāvrtti is used for denoting the anāsravadhātu. although this Śāstra seems to accept basically the theory of the prakrtiprabhāsvaratā of citta and āgantukakleśa. 4 dharmadhātuviśuddhi '. instead of 'parivrtti'.

e. grāhya and grāhaka. 42 of the same chapter. of vijñānas (other than ālayavijñāna) is the 4 anāsravadhātu '. i. one obtains ' vibhutva ' (power) and enters upon the amalâśraya of the Buddhas. 32-33. 44 runs as follows: padārtha—deha—nirbhāsa—parāvrttir anāsravah / dhātur. 77 to be the dharmakāya. v. e. in turn.) Here the term āśraya seems to be synonymous with buddhatva as 'sarvagatâtmaka'' (v. e. 13) over other kinds of āśrayaparāvrtti is explained. i. 71) 5) Verses IX.. which refer to the investigation of samkleśa and vyavadāna. This last point is shown in v. i. tathatā. viśista. 9) v. i. defined as ' āśrayaparāvrtti-laksana ' in the commentary on v. tathāgatānām parivrttir isyate\ It is interpreted by the commentator as ' āśraya iti yo sau parivrtty āśrayas tarn darśayati* (that which is parivrtti is that which is āśraya. existing also in the śrāvaka and the pratyekabuddha. XI. which is. i. e. bījaparāvrtteh sa ca sarvatragâśrayah \\ and thereon the commentary says that ' bījaparāvrtti ' means ' ālayavijñānaparāvrtti ''. 12.. e. ' āśrayaparivrtti ' is explained.J . in the sense. e. 4) V. and anyūnânadhika. 14). IX. the commentator says that what is taught in v. XI. and that the one who has acquired this state is called ' parāvrttâśraya ' (one whose āśraya has been changed). 6) The same amalâśraya is explained in v. 2) The commentary says that by this v. i. 13. 60. which refers to the ' yogabhūmi' of Bodhisattvas.e. i. [ 42 ] . ' parāvrtti ^ of i padârtha-deha-nirbhāsa '. 42 mentions only the first 4 and the 5th bhūmi. the commentator says that by this second verse the superiority of the tathāgata abiding in that state (sthitaś ca tasmin sa tathāgato. IX. referring to ivibhutva\ speak to the effect that. which causes the disappearance of the manifestation of dvaya. 15 with a simile of sky. as the result of fixation {yoga) of mind on svadhātu. TAKASAKI syânyathāptih \ Here ' anyathāpti ' seems to be an interpretation of ' parāvrtti '. 33 is the acquisition of ālambanaviśesa (special basis). 8) In the commentary on v. 7) In the commentary on vv. dharmâlambana. ' change of basis from A to B '. due to parāvrtti of 5 indriyas and others. sama. 3) Commenting on v. the commentator mentions ' āśraya ' as the last of the 5 yogabhūmis and explains that ' āśraya' means here 4 āśrayaparāvrtti \ But v. āśraya is shown in the next verse where it is referred to by the term āryagotra characterized as vimala. the ' vimukti \ It ( = anāsravadhātu) is also ' sarvatragâśraya '. (p. 41—48. 14 refers to the 10 meanings or characters of āśrayaparāvrtti and says ' āśrayo. which is quoted in the Ratna.

11) In chapter XIV. 29 says that āśrayaparāvrtti takes place for the first time in the first Stage of Bodhisattva. we may say. e. Furthermore the ' āśrayas ' are here to be understood as caksurvijñāna. 2) āśraya = bīja = ālayavijñāna (whose parāvrtti. that there is a variety in usage of the term āśraya: 1) āśraya (in pi. āśraya should be compounded only with parivrtti. the acquisition of anuttarapada and sarvâkarajñatā takes place with those Bodhisattvas who practised the tajropama—samādhi. and not with parāvrtti. XIX. though it is not brought out clearly by the author. is annihilated or no more exists (akhyāna of asadartha). 49 runs as follows: pratisthā-bhoga-bījam hi nimittam bandhanasya hi j sāśrayāś cittacaitās tu badhyante ''tra sabījakāh fj For the second line. while at the same time there takes place the manifestation [ 43 ] . 12) v. udgraha and vikalpa-. i. 54 runs as follows: akhyāna-khyānatā jñeyā asadartha-sadarthayoh / āśrayasya parāvrttir mokso ' sau kāmacāratah Jj Here āśrayaparāvrtti is defined as the non-manifestation of the unreal objects (asadartha = nimitta. the former basis. anyathâpti is buddhatva). and 3) āśraya — āśrayaparāvrtti = tathāgatānām parivrtti = sarvatragâśraya = amalâśraya = anāsravadhātu = dharmakāya = buddhatva = = āryagotra = svadhātu. e. etc. v. 60. IX. 45) with another expression. 66). being the substratum of unreal things or phenomena. 45 & 46 say that the final āśrayaparāvrtti. 13) v. and this ' āvrtti ' is explained in the commentary to mean parāvrtti. That is the description of āśrayaparāvrtti in the Sūtrâlañkāra. etc. the commentary says: on these three nimittas are bound citta—caittā accompanied by āśrayas. in v. and vv.. the 5 outer-sense-based vijñānas. 49) and the manifestation of the reality (sadartha = tathatā). ' āvrtti ' of manas.) = caksurvijñāna. This use of the term āśraya relates to the characterization of svābhāvika or dharmakāya as the āśraya of the other two kāyas (IX. i. e. i.The Ratnagotravibhāga 10) The same parāvrtti of vijñānas are referred to in the next verse (v. because parāvrtti means 'change of basis (from A to B)'. In this third meaning. In conclusion. and as the result of parāvrtti.

11. nirasyate. 1) anya~ thâpti (in literal sense). i. to disappear (phenomenal sense). but also in the Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā. Ri 36 b 2: gshan-gyur-pa ni. e t c . defining āśraya as ālayavijñāna. ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' means āśrayasya bijasya tathatāyām amalâśraye parāvrttih ' . and due ' Parāvrtti ' is interpreted in three ways in the Sūtrâlañkâra. (gshan-gyur-pa — parāvrtti). In these two Śāstras. This supposition bears upon the authorship of the Ratna. we find āśraya in combination with parivrt. 190. Appendix to the Mahāyāyasūtrâlañkāra. Bhattacharya. In this sense. 25-26. Levi. could remain before and after the enlightenment without changing its nature. and the Dharmadharmatāvibhāga attributed to Maitreya. returning (doctrinal sense). ' tathatā-parivrtti '. And as the result of the ' parāvrtti ' into ' tathatā '. the disappearance of the asad-artha (inclusive of blja) signifies its returning to the reality. gañ kun-nas ñon-moñs-pahi chal dog cih. Sthiramati's commentary on the Madhyântavibhāga. the term āśrayaparivrtti was commonly used by the Vijñānavādins and in the Tathāgatagarbha theory. 72) [ 44 ] . 1-2. p. etc. Tib. p. This last interpretation of āśraya and its combination with parivTtti is supported by the usage of these terms in the Yogācārabhūmi. that is to say. 73) Bodhisattvabhūmi. p. because gotra. respectively. being āśraya. 3) āvrtti.of the reality (khyāna of sadartha. The commentator of the Ratna. etc.. and it is this ' manifestation ' of the reality that is meant by parivrtti 7 2 ). fragments. sā câsya niruttarā āśrayaparivrttih ' (Bodhisattvabhāmi). by V. 6 & 9. 6. 4 (āśrayaparivrtter) svabhāvapraveśas tathatā' vaimalyam āgantukamala—tathatâprakhyāna—prakhyānāya'. rnam-par byañ-bahi char gyur-paho. ed. and that before that term was introduced. 1. tathatā) which is a new āśraya. e. 2) akhyāna. On the other hand. and the Mahāyānasamgraha of Asañga has probably the same use of āśrayaparāvrtti along with its definition 7 4 ). 74) Mahāyānasamgraha. astam prayātam. with such expressions as 4 — dausthulyasya prahānad āśrayo 4 sya bodhisattvasya parivartate\ i asyâśyayah parivrtto bhavati.. gañ gshan-gyi dbañ-gi Ao-bo-ñid de-ñid-kyi gñen-po skyes-na. Part 1. 405. p. 11. ed. but not with parāvrt. not only is the term āśrayaparāvrtti found in the Sūtrâlamkāra. 11. that is to say. ' tathatā ' alone manifests itself fully without obscuration. Wogihara's edition. ' —yoginām parivrttâśrayānām sarvaklistadharma-nirbīja āśrayah parivartate* (Yogācārabhūmi. disappearance. was no doubt acquainted with both expressions—parivrtti and parāvrtti—but the Ratna. 368. could not employ the latter expression. including the Bodhisattvabhūmi. the Lañkāvatārasūtra. I I Manobhūmi). 27. Dharmadharmatāvibhāga. These facts seem to show that the term āśrayaparāvrtti was used for the first time in the Sūtrâlamkāra (kārikā) and has gradually been fixed as a technical term of the Vijñānavāda by Asañga and Vasubandhu. by S. Sde-dge edition. * tathatāyāh parivrttih ' takes place. Namely. The most important one is the third interpretation. Yogācārabhūmi. (Dharmadh)73) .

and hence is nothing but the tathāgatagarbha.fiS m ? t 11) ft ft M. the commentator of the Ratna. 76 ^ These terms are reconstructed from the Chinese translation which gives the 78) ft (ffi). (2) Buddhagotraśāstra. must be someone other than Asañga or Vasubandhu 75>. (4) Lañkāvatārasūtra and (5) Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśātra. V. referred to above is accompanied by a prose commentary whose explanation is exactly the same as Vasubandhu's commentary on this very verse. As for this. This fact cannot be a fully reliable proof for the present problem but suggests the point to some extent. 2) hetu. 10) A. THE WONKS ON THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY CONTEMPORARY WITH OR SUCCEEDING THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA There are many other works on the garbha theory which are never reffered to in the Ratna. 2) g | . the Āryaśrīmālā and the Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa76). 6) avasthāprabheda. this small Śāstra is attributed to Sāramati in the Chinese Tripitaka. and these problems are relating to the date and author of the Ratna. (3) Anuttarâśrayasūtra. § 1. in their contents. all these are known only through the Chinese sources. 10) anarthakriyā. 11) arthakriyā. 8) nitya. see Appendix I I I . 5) ft 3g &] . the first three are in close relation to the Ratna. 4) paryāya. Especially. and hence discussions will be mainly devoted to them in this chapter. 4) J £ & . and is mainly based upon two Sutras. As has been referred to above. 7) asamklista. — The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. this work seems quite consistent with the Ratna. 9) ffi JR. namely: 1) phala. 3) svabhāva. date. 8) ^ fi. and even their originality. 5) abheda. 6) ft . Except (4). 7) m Ife. The Description of the Ultimate Reality. It is the use of the six categories (sat-padârtha) beginning with svabhāva. The main point of doctrine in this work is the i bodhicittai which is synonymous with 'cittaprakrtV in the Ratna.The Ratnagotravibhāga to the specialized use of the term āśrayaparivrtti. that casts various problems about their authorship. The Chinese insertion of one verse from the Sūtrâl. though regarded as of Indian origin and preserved in the Chinese and the Tibetan Tripitakas. 3) g ft . From its contents. 12) — ft[ 45 ] following terms: 1) ^ . and 12) ekatva (or ekadhātu). There is another point which shows the close relationship between the Mahāyānasūtrālañkāra and the Ratna. The text describes this bodhicitta under 12 divisions. Among them those to be referred to here are (1) Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. 9) yoga.

a verse referring to the śūnya and aśūnya of the gotra. [ 46 ] . similes used under 10) anarthakriyā and II) arthakriyā are the same as those in Chapters 1 (among 9 illustrations). Under 2) hetu.). I of the Ratna. seems to have been written from the same standpoint as the commentator of the Ratna.'. of which the first one is identical with v. dharmâdhimukti.. e. 42-c d of the Ratna. 80) or the distinction of prakrtisthagotra and samudānītagotra in the Ratna. samādhi and karunā. the text says phala means nirvānadhātu which is nothing but the dharmakāya characterized as āśrayaparivrtti. saying ' śukladharmamayalaksana and vaimalyapariśuddhilaksana reminds us of the characterization of dharmakāya with prakrtiviśudhi and vaimalyaviśuddhi (p. and IV of the Ratna. a synonym of bodhicitta in its phala state. and emphasizing oneness of nirvana with buddhatva. a verse under 7) asamklista resembles v. and ' tathāgata' seeking for its authority in the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa. the second. Under 9) yoga. the āryasatya or the Nirvana. 1. with a verse containing the same idea as v. Under 3) svabhāva. (pp. as this text. 53 & 54 of the Ratna. prakrtyasamklistatva is said to be the own nature of bodhicitta. 6) avasthāprabheda is fully identical with that in the Ratna. the tathāgata. unlike the Sûtralañkāra.. prajñā.. it is possible that the latter is identical with the author of this text.. and the 10 characteristics of asambheda under 5) can be traced one by one in various passages in the Ratna. In 4) paryāya. the contents of 12) ekatva are the same as those under 'asambheda'' (X) in the Ratna. 1. a reference to the 2 sides of bodhicitta under 3) svabhāva. The verse in 8) nitya. Namely. explaining that dharmadhātu is. In particular. is identical with verses I. 3 in the Ratna. i. Thus examining the contents. under 1) phala. 26 ff. and Sāramati to whom this work is attributed may have been the author of the commentary of the Ratna. TAKASAKI This division has a resemblance not only in its terminology but also in its contents to the 10 meanings of the gotra described in Chap.. II. ' bodhisattva '.J .. in its classification of living beings into ' sattvadhātu ' . 34 of the Ratna. compressing and revising the form according to his own view. And lastly. we may say that the author of this text composed it on the basis of the Ratna. saying that the bodhicitta is nothing but the dharmakāya. II. did in its explanation on the ' śuddhâvasthāyām avikārârtha ([IX]-c). it explains 4 causes. and explains it in the same way as the Ratna. In this case. of neither origination nor destruction (anutpādânirodha). like ākāśadhātu. with I. in its contents. is called śubhâtmasukhanityapāramitā and so authorized by a quotation from the Srīmālāsūtra. the text has two verses. 155. The remaining parts not described above seem to be taken mostly from Chapters II & IV of the Ratna. Besides.

The Ratnagotravibhāga c 2. 66-72) are inserted under (IX) avikāra. Besides those insertions in the passages on the 10 laksanas of the garbha. II (under (VI) vrtti) and in Chap. 2) (V) yoga includes explanations of ' dharmaratna ' and ' sañgharatna ' which appeared in Chap. even in their wording. I of the Ratna. to the beginning of the work forming the nidānaparivarta' (Chap. are inserted under (IX) avikāra. like the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. are inserted between lines. 5) descriptions of the ' śūnya and aśūnya ' of the garbha along with the 4 kinds of sattvas. is attributed. . Explanations under each ' laksana ' are in most cases quite equivalent to those in the Ratna. but with the same terminology and with explanations much similar to those of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. It is translated into Chinese by Paramârtha. and 7) "> Taisho. 3) descriptions regarding Buddhology of the trikāya—theory which is taught in two places in the Ratna. I (among explanations on the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra. in Chap. of which the last one treats the subject of the 10 meanings of the gotra under the title: Analysis of the characteristics (laksana) (of the Tathāgatagarbha). The main differences between the two works as mentioned in the previous paragraph are as follows: 1) 9 illustrations of the garbha taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra along with the explanations of the 9 kinds of defilements and of the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra (Ratna. II of the Ratna. The Buddhagotraśāstra is another work which. No. satkāyadrstipatitā. pp. but sometimes doctrines based upon the Vijñānavāda are interwoven among passages. are inserted in (X) asambheda. according to the Chinese tradition.The Buddhagotraśāstra. important changes of arrangement in this work are 6) shift of the deśanāprayojana ' which is at the end of Chap. by ' j f f$f\ . but this work poses interesting problems for us because of its very close similarity to the Ratna. I). and sometimes those passages which are in other chapters or other parts of Chap. p. viz. I in the Ratna.. are inserted under (IX) avikāra as characteristics of the dharmakāya. I in the Ratna. 4) explanations of (VII) nitya and (VIII) acintya in Chap. etc. by '^C ^ft '. in most parts of the text. The whole text consists of 4 chapters. tr. to Vasubandhu 7?) and highly esteemed among Chinese Buddhists throughout the centuries as a representative work on the garbha theory. expounds the 10 meanings of the gotra described in the Ratna. ' ft ft ffffl '. This attribution is rather doubtful.. 72). 1610.

and one identical with v. in passages other than those referred to above. as an authority. 23 of the Sūtrâlañkāra which is preserved in the parallel passage in the Chinese version of the Ratna. pp. This author's opinion appears in descriptions of the ' 5 dosas ' and the 4 5 gunas ' in relation to the purpose of the teaching. It also indicates that this work was composed after the Ratna. but there is no doubt about their being taken from the Ratna. Japanese. III-V of the Ratna. and the first one is said to be taken from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. 154 & 155 of the Ratna. 51. " On the Uttaratantra". [ 48 ] . of the 6 meanings of avikāra. (K. some of which are based upon the Vijñānavāda. Annals of the Nihon Bukkyogaku-kyokai. Another point of interest is the use of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra in the Buddhagotraśāstra. These two points show that the purpose of this text is to describe the buddhagotra only from its gotra aspect but not from 4 aspects as in the Ratna. Tsukinowa's information. for which the source is probably the Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. VI § 1 & 2). These passages show the more developed doctrines. Tsukinowa. of the 5 meanings of the garbha taken from the Srīmālāsūtra. Thus examining. we are led to imagine that. has a subtitle: Sandhimocana Mahāyāna-uttara-śāstra. 1935). the name of the source is not mentioned.J. 21-23) and Chaps. etc. IX. Furthermore. is also called ' Sandhinirmocana'. I. though the verse is not found in any edition of that Sūtra. dharmakāya. of the ' 5 laksanas and 5 gunas ' of dharmakāya as one of trikāya (in [IX] avikāra). of the attainment of the Buddhahood by the icchantikas (in [IV] karman). has a similar character of being * sandhi—nirmocana ' in its position among the Mahāyāna Buddhism. vol. as far as the garbha theory is concerned. the text is written in prose except for a few verses which are quotations. along with its prose commentary. and 78) "phe Ratna. the Ratna. (See Introduction. TAKASAKĪ shift of the explanation of the 3 meanings of the term tathāgatagarbha to Chapter III with detailed explanation. except for the first one. but arranging them more systematically by adding the author's own opinion. of the 3 natures of the garbha taught in (I) svabhāva. This relates to the fact that the text is lacking those passages on the 4 aspects of gotra (Ratna. one Tibetan version of the Ratna. the text expresses the doctrines of the Vijñānavāda such as 4 3-fold nihsvabhāva ' ' 3-fold svabhāva ' and i 5-dharmas '. An interesting fact is that among these quoted verses. Why such a statement is made is not clear 78>. According to Prof. Throughout these passages. 7. For these. of the āśrayaparivrtti. Thus the Buddhagotraśāstra is based upon two works. we have 3 which are identical with vv. this work was composed by borrowing many sentences from the Ratna. and nirvana (in [V] yoga). So it is not impossible to imagine that the Ratna. which is never quoted in the Ratna.

N a m e l y . This standpoint is somewhat similar to that of the Sūtrâlañkāra and hence the author was probably a Vijñānavādin who had a tendency similar to that of Yasubandhu. Tathāgatabodhi—p. As far as this point is concerned. t h e pure ' faith i n t h e B u d d h a as often referred to in t h e Ratna. To solve this problem. ^ •$£ p p . ^JJ \fâ p p . " Busshoron no Ichi—kosatsu "' (Japanese). 160 ff. 319. i. while C h a p . t h e S t ū p a worship a n d the eulogy on t h e B u d d h a h a d originally taken place a m o n g a group of B u d d h i s t from which t h e M a h ā y ā n i s t c o m m u n i t y came i n t o existence. Bukkyoshigaku. Leaving aside the first and the last two chapters which form its introduction and conclusion. V I I is a k i n d of eulogy on the B u d d h a (buddhastotra) a n d Chap. These are quite identical with the 4 aspects of gotra described in the Ratna.. see M. 80) The original of C h a p . Tathāgatakriyā-p. Furthermore.e. b u t i t shows t h e existence of a n essential interrelation among t h e m . N o . Taisho. flX '• [ 49 ] . respectively. we should next examine the Anuttarâśrayasūtra 7 9 ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga ^ke Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. j{\\ < 3$. I . the Chinese attribution of this text to Vasubandhu seems quite reasonable. but a doubt arises about its date because of its being later than the Ratna. respectively. Tohoku. 688. N o s . a similarity of its chapter divisions to those of the Ratna. IV. . a n d whose main subject is t h e a d m i r a t i o n of merits of t h e S t ū p a worship as t h e highest observance of Buddhists. Tathāgatadhātu-parivarta. & #U ^K •=p 82 p p . and trying to combine both theories. 689). and V. I I I . Tathāgataguna-p.. IV. being a work on the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. the Sūtra emphasizes the inconceivability of these 4 subjects. respectively 8 1 ) . jf> pp. § 3. the central part of this Sūtra consists of 4 chapters whose titles are II. ) This term is restored from the Chinese * 3PīÇ _fc. %[i Pfś. a n d t h e core of t h e tathâgatagarbha t h e o r y lies in its ekayāna theory. one may notice in this Sūtra. Hattori. T h e connection of t h e tathāgatagarbha theory w i t h t h e S t ū p a worship a n d t h e eulogy on t h e B u d d h a is n o t a merely mechanical and accidental connection a t all. V I I I Parlndana—parivarta is a n enlargement of t h e conclusion of t h e Adbhutasūtra i n accordance w i t h enlargement of the central p a r t . 81) I n Chinese. but their description can be traced word by word in the 79) p o r these problems on the Buddhagotraśāstra discussed above. which quotes the Sūtrâlañkāra. p. respectively 8°). is t h e Adbhutasūtra whose versions are available in Tibetan a n d Chinese as well ( T i b . vol. 1955. Furthermore we have to put the Anūttarâśrayasūtra between the Ratna. The term anuttarâśraya8 2 ) seems to mean the Tathāgata that possesses these 4 aspects. at the end of each chapter. At a glance.The Anuttarâśrayasūtra. and the Buddhagotraśāstra.

23 & 24 8 3 ) . it seems to show that this Sūtra was composed after the Ratna.h 1S $ S . This hypothesis will be proven upon examining the contents of the Sūtra. but quite to the contrary. but names for the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas are identical with those mentioned in the Ratna. 24. but utilized in the Buddhagotra84). of which (3) paripantha is included under (III) phala in case of the Ratna.8-9. the Sūtra refers to ' āśrayaparivritti ' with its 4 characteristics which are not in the Ratna. 470 c. (4) phala. (5) karman. a stronger factor which shows that this Sūtra is an imitation of the Ratna. (6) yoga. p.. Taisho. while the last six (nos. (8) nitya. the Sūtra mentions the 180 āvenikadharmas including the 80 anuvyañjanas which are not in the Ratna.17-18. ft ft fw .J . (2)-(4) are identical with (II) hetu and (III) phala among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna. are included in the chapter on tathāgatadhātu in this Sūtra but with a slight difference in arrangement and wording. Its ten divisions are (1) svabhāva. Although (9) āvenika has no equivalent passage in the Ratna. TAKASAK. (7) vrtti.. I. are identical with the last five subjects among the 8 meanings of' bodhi ' in the Ratna. p... Taisho 16. Tathāgataguna—parivarta. p. = Anuttarâśraya 473 c. its idea is taught here and there. (9) āvenika and (10) acintya. However. RGV. is that this Sūtra refers to certain passages which are quotations from other Sutras in the Ratna.. 2. 83) Ratna. 21. II) 1. Besides these similarities with the Ratna. but under the chapter on ' bodhi ' .. 55. 12. This fact does not show that the Ratna. A passage on the meaning of gotra being sadāyatanaviśesa taken from the Sadāyatanasūtra (Taisho 16 p. 84) fe . 6-10). a passage on anutpādānirodhatā of the Tathāgata taken from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra (p. imitated the structure of this Sūtra or borrowed such an idea from this Sūtra. It is only the chapter on Tathāgatakriyā that differs entirely from the Ratna. As to Chap. On the other hand. whose idea is fundamentally identical with (I) svabhāva of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. in the explanation of (1) svabhāva. Taisho. IV. respectively.9-25. 22. p. 31. For instance: (Chap. as a kind of sutralization of the latter. in its contents. RGV.5. 469 b. (3) paripantha. (2) hetu. This Sūtra uses a categorization with respect to the characteristics of gotra or dhātu. 475 c. 16.. 16-17).3. 470c. as if they were its own sentences. except for (9) āvenika. 5-10). Namely. in its prose commentary on v. similar to that in the Ratna. This is actually a mixture of the 10 meanings of4 gotra ' and the 8 meanings of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. 22. 476 b-c. [ 50 ] .I Ratna. 469 c. the six subjects starting with (V) yoga among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna. 801 b.

RGV. r si ] . which is the highest basis {anuttarâśrayd). 11. RGV. 49. 3. 15. 7-48. 4. 13. 14. 6. p. 24. dharmadhātuparama. a simile of the Vaidūrya stone taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. a passage on the Icchantikas taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. 10-14). 470 c. p. 47. p. taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. 18). 469 6. 16-41. reshaping its contents into the frame of sūtra style and keeping !ts stress on the bodhi aspect. 470 a—6. 28. 5-9).3). (Chap. a passage on the 4 gunapāramitās (śubha. real and unreal. a passage on the inconceivability of dhātu taken from the same Sūtra (p. RGV. 8. the Anuttarâśrayasūtra is clearly a composition based upon the Rotna. 13). 472 a. taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. p. pp. amuktajña.2-5).The Ratnagotravibhāga 3. a passage on the 3 epithets of the Tathāgata. ākāśadhātuparyavasāna. 10. 73. etc. a passage on dhātu being āśraya of all dharmas. RGV.8-9). a parable of a householder with respect to the Bodhisattva's compassion taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. 10). pp. RGV. 5. a passage on the 3 states of dhātu (avasthāprabheda) taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. 1-2). a description of the Buddha. 7. RGV.3-4). RGV. 26.1-4). 40. his teaching and disciples. 470 c. 9. being an authority for the Triple Jewel taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. a passage on dharmakāya endowed with the Buddha's properties w are avinirbhāga. RGV.16). and aparāntakotinistha taken from the Daśabhūmikasūtra (p. 32.19-31. p. 30. 476 b. 22. 470 a. p. a passage on cittaprahrîi and āgantukakleśa taken from the same Sūtra (p. p. a passage on the penetration of tathāgatajñāna into the living beings taken from the Tathāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka ( p . 470 b. RGV. 472 a. Thus. pp. ātma. nitya) taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. RGV. 11-12). RGV. 471 6. sukha. pp. (Chap. 4696-c. 28. 12. 2-6. viz.16-27. p. RGV. p. 471 a. a passage on the inconceivability of tathāgatakriyā taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. 470 a. V) 17. acintya. RGV. 9-50. Ill) 12.469 6. a passage on those who are proud of their conception of śūnyatā taken from the Kāśyapaparivarta (p. RGV. 469 c. p. 79.7). a passage on tathāgatagarbha covered with millions of defilements taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. 471 c. RGV. 16. 49.5). pp.

. No. 86 * For example. 12. The latter interpretation is identical with the Ratna. . seems to have tried to purify its standpoint on the garbha theory. 2) p. One is ' ālayavijñāna' and the other is 'gotra'. p. p. .6 (a part of a quotation from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra). Paramârtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (Taisho. while interpreting a verse from the Mahāyāna—abhidharmasūtra (Anādikāliko dhātuh) which is quoted also in the Ratna. p. as an authority. pp. 31. a combination of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. i. This supposition will be supported by the fact that among Chinese translations of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya of Vasubandhu. [ 52 ] . 4) p. 469 b-c = RGV. TAKASAKI But what was the intention of the author in composing this * Sūtra' ? This Sūtra is quoted only in the Buddhagotra. but intentionally. If we may surmise so.5 (a quotation from the 3) p. 41. 469 c = RGV. 469 6 = RGV. As 85) Quotations of the Anuttarâśraya in the Buddhagotraśāstra are as follows: . in turn. ) = AÂS.8). It was after Vasubandhu that the combination again took place. pp. but it was not intentional nor as clear. 11-50. p. . 806 6 ($£ $ | ± 16-41.. 1595) also quotes the AĀS (Vol. Of course. ft H? I S . 16-17 (a quotation from the Sadāyatanasūtra). But the quotation is found neither in the Tibetan version nor in Hsūan-chuang's translation of the same text. while the orthodox Vijñānavādins like Vasubandhu have gradually deepened their theory on the side of pure Vijñānavāda. which has. and both are translated into Chinese by Paramârtha 85>. tathāgatagarbha (Taisho. 469 c = RGV. the latter was a great and respected scholar of the Vijñānavāda. 812 (#H M _ h ft $ S nft. p. 259 c-260 a = AĀS. A key to solve this question as well as the question of the author of the Buddhagotra seems to lie in the hands of Paramârtha. Attribution of the Buddhagotra to Vasubandhu will be a subsidiary proof of the fact that the Ratna.. the combination of both theories was already traced in the Sūtrâlañkāra to some extent. 469 6 = RGV. (77. some insertion between lines.e. 806 6 (i\\ $$ _L 13-15 (a commentary passage). More interesting is the fact that the quotation is much more similar to the Ratna.) = AÂS. and hence it was not desirable for the Vijñānavādins to use the Ratna. Paramârtha's translation gives two meanings for ' dhātu'. 31. 40. 55. ft M ! £ . p. a quotation from the Sāgaramati-pariprcchā).13-73. p. Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa). it was probably some one in the circle to which Paramârtha had belonged or rather Paramârtha himself who composed these Sūtra and Śāstra as authorities for the propagation of his unique doctrine. was not written by Asañga or Vasubandhu. 49. and the Ratna. the garbha theory is inserted only in Paramârtha's translation 86>. ) = AĀS. pp. . 7. p. than to the Anuttarâśraya. 156 c).J.

However. because of its exposition of the cittamātra and garbha theory. This latter opinion is not 87) According to old Chinese Catalogues on the Tripitaka. there is some doubt about its authorship. 8 7 ). Another point which seems to be under the influence of the Ratna. but in China it was respected by the followers of the Avatamsaka school as well. [ 53 ] . Therefore. and these two are combined under the theory of cittamātra taught in the Avatamsaka. and it is in one sense the most systematic exposition of its kind.. That is why the Lañkāvatāra is regarded by modern scholars as a work produced after Vasubandhu. This is another Sūtra not known to the Ratna. It is impossible that such an old poet is the author of this work containing such a new theory. _ The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda—śāstra. among which the garbha theory. One point of similarity to the Ratna.D. the Lañkāvatārasūtra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra. The Lañkāvatāra is actually a collection of various theories among Mahāyāna Buddhism. It is attributed to Aśvaghosa. its doctrine is purely of the garbha theory in spite of its use of the term ālayavijñāna. is its establishment of tathatā as the ultimate principle that is the basis of both klista and aklista elements. This is quite significant for determing the fate of the garbha theory. the date of the Ratna. (prior to this translation) there was 6aid to have been another translation done by Dharmaksema (fig ^Sg g||j) between 412-433 A. is the expression of faith in the Buddha Amitāyus towards the end of the treatise. It reminds us of the samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā of the Ratna. and the Vijñānavāda are prominent. cannot be placed after that year and probably lies in the 4th cent.The Ratnagotravibhāga other examples of this combination we have two works. but now missing. A. even in those of Vasubandhu. but some are trying to prove that this work is of Chinese origin in the absence of Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. As far as the present problem is concerned. Later Vijñānavādins regarded the Lañkāvatāra as one of the authorities. As for the Śraddhotpādaśāstra. to which we will refer at the end of this introduction. The unique point of these two works with respect to the garbha theory is their identification of the tathāgatagarbha with the ālayavijñāna— an identification which has never been seen in previous works.D. ç 4. the famous poet contemporary with the King Kaniska. there is no difference even if we accept this tradition. and it was translated for the first time into Chinese in 433 A. Some scholars wanted to solve this contradiction by regarding the author as another Aśvaghosa different from the famous poet.D.

It is clear that the Sutras which expose the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' with similes of megha. signify the Prajñāpāramitā and the like. Namely. the Ratna. On the Aryacandrottaradārikāvyākarana—nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra {Japanese). in contrast with the Prajñāpāramitā taken as the * pūrva ' exposition. But one difficulty in accepting this opinion is how to explain the existence of two versions of this treatise in China. and there were probably a great deal of influences from the Ratna. and that. in its contents. this work is in the same position as the Buddhagotra. 14. detailed examination of this Sūtra could not be pursued up to now. 83-86). saying that the text was exposed in order to establish the existence (astitva) of buddhadhātu so that one could avoid the faults created by the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' described in the ' previous ' Sutras (I. TAKASAKI untenable since. no. r si i .J . Its name. is Arya— candrottaradārikā-vyākarana (Tohoku no. this Ratna. See N.The Ratna. 1957 (pp. the later exposition. as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā. the subtitle: Uttaratantra denotes the position of the Ratna.D. The second translation was made by Siksānanda who is said to have come from Khotan. 480) Its composition seems to be later in date than the Ratna. 1. calls itself the ' uttara-tantra '. being translated by Paramârtha. svapna. according to the Tibetan version. There is no work which refers to this treatise in Indian literature. But this ' asti-vāda ' does not mean the negation of 'śūnya-vāda\ Rather. At the end of Chapter I. expresses its purpose of discourse. the Ratna. No." On what point does then the Ratna. criticize the Prajñāpāramitā ? As a matter of terminology. 158-9). in the history of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the sense " one that comes after the Prajñāpāramitā. IN MAHĀYĀNA BUDDHISM § 1. etc. 191) and it was translated into Chinese in 591 A. criticizing the latter. Takata. . but it is at least sure 88 that this work shows the final development of the garbha theory \ VI. V. THE POSITION OF THE RATNA. As I received this information only recently. the Ratna. The problem is still under consideration. (Taisho. emphasizes ' asti' in contrast with the ' śūnya ' of the Prajñāpāramitā.. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies {īndogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyū) Vol. regards itself as the real successor to the ' śūnya-vāda ' of the Prajñāpāramitā declaring that the real meaning of ' śūnyatā ' is to know the ' astitva' of the Germ having within itself both the ' śūnya' of defilements and the ' aśūnya"1 of 88) There is another Sñtra which exposes the garbha theory and bears a resemblance to the Ratna.

In other words. on the other hand. and hence the word ' śūnya' implies ' aśūnya ' of this Germ.. This point becomes clear after examining the 5 faults described in the Ratna. (I. the commentary mentions ' jñāna '. We may take this statement as an eX planation of ' śūnyam sarvam '. This is nothing but a function of providing benefits for others. identical with the Absolute. therefore. The text calls both kind of people those of ' śūnyatāviksiptacitta ' (P. man will have the fault of ' ātmasneha '. This seems to be the reason for maintaining ' ātmasneha ' as the last of the 5 faults and ' maitrī ' as the remedy for it. and hence is based upon the Compassion. the latter have the fault of ' bhūtadharmâpavāda '.e. karunā or maitrī. assumes for that reason many faults among the followers of the prajñāpāramitā. for the world. and characterized as lokottara and laukika. 154—5). These two sides of 'prajñā' are shown in another passage by the terms avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna). The former have a kind of ' abhūtagrāha '. and. ' prajñā ' has two functions. to negate the ' abhūtagrāha '. is to remove such faults in order to make known the real meaning of ' śūnya-vāda '. However. emphasizes karunā along with prajñā as associating inseparably with each other for the acquisition of the Buddhahood. the Ratna. the 3rd fault: ' abhūtagrāha ' denotes the ' Ātmavāda ' of Heretics or the ' sarvâstivāda ' of the Abhidharma and is said to be removed by ' prajñā '. some become the ' nāstika ' and never believe in the existence of the dharmakāya but rather abuse such a reality. when this ' prajñā ' is stated to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. As the Prajñāpāramitā was lacking in a clear explanation of such a kind. as a natural outflow of ''prajñā '. that is to say.The Ratnagotra\ibhāga the Buddha 's Qualities. especially the last three of them. This is exactly what is aimed at by the Prajñāpāramitā. but to its short or unclear explanation. respectively. Namely. This [ 55 ] . Here the term ' laukika ' signifies the function of jñāna to make known the reality to the ' worldly ' beings. Thus the criticism is directed not to the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā itself. as represented by 4 prajñā' and ' jñāna '. which forms the 4th of the 5 faults. defining ' sarvam ' as ' sarvakleśa ' from which all phenomena arise and which excludes the Germ inseparably associated with the Buddha's Qualities. respectively. and to establish the ' bhūtadharma '. Thus the Ratna. 75). Unless this function of jñāna operates. i. Here ' jñāna ' has the character of criticizing ' prajñā ' in the sense of affirming the existence of the reality undone by i prajñā \ But the text seems to regard this ''jñāna ' as one side of ''prajñā''. As the remedy against this fault. some regard ' śūnya ' as something substantial. the aim of the Ratna. many people are likely to misunderstand the meaning of ' śūnya ': on the one hand.

the text mentions four kinds of practice. p. (pp. but it is. This is a kind of revolution in Buddhist thought. viz. It seems to show that the Ratna. e. Another important point to be noted here is the positive expression of the dharmakāya to be the śubha-ātma-sukha-nityagunapāramitā. teach the notions of anitya. These four terms. Buddh. viz. and most scriptures. P. Saddh. adhimukti. in this Ratna. anātman and aśubha as the correct view (aviparyāsa) with respect to the dharmas. duhkha. Here we see the stress lies more on the karunā than on the prajñā and this standpoint relates to the ekayāna theory whose origin is in the Saddharmapundarīka. etc. which declares the eternity of the Buddha89>. as has been examined above. never afflicts the world. as the cause for attaining the dharmakāya. XV-1: Acintyā kalpasahasrakotyo yāsām pramānam na kadāci vidyate / prāptā mayā esa tadagrabodhir dharmamca deśemy ahu nityakālam // (Bibl. prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā are relevant to the present discussion. understands the prajñāe. i. Of them. ātman and śubha are usually regarded as wrong notions with respect to the phenomena. or in the garbha theory in general. another expression of the same idea of ' dhātvastitva ' being explained through the characters of the gotra as 4 śūnya ' and i aśūnya '. it is said that the result of the former practice is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' ātmapāramitā ' extending as far as the limit of space (ākāśadhātu—paryavasāna). Also. the ātmavāda of heretics and the like. Special attention is to be paid to the point that the ātmapāramitā is said to be the result of the practice of ' prajñāpāramitā. 323).J . prajñāpāramitā. And the Bodhisattva is said to be the only one who practises both prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā and who. The practice of prajñāpāramitā is said to be the remedy for all kinds of substantial views. 89) [ 56 ] .. the phenomena. samādhi.g. nitya. In the Prajñāpāramitā. while here the same term is used for the function of establishing the dharmakāya expressed in the positive way. owing to the practice of karunā. while that of the latter is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' nityapāramitā ' continuing as far as the limit of time (aparântakotinistha). but. including the Prajñāpāramitā. never remains in the Nirvana (apratisthitanirvāna). the function of prajñā (or prajñāpāramitā) is to establish the correct notions of anitya. ed. sukha. and mahākarunā. these prohibited terms are used as attributes of the dharmakāya but in the reverse order. 27-35) Namely. In contrast. while the practice of mahākarunā is said to be the remedy for any selfishness whose typical form is found in the Pratyekabuddha. owing to the practice of prajñā. TAKASAKI point is also mentioned in the explanation of the process from cause to effect with respect to the Germ.

Concretely speaking. is a successor of the Prajñāpāramitā in its introduction of the idea of parârthasampatti into jñāna. Don dam yañ-dag-hphags) on this point. No. 437-439. while the latter signifies what is attained by the former. negation of the wrong view and manifestation of prajñā o f the reality. not accompanied by karunā '. and hence on karunā. However. which opens with a question by Paramārthasamudayagata Bodhisattva (Tib.). § 2. The Sūtra says 9 1 ): By the first Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. 2. This is the Vijñānavāda whose authority is sought for in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. Nihsvabitāvalaksanaparivarta. This statement is placed towards the end of the chapter. there was taught the doctrine of the āryasatya and on its basis the astivāda of the Abhidharma has been developed. What is criticized is ' prajñā. G. (Lamotte. but there was a variant in each school in the usage of both terms. the Ratna. sought for its basic term in jñāna as the Sarvāstivāda did. In clarifying such a structure of prajñāpāramitā. . in spite of its similarity to the Sarvāstivāda in its analytical method. 676) Chap. Lamotte (1935). In contrast with the logical approach of Abhidharma Buddhism. p. which changed the character of jñāna to its ground. prajñā and jñāna are of a great significance in Buddhism since its beginning. prajñā is the intellect or intuition by means of which the Buddha attained the bodhi. and in primitive Buddhism there seems to have been no strict distinction in the use of these terms. Literally and originally. which. This prajñā of the Prajñāpāramitā and consequently of Nāgārjuna was again analyzed by the Vijñānavāda. but this prajñā included both aspects of jñāna and prajñā. 91) Sandhinirmocanasūtra tr. A critical approach to this subject will be one of the big themes in future studies of Buddhist thought. V. 90 J [ 57 ] . Vol.f p. Tokyo. Diagramatically speaking. Tib. and the Vijñānavāda. by E. ed. 16. This astivāda was negated by the Prajñāpāramitā and there has been established the śūnyavāda of the MahāBoth terms. This distinction is of fundamental character throughout the history of Buddhism.The Ratna. pp. There is another system in Mahāyāna Buddhism that criticizes the Prajñāpāramitā in a manner similar to the way done by the Ratna. op. cit. prajñāpāramitā as consisting and jñāna or of prajñā and karunā. But a revolutionary point of Mahāyāna Buddhism in comparison with Abhidharma Buddhism is in the emphasis laid on * parārthasampatti'. that of Mahāyāna Buddhism may be characterized as ' practical'. Sasaki. (Chapitre VII. pp. (Japanese") Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. the Sarvāstivāda laid stress on jñāna in which the function of prajñā is implied. 65 f. 85 f. 693 c-697 c. while the Prajñāpāramitā emphasized prajñā as the highest 'practice '. Taisho. the former has a somewhat functional character. such an analysis was made for the first time by Pali Abhidhamma Buddhism. 30-31). or ' prajñā which does not work out in the world as jñāna '. " Prajñā and Jñāna ". by Hsûan-Chuang (Taisho. deserves to be called the successor to the Prajñāpāramitā. and the Vijñānāvāda. 90>. while jñāna is the knowledge which forms the contents of bodhi. in turn. ' Sandhinirmocana' on account of ' nihsvabhāva' is the main topic of this chapter. in other words. as mentioned above.The Ratnagotravibhāga paramitā in its two aspects. No. I I . Cf.

In spite of such interrelations of both theories. we have already observed in the Sūtrâlañkāra the co-existence of the garbha theory and the doctrine of trisvabhāva and ālayavijñāna. The amalgamation of both asti. and lastly resulted in the amalgamation of both theories. op. has many authorities for its doctrine that are. & samdhā. at least on the commentary. to analyze and clarify the significance of the śūnya—vada.. samdhāya.and śūnya-vāda is now done by the Sandhinirmocana. For example the Prajñāpāramitā teaches the nihsvabhāvatā in regard to the sarvadharma. cit. Preface. as has been referred to above. As the justification for this statement. the Sūtra establishes the doctrine of the 3 meanings with respect to the nihsvabhāvatā as the basis of the trisvabhāva theory93>. may be observed in the fact that there is no quotation from the Sandhinirmocana. of śūnya and aśūnya. Furthermore the Ratna. terms borrowed by the Ratna. 3 (p. or āśrayaparivrtti and the six categories beginning with svabhāva for describing the ultimate reality. 94 ^ See Note on Introduction. although it criticizes the PrajñāCf. or ' with a hidden intention ' 92>. but what is meant by this nihsvabhāvatā is not so clear. not acquainted with the Vijñānavāda at all. Also. Chap. v .ASAKI yāna. The quotation of a verse from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra (anādikāliko dhātuh—) also shows the influence of the Vijñānavāda on the Ratna. E d g e r t o n B H S D i e . Avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna). 3. the Disclosure of the Knot or Secret Doctrine.. the Sūtra continues: The ultimate doctrine of the Mahāyāna is no doubt taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. is in one sense a sandhinirmocana on account of prajñā94) and the Sandhinirmocana may be termed the uttaratantra as the ultimate exposition of the śūnyavāda described from the two sides. cannot be regarded as a work of the Vijñānavada. 93) 92) [ 58 ] . the Ratna. the unique standpoint of the Ratna. IAK. samdhi. s. in turn. This standpoint is precisely held in common with the Ratna. 67). the Ratna. the Sūtra is called ' sandhi-nirmocana '. but its way of exposition is ' with an esoteric meaning. in its criticism of the Prajñāpāramitā. Just because of this standpoint. Indeed. cit. Lamotte. Along this line. nor any use of terms like trisvabhāva or ālayavijñāna: hence. Such a community of historical background brought the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda to assume a similar appearance of ' astivāda ' and to have common doctrines to a great extent.. 14-16). i. that is to say. e. VII. pp. and it is the last and the highest Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. from the Vijñānavāda. V. are. These facts seem to tell us that the garbha theory.J. The purpose of the Sandhinirmocana is to explain this meaning of nihsvabhāva ' in a clear manner '. He refers to the source of this trisvabhāva in the Prajñāpāramitā {op.

of the real meaning of śūnyatā.The Ratnagotravibhāga nāramitā. The passage referred to above is used for explaining how the cittaprakrti is real and how the āgantukakleśa is unreal. In other words. the Vijñānavāda was really a successor of the Abhidharma Buddhism. what is done by the Vijñānavāda is the investigation of this very point of difference between sattvadhātu and the Buddha. the Vijñānāvada seeks for the process towards its realization in the acquisition of ' jñāna ' as a result of the conversion of ālayavijñāna. is a completely different system from the Vijñānavāda by origin? and. On the other hand. as shown in the title of one scripture. the emphasis lies on the identification of gotra or garbha with the dharmakāya and any difference of the garbha or the sattvadhātu from the dharmakāya is rather neglected. Thus the standpoint of the Vijñānavāda is the analysis of phenomena from the viewpoint of the sattvadhātu and thereby it stands in a clear contrast with the garbha theory which. and ' citta '. the ultimate purpose is the realization of bodhi. The starting point of the garbha theory lies in the doctrine of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa' and the stress is laid on the purification of the mind which is regarded as the attainment of the Enlightenment. In its methodology. not as pure cittaprakrti. Of course. we find a germ of such a theory in the Ratna. or manifestation As regards bodhi. and hence deserves to be called ' mahāyānâbhidharma ' . This is a weak point of the garbha theory. but there is no explanation of the reason why such unreal kleśas are originated from the cittaprakrti. This cittaprakrti is unconditionally identified with bodhi or dharmakāya and is called ' dhātu ' or ' gotra \ From such a theory of cittaprakrti. [ 59 ] . even for the Vijñānavāda. its analytical method found the origin of the nature of sattvadhātu covered with kleśas in vijñāna as the function of distinguishing object from subject. in the passage where the origination of the 3 impurities (samkleśa) of kleśa. and with this ' jñāna ' acquired. The term cittamātra is replaced by and explained more concretely as ' vijñaptimātra ' . or as the basis (āśraya) of phenomena. exposes its doctrine always from the viewpoint of the dharmakāya or bodhi. never uses the expression of cittamātra. When the Sandhinirmocana established the theory of trisvabhāva as the result of the analysis of nihsvabhāvatā taught in the Prajñāparamitā. karman and janman from cittaprakrti by the force of ' ayoniśomanasikāra' is set forth. In fact. in turn. somewhat precedes the Vijñānavāda. but it was the Abhidharma based upon the śūnyavāda of the Prafñāpāramitā. the Ratna. in its possession of many Sutras. but as something that manifests kleśa. is named ' âlayavijñāna'. we may expect the development of the cittamātra theory as exposed in the Avatamsaka or the Lañkâvatāra. Nevertheless.

e. and why the Ratna. in the period when the Vijñānavāda had formed an independent school as the rival of the Mādhyamika. but of an essential character. Furthermore. i. This point is accepted in the Ratna. while ālayavijñāna can never be identical with 4 avikalpajñāna ' and in 4 jñānâpti ' . the garbha theory was no doubt of an independent character. otherwise it cannot. gotra involves two sides. too) to the Upanisadic philosophy in the expression of 95) According to Paramārtha. being 4anādikāliko dhātuh'' and the ' āśraya of sarvadharma ' . [ 60 ] . failure to introduce the ālayavijñāna made the garbha theory weak in its explanation of the gotra as the substratum (ādhāra) of Samsāra or the phenomenal world. XAJS. e..1 it is said.j . 4 avihalpajñāna ' can realize itself in the world. could remain thereby. At its starting point. namely 'prakrtistha' and *samudānīta ' . The only difference. Thus this 4 jñāna ' is characterized as ' laukika ' ' prsthalabdha ' . was the first systematized and at the same time the last independent and pure exposition of the garbha theory. and hence has the same structure as 4 avikalpajñāna ' and 4 tatprsthalabdha '. is regarded as fully identical with bodhi or dharmakāya. and there was an attempt at identification. in the field of the pure garbha theory. i. At the same time. Because of this weak point. though being anādikāliko dhātuh and being āśraya of sarvadharma. (and the Vijñānavāda. This absorption seems to have taken place not so long after the Ratna. owing to which function the basic prajñā.A&AK. however. in spite of its acceptance of the Vijñānavāda in its interpretation of4 jñāna * and others. such an innovation of the Vijñānavāda resulted in the absorption of the garbha theory into the Vijñānavāda. and ' jñānâpti ' is said to be the result of the revolution (parāvrtti) of āśraya. probably influenced by the tathāgatagarbha theory. This is the reason why the Ratna. is that the gotra. of garbha with ālayavijñāna. however. it no longer remains. never introduced the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. ālayavijñāna. change of basis from ālayavijñāna to jñāna. always remains as a principle of ' samklistadharma ' and is never regarded as identical with dharmakāya 9 5 ) . and kjñānâpti ' is said to be the perfect manifestation (pari-vrtti) of such ' āśraya \ while in the Vijñānavāda. the * vijñaptimātratā' can be understood. In other words. as seen in the Lahkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda. preventing the former from establishing an independent school of its own. and the Ratna. different from the Vijñānavāda. the garbha theory in its later development could not but introduce the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. One thing to be added here is the similarity of the Ratna. ālayavijñāna is said to have a mixed character of real and unreal (JfiÇ -%£ 7(\\ ' o )• This characterization seems to be his unique interpretation of that term.

V. being the manifestation of śūnyatā. 96) A verse of the Ratna. the Absolute taught in the Ratna. This subject is. e. Prof. (The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Kyoto. § 3. viz. . when the Lañkāvatāra is translated into Chinese for the first time. Chap. A. and I cannot but reserve its investigation for my future studies 97>. To clarify the historical and social background of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. Murti has appeared on this field of comparative study. i.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga the Absolute with positive terms 96) . R. At the same time. As a result of investigations throughout the previous passage. 97) Recently. is of a cruite different character from the substantial Absolute of the Upanisad. it is clear. 1955. it seems quite necessary to investigate such mutual influences and interrelations between the Brahmanical thought and Mahāyāna Buddhism. 1955) Especially.. to establish its monistic doctrine. In its essence. 3) Completion of the present form of the Ratna. 90-91). i. V. the text consisting of the basic Kārikās and a commentary on it in verse and prose. it may not be useless here to have in conclusion a summarized consideration of the date and authorship of the Ratna. Still it is not impossible to suppose that there was an influence from the Upanisadic thought for the astivāda of the Ratna. As for its date: 1) The upper limit is the date of Nāgārjuna and Âryadeva.D.Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna. As far as the historical approach is concerned. however. A. XIII of his work is devoted to the subject of the Absolute seen by three systems. V. T. Vijñānavāda and Vedānta.D. quite similar to one of the Bhagavadgītā is pointed out by Prof. e. Yamaguchi's Commemoration Volume. came probably after Asaûga and Vasubandhu but not so far from their time. It is common to the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda in general. London. Mādhyamika. 32. so far no work has been done systematically. pp. 2) The lower limit is 433 A. the middle of the 3rd cent..D. Gokhale (A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. 52 = Bhagavadgitā XIII. [ 61 ] . and hence at early 5th cent. S. a great work by Prof. however. too wide to cover here. many scholars have already remarked the influence of the Vijñanavāda on the Vedāntavāda in its change of character from the realistic philosophy of the Brahmasūtra to the idealistic philosophy of the Advaita-vedānta which is established by Śaûkara through the philosophy of Gaudapāda.

For certainty of Maitreya's authorship of the Ratna. He was no doubt acquainted with the garbha theory Therebut devoted himself to the systematization of the Vijñānavāda. especially those verses called ' śloka ' and kept in Chapter I. As for the author: 1) The author of the commentary must be Sāramati. after the present investigation. hence its date is no doubt earlier than Asañga's. Thus it is not impossible that the same author of the above two works composed the original ' śloka' of the Ratna. but before the Sūtrâlañkāra. 4) In the same way. however. TAKASAKI 4) As for the Kārikā text. Because of this similar position. fore. In the case of the Sūtrâlañkāra. Sāramati was the systematizer of the garbha theory in its pure form. with the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 2) Most probably the authorship of the original ' śloka ' is to be attributed to Maitreya. it is quite doubtful to attribute the Buddhagotraśāstra to him. and we shall be required to engage in further and detailed examination of all the works attributed to Maitreya. This is certain through comparison of the Ratna. but the Vijñānavāda is likely to have started with Maitreya. since the Lañkāvatāra was unknown to either of them. Sāramati may Amalgamation of have been almost contemporary with Vasubandhu. while the Abhisamayâlañkāra expresses no Vijñānavāda. taking the Tibetan tradition into consideration. seems to have been composed next to the Abhisamayâlañkāra This is because the garbha theory precedes Maitreya. the Ratna.J . [ 62 ] . the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda are taught side by side. both theories may consequently have taken place after Vasubandhu and Sāramati. This seems to be the most reasonable assumption on the date and author of the Ratna. seem fairly old in both their style and contents. pieces of evidence are still not enough. 3) The Vijñānavāda had probably been established in its pure form by Vasubandhu.. But against the Tibetan tradition.

TRANSLATION .

. .TABLE OF CONTENTS (for Translation & Notes thereon) Chapter I. . . The Meaning of the 3 Jewels The Germ of the 3 Jewels in 4 Aspects 1) Inconceivability of the 4 Aspects 2) The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its 4 Aspects . Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the ultimate Standpoint . . The Sermon: All Living Beings are possessed of the Tathāgatagarbha . . — THE MATRIX OP THE TATHĀGATA FAGS Introduction 1) The Meaning of the Adamantine Subjects 2) Authorities on the 7 Subjects 3) The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects 4) The Inherent Connection among the 7 Subjects The Jewel of the Buddha 1) The eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood 2) Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra The Jewel of the Doctrine 1) 2) 3) 4) The Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine Nirodhasatya & Mārgasatya The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 141 141 143 146 153 155 156 159 163 164 165 165 168 172 173 174 175 176 176 180 180 181 184 185 186 188 194 196 The Jewel of the Community 1) Manner and Extent of Perception a) Right Manner of Perception b) Unlimited Extent of Perception 2) Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception 3) Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community The 3 Jewels as Refuges 1) 2) 3) 4) 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint The Doctrine and the Community are not the ultimate refuge . [ 137 ] . .

PAGE

VIII. Analysis of the Germ from 10 Points of View (I) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu 1) The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata 2) Obstructions and Causes for Purification (III) Phaîa & (IV) Karman 1) The 4 Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 2) Concordance between the 4 Supreme Virtues and the 4 Causes for Purification 3) 4 Impediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 4) Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 4') The Unstable Nirvana 5) Functions of the Germ for its Purification Yoga 1) The Union of the Germ to the Factors of its Purification 2) The Union of the Germ to the Result of Purification Vrtti (Manifestation) Avasthāprabheda (Different States of Manifestation) . . . .

199 200 200 201 207 208 210 214 218 219 221 225 225 227 229 230 233

(V)

(VI) (VII)

(VIII) Sarvatraga (All-pervadingness)

(IX) Avikāra 234 (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State 235 1) Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind 238 2) Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind 241 (B) Unchangeability in the Pure-and-impure State 243 1) Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva 243 2) Defilements endowed with the Virtuous Root 245 3) Bodhisattva's Compassion — The Parable of a Householder . . . . 246 4) Bodhisattva's Perception of the Pure Mind 248 5) ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva 250 6) Bodhisattva in his 6th Stage 250 7) The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha 253 (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure Sta;e 256 (X) Asambheda 1) 2) 3) 4) IX. The 1) 2) 3) Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana The Parable of Painters Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun 258 259 261 263 265 268 268 277 281

9 Illustrations on the Germ covered with Defilements The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities of the Mind Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and 9 Kinds of Defilements . [ 138 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga
PAGE

4) The threefold Nature of the Essence a) Dharmakāya b) Tathatā c) Tathāgatagotra X. The Essential Characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1) The Saying: ' All Living Beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' is the Highest Logical Truth 2) The 4 Kinds of Individuals to whom the Faith in this Essence is necessary 3) The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as representing Non-substantiality XI. The Purpose of Instruction

283 284 287 288 294 294 296 300 305

Chapter II. — THE ENLIGHTENMENT

XII.

General Characteristics of the Reality free from Pollutions

310 314 314 315 318 322 324 326 328 329 331 334

XIII. 8 Points on the Undefiled Reality (I) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu Phala Karman Yoga Vrtti

a) The Body of the Absolute Essence b) The Body of Enjoyment c) The Apparitional Body (VII) Nitya (VIII) Acintya

Chapter I I I . —

THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

XIV. XV. (I) (II)

General Characteristics of the Buddha's Properties The 64 Properties of the Buddha The 10 Powers The 4 Forms of Intrepidity

336 338 338 339 341 343 347

(III) The 18 Exclusive Properties (IV) The 32 Marks of the Superman (Commentary)

[ 139 ]

j . TAKASAKI

Chapter IV.

— THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA
PAGE

XVI. XVII.

General Characteristics of the Acts of the Buddha The 9 Illustrations on the Buddha's Acts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Buddha's Magnanimity The 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlankārasūtra Summary of the Illustrations given by the Commentator Summary of Examples given in the Kārikās Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood The Point of Dissimilarity

351 355 355 356 374 375 377 377

Chapter V. — THE MERITS OF FAITH

XVIII. The Merits of Having Faith in the Doctrine of the Essence of Buddhahood 380 1) The Superiority of Faith to other Virtues in regard to their Merits . . 2) Authority, Motive, and Characteristics of this Text being the Correct Doctrine 3) Means of preserving oneself within the Doctrine 4) Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine 5) Conclusion 380 384 386 387 389

[ 140 ]

ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS 1}
(A Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle) 2)

CHAPTER

I.

THE MATRIX OF THE TATHÂGATA (Salutation) I bow to the Saint Vajrasattva 3>.

I. INTRODUCTION - The 7 Vajrapadas § 1. The Meaning of the 7 Vajrapadas. The Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Community *>, The Essence [of the Buddha] 5>, the Supreme Enlightenment 6>, The Virtuous Qualities [of the Buddha], And, last of all, the Act of the Buddha; — These are the 7 Adamantine Subjects, [which show] Briefly, the body of the whole text. // 1 //
*) Ratnagotravibhāga. The word ' vibhāga ' is the correct Skt. form of P a l i ' vibhañga ' which means ' explanation ', ' commentary '. In BHS, however, the form ' vibhañga ' is more often used as in cases of Madhyântavibhañga, Dharmadharmatā-vibhañga and so on. In these cases, ' vibhañga ' is taken in the sense of ' distinction between two '. But here, the meaning ' analysis ' seems more suitable, because the wofd ' ratnagotra * indicates ' dhātu ' or ' tathāgatagarbha ', and not ' ratna & gotra '. Cf. gotram ratnatrayasya S. p. 21.6. 2 ) Mahayāna—uttaratantra—śāstra. About the title, see my Introduction, Ghap. I. 3 ) T. offers salutation to " the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas " . C. om. the salutation, but has 18 verses instead before entering the main text. This salutation to Vajrasattva, who has an important role in the Tantric Buddhism, does not match with this text which has no connection with Tantrism in its doctrine, in spite of the use of the word * tantra' in the title. Probably this is a salutation made by the copyist of the present Skt. text under the influence of later Tantric Buddhism. *) gana, T. tshogs, C. £fc |gj
B

( = sañgha).

) dhātu, T. khams, C.

ft.

• bodhi, T. byañ-chub, C. j l f . ) [ 141 ]

J.

1AKASAKI
7

The word * vajrapada ' (adamantine subject) > means the term (pada), i.e. the basis (sthāna), which expresses the meaning of the Enlightenment (adhigama) which is similar to a thunderbolt [or diamond] (vajra). Here, it 8) being difficult to be penetrated by the knowledge consisting in studying and thinking, the meaning [of the Enlightenment] which is not capable 9 of being explained but is to be realized by oneself >, should be understood as 'like a thunderbolt'. Those letters, which express that meaning by making manifest the way which is favourable for its acquisition, are called 4 pada% just because they are the basis of that meaning. Thus, by both meanings, i.e. being hard to be penetrated and being the basis, the character of 'vajrapada', of the meaning as well as of the letters, is to be understood. 4 4 Now, what is artha ' (the meaning) and what is vyañjana ' (the letter)? 'Artha' is the sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment, viz. 1) the Buddha (buddha), 2) the Doctrine (dharma), 3) the Community 10 (samgha), 4) the Essence of the Buddha (dhātu) \ 5) the Supreme Enlightenment (bodhi), 6) the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha (guna), and 7) the Acts of the Buddha (karman)u>. These are called 4 artha ' l2>. The letters, by which this sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment is indicated or is manifested, are called 4 vyañjana ' 1 3 ) . And this teaching of i vajrapada ' should be understood in detail according to the Sutras.
') T . rdo-rje gnas, C.J
8

) prativedha,

T. phigs-pa

(to m a k e a small hole, to penetrate).
rig-par bya-ba, C. P ^ -5j* ffî£ V2*

9

) pratyātma-vedanīya,

T . so-so-rañ-bshin

10 n

> C. >$* S i ( = sattva).

) For these 7 subjects, T. & C. give the following terms: 1) sañs-rgyas, 7) phyin-las, | i p | .

2) chos, ' ? £ ; 3) dge-hdun, fft'; 4) khams, ft ( ^ >^£); 5) byañ-chub, =§?• 6) yon-tan, SjJ j ^ ;
12

) C. adds here the following scriptural passage: " ^>C 0ft —* |f| ) Instead of this sentence, C. puts the following one: "J^ff ī=f ^ p ^ff

paramârtha satya) gf | g , ifr fâ fig} ^ P f i g f t L f a f f i ^ ^ ^
13

^•i "^F T J "?* » •?- *HJ (phrase), ī=| an (word), jffi\ 5=p (sound), ^tj ^ K (expression), î b 1/u (description), ^ b RrJ (explanation), ^ b / J ^ (indication), JtL ' u *M ^ ^ » And it adds the following scriptural passage: " _^\., THT ^rjj (samvrtisatya) ^ § ,

1 -ft n * 0rffl^ * , ^ ^ . * ^ , Wfs. 0r ft These two passages are quoted from the Aksayamati-parivarta (C. I, M. # • % OP , Taisho, XIII, p. 197 fc). 197 [ 142 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

8 2. Authorities on the 7 Subjects. 1) ' Buddha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, invisible is the Tathāgata. He cannot be seen by eyes " . 2) ' Dharma ': " Verily, O Ānanda, unutterable is the Doctrine. It cannot be heard by ears ". 3) ' Samgha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, the Holy Community is of an immutable 14> character. It cannot be completely served, either by body or by mind ". These are the [first] 3 vajrapadas, which are to be understood according to the Dfdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta15). 4) ' Dhātu ': " Verily, O Śāriputra, this meaning is a subject for the Tathāgata [and only belongs to] the sphere of the Tathāgata. This meaning, O Śāriputra, can neither be known 16> nor be seen, nor be examined correctly throngh the knowledge of the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. Needless to say, this applies to the case of ignorant and ordinary beings, except when they have faith 17> in the Tathāgata. O Śāriputra, the ultimate truth is really approachable only by faith [in the Tathāgata]. O Śāriputra, the ultimate Truth is a synonym of the mass of living beings (sattva-dhātu) 18>. The mass of living beings is, O Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Matrix of the Tathāgata {tathāgatagarbha) 19\ The Matrix of the Tathāgata is, Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) " .
14 ) asamskrta, T. hdus-ma-byas-pa, C. 3*9? >w{f» Lit. 'being not created by causes and conditions ', or ' not caused by samskāras (the active forces) ', i. e. ' not belonging to this Phenomenal World '. 15 ) T. Lhag-pahi bsam-pa bstan-pahi lehu. Here, ' brtan-pa' is preferable to ' bstanpa\ Cf. Tohoku No. 224 which gives the Skt title; Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta. This sūtra is lacking in Chinese Tripijaka. 16 ) According to T., ' jñātum vā ' should be supplied after ' svaprajñayā ' (T. śes-pa). 17 ) śraddhā-gamana, T. dad-pas rtogs-pa. As for the importance of faith, see S. p . 74 1. 1 f. (v. I. 153).

nVt.
1S

•!_, |33

) T. sems-can-gyi khams, C. ?fc f-^_ -yi*, Here dhātu means ' a group ' (jāti or gotra) and sattvadhātu is used as a collective noun for sattvas. At the same time, however, this word, being synonymous with tathāgatagarbha, maybe interpreted as " t h e Essence of the sattva, being the ' cause ' of the Buddhahood " , according to the special use of the word ' dhātu ' in this text.
19

) T. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi sñiñ-po, C. }$[ yjv |!15c. The meaning of tathāgatagarbha

will be discussed under (VII) & (IX) - 4) (in Chap. I) (S. p. 26, 70 ff.).

[ 143 ]

i.

j . .ri.rv.tvi3i4.JVl

Thus is the fourth ' vajrapada ' and is to be understood according to the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa—parivarta20). 5) * Bodhi ' : " O Lord, the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment {anuttarā • samyaksambodhi) is a synonym of the Sphere of the Nirvana 21>. The Sphere of the Nirvana is nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . Thus is the fifth Vajrapada which is to be understood according to the Ārya Śrīmālā-sūtra2 2 ) . 6) 4 Guna ': " 0 Śāriputra, that which is called the Absolute Body, preached by the Tathāgata, is of indivisible nature, of qualities inseparable from the Wisdom, that is to say, [indivisible from or endowed] with the properties of the Buddha which far surpass the particles of sands of the Gangā in number "23>.

« C. ^ P if!" A^ $ S H [ , Taisho, No. 668, XVI, 467 a. T. has no translation of > this sūtra. Hereafter, AAN will be used as the abbreviation.
V|~T rftfV \'Jr\

2

) nirvānadhātu, T. mya-ñan-las-hdas-pahi dbyiñs, C. £35 ^ ^ •yf'. T. dbyiñs (for dhātu) means ' a heavenly region '. ' bhagavan ' in the Text is, to be corrected into ' bhagavams '. 22) = Śrîmālādevîsimhanādasūtra. T. Hphags-pa dpal-phreñ-gi mdo (Dpal-phreñ lha-mo señ-gehi sgrahi modo) C. 3g. '^=1 /j/r 3 C ntC. • There are two translations in C :

21

i>* * w ^F ift — ^-k.~n &is'9i M *.by * m &. PB m
(Gunabhadra), Taisho, No. 353. and 2) $$f- " ^ ^ A . *f[. vol. 48 of ^ 5 8 Jf{ jf8£
(Ratnakūta-sūtra), Taisho, No. 310. Hereafter the first one will be used as the reference under the abbreviation of SMS. This passage, SMS, Taisho, XII, 220 c. 23 ) The whole quotation runs as follows: mā,

(S.) j o ' yam, Śāriputra, tathagatanirdisto dharmakāyah, so'yam avinirbhāgadharavinirmuktajñānaguno, yaduta, gañgānadī—vālikā—vyatikrāntais tathāgatadharmaih; (T.) Sārī—bu, de—bshin-gśegs—pas bstan—pahi chos—kyi sku gañ—yin—pa de—ni hdi— Ita-ste, gañgāhi kluñ-gi bye-ma-sñed-las hdas-pahi de-bshin-gśegs-pahi chos-dag-dañ / rnam—par dbyer—med—pahi chos dañ Idan-pa, ma—bral—bahi ye~śes—kyi yon—tan—can yin—no

^

tation, but its additional part is identical with the quotation in S. p. 39 from the same sūtra). dbyer-med-pahi chos dañ Idan-pa ( = . . . chos-can), C. simply A^* pj|t and om. 'dhar-

M ^ JB i £ ft ?£ #ū * ^ S ^J @ (C. has a longer quoFor ' avinirbhāgadharman ' (' -dharman ', ifc. ' of the nature of'), T. mam-par

man* (usually, ^ ^ g ^ g £ ?£).
For ' avinirmuktajñānaguna', T. ma-bral-bahi ye-śes-kyi yon-tan-can, which does aot seem correct (it should be 'ye-śes-dañ ma-bral-bahi yon-tan con'); C. -A^

[ 144 ]

Therefore.2-3. namely: 1) Jg^ (translator unknown). X. these are t h e 7 Vajrapadas which should be known as the body of this whole text.^ Jf!£ -R/ f^. 2) ^ l p |gt W± i$fr £fl ffi ^m Wi ^ A tW * fl § S JS §i i t # M tr. 80. 25 J Chinese Tripiçaka retains 3 kinds of translations of this sūtra. 7) ' Karman ' : " 0 Mañjuśri. ' gañgātīrarajo 'tīta' (p. his acts of this kind flow forth without any effort. by Śiksānanda. where a simile of lantern is used for clarifying this meaning and lantern is said to be of ' avinirmukta-guna '. offers no help. seems to show the latter interpretation. 2 *) AAN 467 a. ' avinirmuktajñāna'. 302. They are nothing but the abbreviated forms of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' and seem to have the same sense as the latter. e . 12. This is the seventh Vajrapada which is to be understood according 25 to t h e Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra—nirdeśa >. pp. bstan-pahi sgo. the Tathāgata never imagines anything nor distinguishes falsely. 55. No.16). being an adjective to 'guna' (which means ' buddhagunāh ' or ' tathāgatadharmāh ' i . No. being appositional to ' dharmakāya '. ' samanvāgama '. 3) ^C ^ f M A #0 3fc ^ . (See S. by which the Buddha has realized ' bodhi '. in l which the former part ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is relating to the latter part guna* as an apposition. The term ' avinirmuktajñānaguna '. Here. 26 ) uddeśamukha. e. 76. See S. 55. p. As for the term ' gañgānadivālikā-vyatikrānta ' it is also an adjective. ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña ' is used as an attribute to ' guna '. pp. not clear. T. I t should mean ' unreleased from jñāna'. by ' dan ') shows the implied meaning of ' -upeta '. And hence. 42.14-15. but -^3 JHfc -Ç/J "f@ is placed at the end. this term ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is an attribute. b I I « ^ (Jñānagupta). This passage is in Taisho.. 304. [ 145 ] ibid.The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a This is the sixth Vajrapada and is to be understood according to 24 the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. ' gañgānadivālikā-vyativrtta ' (p. Instrumental case-ending of the word ' tathāgatadharma ' (which is translated into T.14). 73.2-3. ' jñāna' signifies ' buddhajñāna '. omitting the word * jñāna ').. the Qualities of the Buddha). ' -yoga '. 915 b (No. without any imagination or any thought construction " . (sometimes in the form of ' gañgānadîvālukāvyativrtta ' (S.12). forms again a kind of Bahuvrīhi compound.2. ibid. in t h e sense of being a collection of preliminary 26 explanations >. G. No.9. is a Bahuvrīhi compound. JjjjJ . i. 302). C. 303. 85. the Wisdom. In other passages. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities and often used along with ' amuktajña '. or otherwise is to be related to ' avinirbhāga ' as shown in the present translation. Taisho. T. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities. p. That is to say. y fH S iSv | H & tr. 39. and probably the whole sentense could not be understood properly by C. In short. 42. translator. ' avinirbhāga ' and ' acintya '.9) or ' gañgāsikatā 'tivrtta' (p.

Accompanied 2 7 ) by their own characteristics. See below. C. anugatāni'. So T. I " Alañkāra-parivarta " and Chap. accompanied 3 0 ) by the explanation of their own characteristics. Therefore. not clear. Of these [seven subjects]. 30 For ' dharma '. i. takes it as locative. respecti- vely. and the " Bodhisattva-tathāgatadharmabheda-(parivarta) " ..J.e. But C. It should be ' nidānaparivartād anugatāni '. No. Jīfc rfT. it is said: " The Lord has perfectly realized the equality of all things. II. ) anugata. which is identical with the title of Chinese translation ' y^. has the title ' Tathāgata-mahākarunā—nirdeśa-sūtra '. 29 a7 ) dhīmat ( = bodhisattva). ( = ^ C ñ « I S . T .. T. Literally. sl ) The reading ' nidānaparivartânugatāni ' i r rather obscure. 397). • DRS 1 a. II " Dhāranīśvararāja-bodhisattva-parivarta " . rañ-gi mtshan—ñid bstan—pa dañ / rjes-su hbrel-ba ni. No. In this Mahāsamnipātasūtra. C. 2 (nidānatah). the Dhāranirājasūtra occupies the vols. TAKASAKI § 3. ' anugata ' is related to ' trlni padāni '. (dañ is probably for Instrumental case-ending). 1-4. T. It seems that the " Nidāna parivarta " is equivalent to the Alañkāra-parivarta. T. as if ' svalaksanasyânngatāni '. ^ $§£ ' (Taisho. the three subjects should be known as being from 3 1 ) the introductory chapter (nidāna—parivarta) of the Holy Dhāranīśvararājasūtra. T. 398). as well as to ' catvāri [padāni] \ For ' svalaksanenânugatāni '. 409 o). rjes-hbrel-ba ( = anubandha). has set the wheel of Doctrine going well and has kindly trained numberless disciples " 33>. a n d jina ( = buddha). One should know respectively the [first] three subjects From the introductory chapter in the Dhāranirāja—sūtra 28\ And the [latter] four from [the chapter on] the distinction Between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha 29>. p. ^ ) For ' svalaksananirdeśena (jñāna). has another (yC translation of the same sūtra as a part of the Mahāvaipulya-mahāsamnipāta-sūtra y/J "^f y^. Beside this independent sūtra. . Chap. and om. 32 ) This sūtra is available in both Tibetan and Chinese Tripitakas. [ 146 ] . Taisho. C. The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects. denoting the contents of this chapter. the caseending of ' esām ' (hdi-dag). blo—ldan & rgyal—ba.) (Taisho. under the titles of Chap. 2S ) == Dhāranîśvararājasūtra. and then the remaining four [are to be known] from the chapter on the distinction between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha respectively 32>. XIII. to the remaining part. // 2 // [The meaning of this verse is as follows]: And of these seven Vajrapadas. (ablative) Also v.

i. T. vlrya-i. viz. 36 39 3ā ) vāsanā-anusamdhi. it is said: "Having realized the perfect Enlightenment. In Pali. T. (T. he is immediately calmed in the Buddha's effortless 40> acts uninterruptedly 41 ). smrti-i. cream '. so it is said: " He ( = the Lord). rim-gyis skye-ba hgrub-pa. Therefore. translation. Therefore. ' the highest state of Enlightenment'. C. rgyun mi~hchad-pa(r). or the essence of milk. it is used in the sense of ' essence ' (sāra) ' excellent part'. samādhi-i. one should know the arrangement of the three Jewels [in the aspect of] their successive origination and accomplishment 34>.. C. it denotes ' the excellent place of the Enlightenment' as C. C. on the 8th Stage of Bodhisattva. ) bodhi-manda. &prajñā-i. Here I preferred C. anu- samdhi). ' manda ' has originally meant ' the scum of cooked rice. translation ' sñiñ-po ' shows the same meaning.The Ratnagotravibhāga By these three fundamental sentences. e. But in later scriptures. realized perfectly the equality of all things " . as the power of controlling all elements of phenomena has been attained. translation ' f^Jâ $ £ ] j j | | H Iffi ^ / 2 l | t £ ' . it is said: " H e who has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going has kindly trained number3 *) anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. chos-smra-ba-ñid. Ihun-gyis grub. and is often accompanied by the word 4 vara ' as in the text. ^ ^p\. brings all faculties [of living beings] 38) to the highest perfection and becomes an expert in the removal of the chain of Defiling forces39) in all living beings. Therefore ' bodhi-manda ' means literally ' the essence of the Enlightenment'. he is endowed with the power of expressing the Highest Doctrine37\ knows very easily the intentions of all living beings. ( o m . namely śraddhā-i. On the 9th Stage of Bodhisattva. 38 ) indriya. respectively. / $ Wl)) triratnotpatty-anurūpahetu-samudāgama-nirdeśa.. C. C. sitting in the excellent Seat of the Englightenment 3 6 ) . 37 ) dharmabhānakatva. [ 147 ] 11 . he has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going " . < £ ptP ( t e a c h e r of t h e D o c t r i n e . Sometimes ' bodhi-manda ' is explained as denoting Bodhi-tree. T.. g 41 ) apratipraśrabdha. There are 5 indriyas. j 6 ^ <^\s \7f* fig^. The remaining four subjects are to be known as the statement of the accomplishment of the causes which correspond to the origin of the three Jewels 35\ Now. bag-chags-kyi mtshams-sbyor-ba. hgrub-pa. T. T . " ) anābhoga. -yC 0ft -3£ W /PC 5vC • Here the word ' samudāgama ' (also in the next line) means ' siddhi '. Mvyut 41. On the 10th Stage of Bodhisattva. one who has the qualification for preaching the Doctrine). T . $ & fffj ^ T • C.. after attaining the anointment for the prince recognized as the next king in the highest religious empire of the Buddha.

less disciples " . . T . C. step by step. T. C. . shes-bya-ba-nas bya-bahi bar. BHS Die. dravya. however. om. into T. For . s. . C. the first one is translated into T. 48 C. C. 49 ) These passages are extracted from the same sūtra. And next. * 5 l H x ' s e e m s to include the meaning of ' mandala '. . yon-tan rnam-par dbye-ba. but T. ~$t R . Of the two ' vyūhas ' in the text. T . . Furthermore. T. T . For parisat—samāvartana. a-b. C. and has * J | >fM 1^> ^ C instead (vividha-divyā-pūjā?). ' bkod-pa '. through the splendid arrangement 5 0 ) of the seat of the Doctrine and its brightness. " &c. > And then. T. JjJt ^ one. shes- 42) A _ yāvat . khyams (court-yard). It runs as follows: " He was together with the assembly of a large number of monks ) and with the assembly of numberless Bodhisattvas " . ' gathers. *') samāvartana < samāvartayati (BHS).). 44 ) vrsabhitā (BHS). The term is often used as an epithet of the Buddha. as ' vimala '. C. yons-su bsgrags-pa. 80 > vyūha. as S. parisad. reads it as ' visaya '. (DRS 1 c-3 c). __ ") pariklrtana. ) C. R/J (/J\ t 148 ] . in the reference to the Buddha's inconceivable leadership > in regard to tranquillity.B (beginning w i t h A u p t o B). (decoration). t o come t o g e t h e r ) . the same qualification of having trained numberless disciples is shown in the same text. 45 ) F o r ' gunavibhāga '. C.(acintya^ 2 c //'J (gunaprabheda). 5 1 ! Mx. and through the glorification 51) 47 46 45 44 43 of the name . C. C. bkod-ba. -^^ ?fc . through the completion of various kinds of worship with divine things 4 8 \ and through the pouring of rain from the cloud of praises 49>. bkhor—hdus—pa (hdus-pa < hdu—ba. 42 As he has well trained those who are in the enlightenment of the Śrāvaka and up to that of the Buddha. (palace of jewel). . immediately after the [passage of the] doctrine on the nature of qualities of Śrāvakas and Bodhisattvas. it is said: " Thus being endowed with the virtuous qualities.v. «Ç/J j ) vipula-ratna-vyūha-mandala-vyūha-nivrtti. . immediately after this sentence. F o r samāvartana. collects ' (viz. C. and the second vastu). khyu-mchog (' the best b u l l ' = rsabha). b u t seems t o o m . the establishment of the distinguishable qualities > of the Jewel of the Buddha is to be known through the accomplishment of a great palace adorned with circular ornament of jewels >. *») DRS 1.' vipula '. through his bringing the people together > into the assembly of Tathāgatas. / J H-\ . 46 I n t h e following cases. ^Y* fî£\ g ^ | -sfl. .

resolving the compound into ' anuttaradharmarāja-jyesthaputra-upaharana ' and ' paramavaiśāradyaupaharana '. respectively. spyod-yul. spobs-pa t a l e n t of speech). through the manifestation of the attainment of the highest sovereignty 61 ). om. §/£. ne-bar bkod-pa. T. seems to omit ' prabhā-samdarśana '. as the result of that knowledge. the highest establishment of the distinguishable qualities of three Jewels is to be understood 62 ). ») Cf. C. C. the Essence of the Buddha is explained by a description of the sixtyfold appliance as 62 ) dharmaparyāya. {l^ ») Cf. C. e x c e p t t h e t e r m ' upaharana '. respectively. confidence). 69 (courage. > D R S 4 e-5 b. C. And next. in the reference to the Buddha's presentation 5 7 ) of the highest fearlessness and confidence [in speech] 58) on account of the prince of the supreme religious king [to the Bodhisattvas]. in the light of the mutual 54> manifestation of the power of the acting sphere55) of various tranquillities of the Bodhisattvas. ) C. 60 ) kathāvastu (subject of story). DRS 5 6-6 c. 68 ) pratibhāna (from P a l i patibhāna. which translates it twice by JjjP & JJRj. 64 ) anyonya. ) upanyasana ( < upa-ni-V as) T. chos-kyi rnam-grañs. ^ 1 ^ * j ^ I p J f p f XJ 4a. and in the light of the description of their various forms of qualities. aiśvarya. . T. there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Doctrine53). jyesthiputra' meaning Bodhisattva. For ' tat-pratipatteh '. And again. through the sprinkling of the Buddha's light. T. Then. 67 ) The reading ' upakaranatā ' is to be corrected into ' upaharanatā '. phan-tshun. C. through the explanation of the highest praise to the true virtues of the Tathāgata. And also therein the introductory chapter of this Sūtra is known to have come to the end 6 3 ). # P j j f fjj£ ^ (because of the practice of that Mahāyāna by rule). <\~f jjf| -TT . through the description 5 9 ) in the form of discussion 6°) of the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. om. T. DRS 3 c-4 d. t i l Jī^t • [ 149 ] . 'anyonya' had better be connected with ' bodhisattva ' in a compound. w h i c h h a s t h e special m e a n i n g of ' readiness (cowardless in s p e e c h ' o r ' confidence of s p e e c h ' . C. immediately after this. and. j ^ i Ī3>« As J. ' .The Ratnagotravibhāga and qualities of the variety of doctrines 52) . 61 w ) avasānagata. C. according to C.suggested. And. through these three. T. \ J . there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Community 5 6 ) . mthah-ñid (avasānatva) C. after the introductory chapter of this Sūtra. to offer). H e r e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s according t o T . T . besides t h e usual sense of intelligence o r manifestation of m i n d ) . C. . gtam-gyi dños-po. (to give. 85 86 ) gocara-visaya. B u t t h i s r e s o l u t i o n of t h e c o m p o u n d is n o t good.

C. after the description of the Acts of the Buddha. [ 150 ] ..e. 6. J^A. In comparison with ' viśuddhi-guna-parikarrnan ' and ' buddhadhātoh sastyākāraviśuddhi—parikarma-gunāh ' in S. T . tad -viśuddhi-parikarma-yogāt. take for instance a skilful jewel-maker who knows Having taken out an 69 71 68 quite well how to purify precious stones. 186c. however. For ' parikarman '. 1: 11. the meaning seems as follows ' viśuddhi—guna ' is ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' of ' dhātu '. 188c. 66) in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva . in the third case (f^P* Jjp^. p i ^ ^ -»j£ 70 ) tiksena khārodakena. I t sounds better in comparison with ' asminneva ca sūtre'1 in the next sentence. 1. C. he then polishes it by rubbing ) with black- ) sasty—ākāra—tad (=dhātu) —viśuddhi-guna—parikarma—nirdeśena. cleaning). 6. . And because of the effect of this meaning. p. 68 ) manigotra.). yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba (pariśodhana. or ' appliance ') in the former two cases. So I adopted it in the translation. A b o u t ' viśuddhi-guna—parikarman''. unless we find o t h e r examples of t h e same u s e . i. / A (in the sense of ' method '.the purifying factors of that 65) Essence *>. 6 Because the Essence of the Buddha deserves to be applied the purification. T . After all. T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s word is n o d o u b t ' washing '. too. In other words. But in another case. we c a n n o t s a y ' unmilya ' is absolutely correct. C.7 (ratnagotra-puspapratimandite . 69 ) uiksālya i n t h e t e x t . nor—bu rin—po—chehi rigs ( = maniratnagotra). and having washed ) it with acid salt water ). jglt / A (sharp a s h ? ) ' khāra ' is a Prakrit form of Skt ' ksāra '. and ' ^ g ' . translates it by ' Ypf i~r '» which has the same sense as T. C. see b e l o w . Taisho. the allegory of unpurified Vaidūrya stone is illustrated. there is illustrated again an analogy In this Sūtra (the Dhāranirāja—sūtra) It runs as follows >: 67 of the purifying process of gold. ' t a k i n g d u s t off i n order t o m a k e jewel or m e t a l m a n i f e s t ' ( i n causative sense). 71 ) paryavadāpanena paryavadāpayati (lit. As t h i s ' unmilya ' is found twice i n Ms. ' dhātu ' is ' viśodhya—gunavad— artha '. b u t Ms. yoñs-su sbyoñ-bas sbyoñ-ba byed-do. 67 ) D R S p ..samudra-malaya-śikhare). i t seems r a t h e r difficult t o consider i t as a m i s t a k e . p . A t t h e same t i m e .4AJ |7Uīi» f° r viśuddhi-parikarma-guna). for ' parikamma ' in the verse quoted in S. ' makes perfectly clean by means of purifying instrument'). C. reading. the most suitable translation for this term is ' process of purification or ' appliance for purification \ 68 ) The significance of this ' daśasu bodhisattvabhūmisu' is not clear.e. and hence. lan—tshvahi chu rnon-pos. ' yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba '. C. [j=ij] p £ I' | [ T ^ ) « Cf. 44 O noble youth. L a n k . says instead ' i n the Daśabhūmika-sūtra'. (Cf. 65 ) viśodhye ' rthe gunavati. J^K /TJ 3B M=x seems to show the actual process of purification. in so far as it has qualities of an object to be purified . p. 70 unpurified precious stone from the mine ). b u t i n t h e special sense of ' m e t a l i n g '. B reads ' unmîlya \ There seems t o b e no definite reason for changing ' unmilya ' i n t o ' utksālya' against Ms. T. 64 i. T. etc. 10. ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' is inherent to ' dhātu ' in the form of ' Sūstyākāra-viśuddhiguna ' . 21 c.

p]P: vE|P| jylJj i > • ^ 3p|i[» Wft JÇHU " ^ 3 "5fcf • A c c o r d i n g t o C . . having washed it with great medical liquid 7 5 ) . C. > sattvadhātu. jf^ ]£f| 3gc 'KC • ) tlksa āmisa-rasa.(against the usual translation. ^ . and the gift. he never ceases to make efforts. y\^. Even with this much of act. After that. 76 ) sūk'sma-vastra. creates disgust in the mind of those living beings who are attached to the world of transmigration through the teaching of being afraid of the non-eternity. C. After that. T. having known the unpurified element of living beings 7 9 ) . 79 80 81 C. '. After that.IjjC j | / £ J^_ + \ . as usual. tshul (— nay a).] ' non-substantiality ' {śūnyatā). ' non-distinction ' (animitta) and ' desirelessness ' (apranihita). T . v i z . 78 ) abhijāta (' well b o r n '. B H S D i e . After that. he never ceases to make efforts. S. 0 noble youth. 82 ) (trini vimoksa—mukhāni). ) mahā—vaisajya—rasa. 83 ) avivartya-dharmacakra. T . kāca' s e e m s t o b e a g e n e r a l n a m e for dust or piece of metal and glass mingled within jewels. having washed the stone with meat juice 73) of bitter taste. C. p . With this much of act the Buddha never ceases to make efforts. ' b o r n i n t h e noble family '. Jpflj Ypf r~r )• It means usually the purity of three things in donation. skrahi re-ba (om. v .e. C. T.Hl ^fl. lal-gyi la-ba. [ 151 ] . ^V\ %HI ^ ^ .The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hair cloth 7 2 ) . krsna). T . ) khandikā. the Tathāgata never ceases to make efforts. he causes those living beings who have 72 73 ) krsna-keśakambala. the receiver. Cf. tfe ^ £ f^. T . i. impersonality and impurity [of this world] 8 0 ). he polishes it with closely-woven cotton cloth 7 6 \ After having been polished and having been separated from all impure metals mingled with it 77>. ( = mahā). b u t C. C. dri—ma dañ bral—ba(ni). zañs—kyi klu—pa rnon—po. he polishes it by rubbing with a woollen blanket 7 4 ). it is called a precious 78) Vaidūrya stone. and signifies 'non-substantiality' (śūnyatā). s. ^Y* Jj^ . T.|îr/A &PI £4f» 77 ) apagatakāca ( B a h u v r ī h i c o m p . through the teaching of the irreversible wheel of the Doctrine 83> and through the teaching of the ' purification of three circles ' 84>. he makes them realize the guiding manner 8 1 ) of the Tathāgata by the teaching of [the threefold gate to the emancipation 82\ viz.7|^ (a piece of wood covered with cloth). VzC Wffl (dharmacakra). T. Similarly. ) . and causes them to enter the discipline of the sacred Doctrine. ' T h e s e a r e called ' caturvidhâviparyāsa—samjñā ) netrl. the Tathāgata too..J . rigs-chen-po 74 75 ( = mahākula). suffering. . >-*-. hkhor-gsum yoñs-su dag-pa. But with this much work. ' noble ' ) . 84 ) trimandala-pariśuddhi. J^. Even with this much work. 3 0 . the giver. C.

3) 16 ' karunās '. 6.l i ? 8 S (prajñā) & 4. C. 88 ) According to DRS. 7..iiii> ^ ^ (daśa akuśalāni abhimāna. 4 ^^ i l l . (durgati). 10. (ślla). ^ ^ 4. 9. though it is invisible among stones Comes to be seen by the process of purification. (3) 16 kinds of Bodhisattva's great compassion. in this world of living beings The Tathāgata [becomes visible by purification] " . (It is apparently in Pali. f^ i j § (abhijñā). yoñs-su dag-pahi rigs.). & 8. ^ " j \ ^ / | jYu (ahamkāra. 2. when they have realized the true nature of the Tathāgata. yon-gnas (place of gift). / \ ^|S ^ . 12. 5. namely. and sands. which are the sixtyfold factors of purifying process87) of the They are. (2) 8 kinds of illumination of Bodhisattvas. it is said as follows: " Just as gold. H^J): 1. is removed: 1. T. 2. those same beings. and (4) 32 kinds of deeds >. adhimāna. -Jjv? »yj ilk W^.e. are called unparalleled venerables " 8 5 ). these gunas are as follows: 1) 4 'alañkāras' ( ^ $§• )jf H ) : 1. H ^ 2. The source of this Prakrit verse is unknown. rāga—ā. 2J^L S\ y \ (sadāyatanaasmimāna. 3jp J j ^ (mithyā-drsti). & vicikitsā-ā. mamakāra). *££ (dharma). 3. IHT 1P3. which is of pure origin 8 6 ) . jfa (pañca—āvarana. 3. Having in view this Essence of the Tathāgata. (DRS 9 a-10 a)..J. Pfe J H / £ (dhārani). f â ffl (punya-ksetra). ^ (smrti). auddhatya-kaukrtya-ā. Having entered [the sphere of the Tathāgata]. Tl. Similarly. ignorance about the 12 añgo's of causality. 6. donation). C. ^ (manas). 4. (DRS 5 6-8 b). i. pratigha—ā. TAKASAKI different kinds of characteristics and origins. T. i. mānâtimānu. karmani).. abhiniveśa). ^ (jñāna). gift. ^ L 1 ^ (sapta-māna. 8. māna.e. | r 152 ] .. but is not found among the present Pali Tripitaka. 7. Now. -fT (caryā ?).) »7> See above (Note 65). ūnamāna & mithyāmāna). TJf (satya). (loka-mārga ?). JZQ MH j§i] (caturvidha-viparyāsa).e. 5. (samādhi). (1) 4 kinds of ornament of Bodhisattva's Essence of Buddhahood? Bodhisattvas. 86 88 ) daksinlya (worthy to receive ' daksinā \ i. styāna-middha-ā. 88 ) viśuddhigotra. (16 kinds of ' mi11. (avidyā—mātsarya—rāga ?). y j^c Ypf r~r (as if ' prakrtipariśuddhi '). to enter the sphere of the Tathāgata. by which each of the following ' mithyās' of the living beings 3. ^ (apratihatajñāna). ^ 2) 8 ' avabhāsas' Çjfc.

Thus. fj^ ^p§ (kāma ?). T T ^ * ^fJF (tryadhva-samatā). 6. Owing to the Doctrine there is the Holy Community. . 9. hbrel-pa ( = sambandha). 15. which are the counterpart of 32 bad behaviours of living beings. And next. the Acts of the Buddha are explained by the indication of 32 kinds of Supreme Acts of the Buddha 91>.). records only the form of ' aim- [ 153 ] . C. 8. namely: 1.The Ratnagotravibhāga Immediately after this statement. these two are equal and undistinguishable from each other). (?) (DRS 11 b-14 a) (Chinese terms in brackets are taken from y^. " ^ _L ^ SI ^ ^ C S S . ffPJ . 8. (DRS 10 c-11 6). etc. ignorance about the gate to Nirvana. And then. 7. 2. there is explained the Buddha's Virtuous Qualities by the indication of 10 Powers. which is thyādrsti'). 4 kinds of Intrepidity and 18 Exclusive Pro90 perties of the Buddha ). anārambana). 15. what is the inherent connection 9 2 ) between these subjects? From the Buddha comes the Doctrine. Here the reason why these qualities are called ' mahākarunā ' is that they are inseparable from ' mahākarunā ' and Buddha's Enlightenment realizes itself in the form of the acts of ' mahākarunā \ Cf. _g|. ^ Jg M 16.. there is explained the Supreme Enlightenment of the Buddha by indicating the 16 kinds of Great Compassion [imparted by] the Supreme Enlightenment a9\ Next to this description. The Inherent Connection between 7 Subjects. 82 ) anuślesa ( < anu-\/ ślis). Tñv ^ÎS S>v Wot {asamjñā. fîf ^ / 3. 4. < C H^ "^Li ^ ^ i oF (śānti. 5. | | | £ (māra). The use of ' anuślesa ' seems to be quite rare. Jj5^ flbc* Taisho. 89 ) The Supreme Enlightenment is said to be accompanied by the following 16 qualiK î? (śuddhi-śānti). anupeksā ?. 11. . 12. 422 a-425 a). DRS 14 c-21 c (there is no description of the 32 Mahāpurusalaksana in DRS). JU tf% ( ^ 0T ^ ) (anāsrava.P -»iX.% 3>P? > s | (asamskrta). 10. 4) 32 acts practised by Bodhisattvas. (DRS 10 o-lO c). affliction to ' tribhava\ 14. ^V Jfv (anu-krama).. 16. }»»§ y H wj i l l (nirvikalpa-padârtha). ^ ^ . T.1^. # ^ # $\> (M ffl te f^) (animitta-akrtrima ?). 14. In the Community exists the Matrix. ^* "far (anudgraha. § ft fpf ffi (prakrtipariśuddhi). § 4. IV (III). DRS 11 b. 13. A* ^J f^ / (anabhilāpya). Each of the 32 ' karman's is indistinct. "Q^ ^ J (safya- pado). these 7 Vajrapadas should be understood in detail through the indication of their own characters according to the Sūtra. arana?). 91 ) DRS 26 6-27 b. 9 °) See Chap. ^ ^X $ j | (3E I©) (apratisthita). 5 * (śūnya). f^ -^f |(l3 TST 7J Jv'J "• (The Supreme Enlightenment and the Great Compassion. prabhā. jtfif ^ ^ (ākāśavat). pp. 13. ties. BHS Die.

the reading ' sañghe ' in the text. ślista ' (ppp. though against T. Its acquisition of the Wisdom is the Supreme Enlightenment. (' āpti-nistha ' seems to mean 'having (jñāna—)āpti as the end'. 'jñāna—dhātu' seems to mean ' garbha '. BHS D i e . y±. g¥^ <āg +Q (dharmârthasvalaksana ?). hbrel-pa. For sambandha. C. For ' nistha '. Therefore. reads as ' sañghād apratihatadhātuh (-}$$ ijU £ X ) . is quite correct. Which is endowed with the Qualities. 93 ) ' jñāna-dhātu-āptinistha '. viz. 10 Powers and others.//3// Finished [the explanation of] the relation between each subject in the text 94>. takes it merely to show the order of succession between each subject and uses. L 1541 . iii-71-14. In comparison with it. TAKASAKI The element of Wisdom. T. (Supreme Enlightenment) 94 ) śāstrasambandha. v. And accompanied by altruistic Acts for all living beings.) found in Mahāvastu. C. & C. the ablative for the preceding one. which is indicated by ' tad ' in the next line.J. T. mthar. aiming at its acquisition 9 3 ) . ' jñānadhātvāptinistha ' & * agrabodhi '. in each case. C. dhātor jñānam ' and om. But it is not agreeable. s.

the-tshom (doubt). reads this passage as follows " and breaks the wrong view and all forests 8> [of defilements] {<yfy iy%) concealed in the mountain of various views " . 4). trust). Those living beings who were lead by the Tathāgata. abuddha. C.text starts with the following verse (v. In I. T. taught the Path. chos~ñid-kyi rgyu-mihun-pahi dvañ-ba. SMS 221 a. > abudha (BHS). ' one who has enlightened '. while taking their refuge in the Tathāgata. though we have 3 ' verses '. C. C.II. Fearless and eternal. wrong view). It is used mostly in case of certain verses which I picked up as the basic verses. = S k t . and is quiescent. especially in Chap. Pali. dvañ-ba. Cf.. dvañs-pa (purity. THE JEWEL OF THE BUDDHA Hereafter we should explain the meaning of Slokas (basic verses) x). there is one śloka with regard to the Jewel of The Buddha. Therefore. having in hand the excellent sword and thunderbolt Of Wisdom and Mercy. & C omit eka. C. The three jewels as refuges. 4) 6 buddhatva. cuts in pieces 6> all sprouts of Sufferings. faith. For abhiprasāda. About a detailed discussion on the basic verses. (Kārikā 1) I bow to the one. S e e also V . 7 ' vimati. both T. abhippasāda. there is no śloka. having realized himself. 6) ekacchid. ljy|{ |3tjj Jf^. (viparyasta-mati. jjjjj • * § . Hereafter I shall use the Sanskrit word śloka without translation when it indicates the basic verses. where emphasis lies on the 'ekaśaranatā' of t h e B u d d h a . 2) dharmatānisyandâbhiprasādena. And breaks the wall of doubts 7) concealed In the forest of various views s\ // 4 // *) The word śloka has a strict use in this text. first of all. T. also take refuge in the Doctrine and Community through the faith as the natural outflow of the Reality 2 ). middle nor end. -ff^- T»IX ^Q ^ ^ (respecting the Tathāgata). sañs-rgyas-ñid. Sloka-or Kārikā. And who. it is clear. see my Introduction. [ 155 ] . I. who has realized 3) the Buddhahood 4> Which has neither beginning. in order to enlighten the ignorant 5\ And who. 3) vibuddha. T. T . Introduction.

Which are the 8 qualities? Namely. pratyātmam 13) samskrta. are as follows: 1) hdus ma-byas-pa-ñid. Q f£v£ î 3) gshan. * kārunya in the verse. 1) Immutability (asamskrtatva). 7) fulfilment of self-benefit (svârthasampad). The Eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood. It is free from any effort. -7re? >w\j H a î 2) Ihun-gyis-grub-pa.J. — thus remembered by tradition // 6 // Being realized by oneself12^. 5) Compassion (karunā) 10\ 6) [supernatural] power (śakti). It is immutable. Translations of these 8 qualities in T. Because of preaching the way. [Also] Being endowed with Wisdom. And by the latter three. // 7 // It is Power because of destroying Suffering and Defilements by Wisdom and Compassion. hdus-byas-pa. What is shown by this [śloka]? Being immutable. // 8 // 1) asamskrta: The word i immutable' {asamskrta) should be understood as being opposite to being conditioned or caused (samskrta)lsK Here 9) 10 aparapratyayodita in the verse. As having neither beginning. Being the body of quiet character. {3 ^*'J ^gât» 8) gshan-gyi don phun-sum 12) tshogs-pa. j \ . middle nor end by nature. C. It is cognizable without any help of others. 'ftji >r'J -śnfc. p ^ -£§' § J î § . • adhigamya. TAKASAKI § 1. & C. 5) thugs'|{j^ yî\\ . Compassion and [supernatural] Power [imparted by both]. free from efforts And not being dependent upon the others. benefit for others [is indicated]. C. it is Compassion. not dependent on others (aparapratyayâbhisambodhi)9\ 4) Wisdom (jñāna). 4) ye-śes. 7) rañ-gi don phun-sum tshogs-pa. and 8) fulfilment of benefit for others (parârthasampad)11). it is Wisdom. -^I"* f^ r e J i ^\S>» 6) nus-pa. benefit for oneself. 2) being free from any effort (anābhogatā). ^ >w§ • [ 156 ] . ^ n) gyi rkyen-gyis mñon-par rtogs-pa ma yin-pa. // 5 // By this verse there has been briefly explained the Buddhahood as being contracted by eight qualities. By the first three qualities. 3) Enlightenment. T. The Buddhahood has two kinds of benefit. Thus awakened in a threefold way.

by which is meant originally the acquisition of Enlightenment by Sākyamuni. T. p . p . 1. 17 ( ā bhavagateh). by means of self-born knowledge which needs no tea14 ' utpāda. by which the one entity is regarded as plural. p . C. of which origination. means literally 'frivolous talk'. ) vikalpa. from the Buddhist point of view. T. from somebody else. p £ . " 3 ^ 7} ZrJ (sometimes only '/J ArJ )• ) T . showing an opposite sense between them. Cf. 112. r e a d i n g " odaya ni hdir mñon-par-rtogs~pa-la hdod-kyi. as in the śloka. Cf. but having perfectly cognized its unutterable nature 4 by ones e l f (svayam). hjig—pa. in Buddhist thought. 1. Though it is not a literal translation of Skt. (udaya.The Ratnagotravibhāga 'being conditioned' (saniskrta) means the thing. ^Rv > p I " > N (from t h e beginningless p a s t ) . 4) Jñāna. gnas—pa. 5) karunā. this term signifies ' pluralistic view '. Thus. to enlarge). But. sthiti. to spread out. Because of the absence of these characteristics.e. any pluralistic view is considered as a false view. Cf. 1. 45 and comm. spros-pa. mam-par rtog-pa. 1. 32. shows merely a literal translation of the term prapañca (pra-\/pac or -Vpane. it catches the significance quite well. C. as well as destruction 14> are conceivable. ^ ^ . C. 'Kyi' of 'hdod-kyi' in the above sentence is a conjunction of two clauses. Here. JM. Sometimes. 4 (ā samsārāt). C. 79. 113. T. p . JPç) between sthiti and bhañga. 3) aparapratyayâbhisambodhi: It is 4 enlightened without any help of others ' (aparapratyayodaya) because it is realized through one's innate knowledge. ^T*: . the term is usually accompanied by vikalpa. Abhidharmakośa. S. 16 [ 157 ] .) 17 18 ) ā samsārakoteh. middle nor end. in which the sense 'origination' is implied17). 4 ( a bhavasthiteh). i. which is a quite marvellous and unthinkable sphere. and being represented as the immutable Absolute Body. inserting anyathātva (C. a view. 2) anābhoga: It is free from efforts because all dualistic views 15) and false discriminations 16> have ceased to exist. skye-ba-la ni ma yin-no " means " here the word ' udaya ' is to be understood in the sense of ' abhisambodha ' and not in the sense of ' utpāda ' " . I I . I. Here the word ' udaya' means 4 perfect enlightenment ' (abhisambodha). as being Tathāgata. the Buddhahood should be seen as having neither beginning. manifold ( = prapañca-vacana) and not ' t h e phenomenal world ' as in the Vedānta philosophy. respectively. as O translated. Ekapuggala-vaggo. 13. ^f)£ pffij • T.e. utpāda = tathāgatotpatti. C. Pali AN. ceaselessly and uninterruptedly as far as the world exists18>. middle and end. T. 16 ) prapañca (Pali papañca). T. 1. C. we count 4 characteristics of samskrta. though it is immutable and of the characteristic of non-activity. lasting. i. 4 a n d p . not having heard the Buddhahood. 88.9 (ā bhavâgratah). the whole action of the Perfectly Enlightened One proceeds without any effort. and bhañga. which shows almost the exact sense of this Buddhist term. C. & 6) śakti: Thus. these 3 are implied the beginning. In the Buddhist texts. That is to say. skye—ba.

As having the character of breaking. [the Buddha] has preached 21) the path to follow22) that [Buddhahood]. mire dañgzugs. respectively. ) nāmarūpa. ) There a r e 4 kinds of ' kleśas ' which a r e caused b y t h e wrong discrimination and are t o perish b y darśana-mārga. As having the character of cutting it. i. o n t h e contrary. slob-dpon med-pa. 171 ( Ā r y a p a r i y e s a n a . collection perishable). saikāyadrsti is. physical T. The transcendency is due to its never again being turned back.hjig-tshogs(& body. C. r e a d s i n s t e a d ' anuttara '. ^i^ $ £ p i P p f ] . 24 25 23 c IE. a n d is t o p e r i s h b y bhāvanā-mārga. mñon-par śen-pa. as being contracted in the Individuality. ' m e n t a l e l e m e n t s a n d m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s . With respect to their abolition of the roots of others' Suffering (duhkha) and Defilement (kleśa). in order to enlighten the others too. by which the individuality is distinguished from each other ' . and. śīlavrataparāmarśa a n d vicikitsā. sakkāya). T . is explained by means of the examples of sword and thunderbolt. 21 22 ) vyupadeśa ) anugāmin. 26 ) bhavāh T . a n i n n a t e defilement. [the Buddha] should be understood as being endowed with the supreme Wisdom and Compassion. the power (śakti) of Wisdom and of Compassion of the Tathāgata. 20 ) abudha = S. false opinion.J . Here. īj/£ . superstition. 1. ) abhiniveśa (Pali abhinivesa). Therefore. abuddha. Thence. nāmarūpa is a synonym of pañcaskandhāh. The Defilement. ( B H S ) ( p e r h a p s a wrong form for S k t . should be regarded as having the state of sprout because of its character of origination. 2? [ 158 3 . ^=J ( t r i b h a v a ) . ) satkāya ( P . the Suffering. 19 ) anācāryaka ( P a l i anācaryaka). ZZ. the root of Suffering is. with respect to his comprehension. C. The root of Defilement is anything which is based on the prejudice25) to the individual existence26). which is contracted in wrong view and doubt and is to be destroyed by the Path of true perception. The fearlessness (abhayatva) of Path is due to its transcendency. Of these. one kind of origination of Individuality 23) (nāmarūpa) on the [three] existences24). it should be known that Buddha's Power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of thunderbolt. T . They a r e mithyādrsti.s u t t a ) .e. who are ignorant 20> and blind by birth. T . C. Cf. ston—pa. P a l i MN vol. ^ J Ç ^ . p . it should be known that the Buddha's power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of sword. drsti-parāmarśa. srid-rnams-pa. in short. C. T. rjes-su rtogs-pa ( = anubodha). TAKASAKI cher 1 9 ) . C. wrong view and doubt 2 7 ). ' nāma ' means the 4 skandhas other than irūpa\ therefore. vyapadeśa). T . ^pj -£}". it is akin to the wall concealed by a thick forest. is difficult to be understood and hardly to be overcome by means of mundane knowledge. C.

3) " j ^ fft ^ C ^ A ^3 ^t H^| rf± M M tr. the Arhat. the Tathāgata. IV (S. p. JAĀ. p. 357 (12. > T . . s. Taisho No. sems-par byed-pa. C. see Chap. B anu—). 3 °) C. devoid of thinking 35> and ) ānupūrvl (anupūrvi?). However. He is unimaginable. Pali. vithapanū. 99 ff. the six qualities of the Tathāgata mentioned above should be understood by this very order 28> and wdth detailed and analytical explanation. T. 34 ) prapañcayati. by ff" -fJO I g H (Samghabhadra)& c. See N o t e 1 1 . are partly lacking in 2). 1. should b e i n s e r t e d after ' acitta '. the Perfectly Enlightened One neither moves nor produces any thought 33>. 240 c. of Skt. M tr. has the epithets) the Tathāgata.v.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a fi 2. which seems to show the original type of this sūtra. T. 239-250 a). 1. 2./ P ^-p Pu*]. vithapyante. he who is of no origination or destruction is (i. it is said as follows 3 2 ) : " Thus. S. 31 > About the 9 illustrations. go-rims. p. 1.). 250 a-253 c). 253 c-265 b).( t h e l l t h cent - A .). S. indiscriminative. according to the Sarvabuddhavisayâvatārajñānâlokâlarnkārasūtra29\ In that Sūtra. 7: hetvānupurvyā (Ms. p . as a hybrid form of vithapayati. by nine illustrations beginning with the illustration of a reflection of the Indra on the surface of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone 31 ). vithapitā. Cf. it is explained that the Tathāgata is of immutable character. the 9 illustrations on the Buddha's Acts utilized in the Ratna. Taisho. (511-520 A. See B H S Die. Thus. 1. the Arhat. bsam-du med-pa ( = acintya). 33 ) The term ' vithapati ' is to be corrected into ' vithapeti '. by S nS &c . p. it is said as follows: " O Manjuśrī.-)> Taisho. 35 C. No. Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkāra—sūtra. Of them. the Perfectly Enlightenend One " 3°). 358 (12. the simplest edition is 2). 2) j j —"QJ t f ffî ft •§?. anupubbī. Mañjuśrī. JAÂ). so. first of all. By this. (501 A.IH tf ñ. A ^ J©» vñV JS> ^ ^ ® » B ^ ' a c m i y a ' [ 159 ] .e. And immediately after this. 29 ) We have 3 translations of this sūtra in the Chinese Tripitaka : 28 (Dharmaruci). 359 D (12. hence hereafter the equivalency in C. vi\)sthā. 240 b. p. Caus. Cf. £>. with reference to this very meaning of the Tathāgata's being neither originated nor destructed. D. 32 ) JAĀ. neither explains in a dualistic way 34 ) nor imagines falsely nor discriminates. No. 49. 31. will be shown according to 1) (abbr.).1 5 .

Having enlightened " means 4 having known truly by means of Buddha's non-discriminative Wisdom \ 44 Of [all] living beings " means 4 of those [living beings] who are in the 36 44 ) upaśamaprabheda—pradeśa. Such is the explanation of various kinds of aspects of quiescence36>. 37 ) C.. 'immaculate'. the Tathāgata is free from efforts. the Creat Compassion named 4 mastery ' sets in forth on all living beings ". as soon as the Tathāgata has enlightened all the elements of such a nature and has observed the essential nature of all living beings as 4 impure ' ' not removing stains ' and 4 blemished '. And after this. " all the elements of such a nature " means * [all the elements. all dualistic views and false discriminations have ceased to exist. 38 > Cf. 40 by accepting T. H e r e ' pradeśa ' seems t o m e a n ' a s p e c t ' (visaya o r gocara). /7'J ^ZL T O ( — upaśama-prabheda-laksana). hence. or smelt. after the explanation of [nine] illustrations. there is explained by the remaining texts the Tathāgata's perfect enlightenment realized without any help of others with respect to all the gates to the Perfect Enlightenment of the real nature of all elements 37>. -observing the nature of all living beings. sets forth the Compassion which is 'pure'. having the nature] as has been said before '. •> JAÂ. of quiescent character. 2476. has neither making known nor being made known. m • * ^ f t ID ⣠VS W M tfe M IA % a %. M !S >l>.e. After this. /fc5£ i ^ ^c. reading * dños-po med-pahi ño-bo-ñid-du to * nirdistān '. or touched and has no characteristic remark. with reference to the Tathāgata's 16 kinds of Enightenment 3 8 \ it is said as follows39>: There. of neither origination nor destruction. ñe—bar shi—bahi tshig—gi rab—tu dbye—ba (== upa- śamaśabda-prabheda ? ) . By this it is indicated that. . (Acc. the character of non-existence 40>. 247 6. " and so forth. O Mañjuśrī. By this the Tathāgata's possession of Supreme Wisdom and Compassion is demonstrated. but it is probably a wrong translation. C.e. The former 3 epithets are translated in an opposite way. ) ' abhāva-svabhāvāt * in the text should be corrected to ' abhāvasvabhāvān'. T . or tested. There. in his own acts. i. i. which is equivalent to JAĀ. 'not blemished ' and ' mastery'). He cannot be seen. or heard.minding. regards ' sarvataihatâbhisambodhamukhesu ' as a quotation. Note 1-89.)-ho ' as an apposition [ 160 ] .

skyon-dañ bcas-pa. 48 ) T h e reading ' abhisambuddhabodheh ' i n t h e t e x t is doubtful. 42 ) (sattvānām) dharmadhātu — svadharmatā-prakrtinirviśista-tathāgatagarbha. S. has ' fj^ •Jf"' ' along with ' ' ij^ [££. For 'avaśistatā'1 ^ \ ^ ' shows nearly the same meaning. translates it by ' § | | Tiiy '. T . connects it t o ' supravista '. the reading should be (remained).) through the Buddha's eye to which nothing is obscure' 4 3 ) . impure. " Blemished (sâñgana) " 44) means ' [blemished nature] of Bodhisattvas '. s. etc. ^ J j S p cf. 43 ) C. C. which is not different from his own quality by nature ' 4 2 ) . b u t T . On the contrary C. F o r ' vinayopāya \ b o t h T . fZC B S ' (dharmatā. " Essential nature (dharmadhātu) " 4 1 ) means 4 the Matrix of the Tathāgata. r e a d as ' vineyopāya '. C. rnam-par-brtse-ba. [The Compassion is * named] mastery (vikrīditā) " 46> because it enters well into * the gates of accomplished means of training in various ways (vividhā) 47>. " The great Compassion sets forth on all living beings". Cf. T. mñoT-par rdsogs- r . D i e . T . ' "p| ' tadubhayânyatamâvaśistatayā'. e x p l a i n s t h e w o r d s from ' sarvasattvānām ' t o ' avalokya ' t o g e t h e r . in common with S. 45 ) Instead of ' tadubhayâniyatama-viśistayā ' in the text. uses t h i s word twice. & C. T h e prefix ' vi. T.' is i n t e r p r e t e d b y ' vividhā'. because [the Buddha]..v. which is usually equivalent to ' vijrmbhita ' (manifestation of the Buddha's power). trivimoksamukha—vikrîdito. añgana. 47 ) T h e reading of t h i s passage is r a t h e r obvious. S. and C. t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s passage r u n s as follows: " I t is ' vikrīditā ' because [the B u d d h a ] . chos-kyi dbyiñs. g. hence the whole means ' taking compassion in various ways ' ?). lhag-ma. " Impure (aśuddha) " means i [impure nature] of the ignorant and common people ' because of obstruction caused by Moral Defilement (klesâvarana).. Here. Lalitavistara). connects t h i s 'vividhā' t o ' m u M a ' a n d C. sāñgana. h a v i n g k n o w n ( = sampanna ?) t h e various m e a n s b y w h i c h living beings a r e t o b e c o n v e r t e d . v . IV-1 ' vineyadhātau vinayâbhyupāye '. dharmasvabhāva ? ) . " Having observed " i means having perceived all kinds (i. having realized 4 8 ) the characteristics of all living beings through 41 ) T. J/C j3Î in the quotation (instead of the usual ' î ^ -^r '). But here C. because of [their] retaining [the impression of] one of both [obstructions] 45>. t o ' mukha'. enters t h e various gates of that means " . 44 ) T . the feminine form is used. B u t t h e r e seems t o b e n o t so m u c h difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s as t o t h e i r sense. & C.e. O n t h e c o n t r a r y .The Ratnagotravibhāga state of conformed [in right way] (niyata-). mentioned (e. & C . The term vikrldita is often used in the sense of ' having perfect mastery ' in BHS as E. once connecting t o ' upāya' a n d i n t h e second case. being an epithet or an apposition to ' karunā '. " Not removing stains (avimala) " means * [stainful nature] of the Śravākas and Pratyekabuddhas ' because of obstruction on account of knowable things (jñeyâvarana). C. B H S . instead of the usual mam-par rol-pa. (brtse-ba = sneha [affection]. 46 > T. unconformed (aniyatar-) and wrongly conformed (mithyā-niyata-) groups (rāśi) '. There is no exact concordance between S.

7) St7âriasa]r?ljPa<^ & 8) parârthasampad: Here. See. takes ' svadharmatā ' i ' Buddha's own nature'. upaśāntipada [ 162 ] . If so. C.I. id.J. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra the Thāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa (Avat S). Cf. et( *s ' t n e fulfilment of benefit for others ' (parârthasampad). because of their character of being the basis for set*ng forth the Wheel of the highest and greatest Doctrine. / v r f 4/E ' * s m e r e l y an interpreting word by the Chinese translator. ' 3.e. still it is better to be ' abhisambodhibuddhyā '. i & ' p.t n e double expression. to make them enlighten the Great EnlighteJ i e n t < Therefore.e. the fulfilment of sef"k enent *s designated. the equality. i. a e r ' tuahākarunā iti\ and ' ^gjf y^.e. seems to have a double expression ' fjg -4^ £££. is 4 the fulfilment of self-benefit' (svârthasamfd). because there is another expression *JĪJ5C -4^ . Besides [thee *s another meaning]. J-[J£'. the Enlightenment. so) £_ r e a c the whole passage as follows: " ' mah5!>rui}ū ' [signifies] that. •=f^' Jg£ ' seems to be connected with ' i!i> wC *^~ īlF AO ' ( to ' ^n orc ^er t 0 ' o r having intention to) as an apposition to ' 3ÎU 7 £ enghten the same as the Buddha. eternal and cruiescent plPe 51^ n a s the character of being the basis of his own perfect enlightenmei • By the words ' Compassion ' and ' Power '. and [the quality connected with] the remaining three. having attained the Great Enlightenment. Usually. 1AJ4. in so far as the highest. i. or the lack of differencp (nirviśistatā) between the Buddha himsel£ n d all sattvas. This [activif] should be known as ' power ' of both [Wisdom and Compassion] in egard of acting for the sake of others. the fulfilment of benefit fo others is designated. ) paramatyopaśāntipada. _5f? signifies ' nirvān • 51 * <g)C p£f" ft^ •£?. [the Buddhal o l " n s t n e Great Compassion equally for all living beings with intention to make living eings realize what the Buddha did. Note 11-42. i. After this. And even if wc*1006?*. Wisdom. par byañ-chub'as na (abhisambodheh).. VII . By the word ' Wisdom '.e. etc. [the Buddha] has no relaxation of activity for effectuatag t n e setting in motion of the Wheel of unparalleled Doctrine. to enlighten the Highest Enlightne- ment). C. of these six qualities of the Tatbg ata > according to order [the quality] connected with the first three ualities. " It seems C. ^ a s t n e intention to lead [the living beings] to the acquisition of thei o w n nature 50).AS5AK. immutable. i.££. 49) samata1. having aroused the supreme Wisdom an Compassion.t it is not certain whether it is the translation of this terin or that of ' adhie:amaprāpia ' O e a ds to the acquisition). [it is called ' mahākarunā ' ] .I equality 49).

Therefore. seems to show this sense. timirâri. The present transla- . with rays of light of the immaculate Wisdom.C 'li* fft a t SB) and XVII-187 (for ' nirālamba'. T. j ^ S f$t ? C. Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra VI. 1. J. moha or avidyā. W. timiraripu.III.C. from the Jewel of the Buddha. 3) 4 dosa (BHS for Skt. And neither different from being nor from non-being X).. ' timira. timiranāśana. T.). dmigs-pa. immediately after [the explanation of] the former. But. flji£ |*Jp. hatred 3) and darkness4) with respect to all the basis of cognition 5 ). 122. Dictionary. 4-8. It means doctrinally the ignorance. etc. I bow before the sun of-the Doctrine. etc. what is to be destroyed is timira (the sun is often referred to by such terms as timiracchid. viz. there arises the Jewel of the Doctrine. Skt.v. in comparison with the simile of the sun. And which. Destroys passion. W ® ?£ . Madhyamaka-kârikā I. ^ J ||}£ or »_!?£ pip. (Kārikā 2). Pali dosa). cf. So ^« /JiE (moha). ' 3fT| | P J ' means usually ' vitarka-vicāra ' and I could not trace the use of ' j | ? j Hit' for 'ārambana' in other texts. sdañ(-ba) (she-sdañ). THE JEWEL OF THE DOCTRINE Now. Lañkāvatāra p. M.. rab-rib. Which cannot be speculated upon and is beyond explanation. we have one śloka concerning the latter. But. But revealed [only] by introspection 2> and is quiescent. T. 2) pratyātmavedya ( = pratyātmavedanīya in comm. Which is neither non-being nor being. C. ^ C 163 ] ( § ) . 5) ārambana (āramvana in the text is probably a misprint) (BHS fr. 7. so-so-ran-gyis rig (-parlj bya-ba). // 9 // This alternative proposition is called ' catuskotikā\ Cf. s.fa i|> fcj . T. timiranud. Nor both being and non-being together. Pali āram- mana — Skt.) and C. ālambana). dvesa. C. translation is curious. Note VI-70 (for cittârambana.

^ ^ / fî\ |2si). BHS Die. And because of its pureness. 2) non-duality (advayatā). The C. gñis-su med-pa-ñid. Cf.. 4) purity.' seems to be equivalent to vibandha '. translation is more understandable than S. non-dual. mñonJ £A| )î 6) vipaksa gñen-pohi phyogs- par gsal-bar (byed-pa).J .). // 10 // By this verse. rnam-par rtog- pa med-pa-ñid. and all [other] defilements " . — e . [ 164 ] . where these 8 categories are explained as the qualities of the Buddha's ' āśrayaparivrtti '). (BGŚ ^ ^ î ^ " ) . 5) vyakti. 3EJ j p . in brief. dag-pa. and 8) cause of Deliverance (virāgahetu) 7 ). and C. 7) Terms in v. 4) śuddhi. 2) advaya. hatred and ignorance. The Doctrine. TAJK. 7) yo virāgah. ç?^ pip. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its being unthinkable. as well as in BGS are as follows: 1) acintya. pgfl: |AJ (BGS BGŚ 8016. „„ - „_. manifestation and hostility. (ārambana 6) & ālambana). 3) niskalpa. Cf. 'i* yf^ "pT* {B |âfe fRPŚ /T^ UT ® B *V . 10 and translations of these 8 in T. 7) Deliverance [from passions] (virāga). which is Deliverance and also by which arises Deliverance Has the characteristics of the two Truths. and being non-discriminative. (BGS -7HÇ . [V] vrtti. & C. passions.researching and investigation (jSjjJ Çpt) [by discriminative mind]. 5) [being] manifest (abhivyaktikarana). 3E>|. 1-^)* i>e. 6) hostility [against obstacles] (pratipaksatā). hdod chags dañ bral-ba. 7>fç 73 [A7'Jj. bsam-du med-pa-ñid. pjfl: ^ ^ (BGS pgjt ^ ) . Buddhagotraśāstra ( B G Ś ) 801 b ff. hdod-chags dañ bral-bahi rgyu. ( u n d e r C h a p . About the use of the term ' ārambana '. 3) non-discriminativeness (nirvikalpatā).ASAKI § 1. I V . tion is according to T. Which are the eight qualities? They are 1) unthinkability (acintyatva). ^TJj' M R ^ ^ / (BGS ) j ^ ñid. v . (śuddhi). see below (Note 111-39). î^p". Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine 6>. Cf. & 8) yena virāgah. s. and ' j^lj ||p£' to vikalpa or ayoniśomanasikāra. the Jewel of the Doctrine is explained as being contracted by eight qualities. translation for the whole line runs as follows: " Destroys several kinds of darkness (H_5£.

T . T . to be termed ' samkleśasatyadvaya \ 13 l l j ' ārya. The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction. f^p* fZC . mnon-par bsdus te. it is explained. // 11 // Of these six qualities. C. in their turn. Deliverance 8) is summarized In both truths. [ 165 ] . Extinction and Path.e. ' [hdod-]chags [dan] bral[-ba]-ñid ' seems e q u i v a l e n t t o ' virāgatā \ C. w h i c h is t h e c o m m o n n a t u r e of b o t h ' nirodhasatya ' & ' mārgasatya '. Nirodha-satya and Mārga-satya. t h e s t a t e of b e i n g virāgin (one w h o is passionless). ' pjjft also shows n o t h i n g special.vffî iyn ' vyavadānasatyadvaya ' means ' the 2 satyas concerned with purification ' i. 9) The reading ' ete ' in the text should be understood in the sense ' yābhyām nirodhatnārgasatyābhyām . purity. 10) abhisamasya ( g r . as] the Truth of Extinction. And because of its being the knowledge of Saints 13>. . by the first three qualities. C. See above. ' being of the nature of Deliverance (virāgadharma)u ) ' means ' having characteristic of the two purifying Truths12>.e. o f abhi-sam-^as). H e n c e ' v i r ā g a t ā ' seems here a more natural form than ' virāgitā '. From this [explanation] it should be known that the Deliverance [itself] is contracted. which are. manifestation and hostility. § 3. translates ' nirodha—mārga—satyābhyām ' as the subject. nirodhasatya and mārgasatya. C. 11. i. the Truth of Path is explained. non-duality and non-discriminativeness. 12) vyavadāna-satyadvaya-laksana.e. " That which is Deliverance " means [the Doctrine. i. C. unthinkability. te (ete) veditavye '. -^3 ^gf . and takes ' samgrhita ' as active voice. the Truth of Extinction is explained. rnam-par byañ-bahi bden-pa gñis-kyi mtshanñid. Because of its being beyond speculation and explanation. Consequently there is no difficulty in C. T. . and from this. And by the remaining three qualities. ' Q " . 8) ' virāgitā '. 9) Which are each to be known By three qualities according to order. T. hphags-pa. C. . and " by which arises the Deliverance " means ' by [the Doctrine as] the Truth of Path.. pij|£ f S • This is an interpretation of the word ' virāgitā ' (or virāgatā) in v. T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s w o r d is s h o w n below b y t h e t e r m ' virāgadharma '. it should be known that the cause of Deliverance is contracted.The Ratnagotravibhāga § 2. ' Having joined these two together10>. Unthinkability [of the Doctrine should be known]. and is opposite to ' duhkhasatya ' and ' samudayasatya '. reading. .

ñe-tshig.1. ?R ^ ( 4 ^] H S 1H). 16> ruta. C. and 3) it is to be revealed by the introspection of Saints. C. 1) it is not a sphere of speculation even by four categories [of existence] 1 4 \ i. And three [qualities]. purity etc. 14). skad ( = bhāsā). being and non-being together. p. agreed term. t h e n e x t birth. having the nature 18> of being non-dual and non-discriminative " . 10 ff.e. śiva. . C. being. ^\ . p . T. 13. 19> 17) dual'?). tha-sñad. B u t i n t h e relation t o ' janman '. tshul-bshin ma-yin-pa yid-la byed-pa. ( B G Ś also quotes t h i s sentence). are akin to the sun. i discrimination (vikalpa) means 'Irrational Thought (ayoniśomanasikāra)'21) which is the cause of origination of Action and Defilements. word and thought] ' 2 0 ) and ' Defilement (Mesa). _ p . 'karman' is t h e cause of 'janman' (or bhava). 16) A A N 467 b.^ .). TAKASAKI Because of quiescence it is non-dual and non-discriminative. some kind of energy a n d h a s a sense similar t o ' samskāra '. P T S D i e (' kamma ' ) . T. // 12 // 1) acintyatva: Unthinkability of the Truth of Extinction. t h e former signifies t h e a c t u a l deed b y body. conversation [and so forth] 15>. ñag-gi yul. Equivalency to each term pt in C. 4 dual ' (dvaya)19) means ' action ' or ' active force ' (karman). [as by deed. How should here be understood nonduality and non-discriminativeness of the Truth of Extinction? It is taught by the Lord as follows1 6 ) : " O Śāriputra.ghosa.. should be known by three causes. nirukti. i. C. explanation. C. 2) it cannot be explained by any sound. (S. in short. see S. way of speech. 18) dharman (ifc). 1. As for its being a cause of Defilements and Actions. Cf. of which is taught ' non- See below (S. Whenever 'karman1 and ' kleśa ' a r e mentioned side b y side. 20) ° " m ^1 ^ Z2 ITS I S ^ H (what are two. EL abhilāpa. 7 ff. brjod-pa ( = vacana).e nonbeing. p. " E ī m . By which three? Because. T. See above.J. 42. hgog-pa ( = nirodha). 1. vyavahāra. ^*H g / j j . brda. T. vākpatha. C.C 2gp (echo ?). T. speech. Vpf i 5 > • ^ u t T . mñon-par brjod-pa. quiescent l 7 ) is this Absolute Body [of the Buddha]. 13 and p. By knowing deeply that 14 ) So-called ' catuskotikā '. C. ^ J . see Note VIII-(IX) A-61. C. 44. p e r h a p s i n t h e sense t h a t ' śiva * is an epithet of ' nirodha '. T. Here. T. 21) T. In another passage. samketa. It seems to be the original reading and is preferable here. designation. of which t h e cause is ' kleśa'. sgra (= śabda). C. [ 166 ] . T. voice. 2) advayatā & 3) nirvikalpatā. respectively. word a n d t h o u g h t . I n t h i s sense ' k a r m a n ' should be r e g a r d e d a s t h e ' active force '. About the etymology of ' vyavahāra'. is not sure. ravita (artificial sound). the same sentence is quoted changing * dharmā ' into ' dharmatayā '. and neither being nor non-being. 5=p .

1. J|_j^ ^g. thog-ma med-pahi dus-can. & śāśvata. there is designated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is beginningless 27>. I t is quite against the Vijñānavādin's way of interpretation.. e. C. sems dañ yid dañ rnam-par śes-pa. 469 b) BGŚ quotes the first sentence from AĀS and regards the remaining as its own explanation. intellect and consciousness never take place 2 3 ) . 26 > ŚMS 221 c. Wherever no mental action takes place. O Lord. Cf. It should never be explained that. quiescent. rtag-pa. | P £ jfâ [ ^ jf& i f r ^ ] . mi-skye(-ba). These three are synonymous with each other and here seem to have no special meaning as in the Vijñānavāda. shi-ba. Cf. 28) These 4. nitya. ^ ^J£ (BGS A^ ^ £ ) . 1. released from covering of 22 > JAĀ 247 a. C. By the term. (in BGS. T. O Lord. there is no origination of duality and discrimination. It is called 4 non-birth(ajfāti) 2 5 ) . 81. eternal. for this reason there is absolutely no origination of Suffering. Paramārtha interprets that ' citta ' means the ' former ' (i. 12 ft. constant. 82.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga this Irrational thought is extinct by nature. extinction of Suffering does not mean the disappearance of element. 72. p. it is [called] the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. @^C).e. AÂS (which has the passage after ' asamskrta ' up to the end of this quotation). p. > anādikālika. BGŚ 801 (quotation from ŚMS). "> T. mi-hjig-pa. non-originated. Also said [in the scripture]26). C. śiva. 53. I^J ' t ā Vpf î/K *> S ! ) a r e °f ten u s e d i n this treatise as the modifiers of ' dharmakāya' or the Absolute Truth. 20. there is no false imagination by which they would think irrationally. It is said as follows 22>: O Mañjuśrī. p. (BGS 801 c).) 24) i. free from destruction. brtan-pa. the usual set of) 6 vijñānas. See below (S. 4 Extinction of Suffering '.1. everlasting28). p . of no destruction. ' ajāti ' = ' anutpādânirodha \ The term ' ajāti ' reminds us of the idealistic philosophy of Gaudapāda.) Cf. T. of no birth. purified by nature. in case there is neither origination nor extinction. because of extinction of something. p. This is called the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. the chain of causation (pratītyasamutpāda). ' manas ' ' ādâna-vijñāna '. 10. ^[j* Jlā» JHf« H * (but AĀS & BGS. starting with ' avidyā '. This is usually an adjective to ' dhātu \ See S. Non-arising of Ignorance means non-arising of the Twelve Parts of Existence (dvādaśa-bhavâñga) 24>. 54. AĀS (beginning of Chap. 27 etc. immutable. One who applies himself with rational thought never makes Ignorance arise. consequently. 23) 44 44 citta-mano-vijñāna. vv. dhruva. ^ ' H ® tt> respectively (496 b) BGŚ ^ ? ft B S 8 6 $& ( 8 0 1 c ) ' [ 167 ] . mental actions as mind. 13. however. C. ' ālayavijñāna '. II. and ' vijñāna '. ' " and so forth. (T.

AÂS & BGŚ. TW t=î B^Ś A* -fjjf Jiff ^ ? the last two seem to show the best translation.. 4) śuddhi. all other editions i. ^ ft $1] ^§?. gañgāvālikāvyativrttair avinirbhāgair acintyair buddhadharmaih samanvāgatas . and * bhāvanā-mārga ' those Stages after the second one. AĀS. T. J^J.. y@g 3JH.. C. mthoñ-bahi lam. 2) through the common characteristic of being the manifestor of forms.. BGŚ 802 a (j|ft $£ 0 ) . T. § 4. and 3) through the common 29) .) ' m a k e s t h e i d e a signified b y ' gañgāvālikā tathāgatagarbhah —. brol-bar śes-pa (= muktajña). " Thus all the determination of the Truth of Extinction of Suffering should be understood wholly and in detail according to Sutras. ^ ^ T h e t e r m ' samanvāgata 30) $ ? $fc ^ . have this term. except the present Skt. For this expression. . .. because. because of making manifest knowable things of all kinds. Similarity of ' jñāna' to the sun is also referred to in S. j||£ .all moral defilements. is called the Matrix of Tathāgata. p. because of being apart from all the minor defilements and stains. darśana-mārga. (sūryavad iti. The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 3 1 ). tathāgatakāyo ' vinirmuktakleśakośas T h i s is a f a m o u s ^\f definition of the term ' tathāgatagarbha \ Chinese refer to this often by ' śf\\ p | | 31 > Cf. q u i t e clear. . 0 Lord. sgom-pahi 32) lam. C. C. 34> 33) [ 168 ] . text and T. . (quotation from AAN). 5) abhivyaktikarana & 6) pratipaksatā: Now indeed. And this very Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. ŚMS. ŚMS (both T. 93 ff.e. • ' darśana-mārga ' signifies the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. T. see Note 1-23. [when it is] unreleased from the covering of moral 30) defilements. The term ' amuktajñair ' had better be inserted after ' avinirbhāgair '. the way to attain the Absolute Body of Tathāgata named Extinction of Suffering is the Path of perception and practice 32) based upon the nondiscriminative Wisdom (avikalpa-jñāna) 33\ And this [Path] is to be known as similar to the sun with threefold common characteristics 3 4 ) . and endowed with inseparable and unthinkable qualities of the Buddha. T. & bhāvanā-mārga. mam-par mi-rtog-pahi ye-śes. etc. 107 ff. and forth). (C. & C). which are far more than the sands of the Gañgā in number 29>. C. C. vv. . p. 4 N $fc 4 ^ j | | ) . [Namely] 1) through the common characteristic of purity of the disk. 58.

d e t e r m i n i n g t h e characteristic of ' manasikāra '. she—sdañ. T . 37 ' rāga. because of being the enemy of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception35*. i. hdod—chags. however. and when Ignorance conies forth. And t bondage ' (vibandha) 36> means the origination of Desire. . And of those people who T. Jjt^ . 13. J ^ . By reason of this T. being appositional t o ' manasikāra '. 36 35) C. gegs. has no equivalent term. C. u n d e r s t a n d s 'ārambana'' in t h e sense of ' t a k i n g hold o f or 'grasping '• This v e r b a l sense seems b e t t e r here t h a n t h e nominal sense. If we construe T . See below. C. but BGS. T . 0 t f p *?£ (the thing to be dispelled). C. T. C. ' manasikāra ' here is determine d a s ' abhūtavastunimitta-ārambana'. people regard the unreal. ally H I ) . s t a t e '. 17. As for t h e relation of this ' ārambana ' t o ' manasikāra '. p. 1. ^ ? F o r ' śubhâkāra [ 169 ] .e. (see J. 8 in S. i. yid-la byed-pa. See note '. 67. T . >P}A'/1>* Jp|^ "^p" ^ffl. t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e light of this S k t . manasikāra. BGŚ B|f seems to stand for ' timira ' in the kārikā. 40) anuśaya. m a k e s a B a h u v r ī h i compound. 17). respectively. C. C. yañ-dag-pa ma-yin-pahi dños-po rgyu38) mtshan—gyi yul. T . T . gti—mug. C. fift. de-kho-na mthoñ-ba ( = tattva-darśana). because ' arāmbana' is a kind of a c t . T. translation as well as by the reading ' sarvâkārasya tattvadarśanavibandhasya ' in S. kun-nas (S. ārambana '. the uncertain passage in Ms. C p j ^ moha. bag-la ñal-ba. 7JIJE. ( b u t usuIX-77. a n d for paryutthāna.. Hatred and Ignorance 37> preceded by the thought 3 8 ) which takes its basis [of cognition] upon the characteristic of unreal things Z9\ It is due to the union of the state of tendency (anuśaya) with manifested state (paryutthāna) [of defilement] 40>.= paryavasthāna 41) T . a n d hence is to b e understood i n t h e sense ' [manasikāra] whose ārambana is abhūtavastu—nimitta ' a n d ' ārambana ' c a n be t r a n s l a t e d into ' senseobject '.e. g r a m m a r . Or ' ayoniśo manasikāra ' = ' abhūtavastu—nimitta—ārambana-manasikāra '. . On t h e c o n t r a r y . B. t h e a c t of t a k i n g hold of ' abhūtavastu-nimitta ' [as real]. 1. 39 ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta-ārambana. I n other words. seems t o regard i t as being appositional. o m . _fpl. dvesa. regards t h e t e r m 'ārambana' as ' visaya'' (sense object) a n d connects i t with ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta ' b y t h e genitive case. [they regard the unreal thing as the real characteristic] because of its detestable looks (pratighâkārena). ^ p ^ A^ t w ( b u t usually |§|f S|^) ' sleeping Idan-pa. This word > T. ' p o t e n t i a l s t a t e ' . t h e compound ' abhūta . T . ' can ' should be inserted after 'yul'. C. As being based upon the unreal feature. 'not of its nature (atatsvabhāva) ' thing as the [real] characteristic because of its desirable looks (śubhâkāra)41> when Desire comes forth from its state of tendency. way. /MR -£Ç J) ft'] j]l^ . it should be ayoniśomanasikāra ' in its implied sense. then it is the same because of its obscure looks (avidyâkārena). F r o m t h e point of S k t .The Ratnagotravibhāga characteristic of hostility against darkness. p. when Hatred comes forth [from its state of tendency]. 12) should be read ' tattva ' instead of ' satya ' inserted by J . fn. C. Indeed.

and for ' ārambana-carita ' T. and (4) janma-samkleśa. from Action there results Rebirth. Here. for ' ārambana '. C. In this process. i. and this ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is defined as ' vikalpa ' (S. mtshan-par hdsin-pa-can. Here ' ārambana seems to show more clearly the sense of ' an action to hang on '. %M. Hatred and Ignorance as the basis of cognition 4 2 \ the Irrational Thought occupies their mind. Due to this [origination of Defilement]. there arises Rebirth. (v. (3) karma-samkleśa. there arises Action. etc. ' nimitta-grāhin ' and ' ārambana-carita ''. and also [in the same way] they produce the action born of Hatred. ayathābhūtam can be regarded as an adjective to ārambana. C. — ' *gf ft 5?" > ( B G Ś — ' 5^) T. the latter two). 2) or ' abhūtavastunimittârambana-manasikāra ' (S. Furthermore. T. dmigs-pa-la spyod-pa. 13. Thus these people. . as before (-»IA). e. they make the actions born oi Desire by means of body. 12. It may be termed [ 170 ] . (2) kleśa-samkleśa. p. (tattvadarśana-vibandha) pf| . T. etc. C. [Of them]. Cf. there takes place the Defilement of any one of Desire. \m M ' l ī l ffiE > ^ C ¥ K ffi • Me t i (anuśaya) M H (ayonisomanasikāra) (The tattvadarśanavibandha means (1) a complexed action of mind. om. 1. regarding the [unreal] characteristic [as real]. The function of ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is to be compared to that of ' manas ' in the Vijñānavāda. produce the Irrational Thought. 1) (see Note 38. come forth because people do not know.&• / £ . 1. TAKASAKI incorrectly take hold of characteristics of Desire. (C. 45 dharmadhātu. 39). T. of which the Defilements in dormant state are causes. khams gcig. I rendered it into an adverbal sense. BGS 802 a: -JÇ J ^ Bpf [yp. having tendencies [of Desire. ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' occupies the important role. It is also identical with cittaprakrti. all the phenomena^ life. 58 f. but from the context.). i. (1) a complexed action of mind is [a mental activity]. affections towards the five sense-objects are conditions. For those people whose mind is occupied with the Irrational Thought. Because of origination of Defilement. from which consequently arises Defilement. the action born of Ignorance. 44) samkleśa. For ' nimitta-grāhin '. 46) About the process of origination of the phenomenal life (samkleśa) see S. p.J . dharmatā. And all kinds of impurity (samkleśa) 44> of these Defilements. Because of the association of these three. dmigs-pa. [affectionally] hanging on it 43>. the Absolute. Hatred and Ignorance. karman & janman. nor perceive the one [real] essence 45) as it is 4 6 \ 42) rāgadvesamoha-nimittam ayathābhūlam ārambanam kurvatām. Action Rebirth.. > eka-dhātu. and making it the basis of cognition. kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa. from the origination of Action. Hatred and Ignorance]. These three show successive activities of mind preceding to ' manasikāra '. and the Irrational Thought i3 the cause of associated origination. p. î | § . it is called ' a complexed action of mind '). 43) Here ordinary beings (bala) are said to be ' anuśayavat'. 42 f. e. z?t£ (7P1E ^Rc)« A general term for kleśa. speech and thought.

tatra bodhisattvayānikah pudgalo yair vastubhih anumodeta yair ārambanair yair ākārais tac cittam utpādayet api nu tāni vastūni tāni vā ārambanāni te vā ākārās tathopalabhyeran yathā nimittîkaroti ". 354. this realization of all natures by Wisdom. BHS Die. where a passage from ASP is quoted. investigates. rgyu-mtshan nam dmigs-pa. then can he perceive the Reality 48 ). has the sg. 9-12). as being equal without any addition nor diminution because of these two facts. (e. med-pahi rgyu-mtshan-gyi dmigs-pa and C. VIII. 1. and we can see the real character of being as the absolute truth. i.g. g. 1. C. US. 'ff f 4 . T . C. 5-9). for which the original reading is as follows: " . C. caus.e. 12. $$. running: together.The Ratnagotravibhāga [On the other hand] these impurities should be seen in the same manper as by a perfect investigator 47 ) who does not perceive any [unreal] characteristic nor any basis of these impurities. asamavadhāna. 1. [ 171 ] . 334. [Because]. This is indeed the Path of perception and practice based upon the non-discriminative Wisdom. of parigavesayati. 1. because we cannot see any characteristic nor basis of non-being51). 1. 1. Cf. /MR 3 C < £ TR (unreal characteristics of things) a'nd om. 1. (Skt. jr«-* f o r b o t h e. 333. 47 > parigavesayat (one who investigates) ( < p. which is the cause of attaining the Absolute Body [of the Tathāgata] and which is to be understood in detail according to the Sñtra named Prajñāpāramitā 53>. of pari- gavesate. these elements 49> are perfectly realized by the Tathāgata as equal through 50 equality ). C. C. when he perceives neither characteristic nor basis. ' ārambana '. 1. /fâ\ (as if * nimittârambana ' as in the previous cases). C. this is to be known as the ' enemy ' (pratipaksa) of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception. p. T . For ' nimittam ārambanam vā '. 22-335. T. but BGŚ —° ~ffl n§ ?£ (sarvadharmāh). pres. 230 ff. 51) asad nimittârambana. 332. Astasāhasrikā-Prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of AAA pp.if4iiin3Kjçjn^^ftfj| J5']-. p. p. Here the use of ' ārambana ' is obviously objective. yoñs-su btsal-ba. 2-5 & 15-16. case-ending) T. . 52) asamgati. T. 4-7 & 11-15.). ^ i ^ "\^ ^r. *g£ f 4 • «> dharmāh (pi. ^yç. And because of the origination of this enemy. which had literally better be translated into ' unreal basis of characteristics '.14 & 17-18. 1. 48 > bhūta. there is absolutely no association nor harmony 52) of the obstacles. v. med-pa. 9-12. (Wogihara. And thus. seeks for. the content of realization is shown. B3) M ®#H. T. AAA (GOS Edition. 332. yañ-dag-pa. 334. 335 b). bral-ba. inserts a short quotation. . s. Thus. • 60) By the term * iti '.). g. 353.

And whose eye of Wisdom has its objects In the pureness and infinitude of the living beings. j | j (or ^ P ) . Here the commentator seems to have used the term ' avaivartika ' as indicating the Bodhisattva on the 1st bhūmi. 1. immediately after [the explanation of] the former. we have one śloka referring to the latter. ' tat' of t h e 2nd line of v . -tā). t h e ' j a g a t * asvabhāva. there arises the Jewel of the Community of Bodhisattvas who are abiding in the irreversible state 1 ) . -/Sç 0f_ . C. ^V* ^ g J p | | . THE JEWEL OF THE COMMUNITY Now. respectively. 16. C 172 ] . p. T. see S. Perceive the Buddhahood 5> penetrating everywhere. Those whose intellect is unobscured. ño-bo-med[-pa]. Therefore. and newly creating the 10 ' bhūmi 's. 16 ff. rtogs(-pa).). C. as being equivalent sometimes to the 1st bhūmī. (Cf. has •§ some misunderstanding on the third line and due to this misunderstanding. having understood 2> perfectly The extremity of non-substantiality of all the worlds as quiescent. Besides this division. caryāpratipanna. 13. 13). 3rd. avaivartika & ekajātipratibaddha or abhiseka (of these 4.) I bow before those who. At the beginning of the development of the 'bhūmi' theory. from the Jewel of the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. C. 2) prati-vidh. 52. sometimes to the 7th bhūmi. the former 4 have got their place among 10 stages. phyir mi-ldog-pa. About the equivalence of this state to the Bodhisattva's i bhūmi'' or (vihāra\ there is a variety among the Mahāyāna texts.1. i n t h e 1st line. T. T . As for ' avaivartika '. // 13 // *) avaivartika ( = avinivartanīya). T. S. 4) 3) 6) sambuddhatā. Confusion occurred after the apperance of the Avatamsakasūtra which established the 41 stages of Bodhisattva. ranking the old 10 stages at the beginning under the name of 10 ' vihâra 's. Pramuditā & c. the division of 10 stages also seems to have an old history and as a result of the combination of both. C. Because of their perception of the unreality 3> of defilements Through the brightness of the innate pure mind of all the world 4) . p. See S. 1. Notes IV-31. being ranked as the 1st. C. rdsogs-pahi sañs-rgyas (om. as the highest group of Bodhisattva's stages. there seems to have been 4 divisions of states on account of the Bodhisattva's rank. 7th & 10th. (Kārikā 3.IV. p. 15. j?fj fī* • * " rlE v r C. 13 i n d i c a t e s ' sarvajagat' m e a n s ' p e o p l e i n t h e world ' . it is regarded on one hand as the name for the 7th ' vihāra\ but on another hand. namely: prathamacittotpādika. changes the order of the commentary.

As for their meanings. respectively. ji-lta-ba-bshin-yod-pa & ji~sñed-yod-pa. replaced by ' "^j ' after the next occurrence ($U *3î & This term ' \g£ ' is p 3 & KU JUT J^J ). (Lamotte's Sandhinirmocanasūtra. BBh. // 14 // By this it is explained. 1. p. It seems to show the original sense of these terms. 5-9). 11. that the Jewel of the Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas is endowed with supreme qualities. 699 c). 2. KU ^[ a n d o m . ' is said to relate to the perception of ' tathāgatagarbha-asiitva' in all living beings. by both of which the two kinds of ' tattvârtha' are represented. XVI. 7) 8) 6) ji-sñed. ji-bshin. Sandhinirmocana defines them. because of its purity of perception by supermundane knowledge. i. pure and impure. but see BGS 802 b where these two are said to be the cause of ' virāgadharma ' representing ' bhāvanā-mārga ' under the names of %\\ K g | ^ & >flj H i \e£ • however. 1-2. t\\ 0 f ^ft tt & ffi 0T ~fâ ft (Taisho. yāvat..\ ' samvrti-satya \ This is the traditional way of interpretation in Tibet. C. [ 173 ] .' signified p aramârtha-satya '. O's way seems an overinterpretation. AĀS ^ 0 Î J L #H j i t (470 c). 11. But as far as this text is concerned. in brief. 486 b etc. the only special feature being that the ' yāvad-bh.e. 11).C. 258. ' . & ' kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa dañ mam—par byañ-bahi chos de-dag ñid-kyi de~bshin-ñid gañ-yin-pa de-ni ji-lta-ba bshin-du yodpa—ñid yin . while ' yathāvadhbāvikatā' signifies the essence or the Absolute (tathatā) inherent in all phenomena. refers o n l y t o ' yathāvat' c o m m e n t a r y before v . 16. This is rather close to the original interpretation. Yogācārabhūmi (Bodhisattvabhūmi) #H 0 Î ^ tt S I $ T -ft ft (Taisho. 'being as it i s ' (yathāvad-bhāvikatā and 4 being as far as ' (yāvad-bhāvikatā) 8\ yathāvad-yāvat. C. ' 'jjg* 4~T ' f° ' bhāvikatā' is probably a misreading. 14.' or ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna '. 39. .\\ J8^ \v£ 'fT & T. 0 translates the terms into 'Absolute and Empiric'al character'. 15. p. p. both of these relate to ' lokottara-jñāna'1 or ' lokottara-prajñā ' (S. 1. While the Bodhisatlvabhūmi says that yathāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means their ' bhūtatā '. here. ^ Cf. T . C. ' . 98 & 99). i. Manner and Extent of the Perception of the Community. %. ' avikalpajñāna' and not to ' laukika. It means ' yāvadbhāvikatā' signifies all phenomena.e. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t h e following prose respectively: C. . ' kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa dan mampar byañ—bahi chos mams—la rnam—pa rab—tu dbye—ba thams—cad—kyi mthar thug—pa gañ-yin—pa de—ni ji—sñed-yod—pa yin . 215. On the other hand. Therefore. 1-19. and yāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means sarvatā. XXX. .The Ratnagotravibhāga § 1. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its purity of perception by introspective knowledge. p. So far as its manner and extent are concerned 6) . T. . with respect to two aspects. [manner and extent] i.e. res r ÎM ls> ^"3* ' P. while ' yāvad-bh. The Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas [Is endowed] with the supreme qualities 7>. ji-lta-ba bshin-du yod-pa-ñid & ji-sñed yod-pa-ñid edition. as if ' yathāvad-bh.

C. skad-cig-ma. TAKASAKI a) Right Manner of Perception (yathāvad-bhāvikatā). And this [understanding] is caused by The purity [of the innate mind] and Their perception of the defilement as being destroyed from the [outset 10 ). 7^lJ J& j j ū . hjig-pa med-pa. in the immaculate sphere. these two. See S. 'being as it is {yathāvad-bhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because. 14) C. in short. relating to the non-annihilation U ) of Individualities and Separate Elements because of their nature of absolute quiescence from the outset. C. 4-5 (on ' nirodha-satya '). ksanika. Bodhisattvas) have understood the extremity of non-substantiality (nairātmyakoti) of the whole world called Individualities and Separate Elements (pudgala—dharma-ākhya) as it is (yathāvat). rr-fc j j A —/-•{• H e r e . i. // 15 // Here. has a long interpretation: 11} T . 1. and because of their perception of * being destroyed from the outset ' (ādiksaya).e. ' avināśa T. Namely. p. Here. C. And this understanding. rañ-bshin-gyis hod-gsal-ba(-ñid). Ś M S 2 2 2 b. [with respect to the manner]. i. [ 174 ] . ittif^ife t * * * g i * t » f t . T . is produced. # Stiff S ff W*J* 5 p ^hl (Real perception means the perception of the non-existence and quiescence of individuality and separate element from the outset. there is no succession of a second mind because both minds. shi-bahi chos-ñid. . the extinction of defilements on the mind. nihsvabhāva. Therefore. 3 . nirodha. the innate brightness of the mind and the defilement on the mind. act together as one and the same. This is a word for ' śivā nairātmyakoti 10) ādiksaya. which shows the denial of the conception of destroying something. T. The bad mind is [also] momentary. even this [bad] mind cannot be afflicted by defilements. g f^ V ^ VT (= prakrtipariśuddhi). by two causes. gdod-nas zad. 7JC ^ 3>ī£. ' = ādiksaya. are quite difficult to be understood in relation to the fact that. Because they have understood the quiescent nature 9) of the world. defilements cannot 9) śānta-dharmatā. 12.e. Their manner [of perception] is ' as it is ' . * } ' . 12) 13) avināśa. it cannot be afflicted by defilements. it is said 13>: " 0 Lord. a good mind is momentary 14>. T. 0 Lord. because of their perception of the innate brightness (prakrtiprabhāsvaratā)1® of the mind. f£^ .e.J. C. good and bad. ' i n k.j | | . they (i.>g5£ jg=p" . and not such a perception as existing after the realization by dispelling the defilements.

'A^ }§3y f£C • 17) T h e r e a d i n g ' upakleśârtho ' is preferably t o b e corrected i n t o ' upaklistârtho Cf. 18) sarvajña-dharmatā = tathāgatagarbha ( i n t h e comm. sems ñonyañ ma-lags na. reg-pahi chos-can ma lags-pa. [And the mind cannot be touched by the Defilements] 15h O Lord. the meaning that the mind purified by nature is defiled 1 7 ) is difficult to be understood " . 2. p. Thus. one sentence should be added here (as in brackets). 'being as far as (yāvadhhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because [with respect to the extent]. 10 ~ 24. [ 175 ] . cittasyopaklistatā dusprativedhyā. 21) Cf. ('dhyā' in t h e 1st line a n d ' d h a r m a t ā ' i n t h e 2nd line a r e omitted). p . the explanation of the meaning ' difficult to be understood ' should be understood in detail according to the Sūtra. 22. moñs-pa 16) asparśa-dharmin. Jfc * ~%JJ J^K £ t î . how is it possible that the mind. T. & C. 20) C. still there is defilement and there is defiled mind. up to those who are in the animal kingdom. S. of untouchable character 16) . Tathogatotpattisambhavanirdeśa).The Ratnagotravibhāga touch that mind. the Absolute Essence is realized in the sense of all-pervading ' (sarvatraga). because [verily in that Stage]. Their extent [of perception] is * as far as '. Moreover. // 16 // Here. O Lord. to T. T . can be afflicted by darkness? O Lord. And this perception of Bodhisattvas takes place in the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. i n prose: ififfl y@g <fj* (yāvadbhāvikatā) --Q . by means of the supermundane intellect (lokottara-prajñā) which reaches as far as the limit of all knowable things 21>.) 19) dhl = prajñā (lokottara prajñā). Jjj'* •'"i x j§gQ !K|| '[pg = nâpi dttam samklistam bhavati. By the intellect 1 9 ) reaching as far as the limit of the knowable 20>. they perceive the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata in all living beings. 15) Ace. with reference to [the manner of] ' being as it is '. 9 (Quotation from Avat S. (sarvasattvesu sarvajñâstitvadarśanāt). 6) Unlimited Extent of Perception (yāvad-bhāvikatā).^ * "MJ fc3 WÇ. Because they perceive the existence Of the nature of Omniscience 1 8 ) in all living beings. '. C. S. C. 22. gpf jtfijj ~\ j Q i * y) Xfc "7T S \ (jñeya-paryantagatayā). 1.

saying t h a t t h e former is ' hetu '. i. T . Because it is free from attachment 22) and has no hindrance . It is pure in the Immaculate Sphere. in such a way' (ity evam). t h e l a t t e r is ' paripūrna-hetu ' (802 b). 2S * itara—prādeśika—jñāna. T. by this way. and because it 'has no hindrance' (apratihata)2e\ Here. what is called understanding' (avabodha) of the supermundane path. 28) T h e s h o r t a g e of syllables after ' . chags—pa med—pa. And this [perception] is called perfectly pure in com24 25 parison with ) the superficial knowledge of everyday life ) because. // 17 // * Thus. T. and through its being as far as. thogs-pa med-pa. the perception [of the Saints] is free from any attachment. C. -j||Ç |«ip.e. C. . unco23 mon to others >. that perception has no hindrance 27>. .śuddhyā' c a n b e m a d e u p b y 'hi' o r ' e t a ' (śuddhyaiva). 2 their perception of pure ' buddhajñāna ' through the Path of the true intuition). has no word equivalent to ' anuttarā ' in the verse. / u A /v Tf • 24) upanidhāya. Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception. i. 18 a b. therefore. Which ones? Because it is 'free from any attachment' (asañga). It is superior as [being the same as] Buddha's Wisdom 29> 22 23) ) C. again i n prose. C. TAKASAKI § 2. respectively.e. through 'being as l l it is ' and being as far as ' . its field is the unlimited number of knowable objects. /[* ^-> — sv-. of two reasons. UP n i t | 3 ) - * asañga. or i n comparison with t h e n a t u r e of ' viśuddhi-hetu of t h e former. as its field is the innate purity of the essence of living beings through its being as it is. C. T . but 'jfzr shows it. Thus.. cig—śes ñi-tshe—bahi the knowledge of Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. while t h e l a t t e r is ' phala '. has ' na ' after ' dag-pas '. Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community. uncommon to Srāvakas.J. BGS 5 ^ | ^flf & fJPJ Ç|j§. C. is here intended to be the perception of the Saints by the supermundane wisdom of their own (pratyātmam). in brief. i f ^ ffi ^ ft | ? (jft) (Because of in the commentary . i. apratihata BGS adds some more sentences o n 'yathāvad-bhāvikatā ' a n d ' yāvad-bhāvikatā '. Pratyekabuddhas and ordinary people. . what is called understanding in such a way % That is the perception by one's own wisdom. e. (§=jp f4j U=F J x . § 3. 4 Through the purity of their perception by wisdom2 8 ) . l a Itos-nas. C. [ 176 ] °> For v. t a k e s i t a s showing (apratigha in t h e verse). %\\ H ^ J jg. 27) T. 3H§ PH ( = ^v§ $11). 26 ye—śes.

or otherwise 33>. and a prose commentary thereon. are as follows: 1) ^5āi "^i ' visaya '. the term ' jñānadarśanasiddhi ' has the implied meaning of ' darśanamārga ' as in C. because the former is not worthy of being worshipped 35>. amala. donation./ £ . there is no wise man who. [ 177 ] . because their birth is ajāti (/JÎÇ f £ ) in its ultimate sense. There is no mention of the Jewel of Community of the Śrāvakas. 34) The first two of the 6 pāramitās are mentioned. (|ffj Jill )3/r)? P« *n their Stages. samyag-āsannatoditah (produced by sitting perfectly near). has one verse on the superiority of bodhisattva—sañga from 10 points. pj ^ 1 j ^ £ B^j |*li J^i ?llL '* X S *^£i ^Pv • I* is clear that avinirvartanîya-bhūmi is here regarded as the 1st bhūmi of Bodhisattva on which stage he accomplishes ' darśana-mārga '. 5) j|ff JQi bhūmayah. etc. sup. (JrJJ jig* J # f ) . 10 vaśitās. sup. because it is superior to the other qualities of Bodhisattva. ^ < jātis tathāgatakule. moral conduct. sup. T. Cf. 10 points of superiority mentioned in C. 9) J^. n SU ±jfiS -feo H$£ (ñS ^3 Wr). In this sense. the Saints abiding in the irreversible state 30> Are [worthy of being] the refuge of all living beings. (r)am (after phyir) I t denotes another interpretation of ' anutîarā '. in their birth. 3S ' C. in qualities. (fpL JJTT). ( ^ ^ ) . in their supernatural powers. in the accomplishment being the Supreme Enlightenment. It seems the present Skt text is lacking one paragraph which was in the original text of C. 2) ijffj Jyj JJ§1 "TH^t •iī^ Wfe ±>cs£ -fen adhigama. because it approached the highest purity of the perception of Buddha's Wisdom. immediately after the Jewel of Community of the Bodhisattvas. Indeed. C. 7) $j? J £ ^C SU n P« i their compassionate mind H regarding people equally. sup. etc. ( ^ ^ ) sup. translation. // 18 // Thus. AA III. 6 abhijñās. casting off the new-moon-like Bodhisattvas. 2. (0$ j \ JJTT). in gunāh. T. 10) Jf^ Ijfjp ^ ^ _C anuttara-phala.The Ratnagotravibhāga Therefore. 31 30) ' avinivartanlyabhūmi—samārudhānām bodhisattvānām. having known the distinction of qualities between Bodhisattvas and Śrāvakas. & C. (letters in parentheses show the terms in commentary). it is said that Bodhisattvas in the irreversible state are worthy of being the refuge of all living beings. superiority in perception of objects. 32) upanisadgata. to both T. translation of v. (^rfc ^ § /3ZT)» P . {] śuddhi. sup.-mahākarunā. ñe-bar gnas-par hgyur-ba.3i\ On account of this purity. who The reading ' avaivartyād bhavanty āryāh ' should be corrected into ' avaivartyā bhavanty āryāh ' ace. 3) g S ^ ^Jg nirvana. 8) ^ £ /fe ^ P ^ <îK iffl vaśitâbhijñāsampad.. 18. 3S) vā. this ' purity of perception by wisdom ' of Bodhisattvas who mounted to the Stage of being irreversible 31> is to be known as 4 the 32) supreme '. in purity. ( t f ^ "=ff ^L^ 9^*)' ]j#). ^/J ffijj. 6) W M S ^ sampūrnā.i Nirvana as being obtained after SU salvation of all living beings.

C. 4) karma—v. although having attained certain limited superficial knowledge 3 8 ) . 37) / 36) £n bhāra '. .. even those Bodhisattvas who have resolved to attain the Enlightenment for the first time 40> by the quality based upon the purity of altruistic intention. T. but not to a quotation from another scripture. . tries to bow before the Śrāvakas. both of them have illumination for others.) up to the end of the verse is a long quotation from some Sūtra (source unknown). * ananyaposiganya. ^ C T~^ r$9 ī î ) > ** seems that the whole passage after ' na hi jātu panditā ' (Indeed. 7) dharma—v. If it be so. How much more is the case of the other qualities of Bodhisattvas. (Mvyut. See BHS Die. who in their turn. The meaning is clear as being compared with ' svasamtāna ' in case of Srāvakas. . om. t3 Î C £ 5 ) ' Of the 6 pāramitās. there is no wise man who . ' 10 vaśitās are namely: 1) āyur—vaśitā. prajñā-pāramitā is called ' jñānasam'. can overcome the holy Śrāvakas who are pitiless 4 1 ) . 9) rddhi—v... which. C. 39) The whole passage illustrates the comparison between Buddhas. Bodhisattvas and Srāvakas by an example of moon and stars..^ . gañ-gi phyir . 2) citta—v. D. it will be said 45>: punya-jñāna-sambhāra.' for 'posin' is probably a misreading for 'poso'. rjes-su brtse-ba med-pa. om. C. regard only the following 43) 44 verse as a quotation (T. gshan rgyas—par byed—pa mi—ldan—pa.J. Bodhisattvas are like the new moon. 44> etc. have light only for their own illumination. a n d t h e o t h e r 5 a r e called ' punya-s C. ' ^ £|£ . sdom-pa (%>\). & 10) jñāna-v. sems dañ—po bskyed—pahi byañ—chub- sems-dpah. C.i } . indifferent to the nourishment of others 4 2 ) . are standing in the illumination for their own existence (sva-samtāna) like stars 39>. 6) adhimukti—v. saying that the Buddha is like the full moon. 40 ' prathamacittotpādika .. while the Srāvakas. TAKASAKI have the lustre-disk of Wisdom and Compassion filling with great accumulation of merits and knowledge 3 6 ) for the Great Enlightenment. although having attained perfect purity of immaculate moral conduct and discipline 43>. See above (Note IV-25). $J jtfe SI © # SI £ *l> f t # K ^ (1PJ M 'fr # īK). [ 178 ] . 5) upapatti—v. shows that the following verses belong to the same text.shes-gśad-do. 10 Controlling Powers. 38) prādeśika-jñāna. 27). 41) 42 niranukrośa. samvara. Though both T. śdasamvara (under samvara [1]). ? Really. has the same sense as ' purusa ' in BHS. in its turn. T. and are standing in the illumination over the group existence (gana—samtāna) 37) of innumerable living beings and entering the way favourable for going toward the full-moon of the supreme Tathāgata.. 45) ' vaksyati hi ' in S. ^1^* ^fjçîj /flj -fifc •ftli ^ ^ . See BHS.. The style of these passages seems near to the sūtra style. (wealth). . the passage only available in C will be ascertained to be the original śāstra passage for which this long quotation is mentioned as the authority. s. & C. 3) pariskāra—v. . C. T. Indeed. (usually. T.. T. C. && * S . bodhisattva. 8) pranidhāna—v. T. [^K 5 £ fa:] fT ^ W (gahana-samtāna?). om. bsod-nams dañ ye-śes-kyi tshogs. v. being like stars. .

C. rnam-rgyas-śiñ (= vivrddhyā?). gzugs-brñen. ( l i t . o m . ātmambhari. Renders services for others' livelihood like fire. C. \%£ <f7*. | ^ 7 p • [ 179 ] .The Ratnagotravibhāga One who feeds 46> moral conduct for his own sake.fjfc . One who. C. o n e w h o n o u r i s h e s himself) T . 46) 47) 48) bibharti ( P r e s . 49 ' pratirūpaka T. n o u r i s h i n g oneself. 3 sg. having aroused the highest Compassion toward others And having accepted the moral conduct. bdag-ñid rgyas-byed. praśuddha. Such a one is a [real] moral man. of bhr). water and earth. wind. T . C.48> Such a saint is never called a man of pure conduct. and others are of sham 49> morality. T . rab-dag-pa. Apart from compassion on the living beings of bad conduct 47>. J^l @ g J|. And who is endowed with pure wealth of moral conduct only for his own nourishment.

sañs-rgyas-kyi dños-po-ñid. C.e. v. for the sake of those people who approached the nature of Buddha 6 ) i. With reference to those who belong to 3 Vehicles And to those who devote themselves to religious observance 4) Three Refuges were taught 2 ) [by the Lord]. 19. C. there is used ' deśitam prajñaptam '. f^ ^ . J $ cfSj ^ 2 \) (for the sake of). guna-udbhāvanârthena (in the comm. ' dbah-du byas-nas ' as usual.).. In the commentary. bstan—shiñ mam—par gshag—go. in order to show the x) ' adhikrtya' has a more concrete sense than usual here. in order to show the virtue of the Teacher (śāstr). § 1. 'homage. pj*) / £ .V. s. VŚJU )/. B^_] . translation ' byed ' or ' bya-ba byed ' shows nothing special. C. T. Also. it was established 2) . the Teaching and Disciples. for what purpose and for the sake teach 2) the 3 Refuges (śarana-traya) ? of whom did the Lord In order to show [the virtues of] 3 ) The Teacher. ) prajñapta (made known = taught). rnam-par gshag-pa (vyavasthita) in the introductory sentence and in v. BHS Die. (T. T. T. worship') (Cf. s) buddhabhāva (= bodhi). & * dvipada. j^p ^jjtf J<£ . [ 180 ] . C. Usually this term is accompanied by ' kriyā ' and other forms delivered from kr as in the prose comm. ) . 7 * The reading is preferably ' bodhisattva-yānikān * instead of * bodhisattvān' in comparison with the uses of ' pratyekabuddhayānikān ' and ' śrāvakayānikān' in the following paragraphs. 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint. The teaching: " the Doctrine is a Refuge because it is the highest of what are devoid of passions ". T. T. THE THREE JEWELS AS REFUGES l) Now. (= pūjā. for which T. who belong to the Vehicle of Bodhisattva 7 ) and those [people who] devote themselves to the highest religious observance of the Buddha. rkañ-gñis rnams. The teaching: " the Buddha is a Refuge because he is the highest among human beings " 5 ) . // 19 // [in 3 forms. C. 3 ' arthena = .). • 4) kāra (BHS). It is interpreted doctrinally that the Buddha is standing on the basis of 'jñāna' and ' karunā '. but C. It seems that the term prajñapta' has both senses here. byañ-chub-seems—dpahi theg-pa-bahi. however. it was established. But.

4) sabhaya (T. med. ) 10) samvrti-pada-sthānena. ~ñj J £ ) . C. there are 3 Refuges. for the sake of those people who approach the enlightenment of profound Doctrine of the depen8 dent origination by [depending on] themselves *. T. ) Ms. in order to make living beings 11} enter the regular method . see Mvyut. 12 ) For these four reasons. That is to say. for the sake of six kinds of people. C. only the Buddha is the Refuge. hjigs-dañ bcas-pa. slu-bahi chos-can. // 20 // 8 [respectively]. 2) mosadharma (T. ' The regular method ' means ' from the lower standard to the higher standard. for the sake of those people who approach in order to understand the voice heard from others. C. T.e. of ' span-ba '). ' rañ- ñid rten-hbrel-gyi chos zab-mo rje-su rtogs-pa . from the empirical standpoint. Pf|j "py£). * sdañ' is to be corrected into * span' (fut. |2vJ /fâfc) seems to mean 'pratltya samutpāda'. n ) anupūrvanaya. . from being adhimukta to yānika. Thus. 'pratitya' (T. /MR 3C)? 3) abhāva (T. from śrāvakayāna to bodhisattvayāna. See below. according to the faculties of living beings. it was established. but C. Q f^v jfî[.e. (D. The Doctrine and Community are not the Ultimate Refuges. distinctively did the Lord establish the teaching of these three 10) Refuges from the empirical standpoint . Pretyekabuddha is said to be a buddha who enlightened the doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda. are as follows: 1) tyājya (T. Being non-existence and being possessed of fear12).e. who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance of the Doctrine. . Çf^ . ' . span. As being abandoned. rten-hbrel.The Ratnagotravibhāga virtue of the Teaching (śāsana) of the Teacher. C. i. who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka. in order to show the virtue of Disciples (śisya) well enrolled in the Teaching of the Teacher. being of deceptive nature. the terms used in S. i. • About these three formulae on ' ratna-traya '. reading.). $}£ $]). but from the highest standpoint. C. ty\. The two kinds of Doctrine and the Community Are ultimately not the highest Refuge. T. 267. The teaching: " the Community [of the disciples] is a Refuge because 9 ) it is the highest of communities " . [ 181 ] . equals 'yāna' instead of ' nay a'.B reading 'svayam gambhīra-pratitya-dharmânubodha' is preferable. T. i. in short. and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance in the Community. /\* "f^ -fjjj yQ f pfc |2y n$i i £ • Here. § 2. for these three purposes. & C. from sañga-śarana to buddha-śarana. C.

just like the extinction of a lamp. TAKASAKI The Doctrine has two kinds. Also. pahi chos & rtogs-pahi chos. p. It is synonymous with ' moksa \ [ 182 ] . brdsun-pa Die. 11 (v. $ p f f l j . 20) I t is remarkable in this text that whenever the subject refers to the unworthiness of Dharma or Sañgha. The Doctrine as Realization is [again] twofold by the division of cause and result. 20). And they are always possessed of fear (sabhaya). See B H S sified form of ' musā ' (deceptive). abhisamaya. § 104. i. [respectively] 1 8 ) . 4 by which realized ' and 4 that which in realized ' . **v v$G >?H T £ J Tup ^ J P G ' catches t h e meaning well. *7* •r e s p . That is to say. PTS Die. T . C. mñon-par rtogs-pa. p .) T. And it is said that this Teaching is akin to the boat 1 5 ) because it ends 1 6 ) with the acquisition 17) of the Path. p. This passage is exactly an extract from that sūtra. the author substitutes Srāvaka for it and never refers to that of Bodhisattva. And the Extinction realized by this Path also represents. the Doctrine as Teaching (deśanādharma) and the Doctrine as Realization (adhigamadharma)1 3 ) .J. deceptive nature (mrsāmosadharmin)19). the mere absence of Defilement and Suffering. and letter. 145 and comm. That which is included in the artificial character is of false. Of them. C. according to the system (naya) of Śrāvaka 2 0 ) . C. 70 (v. deceptive nature is untrue (asatya). C. 95-97. 20). Jmt 3 c > T . v. Vaj. see SMS 221 o.135 J *>G£ *~^^ īt-j-*. the Doctrine as Teaching is [the Doctrine] of sūtra and other teachings and it consists of the collection14) of name.e. tshogs. Of them. 17) 18) 19) (This t e r m is for tyājya i n v . bstanT . translation ' |J_ç£ i l l .. The Community ' is a term for the community [of the Saints] belonging to three Vehicles21>. ai) For the following passage. because. Pali musā-mosa-dhamma. T. ^tî^ paryavasāna. I. T. rEf*. 23. jy\ BJ£ i A & fy\ nS. that which is untrue is not eternal. mthar-thug-pa (paryanta). That which is of false. they have taken refuge in the Tathāgata and are seeking for deliverance22). > kola. ' mosa ' i n Pali is t h e intenslu-bahi chos-can. and that which is non-eternal cannot be a refuge. MN. tST |HJ ( = loka-nihsarana). word. njī£ i l l • See S. is included in the artificial character. 14 ls ) kāya. 22) nihsarana. 134. see S. a non-existence (abhāva) cannot be a refuge nor a non-refuge. gziñs. s.). C. T . [but still] they have [many] 4 13) On these two categories of ' dharma '. 10 a n d comm. A s for these three kāyas. the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction in the sense. C. See M v y u t . JSJP. C. ñe-bar hbyuñ-ba. the Path. as learned people. (' mosadharma ' i n v . For 'koiopama' (kullūpamo dhammoy 16) Cf. C.

highest state 3 2 ) ..) 32) ārsabha (Lit. 1. And as being a 31) And thus one who seeks for a refuge because of his being possessed of fear. yañ-srid-pa. <ffj . ' ārsabha '. have not yet destroyed the Impression [of constantly26) a strong 27) there therefore exists always and 28) notion of fear in all physical life with raised sword 22 . 24 > Cf. cannot be the 23) pratipannaka (Pali patipannaka = maggatthaka.e. rsabha). ' ārsabha-sthāna ' = Pali āsabhatthāna. T. Indeed. a learned man 30) seeker of deliverance. 29 ' C. Hence correct. but not ' attained [the Enlightenment] '. 26) 27 c •* % % tk ?t i t ffl ft n m & n H i i H # K' is quite satata-samitam (BHS). T. aśaiksa-sāntānika. T.e. the Highest Perfect Enlightenment. i. ' shugs—pa ma yin—no ' is probably due to a misunderstanding of this ' pratipannaka ' for the actual attainment of Enlightenment. 26) punarbhava. om. C. S. 31) On the contrary. C. coming from a bull. he is 'one who has undertaken ' (pratipannaka) to attain the fearless. leadership. T. khyu-mchog (the highest bull). 28) [ 183 ] . the first place. and the emphasis is on the approach. ^ J J ^ ( = sāsravadharma). frightened by this or that fear. gśad-mahi skye-bu. where the negative ' ma ' is not used). SMS 219 6. hdu-byed. . T. J\. with reference to the destruction of the root of fear. On the contrary. one who has entered upon the Path). ' entered the way '. similarly even the Arhats have their fear. rtag-tu rgyun mi-hchad-par. As being a learned man. So they have not attained the ultimate delightful Just as living beings.The R a t n a g ot r av ib h ā ga things to be done (sakaranīya) and are approaching (i. Buddha is said to be * aśaiksa'. being a partial refuge. C. ^ f ^ ^f fâ . will inevitably seek for the deliverance from fear. (For the parallel passage in SMS. descendant of Rsabha (name of a former Buddha). shugs-pa lags-so. . 3. How are they posses- sed of fear? As the Arhats (the Saints of the Vehicle of Śrāvaka). T. T. ŚMS 221 a. and before the quotation has the same commentary passage as the Skt. as if standing in face of the executioner [by itself] never seeks no refuge. text up to ' pratyupasthitā bhavanti\ Cf. For vadakapurusa. and consequently seek by fear they take refuge in the Tathāgata 29) verance. 991: # l j " II 30) śaiksa. śaranam upagacchati) as a quotation from SMS. 39. For this reason. jJñq" ^fg. is i one who has things to be done ' (sakaranīya) . C. The text should have Danda between ' vadakapuruse' and ' tasmāt '. (Cf. and. T . regards this passage (arhatām api . > samskāra. It is used here in the sense of ' gone towards '. . slob-pa. are for the Deli- . the Community. though having extirpated rebirth Defilements]. having Deliverance '. have not yet realized) 23) the Highest Perfect Enlightenment 25) 24) . Pali * āsabha ' means a hero or great man and is an epithet of the Buddha. [that which is] a refuge for refuges [in others]. p. being frightened . C.

39) ' ekam ' should b e inserted after ' pāramārthikam t e r m ' ekatra ' i n t h e verse. § 3. are called ' temporary refuges' 3 3 ) . ^pj pR (having limitation. the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction). from the ultimate standpoint. Because the Sage has the body of the Doctrine. Thus these two Refuges. dus-kyi mthah-mchis-pahi. that which is the imperishable Refuge. 35) nistha = nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. 36) T. About ' sabhayatā ' of the Srāvakas. putting a negative. is endowed with the body of the Doctrine. r e a d s p r o b a b l y ' śivâdvayavirāgadharma). 19. . on this verse. mthar-thug-pa thob-pas mthar phyin-par hgyur-ba.e. the Community [of the Saints] belonging to the three Vehicles sets the ultimate goal of acquisition 37) .e. adnigama). ^f~ zHu Ji^L . See S. 34) pāramārthikam. interpret this term as ' nâtyantakāle śarane '. Also. From the ultimate standpoint 3 4 ) . limited). And because in that the Community sets the ultimate goal 8 5 ) .iSS i=Ef . 38) aparântakotisama. Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the Highest Standpoint. the Tathā33) paryantakāla-śarana. liberated from passions and [characterized36*] as the Two Truths of purification (i. Therefore. . See below. that is to say.. „ .. 37) nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. the Sage (muni).being an adjective to buddhatva as S. (i.T.ñg. // 21 // As has been said before. where for * paryantakāla '. & C. a n d tannisthatva = dharmakāyaviśuddhinistha. dharmakāya). ti. \ being t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e [ 184 J . T h e s a m e with T . ' paryantakāla ' is a Bahuvrīhi comp.fâīf T$C eSSii' A correct translation is shown in SMS. C. Buddhahood is the sole Refuge of the world. But it is wrong. Both T. inserts ' mtshan-ñid ' (laksana) after ' vyavadana-satya-dvaya '. C. represented as neither becoming originated nor disappearing. phyi-mahi mthahi mu-dañ mñam-pa. It is helpful t o m a k e t h e m e a n i n g clear. eternal Refuge. (T.J. which lasts as long as the utmost limit 3 8 ) in the unprotected and refugeless world. mthar—thung—pahi dus—na skyabs rib t^Z -fr. ~7\_t Jjfo t p î i^Jr gtSi (ova. C. T . In Skt. see v. /fK ^ . takes it in the adverbial sense. and in the purity of this Body of the Doctrine ( = the Absolute Body. 58ç > p ^ r ^ Wf> =P^ J^L ( a s if * pūrvântakotinistha '). 14 (vyavadānasatyadvaya-laksano virāgadharma iti). 1. I. T. 1 1 . 32 and comm. TAKASAKI ultimate refuge. it is an adjective to ' buddhatva \ But T. (ŚMS 221 a). and everlasting Refuge. C. which seems better to grasp the meaning in comparison with the Empirical standpoint in v. is [only one] 3 9 ) . f ma—yin—pa. meaning ' having kāla which has paryanta.). the end '. r< iJi^ JfiÇ> •!££. saying ' dam-pahi don-tu ' (paramârthatah). the Doctrine and the Community). t-l-~ r^. see the prose comm. p . (C.

T. 46) 47) prabhā. are called ' Jewel '. 1) through the common nature of their appearance being difficult to obtain 4 2 ) . S M S 221 a. C. eternal. anavāpta. 40) 41) pi. by the sixfold common nature with Jewels. BGS 808 a. om. reading ' sarvâkāra ' instead of ' sarvâcāra '. § 4. // 22 // In short. 48) śobhā. translation is * » kalpa.t h e o r y is o n e of i t s m a i n p o i n t s of t e a c h i n g . TfiT \Q\ J\ iS• [ 185 ] . om. 5) Through the common nature of being superior to the artificial 4 9 ) jewel. That is to say. yaśas. i. because they are supermundane. 14.The Ratnagotravibhāga gata. 5 0 ) . sukha. C. M v y u t . 2) Through the common nature of being immaculate. 2) divyāśrotra. C. bskal-pa. 125. because they are apart from all kinds of45' dust. T. because those people who have not ripened 4 3 ) the root of virtue cannot get any chance to meet them. because Their appearance is difficult to obtain. Cf. C. T. duhkha. 50) These are called ' asta-lokadharmāh. hbyuñ~ba ^R" ^ f ) . the Arhat. 43) For this passage. 49 * prativarnika. 3) ceta-paryāya-jñāna. because of their non-artificial nature. ' . * 45) I accepted T. & 6) āsravaksaya-jñāna. So. T . as ' sarva—sāsravadharma '. C. in the text. 3) Through the common nature of power 4 6 ) . instead of ' stuti-ninda '. C. the Perfectly Enlightened one 4 0 ) . And being the highest and unchangeable. 2 2 . quiescent and unchangeable Refuge is to be understood in detail according to the Âryaśrīmālā-sūtra41). T h i s ' ekayāna durlabhotpādabhāva. 5) rddhividdhi-jñāna. bsñan—pa. 1) divyācaksus. blame etc. ayaśas (praise and blame). alābha (gain & loss). * stuti' is for praśamsa. if} . dge-ba. Doctrine and Community. And 6) through the common nature of being unchangeable by praise. They are immaculate and powerful. And this teaching of the unique. 4) Through the common nature of being the ornament of the world. C. cf. C. Mvyut. | U ' 42) T . T. The Meaning of the 3 ' Jewels \ [They are called] ' Jewels '. mthu. ever-lasting. the 6 Supernatural Powers (abhijñā) 4 7 ) and so forth. even during a long succession of eaons 4 4 ) . nindā (blame). ^ f|r|. because they are endowed with the quality of unthinkable power. lābha. A^ fjft /f?f (unable to obtain). these three named Buddha. dkon-pa. THT | H j | f j £ / fv§ : ( i n v . And because of their being the ornament of the world. 4) pūrvanivāsânusmrtijñāna.e. because they are the cause of beauty 4 8 ) intended by the whole world. Cf. praśamsā (praise). ma bskrun-pa.

Cf.VI. mundane and supermundane.. v. No. And [the Reality] apart from pollution. ) C. has literal translations). o m . 97. 669). [ 186 ] .(kriyā) of the Tathāgata in Chap. in Chap. This sūtra also men- tions the same 4 subjects with which the main part of the sūtra is formed. I t ) Taisho. jffj yjp . and ^fl. of which now only the Chinese translation is available (C. 1} 2) yoni. in Chap. and his Acts. has been composed after the Ratna. 24) = sarvajña (in c o m m . (T. etc. for the respective case. 2 ) From which arise the pure Three Jewels 3 ) . paramârihadarśin = sarvadarśin tta 1/K » XH ^N . 3) This is the stanza by which the basic subjects of this text are shown. // 23 // What is elucidated by this śloka ? The Germ of these Three Jewels 2) Is the sphere of the Omniscience .V. Each one of these four is treated in each chapter (I-IV). what is the birth-place 1} of purity. there is one śloka with reference to the question. (Kārikā 4) The Reality mingled with pollution. Saddharmapundarīka. S$) f^ (guna). probably in order to authorize this theory of the 4 subjects. The Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha. IV. I l l . Detailed discussion of this problem is given in my Introduction. \rf\. and also these 4 stand for the latter 4 of the 7 vajrapadas. in what circumstances are there born the Three Jewels. C. though it bears the name of ' sūtra '. ^ ^ (bodhi). I. [These are the four aspects of] the sphere Of those who perceive the Highest Truth. There is a Sūtra named " Anuttarâśrayasūtra " (AĀS). THE GERM OF THREE JEWELS IN FOUR ASPECTS Imraediately after the explanation of the Three Jewels. (in v . T . (paramārthadarśin). ?RÇ _£. II. It seems that this Sūtra. namely: yf" (dhātu) of the Tathāgata in Chap. skye-bahi gnas.

T h e difference is p r o b a b l y d u e t o w h a t is m e a n t b y ' āśraya '. so-so-rañ-gi (of its own). fixed or completed.. a n d this change of basis is called ' parāvrtti \ See my I n t r o d u c t i o n I I I . i. therefore. [ 187 ] . jlM. Jp--|! r E p . without end9 ) . being ' cittaprakrti '. And also. respectively. this dhātu becomes manifested fully. 4) ' The Buddha's Act ' means the automatic 7 ) . 10 Powers. Only because of ' āgantukakleśa ' a t t a c h e d t o i t . II). characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis. B y r e m o v ing such ' kleśa '.e. 7) pratisvam. C. H e r e ' āśraya ' signifies ' dhātu ' or ' gotra ' i n t h e sense of ' tathāgatagarbha ' (see v . 1) * The Reality mingled with pollution (samalā tathatā) ' 4 ) is a term for 4 the Essence (dhātu). T h e t e r m ' āśraya-parivrtti ' seems t o h a v e somehow a different sense t h a n t h e ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' often used a m o n g t h e Vijñānav ā d i n . T . ' anisthita' means ' always not coming to an end '. gnas yoñs-su gyur-pa. ^ (?) ' nisthita ' means ' being done. coming to an end. 10 > Cf. luñ-bstan-pahi gtam. ready. C. dri-ma med-pahi de-bshin~ñid. these four subjects are inconceivable 1 0 ) for four reasons. without interruption. i. ^flj -""M ?P|£ 5) nirmalā tathatā. T. So. This point is called ' parivrtti '. c o m m . C.e. t h e R e a l i t y . the Matrix of Tathāgata. unreleased from the sheath of defile4 ments'. o n t h e verse q u o t e d from t h e Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra). T. Then. when it is characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis (āśrayaparivrtti) 6 ) in the Stage of Buddha. 73. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . while i n case of ' āśrayaparāvrtti '. i. A n d here ' dhātu '. IfÇ. fift pFfcl î t f • vîfv rfcî 6) T . unceasingly. they are called the Sphere of Omniscience 1 ] ) . T . T h e prophecy vyākarana-kathā. y f^ (natural). which continues to give prophecies 8 ) to Bodhisattvas. 7). // 24 // Here. i t c a n n o t manifest itself fully. T. is regarded as t h e s a m e as ' dharmakāya '. etc. respectively. C. n > See note VI-2. ' āśraya ' signifies also ' dhātu ' b u t i n t h e sense of ' ālayavijñāna ' (see S. ^ ^ ( • ^ ^ $ 3 £ ) p C • on t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e Highest E n l i g h t e n m e n t . AĀS 469 6 (beginning of Chap. i. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata.e.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā g a And it is inconceivable in fourfold For four reasons. p . 2) The Reality apart from pollu5) tion ' (nirmaîā tathatā) is a term for the same Essence. C. V.e. 8) 9) anisthita. 3) ' Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha ' means Supermundane Qualities of the Buddha—10 Powers and so on—in this Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. where t h e uses of these t e r m s i n t h e Sūtrâlañkāra a r e discussed. ' ālayavijñāna ' n o longer r e m a i n s t h e same when ' āśrayapāravrtti ' t a k e s place. dri(-ma-dañ) bcas(-pahi) de-bshin-ñid. med-par ma gyur-shiñ* C. highest act of these Qualities of the Buddha. for which four reasons ? 4) samalā tathatā. as being t h e reality itself.

16 15) 14) »> DRS 20 6. It is difficult to be cognized that the mind is pure by nature. (JtU * . [ 188 ] . this is not an understandable sphere 1 5 ) . 11. ' inconceivable ' is] in the sense that even for the Pratyekabuddhas who believe in the way of profound Doctrine 1 4 ) . though it is originally not defiled by pollution. ( = S. 1.J. C. pft jA| ^ ^ f £ • C. ( = S. III). ^V* i ^ R T P Î PjÎE f2»» > Cf. A Ā S 470 c. Inconceivability of the 4 Subjects. It is also difficult to be cognized that this very mind is defiled. >& * tat tathaîva jñānam. It seems the following saying is an old aphorism taken from some other source. C. too. The doctrine of relativity (pratîtya-samutpāda). // 25// Here. i 22> prakrti-prabhāsvaram cittam. these two points are to be understood only through the faith in the Tathāgata "18>. agocara-visaya. C. . [Here. the heroine of the Sūtra. j$Ç M i J . 5). This is the real knowledge as 21) 22) it is . [The Absolute Body is] of no impurity. and yet purified. but DRS itself has this sentence saying ' ^ _ § ( fig llf '.. O Goddess. rnam-par dbye-ba-med chos. TAKASAKI § 1. C. Because it is said 1 9 ) : 20) " The mind is clear by nature . Because. J § . for the other Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. 17 * Indicating Srīmālādevī. T. I I ) . p . AĀS 473 c (end of Chap. Because it is said 1 6 ) : " O Goddess 1 7 ) . 22. de-ni de-kho—na bshin śes-so (tat tattvavad jñānam. 12) [The Qualities are] of inseparable nature [from the Absolute [Body]. 17-18). ( e n d of C h a p . >> * ifijta * in & £p. 2 1 . so C. spyod-yul-du ma gyur-pahi yul. > ŚMS 220 c. this point is inconceivable 1 3 ) . mentions * śrāvaka ' along with v pratyekabuddha '. yet it is purified afterwards. p. and [The Acts are] effortless and of no discrimination. ^ p >f|j ^ff* . T. those who can hear these two points [with understanding] are only either yourself or Bodhisattvas who are endowed with the great qualities. 2) ' The Reality apart from pollution '. Therefore it is said : [the Tathāgata] perfectly enligh12) 13 avinirbhāgadharma. these two points are quite difficult to be cognized. So does AĀS. [the Germ is] pure but defiled [at one and the same time]. pure and defiled. £P 'l> tt 20} 41 c in W. 0 Goddess. T . this point is inconceivable. 18) Cf. 1) 4 the Reality mingled with pollution ' is always. at the same time.

on this big cloth. instead of laksana). see S. 278). the Wisdom of Omniscience. 11. Nevertheless. Next. By removing this taking of conceptions. but both T. ekânta. )S PO).8-9).). I. (-. |§I| |Σj. ')$£. Cf. shows the form of the ' big book '. T. & C. ' buddhajñānântargamāt' (v. T.' asañga' is a modifier of [Buddha's] jñāna. ' prajñā ' in which both prajñā and dhyāna are associated at one moment. 32 ' mahāpusta (big book). makes its appearance again unobstructedly 3 1 ) . 96. 25 ' paurvâparyena. 2 (asañgena tathāgatajñānena). & C. 241. * dar ' & ' j " & ' both mean silk. gcig-tu. C. by Dharmaraksa. 14. p. according to the manner peculiar to each country.e. C. Gaudapāda-Kārikā IV. 157. No. C. ' anuttarā '. 1. self-born Wisdom. dar-yug (a narrow ribbonlike piece of silk stuff (Jāschke). skad-cig-ma gcig dan Idan-pa. And indeed. 28 ^ tt with another independent Sūtra named Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa (C. 291). Lank. C. 1. p. C. The Great Earth would be described in 23) 24 The text om. IV).S. T. The use of such silk is for painting. 623 c-624 a (No. XXXII. Taisho. he cannot cognize the Buddha's Wisdom [residing in himself]. have it. Taisho. this point is inconceivable 27) . as taking [wrong] conceptions 3 0 ) . ^ t * MM ^EC I tr. " [p] . This is a modifier of ' prajñā ' by which the Buddha has attained ' anuttarā samyaksambodhi '. ' ekaksana—samāyukta'. O Son of the Buddha. of the size equal to the Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds. l\j* ^ Q J ^ (citta. |^f^ . lj|f| pel] (viparyasta). ilaksana'> after 'ekaksana" in the Text should be omitted. 30 ' samjñā—grāha. Cf. 27). Chap. 31 ' asañgatah. suppose there would be a big painting cloth 32 '. ' The Avatamsakasūtra. the whole Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds would be described completely. mentions the material and C. C. 3\U >îs. i. [ 189 ] . of no differentiation through the inseparable nature [from the Absolute Body]. ^JÇf V ^ . ^gn ^§f (roll of scripture). 3) 'Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha' are always 25 ' found? even in the stage of those ordinary people who are absolutely 26) defiled. T. T. 16. XXXII is identical 26) 27 > Cf. " " ^ . See my Introduction IV. IX.The Ratnagotravibhāga tened the Supreme 2 3 ) Perfect Enlightenment by the Intellect endowed with contemplation at one moment 2 4 ) . sña—phyir. 29 ' ' tathāgatajñāna ' in this Sūtra is identical with ' dhātu' and igotra\ and shows the origin of the tathāgatagarbha theory. AĀS 475 c (end of Chap. thogs-pa med-par. T. hdu—śes—kyi hdsin—pa. 22. Tathāgatotpattisambhava—parivarta (itU This Chap. So do T. p. Because it is said 2 8 ': 44 There is no one among the group of living beings in whose body the Wisdom of the Tathāgata does not penetrate at all 2 9 ) . T.

['y] y\. T. in each of all the other 3 5 ) l particles of atoms. om. 13: tathāśesebhyah paramânubhyas. TAKASAKI the exact size of the Great Earth. om. C. T. Cf. Suppose there ' This passage describes various worlds. C. om. anya but retains sorra. C. (Hu J'^c i ā . j ^ I y C | T T v r . sarfla. yy|)» 12) sumeru. & C. 5) sāhasra-lokadhātu. gliñ bshihi hjig-rten-kyi khams. there enters a big cloth of the same size. the Four Continents. paramânu. T. C.) (T. ma-lus-pa (aśesa) and om. the Greai Ocean. ffity T.. C.. but T. W( ^jf|. sa—la spyod—pahi 14) kāmâvacara-d. T. ~ | * IHT yf~ '. T. byañ-gi sgra-mi sñan-gyi gliñ.. ^ Uj (~F. [In the same way] the thousands of Worlds. C. C.. U 2) (mahācakravāla) (S. . -'J'* ~~| 1HT T f i |* . . T. this very big cloth would enter within one particle of an atom 3 4 ) . . C. C. 4) dvisāhasra-lokadhatu. All the terms mentioned here are as follows: 1) trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu.Jg£ /T| or mm 9) pūrvavideha—dvīpa. T. 1. Just as this big cloth lies within one small particle of an atom. rdul-phra-rab.). om. ^ f 13) bhūmyavacara—devavimāna.. 10) godāvarī-dvīpa. 7) mahāsamudra. om.\ but it is not the case here. . C. [§] {-f. See below (S. om. has it). from larger one to smaller one.) after ' rūpâvacara-d. 35) 34} C. A ^J^ *af C. C. C. And [thus] this big cloth would have the same size as the expansion of the Great 3-thousand thousands of World's. [ 190 ] . 33 khams. 15) (rūpâvacara-d. T. Furthermore. T. stoñ-gsum-gyi stoñ-chen-pohi hjigrten-gyi khams. ' godāniya"1 is preferable. T. ~y\ Q (ārūpyâvacara-d. the [Western] Continent of Godāvarī. anya. that of Gods living in the Sphere of Desire. T. . T. C om.): lhahi gshal—yas-*khañ. T. the Palace of Gods living cm the earth. C. but T.J. in the same way. the Eastern Continent of Videha. . 8) jambudvīpa. The 2-thousand Worlds [would be written] in their own full size. the Mount Sumeru. ([/£| ^f* j i [ yTl). (but usually. and of Gods living in the Sphere of Form 3 3 '. ston-gñis-pahi. has ^KÇ I*-1. Mvyut. according to the Buddhist cosmology. om. 11) uttarakuru-dvîpa. rgya—mtsho chen—po. sa chen—po. śar—gyi lus hphags-kyi gliñ.. stoñ-gi hjig-rten-kyi . C. '\x\ J \ ^ . ri-rab. the Southern Continent of Jambū. T. hdod-pa-na spyod-pahi. khor-yug chen-po. all of these would be written in their own size.. gzugs-na spyod-pahi. 153-155. the Northern Continent of Kuru. 6) cāturdvīpika. nub-kyi ba-lañ spyod-kyi gliñ ( = avara godānīya-dvîpa). too. hdsam-buhi gliñ. 3) mahāprthivī.

e. o m . instead has ' :J|y? /I'M f=3 HH^» vftv t?(l f^3 ^ H £ ' (animittajñānam T . he would act in the same way 4 1 ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga should appear one person. wise and possessed of the skill 3 6 ) to approach there (i. being bound by misconceptions 4 6 ) does neither know nor cognize nor understand 4 7 ) nor realize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within himself].). M @| M ( S 38 M 181 . C. 40) The reading is preferably ' tathā śesebhyah ' instead of * tathâśesethyah '. And his divine eyes were perfectly pure and clear. "> samjñāgrāha. T. clever. om. producing the strength of great efforts. 42) 38) C. T. o m . which is the immeasurable wisdom. 44) citta-santāna. asañ- gajñānam). C. 39 ' C. thoroughly 4 3 ) penetrates within the mentality 4 4 ) of every living being. ' sūksma—vajrena '. But T. ' santāna \ Often ' santāna ' alone is used in the same sense. o m . the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. having observed the state 4 8 ) of all the living beings in all the universal re36) 37) mīmāmsā. And every mental disposition of a living being has the same size as the Buddha's Wisdom 4 5 ) . t h i s s e n t e n c e .. . [ 191 ] . C. Only the ignorant. Similarly. reads ' lus-pa med-pa mthah-dag-las\ as S. Not only for one particle of an atom but also for [all] the remaining 40) atoms. Therefore. 45) T . however. [^fC £ £ ] J§[\ See BHS Die. ma-tshañ-ba med-par (aśesena). sems-kyi rgyud. Then. o m . 41> C. being endowed with tathāgatajñāna. the profitable wisdom for all living beings 42> . C J|7J \ p fj jlcî. verb. A S SI ffil). 48J C. C. O Son of the Buddha. I will break this particle of an atom by the force of great efforts 3 8 ) and let this great cloth become useful for the world. adds ' vajrena '. With these divine eyes he would perceive [and say]: Why does this big cloth of such a great nature stay 3 7 ) here in such a limited small particle of an atom! It is of no use to anybody! So he would think: Now. (Ātmanepada). gnas ( = sthāna). A* 5 £ n=j 'Ij* (not producing faith in. anutisthate T .ye-śes dan hdra-bar tshad med-do.. C. 43 ' sakalam. is also apramāna. ' h a b i t ' ) . (sattvasantāna. the Tathāgata. to the big cloth). the last bhavana. well learned. * 7 ) anu-\ bhū. T . (upāyena or upāya-sawjanayitvā).. spyod-pa ( = caryā. which appears in the next sentence in S.. intelligent. t h e whole sentence. he would break this small particle of an atom with a subtle diamond 39 ' and would make that great cloth useful for the world as was his intention.

' Cf.3=L iU=L • See below (S. in order that they would by themselves. 5S) 64 s2) «> So in C. ' aksūna'). and supports the reading 'yathā ' in the text. 9. |^|^ . T. Therefore. But it should be corrected into ' āryamārgopadeśena \ since 'ārya' modifies 'mārga' but not ' upadeśa '). T. the reading is preferable ' -vaineyikesu (vaineyika > vineya C. ^V* p g ^ I N j j | ^ . and it makes the meaning clear instead of ' vainaikesu '. But cf ' sarvadharmadhātuprasrtam tathāgatajñānam ' (Rāsfrapālapariprcchā. 4) ' the Buddha's Acts ' proceed forth at one time. probably by mistake). 1. 4. Bj 'j'LJ. TAKASAK1 gion 4 9 ) by his unobstructed Wisdom. always. 25. 5: āryamārgabalâdhānena. 24.) (For this mārga.J . om. also that they would obtain equality with the Tathāgata '. ' guna'). T. C. by accepting the power of the Holy Path. ksūna = dosa (see B H S anugunam. Because it is said 5 5 ) : " In order to enroll the living beings [in the Buddha's Doctrine] 5 6 ) the Acts of Tathāgata. O ! I shall try to withdraw all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions for the sake of these living beings through the teaching of 50) [8-fold] Holy Path . T. mtshañ-ba Die. are taught as if 49 ' sarvadharmadhātu-sattvabhavanāni. rjes-su mthun-par. p. hphags-pahi lam. this point is inconceivable 5 4 ) . regards ' sarva ' as relating to bhavana. according to the intention [of the living beings]. resolves to be a teacher [and says:] 'What a pity! These [living beings cannot cognize properly the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. p. p. T. p. 3). 66 > I accepted C reading ' ^ — " t $ ^ ^£ A ft V Î tf* (in buddhadharma) \ [ 192 ] . med-ciñ. chos-kyi dbyiñs sems-can-gyi gnas thamscad-la. . though they are unlimited. ( = S. everywhere. T . C. S5) DRS 21 c. AĀS 476 b (end of Chap. 24. Now. 1. cast off the big knot of conceptions and would recognize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within themselves]. 1. 60 ' ' āryena mārgopadeśena ' in the text. then this immeasurable Wisdom of the Tathāgata becomes useful to all the world " . reads jñāna. they remove all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions through the teaching of the [Holy] Path of the Tathāgata. And when all the obstacles created by wrong conceptions are withdrawn. without discrimination. according to [the faculty of] the living beings who are to be disciplined 5 1 ) without fault 5 2 ) . though it penetrates them.'[f{ (probably om. gdul-bya) aksūnam. V) where the following quotation from DRS is utilized. in conformance with their merits 5 3 ) . without efforts. 12) C. C. ' dharmadhātu '. (|§t )lH "5J <ffc *fc £}£ fll H i ) . T. [In accordance with this declaration]. 1.

9 ff. 476 b. C. p . with summarized number 5 8 '. C. '•/[* yf. However. T . Y{\ I t t ^ p R|K (by this example). text) is acceptable.). . reading is here accepted. the Buddha never casts off the sky-like nature of his body 6 9 ) and he shows himself in all the Buddhas' lands. T. Chowdhury in his introductory note to the Skt. related to the three divisions of time 6 7 ) . without casting off the indescribable nature of his 67) 44 68 pramānatah. ••> anavadya. AĀS. \~ ^rf (tryadhvasamam). dus gsum 62 * 6 ) anena paryāyena. > samksepamātrakena. AĀS fog. 1. O noble youth. tshad-dañ Idan-par. ^ Ç ^ § ( A Ā S _~ZL ^ C I ' ) ' ākāśasvabhāvatā. tha—dad—du dbyer—med—pa.. but it is preferable to read ' . of no discrimination as being equal to the sky. •*) D R S 21 c. precious Vaidūlya stone 6 3 . Cf. uncognizable by all the world. difficult to be acquired by others. T. > ābhogakriyā. C.v a m ś a . T. inconceivable. nirnānākāranam (Ms B. C.""*. this Buddha's inconceivable Act should be known as rendered in equality [with all the Buddhas]. [ 193 ] . after showing the example of pure. o Noble Youth. Then. C. hbad-rtsol dan bya-ba. UL dañ rjes-su hbrel-pa (tryadhvânubaddha). C. 4 T . indescribable by letters. & C. rendered in equality with all the Buddhas. and not interrupting the lineage of the 3 Jewels 6 8 ) .M>tS} * dharmadhātu-kriyā. Residing in this inconceivable Act of the Tathāgata. C. far beyond all works of exertion 6 0 ) .kārana '. T . gnas-pa. om. ' nānākarana '. ") See S. in this manner 6 5 ) . as T. ^g. word and mind. See B H S Die. 68) 69) t r i r a t n a . 5. -JftÇ J j ^ 5>»T ^yx* Art-. it is taught as follows 6 4 ) . karana ' instead of 61) 60 ' . '. dkon-mchog-gsum-gyi gduñ. Hereafter t h e reference is to t h e 3 actions. C. established 5 9 ) in all Buddhas' lands. T. ' shows a different reading (apratipraśrabdha). jifft ^ ^ fJZ -Mf". by deed. failed to catch this point. . . med-pa. ^pj J§T . ". C. that which is the true act of the Tathāgata is immeasurable. . *. ^ ffi f p l f £ . C.. reading corrected by T.The Ratnagotravibhāga they were somewhat limited 57) . of no differentiation 6 1 ) as being the act of the universal essence " 6 2 ) &c. 67) T. kha-na-ma-tho-ba T . T. S9) adhisthita. f£C |fE « S (dharmadhātu-svabhāva). nowhere blamable 66) . A^ «]* Hñf (AĀS $ f § ^ ) . rnam-grañs hdis. C. agree t o p u t one epithet more before ' triratnavamśa. But AĀS is apparently correct. T . Cf. |P~ WL (prob. So in T. C.

11. C. [The remaining] three are the conditions For the purification of the former 7 3 ) . 2 (v. "fife # S | ft (bodhyañga) %\\ . of these four subjects. Being the portions of enlightenment. t r a n s l a t i o n of ' ārambana' by f^t or jy\ . still he can understand the deeds and intentions of the minds 7 1 ) of all living beings.e. (Cf. IV. Only through the attributes of Enlightenment is there instruction for others. the first subject should be known as c the object to be enlightened' (boddhavya)'?4:). with reference to their inclusion of all knowable objects. Cf. where ' ārambana ' is translated by ' 3 î L ftp£ '. The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its four Aspects. sems-kyi spyod-pa dan bsam-pa yah. the reading bodhanā is to be corrected into bodhana). has confusion in its interpretation. 'the Enlightenment' (bodhi) should be known in the sense that the object to be enlightened has been awakened. C. —" 'fcJJ i^K £ j £ *lj"» jy\ ^^ H I . . therefore it is the Enlightenment. § 2. p. AÂS J ^ | •§f). the Enlightenment. āśaya). The object to be enlightened. TAKASAKI speech. ' the act to instruct the Enlightenment (bodhana)9 is to be known75). T . g^ I|JL» and compare to S. 4 the attributes of the Enlightenment (bodhyañga)' is to be known. 3J9? H ) . Thus with reference to these 70) sarvacittârambana. jffj 'Li"* 4~T" (om. ' the object to be enlightened '. 73): nirālambe (C.1. The second subject. 110 (v. respectively. Also see S. translation of the first line 1 4 !&£ 73 ^&C \Ck (bodhana. 39. in this sense the fourth subject. they are called Buddha's attribute. in this sense the third subject. N o t e C. 73) i. C. C. 9).J. he teaches the Doctrine for the sake of living beings through the proper word-communication. 26. to T.. t h e reading is preferably corrected into ' cittacaritān āśayāms ca '. and being apart from all objects of the mind 7 0 ) . p. AĀS. It correspond to ' gotra ' itself. // 26 // Indeed. Ace. 72) Four subjects from the standpoint of Enlightenment (bodhi). 71) cittacaritâśayāmś ca. [Of these four]. The act to instruct the enlightenment 7 2 ) . 76) Of these 4. The attributes of the enlightenment. = [ 194 ] is as follows: * 0 f ft (bodhya) # j g ££ (bodhi). See Note III-5. One subject signifies the cause. 74 > 'bodhya* in v. ^ f ^ t f ^ J ^ ^ (citta-indriya-āśaya?). otherwise ' ca' is to be removed as a n excess.

etc. Of this correspondence. It is obviously wrong. 6. of these four subjects. the arrangement of the Germ of the 3 Jewels in the state f cause and conditions is to be known. being endowed with the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha. 1. of these four subjects. Thus " [the remaining] three are the condition " . p . Nevertheless. ^ ^ 9t ^ S '• Tli explanatory adjective to ' bodhana % and be read ' bodhana. S. 16 ( a c e . 76) Cf. Hereafter. Thus " one subject signifies the cause " .The Ratnagotravibhāga four subjects. applies each phrase for each subject in the prose commentary. This is to be understood as the condition (pratyaya) for the origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to the purification of Germ based upon the voice of others 7 7 ) . should be understood as the cause (hetu) of origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to its ( = of the Germ) purification based upon ' each own ' correct thinking. manifests the Act of Tathāgata of 32 features 7 6 ) . but in the verse C. and the remaining two as ' parâr- e last pada ' ^ £|* jfjj . C. 10 Powers. by which the people attain the enlightenment'. which corresponds to ' pratyātma ' (each own) with reference to ' hetu '. again failed to catch the sense and regards the former two subjects as relating to ' svârtha '. adds 2 padas showing this. as being the seed of the supermundane thing. t o D R S ) . C. 77) paratah. However.^ JH ' should be taken as an *•• Mug mSfermsto [ 195 ] u . How are there three conditions ? The Tathāgata. has no interpretation in the prose commentary. a detailed and analytical explanation will be made known in the remaining chapters. the first one. Here. C. having realized the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment.

p. 258. Tohoku No. is retained in both T. SAMALÂ TATHATĀ VII. (esā — dharmānām dharmatā. by Amoghavajra in the 8th cent. by Buddhabhadra between 408-429 A. and by combiNote 2 on foil. 667 ~)\. it is said: All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata X ) . THE SERMON: ALL LIVING BEINGS ARE POSSESSED OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA. By which meaning is it said thus 2 ) ? x) This formula shows a principle common to a group of Sutras and Sāstras which express the tathāgatagarbha theory. Now. anger and ignorance. 666 will be used for the reference with the abbreviation. 666 ' ^ C ~J^ ^ i # P 3fv ^ ^ ' tr.I. i. C. see Note VI—28. ~}j | | f # 0 ^ ^ ^M ' tr. 29. No. m * Bg.e. I observe that all living beings. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh) (quoted in S. mainly depends. TGS. have the Buddha's Wisdom. " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh ' and as this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna is expressed in the Avatamsakasūtra (Tathāgatotpattisambhava—pariv. Taisho. [ 196 ] .: T. and No. with reference to ' t h e Reality mingled with pollution'. & C. and my Introduction). it is clear that TGS borrowed this idea from that Sūtra and established the above formula. 73). Buddha's eye. Kg Mdo XXII. (ibid. A. This shows the reason for the statement mentioned above. The Sūtra.). Hereafter C. to%i& & ft 'A* 'H. (With Buddha's eyes. p. the Sūtra says: tū&MM (TGS. This formula runs in C. No. of which the Skt. Buddha's body sitting firmly in the meditating form). the Sūtra furthermore says: * I?. This third one shows that the formula is the eternal truth. D. After the first sentence.D. though they are among the defilements of hatred. text is missing now. The first appearance of this formula seems to be in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra on which the Ratna. 457 r). as follows: î l ffi H & Prior to this sentence.

ñer-brtags. N o t e V I I .The 3> Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikā 5) The multitudes of living beings are included in the Buddha's Wisdom 4 ) . ^ ). all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. 27 after ' tathāgatagarbhasūtrânusārena nirdeśo bhavisyati ' with the heading: as said in the Kārikā text (V{. reading. 28) like T. p . i. T.. J-TÎ -îdte. starting with the commentary verse (v. (see above. 8) Inserted according to the conformity. e t c . 2 * The order of the text differs among S. // 28 // ning these three sentences together. As regard this point. Its result 5 ) manifests itself on the Germ of the Buddha 6 ) . And the Germ [of the Buddha] exists [in the living beings]. This idea is shown i n t h e Avatamsaka q u o t e d i n S. S. translation of this line is as follows: fîfc . [ 197 ] . ffi. ' buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh ' m e a n s g r a m m a t i c a l l y t h a t sattva-rāśi goes into buddhajñāna.\\ |$g /QÎ. and v. buddhatā. Their immaculateness is non-dual by nature. equal to all the Buddhas). and lastly. on the contrary. But from ' pūrvataram tu ' up to ' uddānam ' is missing in C. dharmakāya. tshogs. Here in the Ratna. // 27 // [What is shown by this śloka ?]8 ) The Buddha's Body penetrates everywhere. or of sattvarāśi. the main purpose of the teaching is to emphasize this point and. resides).. it puts v. C. F o r upacāra.e.e. 27). ffijC \\\ jJ īra DP• f ' \\\ Oj/J īra D P i i^ "^f **-* |_E =^T» (because of the body of real nature. (In t h e sense of * carati '. Reality is of undifferentiated nature. 7) sarve dehinah = sarvasattvāh = [sarva] śarīrinah (in t h e following verse). has clearly confasions in the prose commentary as J suggested. it looks all right and it is imaginable that the text used for C. Is C. but omits the usual heading before the next commentary verse (v. the author picked up the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in the 3 meanings. v. T. the 9 illustrations in order to show how living beings are covered with defilements. 28). we can get the main doctrine of the sūtra. keeps quite a regular order starting with the Kārikā (v. It is difficult to identify it with the present Skt.1 ) . (anena kim darśitam /). First of all. translation had this order. T .. 3) 4) rāśi. as t r a n s l a t i o n . About C. T. Therefore. Therefore. ' ? J f 4 ^ ' identified with it ? 6) bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. 29 with no heading. basing himself upon the TGS. 5) T h e result of i m m a c u l a t e n e s s i. he next explained its features and functions summarized in 10 points. 27 was put after the explanation. C. the author analysed and systematized the tathāgatagarbha theory. j ^ R t^3 (being n o t separated from B u d d h a ' s W i s d o m ) . C. it is said: all living beings 7) are possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. B u t T . 22. & C. 28 is followed by v./&) 3 ^ . 'A^* p|ji.

1. 72. by three kinds of meaning. See Note X-139 140 150 151 169 170. 17). p. 13) aviśesena. These three are the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha. 9) UP p £ ' respectively. T. 27. 1. Prior to it. 7-9) as well as in BGŚ (795 c-ff. p. p. pravacana. 3) Hb tPRF $lxi'•sattvas possessed of garbha of tathāgata.e. i.) is also an implication of this same idea. de-bshin gśegs-pahi de-bshin-ñid rnampar dbyer med-pahi don. 71. is the undifferentiated whole. 1. Cf. de-bshin-gśegschos-kyi skus hpho-bahi don. BGŚ 808 a. as garbha in which sattvas are ' enveloped '. it is said by the Lord that all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of Tathāgata. however. 1) (sarvasattvesu) tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d for e a c h s u b j e c t . T. 69. With reference to that as well. C. 1. 10) n arthapada. . upacārāt ' in v. beginning with svabhāva. The threefold meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha mentioned below (S. TAKASAKI In short. These are called pahi * trividha-svabhāva ' of tathāgatadhātu (S. of garbha ' enveloping ' tathāgata. 10-12. T . the following meanings. Equality through dharmakāya. 70. And of these three subjects 1 0 ) . That is to say. by the following three meanings: 1) the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) of the Tathāgata penetrates all living beings. Three terms in BGS are as follows: 1) A/T Vvî $& : tathāgata. 'yod—pa' shows t h e first sense. *ii* IL. T h e t e r m ' sambhava ' would m e a n b o t h ' b e i n g ' a n d ' b e c o m i n g '. C. 12) [ 198 ] .J . This sentence is missing in C. as well as the ground of the statement: sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. b u t i t seems t o b e not enough to express the idea contained here.. 6 9 . I shall now explain. the [detailed] explanation will be made below n ) according to the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. T. See Appendix I I I .7 3 . / > See S. there is [another] meaning by which this meaning in all its aspects is indicated in the Scripture 1 2 ) with no variance anywhere l 3 ) . Significance of this sentence is as follows: The 3 meanings mentioned above are applicable exclusively to Tathāgatagarbha. ^ P $Q . That is to say. on the other hand. 16-18. V ^ r% . and 3) there exists the Germ of the Tathāgata (tathāgatagotra) [in every living being] 9 ) . 2) BH» vīL $$û '• garbha in which tathāgata is ' hidden '. are applicable to any subject (sarvatrâviśesena) and are already used in the scripture. uJ I f § | . in comparison with the phrase: ' gotre. don-kyi gnas. 2) the Tathāgata being the Reality (tathātā). The first one shows the all-pervadingness of' dharmakāya ' the 2nd should be applied to ' samalā tathatā ' in the sense ' sarvakleśakośopagūdho dharmakāyah'. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi rigs yod-pahi don. 3) tathāgata-gotra-sambhavârtha. 2) tathāgata-tathatā-'vyatirekârtha. tathatā and tathāgatagotra is also a point of emphasis in the text. the sense ' origination ' or ' manifestation ' is to be implied here. T . p. and the 3rd shows the existence of 'gotra'' among sattvas. p p . T .lL. reads this word as the subject (gsuñ-rab) See below.

3) the result (phala) [of its purification]. sdom. 5) the union (yoga) [of the Germ]. 3) hbras[-bu]. 9) unchangeability (avikāra) [of the Germ through various states]. 6) the manifestation (vftti) [of the Germ]. C. |f\ . arthasamdhi. What are the 10 meanings ? They are namely : 1) the own nature (svabhāva) [of the Germ]. 8) Corresponding terms for these 10 in T. there should be understood the various aspects 5 ) of the Essence of the Tathāgata. there should be known The implication 2) of the Absolute Essence 3) . The result. . Therefoie.J i . 3) B) 6) C. union and manifestation. & C. mam-par gshag-pa. 4) abhisamdhāya. The qualities always unchangeable and non-diiFerentiation. This verse on the 10 meanings (v. 5f? * . don-dam-dbyiñs. C rendering of tathāgatadhātu here is ' \fç$ |f£ '• 7) sarvagatva i n t h e v e r s e . | f | . I ventured to omit this verse from the line of Kārikās. ^ . T . i. of tathāgatadhātu. 8) all-pervadingness (sarvatraga) 7 ) [of the Germ]. [ 199 ] . paramalattva — jñānavisayas tathāgatadhātuh. Because it follows immediately upon the word ' vaksyāmi ' in the last sentence. T. 4) the function (karman) [towards the purification].e. function. . f£^ jffE (dhātu in t h e sense vyavasthā. C.ifctf2) x> 5f? (succeeding paramârtha-dhātu. C. 5) Idan-pa. "jfg īij . Various states and all-pervadingness. though it is mentioned in the Kārikā text of C. 'tH. are as follows: 1) Ao-bo. Artt • v y+. gotra). 29) has a doubtful position as the original Kārikā. ANALYSIS OF THE GERM FROM 10 POINTS OF VIEW Summary 1 J : The own nature and the cause. with reference to 4 ) these 10 meanings. which is the sphere of the highest true knowledge 6 ) . 0 .VIII. dgoñs-don (implied meaning). 2) rgyu. 4) las. order of the excellent meanings). In these [points of view]. <$? | | | | y\. . 2) the cause (hetu). // 29 // In short. ' J . T . C. T. 5 § | / . uddāna. and 10) non-differentiation (abheda) [of the Germ with the Reality] 8 ) . 7) the various states (avasthāprabheda) [of its manifestation]. An explanation of the term para- mârthadhātu in the verse. it seems that this uddāna was composed by the commentator prior to explaining following Kārikās.

n ) -anvaya. adhiprajñā. Here. dbyer-med-pa. DAŚ 892 a (3. om. The highest Intellect. 9 10) dhicitta ' (DAŚ 892 a). 4~r '•> 7) gnas-skabs-kyi rab-tu dbye-ba. chos mthun-pa-ñid. 4) ^ | g ffi . C. Identity. 9) mi-hgyur-ba. 7) 31 Ife. ft. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of its own nature of power. etc. comm. 3) ^ ffi . H ^ 3*[? /j'J (kāla-prabheda). 0 ) .(I) SVABHÂVA & (II) HETU 9) Now. and being moist. ^ W$ ffc . See below. // 31 // •T0 J/£*» 6) hjug-pa. ^ Q f£J. from svabhāva to vrtti. 5) jffi 3§il ft J a n ' °^ these 10 categories. Cf. [ 200 ] . 5) M ^ 12) —* ft. 36 a). See Appendix III. which show the cause of purification.. C. The subject term for this and the following Kārikās is ' jinagarbha ' in v. 45. 9) ffi |K. samādhi. y p £ . 2) g j . 3ή ' %}] | © . § prakrty-asamklista. rañ-bshin. T. BGŚ 796 b (I. in these [three points] [The Essence of the Tathāgata has] a resemblance l 3 ) To the quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. C. > Cf. 8) $T fi. 3) g ft . and the application of the same 6. Also the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa—śāstra (DAS) mentions 12 categories with respect to ' bo- 6) # ft. 4) J | | ^ . karunā.. the first 6 are common to the 8 categories on ' nirmalā tathatā ' (Chap. #'] . Like the pure jewel. 8) kun-tu hgro-ba. the sky and water. T. 12 * dharmâdhimukti. Meditation and Compassion 12>. It follows after n ) the faith in the Doctrine. respectively. svabhāva & II hetu). For prakrti. MSA. T.. IX. 56-59. is also observed in YBh.^ !>§£. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. XXX. (Kārikā 6) 4 own nature' and ' cause * [The Matrix of the Tathāgata] is always undefiled by nature 1 0 ) . 2) 0 ffi . // 30 // § 1.. the sky and water. 10) S ft£ ^ fI]. ii) f£ ^ ^Ij. 13) sādharmya. (Taisho.BGŚ7966: 1) g f | ffi .). . II)..las byuñ-ba (come out from. 2. namely: 1) J|c. The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata. A.

B G Ś 797 a. the sky and water. in v. with reference to its particular l5) characteristic. 16) cintitârtha. brlan-pahi rañ-gi ño-bo. 28 and its commentary.. bsam-pahi don. C j^C Wv» BGS ^p^ ^fl* 'KX • > Cf. i.. 31. first of all. C. ' 0 f ft ' after ' 0 f &% ' is probably a misreading of prabhā for bhāvanā). C. C. with reference to their being undefiled always. C. And now. § ft 2) 18 j] . this very resemblance [of the Essence] to the purified qualities of wish-fulfilling jewel. 30) ? There are four kinds of Obstructions 1 9 ) : Enmity 2 0 ) to the Doctrine and perception of the Self. has a lacuna after samrddhi up to the end of the commentary on v. ^ ^ . T. A resemblance to the sky is to be known of the Reality. should be known with reference to its particular and common characteristics. T. grub-pa (= siddhi). by nature. but not found in S. sgrib. i. BGS TfîÇ .). of all t hese. C. u ) vv. mthuhi ño-bo-ñid. gshan-du ma-yin-pa-ñid-kyi ño-bo. Obstructions and Causes of Purification 18) . the sky and water is to be understood. 27. a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling jewel is to be known of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. Now. BGŚ #H ^ rañ-gi XJ f^ f^. T. pjj (abuse). respectively. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka (v. 17) For these 3 terms showing the similarity in particular characteristics. the resemblance of the Essence of the Tathāgata to the purified quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. 31 of C. trividhasvabhāva of tathāgatadhātu. & BGŚ (796 6) runs as follows: _ 1) T. 19) 20) [ 201 ] . w r a t h . but it puts ' JS» '/m ' (cmfā £t£) * before ' tathāgatadharmakāye ' and it seems to correspond to ' jQfr fÇ lH? '. with reference to its own nature of identity [everywhere] (ananyathābhāva) as the particular characteristic. T . the own nature of powers (prabhāva). e n m i t y ) . with reference to its moist nature (snigdhabhāva) of mercy towards living beings as the particular characteristic. § 2. 1B) samrddhi. 0 f fçj\ (C. absolutely. the innate purity as the common characteristic. C. Now. fulfillment of desired 16) objects etc. |*!p. 3) T. khoñ-khro ( h a t r e d . praligha. which are already mentioned above 1 4 ) . T . C. C. A resemblance to water is to be known 1 7 ) of the Germ of the Tathāgata. ffî ^ (as T. T .e. s\* ^ ç . ^ ^ ' j ^ . āvarana.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga * In these ' three [points].e.

T. sems-can don-la Itos med-pa. p. C.J. vSÇ /r£ 5 5 I-E • This sentence and the next show the definition of Icchantika. 27 ) « de-gñis-ka mñon-par mi-hdod-pa. are The four Causes of purification. HR J § . res- C j S . . AA II. see below). 29) i. Cf. Cf. Of them. Some of these are hostile to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. 28 [ 202 ] . although belonging to this Our Religion (ihadhārmika) 28>. A^ ' T. rañ-byuñ. C. [/jQ yj\j {£Z '-p] Pflj :Ja£ JpJ \\L (as same as Icchantika in their position). @ 5t£). chos hdi-pa-ñid. the faith [in the Doctrine] etc. 2) those who seek for deliverance from it (vibhavâbhilāsin). And b) Those people who.. mu-stegs. esp.). BHS Die. it means one who longs only for worldly pleasure ( = bhavâbhilāsin. C. With reference to them. The word * iha ' here means ' in this religion ' but not ' in this world '. ^ 3 T ^ f . > T. 1) T.e. T. BGŚ 797 b ff. srid-pa-dañ bral-bar hdod-pa. y\ j g [ ( = anyatîrthika) — ttrthika. C. // 33 // In brief there are those three kinds of living beings among their multitudes 2 5 ) : 1) those who cling to the worldly life (bhavâbhilāsin). srid-pa hdod-pa. T. C. 6. the Iochantika is said to be able to get Enlightenment as taught in this text (S. a) The people whose intention is against the path to Emancipation and who never belong to the family of the perfect Nirvana (aparinirvānagotraka)27).). that of Mahāyāna. AĀS 471 a. v. C. ") Cf. But from the viewpoint of the tathāgatagarbha theory. ' sarnsāram eva icchanti na nirvānam '. > icchantika. s.). (—' W] J H ) (of this literal meaning. s. hdod-chen. The capacity for Enlightenment of this Icchantika is usually denied as being ' aparinirvānagotraka '. As a Buddhist technical term. 1. The virtues. > svayambhū in the text (T. C. ^ $j? ffc ^ (within the Buddhist fold).// 32 // [These are respectively] of the Icchantikas 22\ Of the Heretics23) . 1) those who cling to the worldly life ' should be known as twofold. 37. TAKASAKI Fear of Suffering in this world. C. 2) T. <K l K IH. 1 fli. yoñs-su mya-ñan-las mi-hdah-bahi rigs-can. F P <î^ "W î pectively. which is used in this sense in Vibhañga 245 (PTS Die. 23) 22 21 tīrthya. v. have definitely fallen into the former's way 2 9 ) . the Śfāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 24>. And indifference to the profit of living beings 21 ). Pali idha. Those are only seeking for Phenomenal Life and not for Nirvana. 3) those who wish neither of both (tadubhayânabhilāsin) 26>. more strictly. 24 26) Of these 3. one who abuses the Buddhist doctrine. ' The reading should be ' sattvârtha—nirapeksatā ' (or -arthe nirape-) instead of * -artham nirapeksatā ' in the text.

ii) those who have the perception of the substantial Ego (pudgaladrsti) 4 0 ) and have no faith in the Highest Truth. Here. & T. \ja\ . etc. i) Outsiders of this Religion (itobāhya)34>. (and AAN as well) ' I will call them icchantikas\ instead of ' tamobhūyisthā '. 'those who are of no method' are again divided into three 3 3 ) . & BGŚ. thabs ma-yin-pa-la shugs-pa. gcer~bu-ba (naked people). 37) nirgranthi-putra. I say of them that they are chiefly filled with darkness. So do AÂS. wanderer). T. kun-tu C. l j | | | |33 (viparyāsagrāhin). but whose conduct is in common with the Heretics 3S\ They. C. [ 203 ] . various kinds of Heretics (anyatīrthya). Cf. 35) 36) caraka (lit. mentions Vātsīputrīyas (^fH ~J * The source is unknown. ^ | <fc i H /J US. hdi-las phyi-rol-tu gyur-pa. as migrating from darkness to another darkness. Of these 2. Next. C. 30 > AAN 467 c. C.e. the Lord said 4 1 ) : " One who has no faith in Non-substantiality is not different from the Heretics " . though being faithful in [Buddhism]. 38§ ? R i l l ~/J iSl î 2) T. 34) In contrast with ' ihadhārmika '. take hold of bad conceptions 39>.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Lord said as follows 3 0 ) : " I am not their teacher. T. 39 40) 41 C. 31 > tamasas tamo * ntaram andhakālān mahândhakālagāminah. religious wanderer). regards t h e m as t h e S ā m k h y a (If rgyu (one who goes everywhere). regards them as the Vaiśesika (Hi "tit $$). mun-pa chen-por hgro-ba. (lit.e. the Carakas35). C. 33) 32) as well. ~^C y\. what are they ? They are namely. "$£. mun-pa-las kyañ ches. The word ' itobāhya ' is literally an adjective to ' tîrthya '. / £ | $ £ |Sfcî ^=f J t £ "j • ' durgrhītagrāhin. T. i. O Śāriputra. thabs-la shugs-pa. ii) & Hi) Insiders of Our Religion. i. PP) a s a n example. 2) i those who seek for deliverance from this worldly life ' are also twofold. C. ' two '. tsa-ra-ka. C. T . into one. om. the Jains 3 7 ) . This seems to be the original reading. combining the latter two in S. reading is accepted in this translation. '£<£ j^J y\. respectively. C."J^C • But T. Then. T . With reference to them. AĀS 471 a. a) Those who have fallen into a methodless way (anupāyapatita) and 6) i those who are in [the correct] method ' (upāyapatita) 3 2 ) . 1) T. T.. C. dkah-bahi Ita-ba hdsin-pa (durdrstigrāhin). they are not my pupils. from gloom to greater 31 gloom ). C. the Parivrājakas 36 '.

yañ-dag-par ñes-pa-ñid. āpti had better be accepted. 634 a). And next. C. shugs—pa (to enter). having entered 47> the Path to obtain 4 8 ) [the intuition of] the equality of this Phenomenal Life with Nirvana. 11-13. T. S. really even such a conception which maintains substantial Ego as much as Mt. XI. Lank. jl|£ 4 T • samsāragata. T. 46) samyaktva-niyāma. 4 samatâpti-mārga-pratipannāh). and their root is perfectly 42) 43) tad-vimoksamukhe. sbyor-ba-can. T.'s suggestion. 50) prayoga. adds brten—pa (āśrita) after nir- vana). thob-pa. C jpÇ >fJi ^ c *y* (Ratnakūtasūtre). mi—gnas—pahi mya—ñan—las—hdas-pa. Here. (C. 47 ' pratipanna. p. see Note V—23. talented faculty. 61) [ 204 ] . nor are they those who are in no method like Heretics. AĀS 471 6. TAKASAKI Hi) Those who have the conception of the Non-substantiality and are proud of it are doubtless at the door of Emancipation through the Nonsubstantiality 4 2 ) in this religion 4 3 ) .This is the highest and ideal feature of nirvana in the Mahāyāna doctrine. 29 1. A^ ft VM 5 S A ft Btl S iSS). ^y The same use as in ' ihadhārmika '. it follows for them that Non-substantiality itself becomes a [wrong] conception 44) . but T. 146.J. p. As by J. But as they are intoxicated with this Non-substantiality. offers no help). (Cf. brten-pa(= āśrita). 1. 35. 48) āpatti in the text. i) Those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and ii) those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha. They are not seeking for the Phenomenal Life as the Icchantikas do. p. nor those who are in the correct method [for deliverance] like Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. C. (T. C. iha. C. T T [Mj ' f T . they intend not to stay fixedly in the Nirvana (apratislhitanirvāna) 4 9 ). p. Cf. With reference to these. but. 49 45> * T. 3) ' those who wish neither of both the worldly life and deliverance from it' are the people who are standing firmly amidst the Great Vehicle and are of the highest. the whole compound. H For ' -gata '. [Both of them] have proceeded on the fixed way of rightfulness 4 6 ) . b) 'those who are in [the correct] method' are again twofold. C. their activities 5 0 ) are based upon Phenomenal Life 5 1 ) but without being defiled by it. BGŚ 797 b (quotation from AĀS). om. This is a passage in Kāśyapa-parivarta of the Ratnakūtasūtra. 2 ff. he ( = the Lord) said [in the Scripture] 4 5 ) : " O Kāśyapa. T. Sumeru is better than the conception of Non-substantiality on the part of those who are proud of it " . See S. (Taisho.

•JC /J^ -/Hfe |*ip. keeping aside those people who stand firmly in the Great Vehicle and follow the unobstructed way 56>. lhag-pahi bsam-pa. 84 ' ' ca ' should be inserted before ' ihadhārmikā '. Y^£ ^ | ' u * (the intention to attain Nirvana). there are four kinds of Obstructions on account of which they cannot understand or realize the Essence of the Tathāgata. sgrib-pa med-pa rtogs~pa (one who knows t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d thing) and C.). reference is m a d e t o t h e 4 kinds of people a n d t h e i r i m p e d i m e n t s . 69) [ 205 ] . and its Antidote 5 9 ) is the practice of the faith in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā) by the Bodhisattvas. I preferred C. have definitely fallen into the former's way are called (A) the group of people who conform in the wrong way (mithyātvaniyatah sattvarāśih). ' caturvidha '. has it. 62) 63 adhyāśaya. o m . 2) The conception of the Self (ātmadarśana) on the separate elements (dharmesu). What are then the four Obstructions ? That is to say.). though belonging to this Our Religion. C. t r a n s l a t i o n . b u t b o t h T . the Heretics. s?) S. reference is made to the relation between the 3 kinds of people above mentioned and the 3 groups of people. And here 5 3 ) . the Icchantikas and5 4 ) those who. other people are [fourfold] 57\ i. 66) anāvarana-gāmin (one who goes w i t h o u t a n y obstacle). 65) Hereafter. C. and its Antidote is the practice of Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect (prajñāpāramitābh. H e r e ' anāvarana ' indicates strictly N i r v a n a . & T. the Icchantikas. 2-6) ' Those people who seek for deliverance with the correct method ' and 3) ' those who wish neither of both and have entered the path through which [the intuition of] the equality [of the Phenomenal Life with the Nirvana] is attained are called (C) the group of people who conform in the right way {samyaktvaniyatab s.) by the Bodhisattvas. Cf.e.The Ratnagotravibhāga pure as being grounded in the firm Compassion and Superior Intention 52) . 1) the enmity 5 8 ) to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmapratigha). B u t T . This is the Obstruction of the Icchantikas. BGŚ fff C. Of these [four groups]. 3?J fpj . %%. though it is missing in S. Of 55) these [groups of living beings]. & C. i. 2-o) ' Those people who seek for deliverance from the worldly life but have no method ' are called (B) the group of people unconformed (aniyatafi s. ^ . the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. flfjfc j J L (one who seeks for t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d w a y ) . * Hereafter. pratipaksa. C. gñen-po.e. This is the Obstruction of the Heretics. sñañ-ba. T. 3) The notion of Suffering (duhkhasamjñā) [or rather] the fear of Suffering {duljkha-bhlrutva) in Phenomenal Life. T. 68 > T. 1) those people who cling to this wordly life. h a v e i t .

p5!? ft* • 2) bdag-tu Ita-ba. Q ~h£> fâffc Jjtftl -nSdu i L . nam-mkhah-mdsod. And having practised the four kinds of Antidotes to these Obstructions. each of them. i. i. How are they ? It is said 6 2 ) : 6 °) T. This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and its Antidote is the practice of Great Compassion {mahâkarunā-bh. y\^ ^ ^ . JJ=J f£C» 2) śes-rab [-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa]. has no corresponding verse. 4) sñih-rje chen-po. •ffâ fSftt: ^ = * ^j< ^r. The same idea is expressed with slight difference in the following Sāstras. by the Bodhisattvas. The terms for the 4 obstructions in T. 62) ^f. & C. the Bodhisattvas attain the highest purity. Q Q ~W* ( J3 f\^r 61) 3) hkhor-ba-la sdug-bsñal hjigs-pa. These are the four kinds of Obstructions of the four kinds of living beings. 1) MSA IV. pfjj "p^ \VT J J "Q*.) by the Boddhisattvas 61>. C. the faith [in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle] etc..e. • 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la mos-pa.. regards it as its own. 9 . accompanied by these four causes of origination of purity. the Absolute Body. C. =g* «pQ. 5 6 6). And. . p. 4) sems-can-gyi don-la mi-ltos-pa. •• ^5 And the terms for the 4 causes of purification. T ». >J. XXXI. the idea must be borrowed from an old source. they become the sons of the Religious King in the Buddha's family. are as follows: 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la sñañ-ba.This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and its Antidote is the practice of Meditations (samādhi-bh. 4) Aversion to the profit of living beings {sattvārtha-vimukhatā) or Indifference to the profit of living beings (sattvaartha—nirapeksatā). 73X. \ IJJC. however. the highest truth. At least. 11: dharmâdhimuktibījāt pāramitāśresthamātrto jātah dhyānamaye sukhagarbhe karunā samvardhikā dhātrî C. but in the commentary there is a passage saying: Ā ? L # t [ 206 ] (Taisho.). The following verse is probably a quotation from some canonical work. Yf~f ILL. 3) tiñ-ñe-hdsin. adds ' śūrañgama ' /Ht) as a name of samādhi. AX. ^£? ^ ^ (ākāśagarbha).e. Gaganagañjā 6 0 ) etc. Jan.

[These] are its results [of the purification] 67) . sMMMcUf prajñāpāramitā anujāta. the after-comers 64> of the Buddhas. Whose abiding womb is the blissful meditation And whose nurse is called Mercy. t h e N o n . 65) guna-pāramitā.). shi thob-pa. ^ ^ = paramâtman. yon-tan pha-rol[-tu] phyin-pa. (Kārikā 7) The Supreme Virtues 65) of Purity. i n i t s t u r n .The Ratnagotravibhāga Those whose seed is the faith in the highest Vehicle. C. [ 207 ] . there is one śloka. >(0 " H ^ ^ P (together with ' pu«ro ' ) . // 35 // 2) BGŚ 798 a: — H #[I 3£ ^ 5 h ~~ l # #H f*f. with reference to the meaning of i result ' and ' function '. prāpti. Bliss and Eternity. T . H e r e ' ātman ' in t h e sense of ' dharmakāya ' or ' dharmadhātu ' as t h e universal which r e p r e s e n t s . f in the Prajñāpāramitāsūtra. // 34 // (III) PHALA & (IV) KARMAN Now. 35 a b h a d b e t t e r pāramitā-phalah ' ( B a h u v r ī h i comp. āfman. like mātr. A . C. T . C. of s e p a r a t e elements b e r e a d as ' •. C. should b e understood essence or t r u t h itself. T . longing for and praying for the acquisition of Quiescence 68) . C. and siddhi like dhātrl). v . pratyaya garbha. 45. • guna'jinagarbha' i n v . bdag. 67) As being i n t h e series of K ā r i k ā s . r/es[-su] s&yes. [Towards this purification] it has the functions.s u b s t a n t i a l i t y (nairātmya) and individuals. They are the sons. āśraya like ^C ffi ¥L • 63) 64) 3) DAŚ v. '$>C _ ^ «Çj} f ^ . Zl 1fc j h #H Hit Ba » IZQ Jffij jg/fc W -fL 1% (hetu is like pitr.: is often called ' buddhamātrka ' T . Cf. V T Î 5+S ( = nirvana) and om. Aversion to Suffering. translation of the Ratna. Unity 66>. whose subject or viśisya is 86) 68) śama-prāpti. Whose mother is the transcendental Intellect 63 \ On account of the origination of Buddha's Doctrine.

etc. of no substantial Ego. 71) pratipaksa. aviparyāsa. full of sufferings. -=^? 38v l ī l "^P" ^P• T. [nj j|J£). " C. the notion of being non-eternal. C. C. The context of this verse is not so clear. dharmakāye viparyayah (instead of viparyayāt). is 72) supported by T. ( = rūpâdi-vastuni anitye). of substantial Ego (ātman). 75) T. shown as pratipaksa of viparyaya of the 4-fold viparyāsa in dharmakāya. C.] represented as the Antidote > 72) To the four kinds of delusion . instead of ' caturvidha-viparyāsa '. According to the prose commentary. the four kinds of Supreme Virtues {gunapāramitā) of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata are to be understood as i the results' on account of their being Antidotes to the opposites of four kinds of delusion. as C. there is a notion of being eternal (nitya). of being pure (śubha) regarding the separate things consisting of form and others 7 4 ) wh:ch are really non-eternal. this ' caturvidhaviparyāsa'' should be taken as including two kinds of '4~fold delusion'. // 36 // Those terms. ^ § § @J $£ . T. blissful {sukha). there should be known 4 the fourfold non-delusion (aviparyāsa) 7 5 ) . TAKASAKI § 1. |$j] (lit. Such a notion is called 'the fourfold delusion' (viparyāsa). in short. Chowdhury. JjQ t**. caturvidha-viparyāsa. phyin-ci-log (anything wrong. reversed). See below. respectively. and impure regarding just those separate 69 > Cf. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of the change of value 7 0 ) in the Absolute Body. i. have been taught 7 3 ) as the causes of purification of the Essence of the Tathāgata. AĀS 471 c. it will be easier to catch the meaning. indicated by T. viparyaya.e. l||f| [îi] [<£]. full of sufferings. This word does not include the or 'viparyāsa ' is always 70) sense of ' wrong ' or ' mistake '. T. as well as C. 73) The insertion of ' uktāh ' after viśuddhihetu. bśad-pahi. respectively. 4 the faith ' etc. T. and pratipaksaprabhāvita. these 4 pāramitās should be the antidotes to ' viparyāsa—viparyaya '. The results of these [4 causes] are.J. of no substantial Ego and impure. in short. On the other hand.. Which four ? That is to say. 71 [The Purity. by the reading ' caturvidha-aviparyāsa '. C. 'viparyasta'' used in a bad sense. Here. (T. & C. phyin-ci ma log-pa. picks up three phrases. gñen-po (antidote to poison). C. In this sense. in brief. viz. ' Of these [four causes] '. BGŚ 798 a. C. [f||£ 4T"j 3?J I O VS « viparyāsa. deceptive). The Four Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 6 9 ) . ' viparyāsa-viparyaya ' and * gunapāramitā '. T. Being opposite to this notion. [ 208 ] . respectively. translation shows the following meaning: " These results are. 74) rūpâdike vastuni. as being correspondent to ' viparyāsa '. though it has no support in T. Now. bzlog-pa. Or otherwise.

merely ' 'M. of substantial Ego regarding non-substantial things. this sense is implied. śūnyatā-jñāna. raised). Such a notion is called the fourfold Opposite of delusion (viparyāsaviparyaya) 7 6 ) . 83) aurasa ( < uras) (produced from the heart). the Supreme Eternity (nityapāramitā). etc. this very [notion of non-delusion] is implied as ' delusion ' with reference to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata whose characteristics are eternal. C. T. Usually when ' pañca-upādānaskandha ' is spoken of. Being the Antidote of this notion. instead 82> has ' jj=3 |9p īfrj B \ ' (because of their believing in the Buddha's word). 77) These 4 pāramitās are t a u g h t in SMS. T. 5 ^ ^ 3 . p. T . and the Supreme Purity (śubha-p. etc.2pC jjyf / j N adrsta-pūrva. fâ ] £ ffi 3 i ^ '?£ ft ^fe 1 # V£ tfe M* being as the explanation of the word ' aurasa putra'. C. the Supreme Unity (ātma-p-). For upātta (Pali upāta). T . J ^ . the people have a miscomprehension regarding the phenomenal things consisting of five personality aggregates which cling to existence 80 '. Even all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. That is to say. O gives the translation: as far as manifesting themselves in an individual. But in the last sentence of this quotation. 80) upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. but C. O Lord. They have a notion of eternity on the non-eternal things. jpl. a notion of bliss regarding painful things. 79 > Ś M S 222 a.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga things of form. o m . And this subject 7 8 ) is to be known in detail according to the Scrip79) ture . Unity. | ^ £ fjj '. 166. bshuñ. the Supreme Bliss (sukha-pāramitā). and Purity [regarding the Absolute Body]. and are peculiar t o t h e garbha theory. Manu Smrti IX.)77>. O Lord. see S. also have a miscomprehension in regard to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is the sphere of the Wisdom of Omniscience and has never been seen before 8 1 ) just because of their knowledge of Non-substantiality 82 '. and have a notion of purity regarding impure things. there is established the fourfold Supreme Virtue of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. sñar ma mthoñ-ba. T h e first appearance of this theory is probably in SMS. The meaning is ' skandha in the form of individual or phenomenal things and not in the form of each separate element '. ~Jr and adds ' ^yt I/P M ^ī^ (produced from the Buddha's mouth). Cf. T. thugs-las skyes-pa. zin-pa (finished. slon-pa-ñid-kyi ye-śes. they would be the legal 8 3 ) 76) should be removed). And again. 76 (a quotation from the same Sūtra). About this śūnyatā-jñāna. So C. 78) grantha. C. t 209 ] . [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. AĀS as C. MPS. Bliss. C. if there would be the people who have the notion of Eternity. . 81) C t H @] § J }pi (the reading '/f* ' before ' H ffij ' in the Taisho edition. etc.

0 Lord. mñon-par graha. a d d s 'sarve' after * te'. 89) term 'jjfljl 90) 91 T . Those who perceive perfectly are. of these four Supreme Virtues of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. Concordance between 4 Supreme Virtues and 4 Causes of Purification 8 6 ) . B G Ś 798 b f. ' para-pārami-prāpta. O Lord. § 2. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Purity is the result of ' Practice of the Faith in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle' by the Bodhisattvas. gff ^ X • For ' ātman' (slu-ba. 86 > Cf. Indeed. ^ ' . uses t h e ^ jilj. C. O Lord. (/JJ. C. (for t h e whole q u o t a t i o n ) . those people 8 4 ) who perceive the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata in this way.. all the other Heretics consider the things consisting of form. 2) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the perception 8 9 ) of unreal Ego by the Heretics who perceive an Ego in the individual things consisting of five personality aggregates.85>. dam-pahi pha-rol-tu C. And again. 1) being opposite to the taking of delight in 8 8 ) the ' impure ' Phenomenal Life by the Icchantikas who have hatred against the Doctrine of Great Vehicle. And this very thing as has been perceived by the Heretics does 90 not correspond with ' the [real] characteristic of Ego. perceive perfectly. the Supreme Bliss. the legal sons of the Buddhas " &c. T . }jfi[ -%£ j phyin-pa brñes.). T. Cf. ['L*] ^ r c ? a n d adds ' g § •HX ' (graha). etc. C. * 88) abhirati. dgah-ba. On the contrary. bzlog ste. of t h e Heretics. For what reason ? [Because]. O Lord. H?IJ Çf^ IK. [verily] they would be of perfect perception. hence it is always non-Ego. C. 9 1 ) [knowing 92)] non-substantiality of all the phenomena by means 84) T . slu-ba-daū Idan-pa falsehood). the Tathāgata has attained the highest supremacy. mentions t h e actual order Q^p* 3>C ~§§ ^ ). regards 'para' as an attribute to ' nairātmya\ [ 210 ] . visamvāditva. one should know the reversed arrangement 8 7 ) according to the order of causes. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Unity is the result of 4 practice of supremacy in the transcendental Intellect'. 85) 87 ) pratiroma-krama. ^ p . T.. T . 92) So C. A Ā S 471 c f. hdsin-pa. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity. T. AĀS 472 a f. as the Ego though they are of the unreal nature.sons of the Buddhas and be of no miscomprehension.. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is verily the Supreme Eternity. ' para ' in the sense of ' parama '. C. Here.

he did neither explain (A* ff2) nor reply {/V* ^ . C. The Buddhas obtained the pure body. T. > ātmâbhipreta. this quotation whose source is unknown. with reference to this ' supreme Ego '. C. hence there is always the implication of Ego 95) (ātman) . ling body ( y /ffc 1S)> ne ^). with reference to the same meaning. he himself is absent (flW ^ C ^ ^U 7 £ 38£ W^). -*T ) means that the Tathāgata has attained the highest pure Reality. and adds the explanation of ' nairātmyam eva ' (ts|J 7»ÎÇ T?C) and ' ātmâbhipreta ' ( ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ J ^ > 0 ' saying that the former is in the sense of the absence of the Heretical ātman. yañ-dag-pa ji-lta-ba-bshin-kyi instrumental case-ending). Therefore. C. we cannot say there is no Absolute Body. KN 38Ç ^ C -%3 y«nf ^rl ^ C a n ^ seems to omit ' nairātmyam eva ātmani krtvā'. Because [all phenomena are] of non-substantial nature (?!»Ç T?C ^TH)' °f tne nature of non-being (Tkfç V2* T0)* Hence he cannot be called ' the being '. adds a verse with commentary thereon. Having attained the self-controltn g ot the pure body (Vpf î ^ * ^ " ) . S3 (om. Because. It runs as follows: Having attained the highest Non-substantiality. om. The verse mentioned at the top has a similarity to the verse IX-23 of the [ 211 ] is . by taking non-Egoity {nairātmya) in the meaning of Ego. 3 C » 7 r DUt PR] • 95 93 ye-śes. And again. the Absolute Body (5f| — " VPf î ^ j | . > yathābhūta-jñāna. _ 94) avisamvāditva. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called the being (/^). Because. as his feature. And furthermore. sY* fm>. At the same time. And this very non-substantiality 94) has been perceived by the Tathāgata is quite consistent with the a s characteristic of non-ego.. as his nature.KU V £ which is the real nature ( gÇ •PC) °f ^11 the Buddhas.Hence. 3(0 jH. etc. while the latter is the Buddha that has attained the ' mighty Ego '. Only because his body is the Reality itself (J^X PfE ^ 1 I K jl|« KU ^ C WEL).) in the Immaculate Sphere. 96 ) C. it is said that they attained the great body. when Heretics asked the Buddha whether the Tathāgata would have body (fâ Jf" 1 $ ) after death or not ( ^ J^f* jf|$). the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called * non-being ' (TîiÇ). As the pure and real emptiness. with reference to this meaning.) ". For this reason. Here ' attained the great body ' (^Tf y\.The Ratnagotravibhāga 93) of his Wisdom perceiving the truth . he does exist. C. as has been said: 44 He stands by application of no standing place" 96) . Therefore the Buddhas *s are said to have attained the pure controllingfpower] ('frf Vñ Î^F @ 'TE)* ^ n sense the Buddhas could be the highest powerful Ego (5fy * ^]^^ 0 /ffc TA.

but we have no definite proof for saying this. also mentions this verse in the equivalent passage. it along with ' abhirati ' and instead has ' b h î r u ' (fear). Also.g. C. Most probably the verse kept in C. T. C. ñe-bar shi-ba. upaśama. which has parallel passages with the Ratna. is a quotation from the MSA by the commentator from the same source he quoted in other passages (e. etc. 98 ' T. named Gaganagañjā. it should be understood that the Bodhisattvas' practice of Great Compassion has the acquisition of the Supreme Eternity as its result. p. is the acquisition of the Supreme Bliss 9 8 ) concerned with all matters. saying: Zl ^ E « ^ tŚic$H$C© (798. it was probably not in the original text. One strong reason for this supposition is that BGŚ. S. which runs as follows: " śūnyatāyām viśuddhāyām nairātmyān mārgalābhatah / buddhāh śuddhâtmalābhitvād gatā ātmamahātmatām // ". we can find a similar passage of the prose commentary mentioned above in the following passage of the Sūtrâlañkāra along with the next verse (IX-24) and the commentary thereon. mundane and supermundane. and C. hdu-hdsi med-pa (samsarga means ' company '). It runs as follows: " tatra cânāsrave dhātau buddhānām paramâtmā nirdiśyate / him kāranam ? / agranairātmyâtmakatvāt / agram nairātmyam viśuddhā tathatā sā ca buddhānām ātmā svabhâvârthena tasyām viśuddhāyām agram nairātmyam ātmānam buddhā lābhante śuddham / atah śuddha-ātmalābhitvād buddhā ātmamahātmyam prāptā iti paramâtmā vyavasthāpyate I j na bhāvo nâpi câbhāvo buddhatvam tena kathyate / tasmād buddha tathāpraśne avyākrtanayo matah // tenaîva kāranena buddhatvam na bhāva ucyate j pudgaladharmâbhāvalaksanatvāt tādātmakatvāc ca buddhatvasya / nâbhāva ucyate tathatālaksanam bhāvāt j ato buddhatvasya bhāvâbhāvapraśne bhavati tathāgatah param maranān. /JjX.3) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the cessation 9 7 ) of Sufferings of the Phenomenal Life alone by those who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka and who have fear of the sufferings of Phenomenal Life. 37-38). text has a lacuna of this passage. throughout the text. 4) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the isolated 9 9 ) abode by those who belong to the Vehicle of Pratyekabuddha and who are indifferent to the benefits of living beings. om. 71) and the present Skt. [ 212 ] . RET ^ or 97) % »). however. add parama. " ' asamsarga. but without commentary and regarding it as a ' sūtragāthā ' As for the prose commentary. (paramasukhapāramitā). # M 3fe B & S # W (|^ osamsargavihārâbhirati). because practising [for the sake of others] Sūtrâlañkāra. fffi 13Ī <J5Σ. T.). na bhavatîty evam ādir avyākrtanayo matah // (MSA p. it should be understood that the result of the practice o" various kinds of meditation.

^ jtfc 0 f|§ — " g j %\\ ^ ®H^7]t3cffi. hence ' yoñs-su sbyor-ba ' might be the translation of ' paligodha ' . hence he has become the highest Absolute Essence. the Meditations and the Great Compassion. through the practice of faith in the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. nam-mkhah Itar) is relating t o nisthâgamana. B. 545&. Daśabhūmikasūtra (ed. p. B Ś 7 8 : G 9c « m ft 5f ^ * * *ś nisthâgamana (lit. For this meaning we have a word ' paligodha ' (BHS Die. T . just as the l04) sky [reaches up to the limit of the world] and. by J. r e n d e r s t h i s passage as follows: T h e T a t h ā g a t a completes t h e sky-like dharmakāya through [the 104) realization of] t h e absolute ( ^ L _^L nistha) n o n . " dharmadhātu-vipulam ākāśadhātu-paryavasānam aparântakotinistham " % i£ s. Unity. These are used there as modifiers of 'pranidhāna' of Bodhisattvas. respectively. C. l01) And because of these four [Supreme Virtues in the Absolute Body] it is said. 14). Thus. Through the practice of the supremacy in 103) the transcendental Intellect. Pali paligedha). Cf.) T. but most probbably it is a wrong reading. Rahder. mthar~thug-pa-ñid-tu rtogs-pa. the Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect. cf. he reaches up to the limit of the space and he lasts as long as the utmost limit [of the 102) world] . their attachment to the benefits for living beings is perfectly pure. the Tathāgata. C 3 £ H i >ft =il • On this passage. BGŚ 798 c. we get this meaning. AÂS 472 a: tV-XâL^ 103) R i£. the meaning ' attachment ' or ' clinging to ' seems better.The Rat na g o t r a v i b h ā g a 100) as long as the world exists. those of Faith [in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle].' is to be corrected into lsarvatra-parama. (' pali ' is a rather common transformation of the prefix ' pari ' in Middle Indie.) and if we change a letter ' ñ ' into ' r' in T. Cf. shows a sense similar to ' pariśuddha '. As for the form ' phaligodha ' instead of paligodha. yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba (D) (pariśodha. the Tathāgata is the highest Absolute Essence.' (in one compound). Indeed. we should record this form as a varia lectio. sattva). etc. The reading ' sarvatra parama. [ 213 ] . through the practice of phaligodha in the text. same as Ms. without interruption. s.S u b s t a n t i a l i t y of bhājana-loka ( o m . reaching u p t o t h e l i m i t ) .). sbyoñ. namely. AÂS 472 a. 4 kinds of Supreme Virtues named Purity. B Jit m H — V) in * T tt^^ft^JI (therefore it is taught by the Buddha). v. T. but from the context. ākāśopama ( T . Bliss and Eternity are brought about on the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata as the result of Bodhisattvas' 4 kinds of practices. has attained the highest state of the Absolute Essence which is the ultimate purity. 101) 102) 100) Cf. [the Tathāgata] has realized perfectly the non-substantiality of living beings and of the material world.

1. there are four Impediments (paripatha) 1 0 8 ) even in case of the Arhats. with reference to 1 0 6 ) this point. it is said he lasts as long as the utmost imit [of the world]. § 3. i$fc 7^. That is to say. 110) aāsravadhātu. p. i t is m o s t l y concerning t h e obstacles or i m p e d i m e n t s i n B o d h i s j t v a s for a t t a i n i n g bodhi. ma-rig-pahi bag-chags-kyi sa (avidyā-vāsanā— [ 214 ] . 2) rgyuhi mtshan-ñid. 2 ) 4 H i . he reaches up to the limit of spaci [And lastly]. 18. 3 ) f * . 21: sarvabodhisattvahūmisu vaśitāprāptah). C.J. he has perfectly perceivd the omnipresence 1 0 5 ) of the power of the highest truth everywhere. chos-kyi dbañ-phyug dam-pa. ^j£ ^ g . los) prama-dharmaiśvarya. & C. j ^ j | | 7^ * * 9i (ffl U 1& B). 274. Cf. C. . C. I n B U S . and 4) 'phenomenon of destruction ' (vibhava-laksana)1U). Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisatvas who have obtained [10] Controlling Powers 109) . Am now. 1. Because of these two acquisitions. 2) m B 4 5E. 1 U ) C t h e s e 4 t e r m s . [ A | 4*0. 109) zśitāprāpta-bodhisattva. for the acquisition of these four kinds of Supreme Virtues of the absolute Body of the Tathāgata. Eś: i) ^ in 4 5E. & C. I t is e q u i v a l e n t t o ' lokottara ' a n d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t is ' sāsrava ' equivalentto ' laukika '. We can regard this ' vaśitāprāpta ' asan epithet for Bodhisattwas in general. B G Ś 799 a. Here. T h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n anāsrava a n d sāsrava will be seen i n t h e following assage. through the practice of the Great Compassion. AĀS 472 b. r e n d e r i n g of t h i s passage isas * sarvatra sarvadharmesu aiśvarya-prāptatvāt \ 108) pādāya. 1) ' Phenomenon of condi on' means the Dwelling-place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmi) 1 1 2 ) . y ^ ~J\ pj* ^ 1 • t is not necessary to limit this qualification to those Bodhisattvas who abide on the 10th lūmi as mentioned in the Tibetan commentary. a r e as follows: 1) kyen-gyi mtshan-ñid. Lañkāvatāra. dbah-thob-pahi byañ-chub-sems-dpah. 107 > f. etc. 4 inpediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 1 0 7 ) . |*Jp. 3) hbyuñ- bahi mtsha-ñid. 4) $£ C 5{{Ç W/j pE «Ha b u t T. TAKASAKI various kinds of meditations named Gaganagañjā. t h e Rāstrapālapariprcchā. T .. 2) 4 phenomenon of cause' (hetuf laksana)3) 'phenomenon of origination (sambhava-laksana). 4) hjig-pahi mtshan-ñid. 108) ^ gegs. though they are abidng in the Immaculate Sphere 1 1 0 ) . 1) 4 phenomenon < condition' (pratyayar-laksana). p . Therefo3. 1 fF. A S l ) 4 ! l l . show i t b y a b l a t i v e case-ending only. T . 3) :# ^f £ 5E. T . Ā: 4) # & ^ j . (Cf. [he has mercy towards all living beings beyond the limitation of time. U2) «.

>^J ^5^ pE J l H . translation of the Ratna. mñon-par grub-pa.. (*rūparāgasthita-v. m * C. lls) T. H e r e ' upādāna' is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h The four upādānas are usually. yid-kyi rañ-bshin-kyi lus. The second interpretation is also shown in this Ratna. conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance and caused by the Immaculate Action. As for the meaning of * vāsabūmi*. (*bhavarāgasthita-v. £ £ :£§•. 'ij/C 2sc 1l£ J u l . there are said to be five vāsa—bhūmis. C. In this sense avidyāvāsabhūmi is here related to the defilement existing in Bodhisattvas (in another passage in the Ratna. there are traditionally two ways of interpretation: one is shown in C. (*kāmarāgasthita-v. to SMS (220 a). T. Zl. I 215 ] . is compared to samskāras in the sense that karman is the cause of the next birth. and 4) C. therefore. translation of SMS. just as the origination 116) of the Three-Worlds (tribhava)n7) is conditioned by 4 kinds of Graspings (upādāna)118) and caused by the Passioned Actions bhūmi). 33. 115) ( _ manomaya-kāya).. while * avidyāvāsabhūmi * (T. p. ^JÎÇ î^|j ^ ^ . Ace.The Ratnagotravibhāga [It is the condition of birth of the Body made of mind for the Saints] just as Ignorance (avidyā) is [the condition] of Predispositions (samskārāh) [for ordinary people]. ñe-bar len-pa bshi. 3) C. seems to regard * samskāra ' of avidyā-vāsabhūmi as something different from * anāsravakarman '. Here anāsravakarman. ma—rig—pahi gnas—kyi sa) is ' anādikālikā ' and cannot be destroyed except by ' bodhijñāna ' of the Tathāgata. T . 116) abhinirvrtti.) 1 1 5 ) .. C. [and it is to be] compared with the Predispositions [of ordinary people] 1 1 4 ) . Jrçj. and T. 1) kāma. Furthermore. The body of the saints is said to be consisting merely of ' mano-skandha '. 7 T ( = tridhātu). it is the strongest. the other is shown in T.)t and are said to be the basic Mesas from which all the defilements in the form of intense outburst (paryavasthāna. hdod-pahi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . * ~LJJ J^a tEE -HHI » T. t-L i3< t E -^a» T. there is conditioned * anāsravakarman '. of which avidyā—vāsabhūmi is the basic and the strongest. 3) 4 Phenomenon of origination ' means the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind (manomayâtmabhāva. see S. it is said. or from vas. J^jf.or paryutthāna-kleśa) come out. . 17-19). which agrees with Ms. See S. = kleśa. n. 2) C. The other four are 1) C. JZy ^ ī | [ >HX . 6. Ita-ba gcig-la gnas-pahi gnas-kyi sa (*ekadrstisthita-vāsabhūmi).. T. .). just as * vijñāna ' is produced from ' samskāra '. of which the exact counterpart is sāsravakarman. p. these four are ' ksanika '. 3) śīlavrata and 4) ātmavāda. 130 where the term ' vāsanā * is used for indicating ' avidyāvāsabhūmi '. C. It relates more or less to the etymology of the term vāsanā (from V r o s » to dwell. C. gzugs-kyi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . C. 67. C. 2) drsti. to perfume). instead of 5 upādānaskandhas as in the case of ordinary beings. srid-pa gsum. T. T . . zag-pa med-pahi las. 2) 'Phenomenon of cause' means the Immaculate Action (anāsravam karma)ll3) conditioned by the Dwelling-place of Ignorance [as the cause of the Body made of mind]. and from this samskāra.). I. . But it may not be the case here. 117) 118) T. v. B reading. says ' hetulaksana ' means ' avidyāvāsabhūmi-pratyayā samskārāh '. srid-pahi hdod-chags-la gnas-pahi. C. has confusion in interpreting this passage. ^ p . 1. this kîeśa is said to be that of Arhats.

123 ' daurgandhya—vāsanā. And. It corresponds to the Decrepitude and Death (jarāmarana) conditioned by the Birth (jāti) [in the Three-Worlds]. but connects drir-ba with mala. apakarsa-paryanta (lit. C. takes it probably as an attribute to anabhisamskāra. y]C \īf jM. And./yH *|^ (om. ) . r^y T-f itX _ £ . ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa. C. there is [still] the arising of the Mind-made aggregate 1191 12 T. 4) ' Phenomenon of destruction ' means Death as the inconceivable Transformation {acintyā pārināmikī cyuti) 1 2 0 ) conditioned by the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind. T. see SMS 220 a: j \ • • • EH. takes this as a n a t t r i b u t e to all t h e 4 pāramitās along w i t h atyanta. ^ U » T. About avidyā-vāsa- bhūmi being the ground of all upakleśas. POFE • • • (apakarsâparyantatvāt). C. T. rgyun-chad-pahi hchi-hpho (death as the interruption of flowing). C. The counterpart of this death in the case of ordinary beings is called C. take ' paryanta ' as ' atyanta ' and attach it to śubhapāramitā as an attribute. . & C. T h e reading anabhisamskāram is. on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance and Immaculate Action caused by the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance. TAKASAKI (sāsravakarman)119). T. seems peculiar to SMS). 127) [ 216 ] . ^ W /f^ ^|)£ pflg . a t J ' s suggestion. . 121) upakleśa. apakarsâparyantatvāt ' (7JC -fTf TjC KJ$Q instead of ' yogāt \ sūksmanimitta-prapañca. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained (10) Controlling Powers. . the Arhats. . .J^x. SMS 219 c (this term. 126) C. T . t o b e corrected into anabhisamskārām. hence they cannot attain the Supreme Purity as the end of removal 122) of all the dusts of defilements with their bad-smelling impressions123). Both T. Now. reads instead ' bag-chags . Cf. ending with the removal of • . AH TPî r>V (ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa gañ-gāhi kluñ-gi byema-las hdas-pa sñed-kyi rten-du gyur-pa). gives no translation of daurgandhya and has instead ' avidyāvāsabhūmigata-mala '. J) . dañ Idan—pahî phyir '. 124) 125) C. C. But the reading is not clear. anabhisamskāra. have not extirpated the Dwelling-place of Ignorance which is the ground of all the subsequent Defilements121). About apakarsa. mi-khyab—par yoñs—su bsgyur—pahi hchi-hpho—ba. 5{îÇ yñ?& • C. they cannot attain ultimately 1 2 6 ) the Supreme Unity which is characterized as no accumulation of Active Force 1 2 7 ) .J. 122) . . and C. upa). See above (Note VIII-113)- °) T. as an attribute to ātmapāramitā. on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance. zag-pa dan bcas-pahi las. •^Y* f j j™> g ^ | ^ ^ •zh y^U (cyuti means literally ' fall '). C. . reads as ' . ^J* $ | Jf|. . drir—bahi bag—chags. T. hdus ma-byas-pa. and because of their being accompanied with 1 2 4 ) the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view 125) .

129) C. C. [And] of mind and Death as the to the Impurity of Origi- And this passage is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture 1 3 3 ) .Pv H a • G. there are no Supreme Virtues of Purity. duhkha is mentioned (C. C. likewise. om. (om. atyanta). Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained the [10] Controlling Powers. 131) 132 ^ samkleśa (T. 3^S. unless they realize the Essence 129> of the Tathāgata as being arisen from the entire extinction of all impurities in forms of Defilements. the Dwelling-place of Ignorance is purity of Defilements [in the case of ordinary of Immaculate Action corresponds to the the 3-fold origination of the Body made Inconceivable Transformation corresponds nation1 3 2 ) . &c". for the birth of the 3-fold Body made of mind in these 3 lands 1 3 4 ) and for the origination of the immaculate actions the dwelling-place of Ignorance is the [inevitable] condition. Here. Thus. ff£* . kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa. Therefore. .The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (rnanomaya-shandha)128). being conditioned by the dwellingplace of ignorance and caused by the immaculate actions. they cannot remove Death as the Inconceivable Transformation. O Lord. C. regards it as an apposition to anāsravakarman. there are born the 3 kinds of body made of mind of the Arhats. also. T. being conditioned by [4] graspings and caused by passionate actions. Bliss i2s) f>t yid-kyi rañ-bshin-gyi phuñ-po. Sometimes. [jfcfc] J H ^ [ 217 ] ^ (the lands of the 3 vehicles). [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. in these 3 Bodies made of mind of the Arhats. karman and janman are included.. Consequently.. The performance 1 3 1 ) Impurity of Actions. ^ < ) is a general term for all the process of samsāra in which kleśa. for janman. T. And [lastly]. but C. there are produced the three spheres of existence. [Thus] O Lord. °) atyantânanyathābhāvu. 134 » tisrsu bhūmisu. \^ • . C. . Pratyekabuddhas Bodhisattvas. has instead ' dharmakāya \ 13 and See above (Note VIII-115). Actions and Originations.^f jjjg . 133 > ŚMS 220 a. gshan—du gyur—pa med—pa. to be compared with the Impeople]. T. '/l>* 2 ^ abhisarnskāra. connects atyanta to nityapāramitā. Unity. they cannot attain the ultimate Supreme Bliss as the extinction of this Spiritual Aggregate. r i * for the three). just as. it is replaced by ' vipāka ' or iskandhadhātv-āyatana \ In all cases what is meant by them is the same Phenomenal Life. they cannot attain the absolutely unchangeable 1 3 0 ) Supreme Eternity.

138) 137) ksaya. pjfl. therefore. o m . BGŚ 799 b. it is peculiar to the Buddha and shows the superiority (jffi) of the Buddha. The Supreme Unity. He is eternal because he has realized 1 3 9 ) The equality of the Phenomenal Life and Nirvana.J. as the common feature. // 38 // In short. and 2) because of the removal of false imagination concerning non-substantiality by rejecting »»> ŚMS 222 a (C. | A | * R & Jj/T . 1) through his being perfectly pure by nature. G. ātma-. AĀS 472 b. 3) & īft. The Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 136) Verily 137) . 4) } § 3 C I B (trouble by fault or death). . ( h a v i n g r e m o v e d ) . On the other hand. as the special feature [to the Buddha] 1 4 0 ) . and the Buddha got his appellation because of his attainment of this purity. J|_ âfc ] g # ] # 1g M flf)136) Cf. sāmānyalaksana & viśesalaksana. the Supreme Bliss. and 2) through his being perfectly pure by the removal of pollution. C. T . it is said1 3 5 ) : " Only the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is the Supreme Eternity. removal of pollution is not innate to living beings. Therefore. He is the highest Unity because he is quiescent.T R » r e s p e c t i v e l y . rtogs(-pa). T . on the 4 troubles (ff]£) corresponding to the respective impediments. Both of them have one passage preceding to it. [ 218 ] . 139 > prativedha. should be understood by two reasons : 1) because of the removal of false imagination of Ego by rejecting the extremity peculiar to the Heretics. as Here ' sāmānya ' means common to all living beings. treats these two verses in prose and regards them as the commentary on the quotation above mentioned. too. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is pure Because of his innate purity and removal of Impressions. o m . f § . ffj£. That is to say. namely: 1) %g| '(pśl Ifi î 2) S I SB. § 4. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity " . Having destroyed 1 3 8 ) the dualistic view of Ego and non-Ego. 140) usual. Therefore. it is the cause (|S|) for the attainment of the highest purity. by two reasons there should be known the Supreme Purity in the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. TAKASAKI and Eternity. C. Ā C. // 37 // He is blissful because the Mind-made Aggregate And its causes have been removed [completely]. T . C.

145 > ŚMS 220 a. and similarly ' duhkha ' signifies that of ordinary people. (a negative particle is required before samāropa. because [the Bodhisattvas] realize the Unstable Nirvana (apratisîhitanirvāna). ^V* $s|ç & sv* -tjA» respectively. T. cf. C f£C \ 4 • For this passage. shows this way of interpretation. 143) ^ in) anapakarsana & asamāropana. respectively. And it would never be the True Perception at all " . it is said from the highest view-point that the Phenomenal Life itself is Nirvana. this view would be a Nihilistic Perception1 4 6 ) . has hbrid-pa. the reading in C. 142) Both T. It is said as follows 1 4 5 ) : " If someone would perceive that all the Phenomenal Worlds are non-eternal. this view would be an Eternalistic Perception 147 '. Logically. seems better. om. its cause. and 2) because of the realization of all sufferings as well as the realization of extinction of the Mind-made Aggregates142). Therefore.e. C. The Supreme Bliss is to be known likewise by two reasons: 1) because of the abandonment of the origination 141) of o f all suflferings as well as the extirpation of succeeding origination Impressions. i. 1) shows an actual ' annihilation ' and 2). which means ' t o impose' and is close to samāropa (T. mtshams-sbyor-ba. BGŚ ' / | > % 3 j | *$% & 3S§ ^W ^Si > resp. O Lord. BGS 799 C nayamukha. § 4' (The Unstable Nirvana). (But the meaning is the same) Of these two columns. & C. It would never be the true perception at all. therefore. T. being indiscriminative of both [the Phenomenal Life and anusandhi. C. 2) nor does he fall into the Eternalistic Extremity through his not intensifying 1 4 4 ) the eternal Nirvana. it would be better to consider the annihilation of duhkha and that of vāsanā as ' two reasons '. 141) 146) fa 147) ucchedadrsti 148) & śāśvatadrsti. have kāya instead of skandha. there is no duhkha in the ultimate sense. In other words. to annihilate duhkha means to realize that duhkha is extinguished by nature. neglecting the non-eternal Phenomenal Life. tshul-gyi sgo. snon-pa) in its sense. though it has some confusion on the way. T. This ' vāsanā-anusandhi ' corresponds to manomayakāya of the Saints.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a the extremity peculiar to the Śrāvakas. For apakarsana. C. From the context. [ 219 3 . by this introduction to the theory 1 4 8 ) of the Absolute Essence. Hence the reading should be nirvānâsamāropana-). [And finally] by two reasons the Supreme Eternity is to be known: 1) Because he does not fall into the Nihilistic Extremity through his not diminishing143'. O Lord. If someone would perceive that the Nirvana is eternal.

Lit. and perceives the equality of both Nirvana and Phenomenal Life). aparinirvānagotra and śamaîkayānagotra. mi—gnas-pahi gnas. By means of the Intellect. in the ultimate point. Moreover. [At the same time]. 153) T. for two reasons. in whom the mind of Compassion towards living beings is lacking. he never abandons those suffering people. TAKASAK. Here. and parinirvāna is. completely. S. the explanation will be made merely about how to attain this Unstable stability 1 5 1 ) . The term pada signifies actually nirvana. 39.J. [At the same time]. in this world. i. 39 in its contents. C. m ' apratislhita—pada. owing to his Great Compassion. he is not remote from them since he never abandons them owing to his Great Compassion. for which two reasons ? Here. for the sake of others. This is the means for the acquisition of the Supreme Enlightenment of which the Unstability is the essential nature. sbyor—ba.I Nirvana] 1 4 9 ) . (One who has non-discriminative [Wisdom] distinguishes neither Phenomenal Life nor Nirvana. as do those who seek only for Quiescence (śamaikayānagotra)153). T. this apratisthitanirvāna. the foundation of the Highest Enlightenment. they are neither entirely involved among all living beings nor remote from them 1 5 0 ) . 152 ' prayoga. Bodhisattvas may be termed as ' parinirvānagotraka '.e. the Bodhisattva is not entirely involved among all living beings because he has completely rejected all tendencies of desires by means of the Transcendental Intellect. These facts seem to show that the original text was as C. being deeply intent towards the Nirvana for his own sake. om. Being opposed to either of them. C. Then. the Intellect and Great Compassion) are the root. hence. T. have no further explanation. j J t jfcfc Z l ffi A^ 'ft fy\ tfc • Of this point. he does not stay in the Phenomenal Life as the lineage of no Nirvana (aparinirvānagotra).e. hence. Thus these two qualities (i. This verse has a similarity to some extent with v. shi-ba bgrod-pa gcig-pahi rigs. 39. near and remote state. [ 220 ] . having activity 1 5 2 ) in this Phenomenal Life. indeed. 149 » ubhayathā'vikalpana. he does not abide in the Nirvana. 154) This verse seems to be a quotation even if the preceding prose commentary is genuine. puts one verse which explains this point: & T. [So it is said] 1 5 4 > : [Though] Having destroyed affection for himself By means of the Intellect. 150) āsanna-dūrl-bhāva. the following sentences along with v. the Bodhisattva has exterminated without remainder the tendency of desire. (but the verse is a quotation) and that later on that verse was replaced by the following passage along with v. but it is difficult to identify both verses. therefore. But C. It signifies śrāvakayānika & pratyekabuddhayānika.

. T. 156) samvrti (covered) and nirvrti (dis-covered) in the text. These two means of Enlightenment. in brief. as samsāra and nirvana. BGŚ 799 c-800 c (4. what is shown by the latter half of that śloka ? jf 158) there is no Essence of the Buddha. (Cf.' the Icchantikas are implied and this passage does not refer to the Icchantikas. the perfectly pure Germ 1 6 0 ) . T.The Ratnagotravibhāga The Saint. 167) Cf. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. insertion of Visarga after ni. being full of Mercy.before double consonant bearing a sibilant at the head. the Essence of the Buddha. even of those people who are fixed in the wrong way 1 6 1 ) has the two kinds 162) of foundation of its actions. <\* _/£. Here. Now. 158) sacet (BHS). The Functions of the Germ for its Purification (IV) 1 5 7 ) . pratyupasthāna. 6. There will be no aversion to Suffering. Nor will there be desire nor earnest wish. 9. it produces disgust * nihśritya. (aniyata-sattvarāśi) and BGS agree with C.e. (e. C. then there would arise neither aversion to Suffering nor desire for Nirvana. T. Ypf }^r* ifE). 159 155 > ŚMS 222 6. i. The Saint approaches neither this world nor Nirvana 1 5 6 ) . as S. T. See Note VIII-211. BGS. // 40 // So it is said 44 159) : O Lord.g. nor earnest wish for it or ptfayer for it ". 160) viśuddhigotra. since by the term ' mithyātvaniyata~ s. See S. 1. Thus standing on 1 5 5 ) both the Intellect and Mercy. nihsyanda for nisyanda). That is to say. The form nih—śri is etymologically a wrong reading for ni-śri and probably caused by actual pronunciation. C. 162) cause [ 221 ] . p. does not approach Quiescence because of his affection for the people. Nor prayer for Nirvana.) ' aniyata-' seems to be the original reading. karman). ñe-bar gnas-par byed-de (upasthita).This is an apposition to buddhadhātu. Yñ î^F I n | 2 | (viśuddhi-hetu). lei) F o r mithyātvaniyata-. // 39 // K 5. C. (T. ^ffc . Pali sace. brten—nas. mam-par dag-pahi rigs. f)b I P . with reference to the subject of ' function' which is previously maintained (in verse 35).• • ( t o to work).

term (3 amśas. and that Nirvana is blissful. C. T. ' Prayer' (pranidhi) means ' will ' (cetanā) or 4 manifestation (abhisamskāra) of the mind ' 1 6 8 . C. together with an explanation of this Cf. f l v . ' Earnest Wish ' (prârthanā) means ' searching for ' (parimārganā)167) the means to attain the intended object. The rendering from T. T . (śukladharma). desire. — The former is full of Suffering. C. The context shows its necessity. t o strive t o pro167) cure). parimārgana. ) . T . T . i t . BGS. 168) 169) cetanā cittâbhisamskāra. therefore it is the merit. /[* | 2 ^ î p § . lvi) >phe r e a d i n g should b e corrected i n t o * pāpâsamuccheddayogena samucchedayogena (ace. It exists only in case the Germ of the Buddha exists. = C. phan-yon. But T. & C. hence it is the fault. parimārganā is a unique form in B H S for Skt. jjf R ^ (mukti). C. t o T . C. Here. earnest wish and prayer for the Nirvana. has a similar sentence. * Desire ' (icchā) means 4 unco war dliness ' (asamkoca)166) for the attainment of the intended object. dkar-pohi chos. śuklâmśa. . C. hence is the fault. And does not exist with people of no Germ.J. it would exist even with 163) 164) nihśrayena. T. without causes and conditions and were not brought about through the extirpation of sinm > . tshol-ba. The perception of Phenomenal Life and Nirvana. if it were without Germ 1 7 0 ) . is as follows: tatra cchando * bhilāsah 166) T . dkar-po [hi] cha / (so J ' s fn. Thus this perception does not take place without causes or without conditions. 170) gotram antarena. P a l i sukkâmsa. o m . and it calls forth longing. i«5) This sentence is lacking in S. For prârthanā. anuśamsa. Cf. ^5t WFC f° r sukhânuśamsa. b r i g h t l o t . ' from pāpa- [ 222 ] . — this perception belongs to those people who are possessed of good virtues 1 6 9 ) and exists only in case the Germ [of the Tathāgata] exists. E3 *VPV ( kuśalamūla). de-la hdun-pa ni mñon-par hhod-paho. om. phyogs-pa (abhimukha. going ahead). hence it is the merit.. . * longing ' (chanda) means * expectation ' (abhilāsa)165>. The latter is of bliss. j g 5JC & j j | j fnj . b u t D. basing itself upon the perception that happiness is the merit 1 6 4 ) . "jj/Ç *\jf. ^ p " JJ (as S. Indeed. TAKASAKI witn Phenomenal Life basing itself upon 1 6 3 ) the perception of the fault of Suffering. Here anuśamsa stands for guna in the following verse and corresponds to dosa in case of samsāra. C. cetanā. {\j^ ^jj* ^ y / f T » b u t T . i S 3t§ fr (adhigama)). don-du gñer-ba (to provide for.). // 41 // The perception that Phenomenal Life is full of suffering. f o r t u n e .jjjg f|* ft (punya).

gañ-gi phyir. and its four items are 1) to approach the personage of high virtue. 3) |=} Spo) 1/Ç . C. ) . and C. There is. shes gsuñs—so ' (yata āha I tatah paścād . 178) Tjjg reading ' yatra hy āha / tatra paścād' is somewhat doubtful. ^<j£ JS\ =P Hfc TlE H*-i T ' ī=î (tasmād uktam Avatamsaka-gotrotpattau j tatah paścād . 3 2 : Tathāgatotpattisambhava-parivarta).•£?. skyes-bu dam-pa. 173 * ^ J . According to C.). Really. as laymen. : "•> Cf. ^ t (C. 2) to attend and accept the teaching. 179j T. according to C. adds jñāna after tathāgata. . T. which are 1) # 0 *?£ ft US ~T.). . 177) Avat S. but C. and 4) to practise according to the teaching. . 3) to contemplate the meaning of the doctrine. to avoid the bad quality already produced.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Icchantikas who are of the lineage of no Nirvana. which are. ' stands for > samavadhāna. hkhor-lo bshi (catuścakra). [ 223 ] . it is called ' JiiJ ā p fjj ' (catuskuśaladharma. The third and perhaps the most suitable one is found in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 174) of Mahāyāna. T . and 4) sublime vows and correct appreciation. another fourfold group in Tibetan under the name of ' catuhśukladharma (dkar—pohi chos bshi) ' or ' caturākaraśukla (dkar—po mam bshi) ' (they are namely: 1) dge-bahi chos ma skyes-pa bskyed-pa. 2) j g ^pp TCP |fj£. is only conventional) 176) It is however said [in the Scripture] 1 7 7 ) : " After this 1 7 8 ) the rays of the disk of the sun-like Tathāgata179> 172 > dharma is here used for yāna. 1) the reliance upon a saintly personage. 3) mi-dge-bahi chos skyes-pa spoñ-ba. 2) skyes-pa mi-ñams-pa. 3) a favourable dwelling-place. They are the 4 wheels of the great vehicle. (as O's note). but most probably for catuhśukladharma). according to O. yañ-dag-par hbyor-ba. tion of the term ' cakra '. Cf. ' anyatamadharma). 242 c. it cannot take place unless they bring about the Germ which is purified from accidental pollutions and the faith in any one of three Vehicles 1 7 2 ) through being endowed with 1 7 3 ) the 4 kinds of good actions 1 7 4 ) . to retain what is produced.. B u t a sentence closer to this q u o t a t i o n is found i n J A Ā .. . T . 2) the accumulation of virtue. T. however. chos. catuhśukla. and 4) mi-dgebahi chos ma—skyes—pa rnams mi—bskyed—pa. The latter fourfold group seems not relevant to this passage. -îjjj. ' j ^ £ | (to practise). (The saying: the Icchantikas are of no Nirvana. to produce good quality which has not been produced. to prevent the generation of bad quality which has not yet appeared). . 4) fff 7^ ^ y r&i. 616 b (in Chap. C.^»P H f e ' which includes monks as well where discussion is held around t h e existence of ' buddhagotra ' a m o n g various schools of B u d d h i s m . BGŚ (Z9 i f } 1= fflg (catur[ārya]cakra as T. 175) It ha^s an explana- T. beginning with having contact with a personage of high virtue 1 7 5 ) . BGŚ 787 c-788 c ( $ J 2^L 5}" W> H tf* #JÎE '}* =31 î f t p p W> —')» de—hi hog—tu . translation. satpurusa.

' In the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. (ifc). [ 224 ] . The meaning is that the Icchantikas remain as aparinirvānagotraka only for the certain period of time when they have hatred against the doctrine of Mahāyāna. C. Indeed. And furthermore producing the cause of future [bliss] [in them].$K. p. And also the saying : " the Icchantikas are by all means of the nature of no Perfect Nirvana " 1 8 2 ) is taught in order to remove the hatred against the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. / (T. This sentence a n d t h e following verse are missing in C. gser-gyi gzugs. T . but not forever. 186) Tjjg s o u r c e u n k n o w n . 189) suvarnabimba L i t . [The Phenomenal Life] has its end 1 8 7 ) . have the possibility 185) of being purified. 183) According to O's interpretation. they cause them to thrive with virtuous qualities 1 8 1 ) . &c. It is endowed with Eternity 1 8 8 ) .J . C. as there exists the Germ which is pure by nature. TAKASAKI fall upon the bodies of even those people who are fixed in the wrong way and make benefits for them 1 8 0 ) . See Note VIII-242. T . 13-16. see S. BGŚ 786 c: jj§ j ^ ffi£ tf* . About this beginningless nature of samsāra. T . • T . Therefore. with reference to the fact that all living beings. jiv VRÇ ER mf . ruñ-pa-ñid. tha-ma dan Idan-pa. f 4 . C. bsgribs ( = vrta). Being covered from outside By the beginningless sheath [of defilements]. & C. . 180) Ace. 188) dhruvadharma. ' t h e shape of gold '. T. 72 11. o m . to T. 18 7) avasānika. none could be of the absolutely impure nature 1 8 4 ) . Just as the gold 1 8 9 ) concealed 1 9 0 ) [in sand and dust] " . Cf. It should be noted that samsāra is not endless. this being the cause of their being Icchantikas and refers to a certain period of time 1 8 3 ) . \ y. ^j< ^H ^*'J iSfc • iZ^ 182 (śukladhamra). T. 190) paricchādita. de- dag-la phan hdogs-par hgyur shin. indeed. with no difference. 184 185) > -dharman bhavyatā. [This nature] is however invisible. the Lord has said again 1 8 6 ) : " Though being beginningless. dus-gshan-la dgoñs-nas. Being pure by nature. one phrase of ' tān upakurvanti ' should be inserted.

yoga). there is one śloka. T. The Union of the Germ with the Factors of its Purification. because of its nature of Being endowed with properties indivisible [from it] 1 9 3 ) . dhātu. There is shown the similarity of the Germ with the ocean. 194) 19sJ 191) »> Cf. « A C. khams. consequently he is endowed with abhijñā. One is the union of dhātu. consisting of prajñā and karunā. in the sense of hetu. where ' āśrayaparivrtti ' and ' nirvana' are discussed along with this subject. Here.) between jñāna and karunā. inserts ' samādhi ' (>çH. phala. jñāna and āsravaksaya. avyatireka. C. ^ ^ ^j£ |5l sattvas are ' dhātu' because of their being ' dharmadhātu-samgraha ' of dharmakāya. C. T. a sattva is called dhātu: and just because he is dhātu. Of the Buddha's Wisdom and Compassion 1 9 5 ) . [ 225 ] . That is to say. jewels and water. with its properties. It is akin to the lantern. dhātu. And this union is an unseparable accompaniment (samanvāgama. Lvirtues. being possessed of hetu of dharmakāya. Through being receptacle. i. (Kārikā 8) Being the inexhaustible storage 192) of jewels of immeasurable [The Germ of the Buddha is] like the Ocean. The other is the relation of dhātu. gnas. Cf. with reference to the meaning of 4 Union ' {yoga). // 43 // On account of three points. avinirbhāga). sambaddha.The Ratnagotravibñaga (V) YOGA 191) Now. 192 ' ākara. here in the sense of ' hetu '. See commentary. BGS 801 a (5. * j g ft S f f i . with dharmakāya. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because it consists of the sources 1 9 4 ) of the Absolute Body. the Essence of the Tathāgata has a resemblance to the great ocean in three ways. respectively. D Ś 893*: JÎD * ? | ft ft. ^pf . e. in the sense of dharmadhātu. // 42 // § 1. and through this Under this subject of 'yoga\ two kinds of ' u n i o n ' are discussed.

J . 2) ' t h e cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom'. This coherence (sambaddha)204) The practice of Bodbecause. laksana. the accompaniment 196) x. 203) >p# reads ' its nature of the highest moisture in all the world is endowed with teM^S^C ftaSffi®:. rgyu dah Idan-pa. always translates i t into * hjugs ' without prefix. and 3) the cause of the manifestation of Buddha's Great Compassion {tathāgatamahākarunāvfttihetu) 198) . C. 197> Against J ' s n o t e . hjug-pa. h a s ' dharma ' after ' mahāyāna '. the practice of faith in [the Doctrine] > of the Great Vehicle has a similarity to the ' receptacle' because. -dah Idan-pa. T . B u t . simply ' tasyām aparimeya—aksayatvāt' a n d o m . ( D ) h a s ' kāya '.®: fft-W-fflfflT. T. which are the three points ? 197) They are namely: [its being provided with] 1) the cause of purification of the Absolute Body {dharmakāyaviśuddhihetu) . ' prajñāsamādhiratnakarunāvāri—samavasarana '. /fJEJ 4~T [ 226 ] . has. Here. Here prayoga has the sense of ' presentation or manifestation ' in connection with the term laksana (laksana—prayoga. h a s ' ^ f f ' (prāpti) i n s t e a d of ' vrtti '. T . For prayoga. in this [receptacle]. the practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation. which C. (D) has ' tathāgatamahākarunā (de-bshin-gśegs-pahi thugsrje chen-po). C. About ' pravrtti '. in all the 202 world. B u t T . hdu—ba (mixing u p ) . 1) ' the cause of purification of the Absolute Body' is to be known as the practice of faith in [the Doctrine of] the Great Vehicle. there is an accumulation > of the jewel of Intellect and Meditation as well as the water of Compassion which are immeasurable and inexhaustible.e. but C. hisattva's Compassion has a similarity to ' water' same taste 2 0 3 ) . 202 ' samavasarana. 2) the cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom (buddhajñānasamudāgamahetu). 200) i ^ distinguishes t h e karunā of t h e B u d d h a from t h a t of t h e Bodhisattva b y using ' thugs—rje ' for t h e former a n d ' sñiñ-rje ' for t h e latter. Here. C. T . C. and 3) ' t h e cause of the manifestation the practice of Bodhisattva's 199 ' of Buddha's Great Compassion'. 200) Great Compassion 201 . it manifests the highest moisture with the feature of one and the i. B G S s a y s ' XtL H~^ 198> ^ equal to S. TAKASAKI similarity. Then. which is apparently one taste ' and om. 199) Against J ' s note. 41" ( = pravrtti). The practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation has a similarity to ' jewel ' because of its being indiscriminative and being endowed with inconceivable and powerful virtues. "$C P 9 ^P? ^ ffi< Wt ' dhātu-samgraha ' in the verse is h e r e explained b y this ' hetii—samanvāgama '. the subject ' Union' should be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is provided with causes [of its purification] (hetu-samanvāgama) 196) . 201) T . T .

Here. 7Î»Ç 7 0 v r (vimala-dhātu). Mvyut. C. (āsravaksayajñāna). the supernatural faculties.-a. [ 227 ] . Now. vimalâśraya is synomynous with dharmakāya. T. 211) pratyupasthāna. C. Then. and hence. etc.-a. & 5) pūrvanivāsânusmrti-j. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? In the immaculate basis 2 0 6 ) . C. dri-med. fll ^ vimalâśraya. i f s ( = Jjîîp l i s ) . 2) zag-pa zad-pahi ye-śes. T. jfcW $|§ īgtf ^ 3 (jñāna in the verse.-s. [the Essence of the Buddha is endowed with] 1) the Supernatural Faculties (abhijñā). Therefore.. 14. i f t | .-s.-a. 3) zag-pa zad-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga (samanvāgama)2 0 5 ) of these three things (the Absolute Body and others).. 206) 207) C. 13): #0 * • W 3& fe H j B t § S ffi #H M. DAŚ 893 b (v. [-dan] hbral-pa. 2) divyacaksuh -j. j^3). is here called ' Union'. respectively. they have a resemblance to a lantern. •with these three causes. -dan Idan-pa. 38§ "Çrî > f ° r respective term. 4) paracetah-paryāya-j. ye-śes. The Wisdom and Immaculateness 2 0 7 ) are inseparable from Reality. heat and colour 208 '. In C. and 3) the Extinction of Evil Influence (āsravaksaya)209). C. ' ^ b ' °f ' Hb <O » Hb /<7§ ' stands for this term and shows the meaning of ' being capable of'. ^ 5 . T. 4 Union ' is here to be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is accompanied by the results [of its purification] (phala-samanvāgama). through its similarity to a lantern in three ways on account of three points. Cf. 205 > T. Here āśraya is used for dhātu. On account of its light.-s. ñe-bar gnas-pa (originally from Pali paccatthāna). fp| i § ) . 3) divyaśrotra-j. ffl 'Û" • A^ ^ $jfl (absolutely inseparable). The Union of the Germ with the Result of Purification.-a. the 5 Supernatural faculties 210) have a resemblance to ' light of flame ' because they have a characteristic of engaging in 211) the extinction of darkness which is opposite to the know- §2- 204) T.-s. which are the three points ? Namely. " > Cf. & C. 210 > 1) rddhi-visaya-jñāna-sāksātkriyā-abhijñā. T. // 44 // The subject. the practice of faith.. dri-med-gnas. C. $j|j ^ff (vaimalya in the verse. 2) the Wisdom by which the evil influence is destroyed. for these 3 terms are respectively: 1) mñon-par śes-pa. 209) T .

21S C. DAS 893 b. jñāna. Here t h e word jñāna. reads ' ftj g ft t f ^ f 1 fL ~ J i ^ 4 S tS ' (its being the body ' aśaiksa—sāntānika. [it is] indivisible [inseparable]. are in the Immaculate Sphere. the properties of those people who have nothing further to learn 2 1 5 ) summarized in these seven. bud-śiñ).e. reads as ' tad-ubhaya-āgantukalā-aprakrtitah ' (glo-bur-pa-ñid-kyi rañbshin ma yin-pahi phyir-ro. inseparable from each other. The precious stone is also [indivisible. o m . indhana (T. it is ' stainless ' because it has destroyed the 0b» struction caused by moral Defilements. T . . the example of a lantern is to be understood in detail according to the Sūtra 2 1 8 ) . T. T. the Absolute Body. i. C. pure (viśuddha) and radiant (prabhāsvara). leaving no residue. C. spañs-pa. Cf. ' \~ -=2f a p ? j ^ ' {samânvāgama ?). C. which a p p e a r s i n t h e case of dharmakāya (avinirmuktajñānaguna). the Wisdom destroying the Evil Influence and the Destruction [of Evil Influence]216). in brief. om. Here. c o u n t s 6 anāsravajñānas a n d prahāna s e p a r a t e l y . they are not the innate character). O Śāriputra. lAiiASAKI ledge which perceives an object 2 1 2 ) . h a s a peculiar t r a n s l a t i o n . And with reference to this subject of 4 Union '. not different [from each other] and coherent with 2 1 7 ) the Absolute. The Extinction of Evil Influence as the [result of] the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis has resemblance to ' colour ' because of its characteristic of being perfectly stainless (vimala).j. heat and colour. C. It is 4 radiant ' [by nature] because these two [Obstructions] are merely of an occasional nature 2 1 4 ) . '.. In the same way. 313) 212) of innate purity. being āgantukatā. T. taught by the arthânubhava. don ñams-su myoñ-ba. " O Śāriputra. colour and shape. -JJ^ îrfi -£f . 214) T. inseparable]. just as a lantern is of indivisible nature and its qualities are inseparable from i t 2 l 9 ) . [ 228 ] . pjfl. 218) A A N 467 a. Thus. from its light. from light. . 216) prahāna. 'J£f| TE*I • I t s t a n d s for āśrayaksaya. 5a£ / f ] ^ p . This point is here called 4 Union '. C. C. mi—slob~pahi rgyud. T . I n s t e a d of ' sapta '. 219) avinirmukta-guna. om. 217) j r o r samanvāgama. is o m i t t e d . t h e whole p a r a g r a p h after ' esa ca yogârtham. which q u o t e t h e same passage. That is to say. these two are occasional defilements). The Wisdom by which the Evil Influence is destroyed is similar to * heat' because of its characteristic of engaging in consuming the fuel 213) of the Active force and Defilements. It is ' pure ' because it has destroyed the Obstruction on account of knowable things. C. the 5 Supernatural Faculties. a d d s anāsrava before abhijñā. taking prakrti as cittaprakrti.

as locative. 226) T. Wisdom (i. The Ordinary People. ' n ) » T. 2 2 3 ) And being of the perfectly 224) right conception. sgo-la gdams-pa. Consequently. BGŚ 805 c f. JfjjJ. for the Bodhisattvas that the Essence of the Tathāgata 226) has the general charac220 > 221) different 222 * 223) Cf. drstasatya = tattvadarśin (C.The Ratnagotravibhāga Tathāgata is of indivisible nature. T. jinagarbha = tathāgatagarbha. it has been taught. and the Buddhas. The Buddhas are apart from the dualistic view. Enlightenment). from the Properties of the Tathāgata which are far beyond the sand of the Gañgā in number ". 224) 225) mukhâvadāna.. ^ reads as ' tathatā-vyatirekatah ' and inserts vrtti (manifests the tathatā in way). C. C. — They are indivisible from Reality 221) . bden-pa mthon-ba. in the sense ' with reference to tathāgatadhātu (^jj ^N i S V r T/« '. That is to say. [ (3 ] f£C | J (in the sense of dharmamukhâvadāna). Being opposite to them. (6. in the Prajñāpāramitā. etc. b u t regards dhātu as dharmadhātu slight difference in t h e meaning. it shows a [ 229 ] . but C. [indivisible. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. ^ Ç yathāvat = samyak. inseparable]. — Thus it is taught by the perceivers of the Reality. of the qualities inseparable from.e. the Saints. also as loca- tive. // 46 // In connection with the introductory teaching 2 2 5 ) of the Non-discriminative Wisdom. (VI) VRTTI 220) Now. vrtti). as usual. [the Saints are] the perceivers of the truth. the Matrix of the Buddha 222) exists among [all] living beings. // 45 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Ordinary People are of erroneous conception. Therefore. (Kārikā 10) i manifestation' (vrtti).

8 (Taisho. C. drsli. they are ' of the erroneous conception ' (viparyasta). . citta. and 3) citta-v. . means ' tatparikalpite chandah. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation '. [And lastly]. it should be known in brief. T. being opposite to them.e. ^ . the perfect purity. Here. 227) [ 230 ] . 232 > Cf. of the Ordinary People who do not perceive the Truth. Yogācārabhūmiśāstra vol. ' of the perfectly right conception and of no dualistic view ' is because the Perfectly Enlightened Ones have dispelled the Obstructions of moral defilement and of knowable things along with their Impressions. [first of all]. here samyag-aviparyasta. Cf. has the same translation as in the case of vrtti. 2) drsti-v. On the basis of this general characteristic. T. and 4 of the perfectly right conception 230) and of no dualistic view '. 'Of the right conception ' is because the Saints. ' of the right conception ' (aviparyasta). other four subjects should be understood through the detailed explanation [on each subject]. there is one śloka. Ita-ba. T. Here. ' of the erroneous conception' is because Ordinary People have delusion on account of their conception. BGS 806 a. In other words. ī£5 . the Suchness227) of all the elements. i. 229) C. And perfectly pure — these are said of tathatā. with reference to the subject. 314 6): 1) samjñāviparyasta means ' anitye vastuni nitya-parikalpa-pravrttih. respectively. sems. (VII) AVASTHÂPRABHEDA 232) Hereafter. C. In this translation. 230) G. have destroyed the delusion. ' different states (avasthāprabheda) ' among these three kinds of people. means ' abhilasitakleśasya kriyā '.J . there are threefold different manifestations (pravrtti)228) of three kinds of people:. AĀS 469 c. ' I J * . T. I repeated the word tathatā twice in order to make the meaning clear. & C. [partly] pure and [partly] impure. 231) samjñā. XXX. adds dharmakāya after tathāgata. TAKASAKI teristic of being Reality. respectively. p. (Kārikā 10) Impure. om. Also cf. C. mind and perception 2315 . of the Saints who perceive the Truth and of the Tathāgata 2 2 9 ) who has attained the ultimate purity. hdu-śes. BGŚ 806 a. 228) _ Vrtti. abhilāsah.

respectively. 239) 2 37 ) C. ^ $$.. Is. As for the six padârthas. as forming sub-divisions of the sixth category. khams. namely. the Tathāgata. III. ' own nature '. 241) aparyanta. j^K f E • Here sattvadhātu stands for prthagjana. 240) A A N 467 b. For dhātu. This very Essence of the Buddha is here to be known as being taught through the teaching of 3 different names in accordance with its 3 states. in accordance with its 3 states. C. ' cause' [of purification]. being carried by the stream of 2 3 p o r ārya in the previous Kārikā. 1) in the ' impure ' (aśuddha) state [the Essence of the Buddha is named) ' the Ordinary Beings ' (sattvadhātu)239).The Ratnagotravibhāga The Ordinary beings. 236) nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu. ' function ' [towards purification]. // 48 // Any teaching referring to the immaculate Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 6 ) . ? £ ft f § • anāsravadhātu. Cf. C. Here it is specified that ārya is par excellence 3) the Bodhisattvas.. bye-ba mthah-yas-pas (gtums-pa). the Bodhisattvas 2 3 3 ) . (koti is regarded as a unit of number). " O Śāriputra. respectively 234) . koti (-gūdha). Ife * # # gl ft ft fit * P 235 » For dhātu. the Bodhisattva. C. f£C 1 J (mukhesu = dvārena). T. // 47 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 5 ) . 2) in the ' [partly] pure and [partly] impure' (aśuddhasuddha) state. and 'manifestation' 2 3 8 '. That is to say. when it is covered with the limitless 2 4 1 ) sheath of defilements. 'union' [with the cause and result]. taught by the Lord in detail through various divisions of Scripture 2 3 7 ) is hitherto briefly summarized by six subjects. 238 ' It shows us that the 6 subjects mentioned above are the fundamental categories by which any kind of teaching can be summarized. and 3) in the ' perfectly pure ' (suviśuddha). A Ā S 469 c. Designated by 3 different names. And the Tathāgata. C. V £ |£E.'tM & ft§ H • • • [0T IK][ 231 ] . ' result ' [of purification]. [hitherto briefly explained] By these six subjects. this Absolute Body. vrtti See note VIII-8. ^jfī *]§. see Appendix. whereas the remaining four subjects are peculiar to the tathāgatadhātu. beginning with ' own nature '. It has been said by the Lord2 4 0 ) . T.

having rejected all stains of subsequent defilements. is called 4 the [ordinary] living beings '. having been perfectly released from all the sheaths of defilements. . pūrvakotir na prajñāyata iti II {Prasannapadā.J. . (an'-amata-agga. Here I suppose that the term anamatagga had originally the sense ' pūrvā kotir na prajñāyate '. and. thog-ma dañ tha-ma med-pa (of neither bottom nor top. XXXV. translation shows this sense. 144. doing the practice towards Enlightenment by means of the 10 243) 244) Supreme Virtues as including and representing all of the 84 245) thousands groups of Doctrines . ' upāya '. a prefix of intensitive sense). P. 243) ' pranidhi\ ' bala\ and 'jñāna' are counted under this. gñis-su med—pahi skyes—buhi mthu. SN II. without beginning nor end). As an epithet to samsāra. (viz. jātijarāmaranasamsāra iti j avidyā—nivaranānām . TAKASAKI the Phenomenal Life and moving to and fro between death and birth in the course of the beginningless 2 4 2 ) Phenomenal Life. which seems to mean ' whose beginning is unknown '. pūrvā prajñāyate kotir nety vāca mahāmunih j samsāro'navarâgro hi nâsyâdir nâpi paścimam j / (MK XI. We have a good example in Candrakīrti's Prasannapadā. 178. Poussin. p. 193: III. T. T. C. T. etc.The number of group is usually counted as 84 thousand. -JftÇ iSr 'flf (there is nobody superior to him). vol. 245 » dharmaskandha. 1) uktam hi Bhagavatā j Anavarâgro hi. 218) (Cf. Besides the 6 pāramitās taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. bhiksavo. C. O Śāriputra. T. this term was interpreted in two ways. fj\ H&. having surpassed all the Sufferings. . 3s*Ç 5 o ^N (°f beginningless time). blta-bar bya-ba. it is called 'the Bodhisattva'. sattvānām . this very Absolute Body. . on'— anu. 247) 24S ālokanîya. It is used in nearly the same sense as dharmaparyāya or dharmapitaka. samsaratām . perfectly pure. has retained the original sense of this term. 244) daśapāramitāh. Bap at.). a new interpretation of ' nadir nâpi paścimam ' was added to its meaning. O Sāriputra. C. manly strength 2 4 8 ) among all 2121 anavarâgra. antargata. . V Î S b . 151. *j]q£. * advitīyam paurusam sthāma. By Sanskrit^ zation. C. Furthermore. ascending to the stage to be looked upon 2 4 7 ) by all living beings. ^ j ^ fft ^ VÎ. however. 234-5). p. r e p r e s e n t e d b y or s u m m a r i z e d i n [ t h e 10 p ā r a m i t ā s ] . ^ £ P ^ (= ffi H e . anamata was changed into anavara (reason unknown) and regarded as the compound of ' an-avara-agra '. ip*. l i t . has attained the unexcelled. it has become pure. when. it has its origin in Pali anamatagga. ABORI. C. [ 232 ] . when it has become averse to the Suffering in the stream of Phenomenal Life and become free from all the objects of desire. On the contrary. chos-kyi phuñ-po. . T. C. 246 > paramaviśuddhadharmatā. V. This same Absolute Body. Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. In Sanskrit sources. but from the literal meaning of its Sanskritized form ' anavarâgra '. abiding in the Absolute Essence which is the highest point of purity 2 4 6 ) .

JEJ |_E TRÇ ^ 3 " LJ* (prakrti—vaimolya—citta). Space pervades everywhere. just as space penetrates all the receptacles regardless of material. nisthā. The immaculate nature of the mind 2 5 1 ) . [ 233 ] . Therefore. it is all-per249) 260) 254) anāvarana-dharma. JHQ . yon-tan. the Perfectly Enlightened One " . C. guna. silver or gold. s. § ft î H ^ p 'l>. see next (IX) Avikāra. C. 2B1) dbyiñs. viz. there is one śloka. BHS Die. of the Saints and of the Buddhas has a common feature in these three states. 252) dosa. 264) C. as in the Kārikā.T h e R a cn a g o t r a v i b h ā g a knowable spheres. (VIII) SARVATRAGA 2 0 5) The Essence of the Tathāgata is ' all-pervading (sarvatraga) ' in these three states. sems-kyi "u)j P-Ip. BGŚ 806 b (8. T. Of these three. gñes-pa. v. T. gzugs-. C. f*^ . C. whether clay. pijfl: Cf. T. which is of no obstruction 249 ' and of no hindrance. C. middle. mthar-thug. nisthā is replaced by ' gunaviśuddhinisthā ' in the commentary. virtuous or the ultimate point of pure virtue. T. then it is called the Tathāgata. T. 253) rūpagata ( = rūpa). sarvatraga). irrespective of their being defective. (Kārikā 11) Just as being of indiscriminative nature. respectively. Just as space occupies all the visible forms 2 5 3 ) . Similarly all-pervading is the Essence.. the Arhat. T. // 50 // That which is the indiscriminative Innate Mind (cittaprakrti) of the ordinary people. // 49 // What is shown by this Śloka ? It pervades with common feature The defective. rañ-bshin dri-med T. Either inferior. With reference to this meaning. £j} jî@ . AÂS 469 c-470 a. and has attained the Controlling Power on all separate elements. or superior. ^ | 5 J ^ . the virtuous and the ultimate 2 5 2 ) . sgrib-pa med-pahi chos-can. cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu.

of no difference and is present always 2 5 5 ) . respective255) prāptā sarvakālam. however. is. 259) pindârtha. BGS 806 c (9. which is quoted in BGŚ (806 b) with a heading ' ]£\\ vRv _Ll YI\ nixi ī=l ' ( a s n a s been said in the Anuttarâśrayasūtra). P)fy B/£ . With reference to this subject. the summarized meaning 2 5 9 ) of these ślokas is to be known by the following verse: Being possessed of faults by occasion. For this reason. It is. it treats ' avikāritva ' from 6 points. Furthermore it adds the 9 illustrations on kleśa there. endowed with virtues by nature. ' ' "tj/J ftf ^ .. and bhañga. J f f^ | § .We cannot. there are 14 ślokas. C. the [ordinary] living beings and the Absolute Body are not different from each other. pūrva-paryanta. 256 > AAN 467 b. equal. rçç. A quite equivalent passage is found in AÂS (469 c). sthiti. 258) samkleśa-vyavadāna. immediately after the explanation of different states: " Therefore. Avikāra) Under this subject. [Prior to the explanation of these ślokas]. connecting nirviśistā with this phrase. Therefore it is of unchangeable character In the beginning as well as afterwards 2 6 0 ) . find out any similar verse in the present texts of the Sandhinirmocana. bsdus—has-pahi don. jāti.J. and different merely by letters " . being all-pervading in these three states. For dharmatā. and the Absolute Body is nothing but the living beings. all-embracing. The living beings are nothing but the Absolute Body. [ 234 ] . C. T. samkleśa-vyavadāna. C. the Essence of the Tathāgata. unchangeable (avikāra) either by Impurity or through puiification 258) . moreover. T. has ' dus tham—cad—du khyad—par med—par gyur—pa '. TAKASAKI vading. viz. These two are non-dual by meaning. BGŚ ^ g . // 51 // In the impure state as well as in the pure and impure state. 260 > The same vexse appears in BGŚ 806 c: ^ ||| ^ {|| ffi ^f § ft f^ Ā£ #H J 5 ^fe SP IB J § 3S£ 18 JH ffl • It is regarded in BGŚ as a verse from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra ( ^ n 1 ^ @ ^ ® ^ ? ^ ^ t S l S P Î f f i S f l l W). (IX) AVIKĀRA 257) Now. which are shown by the [first] 12 ślokas and by the [next] one śloka. it has been said in the same scripture 2 5 6 ) . 25 7) Cf. C. however.^ ^ . pravrtti. ^fc fjf (impurity and purity). 0 Śāriputra.

pp. what is said in 12 ślokas ? (Kārikās 12-23) Just as space. 49. being the subject noun for ' ayam '. 261 // 52 // ' dharma —•. there seems to be no problem. who.e. inseparable from Wisdom 2 6 2 ) . inconceivable and far greater in number than the sands of Gangā. (So C. See Note 1—23. Similarly. [On the contrary]. like space.guna. This is a special adjective to buddhadharma or -guna. A similar case is found in v. 3 & 39) and its first use is probably in SMS (see quotations from SMS in S. This is an abbreviated form of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' which occurred in a quotation from AAN (S. j t #P tt . abiding everywhere among living beings 2 6 5 ) . Presented in Honour of Prof. shown by the 14th śloka. i. 55 & 76). denoting the same subject of cittapraknivaimalyadhātu (C. bodhi. XIII. adj. the same as sattvadhātu- 264) [ 235 ] . Studies in Indology and Buddhology. also ' y)p j f £ ' ) . ' -M^ /JJu ' (unreleased) does not exactly convey its meaning. 32 in the Bhagavadgltā. bral mi—śes or C. It should be ' ye—śes dan ma bral—ba '. translates ayam into ' j^p '(££ '. 263 262) > For dhātu. but T. reads the second line as ' sarvasattvesv avasthitas tatha'yam ndpalipyate / Here ' sattva' seems to be used in a collective sense. Kyoto. (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State First of all. it is 4 essentially ' endowed with the Buddha's virtues 261> which are indivisible [from the Absolute Body]. This [Essence265*] remains unpolluted [by defilements]. in the perfectly pure state. 52 = Bhagavadgltā XIII 32. where enam is also used independently. V. Yamaguchi. However. 90—91). as far as the independent use of ' ayam ' is concerned.). & C. with reference to the subject of ' unchangeability ' [of the Essence of the Tathāgata] in the Impure State. 54. Cannot be polluted because of its subtle nature. since this verse is in a series of Kārikās and ayam denotes ' cittaprakrtivaimalyadhātu ' in v. suggested the reading ' sattvas ' instead of sattve. T. is of absolutely unchangeable character throughout different states 2 6 4 ) . [the Essence of the Tathāgata] is possessed of faults caused by fundamental and subsequent defilements ' by occasion '. being all-pervading. 1955. B) is raised by Prof. buddhadhātu). treats this passage in verse.The Ratnagotravibhāga ly. pp. {A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. V. C. Therefore. indicating the identification of this verse with v. seem to support the reading in loc. T. showing inseparability of guna from buddhajñāna. pp. S. 265) A doubt about the reading ' sattve ' in the text (for satvo in Ms. C. amuktajñu (BHS. Therefore it is explained that the Essence of the Tathāgata 2 6 3 ) . Gokhale.

Vpf ÎT [ 236 ] . ^Ei * resp.. no support In any [of the worldly] phenomena. T. // 54 // The earth is supported by water. and air by space. all the Phenomenal world is indicated. It seems to indicate cittaprakrti (see v. And the Active Force and Defilements exist always On the basis of the Irrational Thought 2 7 3 ) . Likewise the fires of death. phuñ-po [dañ] kham [dañ] dbaû [-po] ( = skye-mched). // 57 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life 266) asamskrta-dhātu.# £n H ft A ^ $3 M Â S in Jb 9 272) skandha-dhātv-indriya — skandhâyatanadhâtavah (vv. . rga-ba. By these. Grammatically the form should be ' pradahanti ' instead of ' pradahati*.l2):in— 268) 269) S70) -eJffrH dagdha-pūrva. jarā: T. prakrti. l j > . // 56 // The Irrational Thought is founded In the [innate] mind which is pure2 7 4 ) . nor in water. Space has. y Q . ^ 274) # S 'fft. lE S 'I"S. 8 3 a (v. The sense-organs appear and disappear 2 6 7 ) . T. C. // 55 // Similarly all the component elements [of Phenomenal Life] 272) Have their foundation in the Active Force and Defilements. no support Neither in air.^ IE iâî cittaviśuddhi — cittaprakrti. ayoniśomanasikāra. hdus ma-byas dbyiñs. nor in the earth. ( = anāsravadhātu). vyādhi. jfj^f . however. By the fire [at the end of the world]. TAKASAKI Just as the worlds have everywhere Their origination and destruction in space.DAŚ893«(v. •»)Cf. Similarly. however. T. 57). 61). The innate mind has. na-ba. C. mrtyu. Water by air. // 53 // Just as space has never been burnt 2 6 8 ) . tshul-bshin ma-yin yid[-la] byed[-pa]: C. cittasya prakni. PH . C. 58. hchi-ba.^ f H ( 1 ^ .^ A ) . of illness and decrepitude 2 6 9 ) Cannot consume 2 7 0 ) this [Essence of the Buddha] 271». ii). on the basis of the Innate Essence 2 6 6 ) .J. 273) ayonimanaskāra = ayoniśomanaskāra. ^ C.

(-TrT H& Al^ Negative interpretation of T. ālīna (ā lī) (c. has no transformation at all. *£? fjH iVfff But C. j ^ | . however. and for vivarta ( = vividham vartate). Which are of accident and produced by wrong conception 2 8 1 ) . Originated from the water-like Active Force and Defilements. Nor even stability [between two points]. T. These are two of 276) 277 278> C. ace). yañ-dag min rtogs. 3 (vikalpa = ayoniśomanasikāra). The Innate Mind is like space. devolution and evolution). Being of no root and of no support 2 7 5 ) . tshogs-pa. the impurity 2 8 0 ) by stains of desires. This word reminds us of ālayavijñāna. . hchags-pa. By the Irrational Action of mind. // 62 // The innate nature of the mind is brilliant And. T. C. // 58 // The Irrational Thought is known As having resemblance to air. And the Active Force and Defilements of living beings Are known as akin to water. vivartasthāyin (tī£)> samvarta (JiPI). Just as [the world repeats its] evolution and devolution 2 7 8 ) . C. has ' de-bshin ' (ladvat). as S. like space. ' ayoniśo manasah krtih = ayoniścmanasikāra. 281) [ 237 ] . // 60 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life. The 4 are namely: vivarta (/PC). // 59 // Abiding in 2 7 6 ) the Innate Mind. See S. C. ^ 0 'Û* • 280 ' T. four periods within one Kalpa. gnas.. M L ^ 5) Jv\ • It stands for ayoniśomanasikāra. Being of no cause or condition. T. a circle of world process. C. Or complex [of producing factors] 2 7 9 ) . // 61 // The Innate Mind is like space. There occurs the irrational action of mind 2 7 7 ) . It bears. empty). with respect to pollution by āgantukakleśa seems to be the usual way in Tibetan tradition. It has neither origination nor destruction. See Note VIII-305. T. and samvartasthāyin (£??. JJX. hjig-pa. The Active Force and Defilements are produced. For samvarta. . T. // 63 // 275 > For ' tad '. fl\ . shows negative sense: ' ñon—moñs mi-hgyur '. 279) sāmagrî. tat-samvarta-vivartavat (lit.The Ratnagotravibhāga Are known as akin to the earth. abhūtakalpa. 12. 1. p. T. etc. Show their appearance and disappearance [repeatedly].

a group of fires of death. ' Y$~^ >i9fy ' is p r o b a b l y a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . of illness and old age Cannot consume [this Innate Mind]. rāśi. & T. 64 as a quotation is not reasonable. T. Bñ'^'AQ 'S&fâ. C. accumulation). tshogs. 286 287) 288) 289 skandha. regards the first sentence in the commentary as the explanation of the first verse. But this origination 286) of t h e world never causes the evolution of t h e Innate Mind which has 287) a resemblance to space. From the context in the following commentary. hjig-par byed-pa. 284) 285 abhinivartayati. C. > vivarta = abhinirvarta. jEfc ( = nirodha).( | j | ft S . in its turn. // 64 // The origination of t h e world classified into [5] elementary groups.J. both S. F o r ' vivarto na bhavati '. And. /5Î\ îpj|j} . In the same way. C. T . C. 285) based upon wind-circle of Irrational Thought. f S 7fc). T. the term ayoniśomanasikāra is required by the prose commentary and also there might be terms such as loka or skandhāyatanadhātavah in verses. ( = samcaya. and the next sentence as that of the next two. C. astamgama. as J suggested. Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind. sñiñ-po. J's further suggestion of v. ^\* ^ p sY* j r H . T. 64. run as follows: 283 282 i)*īESt8S ttitfiCtii*. seems. TAKASAKI § 1. however. C. 288) of illness and decrepitude arises in order to destroy the world classified into five elementary groups. since this text puts always a certain number of commentary verses after original Kārikā or Kārikās. which is. C. And even the growing fires of death. By this analogy of space. 18 component elements or 12 bases of cognition which is founded on t h e accumulation of air-like Irrational Thought and water-like Active Force and Defilements 2 8 9 ) . Two verses in C. seem to have a lacuna of two verses here. how is the unchangeable character of the 282) Essence of the Tathāgata in the impure state explained ? I t is said 283) as follows : The accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements 284) Cannot produce this space-like [Innate Mind]. has other two verses before v. ) vāta—mandala. But even by this ari> For dhātu. [ 238 ] > C. #fl ^R ft • ' C. [18] component elements or [12] bases of cognition is conditioned by the accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements. rluñ-gi dkyir-hkhor. inserts ' ft ' (samskāra) after karma. om. to have failed to catch the contrast between vivarta and samvarta by treating ayoniśomanasikāra and kleśakarma as something of destructive force.— fe C.

of the fires of death. water or air. T. 292) Against C. chos snañ-bahi sgo. Water is supported by air. translation is better. snod-kyi hjig-rten. ' anupacaya' (for anapacaya. immovable. the Innate Essence of the Tathāis. ft ^ ^ $ R (usually. 298) T h e reading ' ball yo ' i n t h e t e x t should b e corrected into ' ballyo ' (comparative degree). O Honourable Men. Ihag-mthoñ. 299) anupacayo '•napacayo. attribution. though all the Impurity a nnot be destroyed. Defilements are of weak power but the 296) correct intuition is powerful. j R ) . C. It is also firm. mun-pa JSSL 3 C . C. [ 239 ] . and hence dharmâlokamukha means dharmamukha as C. C. ' prakrti ' here stands for cittaprakrti. ^C M ~X J ^ ^ 293) 294) IK # K ffi PPI M. T. f Defilements. • . in its turn. T . in the impure state. o m . «) vipaśyanā. it should be known that the Innate Mind Thus. neither originated nor dest293) 294) 290) 291) bhājanaloka. 643 b-c). the Pure 295) [Mind] is the light. *^ prakrti. 297 ' mūlaviśuddhā prakrtih. rañ—bshin—gyis rnam—par dag—pa ni rsta-baho. But space. A^* fjpt. p. f2^ I J» ' dharmâloka' would mean ' dharma as āloka '. it is explait a ned as being absolutely of unchangeable character. dharmâlokamukha. T. earth. has no foundation. / / P 1 p (neither composing nor scattering himself). C. Therefore. translated. of Active Force and Birth show their appearance and dis290) ppearance like the material world . among these four gross elements. this great earth has its foundation in water. 5»8î H S ( — mārsa. this quotation is from the Gaganagañjā-pariprcchā as O found. space is more powerful 298 ' than any of the other three elements. Cf. 297) but the Innate Mind is of a pure root . jj$j ~f" ( ^ ^ "J"). ^jjj |U" | 0 j (opp. vol.The Ratnagotravibhāga :na. drañ-sroñ-chen. 8 (Taisho. But. ( = prakrtiviśuddham mūlam).. neither increasing nor diminishing 299 '. but the Innate Mind is indiscriminative. C. In contrast with ' āloka'. like space. Defilements are merely accidental. om. ^ j | § § ? Ñ. Jit jftj 28 ft. Defilements are the darkness . 124 c). Thus. of no origination and destruction. T. to sattvaloka). kavi (probably chavi is t h e b e t t e r reading). XIII. hgrib-pa med-pa). = maharsi C. Defilements are of wrong discrimination. mrsa?). C. T . and ' chavi' here seems to mean 'coloured' or 'dark-coloured' ( = krsnacchavi or black-cloud?). T. T. XIII. etc. ^ & ^ $ 1 PO J § A (Taisho. C. from mūla ' to ' parikalpāh kleśāh '. And this example of space which refers to the introduction to the light 291) of doctrine on the Innate Purity [of the mind] is to be understood in 292) detail according to the Scripture : " O Honourable Men. and air is founded on space. For example. ( = tamas).

The Mahāvibhāsāśāstra of Sarvāstivādin. has simply de-la (tatra). (Most probably for arranging the style of the Chinese sentence). p.q£ } U* seem to be two ways of interpretation with respect to ' pollution '. from the context and C. 204 a). text has no vocative case (mārsāh). all these phenomena. * anavasihita. But. adds anitya and nitya after vikāra and avikāra. M ft JS'l tñ # . T. namely whether or not cittaprakrti can be polluted.g. XXVIII. mi—gnas—pa. but space is by no means changeable 3 0 3 ) . C. rañ-gi hañ-gis. It is clear that T. H Z3C pîflî) attributed to Nāgārjuna. the Active 300) 301 302 svarasa-yogena. . in the Mahāprajñāpâramitāśāstra (yK. like the Vibhajyavādin. C.J. But it seems that not all the Buddhist schools accepted it. yun riñ-du mi-gnas-pa. has the opinion of viśuddhi cittaprakrti. p. it is said: the Mind is radiant by nature. 5. 697 b). shifts*. nature). and the style looks as the commentator's own explanation. it is continued as follows 306) : "Now. After this passage. T. [but it]is polluted by the occasional defilements 3 0 5 ) " . p. This sermon has its origin in Pali canon (e. 140 b). * #1 'l> tt M W. or 12 bases of cognition have their support in the Active Force and Defilements. [On the contrary]. where this theory is attributed to the Vātsīputrīya. JJJÇ f3£ *|§]§? pfc ( = abhūtadharmā ?). unstable 301) and of no long duration3 0 2 \ It will be perceived that these three gross elements are changeable. > acirasthāyin. ^IJ Jj\) ^\* pE • C. its feature is impure) (Taisho. The Active Force and Defilements are founded on the Irrational Thought and the latter has its support in the Innate Pure Mind. respectively. the Irrational Thought. ^S^SJHISBfSfe (Taisho. who did not accept this cittaprakrti theory. T. 1-2). om. Ñ. flttt'fr+ewîP. C. 3os) ip# «na klisyate ' (ñon ma moñs-paho). the quotation seems still to be continuing. the Skt. SP>. **£*#»!rest. which mentions * mārsāh ' or ' kulaputrā' between sentences. C. 306 The reading ' tatra paścād ' is somewhat doubtful. TAKASAKI royed and is stable with its own essence 3 0 0 ) . Q f£^ . (rasa = dharmatā. 304 ' Hereafter. See also ^ ^ ] }$J W % j i g Wft{Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra ?) (Taisho. XVIIX. AN I. interpretation has no foundation in the sūtras as far as its literal sense is concerned. S there o [ 240 ] . 18 component elements. (Someone. IV. T. " In a similar manner 3 0 4 ) . the whole. They say that the mind is pure by nature. XXV. being polluted by accidental defilements. saying: y/X. but. but we have an example of the same interpretation as T. Therefore. mentions it as an opinion of the Vibhajya3fl3) vādin (#• g\\ m. these three gross elements [other than space] are possessed of origination and destruction. 9-10. saying:!! . all the component elements [of the Phenomenal Life classified into] 5 elementary groups.

the Irrational Thought is like air. 310) [ 241 ] . So. as well as T . AAS 496 b. We have not. the fire at the end of the world. C. but at the same time] they are founded on a pure [essence] which is. t o Ms. 3*Et nL> ( c a l a m i t y ) . . [because they are of unreal nature. the Active Force and Defilements are like water and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are akin to earth. of no root " . T . T . Therefore. T . Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind. When these causes and conditions lose their complexity 307) they are immediately extinguished. have a resemblance to air and water. and [lastly] all of the Component Elements of Phenomenal Life. 309) vibhava. it has no complex [of cause and condition] and hence there is neither origination nor destruction of it. rtsa- ba yoñs-su chad-pa. C. B . on this point it is said as follows: The three fires. ' vipāka' a n d ' upasarga '. jflZ. [dañ] bral. T h r e e aspects of ' vikāra ' i n t h e P h e n o m e n a l W o r l d a r e n a m e d here ' hetu '. We have already explained that in the impure state the Innate Mind has a resemblance to space on account of its i unchangeable ' (avikāra) characteristic. being founded on the Innate Mind. being produced from the former two. tcçk. it is said:—. C. all phenomena are completely devoid of any root 3 0 8 ) and based upon an unreal and unstable foundation. and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are originated by the complex of their causes and conditions. ^ 78v T P C • ' T ^ • T h e whole saying is as follows: sarvadharmā mālaparicchinnā asāramūlā apratisthānamūlāh śuddhamûlā amūlamūlā iti Cf. in its turn. mgohi nad. the Innate Mind is like space. on account of their characteristic of ' cause' (hetu). 307 308) ) visāmagrî (losing complexity). have a resemblance to the earth on account of their characteristic o f fruit ' (vipāka). C.The Ratnagotravibhāga Force and Defilements. § 2. discussed the similarity of the fires of death. upasarga. the Innate Mind is of no cause nor condition. illness and decrepitude to 309) the gross element of fire as being the cause of the annihilation of Life 3l0) and on account of their characteristic of being ' infection ' . On the contrary. • mūlaparicchinna (which is t o b e inserted ace. T. / ^ Q ( a n analogical t r a n s l a t i o n ) . however. hjig-pa. ) . Here. a n d all of these stand for the counterpart of ' avikāritva ' of cittaprakrti or tathāgatadhātu. the Irrational Thought and the Active Force and Defilements. respectively. Consequently.

something is dead. vyāhāra (speech) and vyavahāra (behaviour). om.yv] (fire made by human being). respectively. . V. it is said [in the : " 0 Lord. never decays. C. This vyavahāra is also used as a synonym of ' samvrti' in connection with ' satya \ C. such sayings are merely a worldly usage means. 312) 313) 311) vicitra-kāranânubhavana. p. prādurbhāva. have ' duhkha '. 'punishment'. 235. Cf. PTS Die. T. tha-mal-ba. I I .J. // 65 // These are to be known respectively as the analogy For three fires. p. 38 'kāranā' 1. P. f t • 318) [ 242 ] . W. lokavyavahāra. Bapat. ABORI. being delivered from Pali kārana. in the sense to make punishment. which is picked up from Daśakumālacarita). this phrase and regards the other two as part of a verse. C. C. 'kārana'. T. & C. 317) 318) i this means the destruction of sense organs. [. has a sense of 'torture' or 'torment'. and is often used along with kr. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is never born. has two senses. BHS Die. ^ | . hgags-pa (— nirodha). sdug-bsñal sna-tshogs myoñ-bar byed-pa. 0 316) . O Lord. However. [$£] I t | $ [ R f 8 ] . Something is born 0 Lord. Scripture] 315) With reference to this point. XXXV. The saying something is dead'. 315) Ś M Ś 222 6. Prof. repetition of life in samsāra. and mixing both. (M. C. to destruction ments 3l3) 312) [Which are the three reasons ? the 6 [internal] bases of They are cognition 314 namely]: 1) because [death] leads . ' to feel pain as a result of experiencing torment. of sickness and old age. gives the meaning * pain '. T. hjig-rten-gyi tha-sñad. 2) [illness] makes sufferings of various kinds of tor'. 317) 316) 314 uparodha. TAKASAK1 The fire of hell and the ordinary 311 ' fire. the Essence of the Tathāgata in its impure state cannot be changed at all. something is born. illness and old age to fire should be known. and 3) [old age] leads the Active Forces to their ripening Even by these fires. for three reasons. T. 3 b 1 P 'ffi i"M c f • For kāranā.). prākrta. bdag-gi-ba med-par byed-pa (bdag-gi-ba stands for mamatva). y\. A Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. translation shows this meaning. T. the sense ' usage' is attached to the term vyavahāra. we can easily find out the sense. thob-pa ( = prāpti). The similarity of death. vyavahāra. Lord. C. to make pain on somebody by torment \ Cf. which means the readiness for the next birth. T. nirmamī-karana (cause to destroy something conceived as ' mine'). as the sanskritized form of Pali vohāra. The word kāranā (f. T. C. Here in connection with anu-bhū. origination of new sense organs. ' samskāra-paripāka. 178. that of death.

being beyond the sphere characterized as being caused and conditioned. to move from one place (life) to another place (life).The K a t n a g o t r a v i D û a g a never deceases. constant. quiescent and everlasting " . C. C. v . T. The Bodhisattvas have no calamity 3 2 2 ) of birth and so forth. etc. has ' fj£ y j j ' for janmâdivyasana. . C. // 66 // § 1. The Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva. Cf. 320 ' ananyathā. T. For what reasons ? Because. tan-nidānam . take place. is eternal. 54 (na pradahanty enam mrtyuvyādijarāgnayah. 2§^ (to change. See BHS Die. however. (B) Unchangeability in the Pure and Impure State Now there conies one śloka referring to the meaning of Unchangeability ' in the pure and impure state [of Bodhisattvas]. They assume the cause of calamities 3 2 3 ) . never passes away 319) or arises [again]. 322) 319) vyasana. C. 323) [ 243 ] 17 . the Matrix of the Tathāgata. i n s t e a d of ' vimuktā \ should b e a d o p t e d . for that reason. 321) jijjg r e a ( i i n g « -vimuktām '. (Kārikā 24) Having truly 3 2 0 ) realized the Innate Mind As being released 3 2 1 ) from birth and death As well as from illness and decrepitude. So C. 3UJ 13^ • ananyatha'vagamya = yathābhūtasya darśanāt (v. to C. r e a d i n g is n o t clear. p. regarding this term as an adverbial use. phoñs[-pa]. enam = cittaprakrtim). illness and decrepitude cyavate ( < cyu). Still. ji-bshin—ñid. T . S. 68). I . What is shown by this śloka ? The sufferings of death. T. nidāna seems to mean the existence (bhava) on which janman. hpho-ba. bhajante. . Ace. 295 (under ' nidāna ' ) : tan-nidānam. O Lord. T. /J> •? -^R _l£ v$C (assume the existence of origi»& nation and destruction). because of the rising of Compassions towards the world. de~yi rgyus for tan-nidānam.

^ .). (References to the Scriptures) 324 325 ' upādāna. basing themselves upon 3 3 1 ) the power of origination by their will 332) .J.ASAKI Are destroyed by the Saints to the root. (ind. has anutpatty-anirodha. 326 3271 328) samyojana (== samprayukta). dge-bahi rtsa-ba. C. T. As there is no birth [of such a kind] The saints have no root [of defilements]. In the pure and impure state. Jpf # 0 ft f 4 • [ 244 ] . in the impure state. ñe-bar len-pa. duhkha. C. make appearance Of birth. because of their contact 3 2 8 ) with the virtuous root 3 2 9 ) . among them. ' anābhāsa—gamana. there is no appearance 3 2 6 ) whatever of such a cause that we can know of. T. 7jC v$L «tfg • vinivrtta T . death. the causa materialis 3 2 4 ) of the fires of sufferings ' like death. being full of mercy. there are in reality no such phenomena of birth. bsams-bshin-du. 4§T m • TO sam]/ślis T . ^fC ( = pūrvika). T . 332) samcintya 333 ' yathāpi is omitted in T. 325 They. jJg. adds srid-pa (bhava) before samyojana. kun-tu sbyor-ba. 334 335) I n s tead of ajāty-anutpatti. There is a birth by the power of Active Force and Defilements.. // 68 // Indeed. however. C. the Active Force and Defilements. C. Still. hdas gyur. T. 329) 3301 kuśala-mūla. ~7Jj ( t o m a k e a p p e a r a n c e ) . khams. snañ—bar med—par gyur—pa. Bodhisattvas attach themselves 330) to the Phenomenal World consisting of three spheres. Also they make appearance of birth. C. // 67 // Now. etc. om. Because 333) . yañ-dag-par sbyor[-ba]. they have truly perceived that the Essence [of the Buddha] 3 3 4 ) is of no birth and of no origination 3 3 5 '. C. > T . etc. f f c ' I j * . yi\ . of course. C. C. decrepitude and illness. there is also no flame of fires of suffering at all in the Bodhisattvas who have attained the Body made of mind. » dhātu. C. . Though they have got rid of327) birth. 331) fjjg form samnihśraya for samniśraya is notable. of illness and of death. Because of their perception of the truth. T. T . 1AK. of old age. just as the fuel [is the causa materialis of ordinary fires]. flîp ! § ! • T. illness and decrepitude is the Birth based upon the Irrational Thought.

p. Efforts for the perfect apprehension 343 ' of the sublime Doctrine3 4 4 ) . T. Then [Sāgaramati] asked: Why then. • . ?P£ 4^J |ff^ / £ . T. The earnest wish to meet with 3 4 1 ) the Buddhas. O Lord. C. [—' \ĪJ] ^ f»$j] ^ ? ffe • 342) 343 344 kimkaranīya.. 1. Non-abandonment of propensity 347 ' of desire for phenomena. O Sāgaramati. ' samyojono r 245 ] . •-§* >^|K ^*pi J>E> A§l 'U*I • atrptatā. p. This passage is in Taisho. Nonreluctance from fetters 3 4 8 ) of the Highest Virtues. C. Acceptance 340 ' of existence through origination by their own will. And this Phenomenal World is of origination 44 > The Sāgaramati-pariprcchā. . Jj^. ^pp *JX • 341 ' samavadhāna. C. ' 7pi\ ^^T ' i s implying the sense. T. Unweariness towards the perfect maturity 3 4 2 ) of living beings.. 346 345) > utsukatā. C.. C. 13. ' parigraha. thus are the Defilements endowed with the virtuous roots by which the Bodhisattvas attach themselves [to this world]. simplified. by these Defilements of such kinds Bodhisattvas attach themselves to the Phenomenal World. ^ flp. T. C. p. 18. are the virtuous roots called 'Defilements ' ? . C. chos. No. dam-pahi. & C . but quite ' kuśalamūla-samprayuktā kleśāh. Endeavour 3 4 5 ) after works to be done 3 4 6 ) for the living beings. paripāka.CJ 339 340 ' punya-sambhāra.. . 6.J_4y. by I f & of Suang. ^ § : f § : 4i3< (kuśalamūlāni). T.. but they are never affected by the fault of Defilements. See S. ^ i l l S ^ I S ^ ī S i i S l f t (Taisho. C. bsam-pa (intention). R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Defilements endowed with Virtuous Root. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. And this state of Bodhisattvas is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture. XIII. 46-74). 337 338) 36 3 Taisho. the same as above (Note 340). C. ' saddharma. yoñs-su smin-pa. It is said 3 3 6 ) : Which are the Defilements endowed with virtuous root 3 3 7 ) that cause [Bodhisattvas] to reside in the Phenomenal World ? They are namely: ]Non-satisfaction338) in searching for the accumulation of merits 3 3 9 '. 68 a. XIII. [The Lord] answered: Because. T. T. T. J. . 400). C. bsod-nams-kyi tshogs.. phrad—pa. * for the living beings '. C. mi-ñoms-pa. y. ?% î § # K W fri W ^P ?£ ñ & 0*. T.The S 2. hgrus-pa. \Lk • ' parigraha. 347) 348 anuśaya. T. O Sāgaramati. bya-ba ci-yod-pa. ^5^.

simply med-pa. lament and would cry out. J^j. (For the previous three. T h i s translation is according to T. T. 0 Sāgaramati. take the boy out3 5 6 ) by entering into the pit. After that the boy's father would come to that place. The parable of a Householder. 8. ' upāya—kauśalya. skyed-pa. affectionate353) quite agreeable in his appearance 354 *. there should be a Danda. to this very Phenomenal World.from Defilements. inserts ' pita '. Now suppose this boy. suppose there were an only son of some distinguished person or 3 5 2 ) householder. T. p. 1. insert a word for ' vā '. handsome. thabs—la mkhas-pa. •fff ||5Ç -|āj" . 351) Continuation from § 2 (quotation from the same Sūtra). yid-du hoñ-ba. fzî yj • anvādhāna.. and would see his only son fallen in the pit of night-soil. They could not. This parable is also found in AĀS (470 a-b). [^Pç] j ^ \ . he being affected by the intention to pull out his only son 3 5 7 ) . &J . T. 350) 353) 349 manāpa (BHS). Thereupon the mother and relatives355* of this boy would see him fall into the impure pit. Upon seeing that sight. T. [It is called so] inasmuch as they attach themselves to the Phenomenal World. however. " For example 351) . yj \J*z. pulling out '. The word ' hdon-pa ' is used in the preceding sentence for ' adhyālamba '. in the sense of ' taking out. but not because of [actual] defilements on the mind " . C. But C. 357) T h e r e a d i n g ' ekaputrakâdhyāśaya—premânunīta' is d o u b t f u l as J said. hdon-pa (pulls out). There. not disagreeable). om. but it is not the case. C. Therefore. 48. C. Upon seeing this they would deeply sigh. and for ' abhyutksepa ' in S. seems 356) to omit this word and reads: ^j£ —" -~f~ afl [ 246 ] S i jsc nl> *& (having ekaputraka . being a child. C. T. 352) Both T. Suppose he were beloved. C. adhyālambati (BHS). 354 ' apratikūlo darśanena (lit. mthoñ-na mi-sdug-pa C. 355) C. it is called ' Defilements endowed with the roots of virtuous qualities. & C. Bodhisattvas attach themselves at their own wishes by their skill of means 3 4 9 ) and through producing 350) the power of virtuous roots. would fall into a pit of night-soil while playing. After darśanena. So ' śrestino vā grhapater vā ' would be a better reading. Bodhisattvas' Compassion. § 3. which reads ' bu gcig-po hdon-par hdod-pahi sred-pas byas '.

in order to extirpate all the bondage of Defilements from the living beings. om. S. phyuñ-ba. T. O Sāgaramati. ' a pit of night-soil' is a name for the Phenomenal Life. Which relation 359) should be known [between illustrations and illustrated meaning]? O Sāgamarati. in order to bring living beings to the maturity. By this explanation of words in the Scripture 3641 . ' Mother and relatives ' is a name for those people who belong to the Vehicles of Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. 364) [ 247 ] . he preaches the Doctrine " . 4p. at the same time. T. such is the Great Compassion of the Bodhisattva that. but C. nirdeśa. connects himself3621 to the Phenomenal World by his own will. dum-bu. AĀS jg/» " j ^U^ j§[. but still. T. > upa\/dā. O Sāgaramati. i The distinguished person or 3 6 0 ) the householder ' is a name for the Bodhisattva who is pure. but. he is never affected by impurities. don. and. om. Being possessed of the skill of means and the Transcendental Intellect. mtshams sbyor-ba. C. len-pa. vā. has attained the direct perception of the immutable Absolute 361) .). samjñā and premâdhyāśaya). of unpolluted mind. C. =§f| (artha). T. C. & C. 3581 abhy-ut\J ksip. p j . T. T. For pada. 4 * . being perfectly free from all bondages. and would take out 3 5 8 ) his only son. 5îw >is\j J^« >flj V £ v r ' (dharmadhātu). regards this passage as a quotation from the same Sūtra (SāgP.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a would hurry to enter the pit with full speed without any feeling of disgust. (Instead of ' anunīta '. unpolluted. are distressed and lament. this example was made in order to make known a special meaning. Cf. by the powers of virtuous roots and Compassion. C. there is explained the pure and impure state of Bodhisattvas who have the Controlling Power through two points: [namely] the Bodhisattva attaches himself at his will to the origination in the world. for the sake of others. but have no capacity to rescue [the living beings]. ' adhyālambanatah ' would be preferable to accept). *Jjj. pratisam V dhā. i An only son ' is a name for the living beings. having seen the living beings fallen into the world of transmigration. C. because Bodhisattvas have a notion of the only son towards all living beings. but T. T.. as S. asamskrta-dharma. 3591 3601 3611 362) 363 prabandha. he is not polluted by the world owing to the powers of means and the Intellect. have it. he again assumes 363) the origination into Existence. since they.

a h y b r i d form. And thus he does never cast off the armour 3 7 4 ' of the Great Compassion 3 7 5 ) . . well polished. • Cf. when a Bodhisattva has attained the correct perception of the Essence of the Tathāgata as being of no birth. lifeless. 5k»> | ^ . C. no origination. T h e q u o t a t i o n is from SāgP. pham-hdogs-paham gnod-par byed-pa. Believing in the fact that separate elements are created illusorily sn\ O Sāgaramati. 377) 376 has [ 248 ] . T . T . ' tathā vithapyante vithapitāś ca samānā'. (But the second Chinese translation of the SāgP. 365 > dharmatā. . of caus. 36 " samāna ( = sat. 367) asvāmikatā. 36 6 > T. Cf. o m .). well cleaned. s. B H S D i e . they cannot cause [one] to think or to imagine 3 7 0 ) . After all. then 365) he can obtain this essential quality as a Bodhisattva. C.v. ' thousand years '). of no personality and of no owner 3 6 7 ) ! Indeed. p . 375) C. bdag med-pa-ñid. It is said: '* O Sāgaramati. byed. offers no help to fix the meaning of ' vithapyate '. of no creator. SāgP. 368) vithapyante (pass. rab-tu rtogs-par . rin thañ-pa (mahārgha). the Bodhisattva does never produce the feeling of disgust for any phenomenon. gshan-du mi-hgyur-bahi chos (ananyathābhāvadharma) is probably caused by a misunderstanding of the term dharma. 372) upakāro vā 'pakāro vā. v . Thus. He will be possessed of the pure and immaculate perception based upon the Wisdom that there is nothing which causes benefit or harm 3 7 2 ) . T. Now. Cf. t h e s a m e ) . and s t a r t s t h e n e x t quotation with t h e parable of t h e Vaidūrya stone.J. 374) samnāha. chos-ñid. For nirātmatā. > anargha. suppose there were an invaluable 376) Vaidūrya stone. This point 366) should be understood in detail according to the [same] Scripture. after adjective) (Pali. AĀS 469 b-c. T. B H S D i e . T. As being 3 6 9 ) illusorily created. bdag-po med-pa-ñid. 370) prakalpayati. perceive that separate elements are of no real essence. T . Suppose it might be thrown into mud and would remain there for a thousand years 377> . he knows correctly the essential nature 3 7 3 ) of separate elements. ^} @ f £ H . of vi \f sthā.: ' hundred years '. om. C. T. go-cha. s. well purified. TAKASAKI § 4. Bodhisattva's Perception on the Pure Mind. T . For example. these elements are illusorily created 3 6 8 ) according to desire. Cf. 3. i t k j ^ ^ M ^ î ^ l f l l f E l t S l (this word of the Sūtra has already been t a u g h t ) . non-existence. 371) dharma-vithapanā. of no substance. T . 373 ' dharmatā. 68 a. o m . T. u p t o here. vistarena. O Sāgaramati.

of V lud). with great intensity. They have no real foundation at all. C. Indeed. These defilements would never penetrate into the radiant Innate Mind of the living beings. 9—p. T. A* [ 249 ] . p. />«. [/JC] f$Q • T. 3-9). pramoksa-citta. avalīyate. when they are inspected by the real and correct perception 3 8 3 ) . in turn. 45. āgantuka and instead has upakleśa. It is notable that Paramārtha's translation is. 1.The Ratnagotravibhāga After the passing of a thousand years [in mud]. Being accidental. H | jfjQ. T. ji—lta—ba-bshin—du tshul-bshin—du yid—la byed— 382 > -antike. opt. 50. pure and immaculate. ' | ^ &fâ (timid). 379) This passage (S. h a s ' £). 1. IE J€ • 384) 385) na kupyanti. p. They should be investigated by us so that they might not contaminate again. B H S Die. (MSbh (P) 259 c-260 a). sbyañ-ba. . it is a good thing not to be contaminated by defilements. As being washed well. he gives rise to the intention towards liberation 381) in the case of382) living beings. I can teach the Doctrine for the sake of these living beings in order to remove their accidental 379) defilements. om. the Bodhisattva knows the innate radiant nature of the mind of living beings. }Çp }$£. He perceives also that the same mind is defiled by the accidental defilements. C. cannot be excited 384) by any means. not a good thing to be contaminated 385 '. rather closer to the Ratna. thad-tu. . T. If I were contaminated by 378 > lodyeta (caus. anavallyanatā. Then the Bodhisattva thinks as follows: . C. rab-tu hbro-ba (but it should be -hgrol-ba). o m . T. 78. ^ j £ A H ÎP*l C. In the same way. C. Again he thinks as follows: These defilements have no power and ability. these defilements are the production of unreal. T . e t c . 7) is quoted in Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya as from AĀS. (S. 383) yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. v . perfectly cleaned and polished. These defilements are [produced] by incorrect discrimination. s. wrong discrimination. C. p. ' na punah ślesah '. insertions equivalent to other passages of the Ratna. These defilements. They are powerless. this stone would be drawn out from mud and would be washed 3 7 8 ) and cleaned. which has. ?) Cf. though abbreviated. passage than to AĀS. a n d for t h e former p a r t . 380) avalîyana 381) avaliyanā. shum-pa. A* fJb 'frf )E= (cannot rise). 11. O Sāgaramati. he never has his mind demoralized380) and. 17-20. 11. it would never abandon its nature of jewel. Thus. of weak power. P r o b a b l y from Pali ollyanā ( S k t . C. 49.

Here. 387) -pratibimbaka. by which we are bound to the world of transmigration. At the same time. 0 Lord. C * Cl» Wi V ^ • samślista. it is the Nirvana because it is not manifested under the influence of the passionate Active Force and Defilements. T. And this state is predominantly established in the 6th Stage of Bodhisattva called Abhimukhl (ready for the Enlightenment) 392) . being endowed with the manifestation of mind and mental 390) 391) states mixing both. it is said 3 8 9 ': " Therefore. And moreover. there is the Phenomenal World. as C. we are not attached to defilements. we shall teach the Doctrine to the living beings in order to remove the bondage of defilements. conditioned as well as unconditioned " . the expression ' World of transmigration' (samsāra) implies the three kinds of Body made of mind in the Immaculate Sphere. C.. we should be attached to the defilements . And here. Because. om. |f| >^C. inserts ' f ^ 4 T »ff $ £ %&. § 5. how could I teach the Doctrine for the sake of the living beings who are bound by the bondages of defilements.3% gj [ 250 ] . 388 389 T. Indeed. usual. conditioned as well as unconditioned. T om > abhisamskrta. > 390) 391) citta-caitasika. C. C. in order to remove these bondages of defilements ? Oh ! really. With regard to this point. in order to bring the living beings to 386) their maturity. which are at the same time endowed with the roots of virtues " . gzugs-brñan-yid. therefore. 386) C. it is the World of Transmigration because it is manifested 388) under the influence of immaculate roots of virtue.J. Bodhisattva in His 6th Stage.. ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva. mñon-du gyur-pa. hdres-pa. There is the Nirvana. being an image similar to that 3 8 7 ) in the Phenomenal World. ffi i^T • T > ŚMS 221 b. § 6. » citta - 892) T. the conditioned and the unconditioned. C. TAKASAKI defilements. /Çf\ \tyt \ffli 1 ^ V £ . S ' ( t0 practise pāramitās). this is called ' the pure and impure state '.

173-184. C. Taisho. have a lacuna here. 11. Suppose again there were one person who had an only son and loved him. the Bodhisattva is also like him. he would remember his son and think: Why hadn't I accompanied my only son! Who could nourish him and let him get rid of suffering? And rejecting the pleasure in the castle. still does never realize that acquisition in order to protect all living beings 396 '. is better omitted. there were a castle of one square yojana. 394) The word abhijñā in both S. 3fc flś^. ' Though having the capacity of attaining the Liberation. the Bodhisattva. C. The illustration of a castle is available only in C. he does never realize i t ' . 2) ~fc fl* ^ |§ ^ |5J ~p ~fc Hf ® Us i^T $ * W (Mahāratnakūtasūtra. sattva-parivarta). Why? Because. . T. he could pass over the steep path and reach a gate of the castle. ' t o reach the gate of the castle ' is for [the attainment of] 5 abhijñās. the illustration is as follows: " Suppose. 393) -abhimukhī. Having heard of the pleasure within the castle. XI. T. C. as usual. mñon-du phyogs-pa. does act among the world of ordinary beings. 310 (47). the people who could enter this castle were enjoying a lot of pleasure. but the path towards its gates were steep and dark. om. ' the only son ' is for all living beings wandering in 5 paths (gati): * to remember his son' is for the Great Compassion. RatnacūdabodhiChap. 397) x. 47th Parisat) (originally called ^ §i ^ I H l/f |PJ #X> Ratnacūdabodhisattva-pariprcchā). he does never realize the Enlightenment. there is an illustration of a castle 3 9 7 ) in the Scripture. (D) has mi(= nara) instead of nagara. he. he would go back to his only son. and ' to go back to his son' is the parable for [the Bodhisattva's] leading of living beings. ' many gates' are for the gates of samādhi. p. ' stepped inside with one leg ' is for [the attainment of] the Wisdom. but probably S. 395 > C. ' a castle' is the parable for mahāparinirvāna. and full of dangers. With reference to this Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences. the other leg remaining outside. H ^ | § £ is a mistake for 5 | Iff |§£). & T. . without making use of his abhijñā for āsravaksaya. 396 > sattvadhātu. . facing the acquisition 393 ' of the Extinction of Evil Influences 3 9 4 ) through his practices of unobstructed Highest Intellect and the Great Compassion395). due to his compassion towards living beings. O noble youth. However. Taisho. 'the steep p a t h ' is for the various actions of demons. But when he stepped inside with one leg. 3 8 » > The Ratnacūda-pariprcchā nese Tripitaka retains two versions of this Sūtra. ' the other leg remained outside ' is for the Bodhisattva's non-realization of moksa. XIII.The Ratnagotravibhāga rjn this Stage]. But it is not the case. Here. which has many gates. No. this is due to [the Bodhisattva's] [ 251 ] . it and instead has moksa. O noble youth. Chi^=f J\. 80 thausand in number. & T. ^p* (C. namely 1) y\C J] Ç ç 3 ^ ^^ f^| p p _5f$ | * (Mahāsamnipātasūtra. . ^ ffi. Having accumulated them and being ready for the acquiring of āsravaksaya. O noble youth. It runs as follows: (. According to C. he wanted to enter that castle leaving his son behind. regards mahākarunā-bhāvanayā as being connected with asāksātkarana. omission) 3 9 8 ) . By skilful means. For the sake of the people. he accumulated the 5 abhijñās.

[y an-dag-par] shugs-pa (to enter). 401) parijayam krtvā. RCP.. with perfectly purified mind 402>. unclear.) is probably an excess. skilful means (upāya). T. XIII. the Bodhisattva gives rise to the 5 Supernatural Faculties. 40 °) parikarma—krta. log-par shugs-pa. jâ^ jjjj. T. C. ^\* ^ Q " . JO . Taisho.). for the sake of the living beings who are facing the world of transmigration. TAKASAKI Thus. Having the mind purified 4 0 0 ) by the contemplation and Supernatural faculties. though having practised 4 0 3 ) correctly for his own sake. 402) 403 404) 399) »y- -ill- 11 y—*i £ • inserts an explanation on • [eg 47*. C. 408) (catur)dhyāna. T h e y are said to be 7 r 252 ] . om. one can be born in t h e World of F o r m (rūpa-dhātu). C. C. Having cultivated the Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences in order to rescue all living beings through the origination of the mind of Compassion. drdhâdhyāśaya. ^ J H . and the word ' kulaputra ' (S. the > [samyak-]pratipanna. C. C. saying: I will lead the others also to this true practice 4 0 5 ) . but not in order to taste it [by himself] 4 0 6 ) he turns his face 4 0 7 ) away from Nirvana. & C. bsam-gtan dag (pi. in number. 405 406) 407) T . read as abhimukhasya. C. I t is said t h a t b y t h e practice of these four dhyānas. he. Though abiding [in the desireless World of Form] with [4 kinds of] contemplations 4 0 8 ) in order to accomplish the factors for the acquisition of Enlightenment 409) . he becomes ready for the Extinc401) tion of Evil Influences. p. Thus. not anāsvādana. yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba byas—pa (pariśuddha—krta). bodhyañga. For parijaya. through the origination of the Great Intention [towards the Nirvana] 3 9 9 ) by great efforts and exertion. While cultivating the means for the bliss of the Quiescence. C. T. T. ' samyakpratipatti. he. §|£ [yj *U\ T. The following passage is actually not a quotation. yañ-dag—par rtogs—pa. reads as ' drdhâdhyāśaya-pratipattyā '. lhag-pahi bsam—pa brtan-pa. suparikarmakrtacetāh. But both T. 0 noble youth. [Jll] vipratipanna. still wishes to save the living beings who are on the wrong way 4 0 4 ) . 181 a).J. ^ § * jfvV **-^ 4T« attainment of the 4th and 5th Stages (bhūmi) here. (Cf. produces the unobstructed Intellect in the 6th Stage and again becomes ready for the Extinction of Evil Influences. 409) T. vimukha. I ventured to omit this vocative word in this translation and treated the whole passage as an explanation by the commentator. In this way is explained the 4 pure ' state of the Bodhisattva who has obtained the power for realization of the Extinction of Evil Influences in the [6th] Stage of the Bodhisattva named Abhimukhī. owing to the Great Compassion. the Great Mercy and Compassion of the Bodhisattva is inconceivable " . yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba. & C. [On the other hand]. T. C. T. which seems better. JZ3 f ^ > . byañ-chub-kyi yan-lag. C . clear. T. T. ro mi-myañ-ba.

The Ratnagotravibhāga ke voluntarily assumes 410) again the existence in the World of Desire J wishes to work for the sake of living beings as quickly as posn( sible 411)« [Thus] he has obtained the power for manifesting the body f ordinary beings by assuming various births [even] in the form of anio mals. T . om. The heading ' aparah ślokârthah' also supports this suggestion.:This is really wonderful! // 69 // Having attained the position of the Saints 4 1 4 ) . s 7. ' yāvad āśu '. 1. he is. B. 412) C. The Highest Means and Compassion. 413) The reading pratividhya (Ms. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. T. 414 ) ārya—gocaj a. o m . 66). etc. (Another interpretation of the verse 66) 4 1 2 ) . for the friends of all the world. as Chawdhuri noted) would be better than prativicya in the text. 415) krtya-sampādana. parigrahana. p. // 70 // Being superior to all kinds of worlds. T. 19: dharmatā—prativedhāt. There is another meaning of the śloka (Kārikā 24. 52. Is still perceived by the ignorant In the appearances of birth. Cf. C. C. See S. Similarly. v. rtogs-nas (having understood). // 72 // His intelligence is always burning like fire 415) For bringing about the welfare [to the world]. 411) 410) [ 253 ] . He acts in the world for the sake of the world Without being affected by the worldly pollution. From these points mentioned above his state is explained as ' not perfectly pure '. // 71 // Just as a lotus flower growing in the water Is not polluted by the latter. The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha. Therefore. He is nevertheless not apart from the world. He is nevertheless seen among ordinary beings. though having understood 413> that This Absolute Essence is unchangeable. The son of the Buddha. bya-ba sgrub. {gocara = caryāvisaya). which is therefore probably a later insertion. $lHj £ J £ . BHS Die:'pratividhyati' (Pali pativijjhati). though having been born in the world He is never polluted by worldly matters. the whole of the following paragraph.

1958). B u t T . 418) āvedha. 419) j?OT deśanyā rūpakāyābhyām. p . Such difference as lies between the atom and the earth. T. I I p p . was found b y Prof. ' pūrvâvedhavaśāt ' or ' pūrvâvedhāt' is t h e usual form. sñoms-par shugs-pa. he is always practising 416) Meditation and concentration on the Quiescence 4 1 7 ) . tshul ( = naya). bstan dan gzugs-sku dag dan ni. G. With no effort and with unobstructed Wisdom.J . [the first] 9 verses refer to the comparison [of the state of Bodhisattva] with the absolute impurity of those who rank below the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva named Pramuditā pratipanna. w h i c h suggests t w o rūpakāyas (i. 109. A m r t ā k a r a ' s quotation reads deśanā-rūpakāyābhyām. By conduct [of ordinary life] or by religious observances 4 2 0 ) . I s M E O . *23) samtārana. limitless 4 2 1 ) like the sky. of which a Sanskrit M s . he does always. 416) [ 254 ] . T. // 73 // Owing to the continuing force 4 1 8 ) of the previous life. to the other shore. And because of being free from all discriminations. The Bodhisattva becomes equal to the Tathāgata On account of his act of conveying 423) the living beings In various worlds. //75// In such a way. TAKASAKI At the same time. Bring benefits for the living beings Among the world. Or in [the water] in a foot-print of a bull 424) and in the ocean. 424) gospada (BHS. sambhoga-k. 421 ' -paryanta. mthah Mas (ananta). T. 236-246. yañ-dag sgrol-ba. // 77 // There is however a great difference Between Bodhisattvas and the Buddha.e. 74-78) were q u o t e d i n A m r t ā k a r a ' s T ī k a on t h e Catuhśubha of N ā g ā r j u n a . hphen-pa (— āksipta). // 76 // Having obtained this position4 2 2 ) . deśanī is a r a r e form. //78// Of these ten verses taken respectively. See B H S Die. Tucci. a n d is edited along with t h e T i b e t a n version b y h i m . 417) This a n d t h e following 5 verses ( v v . sbyod-lam. T. āvedha (2). He does not use any exertion at all For bringing the living beings to their maturity. // 74 // The Bodhisattva. R o m e . & nirmāna-k). knowing who is to be trained In what manner and by what means [Performs it] in the proper manner: By means of teaching. T .). 420) īryā-patha. of two apparitional forms 4 1 9 ) . gospada in Skt. 422) F o r gati^ x . (Minor Buddhist Works.

prati\/ vyadh). 428) -phg reading ' gana ' in the text is corrected into ' guna \ in comparison with the following three examples. dri-ma med-pa (C. (C. By the 5th verse. This is probably a mistake. T X i a ) . WK T. V S j ^ sems dañ-po bskyed-pa (C. From the point of wiew of the development of the bhūmi theory. the 8th Stage). 2) He who is practising the way towards the acquisition (caryāpratipanna). because [in these stages] he practises the unpolluted practices. chos-kyi sprin (C. \ j i ) . [In mameghā comparison with the states. ^) skye-ba gcig-gis thogs-pa (C.The RatnagotraviDûaga (Joy) 425)> a n d the 10th verse refers to the comparison with the supreme purity of the Stage above the [10th] Stage of Bodhisattva named Dhar(Cloud of Doctrine) 4 2 6 ) (i. yoñs-su dag-pa (pariśuddhi). The four kinds of Bodhisattvas are as follows: 1) He who has resolved upon the acquisition for the first time (prathamacittotpādika). and. By the third and the fourth verses. 3) phyir mi-ldog-pa. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has got the irreversible next birth (ekajātipratibaddha) 427) . these four stages are regarded as older than the 10—bhūmis theory of the Daśa bhūmikā. respectively. Of these four. The combination of these 4 groups with the 10-bhūmis seems to be the latest development. T. 429) prativedha (BHS for Skt. there is explained in brief the purity and impurity of the four kinds of Bodhisattvas in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva. by the first and second verses. Often these four are identified with the first. mthoñ-bahi phyir (darśanāt for prativedhāt). 430 > T. | | 43i) T. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities 4 2 8 ) of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the Stage of Pramuditā resolving upon the acquisition for the first time. 4) He who is expected to be the Buddha in the Here. because [in this stage] he has understood 4 2 9 ) the highest supermundane Essence which had never been seen before since beginningless time. 2) spyod-pa-la shugs-pa 428) 427) f< (C. -^1^ ^ S $!r). 3) He who has ascended the irreversible stage (avaivartika). the 7th and the 10th of the 10 vihāras (C. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is practising the way to the acquisition in the Stages beginning with [the 2nd named] Vimalā 4 3 0 ) up to [the 7th named] Dūramgamā (Far-Going)4 3 1 ) . 425 > T. j n s tead has mi-gyo-ba (acalā. ' * ^•p ' j ^ Ifeîi). T. the 3rd. rab-tu dgah-ba (C. T. --jjjfj jgç iU^). also has ' yon-tan '. both below and above].e. but how to combine both sets is not determined. For viśuddhi. the first one is said to be equivalent to darśanamārga and the second to bhāvanāmārga. the Stage of the Buddha). [ 255 ] .

f l A^ ^ L . Now. is connected with the Stage of the Buddha by one and the last birth 432) on account of the acquisition of the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. 7th and 8th verses. nor is it decrepit. 79 d. (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure State. because [in this last stage] he. T. By the 6th. -A^ 2§B J ^ 1 • See v * 66. there are explained the equality and difference between the purity of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has reached the ultimate point with regard to the aim of others and of his own. Because it is eternal. being expected to be the Buddha in the next birth. [ 256 ] . (Kārikā 25) This [Essence of the Buddha] is of unalterable nature4 3 3 ) Because it is endowed with inexhaustible properties. C. 432) buddhabhūmy-ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha. It does not suffer [from illness]. // 79 // What is shown by this śloka ? It is not born. because [in this stage] he has firmly stood in the meditation as the practice immediately connected with the acquisition of the Great Enlightenment. we have one śloka with reference to the meaning of 4 unchangeability ' in the perfectly pure state [of the Buddha]. TAKASAKI state in the [8th] Stage named Acalā (Immovable). By the 9th and 10th verses. and that of the Buddha's qualities. Also it is of undestructible nature Because its own nature is not created [by conditions] 4 3 5 ) . there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the 10th Stage named Dharmameghā. C. It is the refuge of the world Because it has no limit in the future 4 3 4 ) .J. gshan-hgyur-min-bdag. which is difficult to be identified with S. T. It is always non-dual Because it is indiscriminative. ananyathâtmā. anaparântakoti. having attained the ultimate point of means for fulfilling all the benefits for his own as well as for others. 3»§? 3i§ |?J> • 433) 434) 438 > For v. phyi-mahi mthah-med myur-thug. nor does it die. C. ^ * fi^ ffl W^ j lj* J] $fc .

it is not born Even with [the form of] the Body made of mind 4 3 7 ) . Being ' quiescent ' in regard to both. Here. 2) dhruva. C. T. don-med-pa. [ 257 ] . /\ patita is t o b e resolved i n t o anartha-apatita. and consequently never becomes decrepit through the transformation brought about by the Passionless Active Force. y)\ gîpj: (parigrhīta). // 81 // Being quiescent. it has no suffering From the illness of subtle defiling forces. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. C. 5»îv i^H J ^ 9 r (anāsrava-).The Ratnagotravibhāga Everlasting. ma thog-pa. pure and radiant by its own nature. // 82 // Indeed. asamskrta-pada. is ' eternal' in regard to its beginning. C. not falling into misery 4 4 0 ) . in case it is abiding on the Stage of the Buddha which is absolutely immaculate. are of Bodhisattvas and don't belong to the Buddha. C. it never suffers from illness depending on 4 3 9 ) the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. C. JMT ( = t h e world of transmigration). Thus. Therefore. f{3 . (asamskrtadhātu in the prose comm. anartha. T. being constant. ^ 437) . quiescent and costant 4 3 6 ) . it is never born even in the form of Body made of mind. T. ^^ $6m. Being everlasting. fff ^ .). it does not become decrepit By the accumulation of the Passionless Active Force 4 3 8 ) . it does not die Even with the Inconceivable Transformation. hdus-ma-byas-kyi dbyiñs. //80// Being eternal. F o r apatita. 4) śāśvata. beginning and end. gyuñ-druñ.. brten-pa. rtag-pa. // 83 // 436) These 4 terms are as follows: 1) nitya. manomayakāya. T . it does not die in the manner of the inconceivable Transformation. T. By each couple of terms. this Essence of the Tathāgata. And. T. C.w ffi* Si anarthāL_@. respectively. DAŚ 892 b: (under the item 1. A^ 8 § . etc. Bodhisattvas are regarded as ' partly impure '. 438 > Cf. etc. Being ' everlasting ' in regard to its end. it is ' constant '. > parigraha. shi-ba.^kitst C. Because of the birth in the form of manomayakāya and others. 3) śiva. In regard to the immutable Sphere 4 4 1 ) Is to be known. phala of bodhicitta) D ^ $fr #fl ^fc ftb ^ —-BJ tt *a ® * % R & * * & £ mm 439 440) 441) w«. the meaning of Eternity. T. C. T.

0 Śāriputra. JLAJi-ASAKI Of these four terms. bstan—pa & bśad— pa. C. DAŚ 893 c (on Ekatva): jft IP M. Being of indiscriminative nature.) adds two verses here. it is the Tathāgata. 446) ^ h e r e a ( J i n g ' tathāgatadhātor ' i n Ms. 0 Śāriputra. T . is Eternal since it is of unalterable nature through its inexhaustible properties. paramârtha. A s a m b h e d a ) . Does i t m e a n Nirvana of the Buddha and not that of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha? 445 444) Cf. apart from the Buddhahood. b e c a u s e i t was t h e u s u a l case t o use t h e t e r m dhātu i n such h e a d i n g s i n this t e x t . ' quiescent ' and ' constant% the distinction of the meaning of each term in regard of the Immutable Sphere is to be understood by each couple of terms showing ' statement ' and 4 explanation ' 4 4 2 ) . (X) ASAMBHEDA 445) The Essence 448> of the Tathāgata characterized as having reached the ultimate point of perfect purification in this pure state is of undifferentiated (asambheda) nature. 0 Śāriputra. according to the Scripture 4 4 3 ) . JQ±. This Absolute Body. which are no doubt interpolations. akrtrima-dharma. B. ^v!p. because it exists as far as the farthest limit. a n d t h e r e is no essential difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s . B G Ś 8 1 1 c ff. the everlasting refuge. Therefore. & # t mm^—m mm^mm m us at mm mm [ 258 ] ī £ IP J t *D # #U j | . o m . does n o t h a v e t o b e corrected w i t h ' -garbhasya '. this Absolute Body is Quiescent. O Śāriputra. Being of uncreated nature 4 4 4 ) . > Cf. // 84 // * 4 2 ' uddeśa & nirdeśa. (10. namely ' eternal'. respectively. T . (Kārikā 26) It is the Absolute Body. being indivisible from qualities like the sun with its rays. m ) AAN 467 b. is Everlasting. this Absolute Body is Constant. B . Also it is the Holy Truth. There is no Nirvana. C. respectively. of non-dualistic nature. (as well as Ms. ^ p | p V S . T. the Highest 4 4 7 ) Nirvana. of undestructible character ". It is said as follows: " This Absolute Body.J . r e n d e r i n g is helpless to fix t h e m e a n i n g a n d C. ' everlasting '. 447) -phe c o m b i n a t i o n of paramârtha w i t h nirvana (nirvrti i n t h e t e x t ) is peculiar. With reference to this meaning of ' undifferentiation ' we have one śloka.

T. C . the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not empty 4 5 3 ) [because it is endowed] with the Buddha's Properties which are inconceivable. ^ ^ ^ ^ .^: tathāgamah). C. unreleased from the wisdom). indivisible. 464) 2) — 'W m @ £H. It is not of false. C. With reference to this meaning. C. // 86 // 1) The first meaning: [the Essence of the Buddha] is indivisible from the Buddha's properties. -^f (ft for tadgotrasya "9» tathāgama. 4) * ^ 3g P . Then which are the 4 meanings ? It is indivisible from the Buddha's Properties. JpÇ #H ("$•£ JpÇ $D f. In accordance with these 4 meanings. p. 453) aśūnya. Here. // 85 // In short. tathāgatagarbha is not empty of buddhadharmāh (buddhadharmair aśūnyam). 450) amrsāmosadharmitva. further explanation will be given in S. 3) # g B M ffll V£. On this conception. deceptive nature 4 5 0 ) . B Ś ibid. 76. T. de-bshin thob-pa. And it is quiescent from the very outset 4 5 1 ) . Lit. K 1) — '8J ft ?£ f t ^ ^ ffi 81 i amuktajña. ^ ^ /0U (lit. Ratnagotravibhāga Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata. f 2 * U s ^\* /MM: 3 C • 451 > ādiprakrtiśāntatā.The K 1. bral mi-śes-pa. C. 448 * nāmaparyāya. T. An explanation of the meaning of ' tathāgata '.: W < l # G «2» ŚMS 221 c. what is shown by the former half of the śloka ? It should be known. C. mi-stoñ-pa. there should be known 4 synonyms 4 4 8 ) . [ 259 ] . it is said as follows 4 5 2 ) : " O Lord. 154-5 and commentary thereon. § f $ 7J£ ^ ^ 0 J ¥ ' should be ' ^ ' according to the meaning). in brief. the Absolute Body and others Since [the Germ] in the Immaculate Sphere Has four meanings from different aspects. vv. There are 4 synonyms. Its Germ has been perfected as it is 4 4 9 ) . there are four meanings in regard to the Matrix of the Tathāgata as the Immaculate Sphere (or Essence). Cf. T. inseparable [from Wisdom] 4 5 4 ) and are greater in number than the sands of the Gangā " . miñ—gi rnam-grañs.

the Arhat. I suppose this quotation is also from t h e Sadāyatanasūtra. The following quotation shows a quite unique interpretation of the word tathāgata. 1 460) The source is uncertain. 457 ^ C. the Innate Nature has been 455) 456) perfected in an inconceivable manner . TAKASAKI 2) The second meaning: Its Germ. (Cf. a vocative ' bhagavan ' is also inserted i n t h e previous quotation and t h e S. With reference to this 457) point. has no literal translation. whose nature For what reason ? Because the Germ is eternal is undeceptive. samudāgama. C. BBh. 462 > J Ā A 241 c. 461) T # reading shi-ba(śama) 2§£ H>C (śāśvatadharmatayā). brgyud-nas (from ancestors). someone is expressing his understanding i n front of t h e B u d d h a a n d t h e B u d d h a acknowledges i t . 3. [ y \ ^pc] % 4 _/£ . (i. because. C.e. de-hdra-ba (connecting with sadāyatanaviśesah). according t o C . It stands for tathā in the verse. has come down since beginningless time from one existence to another existence 4 5 8 > assuming 4 5 9 ) various forms consisting of six organs of cognitions. it is said as follows 4 6 2 ) : 44 Being in Nirvana from the very outset. the Tathāgata. [ 260 ] is preferable from t h e context. V s U s ^* 459) . 11. ^EcX which is missing now. tādrśah. i . T. it is said as follows : [This Germ]. jffc. a n d I could n o t find t h e exact passage i n SMS. having attained the Absolute Essence. bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pahi rnam-pa. AksP. it is said as follows 4 6 0 ) : 44 44 With Here. BGŚ quotes the sentence as from AĀS (812 a) f/S | $ for ? £ Hf). T. a d ā y a t a n a s ū t r a seems t o have h a d a structure similar t o t h e SMS. 2—4 (on prakrtistha-gotra). mentions the name of the source. Sadāyatanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśi—sūtra) 458) 455) I a -£*T3 "H^y ^ 7 7 ? ( y \ \\X.J. T. does not mention t h e n a m e of t h e source. acintya-prakāra. T. — āgama (in the verse). 4) The fourth meaning: It is of the nature of absolute quiescence. AĀS 469 b — * %/J ^ flj?^?. in the form of various living beings) " . the Perfectly enlightened One is of neither origination nor destruction " . by its being quiescent " 4 6 1 ) .e. 197 b). 3) The third meaning: It is not of false. C. Cf. With reference to this point. b u t C. O attributes i t t o SMS. reference to this point. 458) parampara. i. deceptive nature. that which is the Highest Truth is Nirvana. thob-pa.e.

Therefore. there is indicated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. and that which is called 'Nirvana' because of its removal of pollutions along with their remaining forces which takes 467 a . O Lord. Namely. And being the removal of pollutions along their root4 6 5 ) . It is said as follows 4 6 3 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata. 464) 466) 467) C. that which is called ' Buddhahood ' because of its Perfect Enlightenment regarding all kinds of phenomena. Ś M S 220c. O Lord. A n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e 'na' is t o b e inserted before ' a n y o dharmakāyah' (-gato nānyo dharmakāyah). these both are not different from [each other 4 6 4 > . The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana. the Tathāgata and the Absolute Body. " Under the name of the Extinction of the Suffering. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? Being the Perfect Enlightenment in all aspects. for which C. 2) the Tathāgata. 3) the Highest Truth. 468 > nayamukhena. 468) these four are one in their sense. there are four synonyms. the following fact is to be known. being endowed with such properties " . [?£] f*^ (' /f* | | 8 — ' V Î f*l 'f* Pjji: * f^ *gg' for advayadharmanayamukhena). and 4) the Nirvana. T. respectively. nothing but the Tathāgata " . * yq'C (ekarasa). " The Sphere of the Nirvana. respectively. reads ' inseparable from t h e highest truth ' ( / p J|ft I f ? —* ffH). 465) T n e fij. [ 261 ] . by means of the Doctrine of non-duality. O Śāriputra. o m .st o n e j s f or buddhatva a n d t h e n e x t o n e is for nirvana. tshul-gyi sgo-nas. 220 c. 222 a. Buddhahood and Nirvana Are one and the same in the highest viewpoint 4 6 6 ) . abbhinna. is the name for the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . // 87 // These four synonyms of the Immaculate Essence converge into the 467 undifferentiated ' meaning of the Essence of the Tathāgata. The Absolute Body is. T . is the name for the Absolute Body.The Ratnagotravibhāga For these four meanings. § 2. namely. C. and hence. " O Lord. O Lord. See c o m m e n t a r y . Now. 1) the Absolute Body.

See S. 478) nispatti (the reading ' nispatsv. nisthāgata (in the quotation). the Nirvana is merely a means used by the Tathāgata ". 58. By this passage it is explained that this [Nirvana of the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas] is a means made by the Perfectly Enlightened Ones who have the highest Controlling Power on [all] phenomena 4 7 4 ) in order to protect them (i. p. 472 473) 476 rfy ī ? atavî. ^ f^. [So it is said] 4 7 1 ) : " Liberation is of the characteristic Indivisible from the properties. it is said in the Scripture 4 7 3 ) with reference to the Nirvana of the Arhat and Pratyekabuddha: " [Here]. This Liberation. C. The place in MPS remained untraced. unthinkable and immaculate 4 7 2 ) . sarvākāra. B u t T. T. 471 > Both S. [ 262 ] 1. the Perfectly Enlightened Ones are endowed with properties showing the ultimate point of the entireness. > ŚMS 219 c. hbrog-dgon. having realized the Nirvana which is characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment 4 7 8 ) mahâbhisambodhāt. indivisible and inseparable 4 7 0 ) in the Immaculate Sphere. buddhatva & nirvana. Also. immeasurebility.e. which are Of all kinds. C. grub-pa. . 474) dharma-parameśvara. These 4 are called ' caturākāragunanispatti ' in the commentary. An epithet of the Buddha. ap? j^L.' in the text should be corrected. 477 > pariśrānta. inconceivability and purity ". these two are non-dual. O Lord. 470) 469) C. adds one epithet m o r e : sy* ^*g pjjffc (avinirbhāga).J. innumerable. TAKASAKI place simultaneously with 4 6 9 ) the Perfect Enlightenment. amala. T. that is the Tathāgata ". the Arhats. the Tathāgatas. adds lhan-cig (together). 473 > ŚMS 219 c. C. C. 9 & 12). But C. T. [On the other hand] it is said: 4 7 7 ) : " By reason of having attained Nirvana. o m . By this passage it is explained that. dub-pa. & T. Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas) against retreat. which makes t h e meaning clear. asamkhyeya. it is just like the illusory city in the forest 4 7 5 ) made for the travellers who are tired 4 7 6 ) after their long way [in order to encourage them]. respectively. as S. O Lord. are lacking the heading. acintya. C. HH 5!*. 0. ^ ^ ^ ^ *^§ § S $£ tf1 {yata aha Mahāparinirvānasūtre).

Of these [painters] engaged in this work. ^ ^ ^J] (_. hgah yañ (= kaścid). C.m M m m $. 38§ | ^ A —-— (kasyacid . T . T. 7JN * ^ . C. Now. mchog ( = śrestha). [Each of them] expert in a different sphere. So that whatever skill possessed by one of them. the four terms are as follows: 1) sarva. (having accepted 488) 489) pratiśrutya. therefore. Cf. hbri. te (having heard of i t ) . T . The Parable of the Painters. 487 > dūsya. BGŚ 8 1 2 c : ^ ^ C . Here (in SMS). na). would be b e t t e r in sense. [ 263 ] . (ffS). /\\. = # s *i B 480) 3) acintya. 479) See Note 471. Buddhahood and pftrvāna. // 89 // Then the painters. t h o u g h t h e former is often used). T. . m i§. the Buddhas are possessed of all kinds of properties since they have accomplished 4 8 2 ) the Non-substantiahty endowed with all sorts of excellency 4 8 3 ) . — ^ Z —" 'HI % tadātmakam bhavati. ras. T. 2) aprameya. C. in the Immaculate Sphere. C.The o Ratnagotravibhāga f properties of four kinds 4 7 9 ) . T. quotes the original account after the verses. . vara. TO abhinirhāra. mñon-par bsgrubs-pa. gzugs. C. RCS 176 a. Would start their work of painting. no one 4 8 1 ) can realize Nirvana apart from Buddhahood. pratikrti. zin-pa (to apprehend). . Cf. 485) citra-lekhaka. K 3. This is here to be known through the illustration of the painters 4 8 4 ) . ri-mo hdri-byed-pa (for hdri. T. ( U ^ 8 -9J f^ ^ * . t o draw. // 88 // Then a mighty king would give them A painting cloth 4 8 7 ) with the following commandment: On this [cloth] ye all should draw my portrait 4 8 8 ) . the Perfectly Enlightened Ones identify themselves with Nirvana 4 8 0 ) . C. The others could not understand 4 8 6 ) . thos-gyur t h e c o m m a n d m e n t of t h e king). 483) 486) avadhārayati (to understand). as both of these. j j | (î>£) i t ] H . J^. having promised 4 8 9 ) [to the king]. C. are endowed with inseparable properties. Suppose there were some painters 4 8 5 ) . 484) This illustration of the painters is originally taken from the Ratnacūdasūtra. om. 481) 482) T. 4) viśuddhi. C.

On the basis 490) viyoga. 496) Hereafter. on t h e relation of t h e 4 characteristics t o t h e Stages of Bodhisattva. // 92 // Here. 92. C. having exterminated the remaining force of pollutions 4 9 4 ) by its enemies. and prajñā. 494 > T. 5) viksepa (C. ākāra. 49S > 1) mātsarya (C. On account of its number and power. d 6) moha (C. each one is differentiated into limitless varieties in accordance with the Buddha's Sphere [of activity]. Now 4 9 6 ) . 491 492 493) aparimita. it should be known as being ' inconceivable ' and. ' non-completion of the king's portrait' means the non-endurance of the knowledge of non-substantiality. etc. Therefore. \X • These are the so-called sat—pāramitāh. respectively. the Non-origination of [all] the elements 4 9 7 ) is realized. T. mala. f|g). ^ an f ^ ) . 7^E)î a r e vipaksas of dāna. faultless 4 9 8 ) . BGŚ 8 1 3 > . 498) 497) niśchidra. anutpattika-dharma. > I* . Morals. for which C. the 2nd of the 4 characteristics. it should be known as 'immeasurable' 4 9 3 ) . vīrya. dhyāna. [each virtue] is to be known as being ' pure '. 5Sv | H i (without interruption). /f\ PuL). ksānti. Cf. MSbh (P). 3) dvesa (C. // 90 // Because of his absence during his being abroad This picture would remain Without the completion of all parts. has it. om. 4) kausīdya (C. 4 9 5 ) . om. Patience and other dispositions 4 9 1 ) Being endowed with all kinds of these excellencies. without any break and bearing its own taste 4 9 9 ) . -jftÇ* T. through practice by means of Meditation on the Nonsubstantiality endowed with all sorts of excellencies. T.J. Bji). where they can get the knowledge of the Path which is indiscriminative. // 91 // The painters who are meant here are Charity. in the form of ' envy '. The Non-substantiality is called the picture 492>. [Bodhisattvas can] ascend to their 8th Stage called Acalā (Immovable). skyon med-pa (without defect). adds one verse saying: ' One painter is absent' means the lack of one ākāra. charity and the rest. T. Because of this realization. TAKASAKI One would have gone abroad 4 9 0 ) . ' C. of these [excellent virtues]. â [ 264 ] f£^ (natural). C. śila. tshad med-pa. T . \$f /§»). C. 258 b. 3RT £ E I S 3o> ( = anutpattika-dharma-ksānti). (D) inserts unnecessarily one Pada between c and d of v. T. mi-skye-bahi chos-ñid. 2) kaukrtya (C. Thus the parable is made. but C. saying: de-la mñon-par sbyin rnams-kyi. C. ma tshan (incomplete). 3»W iSk • This is for aprameya.

(as Parasmaipada). C. ^ J . the foundations of these Stages [above Acalā]. 603 > guhya. and clear. Cf. they are similar to the light. T. basing himself upon the knowledge revealing 5 0 2 ) the secret 5 0 3 ) state of all the Buddhas. by means of immeasurable forms of Meditation and magic formulas like the ocean 5 0 0 ) . radiant. And they are inseparable 5 0 6 ) from [the Absolute Essence]. the entireness of Buddhas ' properties in the Immaculate Sphere is completed. The Intellect. they are said to be far from the Sphere of the Nirvana 5 0 5 ) characterized as being indivisible from the accomplishment of the properties of the [above mentioned] four kinds.o r samudra. the highest ' purity ' of Buddhas' properties is completed. aviparoksa. § 4. C. Immediately after this stage. ŚMS 219 c (after the explanation of ' caturākāraguna ' of the Tathâgata): C. T. reads brgya-stoñ ( = śatasahasra). On the Stage of Bodhisattva called Sādhumati /perfect Knowledge). they can obtain the knowledge 5 0 1 ) for assuming the immeasurable properties of the Buddha. and the disk of the sun. 504) 605) 506 > abheda. but C. On the basis of this knowledge. tha-dad-med. Ikog-tu ma gyur-pa. on the basis of knowledge which leads to the liberation from all impediments on account of Defilements and Knowables along with their remaining forces. The rays. As the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas cannot perceive 5 0 4 ) these four knowledges. the 4 immeasurability ' of [Buddhas'] properties is completed. // 93 // That which is indicated as the Sphere of the Nirvana characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment of four kinds of properties through the Intellect. [ 265 ] . gsañ-ba. the Wisdom and the Liberation.The Ratnagotravibhāga f this knowledge. T. ' to be '. T. 5ft Bill • samdrśyate. On the Bodhisattva's [last] Stage called Dharmameghā. the Wisdom and the Liberation Are [respectively] bright. Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun. calls t h i s jñāna ' śūnya(tā)-j ñāna ' (^-r^ ^ 3 ). 501) 502) C. ffî£ . is explained to soo) p. T. aiming at the acquisition of the Stage of Buddha. the 4 inconceivability' of Buddhas' properties is completed. Therefore. mthoñ-ba. C.

Avoiding 5 1 2 ) its light and rays. within the Essence [of the Buddha] which is endowed with 5 1 3 ) the virtuous qualities as its own nature constantly associated 5 1 4 ) since beginningless time. śes-bya thams-cad-kyi ye-śes (sarvajñeyajñāna). J H | P | . C. and 4) As these three are undifferentiated from the Absolute Essence. C. and by one [in general]. spañs-nas. C. without exception. o m . // 94 // Thus. the true introspection 5 1 7 ) by the Intellect 5 1 8 ) free from attachment and of no 507) kārana i n t h e t e x t .. I t is preferably corrected. through its engaging in the destruction of darkness [that hides] the highest true essence of everything cognizable. has a resemblance to the purity of the disk of the sun through its being perfectly free from pollution and its being radiant. buddhasāntānika. into ākāra. there exists the essential nature 5 1 5 ) of the indivisible properties of Tathāgatas. etc.rjes-lathob-pa. Here in the Buddha's body 5 0 8 ) . darśana. T. -tva. C. nir V vri-> P a n nibbajjeti). ' tribhir ekena ca kāranena '. tathāgatatva = buddhatva. nirvrjya (fr. S18 > T. for which C. prajñā. ye-śes-kyi gzigs-pa. 508) ( T .e. 514) sāmnidhya. 3) The Liberation of the Innate Mind. sañs-rgyas-kyi rgyud-la mñah-ba. om. respectively. 616) 617) For dharmatva. C. Therefore. namely. prsthalabdha.J. 616) avinirbhāga-gunadharmatva. T. and instead has anāsrava. 1) The transcendental Intellect which is supermundane and indis criminative is. from sāmnidhya up to upahite. C. by three aspects 507> on account of the Intellect. T. There is no attainment of Nirvana. om. 2) The Wisdom of Omniscience 509> 510) which is attained subsequently is. ^ ^ ^^j . akin to the radiance of the net 5 1 1 ) of rays. C. T. jñāna-darśana. Just as it is impossible to see the sun. C. upahita. T. T. the basis of the above two (Intellect and Wisdom). T. there is a similarity to the light and others through their indivisibility [from the sun]. om. j^p 1 <£C =*7 • * %)J ^t)« 509 > sarvajña-jñāna. has ' § J U ' . dra-ba. unless the Buddhahood 5 1 6 ) . yon-tan mam-par dbyer-med-pahi chos-ñid 613) 512) yin-pa. TAKASAKI have similarity to the sun in four aspects. ñe-bar gnas-pa ( = upasthita). without the acquisition of Buddhahood. [ 266 ] . T. om. i.T. Therefore. simply |g (in comparison with prajñā 510) S11 > jāla. -dañ Idan-pa. through its penetrating everything knowable of all kinds. T. rnam-pa). akin to the light [of the sun]. C. {J^ =Ef (— dharmakāya).

621 * B22) sama—vimukti. or those who have attained the Therefore. How may it be possible for the superior nirvana and the inferior nirvana to exist within one dharmadhātu? Also. rig-pa. just as we cannot see the disk of the sun without a 5l9) perceiving its light and rays. It runs as follows: " I t should be known. with Wisdom 519 523) O Lord. [In other words]. i. prior to the quotation has an interpretation of this subject. [it is of one and the same] taste and Liberation " . is understood. those who . T . therefore she (= Śrlmālādevl) said). S20 DAS also quotes the same passage and. b u t C.e. If there were a difference among the causes. 0 The acquisition of the Nirvana is. (DAS 894 a). it is said the Sphere 5 2 2 ) of the Nirvana is of unique taste. dhātu. > ŚMS 220 b. have the liberation of equality 521) Lord. of equal taste. (Lit. If otherwise. there would also be a difference among the results " . there should be another nirvana than this. it is for those who have the Wisdom of equality. O Lord. true introspection through the liberation of equality. the realization of the Sphere of Nirvana characterized as the liberation from ll the impediments. 6!!3 > vidyā.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hindrance. it is said : " O Lord. C.). the acquisition will not take place. [ 267 ] . o m . there is no acquisition of the Nirvana for [those who maintain] the inferiority or superiority of [all] the elements 5 2 0 ) . available [only] to [those who know] the equality of all the elements. ' hina—pranlta—dharmānām (Bahuvrīhi comp. Therefore. we cannot say we get one result on the basis of higher or lower causes. has i t . that there is only one way of the One Vehicle. furthermore. That is to say. V$ . T .

C. originally taken from AAN. j [ 268 ] . as concealed by the covering of defilements Is to be known by the following illustrations. phyi-mahi mthahi mu dan mtshuñs—pa. The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. THE 9 ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE GERM COVERED WITH DEFILEMENTS « § 1. BGŚ 806 c-808 c. with reference to the fact that the covering of defilements is essentially unconnected 5 ) [with the Innate Mind] although associating with 6 ) it since the beginningless time 7 ) . n o t clear. Which are the 9 illustrations? (Kārikās 27-57) Like the Buddha in an ugly lotus flower. this Matrix. with reference to the existence of the Essential Nature . x) 2) 2) 3) C. chos-ñid. m ® t S 0 Î 1 8 PO I S A • Cf. (thog-ma med-pahi dus-nas) and C. together with the next two formulae (on kleśakośatā and śubhadharmatā). n. ñe-bar gnas-pa (upasthita). 3) 4 7) 8) 9) So T.IX. likewise associating since the beginningless time. C. // 95 // Thus. ma hbrel-ba. and the pure Essential Nature. T. we have hitherto explained the characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata from 10 points of view. But S. it should be understood. TGS 457a-460 6. VzC flU • * aparântakoti—sama. T. ^ samvidyamānatā. rig-par bya-ba-ñid. T .. Now. 8) sāmnidhya. See my Introduction. T . Like honey surrounded by bees. T h i s f o r m u l a (aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidyamānatā) is. 467 6. C. by 9 illustrations based upon the Scripture 8 ) . (f8& # p 1 f r •§?' :$£). dharmatā. 66. C. is essentially connected with it [as being its own nature]. that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the limitless 9 ) coverings of defilements. 5) asambaddha.. And hereafter. anādi-. koti. 4) as eternal as the ultimate limit [of the world] . Thus have been explained the characteristics Of the Matrix of the Buddha from 10 aspects. C. T . om. ' covered ' in the meaning. For aparyanta .

Jp|p $flfl -3Î. Like the bark of a fruit. Were abiding in the inside 1 8 ) a faded lotus flower. In such a way. 16 18) 16) garbha-vestita. J g ^ Jfjç @ ^ |H!2 (poor a n d u g l y ) . 12 Like an image of the Buddha wrapped in a tattered ' garment. bees. T . Like a treasure under the ground. T G S 457 c. shining with a thousand marks [of virtue]. sitting in the assembly of Bodhisattvas. jfr1] j§£ ^ — dvipâgrâdhipa (v. T . // 98 // 16) . Then the Lord started his pronouncement on the Essence of the Tathāgata abiding within each living being. grown from a small fruit U ) . . honey. 98) T . etc. ' jathala. [ 269 ] C. C. sñiñ-po. and like earth tormented by the fire of pains. • - la) 13 14 ' nrpatva. the Highest Lord of the world. The Defilements are like the ugly sheath of lotus flowers. There appeared thousands of lotus flowers having the apparitional Buddha within and shining with splendour fragrant. husk.. And the Buddha.The Like kernels of 10) Ratnagotravibhāga grains covered by the husk. (om. like a tattered garment. 98). ^ ^ . In the living beings obscured by occasional stains of defilements. C. impurities and the ground. The edible part of grains. The (I) excellent Essence has a resemblance to them. T. cleaned kernels And a purified precious statue. but all at once they became faded and began to give a bad smell. ' jaghanya. T. 17) Cf. ^ . susâra. {EE • • • T ^ . showed a miracle. ^ ($£ ^ ) . praklinna = pūti (v. Like gold fallen into impurities. A Nyagrodha tree.hi khoñ gnas-pa. Like the kinghood in the womb of a poor And like a precious statue in the earthen mould. [In these illustrations]. lto[-ba] (belly). ñan ( u g l y ) . gold. . treasure. pollutions are like A lotus flower. the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the Buddha 1 7 ) . hbras—chuñs. a precious image. Like a woman of misery. But still there was the Buddha sitting within each flower. . hrul. mi-bdag. aīpd). x1 ' alpa—phala. there abides this Essence // 97 // 13) 14) 15) // 96 // woman. 10) sāra. T. T h e s t o r y given i n t h e S ū t r a is as follows: Once t h e L o r d . C. (cakravartin). They came to blossom at the same time. and Suppose the Buddha. Bodhisattvas were surprised at this sight and asked the Lord for the explanation of this miracle. This idea of the origination of the Tathāgata is probably borrowed from the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of t h e Avatamsaka.. C. C. T . Like a sprout.

hjoms-pa. 7fâ Tfp . Suppose a clever person. Perceiving this Essence known as akin to honey. t h e Lord. having seen Honey surrounded b y 2 6 ) cloudy bees. rab-tu spoñ-ba ( = prahāna). C. aślesa. C. ^ g . reads jalaruha as locative. completely. and t h e Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the h o n e y 2 5 ' . — // 99 / / Similarly. with skillful means. |Vij£ ( t o r e m o v e ) . Accomplishes the non-connection 2 7 ) of t h e Essence With t h e bees-like obscurations. Here pattra stands for kośa. // 101 // (II) The Defilements are like honey-bees. T . | M | i3>u (as T . as S. nir\Jhan. The Matrix of the Buddha. ' kleśa '. 23) 24) And kills its Obscurations because of Compassion. T G S 4 5 7 c . T. being immaculate. 19) 20 pattra. TAKASAKI And a man of immaculate divine sight would perceive him And release him from the sheath of p e t a l s 1 9 ) of lotus. 26) 27) 28) upagūdha (concealed). thum[-pa] (something packed or wrapped up).|?§). the Lord perceives t h e world. Desire. millions 2 8 ) of bees. 22 > C. ] H ^ 'Q. t h e Great Sage. C.. In t h e same way. Q |* ffi ffl E& "fill. etc. Perceives his own nature even in those who are in the lowest world And. And wishing to get it. // 103 // Just as a man who is desirous of getting honey Hidden by thousands. reads padma instead of pattra. T . Hatred 22>. for niyuta).4 5 8 a . sgrib-pa ( = āvarana). with his Buddha's eyes.(ffl EÎ3 "ftfe = nayuta. "> Cf. standing at the utmost limit 2 0 ) and being full of Compassion He releases them from the obscurations. reads analogically ' ^ £ ^ ^ ' (petals). [ 270 ] . 23) 24) nivarana. C. ) . sahasra-koti-niyuta. instead of accusative in S. And rends asunder t h e petals [in order to draw him out]. T . C. possessed of the eyes of the Omniscience. > = being eternal (C. T. T. similar t o T . Would deprive t h e bees completely of it. bskor (surrounded). C. T. T. 2l) sammiñjita. covered with the sheath of stains. — // 102 // Similarly. T .J. // 100 // Just as a person of divine sight perceives A faded 2 1 ) and ugly lotus flower and the Buddha within it. bya-ba khrab-khrig ston (niyuta-koti-sahasra).

t o remove). And unless it is freed from the association of stains of Defilements.3 3 ) . All these a r e varieties of grains. nas. bra-bo. ft § ^ V£ fE • [ 271 ] . hbru ( t h e second one 29) is a kind of wheat). ^ § .// vinihatya (fr. the Buddhahood in the living beings Is polluted with the stains of Defilements. for which T . Similarly. the immaculate Wisdom in the living beings Is like honey. a r e hbru. Does not become one who can grant the pleasurable taste of the Doctrine. 30) T h e form madhvā as i n s t . & C. t h e i r equiv a l e n t s are n o t so clear. C. T. and the Defilements are like bees. Having his feature unreleased from the husk of Defilements. — // 105 // Similarly. C. As long as it is unreleased from the husk and not cleaned well 3 4 \ Cannot be the sweet edible for the people. gra-ma-can legs-par ma bgrus (having hairs and not yet cleaned) (bgrus means ' to step on the bag filled with corns in order to remove the husk).) is peculiar. To the people who are afflicted by the hunger of Defilements. T h e last o n e . 34 ' khādy-asusamskrta. of madhu (neut. sg. which gives a b e t t e r sense. //106// Just as the kernel of grains like rice. (III) The Defilements are like the outer husk. T G S 458 a. The kernel of grains covered with the husk Cannot be eaten by any person. 33) kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrihi. etc. vrihi seems t o s t a n d for corn or grain i n general. bsal te (fr. p. 31 > Cf. In the same way. and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the inner kernel 31 '. See J's note 1 on S. wheat. //107// 1/104. ^ %r (killing). The Buddha. (Is i t a special form in some P r a k r i t or m e r e l y a wrong reading of madhunā?). vi-ni\Jhan). T . jfjj . Those who wish to utilize it as food and the like 3 2 ) Take it out from the husk. 32 ' annâdibhir (inst. It cannot perform the Acts of Buddha in the 3 Spheres. sālu. C. C. barley. B u t T . | f ^ff . knows how to remove the stains. ^ 3 5 }§? fâ . the religious king 3 5 ) residing in the living beings.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga and makes Drives the bees away 2 9 ) use of the honey 3 0 ) as he wishes. 62. like that man. f | $ .) is g r a m m a t i c a l l y peculiar (usually i n l o c ) . respectively. sel-ba. > dharmûśvara.

fresh 39) and the highest of precious things. T. TGS 458 a-b. 37 > Cf. Teaches the Doctrine to the living beings in order to purify the treasure.J . And the gold would stay there for many hundreds of years As it were. the most beautiful one. om.g y i s ) i n s t e a d of malāt. r e a d s ' kun-tu dgah-bar by a phyir ' (in order t o g l a d d e n them. p. T . 42) . 40) T . samkāra is replaced in verses by samkara. 41) T . without changing its quality. TGS 458 b. r e a d s ' bālāt' ( n a n . 36) [ 272 ] . samkāra-dhāna. B u t C. perceiving a piece of gold. And pours the rain of the Doctrine over the living beings In order to wash off that dirt of defilements. Suppose a traveller would happen to drop 38) A piece of gold in a place filled with impurities . which is p r o b a b l y a m i s r e a d i n g for ' kun-tu dag-par bya phyir '. the Buddha perceives the quality of living beings Drowned in the Defilements which are like impurities. 0 . T. 38) samkara-pūti-dhāna. o m . You should purify it and make use of it as a treasure. 43 > Cf. as S. Would show it to the people in order to purify 4 0 ) it from dirt 4 1 ) . C. 42) tola. simply ' impurities '. & C. XII. Fallen into a dirty place filled with impurities. However this man might not know about that treasure. i t . // 111 // (V) The Defilements are like the underground 43) of the Tathāgata is akin to a treasure of jewels . ) . T. In the same way. dhāna stands here for ādhāna. Ijan-ljin-kyi gnas. TAKASAKI (IV) The Defilements are like a dirty place 3 6 ) filled with impurities. 39 > nava. C. and the Essence Suppose there were an inexhaustible treasure Under the ground within the house of a poor man. the Buddha. mthil (depth). Ijan-ljin rul-bahi gnas. — // 109 // Similarly. Also cf. 407 b). MPS (Taisho. // 110 // Just as a god. perceiving the treasure of the Buddha in the living beings Which is fallen into a big pit of impurities of defilements. and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to gold 37) . — // 108 // Then a god possessed of immaculate divine eyes Would see it there and tell a man: — Here is a piece of gold.

The

R at na got r av ib h ā ga

And the latter could not say to him 4 I am here '; — // 112 // Similarly, though there is a treasure of immaculate jewel, The inconceivable, inexhaustible 44) properties in the mind, The living beings of the world, without knowing it, Constantly 4 5 ) experience the suffering of poverty in various ways. // 113 // Just as a treasure of jewels in the house of a poor man Would not say to him 4 1 am here ', Nor the man could know ' here is a treasure of jewels '; Likewise is the treasure of properties dwelling in the house of the mind 4 6 ) , And the living beings are like a poor man; To enable those people to obtain this treasure, The Sage makes his appearance in the world. // 114 // (VI) The Defilements are like the bark-covering [of a seed], and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the germ within a seed 4 7 ) . Just as the germ of a seed inside the fruit of trees Of Mango, Tāla 4 8 ) , etc. is of an imperishable nature, And, being sowed in the ground, by contact with water, etc., Gradually attains the nature of the king of trees; — // 115 // In the same way, the pure Absolute Essence, abiding in the living beings, Covered by the sheath within the bark of the fruit of ignorance and the like, [Grows] gradually by the help of this and that virtue And obtains [finally] the state of the king of Sages. // 116 // Conditioned by water, by the light of the sun, By air, soil, time and space, From within the husk of the fruit of the Tāla or mango There comes out a tree; Similarly, the germ of the seed of the Buddha, Residing within the bark of the fruit, the defilements of living beings,
44)

aksayya ( = aksaya), ajasram, T . rgyun-tu, C. o m . 46) R e m i n d of a similarity w i t h t h e ālayavijñāna theory. 47 > Cf. T G S 458 c. 48) T . o m . tāla, C. s i m p l y ' v a r i o u s kinds of t r e e '.
45)

[ 273 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Thrives by the help of this and that virtue, Resulting in the tree 49> of the Highest Truth. // 117 // (VII) The Defilements are like a tattered garment, and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a precious image 5 0 ) . Suppose an image of the Buddha made of precious jewels Wrapped in the tattered garment of bad smell Were cast off51) on the road, and A god, perceiving it, would speak to travellers About this matter 5 2 ) , in order to retrieve it; — // 118 // Similarly, the One who has eyes 5 3 ) of no obstacle Perceives, even among those in the world of animals 5 4 ) , The nature 5 5 ) of the Buddha concealed by the stains 5 6 ) of various kinds of Defilements, And, for the sake of its liberation [from Defilements], Provides the means 5 7 ) [of deliverance]. // 119 // Just as a god with divine eyes, seeing the Buddha's image Wrapped in a bad-smelling garment, and rejected 5 8 ) on the road, Would show it to the people in order to retrieve it; In the same way the Lord, perceiving even among animals, The Essence [of the Buddha] thrown on the road of transmigration,

40) vitapa (small plant), T. hthon (coming out), C. \Jp y C f £ JX1 for dharmavitapa. so) Q£t XGS 458 c-459 a. The story given in the Sūtra is as follows: There was a person who kept one golden image of the Buddha. He was on the way to another country along a dangerous path. For fear of robbers, he wrapped that image in tattered garment so that nobody could notice of it. As this person passed all of a sudden on the way, the image was abandoned in a field and left unknown to travellers who thought it merely a dirty cloth of no value. There happened to come a man of divine eyes, who, recognizing the image within the tattered garment, picked it up out of the garment and saluted it.

61)
62) 63) 64) S5) 66) 87)

F o r ujjhita, T . gnas (placed), C. ^ £ or E J [ / £ £ (fallen) in v. 120.
etam artham (this thing). T . o m . caksuh, w h i c h C. h a s . C. ' in the lowest world (avici) '. ātmabhāva, T. dños-po (nature), C. [KH yjv] -*J" ( = kāya). T. om. mala, which C. has.

abhyupāya, T. thabs, C. ~/J ]§*,. For vidadhāti, T. ston-mdsad, C. fij (preaches the highest doctrine). B8) ujjñita in the text should be corrected into ujjhita.

t 274 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a

With the covering of the tattered garment of Defilements, Taught the Doctrine for the sake of its deliverance. // 120 // (VIII) The Defilements are like a pregnant woman 59 ' and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to an Emperor contained in the Embryonal elements 6 0 ) . Suppose an ugly woman without a protector 6 1 ) Were abiding in an orphanage 62) , And, bearing the glory of royalty as an embryo 6 3 ) , Might not know the king in her own womb 6 4 ) . // 121 // The generation of worldly existence is like an orphanage, Like a pregnant 6 5 ) woman are the impure living beings, And the immaculate Essence in them is like that embryo 6 6 ) , Owing to the existence of which, they become possessed of protection. // 122 // Just as a woman, whose body is covered with a dirty garment And having ugly features, experiences in an orphanage, The greatest pain when the king is in her womb; Similarly the living beings abiding in the house of misery, And whose mind is not quiet by the power of Defilements, Imagine themselves without a protector Though the good protectors 6 7 ) are residing in their own bodies. // 123 //

āpanna-sattva-nārl, T . sems-can shugs-pahi an e m b r y o ) , sattva here m e a n s a n e m b r y o .
60)

59)

mi-mo

(a w o m a n w h o is b e a r i n g kalala is

kalala-mahābhūtagata. For kalala, T. mer-mer-po, C. flf/V #lâ [3&E]« t h e first s t a g e of e m b r y o . Of t h i s e x a m p l e , cf. T G S 459 a.
61)

anātha (Lit. without a protector) T. mgon-med, C. j|J\ $ § • (^* m e a n s 'abandoned by her husband', or ' widow '). 62) anātha-āvasatha, T . mgon-med hbug-gnas, = anātha-śāla ( T . . . . khyim), anātha( T . . . . khañ-pa), C. ^ ^ 3§«J " | § * . garbha, T . mñal. mñal m e a n s ' w o m b ' a n d n o t ' e m b r y o ' , b u t h e r e garbha seems to m e a n e m b r y o . See below. 64) kuksu, T . he (centre), C. ' inside of b o d y '. veśman
63) 65) 66)

antarvat,

T . mñal-ldan

(garbhavat),

C. | f ! t ) j o (possessed of e m b r y o ) . ( = garbha-sthita, t h a t w h i c h is within

tad-garbhavat.

F o r garbha, T . mñal-gnas

t h e w o m b ) , C. ^ ^
67)

T ^ JjP ( e m b r y o w i t h i n t h e w o m b ) . T . mgon-bcas, C. >^J mfi fvC &&. • B o t h t a k e s i t as sanātha.

sannātha,

[ 275 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(IX) The Defilements are like an earthen mould 6 8 ) and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a golden statue 6 9 ) . Suppose a man who knows [how to make a statue], Seeing that the statue, filled with melted gold inside And covered with clay outside, had become cool, Would, for purifying the inner gold, remove the outer covering; — // 124 // Similarly, the One who has got the highest Enlightenment, Perceiving always 7 0 ) the radiance of the Innate Mind And the occasionality of the stains, Purifies the world, which is like a mine of jewels, from obstructions. // 125 // Just as a statue made of pure, shining gold Would become cool within the earthen covering, And, knowing this, a skillful jewel-maker would remove the clay; In the same way the Omniscient perceives that The Mind 71) , which is like pure gold, is quiescent 72) , And, by means of a stroke 73) [called] the method of teaching the He removes the obscurations. // 126 // Doctrine 7 4 ) , The summarized meaning of the illustrations is as follows: Inside a lotus flower, amidst bees, Inside the husk, impurities, and the ground, Within the bark of a fruit, within a tattered garment, In the womb of a woman, and inside clay, respectively, Like the Buddha, like honey, like the kernel of grains, Like gold, like a treasure, and like a tree, Like a precious image, like the Emperor, And like a golden statue, // 128 // The Innate Mind of the living beings Which is pure from beginningless time,
68)

// 127 //

89

mrt-pañka-lepa, T. sahi hdam gos-pa, C. > Cf. TGS 459 a-b. 70) T. om. sadā, which C. has.
71

> manas, T. yid, C. ^fC J 2 . |y|j |zfc • manas here stands for cittaprakrti. ^ (firmly). C. ^*[£ ( h a m m e r ) . prahāra, T . brdeg-spyad,

72

> For Siva, C. f | |

73) 74)

dharmâkhyāna-naya, T. chos-hchad-tshul, C. îpt V S •

[ 276 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ā ga

And is not bound by the covering of Defilements, Though being within them from the outset is thus illustrated 7 5 ) . // 129 // In brief, by this explanation of the illustrations given in the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, there is shown the fact that, for all living beings, the defiling elements [which cover] over their mind from the beginningless time are [merely] of an accidental nature, whereas the purifying elements existing in the mind since beginningless time were born together [with the mind], and hence, they are of an indivisible nature 7 6 ) . Therefore, it is said 7 7 ) : " Owing to the impurities on the Mind, the living beings are defiled; owing to the Mind [itself], pure [by nature], they are purified ". § 2. 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities on the Mind
78)

.

Here, which are the impurities on the Mind, with reference to which the 9 illustrations, a sheath of lotus flower, &c, have been explained? Desire, Hatred and Ignorance 7 9 ) , and their intense outburst, [Ignorance in] the form of Impression 80>
75)

C. a b b r e v i a t e s t h e s e 3 verses i n t o two b y avoiding r e p e t i t i o n of t h e 9 e x a m p l e s . a n d cittaprakrti b y using ' ^pj ' for t h e former

C. distinguishes t h e s i t u a t i o n of kleśas

and ' -£3- JEp ' (endowed w i t h ) for t h e l a t t e r . 76) H e r e is given t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n citta-samkleśa-dharma and citta-vyavadānadharma, n a m e l y t h e former is merely āgantuka, while t h e l a t t e r is sahaja a n d avinirbhāga, a l t h o u g h b o t h are anādisāmnidhya (S. p . 5 9 , 1 . 12 ff.) w i t h sattvas. This c o n t r a s t is explained in a previous passage b y t h e t e r m s asambaddha a n d sambaddha. 77) T h e source of t h i s q u o t a t i o n is u n k n o w n , b u t we h a v e a similar expression i n the Vimalakîrti-nirdeśa (Taisho, X V , 563 b). This i d e a seems t o be q u i t e old a n d p e r h a p s we c a n t r a c e b a c k i t s origin as far as t h e P a l i N i k ā y a s (e.g. SN I I I , 151). 78 > Cf. B G Ś 806 c.
79)

C. a d d s a word ' ^*y 7fcf| ', of which t h e e q u i v a l e n t in S k t . is n o t clear. P r o b a b l y

it s t a n d s for anuśaya or bandhana (literally ' ^ R f£fp| ' is near t o bandhana, b u t in t h e comm e n t a r y , these t h r e e kleśas are said to be in t h e s t a t e of anuśaya, a n d f u r t h e r m o r e , bandhana is usually rendered in Chinese b y ' /£n 151 % while in this t e x t , t h e same ' flip (JJ^' (or / { | Q ) is often used for anuśaya. If so, even m o r e curious is t h e use of this ' jppf > | | Q ' for tivra-paryavasthāna in this verse. I t seems q u i t e wrong. F o r paryavasthāna, T . has kun-ldan ( = kun-nas Idañ-ba) (— paryutthāna). See v. 137. 80) H e r e vāsanā s t a n d s for avidyāvāsabhūmi. See prose c o m m e n t a r y on this verse. This use of vāsanā seems to s u p p o r t t h e T i b e t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m avidyāvāsabhūmi. See N o t e V I I I - 1 1 2 .

[ 277 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The pollutions [which are to be removed by 8 1 ) ] The Path of Perception and that of Practice 8 2 ) , And those remaining in the impure and the pure Stages [of Bodhisattva, respectively], // 130 // These 9 kinds of [defilements] are illustrated By the example of the sheath of a lotus flower and others; In their variety, however, the coverings of Defilements 8 3 ) Extend beyond the limit of extremity in number. // 131 // In brief, these 9 kinds of Defilements make always their appearance [on the Essence of the Tathāgata] as the incidental [attachment]8 4 ) , although the latter is perfectly pure by nature, just like the sheath of a lotus flower [covering] over the Buddha's image, and other examples. What are the 9 Defilements? They are, namely: 1) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state 8 5 ) of Desire (rāgânuśayalaksana-kleśa); 2) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Hatred (dvesânuśayalaksana-k.); 3) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Ignorance (mohânuśayalaksana~k.); 4) the Defilement characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance (tīvrarāgadvesamohaparyavasthānalasana-k.); 5) the Defilement contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmisamgrhīta-k.); 6) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Perception (darśanaprahātavya-k.); 7) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Practice (bhāvanāprahātavya-k.); 8) the Defilement remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (aśuddhabhūmigata-k.); & 9) the Defilement remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (śuddhabhūmigata-k.) 8 6 ) .

81

' T. inserts spoñs (= hey a, prahātavya) after mārga. It is better for understanding. drñ-mārga-bhāvanā. upasamkleśa, But T. & C, in usual order of darśana-bhāvanā-mārga. ñon-moñs, C. , K | | jpSa . T . ñe-bahi

82)

83)

86
86

> anuśaya, T. bag-la ñal, C. ^ (BGŚ |5f| > For these 9, T., C. & BGŚ have as follows (BGŚ in parentheses): 1) hdod—chags bag—la ñal—gyi mtshan—ñid—kyi ñon—moñs—pa, J ^ [§^ J^\ |pq «

m n m. m is*

2) *«*.*, m m ® t i . <ffi BE B« m m*
3) Pi-mug, M fâ. 'JR t i , M SS M ® 1%;

4) hdod-chags dañ she-sdañ dañ gti-mug drag-pos kun-nas Idañ-bahi mtshan-ñid,

S t i , (M B m ^ S S -t 'li'SR* «
[ 278 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga

Now first of all, l)-3), there are those Defilements which are in the bodies 8 7 ) of those worldly people who are freed from 8 8 ) Desire, and, being the causes of Forces which accumulate the motionless State 8 9 ', give rise to the Material and the Immaterial Sphere, and which are to be killed 9 0 ) by means of the Supermundane Wisdom. These are here termed the Defilements characterized as the dormant state of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. 4) Next, we have those Defilements which exist in the bodies of those living beings who indulge in Desire and the rest, and which, being the cause of Forces that accumulate merit and demerit, give rise only to the Sphere of Desire, and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom, [obtained] through the Contemplation of Impurity 9 1 ) , etc. They are called the Defilements characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. Then, 5) there are those Defilements which are in the bodies of the Arhats, and, being the cause that produces the Immaculate Actions, result in the birth of the pure Body made of mind, and are to be killed by the Tathāgata's Wisdom of Enlightenment. These are called the Defilements contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 9 2 ) . There are two kinds of individuals who undergo training [on the

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sāntānika, (of santāna, lit. flux, stream), T. rgyud-la yod-pa, C. vita, T. -dan bral-ba. C. failed to catch the sense, but BGŚ {|ft âniñjya-samskārâpacaya T . mi-gyo-bahi hdu-byed-la sogs-pa, ^\.

88) 89)

C. /y* JUJifQl ^ f e

jy\ 3^v. About āniñjya ( = anijya, aniñjya, Pali ānejja), see BHS Die. s. v. Along with punya and apunya, this āninjya forms samskāra which accumulates the Phenomenal Existence (bhava). See below.
90) 91

vadhya, T . gshom-par bya-ba, C. Hflf. ' aśuddhabhāvanā (text reading bhāva should be corrected), T. mi sdug-pahi sgom-

pa, C. /f* ^ Î H . See BHS Die. s. v., Mvyut. 52. 92) About avidyāvāsabhūmi, anāsravakarman and manomayakāya, see Note VIII112, 115. (where Bodhisattva is also included in this group).

[ 279 ]

It seems to be a good interpretation of this prathama.J. Paramārtha gives a detailed explanation on this subject in his commentary on BGS (BGS 807 b). yathādrsta. C. But usually the attainment of darśanamārga is said to take place on the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva. slob-pa. C. i. They may be called ' bodhisattvayānika '. these are called the Defilements remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. 'ārya\ here. these are called the Defilements remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. not a verse at all. These 9 8 ) śaiksa. It is said to be the meditation in the highest stage of practice. (Mvyut. C repeats lokottara and seems to render this prathama by prathamalokottaracitta ($) pj \jt ffl] 'L^). 9) The Defilements which exist in the body of Bodhisattvas who have reached the ultimate perfection.But BGŚ inserts ' 3f|§ $pj I . 8) Those which are in the body of Bodhisattvas who have not reached the ultimate perfection. 8. as J suggested. ^ C EĪ JĪ^L *gî ' (anādikālâdrstapūrva) before prathama. [Lastly there are two kinds of Defilements associating with Bodhisattwas]. 98 ' The following verse is. seems to denote those Bodhisattvas who are below the 1st Stage. 6) the Defilements which exist in the body of ordinary beings training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the first 94> Perception of the Transcendental Truth are termed the Defilements to be extirpated by means of Perception. 3?M J^Q J ^ J (yathā-pūrvadrsta).e. those which are not exterminated by the Wisdom attained in the first 7 Stages. This passage is merely 961 95) 93) [ 280 ] . And. ' prathama ' means that this darśana has never been observed by the Hīnayānists and is to be attained ' for the first time ' by the Mahāyānist. î | p J\. TAKASAKI Path] 9 3 ) : a) the ordinary beings and b) the Saints. T. regards prathama as prathamabhūmi. in comparison with ' yathādrsta ' in the next. 97 * vajropama-samādhi. 7) the Defilements which exist in the body of the Saints training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the Transcendental Practice of the Truth according to their [Transcendental] Perception 95> are called the Defilements to be extirpated by Practice. in comparison with no. Mahāyānist. and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained through] the Practice on the (last) 3 Stages beginning with 8th and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [of the Buddha. obtained through] the Meditation called 'the Diamond-like' 9 7 ) . and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained] on the [first] 7 Stages 9 6 ) and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [obtained through] the Practice of the 3 Stages beginning with the 8th. Now. See above. That is to say. ^Ts. 21 & 55).e. 94 ' T. i.

131 ab and the following sentences are those of v. are as infinite as the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. [the next] one (the 5th) and two (the 6th & 7th) and again by two (the 8th & 9th) kinds of Pollution. fourfold: namely. how should the resemblance of 9 Defilements be known. T. (Variety of Living Beings according to their Defilements). // 133 // It has been said by the Lord that all living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 0 0 ) . By these four. 2) the Arhats. 102 > Cf. and 4) the Bodhisattvas. 99) Qf^ T G S ( T h e second f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). Are illustrated by 9 examples. respectively. Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and the 9 Defilements102'. to the sheath of a lotus flower and others. Desire and the rest. 101) kleśa-mala. The impurity [retained] in the ordinary beings. And the Bodhisattvas is [explained].The Ratnagotrav1bñaga Nine Defilements. 101) respectively. The Arhats. om. the Buddha's image and the rest? an explanation of v. on account of [which they cannot identify themselves with] the Immaculate Sphere. [these Defilements] which are differentiated into 84. keeps the original form. Being taken in short. if taken in detail. two and two kinds of pollution. therefore. C. respectively. 100) Cf. one. the individuals in training [on the Path]. § 3. mala. T G S ( T h e first f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). // 132 // And. it is said that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the coverings of Defilements which extend beyond the limit of extremity in number 9 9 ) . Perhaps iti is t o [ 281 ] . 'all living beings ' are said to be. beginning with Desire. 131 cd. On this point. Now. in short. That of the sheath of a lotus flower and others. is here explained by [the first] four.000 groups. Their impurity. 3) the individuals in training [on the Path]. and how should the similarity be understood between the Essence of the Tathāgata and [the examples]. Here. respectively. ( T h e r e a d i n g garbha be corrected into garbhā iti). 1) the ordinary beings. BGŚ 807 c-808 a.

they bite the flowers '. C. ' C. // 135 // Just as the kernel of rice 1 0 6 ) and others Are concealed 107) by the outside husk.). they cannot obtain the Buddhahood Hindered by the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 113 '. i n comparison with t h e illustration above. & C. But later on [when it withers]. T. being aroused. as J suggested). reads as jane (skye-la). vasudhā-antarita. So h a v e T . ffp 3*fî. Hatred. Produces suffering in the heart. though being far from the literal translation. C. interprets: ' when they are making honey. being excited. But C. C. And BGŚ has ' jsjP: /y\ tcL. 106) For śāli.Just as the lotus flower born from the mud Is delightful103) in its first appearance. T. reads ' chags dañ bcas rnams-kyi ' (kāma-avirāgi108 109 nām. Being characterized as devoted to [such] Passion. But janāh is the subject word of āpunyur and is used for both illustrating and being illustrated.' (virāgin) in the parallel passage. In a similar way. 104 The analogies in the following verses seem ' bhramarāh prāninah (pi. ^ ^ . growing gradually. // 137 // Just as the people 111 '. being a n adjective for svayambhūtvam. it is no more attractive. // 136 // Just as the impurities are somewhat disagreeable. JQi * " P . 'nor ni bsgribs-pas na ' for this a n d ' mi-śes gter ' for ajñānād nidhi is a misreading caused b y t h e reading of jane for janāh. ' andakośa (lit. // 137 // Just as the honey-bees 1 0 4 ) . reading ' jfj flp£ J i ^ yS* p$g ' (similar is the case with the wise man's observation of rāga). srog-chags sbrañ-ma. J\. The outburst of Passions is repulsive like impurities. quite artificial. U1 ' T. T. T . C. los > sārârtha. Sting sharply [and cause pain] 1 0 5 ) . Likewise those who have got rid of desire 110) [Regard] Passion as something disagreeable. C. Similarly. which supports the text reading. the perception of the Essential Truth 1 0 8 ) Is hindered by the covering 1091 of ignorance. 112) [ 282 ] . shows this reading by repeating janāh. is still close to S. 107 ' avacchanna = samcanna. hbras ( = vrîhi. // 138 // Just as a sprout and the like. because of their ignorance. 103 ' mano-rama. corn). Cannot obtain the treasure hidden under the ground 112 '. bsgribs—pa. T. J^J ^ ^ . T. 113) -phe reading * avidyāvāsabhūmy-āvrtā h a d preferably b e corrected i n t o -âvrtam. yid-dgah. Similar to it is the delight of Desire. egg-shell). no) jp o r * kāmā virāginām *. In the same way.

115) hata-satkāya-sārānām. T . dañ mtshuñs. "2) C. chen-po. g ft ffl" ^ >\j\ %W ^K j g | ' and connects them [ 283 ] . to the image of the Buddha and so 114) The analogy is not clear. The resemblance of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. being the cause for puri122) fying the Mind . // 143 // § 4. dañ hbrel-pa T . C. C. //141 // The stains connected w i t h 1 1 9 ) the [last] 3 Stages Are known as being like t h e earthen mould. Desire and the rest. And are to be destroyed b y the Wisdom of the Buddhas 1 2 0 ) [Obtained through] Meditation called ' the Diamondlike '. BGŚ 808 a (#0 ^ H fll S tt). C. . consisting of 3-fold nature. Similarly. mahâtman. their Defilements which are to be rejected By the Wisdom of Practice are said to be like a tattered garment. Bears a similarity to the Buddha and the rest. anugata. o m . by the Intuition of the Truth. And the non-discriminative Wisdom has a resemblance To the matured form of an embryo delivered from its covering. mñal—sbubs dri—ma. rjes-hbrel T . $fj!f *JC • garbhakośa means 117 > prakhyā. reads *££=(•. 119) 120) C. // 140 // The stains remaining in the [first] 7 Stages Are like 1 1 7 ) the impurities of the receptacle of an embryo 1 1 8 ) . 118 > garbha—kośa—mala. . and its Concordance with the 9 Illustrations 1 2 1 ) . bdag-ñid ( = anubaddha). T . Have a resemblance to a lotus flower and others. T . respectively. // 142 // Thus t h e 9 pollutions. the Purifying Element within the Mind.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga Break out the husk of the seed. y*C H īff| " S * $ 1 1 . . j j n fy\ ffijj? . which is n o t correct. . says: ' darśanamārga removes the defilements and makes the Stages grow up gradually '. Therefore. sāra. . 116) anusañga. in 9-fold. ( = sambandha). hjig-tshogs sniñ-po bcom rnams-kyi. T . C. . The 3-fold Nature of the Essence. //139// Those who have destroyed t h e ground of conception of personallity 115> 116) Are following in the [Practice of the] Saintly P a t h . uterus. And the Essence [of the Buddha]. C. Those Defilements are removed which are to be extirpated by 114 Perception ). C. e. with each of trividha svabhāva. 7^[J ( k n o w n ) . | § # H . i»> Cf. i.

126) ^jjg r e a d i n g ' dharmadhātor avi.' is t o b e corrected i n t o ' dharmadhātur B o t h T. and by [the remaining] 5 examples.'. how is the Absolute Body? The Absolute Body is to be known in 2 aspects. i. p. 124) Cf. Three. where gotra is explained as the germ of ratnatraya. By one example. those of the treasure. v. Here. & C. * "^r vīîi ')• This is interpreted in the commentary by ' tat-prāpti-hetu '. In this sense. 125) nisyanda. .SAJ4. honey and the kernel [of grains]. [ 284 ] . its being of the nature of Reality (tathathāsvabhāva).1 forth. 4) & v. S. C. read i t as nominative. that of gold. 23 (K. those of the image of the Buddha. the highest Lord of Universe. its being of the nature of the Germ (gotrasvabhāva) from which the 3 kinds of Buddha's Body are originated 124) [is to be understood]. as well as the Germ. rgyu-mthun. avi. T. the tree. p. the teaching Of the profound [truth] and of the diverse guidance. and the golden statue. ratnatraya is ultimately resolved into one ' buddha-ratna '. 1231 C. . is to be understood in the reference to the 3-fold Nature (trividhah svabhāvah) of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 2 3 ) . [One] is the Absolute Entity which is perfectly immaculate. What is the 3-fold Nature? The Nature of this [Essence] is the Absolute Body. the precious image.e. 28 (S. a) Dharmakāya. one and five. ^"]§î ^p^ HS • The following passage is a detailed explanation of v. (E|[ -ffî* (which is a peculiar translation. [respectively]. 1) the perfectly pure Absolute Entity itself (dharmadhātu) . 26). 27 and v. i. It is also to be compared with (I) svabhāva (the first of the 10 meanings of tathāgatadhātu. 24. The Reality. 126) [Namely]. // 144 // By the 3 examples. this Essence is to be understood as being of the nature of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya-svabhāva). Which is known by the examples.XAJVA. From the viewpoint of ekayāna. // 145 // The Absolute Body of the Buddha is to be understood in 2 aspects.e.e. 27). i. Usually. these two different explanations of gotra are identical. [The other] is its natural outflow125).

133) 134 T . Cf. 134) Namely. C. nothing can be given As an example for the Essence. respectively. 1. 13 6 ' sūtra.. ' bodhisattva—pitaka. Abhidharmakośa-vyākhyā. the Prophecy. vyavasthāna. gggg. [ 285 ] . & audārika. nidāna. T . respectively. They are here regarded as the doctrine for Srāvaka. > prabhava. byañ—chub—sems—dpahi sde—snod. r e s p . p f ^ ^ -TZ-C zllxi • 135> T. Taisho..). Wogihara's Edition. C. and this is to be known in the reference to the Truth realized by the Tathāgata through introspection (pratyātmâdhigama—dharma). T . p. 10 ff. ~>fâ .) and on śaranatraya (S. the Verse. 147. 14 ff. C. And this is to be known in the reference to the Truth as the doctrine 131) to be taught (deśanā—dharma) . Therefore. the Statement 136) of subject matter. . and 2)-2) the Aphorism. 131 ' See back. Lank. sūksma.and Pratyekabuddhayānika. gdul-bya ji-lta-bar. by Paramārtha). which produces 1 2 8 ) the communication1 2 9 ) 130 among other living beings according to their faculties in discipline '. rnam-par rig-pa. sattvas are led to bodhi. T. dharmavyavasthānanayabhedāt. XXXI. C. 174). These are the first 6 of dvādaśâñga-dharmapravacana (see Mvyut. 5]* f t • So has BGŚ (0f -ft). . flpffl . the Mahayānasamgraha-bhāsya (tr. vyākarana. by means of deśanā-dharma. C. Of these two divisions of dharma. owing to the difference of 132 133 means for exposition ' of the Doctrine. C. īf^ (?). 0 ^ J\ R>J Jfcfc j f l £gg . { ^ WL for vyavasthāna-naya-deśanā.The Ratnagotravibhāga which is the acting sphere of Non-discriminative Wisdom. om. rnam—par hjog—pa. T. 132) vyavasthāna. the Solemn Utterance. Being supermundane. 2)-l) the Code of Bodhisattva . Jjfej. rgya-chen. the teaching by the profound 135) means for exposition of the Doctrine referring to the Highest Truth (paramārthasatya). respectively. T . 137) These two divisions of deśanā-dharma correspond to nītârtha and neyârtha. 62). 1$C . 129) 130 C. whether subtle or extensive '. gāthā. the passage on dharmaratna (S. Also cf. p. P . And. vijñapti. 18. &c. p. 2) the natural outflow of the perfectly pure Absolute Entity {dharmadhātu—nisyanda) as the cause for its attainment 1 2 7 ) . phra-ba. (Cf. 268 c: JÇ #P ?£ & IE t £ Wi. p. 171: siddhānta-naya & deśanānaya. C. in this world. BGS: ^ ^ . the Scripture in prose and verse. which are the teaching by various kinds of means for exposition of the Doctrine and are related to the Empirical 137) Truth (samvrti-satya) . BGŚ: j £ ^fff ffi Jj« & I E tSl ' ? £ " % . Also cf. hbyuñ. gey a. udāna. it is shown in its similarity 127) 128 In the sense that. ' yathāvainayika is to be corrected into yathāvaineyika. T. This teaching is again divided into two. o m .

t h e aggregate of living beings. 138) anda-sāra. khams. with no exception. By the way. the Matrix in which the Tathāgata penetrates). Similarly. 139) £ £ § > p^ 26. in reference to the meaning that all living beings. sbubs-sñiñ ( = kośa-sāra). Also. the honey and the kernel. as a collective n o u n . C. As being similar to the kernel of various grains l 3 8 ) . Just as space pervades all visible forms. This is the first way of interpreting the term tathāgatagarbha. [ 286 ] . T . and hence the compound has the sense of ' one who is within the Tathāgata '. a c e . the penetration of the Absolute into everything from inside and this signifies the all-pervadingness of the Absolute. F o r t h e 2 n d and 4th Pada. // 147 // Thus. those of the image of the Buddha. just as no kind of physical form can exist outside of space. C. saying: ' similarly. & C. In this sense.e. Similarly. T . sattvakāya is indivisible from buddhajñāna \ & ' therefore. 141) sattvadhātu. it pervades all the multitudes of living beings " . 28 a: sambuddhakāyaspharanāt. shows no difference between this and the subsequent other two interpretations (^pj >(U -^ $|xî). This meaning comes from the idea of ' antargama of buddhajnāna '.J . C. i t 1 4 4 ) is held to be always all-pervading. TAKASAKI To the [apparitional form of the] Buddha himself. are the Matrix (interior) of the Tathāgata 1 4 0 ) . And taught by various kinds of means.e. it is explained that 'these. profound means Is to be known as being akin to honey of one taste. BGŚ calls this 1st meaning ' /3/f $uf UK' (garbha in the sense of samgrhīta). v . all living beings. 8 : sarvasattvesu tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârthena. as u s u a l (for dhātu. -5r)» 142) C. & 1. inserts ' tathāgatajñānād bahir ' after ' dharmakāyād bahir '. it is said that sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh \ respectively. 252 b. Because it is said 1 4 3 ) : " Just as space is considered to be all-pervading always. by 3 examples. there is no one among the living beings 1 4 1 ) who stands outside the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 4 2 ) .y | | ^M) J P ^ '*fc (of different t a s t e ) . 140) tathāgatasya ime garbhāh sarvasattvāh. B G S r e g a r d s t h i s p a s s a g e as a q u o t a t i o n from s o m e s c r i p t u r e (808 a ) . T . (i. 144) " tat " s t a n d s for buddhatva. ( . 27 a : buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh. Here. translates the above sentence into ' de-bshingśegs-pahi sñiñ-po-can (being possessed of the essence of the Tathāgata). has a rather free rendering. 143) ]V|SA I X . v . Indeed. ' garbha ' means ' interior '. C. T h e m e a n i n g of anda here is n o t clear. 15 (which h a s rūpagana i n s t e a d of rūpagata). // 146 // [The Doctrine] taught by subtle. T. i. see M S b h ( P ) . t o t h e c o m m e n t a r y o n M S A . are penetrated by the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 3 9 ) . regarding this Bahuvrīhi compound as consisting of two words whose interrelation is the dependent determinative (Tatpurusa).

A n e t y m o l o g y of t h e t e r m tathāgata. tathatā which is r e p r e s e n t e d b y tathāgata. ' anugata. Having in view [this] Innate Mind. and perfectly pure. b e t w e e n tathāgata a n d tathāgatagarbha is m e r e l y i n t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e .. o m . t h e former being ' śuddhim āgatā tathatā'. T . 3):MW teH (8086). o m . 2 7 : tam—nairmalyasyâdvayatvāt. See t h e q u o t a t i o n below. Thus. BGS calls this second interpretation ' \fâ f § ^ ^ ' (garbha in the form of upagūdha). Sublime 1 4 5 ) . 8: tathāgata-tathatā'vyatibhedârthena. t h e whole sentence. though it is associated with 1 4 7 ) the phenomena 1 4 8 ) of Suffering [caused by] innumerable forms of Defilement. Reality is illustrated By the analogy with a piece of148) gold. 152) C. tathāgatagarbha is a special n a m e for tathatā w h e n i t is h i d d e n b y (or covered w i t h ) kīeśas. being Reality. that ' the Tathāgata. with reference to the sense that Reality is the undifferentiated whole 1 5 0 ) . still is advayadharma by nature. T. Because of t h i s identification w i t h tathatā. it is called 'Reality' in the sense of being unchangeable like excellent gold. though it is śuddhi. gzugs ( = rūpa). v . BGŚ : 1) f^ ^ § J | § Jîl.e. 149) viśuddhim āgatas. 151 ' tathāgatas tathatā esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. garbha being tathāgata. it is said by the Lord 1 5 3 ': 145 H f & H . kalyāna. // 148 // That which is the Mind. the inner essence) of these living beings 1 5 1 ) . om. 28: tathatā'vyatibhedatah. . reads this passage curiously as that ' cittaprakrti. 146 147 > C. T h e difference. it is explained by the one example of gold. 148 > T . whenever it perfects the purification149' from all accidental pollutions even in the case of those living beings who are ranked among the groups in the definitely wrong way. i. F r o m this point. H e r e t h e word garbha m e a n s ' essence '. For these three qualities. 153 > JĀA 247 a. [ 287 ] . i. . i. ' nirmalā tathatā ' a n d t h e l a t t e r being ' samalā tathatā '. o m . 2) J?Fj ) mandalaka. Being unchangeable. since all of them are not different by nature. rjes—su hbrel. v. C. tathāgatagarbha is called ' samalā tathatā '. therefore. This is t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m tathāgatagarbha. i n which t h e t w o words tathāgata a n d garbha a r e r e l a t e d a p p o sitionally t o each other. is unable to be shown as being alterable because of its being radiant by nature. a n d 1. In this sense.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a Tathatā.e.e. C. by nature. This very Mind gets also the appellation of i the Tathāgata '. dharma. 150) £f_ g^ p^ 26. is [identical with] the Matrix (i. Therefore.e. if t h e r e is a n y . the pure and non-dual Essential Nature 1 5 2 ) .

22 (S. O Mañjusrī. i6o) -pjjg r e a d m g ' matā ' is acceptable in the light of T. as ' protected by parijñā '. 155) 156) It seems that to know ātma-upādāna means to purify his mind '. bdag-gi ñe-bar len-pahi gshi-rtsa. these two are one and the same. he has understood 1 5 5 ) the purity of living beings. in case the purification is perfected. & C. p. T. 44 TAKASAKI Here. C. Cf. it is considered 1 6 % The 3 Bodies of the Buddha are obtained . 157 > M S A I X . Being like a treasure and like a tree [grown] from a seed. BGŚ *J [ t-M | _ £ . § f 4 trt ^ C^. īfa ffîi ^ • F o r § ^ ^ ) BGŚ ^ parijñātāvin. lei) J ? r o m thi s statement. 4. // 149 // From this twofold Germ. MSA I I I . purification. rañ-bshin gnas-pa. Reality. they cannot be divided into two 1 5 6 ) .J. 3.37. comm. y ^ J . ' kāro ti ' should g r a m a t i c a l l y b e ' kāreti '. see BBh p. Cf. T. C. T. 158 > prakrtistha (-gotra). rtogs-pa ( = āgata). 20) where ratnatraya is referred to. c) Tathāgatagotra. I. paripusta or samudānita). That which is the purity of his own and that which is the purity of the living beings. ^ P . Through his self. yañ-dag blañ-ba. All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of Buddhahood ". v. The Germ [of the Buddha] is known to be twofold. thob-par hdod-pa yin (prāptir matā). As for these two kinds of ' gotra '. M4 fSjJfc. G. \$£ \ ī [3fP? _L] i f l . the first Body. T. (prakrtistha. Is [called] Buddhahood. T. [Also] it is said 1 5 7 ) : 44 Though being undifferentiated among all. T . And. the Tathāgata is one who has the full knowledge about the root of his own substratum 1 5 4 '. anugata. C. therefore. The Innate 1 5 8 ) [Germ] existing since the beginningless time And that which has acquired the highest development 159) . C. the latter two 1 6 1 ) . // 150 // 154) ātmopādānamūla. from the second. dharmakāya seems to be divided into two: one is dhar' i 288 ] . From the first one. BGŚ I . 189 > samudānita (-gotra). BGŚ BE E3 piî T_£ • BGS gives 6 points of similarity of prakrtistha-gotra to a treasure. but they are exactly identical with those in Ratna.

// 151 // The [Body of] Enjoyment165' is like the Universal Lord Since it is the great Emperor of Religion166). just as gold does not belong to any particular person ( ^ P iMl vPi īfîj 3 E •> ^ r t s^ ^ C -T3 ) ( 8 0 8 c )sāmbhoga. It was BGS which. and the other. by these 5 examples. the result of purification of dhātu. 1) rK \\\ (based upon the former merit). prāpta).. C. and a golden statue. 166) p o r ' mahādharmâdhirājatvād '. namely. » nirmāna. t h e last one is called ' *\* ^ p which means t h a t anybody can obtain dharmakāya. II. byas-min. artificial). it is non-artificial163) And is the substratum 164) of precious properties. BGŚ J ^ rtf*. 165) to gold. a Lord of the Universe. a precious image. basing itself on this passage. t h e first three are t h e same as those mentioned here. (attaining the position of a great religious king). A^ ^ H I (unchangeable). T. "*) āśraya. BGŚ 0 f > akrtrima. Probably it is a better reading. T. 3 ^ i^fc . made this point clear and regarded sambhogakāya as a part of dharmakāya being svasambhoga. through which the similarity to pratibimba is observed: 1) ^pj /fQ (having apparitional form).. Since. C. // 152 // Thus. j=( ft ffi ^ 163 (BGŚ ? £ J§«). 3) lK J~p ( = J[£^ •flj. those of a treasure. not clear in this text. This point is. 3) ^ ^ ^py (having beginning and end. 2) [fl £l£ ( = Jrt§ "1 rf > prāptavya). Of them. however. a tree. C. reads ' chos chen rgyal-srid-du Idan phyir ' (mahādharmâdhirājyatvād '). "fl^ ft. III). ^ f| ({J§ Sfi | | "ftf f | ) . Cf. gter ( = nidhi). BGS gives 4 qualities to this kāya. not eternal) (808 c). sprul-ba. rdsogs-loñs. T. i. 2) |±î -Ç/J y j (produced by 'pranidhāna"1 (therefore. and in a later passage dharmakāya is spoken of as being the truth inseparable from wisdom (Chaps. in the refermadhātu or tathatā which is called here the first body.The Ratnagotravibhâga The Body of the Absolute Essence 162) is pure And is known to be like the precious image. C. T. BGŚ maintains 3 characteristics of nirHP māraa. dharmakāya as bodhi. gzugs-brñan. T. by nature. 168 167 ) pratibimba. fP^ j/jtjL . C.e. In other words. BGŚ \\i *§* • The same terminology on trikāya is used in MSA (IX. BGS mentions 4 kinds of similarity of dharmakāya fy\ •yîj ' (sama-prāpta). T. ño-bo-ñid-sku. The Apparitional Body167) is like a golden statue Since is has the nature of being an image 168) . [ 289 ] . 60: svābhāviko ' t/io sāmbhogah kayo nairmāniko. 59): svabhāva—dharmasambhoga—nirmānair. it signifies the separation of jñāna from dharmakāya remaining the latter as pure reality or truth. T. and 4) I r t *3C / n (sambhoga) and regards each of these qualities as being correspondent to that of cakravartin. C. i«2> svābhāvika-kāya. om. viz. ibid. therefore. C. ^ yV^ <2C ~H \ V. which is included in the second kāya being (sva-) sambhogakāya.

v . 172) Throughout this text. p. -fśf -fo fpfc (has got the appellation). 157 a) and also in Sthiramati's commentary on the Trirnsikā of Vasubandhu (Skt. The different way of translation seems to show the difference of meaning implied by these different theories. but is merely a translation of the Skt. 8-9: tathāgatagotrasambhavârthena. the Chinese word ' p t ' n a s a sense of ' nature '.. the inner essence) of these living beings is the Essence (i. T. traidhātuka. Cf. 174 ' garbhagata. being possessed of the meaning of ' hetu \ And this hetu means ' āśraya ' as will be explained. garbha. ill 171) 169) nirvānadhātu. v. the cause) of the Tathāgata '170)t Indeed. it is said that the Essence of the Tathāgata is the cause for the acquisition of these [3 Bodies]. ' yf'' means originally ' boundary ' ' sphere of certain limited extent'. instead of by ' khams' and ' ' p t ' as in this text. C. ed. On the other hand. and derivatively.. T .. sñiñ—por gyur—pa. S. a n d 1. and by ' v r ' m C. p. 26. that which contains the Tathāgata). 175) A quotation from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra. or sattvadhātu. showing the sense of 'element'. are used synonymously. in the form of embryo 1 7 4 ) . ' universe ' and is usually used for the ' dhātu ' of dharmadhātu. One interesting point to be noted is that. 2 7 : bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. T. the word dhātu is applied to ālāyavijñāna. lokadhātu. i. it is said that 4 the Matrix (i. In the case of C . it is quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (MS bh (P). So it is said 173 ': 44 And now. (Reference to the Abhidharma-sūtra on the i Essence ' ) 1 7 5 ) . 37).e. om. there exists the Essence of the Tathāgata arisen. the distinction is not so clear. ākāśadhātu. C. and dhātu. But as a matter of meaning in each language. those terms. As for this verse. in every living being.e. prabhāvita. the Buddhahood is usually manifested 1 7 1 ) in the 3 Bodies of the Buddha. This last sense|cannot be derived from the Chinese word 'yf*'. In these two cases. gatra. ' •yj"r' is used for dhātu of skandha—dhātv—āyatana. or C. 173) fhg s o u r c e o f this quotation is not yet identified. the word * dhātu ' (essence) is especially used in the sense of i hetu' (a cause) 1 7 2 ) . par Sylvain Levi. But these living beings do not know about it " . of which no S. This Sūtra is regarded as one of the important sources of the Vijñānavāda and often quoted in the works of that theory. ' garbha ' here means inner essence (dhātu). * region '. etc. 170) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. 2 8 : gotratah. The idea is close to the Avatamsakasūtra. p . prthividhātu. Hence. in the case of Trimśikābhāsya. This stands for the original sense of the term tathāgatagarbha.J . * character '. It is usually used for the tran- [ 290 ] .e. This is the third interpretation of the term tathāgatagarbha. being the cause (hetu) from which the Tathāgata is arisen. ' essence' or sex. At the same time. word dhātu. rab-tu phye-ba. dhātu is translated by ' dbyiñs ' in T. version is available now. Here. this quotation. BGS gives a name of * fjft •$%% ^llxj' (garbha in the sense of samgrahaka. TAKASAKI ence to the nature as the Germ from which the 3 Bodies of the Buddha are originated 169) .

In short. To translate dhātu into ' p £ ' as in this text is a rather peculiar case. this Matrix of the Tathāgata is the transcendental Matrix. SN. we are now speaking. are used in a later passage (S. affixes showing an abstract sense. dhātu.) as corresponding to 4 kinds of people. In the case of Tibetan. 16 ff. 157 a. But this distinction is not absolutely fixed. (Quotation is a p p a r e n t l y from S N ) . it is said as follows 178): u O Lord. p . the Matrix. dharmakāya-g. sattvadhātu. translations. which is usually replaced by ' J x '). 1. regards this whole sentence as a quotation from SMS (cf. I t is SMS which has inserted ' tathāgatagarbham adhikrtya ' t o this famous formula for t h e first time in order t o show t h a t t h e tathāgatagarbha is t h e basis of samsāra. T . nirvānadhātu. and in this text. SMS 222 b:' ~\£2 -H?-. it has been taught and ascertained by the Lord: " A n initial limit is not to be perceived" 1 7 7 ) . • These four. Owing to its existence. See Note V I I I (VII)-242. this formula is a n explanation of samsāra (cf. I I . words as ' svabhāva\ 'prakrti* and *-tā'. 193. dhātu. 178. ' . the former is used in the cases of dharmadhātu. and ākāśadhātu. V£ # ^ . 178 177) > gati. while the latter. p. the 4 elements other than ākāśadhātu. ^ . C. in the cases of lokadhātu. Originally ' khams ' seems to relate to the human body in the sense ' physical state of body ' or sometimes ' body ' itself. hgro.t r a ' . viz. but as the translation of Skt. (Hfc # . ft T0T | n l . of ' •jç'' and ' p £ ' as translations of Skt. Here. 121 #H * m ft ffi * P g * "5T ftl'). dharmadhātu-garbha. shows a better and clearer distinction between the two senses of the word dhātu. ' dbyiñs ' always relates to something transcendental or heavenly. C. MSbh (P). But it is quite suitable here (' |££ ' is also used for ' gotra ' here. *f| • _^ C. Originally are mentioned in C. where two other epithets are given of t h e tathāgatagarbha which £ 5 E * ik ftl * m. #H $t &. the former shows the meaning of something spatial. station of such Skt.. 76. how is it that 4 it exists since beginningless time ' ? With reference to this very Matrix of the Tathāgata. it is said [in the Scripture] as follows: " The Essence that exists since beginningless time Is the foundation of all the elements. j § V£ ^ S | . On the contrary. About the 4 Essence '. and prakrtipariśuddha[-dharma]-g. all Phenomenal Life176). Cf. the distinction between ' dbyiñs ' and ' khams ' is not so clear as between the two C. perfectly pure by nature ". o n anavarâgra).t _ C #īic > H \~E Vfl î^F %®t. while the latter. As well as the acquisition of Nirvana exists ". the tathāgatadhātu of whicL. e t c . 18 component elements. and derivatively to things smaller than the human body. of something internal or essential. BGS mentions them [ 291 ] . As far as this text is concerned. and also to worldly things in general. Both Tibetan words have a similar sense of ' place ' or ' region '. like each of 18 elements.The Ratnagotravibhâga Indeed. 178) SMS 222 b. lokottara[-dharma]-g..

from ŚMS). T. resp. C. 179 > ŚMS 222 6. T. tshig de rigs-pa [ 292 ] . this very Matrix of the Tathāgata is also. but C. Cf. 180 along > niśraya. tr. vinirbhāgadharma. passage (MSbh (P). i. T. i^e. reads ' . and another. there is all the Phenomenal Life ' means as follows 1 8 4 ) : " Owing to the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. This theory is unique to those works translated by Paramārtha. $ £ j£. and its originality seems to be due to Paramārtha himself. of SMS says: * . buddhadharmas. On the other hand. of ŚMS does not 181) For dharma. ' asambaddha. f$C . tr. Paramārtha makes use of this 5-fold meaning of garbha established in BGŚ twice in his translation of MS-bhāsya: once explaining ' dhātu '. Cf. with tathāgatagarbha as the 5 meanings of garbha ('It. mchis-na. . there is Phenomenal Life. 0 Lord. tr. and the substratum of the [worldly] elements that are produced by causes and conditions. MSbh (P) 157 a (Q. C. . y)\j fA (Buddha's Properties). T. rten. of ŚMS. muktajñāna. These terms are used as adjectives to samskrta-dharmas in contrast with sambaddha. The statement 4 Owing to its existence. the foundation. and the substratum 1 8 0 ) of the immutable elements (properties) 1 8 1 ) which are essentially connected with. explaining ' dharmadhātu ' (ibid. MSbh(P) 157 a (Q. 157 o). which are by all means disconnected.The statement ' The foundation of all the elements ' means as fol. reads for the whole sentence ' de-bshin-gśegs~pahi sñiñ^po mchis-na (tathāgatagarbhe sati). adds acintya and some more adjectives. 183 182) 185) -pjjg rea d i n g ' iti parikalpam asya vacanāyiti ' is doubtful. O Lord. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is the foundation the support. C. avinirbhāgadharma. in the passage equivalent to this Ratna. "*) ŚMS 222 b. 264 b). differentiated [from the Absolute Essence]. bral mi-śes-pa. T. we have another modified application of this set of meanings to the explanation of ' svabhāva ' of trisvabhāva (parikalpita and others) in the Hsien~shih-lun (JHf| Hip? pjflj) translated by him. ādhāra.e. and unreleased from Wisdom 182>. 796 6). have it. T. C. from ŚMS). this. [At the same time]. gnas. pratisthā. *Jvf . amuktajñāna. 0 Lord. C. 'Y* fljfl: ^ (not separated from jñāna). C. C. which agrees with C. is the proper saying on account of the Phenomenal Life 185 '. and separated from Wisdom 183 '. amuktajñāna in case of asamskrda-dharmas.g£ ^ § c» HAL ' (this is called a good saying). the support. Also. hkhor-ba shes mchi-na ni. lows 1 7 9 ': " Therefore.|Jgxj =J§3$. gshi. C. respectively.. has one more word ' f3* "J^f ' after ' -frf '. indivisible from [the Absolute Entity]. de-la hkhorba shes tshig-gis gdags-pa lags-so (samsāra iti vacanena asya prajñaptam) '.

but parikalpitam probably means here ' prajñaptam* as given by T. earnest wish. laes-so (. . there would not take place aversion to Suffering. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. or prayer for Nirvana " . '. MSbh(P) 157 a (Q. [ 293 ] . But SMS shows better sense. from ŚMS).. reading should be corrected into ' iti parikalpitam. At least the Skt. &c. Cf.. "•> ŚMS 222 b. or arise desire. so I read it according to SMS. samsāra iti yuktam etad vacanam).The Ratnagotravibhāga The statement ' There is also the acquisition of the Nirvana ' is said the following sense 1 8 6 ) : " 0 Lord..

) 4) dharmatām pramānîkrtya. C. T. The Saying: All Living Beings are Possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata — is the Highest Logical Truth. If the reading is correct the only meaning which can construe the sentence would be ' not disunited '. this Matrix of the Tathāgata. ' ^t s "SL #H Sv ffi ^ ' (probably ' . though it is probably caused by a misreading. ñes—pahi rigs—kyi rañ—bshin. ' united with '. C. T. The reading is not clear. i. (In this case. and being of the nature of the germ properly fixed [towards the attainment of the Buddhahood] 2) . niravaśesa-yogena. those relating to tathatā and gotra which stand for trividhasvabhāva along with dharmakāya. i. exists everywhere. jlfc ? £ ft f £ f § ffi @ f 4 1?î ffi . It is said 5) : " O noble youth.e. being united with 1 } the Absolute Body. On the other hand.^ 2 ~ /7\I ' i connected with tathatā and is a translation of asambhinna). chos-ñid tshas-mar byas-nas. only the truth is the authority for knowledge '. this word has to express an idea similar to ' parispharana '. i. Now. at whatever time and without exception3' among the living beings. or whether they do avipralambha. Whether the Tathāgatas appear in this world. records a sense of ' disunion ' for vipralambha as taken from Wilson's vocabulary. C. 2 ' niyatagotra—svabhāva. THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA § 1. 5I»T ^ J 3n£* (' khyad-par med-pa ' nirviśesa. such is the essential nature of the elements 6 ) . reads this passage x) as ' dharmakāya(-vat) vipulah ' and C. avipralabdha would be better than avipralambha). having the characteristics inseparable from Reality. T.e. this is indeed to be perceived in the light of the Absolute Essence as the [highest] logical ground 4) . T. C. 3p? _5TL /^ [yp |££ ||_s. khyad-par med-pahi tshul-du. means ' dharmatā is pramāna. In comparison with two other epithets. B > TGS 547 c. W. s) « dharmānam dharmatā. We can get some idea from T. TGS > [ 294 ] .X. reading. C. M. ' -fo^ J^L' (atyanta) is also not the proper translation at all.e.

thitā va sā dhātu dhamma—tthitatā dhamma—niyāmatā idappaccayatā " . rtogs-pa (— adhigama). and om. adds: ' i t is therefore acintya. where the phrase ' utpādād vā tathāgatānām anuntpādād vā'' is used. C. jarāmaranam. yukti. except for a reference to ' dharmadhātu-sthititā ' being ' dharmatā-naya ' (iZ* pp j JtE3r 3-^F. Lamotte's Ed. Both T. p. f S ^"H JtfE. where the eternity of truth is called ' dharmadhātu-sthititā '. in Pali). T. uppādā vā tathāgatānam anuppādā vā tathāgatânam. V S j ī iffi. {/£ . 143. This corresponds to pratiśarana. rigs-pa. chos-ñid dbyiñs gnas-pa-ñid gañ-yin-pa de~ni chos-ñid-kyi rigs-pa yin-no) (E. sems yañ-dag-par śes-pa (T.. ^L^ _/£. the emphasis is on idappaccayatā (Skt.). This expression is quite popular since the Pali Canon. BGS has a similar quotation regarding it as from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. 9) (' ii% *^a ' seems to be a repeated translation of dharmatā). 8) paryāya. J< {de-la de—bshin—gśegs—pa rnams byuñ yañ ruñjma byuñ yañ run stejchos gnas—par byabahi phyir. So I take it as a predicate. In a similar manner. in the sense: — such is the real state of things and not otherwise 1 0 ) . Actually. however. saying: 7) g ?£ (812 a). sbyor-ba & thabs. have no translation of this word. reads for ' dharmataîva X1) pratiśaranam. pratiśarana. 25: " jāti paccayā. ' \j\ V S •> tK.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga not 7 ) . C. SN vol. this expression is here used for emphasizing the garbha theory as the eternal truth. we have no equivalent passage in the present text of the Sandhinirmocana. T. sems ñe-bar rtogs-pa. gives the best sense. bhikkhave. 2. idampratyayatā = pratîtyasamutpāda) as the eternal truth {dhātu. This corresponds to [ 295 ] .^P. to observe. In any case only the Absolute Essence is the resort U ) for the contemplation of the mind 1 2 ) . T. takes som. yukti. C. =fg #H 3fc ^ & Ufc 5g ^ & Ufc . 13) citta-samjñāpana. 258) ( f f i f H . p. C. In this example. p. fi\ (or j ^ ) ." » r$C V A Im '• 12 ' citta—nidhyāpana {nidhyāpana fr. the mode of proof (yoga) and the means [of cognition] (upāya) 9 ) . ^Ij* {^" {citta-pariśuddha). meditate). & C. 10 * evam eva tat syātj anyathā naîva tat syāt. Also see Lank. T . these living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata " . fem. That which is meant by this i essential nature ' (dharmatā) is here synonymous for 8 ) the ' argument ' (yukti).in the sense of somyafe-). T. ni V dhyai. C. only the Absolute Essence is the argument for the proper understanding 13 ' of utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā. dharmataîva yuktis '. C. For instance.

to T. -^/J -£5f !j>3£ ' u * (nava-bodhicitta). 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. reading is uncertain but reads paramârtha as a locative and connects it with śraddhā (paramârthe śraddhā. ^-p |=| J\. . C. hjig-tshogs-la Ita-bar Ihuñ-ba. C. and 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle 19 '. ^f mñon-par JrçJ. Indeed. C. 20) Ś M S 222 a. . (T. See VIII-(X). reads paramârtha as the subject (śraddhyaîvânugantavyah paramârthah svayambhuvām /). to T. and om. . It is said 2 0 ': " O Lord. Here the translation is ace. T. om. paramârthasatya and nirvana. HJ-£). (jātândha). & C. Who are these four ? They are namely: 1) the ordinary beings. the reading of this sentence is preferably corrected into the following: .ŚMS222«:i|#n£lî'^ . tathāgata. C. C. C. i^ 23 ' śūnyatā-viksipta-citta. dharmakāya.. cintayitavyā. C. 2) the Śrāvakas. . 15 ' Cf.J. JE^ / fe -fc H H Ç ^ Jīi H $&. The 4 Kinds of Individuals to Whom the Faith in this Essence is Necessary 15) . there are four kinds of individuals who are defined as being blind 1 8 ' with regard to the perception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. (Commenting of MSA verse quoted. [ 296 ] . for those who are attached to delusion 22) . Cf. theg-pa-la gsar-du shugs-pa. respectively. // 153 // In brief. This essence itself is not accessible to imagination nor to discrimination. £ acaksumat. phyin-ci-log-la hdod-pa. anugantavya. It is accessible only to faith 1 4 '. The Highest Truth of the Buddhas 1 6 ) Can be understood only by faith.) 16 ' svayambhū. 19 ' navayāna-samprasthita. MSbh (P) 258 b-c. 21) satkāyadrsti-patita. T. ' Ace. 22 ' viparyāsâbhirata. TAKASAKI the mind. viz.). T. BGS 812 a if. T. 18) 14 i"Cf. where the 4 kinds of people are connected with the 4 synonyms for dharmakāya. T. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not the accessible sphere for those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality 21 '. and for those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Non-substantiality" 2 3 '. C. stoA-pa-ñid-las sems rnam-par gyeñs-pa. the eyeless one cannot see The blazing disk of the sun 1 ". § 2. hbah-shig—tu. na vikalpayitavyā [kevalam tv\ adhimoktavyeti /.

). uttari). they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 evanescence ' [of the phenomena 30) ] instead of meditating upon the 4 eternity' of the former. C. how is it possible for them to cognize the Matrix of the Tathāgata which is the object accessible only to the Omniscient ? There is [absolutely] no room for it. T. due to this conception. khas-blañs-nas. instead of atyanta. T. T. inserts sarvadharmesu. v. and adds ' "p ^g. s. they nevertheless cling to the practice of meditation on the idea of 4 non-Ego ' [of the separate elements] instead of concentrating their mind on the notion of the Unity of the former. and. J ^ j ^ \~$ (T. om. J • EX ' C. So it seems not to have so important sense in this compound.T h e R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Here. Likewise. still they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 suffering ' [of the phenomena] instead of meditating upon the 4 bliss ' of the former. 24 25 ' The reading should be atyantam (adv. though the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 pure ' in the transcendental sense. 80 ' C. 26 27 28) C. 29) etc. uttari bhāvayitavya. they cannot believe even in the Immaculate Essence which represents the annihilation of the [conception of the] existence of real individuality 28 '. bsgom-par bya-ba. om. . ' uttari' as a preceding part of a compound has a sense of ' further. 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality' are the ordinary beings. ñar-hdsin-pa & ña-yir hdsin-pa. C. Why ? Because.).in the text. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as ' blissful' in its transcendental sense. but cannot notice nityatva of tathāgata behind the phenomena. ^_ ^ £ ' (amrta-dharma). ffPj i ^ fffc. C. they devote themselves to the practice of meditation on the notion of the 4 impurity ' [of the Phenomenal World] without doing meditation on 4 Purity' of the former. sāsrava. satkāya-nirodha (as an adjective to anāsravadhātu). Being so. The sense is that those people know only about anityatā of sarvadharma. Thus. which are possessed of Evil Influences 2 6 ) . having fully 24 ' admitted 2 5 ' those elements classified into [5] groups and others. 4 those who are attached to delusion ' represent 2) the Śrāvakas and 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 eternal' in its transcendental sense 29) .P3p: ==r J^L ^f-f v$(t īftp (nirodhasatya represented by the removal of satkâyadrsti. beyond'. hjig-tshogs hgag-pa. For anāsravadhātu. etc. ' upagamya. C. [ 297 ] . Now. And.). & C. as being the real Ego and its belongings. Although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be regarded as 4 the [highest] Unity '. (BHS Die. C seems to read ' atyantâbhūta—rūpâdi—skandhān dharmān ' ' ahamkāra & mamakāra. they are clinging to the conception of 4 Ego ' and 4 Mine ' 2 7 > . Indeed. T.

the Supreme Unity. and seeing that water sparkling.). T. putting on the bathing underwear 35 '. . . i. Impersonality and Impurity [as the almighty maximum]. for instance. C. Thus. too. they would notice: It is not the real jewel at all! At that moment. ' aho manir iti guna-samjñā pravartate ' and instead has ' just as one sees the moon in the sky '. leaving aside their ornaments. 39 38) [ 298 ] . rigs dañ Idan-pa. Suppose then. rañ-rañ-gi rgyan dañ ñe-bar spyod-pa T. But C. thinking: I have got a jewel. But S. 0 monks. After having stood 39 ' on the bank of the pond. About 32) this inaccessibility of the Essence to those who are attached to delusion. the Supreme Bliss. T. reads * mandanaka (= alañkāra) and upabhoga (any equipment for pastime) '. The concrete idea is uncertain. . that in the hot season. In the same way. is said not to be accessible to them. p. who have the notion of Evenescence. all the people. reads as ' drstvâ ' instead of sthitvā. 1. y^_ (has lost by mistake). Here I followed T. They would mistake pebbles and gravels in the pond for the real jewel. C. 33) > 35 ' to have 36 ' 34 MPS 377c-378a. (S. ' T. shows a clearer sense. the water of that pond would. /J dag-gis. reading. om. . and hence the Essence [of the Tathāgata] which is characterized as the Supreme Eternity. the people. T. 74. ye who are ignorant of the real 31 32 ' vidhura. salila-bandhana. T. has no literal translation. khrus-ras (bath-cloth). one who is experienced and clever would really get the jewel out. were playing in the water with various ornaments and equipments for their individual pastime 3 6 '. This compound word seems not been recorded anywhere else. rab-tu bsgrubs. owing to the power of that jewel. ' Better to change the paragraph after ' yathā ca sa viparyāsa . C. and the Supreme Purity. C. svaih svaih mandanakopabhogair. It runs as follows 3 4 ) : " Suppose. dañ hgal-ba. shine as if water itself were shining. )ffo ^ i 7Jp $j}£ ^|)£ (playing bathing and boating). Thereafter. and would notice how that jewel had great quality 4 0 ) . 0 brethren. all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas are attached to the Path which is quite opposite 31 ' to the realization of the Absolute Body. . seize them and draw them out. 37 ' sthāpayati. Suffering. C.in such a way. gshag-pa. om. 19). M^ . (jlT. T. they would say: O the jewel is still there [in the water]. T. would dive into the water. prasādhita. someone would cast 3 7 ' into the water the genuine 38 ' Vaidūrya stone. in order to get this Vaidūrya stone. 40 ' C. the Lord has made it clear 331 in detail in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra with the example of a jewel in the water of a pond.e. jātya.

the Purity 4 4 ) .e. 49) uttarakālam. ?$£. [ye should keep in mind]. thinking that the perfect Nirvana means the Extinction. dharma). and impure. O monks. Jil 5 ^ I B J | ^B? • ' S U S ^ ' (things changeable) T . T . C.The Ratnagotravibhāga essence of things 4 1 ) . and that everything is impersonal and impure. that there is only suffering. impersonal. the destruction of the elements [for the Phenomenal Existence] in future 4 9 ) . T. Cognition of N o n . 43) C. o n e c a n g e t Cf. with those elements which ye maintain to be in every case evanescent. They are the people who look toward Non-substantiality as the medium of Liberation 47) in order to destroy the substance 4 8 ) . Lastly. there exists [an essence which represents] the Eternity. -~xL. ñams-pa (disappeared). dus phyis. the teaching of the incorrectness with regard to the feature of the highest true nature of the elements. C. [ 299 ] . ñe-bar gshags-pa ( = upasthita). according to the Scripture. There are also some people 41 ' dharma—tattva. reads ' after destroying existence. artha) as adverbial use and reads ' tathāgatagarbhatah vipranastāh'. maintaining the general conception that all things are evanescent. and the Highest Unity". But all that was attempted 4 2 ) by you. 44 ' ' śobha ' in the text is a misprint for ' śubha '. a s if ' dharmârtha—tattva \ C. bhāva-vināśāya. C. [since] they are deprived of45) [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality 4 6 ) . What is m e a n t here is t h a t t h e garbha theory represents t h e real m e a n i n g of śūnyatā. T . 46) tathāgatagarbha-śūnyatârthanaya. tshul-du (śunyatā-nayena. nirvana'. Therefore. 3 vimoksa—muhhas. stoñ-pa-ñid-kyi om. i. /*pp ftfc \ J . J l ^ . C. 45) 42) [eg î p | (being accumulated vipranasta. this repetition. the meaning that tathāgatagarbha is śūnyata). vimoksa-mukha. i\U ^N$g\£ ||=§. ghatita. and increasingly. is [in reality] of no use. ye should become skilful in order not to be determined by this [false conception] like the pebbles and gravels in the pond. Thus should be understood in detail.s u b s t a n t i a l i t y is one of t h e is for bhāva. the Bliss. 48) 47) C. B G S ^ [ 3Jw» This conception a m o u n t s t o t h e nihilistic view. }=% ( a p p a r e n t l y o m . practise the meditation [on that conception] repeatedly. O monks. suffering. i those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Nonsubstantiality ' denotes 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle. jy\ by practice). C. (śūnyatā-tathāgatagarbhârtha. . T. om. and on which ye practise the meditation [on that notion] repeatedly and increasingly 43) .

V. They are: 1) Tibetan version of Pratîtyasamutpāda—hrdaya—kārikā. 4) Saundaranandakāvya of Aśvaghosa. V. Gokhale. 7) Bodhisattva-bhūmi. there are 9 occurrences of this verse recorded in Melanges chinois et bouddhiques. Cf. BGS mentions this verse along with v. brten-pa. 12. V. 52) The following is actually a part of the explanation on ' śūnyatāvikasiptacitta '. upon which we should meditate. And he who sees the Truth becomes liberated 60) 51) 53) . 1. and hence the authorship of Nāgārjuna for this verse is doubtful. 6) Śuklavidarśanā (Bendall Mss. Cf. and that is the one which we should understand.) 6-5. 155 as a quotation (812 b).. TAKASAKI among them who think that there is something substantial called 4 the Non-substantiality' which is quite different from ' f o r m ' and other [elements]. C. 21. T. We now can add one example to this list.The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as Representing Non-substantiality 5 2 ) . 1955. has merely 5 kārikās. BHS Die. 7. 5) Abhisamayâlañkāra. dmigs-pa. however. (a similar idea attributed to the Buddha. 2) Nāma-samglti (Tib. • 53) This is one of the most famous verses in Mahāyanistic literature. // 154 // upalambha.. p. 'fTf. they are persuaded of51) Non-substantiality. part I. 8) Madhyântavibhāga-vyākhyā by Sthiramati (as a quotation. 9) Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda. Bonn. saying: [ 300 ] .). s. fancying 50) Non-substantiality in this way. S. (not in verse). BGŚ 812 b. V. See V. C. 101 ff. T . 44. Der Sanskrit-Text von Nāgārjuna's Pratîtyasamutpādahrdayakārikā. Wogihara's ed. and. which has a little difference in b.). 57 (not in verse). pratisarati. This conception represents the eternalistc view. Gokhale's report. XIII. Suzuki's tr. § 3. 3) Sumañgala-visārani of Buddhaghosa (in Pali). Cf. om. p. to Prof. 48. v. Festschrift fur Willibald Kirfel.J . The Truth should be perceived as it is. attributed to Nāgārjuna. the original Skt text. (prakseptavyam na kimcana). v. 394. Then how is what is called here i [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality' ? Here there is nothing to be removed And absolutely nothing to be added. it is identical with that in the Abhisamayâlañkāra). by Nāgārjuna (Ace. Besides this occurrence in the Ratna. BGŚ ^ ^f. Studia Indologica.

kun—nas ñon—moñs—pahi rgyu—mtshan. In the case of such a verse of widely applicable idea. whatever remains there. tr. essentially. 58) reads * . one knows that this being must exist here 5 9 ) : This is really the true [conception of Non-substantiThis is no doubt a quotation from the Ratna. C *U Jg JJl M ^ S t i . DAS 813 6 (v. gañ—shig lhag—par gyur—pa de—ni de—la rtag—par yod—do. But it is by no means devoid of the highest properties Which are. ' samkleśa—nimitta. this is observed 58 ' as 'void' (śūnya) in that place (tend). C.The R a t n a g ot r a v ib h ā ga The Essence [of the Buddha] is [by nature] devoid 5 4 ) Of the accidental [pollutions] which differ from it. C. there is no purifying element which is to be added to it. Also. cf. The originality of the Ratna. (For sad. and hence it is not necessary to regard this v. 14). T. This is an original sense of the term śūnya. and shows a closer translation of the original than C. on account of this verse lies in its application to the explanation of ' garbha—śūnyatā—arthanaya ' shown in the second verse (v. 155). 33* .= samyak. B7 > Ś M S 2 2 1 c. T. sam-anupaśyati. . Thus. iX i*J ^ |K $«. perfectly purified by nature. // 155 // What is explained by this ? There is no defiling element 5 5 ) which is to be removed from this Essence of the Tathāgata. T. since it is by nature indivisible from the pure properties [of the Buddha] 5 6 ) . *ū * fP ā I i MN - m ' 104 . %\\ ^^_ Jrfj 7»U • sam. C. 154 as a quotation from any particular source. Cū- [ 301 ] . it is said [in the Scripture] 5 7 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata is devoid of all the sheath of Defilements which are differentiated and separated [from the Absolute Essence]. 56) T. simply ' kleśa '. gañ—shig gañ—na med—pa de—ni des stoñ~ño . inserts dharmatā after suddhadharma. 4ll &. T. T. wherever something is lacking. inseparable [from the Absolute Essence]. . B4) 55 śūnya. On account of this point. See below.5 > e t c . there was probably a custom in those days to borrow the same expression without permission or mention of the source in order to express one's own idea freely. of the same in the Ratna. inconceivable and far beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number ". since it is by nature devoid of accidental pollutions.(Suññata-vagga. indivisible from it. 69 ' yad yatra nâsti tat tena śūnyam iti samanupaśyati j yat punar atrâvaśistam bhavati tat sad ihâstîti yathābhūtam prajānāti I. stoñ. The Matrix of the Tathāgata is by no means devoid of the Buddha's Properties which are indivisible. As for the second verse. yañ-dag-par rjes-su mthoñ(-ba).«te').

C. — yathābhūtam). T . ' sam. 66) (— abhisamayati. without the introduction 6 5 ) to the knowledge of the highest truth of Non-substantiality. dbyiñs. t-tr. TAK. rtse-gcig-tu . absent. bral-ba. instead of śūnyatârtha- simply ' /\* ^|īj fjfgi ' (ayogyam). 62 ' The reading ' aparyantam ' is to be corrected into ' aviparyastam ' according t o T . p . as in the case of ' śūnyo dhātuh '. sgro-hgod-pa & skur-pa hdebs-pa. T . I n t h e second usage. ^ W 7J # ' J *^x V T • T . yam pana tattha avasittham hoti. it has been said 6 8 ) : The Wisdom cognizing the Matrix of the Tathāgata is nothing but the Wisdom about Non-substantiality of the Buddhas. i n t h e preceding illustration). 67) C. to separate). and for nayād. B3 61) 44 C. avikalpa-dhātu. It signifies cittaikâgratā 86 * T. as used in the aphorism mentioned above. . Cf. ekâgri bhavati. Now.ASAKI ality] 6 0 ) . (phyin—ci ma—log—pa) a n d C. tarn santam idam atthûti pajānāti.' of samanupaśyati a n d ' yathābhūtam '. tena tarn suññam samanupassati. 64) * j ^ p 3-Jfī •yf'' (buddhagocaravisayād). hgyur-ba. (jjt\\ fS^. . 48. samāropa & apavāda. and. T. a n d this usage relates t o t h e ftieaning of ' śūnya ' i n B u d d h i s t doctrine as appearing i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : śūnyam sarvam '. C. ' v o i d of'. ' true ' represents b o t h . And lasuññata—sutta) yam hi kho tattha na hoti. B B h . for dhātu. . The first usage is also observed in the same Pali canon (migāramātu pāsādo suñño hatthi-gavâssa—valavena . ^ 2 | -Tflv. those individuals whose mind has deviated from this principle 63) of Non-substantiality. turning in various directions . >«. T. inserts śuddha between t w o a n d [ 302 ] . r e s " pectively. [Thus]. ' cittatn viksipyate visarati'. abhisameti). where t h e t e r m ' śūnya' (suñña) is t o be t r a n s l a t e d into ' e m p t y of'. 60) I n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n .J. There are two kinds of usages of the term ' śūnya' : 1) ' A is śūnya of B ' (B with instrumental case-ending). mukha. sāksāt\jkr. we call them by this very reason 4 those whose mind has deviated from [the true conception of] Non-substantiality. Implying this point. nobody can attain or realize 6 6 ) the non-discriminative Sphere 6 7 ) [of the Tathāgata]. mñon-par hdu-bya-ba * ^U*. the real 6 2 ) characteristic of Non-substantiality is explained b-ir these two verses. neither me64) ditates nor concentrates upon it. Jrçj . C. 63) visarati. ' śūnya ' is s y no ny mous with ' na asti' (na hoti). rnam-par hphrol (hphrol fr. Indeed. See N o t e XI—14. 68 > ŚMS 221 c. sometimes in BHS with instrumental). 2) ' B is śūnya (in A) ' (A with locative case-ending. by removing the extremities of affirmation and negation 6 1 ) . or * devoid o f ' . om. . .

has never been realized by the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 6 9 ) " &c. is said to be a sphere not accessible to 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality '. in 4). resolves ' jñānadarśana ' into ' jñānena samdarśanam '. T. C. instead of prakrti. prakrtipariśuddhadharmagarbha is not accessible to śūnyatāviksiptacittāh. it is said not to be accessible to ' those who are attached to delusion '. 72) * H^C ^ = f H^C (ekarasa 73) yathābhūta-darśana. because the Absolute Essence is an antidote against such erroneous conception 7 0 ) . and lokottaradharmagarbha are not accessible to viparyāsâbhiratāh. respectively: 1) 2) 3) 4) dharmadhātugarbha is not accessible to satkāyadrstipatitāh. adds śūnya. object of darśana. are by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. [the Matrix of the Tathāgata] is said not to be accessible to ' those whose mind has deviated from Non-substantiality '.\\ Jj^. samarasa). On account of this perception. 70 * Hereafter. by means of the cognition of the unique 72) introduction to the Wisdom which is essentially connected with the Absolute Essence. the commentator tries to combine the 4 meanings of tathāgatagarbha mentioned in SMS (see Note IX-178) with the 4 kinds of people to whom the former 4 have the power of being pratipaksa. in 3) T. T. T. T . this Matrix of the Tathāgata. See note IX-178 71 ' guna-dharmāh. & C. inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the properties. to perceive that the Transcendental Absolute Body is perfectly pure by nature. or the Matrix of the Transcendental Element. since the [Buddha's] pure virtuous Properties 71) . etc. 69 For 1) dharmadhātu. C.The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a this Matrix of the Tathāgata has never been seen. adds ' samyak'' before it. yon-tan-gyi chos. -Mj ^ ^ ekanaya. T. om. dharmadhātu in place of dharma. and adds ' J L 3(Q ' (tathatā) as the [ 303 ] . inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Essence. perfectly pure by nature. being represented by the Transcendental Absolute Body which is indivisible from them. dharmakāya—[garbha]. is identical with those mentioned in SMS. implies here the True Intuition 7 3 ) . But S. tshul gcig-po. adds a few sentences more which are not available in the present SMS except for the passage ' only the Buddha can obtain it ' and are probably an insertion by the translator. Here. since the Transcendental Element is spoken of as being an antidote against the mundane elements of such nature as evanescence. tathāgata. Inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Body. . dharma. C. " }f/^. as dharmakāya. as ' dharmakāya '. $ 0 *J=^ jî. and C. it is said that [even] those Bodhisattvas who are abiding in their 10 Stages ' C. T. [Furthermore].

O Lord. Just as here the sun. C. dbyiñs (dhâtu). Even by the Saints. MPS 41 a. Cf. s m a l l hole ' . nabhas-tala. C. regards this verse as a commentary verse and adds one verse in the middle showing the sense that śrāvaka cannot see the Buddha.J. 77) 76) [ 304 ] . Jjut § E f° r t n e whole. T. ^I|j[ . The source of this quotation is unknown. in the sky with torn clouds7 6 ) . only those whose Wisdom is illimitable Can completely perceive thy Absolute Body Which pervades everything knowable That is infinite like space " 7 7 ) . C. For tala. T . w h i c h m e a n s ' a n o p e n s p a c e i n a d e n s e f o r e s t ' . 4 slit. e t c . Since their intellect is still partial. Indeed thus it is said 7 5 ) : [ 0 Lord]. ' m t / i o n ' is t o b e c h a n g e d i n t o • mthoñs'. of pure intellectual vision. T . thou art unable to be seen fully.3 ^ ( t h i n cloud). h e n c e d e r i v a t i v e l y . T. TAKASAKI can [but] slightly understand the Matrix of the Tathāgata 7 4 ) . C. seems to have failed to catch the meaning of this verse by omitting one pronoun ' te ' in the third Pada. 75) 74) chidrâbhra. regards this sentence as a quotation from some Sūtra. sprin-mthon.

C. C. which is at the same time the basic scripture of the Mādhyamikas. yañ-dag mi-hdsin (bhūta-agraha). buddha-dhātu. sañs-rgyas sñiñ-po ( = buddhagarbha). T. sems-can dman-la bsñas-pa. [visions in] a dream. T. speaking ill of Truth 1 0 '. 10) 7 |_E (C re- [ 305 ] . ^ ^ jifâ 3 c V2* • See v. {Jftfy I^J 5JS. lam bstan-pa. 8 ' hīnasattvesv avajñā. 161. like clouds. Cf. Whereas. See v. we have two ślokas summarizing the purpose of instruction 3 '. one is the question. T. 1} 2) C. then what is the use of this instruction to the ignorant and ordinary beings ? [For replying to this question]. ^ C. /zrt deśanâ-prayojana. 3) 4) 6) r¥* Aft. ījOj* *[§£ |ffj| ^pC 'ffi . BGŚ 787 a-b (Nidāna-parivarta). g Ç JpÇ J£\\ mt gards this bhūtadharma as tathatā or buddhadhātu. why has the Buddha declared here That the Essence of the Buddha 6 ) 4 exists ' in every living being ? //156// There are 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]: The depressed mind 7 ) .XI. See v. vyākarana (explanation). 6 ' Especially in the Prajñāpāramitā. 8116. bhūtadharmâpavāda. and illusions 5 ) . 165 a b. |2^ IpJ ^L*. igpj. (Kārikās 58-59) It has been said here and there [in the Scriptures] That all things are to be known everywhere As being 4 unreal'. sems shum. [Of them]. C. T . R7L). rSf. yañ-dag chos-la skur. •' abhūtagrāha.t . adds: ' i t is accessible only t o sarvajña m §§| tft pp H ! . '. and the second is the answer 4 ) . THE PURPOSE OF INSTRUCTION 1 ' [Someone may ask]: If this Essence [of the Buddha] is thus so difficult to be cognized inasmuch as it is not fully accessible even to the Saints of the Highest rank who are abiding on the Stage characterized as being completely free from any attachment 2 ) . C. T . C. 35: yathā māyā yathā svapno gandharva-nagaram yathā / tathotpādas tathā sthānam tathā bhañga udāhrtam //. See v. 162. Clinging to things unreal 9 '. Cf. o m . 163. jfP ^ f^. C. contempt against those who are inferior 8 ) . bstan-pahi dgos-pa. T. ' linam cittam. T. C. MK. VII.

o m . dben-pa (solitary) for vivikta. C. It has been said [in the Scriptures] All kinds of phenomena. 56 ff. J ^ L pfflj . ' vipāka ' stands for janman or duhkha. pjflj = śāstra) h a s n o t h i n g t o d o with Tantric Buddhism. H e r e t h e t e r m ' tantra ' (for which C. in this ' u l t i m a t e ' Doctrine 1 8 ) . like clouds. by which is meant here clearly the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā and of the Mūlamadhyamaka. The Group of elements are like illusions made by magic 1 7 ) . since ' bhūtakotisu viviktam ' here stands for śūnyam in the Kārikā (usually vivikta is used for denoting purity of moksa or nirvana. Also see vv. [ 306 ] . These three are the principal factors of samsāra or samskrtadharmas. // 159 // So has it been ascertained 4 before ' . upabhoga. C. BGS gives the following terms: kleśa-karma-vipāka. T . llj 12) adhikah. C. // 158 // The Defilements are like the clouds. Undertaking of Actions 1 5 ) is like the enjoyment 1 6 ) in a dream. See v. T. 2 J ( o m . this theory is opposite to that of ' pūrva'. [The teaching about Essence of the Buddha] has been taught In order that those who are possessed of these defects 1 2 ) Might get rid of their defects. Of these 5. 15) 16) 17> 18) 5) $ci*L. and regards bhūtakoti as the subject and reads ' bhūtakoti (the reality) is apart from samskrtam '. I. 14) viviktam bhūtakotisu. // 157 // The meaning of these two ślokas is briefly to be known by the following ten verses. but it is not the case here). nirmita). the author of the Ratna. sgyu-ma spral-ba. g y Mf ^% }Jîîp 5X ( = ātmadrsti. where vipāka'* is replaced by skandha-dhātv-āyatana.. -Jx. reading seems better.). Action and Result 13> Are. etc. made by causes and conditions And known in the forms of Defilement. bgag-cag. bla-mahi rgyud. TAKASAKI And besides X1 \ affection for one's self*'. deprived of reality 1 4 ) . ātmasneha. 165 c d. As for the use of bhūtakoti in the plural. T. T. Being the Results made by Defilements and Actions. The meaning is simply ' doctrine ' or ' philosophy '. declared his aim and the position of this theory in the currency of Buddhist philosophy. T. T h i s is t h e word which gives this work i t s title. I could not trace it anywhere else. māyā-nirmita. bya-ba-yi las. In one sense. in the sense ' separation from kleśas. T . 13) krtyakriyā.. uttara tantra. See Note VIII-132. Significance lies more in the word ' uttara' than in ' tantra \ since by the term ' uttara'. From the context. fffi f^ C. lhag-pa (which is connected to ' sneha '). ^ . C. )īîfi 3 c f ° r the whole.J. But now. C. C.

unreality of things.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a In order to remove the 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]. but C. 25 ' krtrima. ff^ ^ ' ātmâvajñāna. and hence. // 163 // [Indeed] 2 4 ) . and hence it is the ' ultimate '. but a real successor of the former. J|Ç jflj explanation of buddhakāyatraya). T. In this 3rd defect. and towards those people having this defect. The true knowledge will never arise. reads as ' bodhicittâdaye yasya ' and relates this ' yasya ' to ' tasya' of the next verse. But in relation to the preceding verse. puts the word '** 7»l-I' (does not know) and regards this verse as explaining the 4th defect. (such a man of self-pride). Will produce the notion of inferiority for those Whose mind is not aroused towards Enlightenment. T. C.e. if [the people] have not heard of this teaching. C. as S. This self-depreciation is the first defect. bcos-ma. // 161 // Even if someone has resolved towards Enlightenment 22 '. krtrimatva & āgantukatva. T. May have a fault of self-depreciation21'. BGŚ 811 b (after the = Una. 19) dhātu. being possessed of depressed 20) mind. It is shown that the Essence of the Buddha 1 9 ) exists. T. 22) For ' bodhicittodaye 'py asya\ T. 162 without any relative pronoun. the defects of living beings are unreal Because they are non-genuine 2 5 ) and accidental since the ' former ' one emphasizes ' śūnyatā \ i. for removing it. The Will towards the Enlightenment does never arise in them. while ' tasya ' of the next verse can stand for that which is described in this v. being proud of it. H H§ t H A . and hence. as we had already known by previous passages. om. it is taught that ' sarva ''-sattvāh tathāgatagarbhāh'' (BGS). while this ' latter * one emphasizes ' astitva ' of buddhadhātu. This ' self-pride ' is the second defect (lack of the notion of ' equality'). BGS says. this ' buddhadhātvastivāda' is a synthetic śūnyavāda of śūnya and aśūnya. as being the ' answer '—giver to the problem which has never been explained ' before '. saying: I am superior to [others]. this doctrine is not against the former. // 162 // With him who thinks like that 2 3 '.e. He clings to unreal things [as if they were real] And does not cognize the true meaning. //160// Indeed. 24 ' This verse expresses the true meaning (bhûtârtha). shum-pa. ^H . T. khams. C. the Buddha has taught tathāgatagarbha-'' asti '. In another sense. J|p£ | y =Ej*. which causes the affection toward the unreal thing. ' hla-ma"1 shows this sense. Some of them. in other words. bdag~-la brñas-pa. i. Then he. > nlca. BGS: 23) 21 [ 307 ] . emphasis lies on the ignorance about tathāgatagarbha. T. however. the word api ' is quite necessary. C. C. For these two. cf. 20 ft^ For these 3 verses.

Consequently. b u t this knowledge is merely one side of t h e t r u e knowledge. H e is intelligent because h e c a n perceive ' dosâbhūtatva '. h e m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g real. About the 5 gunas. ston-pa-bshin gus.J. while ' jñāna '. T. Manifestation of the reality is for the sake of living beings. C. This 4th defect seems to be the most important among the 5. That is. The lack of maitrī. Wisdom 321 . nairātmya. Here ' prajñā ' represents 'prajñāpāramitā'' of the Mādhyamika or iavikalpajñāna'' of the Vijñānavāda. " ^ & ^IE* » 0 n a n opposite order). 34) 33) n For niravajya. Intuition. Obtaining equal regard [for every body]. T. 27) dhîmat. There arises in him great exertion 3 0 '. TAKASAKI But the non—substantiality26) of such defects is real. . BGS y C f|2>). is the natural consequence of the 4th defect. T. . These 5 properties having become originated. cf. ' guna ' being opposite t o dosa. 3 28 26) »> protsaha. representing ' tatprsthalabha-jñāna ' being laukika jñāna. because of ' mahākarunā '. which runs: Hfc B^f ^ towards living beings. if one hears of this teaching. T . he produces śāstrgaurava. C. a n d hence this conception is nothing but the ' depreciation of reality '. ^ ^ . (2) 31 > śāstr-gaurava. // 165 / / On the contrary 2 9 ) . C. and its function is said to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. AÂS 469 b-c.(1) (BGŚ $j$ 1 ^ 4 J | ) . that is to say. // 164 / / If a man of intelligence 2 7 ) perceives [only] That the defects [of living beings] are unreal. ' maitrī. But the best explanation is given in AÂS. ^ 4 ^ J | ^ ^ ^ C ffi ^ (having aroused the mind of respect 32) prajñā (3) & jñāna (4). which is the 5th defect. <\* 3J3 f ? (avivarta). m e a n s t h e ' e m p tiness ' of dosa. bdag-med-pa. C. $Ht $& 1fr ^ T. pure by nature. which represents ' navayānasamprasthita-bodhisattva '. catches the meaning better. It clearly implies the defect caused by certain Mādhyamikas whose position gave rise to the appellation of ' nāstika ' for Buddhists. He cannot obtain benevolence 28) by which One regards [other] living beings as equal to oneself. spro. Respect [for all living beings] as for the Teacher 3 1 ) . J§§ . being free from [self-] depreciation 3 4 ) . [ 308 ] . a n d this is real. 29) Hereafter. C ^ | S j ] (BGŚ ] E jfj >\j*) . // 166 // He. has a function of ' manifesting the reality • ( G ft £ ffl #& © % ffi IS If %• BŚ maitrl (5) = mahākarunā (C. And depreciates [their] virtues which are real. the virtues [of living beings]. and great Benevolence33'. referring to the 5 gunas which are the antidotes for the respective 5 dosas. byams-pa. hence BGS interprets that prajñā and mahākarunā (instead of mentioning of jñāna) are the two upāyas by means of which one can attain the state of apratisthitanirvāna.

equally for himself and for living beings 3 5 ) . bodhi). C. C. sañs-rgyas-ñid. Attains the State of Buddha 3 6 ) at an early date. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. has no equivalent t e r m . J\l — " %)] ^ < £f£ f(\\ ^ C ^ all living beings as n o t being different from himself). 37) ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyānatah. // 167 // Finished is the first Chapter entitled ' the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. 36) 6 ?!§? J ^ (regarding \yft ^jjff J(£ buddhatā ( = buddhatva. Cf.. » ' F o r ātmasattvasamasneha. C. o m . with the commentary [named] ' t h e Summary of Meaning of the ślokas ''37)'. T . J§.The R at n a g ot r av ib h ā g a Being devoid of defects and possessed of virtues. Having love. ' ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyāna ' seems t o b e t h e n a m e for t h e comm e n t a r y . t h e ablative case-ending. AĀS ^ K A W f ^ S t ^ t i (bodhi- [ 309 3 . BGŚ ^ sattva c a n e n t e r t h e avivarta s t a t e ) . while ' śloka ' s t a n d s for t h e basic K ā r i k ā s . T . 38v _ t (anuttarabuddhabodhi).

C. in v. 6) 7) 8) 9) svaparârtha. simply ' don ' (artha). prāpti. 6 • A S 470c: f| ft g f t ] 81 ft $£ M # — tfl W 7}t ft $ | 1$ > Ā » śuddhi. show the various aspects of ' buddhatva '. . ft i L • • • (5). . T. C.. (3). C. śuddhi and so forth. as all those terms. [this Reality] is [absolutely] freed from all kinds of pollutions 21 . And this undefiled Reality is to be known in brief in the reference to the 8 categories3' [which show its characteristics]. THE ENLIGHTENMENT i> 2. NIB. H o w e v e r .e. ^ I J . rañ-gshan-don. (de-)brten. . j j £ ^ This reminds us of the ' jñānâpti' . (2). the term Buddhahood may be suplied here as the subject term. thob. (tad-) âśraya. what is this ' Reality free from Pollutions ' ? It is that which is called ' the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis (i. T. {=§ "fty. Hereafter. t.. the Germ of the Buddha) ' (āśrayaparivrtti). AÂS Chapter III (Bodhi-panvarta). dag. in the Immaculate Sphere of the Buddhas. 470 c-473 c. . 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REALITY FREE FROM POLLUTIONS We have finished the explanation of 4 the Reality mingled with Pollutions '. . C. T. 7) liberation [from obstructions] .*» rfeoj n o \/T% ifcīiī / i • < 5 H T r/J 1&" (' . (4). C.Hv ' f° r ' āśrayaparivrtti '). (1). S£ TW 3) For ipadârtha\ T. adds ' ^ [ 310 ] ] | S ' (yoga) before . I. }§? . since.MALĀ TATHATĀ XII. Now. T. the foundation 9 ) of these two kinds of actions . T. the attainment 6 ) . visamyoga. ^Tf. .. F Cf. 4) T h e whole of this verse seems t o b e m e r e l y a r o w of t e c h n i c a l t e r m s .CHAPTER I I . 8) action in behalf of oneself and others . Then which are the 8 categories ? [The The The And 11 Buddhahood 4 ) is] the purity 5 ) . bral-ba. we shall speak of the undefiled Reality.C.

12) I t is quite doubtful whether this verse belongs t o t h e Kārikā-text. 9) ^ ^ (āvenika). "Jf^ H i . 1) y 'pf.. and is to be written without separation from the succeeding ' audārya ' (gāmbhīryaudārya-). and 8) the inconceivable (acintya) character [of Manifestation]1 3 ) . T . we c a n u n d e r s t a n d the idea expressed i n this Chap. T. C #H ^L 0 T ^ (The latter matches S. a n d also w i t h o u t this verse. 4) ^ p . zab dañ rgya—che dañ bdag—ñid— chen-po. 2) J|j . But in the commentary. regards it as the term indicating the fifth subject. / ji-lta-ñid. 10) >5 ~5j S fff .The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Being profound 10) . AÂS 470 c.?fc. S.. 6) the manifestation (vrtti). 2) | 2 | ?rcK (hetu).<6). better). (svabhāva). C. Cf. yāvad kalam. & C. T. translation. (paripantha). 13) F o r these 8 subjects. 3) hbras-bu. I . 4) the function (karman). 2) the cause (hetu). 1) First of all the Essence [of the Buddhahood]. ' t a t \ These two subjects have the same characters as ' yāvadbhāvikatā ' and ' yathāvadbhāvikatā ' used in the characterization of the Jewel of the Community (IV-§ 1). Cf.k. used for C. includes i t within t h e Kārikā-text. yathā ca tat. G n ) For these two categories. this verse is t o b e omitted from t h e line of Kārikā text. and ffif ||j( ^H $L 7 ^ in the commentary. ji-srid-dus. 7) the eternal (nitya). Ā 3) H f l S t 31. magnificent and magnanimous. and reads ' r$C | 1 . the first 4 are identical with the first 3 subjects of 10 categories on 4 tathāgatadhātu ' in Chap I. 1) # gg fit Q!. 29 i n Chap. [ 311 ] | § (vrtti). // 1 //. C. 5) Idan. See m y I n t r o d u c t i o n .B Ś 811 a. om. I . 8) ^ ft (nitya). namely: 1) the own nature (svabhāva). It [manifests itself] as long as the world exists. For this 6th category. One reason is t h a t this verse is merely a row of certain terms and does n o t m a k e a sentence b y itself. 7) ff (acirelya). 3) ffl # . while the latter 6 agree in their contents with those (4)-(8) in this chapter (9th is a part of ' yoga ' here). J^. viz. . 3) jgj* pjp. Of them. is to be understood.(karman). See Note VIII-8. W i t h t h e same probability as for v . by this verse 12) . 7) rtag-pa. Such is n o t t h e case with Kārikā-verses which we have picked u p i n Chap. 6)hjug-pa. 5) the union (yoga). £ $ t * I .?f^ (phala). I I . t h o u g h C. S. <fj*. |if|. 1) # gg. when it is ' perfectly purifiāśraya. and 8) mi khyab-pa. T. ' i n connection with the next subject. which mentions 10 categories. The term ' /f*p J ^ ' has probably no ground in the Ms. 3) the result (phala). 5) \ p ^fl. 2) rgyu. A S 472 c. these 8 subjects are indicated according to order. gāmbhīryaudārya—māhātmya. A* ^ J fâ* § § ! . ffj . give t h e following terminologies: 1) ño-bo. |Zi| . 7[f\ lf§| in the Kārikā text. 4) las. which is called by the Lord l the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' when it is unreleased from the sheath of defilements. 6) ^ P ^ f (yoga). Sctfc. Thus. Another reason is t h a t these terminologies are n o t utilized i n t h e following Kārikās a t all. 2) Jg| ^ . 10) The reading should be ' gāmbhlrya ' instead of ' gambhīrya ' in the text. In a manner as it is U ) .

For ' āśrayaparivrtti prāpyate '. C. characteristics of ' āśrayaparivrttV. ffijiC Vpf" ^=p* jg£ £fc jplp j | \ V ^ . for ' . . (Ace. 1) T . 3) JjQ ^ffk j|»^ E . F r o m t h e context. i t is preferable to read ' tatphalam visamyogah/ '. completely agrees with S. reads as ' jñānâdhigamo eva (tat) phalam / '. . the sūtra mentions 4 -Cz^jt* ~4*J£+ »t _ -t*i~| 3(fJ ^ R $ixi. viz. respectively21). 2 & 3. 3) The ' result' [obtained by] these [two kinds of Wisdom] is the 4 liberation ' (visamyoga)20>. AĀS 470 c: ffî Hf£. J^ 2) $9G ^ff /rlK WC (nirodhaniśrayadānatvāt)'. TAKASAKI ed ' (viśuddhi)14). ^p. to v. .q§. vinirmukte tathāgatadharmakāye 'pi\ i n s t e a d of ' . There are two kinds of liberation. 15) 1 6 ) 4) 3jj£ ^ ^ " ^ * ^ ^ *jX" * ! § WC (pariśuddhadhar- Ś M S 2 2 1 6. . as the 'own nature' of the [Reality] characterized as the 'Perfect Manifestation of the Basis'. 18) 19) ace. ' tatphalam dvividham j ' is doubtful. One is the ' Supermundane. a n d Ms.\ 17) ' laukikam ' is t o b e i n s t e r t e d after prsthalabdham. and the liberation from the obstructions on account of the knowable things. 20) p . T h e reading. C. 2) There are two kinds of knowledge. and is indicated by the word ' attainment' (prāpti). (utpattiniśrayadānatvāt). 14 > Cf. dvividham/ '. ft l h 4~T • (prāpti means here t h e means of a t t a i n m e n t = prāp- ' neneti prāptih. [Here] it is called ' attainment' in the sense ' that by which something is attained '19>. F o r this. 21) ' yathākramam ' before ' svaparârtha-' should b e connected w i t h t h e preceding [ 312 ] . hdis thob-pas na thob-paho. namely 1) *-p jpCt / * C uX. shall likewise have no doubt about the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is 1 6 ) freed from the coverings of all defilements " .J. This supermundane and mundane Wisdom is the ' cause ' of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis 18>. . vinirmuktes tathā. f$C I^L ir{ •> "f^f ( t m s sentence is to be placed i m m e d i a t e l y after ' ^ £ . although T . The reading should be ' .T J y ^ 1^1 '• See below). therefore. Jy\ 7^4 f S Trv WC p~ (vipāka-mano-jñeyadharmaphalatvāt). I I ) . C. i t m a y refer to ' visamyoga-phala ' a n d ' vipāka-phala '. 80 1. tyupāya. madhātusvabhāvatah). I l l . and omits ' dvividham '. W h a t is signified b y t h e t e r m dvividham is quite uncertain. . . b u t t h e t e r m vipāka is used nowhere in Chap. t o T .| f (dhātu) ^C $fe ® tS! ® > 3fe t f t 4 a whereafter. B . . one who has no doubt about the Matrix of the Tathāgata as it is concealed under the millions of coverings of all defilements. the liberation from the obstructions of defilement. non-discriminative [Wisdom] ' and the other. the Mundane 1 7 ) Wisdom which is acquired afterwards [based on the former]'. It is said 1 5 ) : " O Lord.

($P . as long as the world exists '.\ g ^ ^ Q ) . 22 5) [The point that] the foundation (adhisthāna) > of this function j s ' provided (samanvāgama) with ' [the inmeasurable properties] is [here called] ' union '. By these points.flM#. C. d h ) Here C. 30). should be as follows: ffiifirfHlft±*T%".The 4 R at n agotr av ih h āga 4) The function * is the accomplishment of one's own aim and that of others. there is the establishment [of the Essence] 24 In Buddhas' Stages >. 30. Its eternal and inconceivable character.q£ ( (There is no correspondence between each of the two kinds of visamyoga and of the two kinds of artha-sampādana).e. (-visamyogaś ca yathākramam / sva-). C. ^ ^ Jii. 23) && 24) buddhabhūmi (pi. reads: u te 22) T 0 J>8' r^f ^ | p JAS WC. translation. // 2 // sentence. |~h "jvf (=āśraya in the verse). māhātmya). C. For the whole sentence. has again confusion in its arrangement. ence._jMmflimu«vi m. the cause. magnificence. and in an inconceivable ' manner.££©»>«lit. The own nature. (<\~X» | ^ i . [ 313 ] . Pîlfc '• The correct arrangement of these passages in C. and the result. we may interpret it as follows: The union means that the immeasurable qualities which are obtained by svaparârtha (-sampatti) are always and ultimately united with the foundation (yoga iti svaparârthaprāptânumeyagunânām nityam acintyam adhisthāne yogah /). respectively (gāmbhīrya. acintya a l o n g w i t h vrtti.). audārya. ^mnft#. s T. but in the light of v. ' |$g Jff jtSL PāP: Ī5JC » ^fe "IB ' should be placed after ' jîpÇ ^£\ jM. 2 3 6)-8) The ' manifestation > means that [this Perfect Manifestation of the Basis] manifests itself in the forms of three Bodies of the Buddha which are characterized by profundity. the union. and magnanimity. 4 4 i. and the manifestation. The function. and [manifests] ' eternally '. rten[-pa]. So does C. II. It signifies Buddhahood characterized as muktikāya and dharmakāya (v.I* ^ *î i difficult to render this C. m e n t i o n s nitya. •ffln#. Summary.

avikalpajñāna a n d tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. rab-dbye-ba (prabhinna). C. style peculiar to the Buddhist text? 5) akalpana & pravicaya-jñâna. 8 POINTS ON THE UNDE FILED REALITY (I) SVABHĀVA & (II) HETU Now. everlasting and constant. read this dharma as connecting w i t h avikalpa: T . chos-la mi-rtog. vJyj JO J7IJ Jffj V/^ . & C. (Kārikā 1) Buddhahood has been spoken of as being radiant by nature. 6) prabhāvita. 11 2) •Ct D Ś 893« (v. [however] as being covered with the net of the multitude of clouds. Just as the sun and the sky 2> [are often interrupted by clouds Though they are radiant and immaculate.^ M (dharmesv avikalpād. ' / l > * Ji /jlj l§ff ^ £ -frf 7RÇ $ ī § . This Buddhahood is now eternal. Buddhahood. Or is it an irregular Skt. however. And is attained when the elements [of existence] take resort 4 ) To the Non-discriminative and Analytical Wisdom 5) . i. C. C. we have one śloka on Buddhahood and the means for its attainment1) referring to the subjects of 'own nature' and 'cause' respectively. 10: « ft tyj îf H ' S g ^ f l T S I f & t i B S ) A 4) prāptyupāya. [ 314 ] . B u t b o t h T . In the form of [obstructions on account of] defilements And knowable things which are of accidental nature. It stands for 'prāpti' ( = hetu) in the preceding passage. Therefore. T .Xin. says instead ' the sun and the moon '. which is represented by 6> The indivisible virtuous properties. has no e q u i v a l e n t word for i t .e. āśrayāt. T . // 3 // The meaning of this śloka is to be known in brief by the [following] 4 verses. . mi-rtog & rnam-hbyed ye-śes. respectively] 3). anāsrava-tattvajñānam āpyate). dharmânām. C. Being endowed with all the the pure properties of the Buddha. H e r e t h e reference is. t o t h e two kinds of jñâna. for this line. t h e reading ' dharmānām* is somewhat doubtful. .

C. 15: svabhāva-śuddham mala-śuddhitam ca (^ f^ ]& ^ tyfi . // 5 // 10 Because of their being unreal by nature ). '|£E jfpp /J3î & "fvf Ppp /JTJJ)' I n this sense. dbye-med-par hjug-can. F o r ' tatprsthalabdha '. fS] (to intend. two kinds of prahāna.). C. This purity is here. i. and in the commentary. T . visamyoga is regarded as ' phala'. -dañ bral-ba. MSA XII. |*Jji. 1) ' the C. p. T. 1) the ' innate purity ' (prakrtiviśuddhi).The R at nagot r av ib h āga Has a resemblance to the sun and the sky 7) In both its characters. F3rt ( = 13) 14) F o r ' isyate '. 8 And are radiant and of uncreated nature >. j S . // 6 // 12 The cause of dissolving ) these two obstructions is Wisdom. u The obstructions > of defilements and of ignorance Are illustrated as being like clouds. Of them. C.). C. ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca ' (C. and 2) 4 the purity. sgrib—pa.£fc jc (prahāna) are non-dual'. avinirbhāgavrtti (Bahuvrīhi comp. 15 ' T . T .t #Jffi• [ 315 ] . C. distinguishes both purities by the terms ' Vpî ' & ' Q ')• Also Sīiffl « * fit ÎP. One is the Non-discriminative [Wisdom] 14) And the other is the knowledge. rañ-bshin-gyis ni ma-grub. takes ' dvaya ' as ' advaya ' (^^ . C. and the latter.e. C. rañ-bshin-gyis [S. ^ § ^ 5 S T H S • lx 12) ^ āvrti. T. T. as prahāna-dvaya. 9 And whose manifestations are indivisible [from itself] ). The former is characterized as ' vimuktir na ca visamyogah '. knowledge and removal . Vñ ^ rnam-par dag-pa. obtained afterwards . as the result of purification ' (vaimalyaviśuddhi)15). // 7 // (III) PHALA It is said that the own nature * of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis is the * perfect purity ' . visamyoga). $fc ffc V £ . of two kinds. Namely. 8 7) i > akrtaka. | 1 \ /(J>C / / î i*f • There is no correspondence between each of t h e t w o obstructions a n d t h e two kinds of wisdom. in short. C. byas-min. 10) svabhāvâparinispatti. Because of their pervadingness and occasionality. and reads ' " Q (jñāna) and Pf . XXXI. & dri-ma med-pahi rnam-par dag-pa: C 0 & raff Vñ Î R ^ » respectively. ^\* $$• /(JJ[ om 9) ~§C HH ( « vrtti). 13 Which is again considered as ) of two kinds. to b e intended). T . 620 b. Which are beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number. Taisho. C. Cf. // 4 // It is endowed with all the properties of the Buddha. viślesa.

reads in negative (-^I^ pafc). Now we have two ślokas about c the Purity. Cf. 16: $f ^ . The last 5 letters are for ' ādhya'. " XJj {j* •> sarvadharmâvisa- myogah). filled with pure water. is not [always] separated from the accidental pollutions.17)> # 0 ftfc ?K 0 T 1& f S WC ( 8 9 3 c)Rather. 164. Cf. DAŚ t\l I S $D ' j t t ®C I K i grow in dirty water. A simile for t h e i m m a c u l a t e n a t u r e liberated from ' rāga '. Like the sun. 13. the radiant Innate Mind is completely liberated from the accidental pollutions..J. C. being endowed with pure properties. ^ g OiB^) ^ s a personification of «the phenomenon of eclipse and is counted one of ' nava grahāh \ see Mvyut. For the second half of this line. Like the full moon delivered from the jaws of Rāhu 1 9 ) . TAKASAKI innate purity ' represents that which is essentially free [from all stains] but actually associated with them. MM >*u J*|-» "iSL l § (probably as S. the Innate Mind. lotus is usually said to point of similarity is not clear. though being radiant. just as water and the like become purified from dirt. 2) 4 The purity. see v. sgrag-can. B u t t h e 1$L ^ fe M (v. ft « W S M* M + ift & # *U H H^ ^ A kt ± m i t f (v. whose rays have been released From the covering of clouds and others 20\ This [Buddhahood]. v. fll fll f t $ 5 Hf M * S ^ W Slit suggests the word ' druma ' as in Ms. rgyas. 17) 18) H e r e again C. reads i n n e g a t i v e ( / p ftjfl.e. Reality mingled with pollutions]. JZU ft ?$£ ?ffi W ft comm. T.). // 8 // 16) F o r visamyoga. C. DAŚ v. 9i). Indeed. 14. A simile for the immaculate Wisdom. 16 liberated from [all pollutions] \ Because. C. liberated from ' moha '. 12. 18 (893 c) #0 J Ś 2 § tfl" 20) 8k ffi tfef and in ?S M IS t * $c t t H Bf^ B ^L M St (^93 b. (Kārikās 2-3) Like a pond. W 21 ' bhāti muktam tad eva. see v . etc. ' rāhu * (T. too. for which T. D Ś 893c: M B * ft. Becomes abundant with flowering lotus gradually18). Manifests itself as being liberated 2 l ) . 16). on v. as the result of purification ' represents [that which is] essentially free and actually. Ct. see v. impurities. B. [ 316 ] . 19> A simile for the immaculate compassion liberated from ' dvesa '. as the result of purification ' with reference to the subject of 4 result' 17>. [i. snañ-ldan (bhāti-yuktam) de-ñid-do. C.

The meaning of these two ślokas. f-\. rgyal-ba-ñid. in short. like the kernel [of corns]. is to be known by the following 8 verses: The result of the Non-discriminative Wisdom In short. Being pure [as the result of the removal] of Desire and other accidental defilements. #fl 2J£ -if-. T. and hence the originality of this verse is quite doubtful. § 28 ) pūrnavimalendu C. like gold. // 11 // It is like a pond filled with shining water Because of its rejecting the dirtiness 26> of the dust of Desire. ?JC (ambu). 27 > abhisyandana. Buddhahood 22) is [also] like the honey. munivrsa or C. like a golden statue 24>. hbab. is said to be akin to a pond and others. 25 ' The significance expressed in these two verses is as follows: The visamyoga of dhātu is immediately followed by the manifestation of buddhatva accompanied by buddhagunas. And because of its sprinkling 27> the water of meditation On the disciples who are like lotus flowers. // 9 //. C. is explained As the actual sight of the Buddha's state Possessed of all kinds of excellency25). ' 9iff£ J Q ' is probably a mistake. Such is n o t a characteristic of t h e genuine k ā r i k ā s i n this t e x t . just as avikalpajñāna is immediately followed by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. // 13 // a2 > jinatva. like a an immaculate precious image of the Highest Lord of the world. 23) (= munirsabha). T. 1. the Buddha. // 12 // It has a resemblance to the immaculate full moon 28\ Since it has been released from the Rāhu of Hatred And since it pervades all the world With the rays 29> of Great Love and Compassion. [ 317 ] . ~~\ Tl. this k ā r i k ā c a n n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y itself unless there is assumed t h e knowledge of t h e 9 examples on tathāgatagarbha.)- As all of these 9 examples a r e t h e s a m e as those spoken i n C h a p . U 28 > For amśu. // 10 // [On the other hand].The This Like Like Like Like And Ratnagotravibhāga Highest of Sages23). but T. ^ /]<. C. om. See my Introduction. T. a precious store of jewels. it should be TO l7P ( 24) ^A ī.. 26 > kālusya. ^ JH. Attained on the basis of the former. C. hod-zer. the result of Wisdom. C. great fruit-tree.

// 14 // Being possessed of the unequalled30) properties. i f f _ t I t indicates p r o b a b l y sambhoga-kāya. T . It is like the Buddha33). And its having the appearance of the most precious form 40). T. Because of its being free from the clouds of Ignorance. AĀS 472 c. viw ^vf ^ x (~ osamasama). 39) dvipada-agrādhipatya. again misreads this line. mi-mñam mñam. rjas. like honey and the kernel [of grains]. T. which is called ' the result of the liberation'. dag[-pa]. Its being the Highest Lord of the human beings39). . obtained afterwards on the basis of the former i2\ are the cause of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis. It is like a precious [image]. y!y (?).. It is like gold. C. being freed from the poverty By the richness 35) of its properties. // 16 // By its body's being made of the jewel of the Doctrine 38 '. This line stands for > phalgu. But it is absolutely a mistake. and the atulyatulya. respectively. $ | | |§p£ (Pali.b y e d \ s t a n d for tathalā. C. AĀS M . 'smin-byed'' for dāna is t o b e corrected i n t o ' s b y i n . C. These t h r e e 34) > dravya. 32 33) 30) C.J. T . Bringing forth the essence of the Highest Doctrine31). T . the supermundane Non-discriminative Wisdom and the mundane knowledge.. nidhi (avaria Indicating lectio i n Taisho edition gives u s t h e reading: f^L ^ ^ -^fr* W\ §īk • The correct reading is therefore ' |f£ ^ 38) ^ HJ" 0 ^ '). [respectively] 37). // 17 // (IV) KARMAN 41) It has been said that the two kinds of Wisdom. and a tree. pavitra. like a treasure. T. \iz. 36) 37) 3B C o m . śun-pa ( = tvak). (5) ff ^ ( #S M ^ [ 318 ] ift «> For these two jñānas. C. And because of its removing the darkness of the world With the rays of its divine Wisdom. pheggu). adhigamadharma. f W / £ -i§^ • * dharmakāya. TAKASAKI And this Buddhahood is similar to the immaculate sun. rkañ-gñis bdag-po mchog. C. And being free from the outer covering32) [of Defilements]. reads ' sugata ' as the subject. C. 40) Indicating nirmāria-kāya.//15// Being pure34). jf£ H f (?). a king and a golden statue. And being the giver36) of the fruit of Liberation. «) Cf. 31) It stands for desanādharma. prakrtisthagotra a n d samudānita-gotra.

pi.) is c o m m e n t e d on as ' dhīrānām^ (v. In the pure audition of its perfect preaching. namely: rūpa. gnas. in t h e sense B u d d h a h o o d itself animitta). Two-fold means ' deśanā & darśanavibhutva '. C. C. Then. [ 319 ] . The correspondence between each of the twofold jñāna and of the twofold arthasarnpatti is not clearly observed here.The E at n a got r av ib h ā ga * function ' of the Wisdom is the fulfilment of one's own aim and of that f others. -ŚJ-. viz. JEJ ^fc j \ . i. About this fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of others. hpho-ba. Jgfc . T . // 18 // It gives always the cause [for enjoyment] In showing the miraculous apparitional forms. with reference to the subject ' function '. without any effort. constant and unchangeable47). and 2) the teaching by means of them. rasa. /[* X a * acyuta. 28. C. we have three ślokas. by means of twofold power43'. 1) appearance in the forms of two bodies 44 '. Is. 49) sat. whose account is given in the next verse. T . dbañ-hbyor-ba. The same term is used in v.e. sadāyatanāni. what is the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of o others ' ? That which represents the attainment of the undefiled Absolute Body. (C. fffi. 28). gandha. AĀS ZZ ^ H . | ^ f $fa # 0 ^ med-pa. T. Immaculate and all-pervading. And that which comes after the attainment of the fulfilment of one's own aim. ' dag-pa(śuddha)' is probably a corruption. 44 ' From the context. sparśitavya and dharma. is C. being the foundation 46 '. [both of] which continue as long as the world exists. (Kārikās 4-6) Buddhahood . it is called the 'fulfilment of the aim of others'. reads ' 5»ÎÇ * p ' for kārana (with a negative.^ ) . Bo) sadindriya-visaya. pada. ' kāyadvaya ' here probably means the twofold rūpakāya. śabda. C. the cause 4 8 ) for the Intelligent 49) To experience the objects through 6 sense-organs 50> . and everlasting.-^g ^ " (dhlmat). Quiescent. Z 2 ^ H $fr ^§* . C. vibhutva. T . Of unperishable nature. and represents the manifestation. like space. and parârthasampatti as caused by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. This "Isatām' (gen. 45) 46) 47) 48) 43) 45) tathāgatatva. as being freed from the obstructions due to Defilements and knowable things along with their potential forces is called the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim '. But AĀS regards svârthasampatti as caused by avikalpajñāna.

61) vindana. J7p pafE }mt. C. like space. it may be termed parârthasampatti because the dharmakāya as samudānitagotra is the cause of the rūpakāya which works for parârtha. these two functions represent svârthasampatti. nimitta-varjitam. [Although] being two [in their functions]. the dharmakāya in its result aspect (III. [The other is] the purification of the Absolute Body 56> . zxL mm-. ' sūksmacintā-paramârtha-gahvaram ' for the whole line. rgyu-mtshan rnams dañ bral. tshul. ^ 53) 64) 5B) T. *&$• (giving). ^pjj /jyjC. And in the cognition of doctrine 5 2 ) . C. C. In tasting 5 1 ) of the taste of the great. sublime and highest Doctrine. These two kāyas show the two aspects of the dharmakāya. // 19 a In the enjoyment of the pleasurable touch of meditation. the thicket of quite subtle 5 thinking *). Here the muktikāya seems to represent vimukti (as the characteristic common to samalā tathatā and nirmalā îathatā). As far as this characterization is concerned. T. U $% $r? JîS =%» * S Nf wm =%. respectively. om. its function is characterized as the purification of itself. visamyoga (as the characteristic unique to bodhi). in brief. while from the aspect of ' visamyoga '. T. is to be known by the following 8 verses. profound by its nature. gahvara. are to be known as one. these two also correspond to the prakrtistha-gotra and the samudānlta-gotra.-« % i*. is to be known as follows: [One is] the fulfilment of the Body of [innate] liberation. in regard to its function. T.J. 58 is a misreading (reading ' tathāgato viyomanimitta—varjitah). 53) [But]. M > naya. The function of the twofold Wisdom In short. ^ ^ /^H It should be ' \j\$ /flu. (dharma). grol-bahi sku (hgro-ba in D. and the dharmakāya. So does the AĀS say (472 c fpj ^ § ^ J . phalârtha) is characterized as ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca'. is of no visible mark . paramārtha. C. From the aspect of ' vimukti '. BU. C. bde—mdsad (śamkaram). is probably a mistake). ) muktikāya. for which T. Consequently. the function of the dharmakāya is characterized as the perfection of Enlightenment. C. the Absolute itself. 55) The Tathāgata himself. being the Highest Truth. . // 21 // The Body of innate liberation and the Absolute Body. // 20 // The meaning of these three ślokas. ms tit m. C. f^ •*§". respectively. TAKASAKI In the pure scent of the Buddhas' morality. ^ £ s M). myañ (enjoying). Namely. »we aPPiy [ 320 ] the character of the samudānltagotra to the second function. -f^. and dharmakāya. See my Introduction.

rten. On account of its connection with 6 4 ) the undefiled character. 60 > nāśa. C. Does it mean muktikāya and dharmakāya ? But see Note 44. // 26 // Just as space. HH . rnam-hgyur. namely): — " ^ " ^ S Zl ^ *fi $S JIl <§" 3R 3§ . however. of tastes. C. 4 59) [Here] imperishability' is a general statement . 63) For kāyadvaya. [They are namely]: ' p u t r i d i t y ' . bsam mi—khyab—par hpho—ba. 64 * yogatah. chad-pa. ' everlasting '. since the Kārikā refers only to Buddhatva and the rūpakāya is nothing but a term for buddhatva or dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. 'disease'. '^L JTL K Cf. ^ . of smells. myags. T. It may be more natural to regard it as the twofold rūpakāya. hjig-pa med-pa. AĀS. 62 > āspada. interpretation is. // 25 // Because of their absence. [ 321 ] . ucchitti. T. C. C. hearing and so on Of form. 61) ' Annihilation ' and ' death in an inconceivable way ' . Of things touchable and of substances respectively. T. // 22 // 4 It is free from passions ' Since the Defilements are resisted along with impressions. 7 V î/ilj) vyāpitva (C. 7»»Ç ft . it i& known to be 4 4 Everlasting '.The Ratnagotravibhāga Because they are free from passions and all-pervading. // 27 // In the same way. ' i ^ f*J iilf* jf§)| 2 | * . // 24 // 4 60) The Evanescence ' is to be known as of four kinds. Which is explained by the words. C. f^ Stf . T sbyor-bas (by means of). Being the counterparts of ' everlasting ' and the rest. C. C. C.) and asamskrtapadatva (C. has no equivalent word. ' avināśitva. T. Wisdom is considered as ' pervading ' Since it has neither attachment nor hindrance. // 23 // The ' absolute immutability ' is caused 58) By its nature of imperishability . C. vikrti. ' constant' and unchangeable '. 57) And are the immaculate substratum . the twofold [apparitional] Body 6 3 ) . C. shortens this verse omitting many words. ' quiescent'. jffll 3^. 68 3 gunas. ^P< /$L (fundamental statement). And this immaculate Wisdom is the ' substratum '. jmjf. T. T. not untenable. y\j. respectively. § ^1] ^ F $=| ^ ( | H V} Wi ft" (svârtha is avinirbhāga from $& @ ) . 67 ' anāsravatva (C. and acintya—namana—cyuta. Is the cause of perceiving. C. Since it is the support 6 2 ) of [all] the pure elements. being itself of no cause. of sounds.. 61) pūti. ^Y* 5^C • 69) uddeśa. etc. C.

42-43. T. Being quiescent. // 29 // Now. rtsub. p . (Kārikā 7) Being inconceivable. Taisho. X I I . It has neither attachment nor hindrance anywhere.J . See a b o v e (v. So it is said 6 9 ) : " If the Tathāgata could be recognized merely by the 32 marks of a superman. T. TAKASAKI Is the cause for wise men 6 5 ) to give rise to Immaculate virtues in the objects of sense-organs. /ff\. The pure and immaculate Buddhahood is like space. Skt. Also see Chap. the 18 E x c l u s i v e Properties). . T. and perfectly pacified. I l l (on > Cf. C. And. (6) ^ g $ H . don dam-pahi mtshan-ñid. AĀS 472 c . The [fulfilment of] one's own aim and of that of others 72) Are represented by the Bodies of Liberation and of the Absolute . eternal and ever-lasting. the universal monarch.g. jffi (J|) > parusa. too. 7 2 > See note XIII-55. in short. JĀA 243 c. e. 71 [ 322 ] . * =§§. 69) 70) The Vajracchedikāsūtra.) T. C. It can be neither perceived nor cognized. Being all-pervading and apart from discrimination. This refers specially68) to the absolute and exclusive character of the Buddha. being devoid of rough 7 1 ) sensation. the meaning of this śloka is. dgoñs-pas. there is one śloka about the highest character 7 0 ) in reference to the subject of i union '. // 28 // (V) YOGA 66) It is said that the Buddha has the character of space 6 7 ) . 752 a. 67) 68) 66 abhisamdhāya. . to be known by the following 8 verses. 20): tathāgata-vyoma. C. 65) dhlra (— dhīmat. bstan-pa (śāstr). C. p . f i \ (?). paramārthalaksana. constant. Now. would turn to be a Buddha ".

78) C. It is ' all-pervading ' since it cognizes everything . btsas-pahi khyim-(g)nas. it is not the object of thought. 80 81 > As for these 4 epithets. om. C. C. ace. Being the Highest Truth. om. ) apratisthāna. \i\. T. \ś\ p j "jtr* pfv jf\ (lokottara— For gahvara. ( = dhlmai). 74) 76 J dharmatā-gahvaratvatah. ' / 1 > * {EE . 'inconceivable' and others. The reading is there- fore to be ' sadma ' instead of ' madhya '. trijñāna. And.e. It is 4 everlasting ' . C. P r o b a b l y t h e r e a d i n g is ' r ū p a ' i n s t e a d of ' f e ā y a ' (or kāya i n t h e sense of rūpakāya.iñe Katnagotraviûnaga On this foundation 73) of one's own aim and of that of others There is the ' u n i o n ' of properties. //33// It is ' eternal'. Like the visible forms77) for those who are born blind. SMS 222 a: $ 0 -\l an a*MBit. to T. 75 ' jñānadehin. It is ' non-discriminative ' as it has no insistence8 1 ) . it is not the object of study. T. C. since it does not disappear. // 30 // Buddhahood is accessible only to the Wisdom of the Omniscient. £fc ^4 • gahvaratah). T. śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-jñāna. regards this ' ārya ' as those Saints who belong to Srāvaka. T. It ' has no hindrance ' in regard to everything [knowable]. // 31 // Being of subtle character. [ 323 ] 22 . 79) sūtikā-sadma-sthita. // 32 // Because it has never been seen before by ordinary persons. a n d C. being the impenetrable Absolute Essence7 6 ) . gnas-pa med[-pa]. I. see VIII-(IX C). as it is devoid of birth . gzugs. 80-82). / / 3 4 / / It is ' perfectly pacified ' as being the Truth of Extinction. 73) āśraya. because it is free from dualism. Like the disk of the sun for infants lying in their mother's bed 7 9 ) .& Pratyekabuddha-yāno. ye—śes—lus—can. Cf. (vv. // 35 // Being purified from all the obstructions of Ignorance. zab. And is not the object of the 3 [kinds of ordinary] knowledge 7 4 ) . i. it is to be known as ' inconceivable ' [Even] for those people of intellect 7 5 ) . It is ' quiescent'. collective of forms). (depending upon svaparârtha). chos-ñid zab phyir. And ' has no attachment' since it rejects defilements. all these words. C. nor even by the Saints 78>. ^ . And is 'constant' because of endurance of Reality 80 '. C. It is not accessible to the mundane meditation and the like. Therefore. 77) So T .

yorâs-su sbyoñ-ba. 84) And is ' immaculate ' because of its removal of pollutions . between thabs chen-po and śes-rab. viz. C. they should be written without separation). 6) and 16) have no equivalent in the Ratna. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation'. But for this line. 86) still in the forms of three immaculate bodies. Of them. // 36 // Being immaterial. It is devoid of rough sensation '. T. mtshan—ma med. amalai stribhih' should be corrected into ' . 16) [ ^ |l(M (arausāra?). 4) j j | Î J | ^ (gambhīrya-naya. pijft. I 2 ) M î f f i («y«pO. without interruption. and 87) * the Apparitional Body [nairmānika) . . Against J ' s note. as long as the world exists. T. AĀS 4 7 3 a. in 89) order to be the support of the welfare and happiness of all living beings. T. without cessation. the Body of Enjoyment (sāmbhogya)'. = dharmatā-gahvara?). T. ^ ^ . Namely: 1) . /ppj • 84 ' AÂS makes 19 dharmas possessed by bodhi out of this passage. due to its possession of properties uncommon to others. manifests itself. 19) £g^ Ypf (amaîo). 15) ^ ^ ) ^ ^ " J ^ ' J (avikalpa). // 37 Jj (VI) VRTTI85) Now again it should be known that this Buddhahood. sgrub-pahi rgyu. » ' parikarman. 14) ft| " ^ (asa/iga (agrā%a). with various inconceivable appli88) ances like the Great skilful means. 5) / p prativedha). gñis-med lassu ruñ-bahi phyir (advaya-karmani bhāvatah). (D) has sñiñ-rje ) ādāna-nimitta. 2) ft $ 9 (sūksma).Being of soft and light-moving nature 4 82) . 8) ^ £ (dhruva?). . 9) S 13 ^ 11) t r t Z S (*""*). 86) ' . . (In Deva- • For these three. So. there are 4 ślokas about the distinction of [three kinds of] Buddha's Body. though by means of a manifestation which is inseparable from its immatable qualities like space.). 2Çc wC ( a s S. 10) tt3 (śāśvata). Great Compassion./ i'* BJ J ^ (adrśya). [ 324 ] . 85) Cf. 6) ffj£ iFfj jig (dus(praśānta). 83 ' animitta. it is 'incognizable'. C. amalais tribhih\ nāgrī script. . B G Ś 809 a . . C. JL7) ^f* S J ^ 18) yV^ ^ * (śufefia). 83> And being of no [visible] mark . 82) mrdu-karmanya-bhāvatah. . or asa/bta). T. C.. 89 88) C. 3) j Ç flf (paramārtha). /fr\ī\.8 1 1 a ( u n d e r A v i k ā r a ) . ^ ^ . " I & jlf (acintya). and Wisdom. 7) ^ (nitya). f f fâ . and with no effort. It is ' pure ' since it is pure by nature. ' the Body of Abso4 lute Essence (svābhāvika)'. ^ fâ ^ #& & ffc # f^ . (apratigha). it cannot be perceived.

C. ^ P S i j j | . Innumerable. 9 3 with samāhita). o m . And this reading is supported by the commentary But C. 94 ' F o r ' tat-prayatnāh * yarn dharmadhātusvabhāvam 95) > yogin. Has a resemblance. For ' yarn dharmadhātu-svabhāvam '. T . C. T. dbyiñs. . in his acts.^ i f e S S i n J e A (connectin '. Appearing in various forms. T. With the body 9 8 ) in the form of different coloured rays of the Highest Doctrine.. 99 ) All bhāvas are of nihsvabhāva. C. HW . . which. C. C. T . » > For abhinna. striving after it 9 4 ) . and surpassing the sands of the Gañgā in number And has rooted out9 6 ) all the defects along with impressions. dhātuh '. B u t S. H H . Jfck -^ç pfC < ^ y r ^Tv //T 7»[j (unknown to Śrāvaka. J t r S S . rgyu. C. next verse. %W 3fv dhātu. j S . in various worlds. T. C. T . 97) 98 For samāhrta-udyamah. #j? ^ 96) Jf. middle nor end. verse (v.$«£• amalah. seems b e t t e r . //40// That which is the cause l 0 0 ) . Who are concentrating their mind. Which is endowed with properties. |~f§ 5ñÇ y\f>.T. Is indivisible 9 0 ) .iff ^ unmūlita. grub-la brtson-pa (siddhyudyamah). C. non-dual. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . C. liberated in three ways 9 1 ) . And is perceived by the Saints 9 3 ) . and I guess this was the original reading. 92) (tridhātu-muktam). rnal-hbyor-pa. as S. [ 325 ] . have not their own substance"). . F o r ' tathāgatānām sambhogakāya). sku. // 39 // One who exerts in concentrating for 9 7 ) the liberation of the world. See t h e ' vigraha. inconceivable. to the king of wish-fulfilling gems. regards this verse as referring t o T. 45: kleśa-jñeya-samāpatti-trayāvarana-nihsritam).and Pratyekabuddha-yānikas). however. M tyfi f § (insertion of ' #j? ^ J§< ' (rūpakāya) suggests that C. rnam-spañs-pa. de rtogs-pa (tad-adhigacchanti) ( c o n n e c t i n g tad w i t h ' ) . unequalled. . Immaculate and non-discriminative. .The Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikās 8-11) That which has neither beginning.^ ^ • b u t a r e inseparable from t h e Absolute. 3tSL PāJH /J^ —\ v T and adds «^p . 100) nidāna. C. • 91 > tridhā vimuktam. That represents the nature of the Absolute Essence 9 2 ) . // 38 // This [Absolute Essence] is nothing but the pure Essence 9 5 ) of the Tathāgatas.

los) "phis is the first appearance of the ' trayâvarana' theory in the text. B u t C.( = nirmānakāya). i. //45// 101 102 ' śāntipatha (C. // 41 // The summarized meaning of these 4 ślokas are to be known by the following 20 verses: That which is called Buddhahood Is the Omniscience of the Self-born.J . For bringing to full development and for giving prophecy. C. both T. etc. T. 101) Here. abiding in). & C. [respectively]. • Is 4 devoid of the two extremities'. And being possessed of five kinds of properties. The third āvarana. 40. T. Consequently. TAKASAKI For advancing into the Quiescent P a t h . 39. sV* j©> jj^l V2* J>© 1?c)» which is to be accepted here. Represented by the quality of Profundity. and the inconceivable Arhatship . bsam-med dgra105) 104) bcom. C. loe) jr o r acintyaprāpti. avaruddha (enclosed in). i l l ^ $ j | f 0 Jf. ^\* j*jfi: • atra. Which is realized through self-introspection. 105> 106) The highest Nirvana . /J»5£ ffjfr Ifefc) means nirvana. // 42 // This [Buddhahood] manifests itself in the variety Of three Bodies. And is 4 delivered from the 3 Obstructions ' Of defilement. and of Magnanimity. the Body of the Absolute Essence Of the Buddha. [ 326 ] . samāpatty-āvarana means the obstructions on account of samādhi. 103) > bimba. i n t h e sense ' i n dharmadhātu-svabhāva ' (v. Of Magnificence. T . read as acintyârhattva (T. gzugz. 38). C. takes paramā separately and Tegards it as indicating ' paramârtha '. the Body of the Absolute Essence. which is peculiar to the Bodhisattva. ' pratyātmaveditā ' is to be corrected into ' pratyātmaveditam'. gnas (avasthita.e.. 103) 104) Which also abides always in the Absolute Essence . [•A'* îqjf:] /$• U s • nirvrtih paramā. in short. As the visible forms in the element of space. 102) That is the Apparitional Form [of the Buddha] . // 44 // It is * immutable ' and 4 indivisible '. C. is to be known As of five characteristics. 107 * Commentary on vv. // 43 // • ) The Body of the Absolute Essence a (svābhāvika-kāya)107). ignorance and distraction 1 0 8 ) . mchog-tu mya-Aan-hdas.

2) asamkhya. 4) J& — W Bl 5) g ft i f ?§* J (473 a). and BGŚ: 1) ${§ Jg Jg.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a Being free from all stains and thought-construction. Because it is free from stains (vimala). > udāra. And being accessible to the Saints. 2) abhinnam. 4) trayâvarana-nihsrta. // 46 // Immeasurable'. There seems to be confusion of the word arrangement in v. ^ 3 J ^ . 109) These are the 5 laksanas. AĀS. except for the omission of ' avikalpatvād ' (the second pada. >f> 3t. namely: 1) asamskrta. 2) asambhinna. ' incomparable ' And representing ' the highest point of purity'. The last one is not clear. ^ ~ñf gj( . 4* of j j . For the reference. AĀS: 1 ) « Ā .. And because it is radiant by nature (prabhāsvara). adds ' yañ-dag-par ' (samyak) before ' yukta '. fig ^ . 3) M H & ffl. C. dharmadhātusvabhāvatah ( Q '[^ ĪJ3C). y\. ' inconceivable '. prabhāsvaratayā ( y j^E ^PJ ^ r " ĪW » ^) visuddham. but as it is difficult to establish which is the original reading. rgya-che. 4) asama.^. regards ' prabhāsvaram ' as the fifth laksana and reads ' viśuddha ' in the ablative. & respectively. 110) t i l l -v* ff- - īfta "5ÇB -I—*11 B 3 -fA* al1 T. 3 ) f f i Z l * . J j ^ •yp'. Because it is non—discriminative (2). should be ' 3 ^ J\. (4). W 112 (810 b-c). 4) āvarananihsitam. (5) respectively. The Body of the Absolute Essence is endowed With 1 1 0 ' these [5] kinds of virtuous qualities 111 '. reads as S. T . C. I will suggest below the most reasonable rendering of this verse: And (5) it is ' pure ' (viśuddha). 2 ftS— M ffl (IS #] S). & 5) viśuddhipāramiprātpi. Because it is the acting sphere of the Saints (3). however. ) 4) 8 8 PS ffiî 5 ) tpf ^ $=J (809 a-810 b.O (The last two reasons should be interchanged). vaimalyād Ç . [53i£ ^qp. 3) acintya. but the concordance between each laksana and its reason is uncertain. ' innumerable ' . T. Because it is the nature of the Absolute Essence (1). yogīnām gocaratvatah (. • M j \ WC ')• BGS clearly mentions the 5 reasons in accordance with the 5 laksanas: ^ 1) asamskrtam. the present translation is done according to the Skt. For them. ' 1) aprameya. [ 327 ] . For these 5 gunas. & 5) prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. It is ' radiant and pure ' Owing to the nature of the Absolute Essence 1 0 9 ) . 3) antadvayavivarjita. // 47 // Being magnificent112) and numberless. and thus makes 5 reasons for these 5 laksanas. avikalpatvāt (TJjft 73 /J'J R5C)' 3) antadvayavivarjitam. text. 46. T r H\). with a detailed explanation). 2 ) ^ f f l « | .

TAKASAKI Being inaccessible to investigation. C. 2) M tvārthakriyā). Being the natural outflow117) of pure Compassion. C. /}*> «5Fjj ^ ^ ~^^ *^g. m ) 122 120 For citratā T. It works uninterruptedly for the sake of living beings. in the visible form. [ ^ t ^ K I7M1 3ÎU /^. T. [By these points] the Body of Enjoyment is characterized118' Due to its power like that of the wish-fulfilling gems. for this line. § /££ [vibhutva ?]. ^fC ^ f^f ^ g ] —• ^ in order to make the meaning clear. ?). / / 4 8 / / 6) The Body of Enjoyment (sâmbhogika-kāya)115). T. It is 'immeasurable' and so on. j/fC rfg^ ft^ OC (for which the equivalent in S. C. C. Does not make manifest its real essence122'. 113 1W ' C. 117 118 ' For nisyanda. adds ' / p fijjj.Çfy). C. It manifests itself the Doctrine. possessed by sāmbhoga-kāya. deśana (teaching) in neuter stem is notable. rañ-bshin (in t h e sense of ' svarūpa'' ^ . C. namely: ! > $ ! § # • $\ . >^C * M T i l <2C W^» /J> 5nL WfJ J(!y cL (vicitradharmarasasambhoga-rūpâvabhāsatah). Being unique113) and devoid of the defiling forces. ^ /f* ^ . in acting ceaselessly. It means ' being apart from all \ ' C. W ' vyavasthiti. owing to its nature 1 1 6 ) Of enjoying the Doctrine in various forms. out of these two verses. respectively114'. 40. 116) rūpa. 4) J&| f£ 119) X # ^ ^ ^ (anābhoga). ' atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. kaivalya for which T. // 51 // Just as a gem. mam-par gnas. [ ^ . And in its appearance of illusion120'.J. whose meaning is n o t clear to me (' T R ' = sambhoga ?). om. (thus is sāmbhogya-kāya). The variety 121) of [its manifestation] is said to be 5-fold. sna-tshogs. =p|X ' after kramāt (^7V . these 5 appearances. // 50 // In teaching. mñon-par hdu-byed med-pa. // 49 // It fulfils the aim according to the wish Without thought-construction and with no effort. T. 3) % ^ ^ ^ ff M ^ (sat- ^V* ^ § pfc (dharmakāyâvinirbhāga). T. 115) Commentary on v. T . de-yi ño-bo mi-stoñ(-pa). in uncertain). has hbah-shig. being dyed with various colours. and 5) *||0 alt — * ^ F ff ^ N "fjjīf ^j< ^ p (nitya-vyāpi & sattvânupeksā) anabhisamskrti. adds bhāsa(snañ) > atatb/mra. [ 328 ] . BGS & AĀS offer no reference. C. AĀS makes 5 gunas. And acting with no artificial effort119*.

connects ' tusita ' with next one. £ j E p q ^ ]>C H ^ » AĀS inserts one more BGŚ ^ ^>t ftb . T. AĀS ^ C ^ £ <2. AĀS ^ before (6): fJL ^ 133) support this reading. 54-56) a r e t h e list of B u d d h a ' s ' mahāvastu ' i n t h e world. 56. hjig-rten-mkhyen. p4B P • ' śilpasthānāni (6). 131 . 128 T. c) The Apparitional Body [The (nairmānika-kāya 124) // 52 // ). C. // 53 // 129) Without being separated from his Absolute Body. skye-ba. the Lord never shows its real natuie. ^ . > vibhu. C. i p £ . Though it appears in various forms. antahpuraratikrīdā (7). BGŚ /$L ^ £ . AĀS W W f^ 131) 132 janman BP . with Great Compassion. BGŚ /\. T h e following ( v v . C. kauśalam C. Commentary on v. 4 1 . whose n u m b e r is c o u n t e d 14 according t o 124) B G S ( In J^y -ip-). btsun-mohi hkhor-gyis dkyes-rol. Hereafter. BGŚ ^ £ jfe Jftl $ ^ » A A S H * 9B ^ P ^ • cyutim tatah ( = tusitāt) (3). 125 Buddha]. of which the number is often mentioned as 8. C. T . 12. For śilpasthāna the Pali equivalent is sippatthāna (PTS Die. T. v. and the birth [in this world] and works . 129) > upapattim ca tusitesu (2). ^ \ . according to the conditions of the living beings. * ^ ~\" /K ^ñ ^ C. or 18. ^ 130) garbhâvakramana (4). T. T. *f$£ Tusita and this world). bstams-pa. arts entertainments among ladies in the harem . Ihums-su hjug. khyab-bdag. AĀS ^ T J ^ (18 vidyās). 128) forms. T h e whole verse is missing i n C. /JP . being the knower of the world 126 '. 0ff y\. these 14 will b e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e N o t e one b y o n e along with t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t i n B G Ś (810 c) a n d A  S (473 a ) . # t î 3J£. ( H Ç£) and BGŚ ( ^ ^ ) seem to [ 329 ] . 126) >phe w o r ( J * darśayati ' is suplied from v . gzo-yi gnas-la mkhas-pa. AĀS | ^ . dgah-ldan-nas ni hpho-ba. but connecting with next one and reading ' jātakâbhyupapattim (skye—ba mñon—par skye—ba dan). T. B G Ś p 4 B P . BGŚ |gī| JjQ ^ j i g (abiding midway between ^ 5 ^ ~ F . T .). T . O regards this verse as explaining sambhogakāya. Manifests himself The ' in various 127) apparitional . 127) jātakāni (1). ' jātakāny-upapattim ca ' is missing in C.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a 123) Similarly. 125 ' lokavid ( a n e p i t h e t of t h e B u d d h a ) . [various] previous births The birth in the Tusita-heaven The entrance into the womb The skilfulness in various Pleasurable 123 1301 . Jjp . Perceiving fully the world. Qgç 7 u x v M t 4 (kumārasthāna). C. // 54 // 133> '. and descent from i t 132) . (5). s.

T .J. AĀS j ^ ft H . mārasainyapramadana (11). 4 suffering '. i§i 'pj ^^ 142> 143) 144) śāntimārga.This does n o t m e a n t h e actual obtaining of E n l i g h t e n m e n t . ^ gśegs-pa. T . chos-kyi hkhor-lo. In Pali. j S ^C %$? S 139 # . T. [|9Çl . indicates Kusinagara). And by the word 4 quiescent'. shi-bahi lam. ' renunciation or to become a monk ' is often explained as ' to reject the worldly desire. C. upāyavid. combined in meaning with nikkāma (S. T. . BGŚ îlSBS ¥ • 138) AĀS om. AĀS ^/î|| ]yp J ^ . y\. . Setting into motion the wheel of the Doctrine139). rab-hjug. .\ BGŚ & AĀS. since T. ^Hç j | ^ lavana. TAKASAKI The renouncement of the world134'. J|fft ^ / ^ $f | t | ^ < . 4 evanescent'. C. (used as an epithet of the Buddha). 140> nirvānâdhigamakriyā (14).. byañ-chub-sñiñ-por C. ni byañ-chub $11 ^pC . /$5£ 145) 'prāpta-nirvāna-samjñinah' would be better. C. (T. |f|J ^\ ^ Q (devoid of desires) for naiskramya shows that this f jf term came out of Pali nekkhamma. 13ā > duhkhacārikā (9). T . 4 non-substantial'. C. C. AĀS & I S ^ $J ^ f £ $ffl (setting d/iarmacafera forth at Varanasi). . BGŚ Jj% \% . C. /] pratārayati. C. T. Passage to the Excellent Seat of Enlightenment136). C. byañ-chub- (asking for t h e w a y t o various tīrthikas) sñiñ-po. C. in its turn. all of them He shows in the impure worlds141'. niskāma). mya-ñan-hdas-par gśegs-mdsad. bdud sde hjoms. T. mya[ 330 ] . practice of asceticism135*. dkah-ba spyod-pa. For ksetra apariśuddha. | % f ^ ^ C. 141 ' ksetra. 137) before this. F o r bodhimanda. etc. // 56// [The Buddha]. C. ^T • 136) (10). as long as they exist. which is. // 55 // The [acquisition of] Enlightenment138). lust. $ f V£ Iffl . T. '. > dharmacakra (13). ñes-hbyuñ. agree with it. seems t o have combined this with ^ _ h V£ Iffl . f f bodhimandopasamkrānti ^ f fif = BGŚ & AĀS. x c nJJ JjQ T. ^@ $ 4 'M. he leads143) them into Nirvana. /ff/t {cj. (T. creates an aversion To the Three Worlds among the living beings By the words. the knower of means 142). s/uri. y\. The conquest over the army of Evil Demons137). BGŚ |f sambodhi (12). T. rdsogs-par the next one). // 57 // Those who have entered the way to Quiescence144). & C. 3tiL 3j%?j . "«> naiskramya (8). And who imagine that they have attained Nirvana 145). T. And the departure into Nirvana 140) . C.

T. don-mthun. C.). prabhāva.. Therefore. lit.t±r J. > rūpakāya. uttamayāna. reads ' J f | Z l ' (the second) for paciśmau. 3tE3 T K I^IE iM. interpretation of ativāhana seems better. C. And gives prophecy for them to attain the Highest Enlightenment. bzlog ste. From the context. (surpassing the treacherous path). T.The Ratnagotrav ib hāga 146) Them he diverts from their former prejudice. // 60 // Here. M E ^ *fo. rab-hdren. T. (C. [ 331 ] . C. accomplishing the power 150) 151) And toiling excessively for the company of ordinary beings. Makes them mature in the Ultimate Vehicle 148) . T. 152 151) 149) "4> Cf. fZ\\ ~^ ^ 5 • > Denoting the Mahāyāna. With reference to this subject. As the visible forms appear in space. C. T.^ ^ ~)\. C. 147) Through the teaching of the True Doctrines In the Saddharmapundarīka and other Sutras. as S. // 58-59 // 149) Being subtle. ^ ^ J } . ^ J3 pfe. the Magnificent and the Magnanimous. analogically C. sna-tshogs for sampatti is probably a misreading for phun-tshogs. mthu.rj. & T. C f=f $C ^flf ffi ^ j | ) . T. the last. 15 °) ativāhana. # ffi ^ ft ?£). And. T. we have one śloka. 152) And the latter two are the Bodies in visible forms . has an ' eternal' character [in its manifestation].~J\. 153J antya. _ £. T. gzugs-kyi sku. the first Body is the Absolute Body. C. 147 148 ) dharmatattva. // 61 // (VII) NITYA154) Now this threefold Body made manifest in order to be the support for the weal and happiness of the world. chos-kyi de-ñid. C. it should be 'the latter two '. For grāha C. sārtha means a caravan or traders. theg-pa mchog.fc. adds ' "^f Up (Sfi A . C. 153 These latter ' appear on the basis of the former. sārtha. embracing Wisdom and Skilful Means. As the Profound. — In these points [the Buddha] should be known. AĀS 473 a {% . C. 146 ^ > nivartya. ~/^. ñan-hdas-thob hdu-śes-can. $ M . ^ * £ £ (sattvo). BGŚ 811 a-6. respectively.

hdsin. samgraha.i p . 165) 164) So C. sampatti stands for ' sukha-sampatti through meditation '. 3) virya. T. Being endowed with Compassion. which is explained in t h e lokanātha. 2) citta. T H " . C. mthar-hbyin. ] f § <J»$£ pj^p" (svabhāva-praśānta comm. pure and immaculate 163) . C. styi ||!f| (pūrvapranidhi). & 4) mīmāmsā. This is (4) rddhi-(yogāt). vanquishing the demon of Death.^ vrW. T. as being asamskrta and ādipraśānta. JpC JjyC • Ace. rdsu-hphrul rkañ-ba. (J^X 'tK y 7 ' K i t ) - S. 161) uttarana. reads as if caryā. For śakti. Cf. F o r (3) kārnya(-yogāt). // 62 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be known by the following 6 verses. [ 332 ] .. And representing non-substantiality 158) . For the benefits of all living beings. T . He shows his [four] bases of Miraculous Powers 1 6 4 ) . j ^ l {!£ $g§ j [ t B • »•> rddhi. life and property. C. T. C. T h e r e are said t o b e 4 . The lord of the World 1 5 9 ) is eternal. Wisdom and Bliss15?)? Governing all the elements. 40. Miraculous Powers 1 5 6 ) . there is made manifest Compassion. // 63 // In his Buddhahood. C. jZ!j ^ Q ^ . He fulfills161' his first vow 1 6 2 ) . T . M v y u t . By which power he abides in the world 1 6 5 ) . n a m e l y : 1) chanda. This saddharma-samgraha is t h e 1st cause standing for hetv-ānantyāt in the Kārikā. hjig—rten-mgon—po. Cf. T . C. TAKASAKI (Kārikā 12) Having infinite causes [for the attainment of his state] 1 5 5 ) . C. C. ^ipf }\% . tair avasthitaśaktitah. T. T. C. naihsvābhāvya. // 64 // 166 > hetv-ānantyāt. t o t h e coinm. hphrul. rddhi-pāda. (Az ..J. Having an endless number of living beings to convert. BGS: 160) 163) T h i s s t a n d s for ( 2 ) sattvadhātv—aksayatvāt. 162) ādipratijñā. %\\ ^§t • sampatti. Casting off his body. He has preserved 160) the Highest doctrine. zhu JñL W\ • . rfe-yis gnas-par spyod- pahi phyir. dañ-pohi dam-bcas. phun-tshogs. 159) 168) 157) ?). T.

By his constant practice of the inconceivable 167) meditation. reads ' citta-'. 168) This is for (6) sampatti-yogāt. he is liberated from The dualistic conception of Samsāra and Nirvana 1 6 6 ) . 169) He is unaffected by the worldly elements .The Ratnagotravibhāga Owing to his Wisdom. // 66 // Being of an immutable nature. ft (rddhyānantya). C. About sukhasampatti. B u t B G S . This is for (7) dharmaiśvaryāt. 6) ' ( ^ ^pfc 7$$> /]£. bsam-yas. 4§F ^ î (sugata). He partakes of the complement of bliss 1 6 8 ) . 4) # 0 ft |«§ (avikalpajñānânantya). jv? 1?A (sadā samādhānânumeya). b u t T. & 10) . 7) g£ %. t h o u g h likewise counting 10 causes. C. The latter 3 demonstrate the eternity From the viewpoint of the Absolute Body. // 68 // 166) p 167) o r (5) jñāna(-yogāt). " t i t ffc . 178 | ^ ^ ī | £f£ ^ > For sāstr. o u t of lokanātha. 8) ff M # iffi A^ Ife A ffi Qoke vicarato f astadharmair anupalepah). 170) p o r (3) mrtyumārāvabhañgāt. // 65 // While he is acting in the world. Because of these [10] points. 2) ^ &$ j l l (sattvadhātvaksaya). T h e 10 causes ace. Having attained the state of quiescence and immortality. t o BGS are as follows: 1) 3) [^ 7»v»' ^ Wk ff»§ i f t (hetvānantya). B G Ś : F o r acintya. 169) lokadharma. He leaves no room for [the activity of] the demon of Death 1 7 0 ) . // 67 // The first 7 of these motives show The eternity of the Preceptor 1 7 3 ' in his Apparitional Body. 171 ) F o r (9) naihsvabhāvāt./$£ ^ it is anutpādânirodha). 172) This is counted as t h e 1 0 t h cause. [ 333 ] . C. See N o t e V . b u t has no correspondent t e r m in t h e K ā r i k ā .4 7 . omits this last one a n d counts ' samādhi' i n d e p e n d e n t l y o u t of sukhasampatti. ^|| fâ (sukha & śiva). as t h e 1 0 t h cause. I t seems t h e c o m m e n t a t o r m a d e this m e a n i n g of śarana. ^54 f£r )M ^ ^ T ' U ZM (amrta-śama-prāpti & ^ ^ (being as it is by nature. The Lord is perfectly pacified from the outset 1 7 1 ) . And he gives a refuge for those who have no shelter 172) . 5) $ $ 'jf $\ M i t (karunânantya). mrtyumārāvabhañga). he is 4 eternal'. 9) Jj Ug.

It is 4 the Highest Truth '. since i t is supported b y t h e reading i n t h e K ā r i k ā : upamā-nivrttitah. t o C. t h e word ' vyupameya ' is more suitable here. It is 4 inconceivable ' since it is unutterable. this method of the attainment [of Buddhahood] by the Buddhas which represents the 4 Perfect Manifestation of the Basis' is to be understood as of inconceivable character. yXs <rc ^ f e 176) • =0v • AAS mentions these 6 as t h e causes of inconceivability. AĀS 473 ft. bhava-śānty-anudgraha. we have one śloka. v. // 71 // 177) Being subtle by the [first] 5 motives He is inconceivable in his Absolute Body. *A* JfX -^j V~fc > j ç • This '. since it cannot be constructed by thought. TAKASAKI (VIII) ACINTYA174) Now. Inaccessible to investigation and incomparable. & S. With reference to this 4 inconceivability '. Being the supreme. 4 Not included ' means the Buddha abides in neither of the two And never regards [in a one-sided manner] That Nirvana is of merit and the other is of defect. agree i n their reading ' vyanumeya '. It is 4 beyond investigation ' as it is incomparable 176) . It is 4 the supreme ' since it is not included [Either in the Phenomenal World or in Nirvana]. 177) F r o m ' u n u t t e r a b l e ' t o ' t h e s u p r e m a c y '. (Kārikā 13) Being unutterable. containing the Highest Truth. The sphere of Buddha is inconceivable even for the Saints. T. 40: vici- [ 334 ] . pjff: 175) idea of ' n o t relating t o b o t h ' is t h e expression of ' apratisthita-nirvāna / -r*. a n d t h e 6 t h is ' anudgraha '. It is 4 unutterable ' since it is the Highest Truth. C. ^JSj 4=f Pjpt >[!)• T h o u g h T . and relating neither To the Phenomenal World nor to Nirvana 1 7 5 ) . And by the 6th. on account of his Apparitional Body. BGS 3k§. 178) He is inconceivable because of no identification 174 > Cf.J.. B G Ś 810 cf. // 70 // It is 4 incomparable ' since it is the supreme. de-yi dños-min [phyir] (— tadbhāvâbhāvāt). vyupameya (ace. // 69 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be understood by the following 4 verses. T. srid-shis ma bsdus. 178) atattvabhāvitva. Cf.

&c. With the Great Compassion and other virtues. On this point. contrary to the common usage of this term for the Buddha. as in the case of the Mahāvastu. 73) seems to be an old verse and is probably a quotation. Is inaccessible to human tho. next to that of the Buddha. this final stage of tuâ Buddha Is unknown even to the Great Sages 179) Who have attained the stage of Initiation 180) . [ 335 3 . trabhāvo na ca tatsvabhāvān.1 ". But C. denotes the Bodhisattva of the highest rank. this verse. 180) abhiseka. This abhisekatā or abhisekaprāpta was regarded in the old fc/iūmi-theory as the 10th and the highest stage of Bodhisattva. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. The different usage of the term ' rsi ' in this verse is also suggestive. // 72 // Being endowed with the Highest Wisdom. this verse (v.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga With either Nirvana or Phenomenal World. 179 * maharsi. reads ' J^X Tvf p3 ffit y3Ç' (because of his obtaining aiśvarya). / / 7 3 / / Finished is the second chapter entitled 4 the Enlightenment' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. om. dbañ. Here 'maharsi 9 . Therefore. who has attained the ultimate point of virtue. T. C. The Buddha.

I t is sometimes allowable in such an old-style Kārikā to keep an irregular metre. I V (Tathāgataguna-parivarta). we shall speak of the ' Properties ' which are based upon the Reality and are perfectly pure. comp. 6) samvrtikāyatā. immediately after [the exposition of the Reality]. THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA 3. F o r this. text. 4) guna-vibhāga. though one syllable is in excess by adding ' ~tā '. N ) . (Kārikā 1) The aim of one's own and that of others. m e n t a l case. \\fr ffc£ jf?|J "HI. [Consists in] the Body of the Highest Truth 5 ) And the Worldly Emanations 6) based upon it. we have one śloka referring to the distinct characteristics 4 ) of the Buddha's Properties. AĀS C h a p . IV. B. The t e r m 'vibhāga'' corresponds to iprabheda'< in K 1. a d d s ' atas tad '. r e a d s as a n instru- 3) T. < £ =§§| g j ( ) . before ' anantaram '.CHAPTER III. p p . C. stands for t h e present Skt. dharmas. BUDDHA-GUNA l) XIV. 5) F r o m the point of meaning. dbyer-med-pahi rañ-bshin-ñid-kyis. as we h a v e t h e s a m e construction i n t h e beginning of Chap. T. also a d d s ' atah ' ()ŚX . m . 4 vaiśāradyas. the reading 'paramarthakāyatā'' of Ms. pi. and c o u n t e d besides 36 o t h e r dharmas. [ 336 ] . i t is n o t necessary to change the Skt. 473 m e n t i o n e d 180 āvenikadharmas i n c l u d i n g 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. t e x t . B u t T. is preferable. being indivisible from Reality by nature 2 ) as the brightness. i n w h i c h a r e 80 anuvyañjanas. Cf. B u t . 10 balas. C. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUDDHA'S PROPERTIES We have finished the explanation of l the Reality free from Pollutions '. 1} c-475 c. Hereafter. A m o n g t h i s l a s t g r o u p . colour and shape of the jewel are inseparable from the latter. Therefore3'. kun-rdsob-sku-ñid. & 68 18 āvenikadharmas are T . 2) abhinna-prakrtayah ( B a h u .

T h e R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga Representing the state of Libiration and Maturation 7 ) , The result is endowed with Properties, Which appear in 64 varieties. // 1 // What is told by this śloka ? The Body which represents the Highest Truth Is the support for the completion of one's own [aim] And the support for the fulfilment of others' [aim] 8 ) Is the Emanational Body 9 ' of the Buddha 10>. //2// The first Body is endowed with properties, [10] Powers and so forth, as [the result of] Liberation, And the second one, with [32] marks of superman, As the properties [obtained by] the Maturation [which follows after Liberation] U ) . // 3 //
visamyoga, T . bral[-ba], C. i M . p a t t ; a n d vipāka, T . mam-par smin-pa, C. f = p ;fvV » respectively. Here ' visamyoga-phala ' means the dharmakāya characterized as āvaranadvayavisamyoga in Chap. II, while ' vipāka-phala ' means the rūpakāya characterized as the result obtained by causes (e.g. practices performed in the previous lives as in the case of sambhoga-kāya). 8) T. translates ' para ' by ' pha-rol\ but it should be ' gshan-gyi '. • sāmketikam vapuh, T. brda—yi sku, C. ~|U. \fe- *||j§f ( = samvrtikāya). )
10 7)

> rsi, T. drañ-sroñ, C. #Q 3 ^ ^

^ 1 . Both T. & C. regard * rsi ' as a plural.

vaipākika, T. rnam-smin, C. - ^ ^ 5 £ ^fc ¥ R m l (f° r vaipākika-guna) (that which represents the enjoyment of bliss as the reward of previous practices). As for the attribution of qualities to each of the two kāyas, i.e. paramārthakāya and samvrtikāya, C. says that to the first body, infinite qualities of the Buddha are attributed, while to the second body, the 10 Powers, etc., are attributed. Attribution of the infinite qualities to the paramārthakāya accords with the dharmakāya's ' union' with paramārthalaksanas which are indivisible, unthinkable, etc. as told in Chap. II, but as far as the 64 Proerties are concerned, C. attribution does not match the commentary below.
u)

[ 337 ]

XV.

64 PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

Hereafter, the text refers to which are the [10] Powers and other properties and how they are to be understood1*. Summary 2 '. (Kārikā 2) The Powers [of the Buddha] are like a thunderbolt, In [breaking] the hindrance caused by ignorance, His Intrepidity 3 ) in the assemblage is like that of a lion, The Buddha's exclusive properties are like space, And the two kinds of corporeal forms 4) of the Lord are Like the moon and its reflection in the water. // 4 // (I) THE 10 POWERS It is said that the Buddha is possessed of [10] Powers (balânvita)5). (Kārikās 3-4) The knowledge of the proper and improper place 6 ) , Of the result of former actions 7) , and of the faculties 8) ,
T h e reading should b e ' tathā-tad-adhikrtya T . de—ltar dehi dhañ—du byas—paho.
2)
l j

' i n s t e a d of * tathatām

adhikrtya

'.

T. & C. add t h e word ' uddāna ' before t h e n e x t K ā r i k ā . ( T . sdom-ni,

C. =f=r wL

viśāradatva, T . mi-hjigs-pa, C. 7k(ç fy\ "PC • 4) dvidhā-darśana, T . bstan-pa rnam gñis, C. . >y]§[ Jj^J,. 5) Prior to this sentence, C. inserts one sentence showing the following meaning: " Hereafter, the remaining verses in Chap. I l l expose the 64 properties of the Buddha, 10 Powers and the rest, according to the order mentioned in the previous Kārikā. Its detailed explanation is to be known according to t h e Dharanîśvararājasūtra ". D R S has, however, no explanation about t h e 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. Also C. changes t h e order of verses in the commentary (the K ā r i k ā - t e x t is arranged in t h e same order as t h e Skt. text), namely, the verses showing the similes, vajra, simha, ākāśa & dakacandra, are placed among commentary verses. 6 * (1) sthānâsthāna, T. gnas dan gnas—min, C. )fg& y\"~ Ifeît • About the 10 balas, see M v y u t . & D R S 14 c-18 a, AĀS 475 b, R D S 34 a-b. 7) vipāke ca karmanām = (2) karma-vipāka [-jñāna-bala], T . las rnams-kyi rnamsmin, C. 7fc ? R • • • 3^FC (reads vipāka
8)

~ ®'
3)

:

)

mm

a n d karmanām

separately). C. ffg ^PC •

indriya

= ( 3 ) indriya-parāpara[-jñāna-bala],

T . dbañ-po,

[ 338 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a
9) 10)

Of the component elements and of the faith , 11} Of the path which leads to everywhere , // 5 // Of the impurity and purity in contemplation, etc. 13) Of the memory of the previous abodes , Of the Divine Eyes 1 4 ) , and of Quiescence 1 5 ) , Such are the ten kinds of Power [of the Buddha]. It is said, [these Powers are] like a thunderbolt (Kārikā 5) [Being the power of knowing] about the proper and the improper, About results, about elements and various faiths of the people, About the p a t h
17) 16) 12)

,

// 6 //

.

, purity and impurity,

About the complex of faculties, the memory of former abodes, About the divine eyes, and how to destroy the Evil Influences; The Powers pierce, break and cut down
18 19)

The armour, the mountain fortress ', and the tree of ignorance, Therefore, they have resemblance to a thunderbolt (II) THE 4 FORMS OF INTREPIDITY 2 ) 0 . // 7 //

It is said that [the Buddha] has attained the 4 kinds of intrepidity (caturvaiśāradyaprāpta). (Kārikās 6-7) [The Buddha's] Intrepidity is of four kinds, namely: In his perfect Enlightenment of all the elements,
9)

dhātu

= (4) nānā-dhātu-j

ñ.-b.,

T . khams

mams,

C. ^lE •

10) n

adhimukti = (5) nānâdhimukti-jñ.-b., T . , mos-pa, C. |]=5 . ' mārga sarvatragāmini = (6) sarvatragāmini—pratipaj—jñ.—b., T . kun—hgrohi lam, ' dhyānâdi—kleśa—vaimalya,
=

12

T . bsam—gtan sogs ñon—moñs dri—ma med—pa, C. pjffc - vimoksa - samādhi - samāpatti - samkleśa ^ vyavadāna-

v P tÎH W$* /$L jñ.-b. (7).

sarvadhyāna

13) nivāsânusmrti, T. gnas-ni rjes-su dran-pa, C. | ^ , ^g^ J © "ZC T T = (8) i>"r" H vanivāsânusmrti-jñ.-b. 14) 15) 16) 17)
18)

divyā-caksus, T. lha-yi mig, C. y C »X = (9) cyuty-upapatti-jñ.-b. śānti, T . shi-ba, C. ^ £ f j p = (10) āsravaksaya-jñ.-b. C. p u t s t h i s verse before v . 2 9 . nay a. I t stands for mārga.

• * na

acala-prākāra, T . go-cha rtsig-brtan, C. l_L| ?||jīf. About t h e simile of ' vajra ', see v. I, 4. 20 > catur-vaiśāradya. Cf. Mvyut. 8, D R S 18 a-19 a, AĀS 475, R D S 34 6.
19)

[ 339 ]

J.

TAJ4.ASAKI

In rejecting all obstacles, In preaching the Path, and in acquiring the Extinction 2 1 ) . // 8 // He himself knows 22) and causes others to know All the things cognizable in all their forms; He destroy everything to be rejected and causes others to reject them 23>; 24) Serves [himself and lets others serve] in the method to be practised; And himself attains and causes others to attain The Highest and Perfectly Pure State which is to be attained; Thus, teaching the Truth 25) on account of himself and of others, The Buddha 2 6 ) , wherever he might be, is not paralyzed by fear 27>.

II 9 II

It is said that [the intrepidity of the Buddha] is like [that of] a lion 28 '. (Kārikā 8) Just as the king of beasts in the forest Has always no fear and acts without fear 2 9 ) among beasts,
21

' The 4 vaiśāradyas are as follows: 1) vaiśāradya in sarvadharmâbhisambodhi, T. chos-kun rdsogs-par byañ-chub, 2) vaiś. in vibandha-pratisedha, T. gegs ni hgog-par byed-pa, C. jlHi lîîj m4 J S . r-?- '•> 3) vaiś. in mārgâkhyāna, T. lam-ston-pa, C. Īf/Q i j j . ; 4) vaiś. in nirodhâpti, T. hgog-thob (D's ston is probably a misreading), C. \*f

v8v vB3 (flnāsravâpti). This order agrees with that in RDS, but Mvyut. and others put the 4th one before vibandha-pratisedha, under the name of āsravaksaya (-jñāna). 22) ' svayam ' should b e connected with ' jñānād ', a n d hence i t is t o b e w r i t t e n with separation from jñāpanād. 23) hāni-kārana-krti, i n t h e sense hāni- & hānikārana-krti, T. spans dan spoñ-mdsad. C. reading in this and the next phrase is not understandable. 24 ' vidhi. T. om. it. C. om. the whole phrase of ' sevye vidhau sevanāt'. About the idea that ' mārga ' is ' sevya', see Chap. IV, v. 52. Also these 4, i.e. jñeya, heya, prāpya and sevya correspond to each of the 4 satyas, respectively. 25) satya, which denotes t h e 4-fold āryasatya. 26) ārya (in plural), T . drañ-sroh ( = rsi), C. o m . Z7) astambhita [-tva], T. thogs-pa med ( = apratigha), C. ^ ^ "p^ ( = abhaya). (Cf. astambhin, adj. not paralyzed by fear, BHS Die). For this, BHS & Pali form is ' acchambhita % which is parallel to ' abhlta', ' asamtrasta ' or ' asamvigna ' (BHS Die. s. v.) and more or less synonymous with ' viśārada '. (chambh Skt. stambh, ' to fix'). a8) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 32.
I9) anuttarasta-gati, T. skrag-pa med-par rgyu-ba, C. £3 /p^ (for gati, T. rgyu-ba = carati).

[ 340 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga Similarly, the lion who is the Lord of Sages Abides among the assembly of attendance, Independently 30) , indifferently31', with firmness and victory 3 2 ) . //10//

(III)

THE 18 EXCLUSIVE PROPERTIES 33)

It is said that the Buddha is endowed with the 18 Exclusive Properties peculiar only to him (astādaśâvenikabuddhadharmasamanvāgata). (Kārikās 9-13) With the Preceptor, There is neither error 3 4 ) nor rough speech3 5 ) , Neither loss of memory 3 6 ) nor distraction of mind 3 7 ) , Also, there is no pluralistic conception 3 8 ) ;— // 11 // He is not indifferent, nor without consideration 39) , He knows no deprivation of his zeal 4 0 ) , and of his energy 4 1 ) , Of his memory 42) , of Transcendental Intellect 4 3 ) , and of Liberation 4 4 ) ,
30)

ll) 32)

svastha, T. legs-gnas ( = susthita), C. n * H (su-sthita). 7T~ E H nirāstha, T. Itos-med, C. A* "PC (without fear). sthira-vikramastha. T . r e g a r d s i t a s o n e a d j e c t i v e (brtan-pahi rtsal . . . ) , but

ace. to comm. verse (v. 34) and C, it is to be read ' sthirastha & vikramastha ', C. ī ! ^ | p | & si
33)

^"TV -, respectively. For these 4 adjectives, see vv. 33-34. F o r t h e 18 āvenikadharmas, see M v y u t . 9, D R S 19 o-21fe, A Ā S 4 7 5 6, R D S 34 6 f. skhalita, ravita, T . hkhrul, T . ca-co, C. 3 © -*• nāsti skhalitam C. p j " -> n. ravitam (2). nams, C. 3 c j3i> " ^ r ^ ^ "*" (^) # ma bshag thugs, C. -^i^ /£. HPC ^LJ^ "*" (^)* (1).

34)

36)

36)

musitā smrti, T . dran-pa

s

' ' asamāhita

citta, T . mñam-par

38)
39)

nānātva-samjñitā, upeksâpratisamkhyā

T . hdu-śes sna-tshogs, C. ^ § | ^g? ^ § i j § -> (5). (apratisamkhyāya is a B H S form for -yāyām (fern, loc.) ft jH[
j

of Skt.), T. ma brtags btañ-sñoms, C. 3S£ f^
40)
41)

^ -»• (6)(or-tah) hānih ( 7 ) .

chanda,

T . hdun-pa,

C. ij/V . . . n ā s t i chandasya

vīryo, T. brtson-hgrus, C. )fpj j £ . . . n. vîryatah h. (8). C. ^ £ t . . . n . smrteh h. ( 9 ) . h. (10). h. (11).

42

> s m r t i , T . dran-pa, prajñā, vimukti,

43)
44)

T . śes-rab, C. 3 § f . . . n . prajñayā T . rnam-grol,

C. J y p jjjjT . . . re. vimukter

[ 341 ]

J . TAKASAKI

And of the intuition of this liberation 45) ; — // 12 // Has [three kinds of] acts 46) are preceded by Wisdom 47) , And his Intuition acts unimpededly in three states of time 48>These 18 and others 49) are the Properties Of the Preceptor, which are not common to others. // 13 // The Sage has neither error 50) nor rough speech, Neither loses [his memory] nor distracts his mind 51) , Has neither pluralistic views52) nor indifference53) to one's own taste, He is never deprived of his zeal, effort and memory, Of pure, immaculate Intellect and Liberation, Of the intuition of freedom 54) and of showing all things knowable; — //14// He makes manifest on the objects the 3 kinds of acts 55 ', Which are preceded by 56) all kinds of knowledge, And brings out the Wisdom, well extensive, without hindrance 57) , Constantly, throughout the 3 states of time; Thus is Buddhahood 58) , endowed with Great Compassion,

*5) vimuktijñānadarśana, T. rnam-grol-gyi ye-śes-gzigs-pa, C. [ppp nju] 7»H J^l ...(12).
46

Mvyut. & DRS instead have ināsti samādher hānih (C. / £ . / 1 ' * XS).

' karman, T. las, C. p p | . There are 3 kinds of ' karman ', i.e. k. by kâya, by vāfc & by manas, and they stand for (13)—(15).
47

' jñāna—pūrvamgama,

T . ye—śes sñon—hgro, C. •J^J i i A , 2 ^ . .

try-adhvan, T . o m . tri a n d s i m p l y , d u s . C. *, "(tr . ijñāna<> acting i n each s t a t e of t i m e , i.e. atīta, anāgata & pratyutpanna, is c o u n t e d separately a n d consists (16)—(18) of t h e āvenikadharma.
48)

anye ca, T . . . . dañ gshan, C. /&. S*R ' ' i ^ īvL -^§ • I t is u n c e r t a i n which are c o u n t e d b y this word ' anye '• 60) praskhalita = skhalita. 61) The reading should be ' musitatâcitte ' (as a Dvandva-comp., dual, nom., i.e. musitatā & acitta) instead of ' musitatā dtte ' in the text. ' acitta* here stands for asamāhita-citta. (T. bsñel dañ thugs-g'yo). 62 ) n o sambhedatah samjñā. {sambhedatah = nānātva-)T. tha-dad-kyi ni hdus-śes. 63) abhyupeksana = upeksā. 64 ' T. om. nidarśana of muktijñāna-nidarśana (reading apparently ' vimuktijñānadarśanāt). SB) I n p l a c e of ' arthesu ', T . h a s ' yasya '.
66)

49)

purojava,

T . sñon-hgro

(— purvamgama),

C. . . . ^fo?{/ -2f£.

67)

aparāhata, T . thogs-med, C. TJJJÇ |*!p. PK] .

68)

ymotā, T . rgyal-pa-ñid,

C. # 0 ^ l ^ . r 312 i

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

And perfectly realized 5 9 ) by the Buddha; And on account of this realization, he sets in motion in the world The great wheel of the fearless 6 0 ) Supreme Doctrine. // 15 // It is said that [these properties are] like space (Kārikā 14) The nature found in the earth and the rest Is not the nature of space, And the properties of space represented by Non-obstruction, etc., are absent in material things 6 3 ) ; The earth, water, fire, wind and the sky 6 4 ) , likewise, Are common to all the [material] worlds, But the Exclusive Properties of the Buddha Are not in the least 6 5 ) common to those worlds. // 16 //
62) 61)

.

(IV)

THE 32 MARKS OF THE SUPERMAN 66)

It is said that the Buddha is possessed of the corporeal form endowed with the 32 marks of the Superman (dvātrimśanmahāpurusalaksanaTūpadhārin).
B9)

60)

F o r ' avabuddhā ', T . brñes (avalabdha), b u t C. as in t h e t e x t . The reading ' abhayadam' is to be corrected into ' abhayam' (one syllable is in

excess). So T. hjigs-med, and C. ^ ^ "pC [fibu ?& Vz*] (Lit. i t is an adjective to cakra). Cf. v . I. 4. (abhayam mārgam dideśa). 61) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 35.
62)

dharmatā, T. chos-ñid, C. ffc .

) rūpin, T. gzugs, C. P-|/ (that which has form). C. om. the word for sky from this line of elements, sothat the sky is to be distinguished from the other elements. Did the author of this Kārikā regard the sky as something material unlike ' space ' which, in its turn, is compared to the Buddha's āvenikadharma in the first two lines ?
88
S4) 65)

āśv api. T. dul phran tsam, C. Jj

- P ^!w — * ^ ^ (even not a single dharma).

T. om. ' buddha ' of ' buddhāvenikatā, for which C. " ^ f$j #fl ^R 0 T ^ft Ifâ -SJ W> •
66

> Of the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas, see Mvyut. 17, AĀS 474 a-b, RDS 37 b-c. Also

cf. AA, AAĀ Chap. VIII, The Prajñāpāramitāśāstra Ç/^, ^ J§£ fpg) attributed to Nāgārjuna. Of those ir the Ratna., see V. S. Agrawala, The Thirty-two Marks of the BuddhaBody, Journal of the Oriental Institute, M. S. University of Baroda, vol. I, No. 1. Sept. 1951, Baroda, pp. 20-22.

[ 343 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(Kārikās 15-23) The feet are firmly placed, marked by circles on the soles, And with broad insteps and leveled heels which hide the ankles67> The fingers are long 6 8 ) , and those of hands and toes alike Are connected with each other by a web 6 9 ) . // 17// His skin is soft and fine like that of youths 7 0 ) , His body is round with 7 elevated parts 7 1 ) , His shanks are like those of the deer 7 2 ) , and The private parts are concealed as with an elephant 7 3 ) . // 18 // The upper part of the body is like that of a lion7 4 ) , The parts between the shoulders are closely set and elevated 7 5 ) ,
67)

supratisthita-cakrâñka-vyāyatotsañga-pādatā (1), which contains actually 4 marks f ^ J ^y* $ § (flat *

on feet, namely: 1) supratisthita-pādatā), T. legs-gnas (loñ), C. / £ ,

the feet); 2) cakrâñka-p., T. hkhor los mtshan-pa, C. -_&• Jç£ ^ " Jp^g !pj|j; 3) vyāyata-p., T. yañs- (cf. AAĀ, āyata-pārsnitā); & 4) utsañga-p., T. mi-mñon (' not evident', ' hidden '),

C. f r 3) & 4)îg 9)t K ± I t (but^^ftfftî o
4) AEÎ 1E?C t^î | f l ) . For ' utsañga ', AAĀ & Mvyut., ucchañka (or ucchañkha), which is an equivalent form of Pali * ussañkha' and which retains the original meaning of this peculiar mark. T. translation ' mi-mñon' matches better ' ucchañka ' than ' utsanga ' . The form ' utsañga ' is, therefore, probably a wrong Sanskritization of Pali ' ussañkha*. C. traditional interpretation of this mark also supports this sense of'hidden ankles'. ,i_īy -I-Ki k l i ^yfcfc fcś 68) dīrghâñgulikatā (2), T . sor-mo riñ, C. g^g" ^ Q ^gj $JPS j ^ . 69) jālapānipādâvanaddhatā (3), T. phyag-shabs riñ dra-ba-yis ni hbrel-pa, C. ^jfjg

/T||
70)

TX

iB
(4), T . pags-hjam gshon-śa-can legs-ñid, C. -f* / £ , J ^

tvañmrduśrltarunatā

ÎTTC W V (instead of ' tvak', C. h a s ' hasta-pāda '. I t agrees w i t h AAÂ & Mvyut.). T . gshon-śa-can (for taruna) h a s t h e meaning, ' one who h a s flesh of y o u t h '.
71)

7 utsadas
72) 73)

saptotsada-śarīratā ( 5 ) , T . sku ni bdun-dag mtho-ba, C. |flf /Çf\ — L | | m /ppj , a r e n a m e l y : 2 hastas, 2 padas, 2 skandhas & 1 grīua. eneya-jañghatā (6), T. byin-pa enaya-hdra, C. f^* nāgakośavad-vastiguhyatā (7), T . gsara glañ-po bshin-du /^ ^ ^ . ^ | ^ [j^]. nub, C. ^ ^ | . i t

sbubs-su

74)
75)

simhapūrvârdha-kāyatva

(8), T . ro-stod señ-ge hdra-ba,

C. _ C . —p ^ ( 0 pījl ~j •

nirantara-citâmśatā (9), T. thal-goñ bar-med rgyas-pa, C. ^ x /Ti h^r Ls| i n î •

Cf. AAĀ citântarâmśatā. T. thal-goñ (for amśa) means the part between shoulder and PFt BTÎC ~ T viffi T collar (goñ-pa, collar). C. often interprets it as indicating ' a r m - p i t ' (|WJ /J$£ p (pft , AĀS).

[ 344 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga And his shoulders are well heaped arid round 7 6 ) ; His arms are fleshy, tender and of no unevenness 7 7 ) , // 19 // And are hanging low [down to the knees] 7 8 ) . The body has a radiant, pure halo around i t 7 9 ) , His neck is immaculate like a white conch 8 0 ) , And his jaws have a resemblance with those of a lion 8 1 ) . // 20 // He has forty teeth all of which are equal 8 2 ) , And are clear and closely set8 3 ) , pure and straight 8 4 ) , And his eye-teeth are white and of excellent form 8 5 ) . // 21 // His tongue is broad and long 8 6 ) , [by which he tastes] The highest taste, infinite and unthinkable 8 7 ) ; The voice of the Self-Born is like that of the Kalaviñka 88), And has the most excellent sound 89) . // 22 //
76) 77

samvrtta-skandhatā (10), T. dpuñ-pa legs-zlum, C. (Wj ^ JJJJ ' vrttaślaksnânunnāma—bāhutā (11), T. phyag—hjam riñ zlum—shiñ mthon dman—med—

pa, C. f^ fyj _ l l |* /4'ifT • This is n o t m e n t i o n e d i n AAĀ. M v y u t . counts t h i s m a r k along w i t h t h e n e x t o n e saying * sthitânavanata-pralamba-bāhutā.
78)

79)

pralamba-bāhutā (12), T . phyag riñ C. j £ f|fc ^ ^ Jj^r . śuddhaprabhāmandala-gātratā (13), T . yoñs-su dag-pahi hod-kyi

dkyil-hkhor

dag

dañ Idan (om. gātra), C. Jtj- Jf? ^t B |M .
80

'

kambu-grivatvam

amalam (14), T. mgrin—pa dri—med duñ—hdra, C. J j | 3ÎI-I "XL

'g^

~H . This is lacking in AAĀ, Mvyut., as well as in RDS.
81

' mrgendra—hanutā

(15), T . hgram—pa ri—dags rgyal—po hdra, C. |îipl ^ J ^ ^ p i p ~ j . (16), T . tshems ni bshi-bcu mñam-pa, C. |_l ^ i f i y

82)

s o m ā catvārimśad-daśanatā

83)

svacchâvirala-dantatā

(17), T . rab-dañs

tshems

thags bzañ~ba,

C. p f c ^ i | * P 5

84

* viśuddhasama—dantatva

(18), T . rnam—dag

tshems

mñam—ñid,

C.

JL. P | ^ )

¥^.
85)

śukla-pravara-damstratā

(19), T . mche-ba rab-mchog

dkar-ba-ñid,

C.

. ^ J [Zj

]tgij P ^ .
86)

This is lacking in AAĀ & Mvyut.

M"tîā, & * * ± Ifc.
88

prabhūta-jihvatā (20), T. Ijags riñ, C. ^ffl 'p§[ J ^ ; ^ "Q" . 87) anantâcintya-rasarasâgratā (21), T . mthah-med bsam-med-pa ro bro-ba-yi mchogñid (T. seems to regard 'anantâcintya' as adjectives for the previous one), C. jy\ J^.

> kalaviñka-ruta (22), T. kalabiñka-yi sgra, C 3ijū ^ ^ "JJO S •A A A ' RDS om. it. 89) brahma-svaratā (23), T. tshañs-pahi dbyañs-ñid, C. ^ y Q pfC J5L 5

[ 345 ]

J. TAKASAKI

He, the highest of living beings 9 0 ) , is of beautiful eyes, like a bluelotus, with eyelashes like those of a bull9 1 ) , Of handsome face, endowed with the immaculate Urna-hair9 2 ) , Of a head adorned with the Usnīsa 9 3 ) , and of skin, Purified, subtle and of golden colour 9 4 ) ; // 23 // Hairs on the body grow separately from each other, Soft and subtle, turning upward and to the right9 5 ) , Hairs on his head are of pure blue colour like sapphires 9 6 ) , And his figure is fully circular like a Nyagrodha tree 9 7 ) . // 24 // He, the Great Sage, whose body is firm and possessed of The power of Nārāyana 98>, looks sublime and incomparable9 9 ) ;

90)

agrasattva,

which is a s y n o n y m of t h e B u d d h a a n d n o t o n e of t h e * m a r k s '

at all.
91)

nīlotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (24). This actually consists of two marks, na1) nilotpalalaśrî-netra, T. spyan-bzañs utpala, C. . (3 $fk ft\\ ^ 3 , . . . Sj] "f^

mely:

2) vrsa—paksma—netra, T. khyu—mchog rdsi—hdra[—spyan\, C. o$rp Bp^ Zf^ ~~p* _*T*. .
92

' sltâmalornodita—cāruvaktra

(25), T . shal—mdses

dri—med

mdsod

spu dkar—bar

93

94)

> usnīsa-śīrsa (26), T. gtsug-tor dbu-ldan, C. J j | _ C ^*§ twj MH. vyavadātasūksma-suvarnavarna-cchavih (27), T. dag-ciñ srab-pa dañ pags-pa

gser-gyi mdog-hdra, C. # fe ffi ^ %ñ . S tfc & fe &. & îfc ^ ^ f
AAĀ counts this one as two. 95 * ekaikaviślista—mrdu—ūrdhvadeha—pradaksinâvarta—sūksma—roma (28). T. ba—sphu legs phra, hjam shin, re-re-nas, sku-yi gyen-du g'yas phyogs hkhil-ba, C. C • -jlj — *

^ âî.^^tfc-tJU.ÎK^ffl^fiîl&
translation, i.e. 1) ekaikaviślista;
96

This is

2) ūrdhvadehâvarta; & 3) pradaksinā—āvarta.

originally o 3 m r s a f ak s

* mahendra—nīlâmala—ratnakeśa (29), T. dbu—skra dri—med rin—chen mthor mthiñ—

bshin, C. H ^
97

^ flf ^ , P|? #P H P t M • This is lacking in AAĀ.
(30), T. ñya—gro râsogs—pahi Ijon śin dkyil—

* nyagrodha—pūrnadruma—mandalâbha. ' nārāyanasthāma—drdhâtmabhāva

hkhor hdra, C. # J|Jjf ^g ^ ?#, JP ^ tSj ffi 3E .
98

(31), T. sred—med—bu—yi stobs mñah (sred—med—b.*

means Visnu), C. ^
got this mark.

f^ ^

§ £ [§I , | § jftj SP M J î • AAĀ & Mvyut. have not
(—ātmabhāva) (32), T . kun—tu bzañ—po dpe—med, C. ~ j ^ * - ^ *

" ' samantabhadrâpratima

' • ^ "J 5 ^ (which reads apratigha for apratima). It is doubtful whether this stands for one of the 32 marks or not. C. does not count it among the marks. T. is not clear. And no other text includes it among the 32 marks.

[ 346 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

These 32 features of infinite splendour are taught By the Preceptor as the marks 1 0 0 ) of the Lord of Men. // 25 // It is said that [the Buddha, with 32 marks] has a resemblance [to the moon and its reflection in the water 1 0 1 ) . (Kārikā 24) Just as, in autumn, the form 1 0 2 ) of the moon is perceived In the cloudless sky, as well as in a big pond, Reflecting this blue sky on its water-surface; Similarly, the disciples of the Buddha Can perceive the manifestations of the Omnipresent On the surface of the pond-like sphere of the Buddha. // 26 // Thus these 10 Powers of the Buddha, 4 kinds of Intrepidity, 18 Exclusive Properties of the Buddha, as well as the 32 Marks of the Superman, being united under one head, make up the number sixty-four. These 64 properties are to be understood, Along with their causes for attainment, One after the other, according to [the same] order, Through the investigation of the Ratna-sūtra103). //27// Now, of these 64 properties of the Buddha, which have been explained above, the detailed exposition is to be known , according to the same order as before, through the investigation of the Ratnadārikā—sūtra. Also, there have been made illustrations of four kinds about these [4] points, respectively, viz. examples of a thunderbolt, a lion, the space, and the moon reflected in the water. Of these examples, the summarized meaning will be given in the following 12 verses.

100)

cihna, T. mtshan, C. 7ft\ ( = laksana).

" 0 dakacandra, C. 7jC *P M , T. chu-zla.
102)

vibhūti,

T . gzugs

( = bimba, rūpa),

C. ^

~j\. C. p u t s t h i s K ā r i k ā before v . 3 7 .

103) _ Ratnadārikāsūtra, T. bu-mo rin-po-chehi mdo, C. jpf >C flEE • There are two translations of this sūtra in C. : samnipātasūtra), Taisho, XIII, pp. 28 6-40 b. This one is used here for reference with the abbreviation of RDS ;
2

I ^ i S t f i S S H

( hp Ill o t e Mahā C a. f h

) 9, ~iC f$\ fBÎ I S (Ratnadārikā-pariprcchā), Taisho, No. 399, vol. XIII,

pp. 452-472.

[ 347 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Being [respectively] impenetrable104', with no misery105', Perfectly unique 106) and indifferent107), [The Buddha's Properties] are illustrated By the examples of the thunderbolt, the lion, the space And of the clear moon with her reflection in the water. // 28 // Of the [10] Powers, six, three, and one, Taken respectively, remove all [the obscurations] On account of the knowable, the concentrations, And of defilements with their potential forces. // 29 // As if they were piercing an armour, Breaking a wall, and cutting down a tree, The Powers of the Sage are like a thunderbolt, Being heavy, solid, firm and unbreakable 108). // 30 // Why are they i heavy ' ? Because they are ' solid '; Why are they ' solid ' ? Because they are 4 firm '; Why are they i firm ' ? Because they are ' unbreakable '. And being 4 unbreakable % they are like a thunderbolt 109). // 31 // Being fearless, being indifferent, Being firm and accomplishing victory, The lion of Sages is like a [real] lion, Has no fear amidst the assembly of audiences110). // 32//

nirvedhikatva, T . mi-phyed-pa, thunderbolt can break everything).
105) nirdainya, translation). 106) 107)

104)

C. iMj J{RJ (breakable, in t h e sense t h a t t h e

T. mi-shan, T. mtshuñs-pa

C. 3ttÇ īiâî ^L* (without m e r c y , which is n o t a proper med, C. sy* 5 Ç |t!i (nib,' i n t h e sense of ' atyanta1).

niskaivalya,

avikalpa

nirlha, T . g'yo-med ( i m m o v a b l e ) , C. ^Sç ^u* (indifferent). a n d nirlhaka (cf. C h a p . I V , v. 19). T . brliñ ( D . gliñ is a m i s t a k e ) , C. j f î ; sāra, T . sñiñ,

T h e reflection is C. gyr ; drdha,

108) guru,

T. brtan, C. \S[ ; & abhedya, T. mi-byed, C. ~A* ^T $jS J H , respectively. 109) C. neglects t h e first 3 padas of v. 3 1 . 110) parsad-gana C. adds one m o r e verse before v . 32, indicating t h e āryasatya, which m a k e s t h e analogy quite clear. I t r u n s as follows:

4-fold

tamisfti® M f t ^ s

m.mm.»m nmmM^-

(The Buddha, having known the duhkha of sickness and its hetu, and having been devoid of duhkha-hetu, preaches the āryamārga, that is an excellent medicine, in order to cause the people to remove sickness and to realize the nirodha).

[ 348 ]

C. f3? 4T. laukika. And he is i of the highest victory ' Since he has transcended the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. T. // 38 // To those who are far from purity and near to it. // 37 // [On the other hand]. And are based on the two Corporeal Bodies The Apparitional Body and the Body enjoying the Truth. is 4 indifferent ' [about his superiority]. T. mthah-gcig-su spyod. he is unequal by nature even to the people of purity 1 1 3 '. the 32 marks are The properties. £J£ | f t S • [ 349 ] . C. 117 > ahlādaka. ' ^ | E ' is p r o b a b l y for ' nirāstha '. mam-par gnas. As with a gem. takes ' -pañcadhā tu ' as if ' pañca-dhātu (Tl. Therefore. with the Wise. // 36 // These 32 Properties mentioned above Represent the Body of the Absolute. * \J)J }fin± s^ ~U<C • 112 ' akutobhaya. colour and shape. T.It denotes the Pratyekabuddha. Since they are indivisible from it. ^f|p | X . 116 ' C. o m . C. // 35 // [The first four are] like the earth. the lustre. y\^ = pañca-mahâbhūta). abides "independently' 111 ' from any fear 112) . Because his characters surpass everything mundane and supermundane. water. For this line. fire and wind. visible and causing delight 117) in the body. the Intellect is subtler with one after the [other. we have illustrations in five kinds 1 1 6 ) . 114) C. C. 113) ' Indifference' in the sense that he does not try to see whether he is superior or inferior. with the Śrāvakas. [But the Buddha] has a resemblance to space. tshim-byed. The pure manifestation of the Corporeal Body is twofold. //33// He stands * firmly ' since his mind is always Concentrated on all the elements of existence. // 34 // With the worldlings114). T. ^ J ^ f S f\j ffe H ^ ^ fpf J ^ J^l ^ ^C ?RÇ ^ T (ātma-asama-darśanatah). With those that act in solitude 115 '.The As He He As R at n a g ot r a v ib h ā g a he has got all the supernatural faculties. 115) ekānta-cārin. Because they sustain all the world. i n ) svastha. And with the Buddha. gañ—las kyañ hjigs—med. C.

adds one verse more after v. C. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. the difference is only the use of the word * rūpakāya ' in place of * dharmakāya \ 118) [ 350 ] . 39. // 39 // Finished is the third chapter entitled 'the Properties of the Buddha'. 37. whose content is almost the same as v. Just as the moon shows her form in both the sky and the water 1 1 8 ) . TAKASAKI [One is] in the World. and [the other] in the circle of the Buddha.J.

^Pv • For nispādya. ^ \ . AĀS has a chapter of the same title (Tathāgatakriyā-parivarta). and its functions [In accordance with the capacity] of the converts. T. phrase. C. 6) Working in [proper] place and in [proper] time . gdul-byahi khams. ing to associate with RGV in its contents. C. reads vineyakriyā for vinayakriyā. 4 without effort' (anābhogatah). and 4 uninterruptedly ' (apraśrabdhitah). khyab-bdag. gśegs-pa (going). 7) Par excellence. C. T. e.. THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA I) 4. They are said to be manifested in two modes. So. F o r the whole taddeśakāle gamane ca. (Kārikās 1-2) The acts of the Lord are always effortless 4) With regard to the constitution of the converts . C. Iftf j $ j g vineyadhātu. o m . JINAKRIYĀ XVI. /£fc J\. "f^ jj§u ^ p Hvp (in accordance with proper place and time). 4 the Acts of the Buddha '. T . Now we shall speak of the functions [associated with those Properties]. e. 2) T . i. S j T U !^fC 3i • F o r ' gamana '. [Therefore] immediately there follow two 2 1 ślokas referring to the Buddha's Acts which are characterized as ' of no effort and interruption ' (anābhogâpraśrabdha). dvau.CHAPTER IV. 5) The means of conversion. 3) 4) 6) 4) x) 3) but it has noth- vibhu. i. T. it denotes the Mahāyāna. I 351 1 . GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA We have finished the explanation of the 4 Immaculate Properties of the Buddha '. // 1 // 7) Having completely established the Vehicle .

respectively. faculty). // 3 // On account of the action of conversion 15) . p f q/£ J C fîii. there is no rise of discrimination. 4 Who ' means 4 the constitution 1 6 ) to be converted % 4 By what means ' 1 7 ) denotes ' the manifold means [of conversion] '. ' yāvat. 17) [ 352 ] . chu-mtsho (ocean). Blows away the net of the cloud-like [Obscurations] Caused by Defilements and Ignorance. C. C. C. About these matters. And endowed with the rays of the sun of Merits and Knowledge 9>. (-^g in v. khyad-med. * nirviśistam. 10) And having perceived that Buddhahood . C.. 3âBl ' sarvasattva (sattva in a collective sense) = sattvadhātu. Therefore. // 2 // The summarized meaning of these two ślokas is to be known by the following two and eight verses. C. 10) 11 12 1S For buddhatva. T. ^ Instead of upāya. how far 1 4 ) . T.(yena jñānena). • The Ocean is usually said to be the ' treasure of jewels '. $ § : 7|C _^. ^ ^ ī | j | . by what means. vinīti-kriyā. gter.)* ^ n e compound should be separated after raśmi and before pravisrta. T. C. 3) (jñāna) om.. like wind. the Buddha's Act of conversion Is [working] always ' without effort '. which stands for ' yatra ' in the next verse. 14 ) nidhi. Exists everywhere U) in all living beings 12) . the ' place and time ' [of conversion] '. C. and (constitution. C. And 4 where and when '. The Buddhas' Compassion. As the treasure 1 3 ) of the immaculate virtues. To whom. C. gdul-byahi bya. 9 * punya and jñāna are called the two sambhāras (accumulation that brings about the Enlightenment. ^ ^ . TAKASAKI The ocean 8 ) of knowledge filled with the multitudes of the excellent virtues. f b & f^ I^t ^ ^E • . 15) 16 > For dhātu. Pervading extensively and of neither limit nor middle. Because. T.J. misreads this passage and connects it with the next ' buddhatva '. $|î£ • It has a sense similar to ' gotra"1 (mine). [this act of conversion is] non-discriminative 8) ratna-svagarbha. and when. like space. y^. bhūrinā. or 'garbha*.

4 [Its] receptacle ' means the living beings Who accept the Enlightenment 22) . [ 353 ] . To the result of [partaking of] this support and the receptacle 2 0 ) which accepts this result. And to the obscurations [which cover] this receptacle and the condition by which these obscurations are removed. fff 22) 20) bodheh sattvah parigrahah. that of iprajñā\ For sambhrti. The twofold Accumulation is like the sun. sa-rnams. & C. // 5 // [Here] 4 Deliverance ' means the 10-fold Stage [of Bodhisattvas]. T. The highest Vehicle 2 3 ) is like the ocean. yoñs-hdsin. byañ-chub-sems-can yoñs-su hdsin. ñes-hbyin. the pronoun ' tad ' in each case. that which causes ' niryāna '). £|& J F $ (to enter the path. 21 * sambhrti—dvaya. 19 18) I* stands for ' upastambha (in the sense. // 8 // Being [the treasure] of the water of knowledge And of the jewel of virtuous properties. Like the ocean and like the sun. ślla. fffj Jffli).)' yāna ' in the Kārikā. T. yañ-dag-rdsogs-sañs-chos-ñid-phyir. niryāna. C. C. punya—sambhāra & jñāna—s. parigraha. 23) 24 agrayāna. The phrase 4 The condition by which the obscurations are removed And which works for all time ' means Compassion. // 7 // These six points are to be known. Here the living beings are called ' bodhisattva ' in the sense of those who accept (pari. Like space and like a treasure. respectively. p 4 jJā. The former includes those pāramitās of ' dāna. viz. Hereafter.]/grah) the ' bodhi '. 6) ' parigraha' is here used in the sense of ' nidhi ' (that which contains something). T. and the latter. denotes the preceding one. vīrya & dhyāna '. C. ksānti. 4 Its cause ' means the 2-fold Accumulation 21) . The Enlightenment has a resemblance to space. C. T. As keeping alive all living beings. T. C. 4 The result of this Accumulation' is the Highest Enlightenment. Sub-defilements and Impressions. // 9 // Being extensive and of neither end nor middle. J=J -^3 ' samyaksambuddha-dharmatvāt. Like clouds and like the wind. C. 24) Being of the nature of the Perfect Enlightened One . Jfi (satya).The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga With regard to Deliverance 18) and its support 1 9 ) . But T. $qf *\\ ($$ in v. C. // 6 // The phrase 4 The obscurations which cover this receptacle ' means The innumerable Defilements. read ' bhūmayah ' (T. -ppf pj !j/E H3^ /»3 \§i* Jāī8 f° r sattva). rton—pa.

[The Buddha] Acts ' uninterruptedly ' as long as the world exists. J i (treasure under the ground). TAKASAKI The living beings 2 5 ) are akin to a treasure 2 6 ) . Compassion is like a strong wind. ^ adding the following phrases before them: ' J § %$ $ £ T 354 ] . Considering the living beings as one's own self29). And.J. C. 28) 27) 29) pratyupasthāna. ' u)} . jr*-j . For vyāpi. C. // 12 // 25) a8) sattvadhātu. C. the Avatamsakasūtra. an adverb to anispatti (unreal everywhere). pervasive. (note VI-28) C. // 10 // Being accidental. jaR 3 C . Their defilements are like a multitude of clouds. Cf. C. T . And having works of no termination. nidhāna. T . ñer-gnas. ma-grub. T. bringing about 2 8 ) the dispelling of these. and regards it anispatti. and unreal 2 7 ) . puts these two phrases after v. gter. 10. // 11 // Performing Deliverance for the sake of others.

and like the sun.— is the Buddha [in his acts] 4 ) . ' y\. ^Tv ^ f ! I ' (mahāyāna-kriyā). SY* "^ <fX ^ P l • I n t h e Kārikā t e x t . Buddha's Magnanimity. nor-bu rin-chen. Being such. in order to produce the faith in the sphere of the Buddha on the part of those people who have misconception and doubt about the Buddha's nature of magnanimity 3) . |Z|. 8) ākāśa. C. -^jj . 9) prthivī. without discriminination. T . [lhahi] rña. sprin. y C ~=P* ( p r o b . T.. nam-mkhah C.. are as follows: 1) śakra. Like Like Like Like Such 1 (Kārikā 3) Indra. [ 355 ] . without interruption. how is it possible that from such an immutable Buddhahood. the Acts of Buddha manifest in this world. 6) maniratna (cintāmani). F o r māhātmya. T. C. 2) apravrtti-laksana. ~~Z~~ liJ^f St~~*~ V V s ^ prabhāvita. for mahākriyā). 7) pratiśruti (pratiśrutka-śabda). characterized as of no manifestation 2) .XVII. // 13 // T . C. §iE. £ p . & C. ñi—ma. 4) names of t h e 9 similes i n S. It was said that Buddhahood is characterized 1} as having neither origination nor extinction. rgya-byin. T. ftj. T. sgra-brñan C. C. T. C. without effort. ?*g-. jrjj 5) arka (sūrya). rab—tu phye—ba. C. ^ff 4^P î 2) [deva] dundubhi. T. 9 ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BUDDHA'S ACTS § 1. the wish-fulfilling gem. C. like the divine drum. we have one śloka with regard to this magnanimous character of the Buddha. /EL. space and like the earth. T. says 3) C. clouds. y\. like Brahma. sa. X ¥] tyj? â £ . T. C. like an echo. 4) [mahā] brahman. T. [^C 3) megha. and as long as the world exists ? [To answer this question]. C. Jm. tshañs-pa [chen-po].

T. T. vv. (One whose residence is in heaven). (Prior to this passage. TAKASAKI § 2. 14-26. T . 13) tridaśâśvara. in the following passages. of this śloka which represents the topics in the Scripture 5 ) a detailed exposition will be given topic by topic in the remaining part of the text according to the same order. the multitudes of men and women Abiding on this surface of the earth. owing to its clarity. * vibhūti. Become like that chieftain of the gods ! " 1 3 ) And. Other gods 10) and their various dwellings Along with their divine glories U ) . For Vaijayanta. ñed kyañ riñ-por mi-thogs-par (riñ-por mi-thogs-par — after a little while. And. has more than three verses which are not available in S. om. Kārikā number starts with No. 1X 10) [ 356 ] . Kārikā text. Would perceive this vision And make the following prayer : // 16 // 44 May we too. agrees with S. in a short time. Jāschke's Dictionary. while C. 4). we have three verses in C. Consequently. 5 // 14 // * sūtrasthānīya [ślokd].). As well as his great place 9 ) called Vaijayanta. IV. in Chap. in order to obtain 1 4 ) that state. there were seen on it The chief of the gods. 528 s.J. at an early date12) . Now. and the verse number in C. & 13 in S. rnam—par—rgyal-ba. (see my Introduction. T . 1. mdohi gnas Ita—buhi [tshigs-su—bcad—pā]. C. khañ—bzañs. Some Kārikās in each simile are missing in C. T. 14) samādāya. C. Hereafter. T. the arrangement of Kārikās varies much between C. (Kārikās 4-20) 7) Suppose here were a surface Made of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone. lha-dbañ (devSndra). JĀA 240 b-c. II—2) Mention will be done in each case about omission and addition in C .). 8 ' For apsaras. p. T . 7) *' prāsāda. C. with the multitude of Apsaras 8) . divaukas. T. (I) It is said that [the Buddha has] a resemblance to the form of Indra6 ) . Kārikā text which are equivalent to vv. & S. lhahi bu—mo. 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. (T. 12) T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' vayam apy acirād ' i n s t e a d of ' adyaiva na cirād ' i n S. v. T. yañ-dag-blañs te. 2. 6 > Cf. // 15 // Suppose then. Text reading i-pratibhāsatvād iti ' is to be corrected into ' -pratibhāsavad iti '. J E ^ ^& rfflL $13 *vv ī|=§î (Ivy) (sūtrârthasamgraha-śloka). mam—man. lha-gnas.

See below. These are called ' Iryāpatho ' ( T . T . Would pass away from the earth 1 5 ) and be borne to heaven. (svacittadrśyamātra. 17) F o r bhāvita.. g'yo—ba—med. 22) T h i s is a n expression of t h e ' cittamātra ' t h e o r y . bsheñs-pa. the living beings. tisthat.. it would appear on the earth. sgam-pa (bhāvanā). I ? fjt)- [ 357 ] . If they were pure in their faith and so forth. in S.. spyod- prātihārya. They. having brought the factors to development They do attain the desired state 21K // 23 // After all. ' laksana-vyañjana ' signifies 32 mahāpurusalakranas a n d t h e 80 anuvyañjanas. nisanna & śayanasthita. hchag-pa. hdod-pahi go-hphañ. standing. // 18 // After all. Would perceive in their own minds the vision of the Buddha. T . 21) lam. T . Nevertheless. cho-hphrul. īpsitam padam. // 20 // Who is endowed with the visible features and marks 1 8 ) . owing to their virtuous conduct. n a m e l y ' bodhi '. Nevertheless. 19) cañkramyamāna. // 17 // Though having no notice that this is merely a vision. %~J / Q i ^ HjK). C. // 24 // Ordinary people do not notice That this is merely a reflection of their own mind2 2 ) . Abiding in concentration of mind and showing The various miracles 2 0 ) . Of no thought-construction and no activity. it appears in the world. // 22 // Having seen him. And. sitting and sleeping 19) . And were endowed with 1 7 ) virtues. reads as loc). and who has the great glory. it is an illusion. T. //21// Preaching the Doctrine of Quiescence. ' nirîhaka.). T . Undertake the attainment of the Buddhahood. W e h a v e a similar expression in Lank. T . Being associated with a great benefit. T. it is an illusion. Being associated with a great benefit. faith and the like. being silent.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga They would abide adopting the virtues. dpe-byad. C. T . the people who are filled with desire. l6 16) bshugs-pa 20) & gzims-pa (Cf. Of no thought-construction and no activity 1 6 ) . // 19 // In the same way. 18) vyañjana. T h e r e a r e said t o b e 3 prātihāryas. Still this manifestation of the Buddha's features bhū. sa-steñ (for abl. Who acts in manifold actual behavior like Walking.

One Avagraha should* be inserted between sthānā and antar-. T. with the eyes of transcendental wisdom. //26// Suppose. as this earth would gradually lose its qualities. ||f£ "JTIJ 31 29) —r * > 32 ) C . kun dman-pahi gnas gshan dan bral (includ- ing antar by reading antara as • other '). K 6. Through observing rules regarding fast and conduct 3 2 ) . The sons of the Buddha. ' upavāsa-vrata-niyamatayā. not clear (lha-dag is a mistake for lha-bdag? 30 ' māhendramarutā. those who. smon-pahi sems. there would appear on its [surface] The palace of Indra 2 9 ) occupied by gods around him 3 0 ) as a vision. //27// For obtaining that state. 28) antar amalā. and seems to om. owing to its purity. %ift. // 25 // Indeed. the multitudes of men and women. Would scatter flowers with minds full of sublime desire 33) . C. C. But. would be as clear and white As the Vaidūrya stone. denotes ' mahāyāna '. 23 ' avandhya (not barren). T. T. C. -ñes-par. {cf j-pfj |* . bsñen-gnas (upavāsa). (sthānā'ntaramalā). 30. y\[ -f* . Similarly. y C -F*. brtul-shugs (vrata). T . marutā). the earth. having seen this vision. 25) saddharmakāya. nañ-gi. TAKASAKI Is useful for 23) fulfilling their aim. T . It F o r naya. T . [ 358 ] . muni-pati (= buddha). lha-dag gnas-tshogs lha-dbañ lha-hi gzugs-śar te (which reads bhavana in pi. with minds full of delight. T. having become completely free from unevenness 2 7 ) 28) And having become pure from within . theg-pa (yāna).J . 27) 24) There is n o t so m u c h difference i n i t s sense. Have gradually established themselves in this method 2 4 ) . C. don-yod [hgyur] (sārtha). Perceive. for obtaining the shadow of the Lord of Sages 3 4 ) On their mind which is radiant like the Vaidūrya stone. puts this verse after f jc | v. [because of its] being possessed of The immaculate qualities of jewel and of pure even surface. 33) 34) pranihita-manas. thub-dbañ. 25) 26 The Body of the Highest Truth within themselves >. C. jl^g. T. surapati. Whose mind intends to perform charity and the rest. 26) madhyastha. The vision [thereof] would subsequently disappear 31 '. T . For this passage. And. samanta-vyapagatavisamasthāna.

on the pure surface of the mind in the world. 31-33). J Ā A 241 a ( I n t h e oldest version of J Ā A . 34. the Buddha who is all-pervading And free from effort and the rest. reads cittāni for citrāni. 37 > C. 3 s6) anāvilata & āvilata. 42) mano-rūpa. of which 3 are equivalent t o vv. 41 > T . ¥. and probably means ' manomayakāya '. Teaches the Doctrine by his voice dtra. • / 1"* 4J&1. adds 4 verses here with t h e heading: ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata i t i ' . virtuous experiences. C. There appears the reflection of the body of the Highest Sage 3 7 ) . of 4 suffering \ Of ' impersonality ' and of ' quiescence '. And.The Produce various R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga pictures 3 5 ) [showing the Buddha's life. on the pure surface of the Vaidūrya stone.] 3 6 ) // 28 // Just as. Ajid from thought-constructions 4 3 ) . There appears the reflection of the body of the highest god. instead of ' deva. T. T . from forms of mind 4 2 ) . T. namely : ( I I ) devadundubhi. Similarly. yid-gzugs. Whether it be pure or impure 3 8 ) . By producing the sounds of i evanescence '. om. Owing to the previous. 39) 38) [ 359 ] . 40 > Cf. tffj j g j /i~T«> C. ( I I I ) megha & (IV) brahmā are lacking). 89-91. K 5. // 31 // Alarms all the inattentive gods again and again. as the feature [of Indra or of the Buddha] Is seen only as a vision in this world.'. C. being apart from efforts. ' dharma-'. // 32 // Similarly. // 30 // 39) (II) It is said that [the word of the Buddha] has a resemblance with the celestial drum 4 0 ) . this a n d t h e following t w o similes. C. [respectively]. C. K 7. From a particular place. this and the following 2 verses (vv. This seems to correspond to ' śarlra ' in v. //29// The appearance and disappearance of this reflection Occur due to the condition of one's own mind. in this world. The divine 4 1 ) drum. etc. So one should not see it as either real or unreal.|0 . (Kārikās 21-25) Just as. rñog-med & rñog-pa. 43) C. in the heaven of the gods. K 4 .

C. Now. this passage (S. p. % 61 52) 83) T. T. 36-40. in the city of gods.12) is no doubt an interpolation of later days. 31. Similarly. Though it is preached by the Buddha. 48 49 > C . sil-sñon. There is destruction 5 1 ) of the victorious play of the Asuras' army52). skal-ldan. in preaching the Highest Path. C. kleśa-duhkha-pramathana-śamana = kleśapramathana & duhkha—śamana. Brings forth Nirvana 4 8 '. rab-hjoms. simply /£^ (for ^Sç T / 7£S)C. gzugs-med. T. being devoid of Effort. Brings forth quiescence. in the heaven of the gods. From the structural viewpoint. T . pramathana.20-104. the sound Of the divine drum arises due to their own deeds. Concentrations in the Immaterial Sphere54) and the rest. uses g'yul for samgrāma. arises [in fact] Owing to the [previous] own deeds of the people4 5 ) . * N a m e l y : yatna—sthāna—śarira—citta. > ŚSnti. in this world. 56) 54) [ 360 ] . 56) C. this Doctrine. $ 5 . K 12. devoid of those four 4 7 ) . C. C. 102. and starts again with v. which corresponds to ' vikalpa ' in v. 50) Mesa. [Buddha's] speech destroys 53) the defilements And pacifies the sufferings in the living beings.J. 67) tūrya. K 13. ārūpya[-samāpatti]. 41. the following prose section along with vv. the Doctrine. C. . Similarly. Which is caused by the sound of drum And gives fearlessness [among the gods]. place. T. om. svakarma-udbhava. 3rC _ £fcE|3?p£ H i • citta. Which is due to various practices like contemplations. // 33 // Just as. T. form and thought-construction4 6 ) . // 35 // 5 5 ) (On the superiority of the drum over the other musical instruments) 5 6 ) . C. in this world. why has the sound of the drum of Doctrine alone been referred to and not the cymbals 44) 46) 46) 47 57) and the other kinds of celestial instru- bhavya. TAKASAKI Towards the worthy 4 4 ) without exception. // 34//49> At the time of the trouble 5 0 ) of battle. seî-ba. And just as the [celestial] sound. as well as for bala. Similarly. jSī[ M * E • > pranudana. o m . $5^.

In short. [And lastly]. T . we should expect the comparison between devadundubhi and divyā-tūrya. respectively. 62) paracakra. bde—ba ma—yin-pa—ñid & ñes-par hbyin-pa ma-yin-pa-ñid. . That is to say. From this point. Furthermore. T . In regard to distinguishing the circle of the Buddha's voice. Here. See below). the comparison is made between dundubhi and tūrya showing the former's superiority to the latter. the drum is explained as being 4 conducive to deliverance '. of which the latter is identical with Buddha's voice. v. the circle of the Buddha's voice is qualified as being similar to the drum of Doctrine through these four points 6 5 ) .v. namely. Even [ 361 ] . which are these [four] ? They are. T. Buddha's voice is said to be compared with dundubhi alone. . dus-la mi-hdah-bas. 4 non-substantiality ' and ' impersonality '.The Ratnagotravibhāga ment ? These are likewise produced 5 8 ) owing to the previous virtuous deeds made by the gods and make sound agreeable to the ear of deities. Then. we have one verse. For this reason it is explained as being 4 not partial'. in the following passage. ñi—tshe-ba—ñid. adds sthāna after apramatta. s. (BHS Die. 61) kāla-anatikramanatā (lit. its 'beneficiality' is mentioned. ñe-bar htshe-bahi phoñs-pa. there is some confusion between illustration and illustrated subject. 83 ' asatkāma. But reference is actually made only to dharmadundubhi and not over devadundubhi.e. 2) lack of benefit (ahitatva). b u t T . First of all. [On the other hand] the drum of Doctrine summons the multitudes of inattentive 6 0 ) gods without exception and sounds at the right time 6 1 ) . and 4) unconduciveness to Deliverance (anairyānikatva). T . 60 * T. Owing to its protecting [gods] from the fear of calamity caused by the invasion 6 2 ) of Asuras and others. For ' .) 69 * For these 4. dam-pa ma-yin-pahi hdod. we will answer: They are not referred to] because they have four points of dissimilarity to the Buddha's voice. vaśād ghattitā eva \ T. Owing to its distinguishing bliss from the pleasure caused by evil enjoyment 63) and to its bringing forth pleasant bliss in taking delight in the Doctrine. pha-rol-gyi tshogs (paragana). it is said to be ' blissful'. an analogy was given between devadundubhi and dharmadundubhi. ghattitā ' in BHS has the same meaning as Skt. and owing to its enjoining [them] to take heed. and to its pacifying all misfortune and perturbation 6 4 ) . ghatita. phan—pa ma—yin—pa—ñid. 3) unpleasantness (asukhatva) 5 9 ) . 1) partiality (prādeśikatva). n o t crossing time). i suffering '. 37 refers to devadundubhi as being inferior to Buddha's voice (the reading tūrya is quite a comtradiction and is to be corrected. . . [To this. but not with tūrya. if logically speaking. criticism can be made on this passage to decide that it is a later insertion and not perfectly consistent with the original part. i. dbañ-gis mod kho-nar (because of their being from the power) '. 64) upadrava & upāyāsa. though. 88 ' The reading aghattitā should be corrected into ghattitā. ' produced' ' effected by ' or ' made '. SB) Throughout the passage. . owing to its delivering the sounds of ' evanescence '.

B. gtoñ-bsam-pa (the t h o u g h t of sending. anitya. T . T. reads krpātman. There should be a term synonymous with dundubhi. . i n J Ā A . the divine cymbals of a million kinds Sound only in order to kindle the flame of desire. i n v. however. And being endowed with the threefold miraculous power The voice of the Buddha is superior To [the sound of] the celestial cymbals. 40. On t h e contrary. though they be pure and pleasant. are doubtful of i t s originality. 68) T . I a m inclined t o t r u s t C. of these four points. hetu. a r r a n g e m e n t as t h e original. . Speaks of the concentration 7 0 ) of mind in meditation.J. J Z ^ ]$$ H § or J Z l 7 J ^ * H ) . reads ' sambuddhabhūmer upayātV and T. o m . C. and in the absence of Ms. // 36 // 66) . Are the causes for increasing the elation of mind. a n d this illustration is also given i n t h e basic t e x t . however. which are lacking i n C. Now. B reading by making a slight change from bhūmer to bherer (bheri = dundubhi). and rather -it is quite a contradiction. In this world. The sounds of drums in heaven.). i. T.. ) . // 37 // In heaven. 67) T h e reading ' sambuddhatūryasya tu ' given b y J . etc. But one voice of those full of Compassion Sounds in order to extinguish the cause 6 8 ) of the fire of suffering.e. 66) [ 362 ] . because. From this point. 69) Instead of mahātman.. ' tu ' is not essential for giving contrast between Buddha's voice and that of devadundubhi. 32. A. is n o t likely t o be a c c e p t e d . bringing benefit and bliss. we may accept Ms. As far as this illustration of ( I I ) devadundubhi is concerned. the sound of the drum 6 7 ) of Buddha Reaches even those in the lowest sphere of Samsāra. a brief explanation will be given in the following four verses. Ms. gives a word for dundubhi (rña). cho-hphrul gsum (Cf. From the context. Here. prātihārya-traya. E x p l a n a t i o n is given in detail after v . 70) arpanabhāva (the s t a t e of fixing u p o n . TAKASAKI Being universal. Cannot reach the ears of those abiding on the earth. there is no reason for using tūrya to illustrate the Buddha's voice. The voice of the great 6 9 ) Buddhas. which is t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o dharmadundubhi. T h e cause of suffering m e a n s ' kleśa '.. v. // 39 // verses 31-33. // 38 // The sounds of cymbals in heaven. though be great. the role of devadundubhi is said t o be t h a t of m a k i n g t h e sound of 4 mudrās. 35 clearly shows us t h e role of devadundubhi as being t h a t of encouraging gods t o t a k e p a r t o n t h e battle-field against asura.

it is indicated that the all-pervadingness [of the Buddha] through the manifestation 7 4 ) of body in all the worlds of the ten directions shows [his] 4 manifestation of miracles by the supernatural power ' (rddhiprātihārya) 75)'. T. This is called 4 the manifestation of miracle through instruction ' {anuśāstiprātihārya) 82) Thus the circle of Buddha's voice is. 76) 79) 80) B1) 82) 75 T. this is called the ' manifestation of miracle through mind-reading ' (ādeśānā-prātihārya) 7 9 ) . 78 * cetah—paryāya. ) . & anuśāsana. (C. And. there is one śloka8 4 ) . > T . In order to explain this point. & rjes-su (C. lam. 71) anantāsu lokadhātusu (f. avavāda T . that which is the cause of bliss. as well as In all the other numberless worlds 7 1 ) . (C. starts again with this heading (atat—prahitānām ātmâparādhe). T.). T . ma-gtogs-pa ( = na prajñāyate). F o r paryāpanna. 74 * vikurvita. T. This is. on earth. sems—kyi rnam—grañs. ñes-pa. but T.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga In short. ) . like space. C. Jjî^ | § § T J N > J J . M v y u t . thus it is illustrated. In heaven. // 40 // Now. hdoms-pa cho-hphrul. not at all the fault 8 3 ) of the circle of the Buddha's voice. And in respect to those 7 3 ) points. For a[tat]pra- hita. unimpeded and acts without interruption. with reference to the self-fault of those who are not attentive. reads divi and ksitau as a genitive and makes them relate to sukhakārana. . C. T . j | ^ . T. gahana. ^ ^ jffJî. M v y u t . T . with reference to the Path 8 0 ) leading to Deliverance. The illumination of the thicket 7 6 ) of mental conduct of living beings. ' C. zab-mo (gambhīra). pi. dbyañs-ñid. rdsu-hphrul-gyi cho-hphrul. bstan-pahi T . C* 7J> ^ Mvyut. ^ bstan-pa. rjes-su | | j j ( 7 J N *|§L. rtogs-pa. Is the voice 72) [of the Buddha] which manifests Pervadingly in the world leaving no residue. rab-tu brten-par (prañtya).). by knowing the variety of spiritual elements 7 8 ) . however. [the Buddha] preaches and instructs 8 1 ) that Path [to the others] by the example of the utterance of his voice. 77) tat-paryāpanna (tad d e n o t e s cetas). kun-brjod-pahi cho-hphrul. T. 73) For āgamya. f £ pratipad. T . 83 84 » aparādha. but still this voice cannot be caught everywhere or in its full extent. 72) praghosa. cho—hphrul ( = prātihārya). [ 363 ] . as involved in the mind 7 7 ) .

of subtle character. the cloud that is the Buddha Pours the rain of the Highest Doctrine As the virtues are increased in the world 92) Owing to the wind of Compassion. upon the earth where The people behave in the path of virtuous actions9 1 ) . . TAKASAKI (Kārikā 26) Just as a deaf person cannot hear a subtle voice. karma-. has no equivalent word and. becomes audible Only to one whose mind is free from defilements. Or even to a man of divine ears. r e a d s parama as a n indeclinable (mchog-tu). . . 91) kuśala-karma-patha T. Similarly. T. Agitated by the wind. has instead ' chen ' (mahā). Is it a mistake for ' can' (having) ? C. (Kārikās 27-30) Just as. this a n d t h e n e x t verse (vv. K 16. For 9 0 ) [bringing] the crops of virtue among the living beings. 86) 85) avabhrtka. r e a d s " sasyahetu ' a n d r e g a r d s i t as a n adjective t o saddharmasalila. Causing abundance of harvest 8 9 ) . 87 > C. . (interchanging the order with the next one). being the object of the most 8 6 ) subtle Wisdom. 43). T . 92) C. Not all sounds become audible 8 5 ) . T . reads something like ' pravrtka' (jrtl). Similarly. C. K 14. T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' . the Buddha Discharges the rain of the Highest Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion. // 41 // 8 7 ) (III) It is said that [the mind of the Buddha in its activity] is like a cloud 8 8 ) . // 42 // In a similar manner. T . om. 42. con- 93) [ 364 ] . i n s t e a d of ' āyāntj. in the rainy season. C. āyāti nikhilam '. . //43// Just as the clouds discharge the rain. lo-tog. ' i n t h e t e x t . . J Â A 241 b-c. 90) . The Doctrine. The clouds discharge. o m . // 44 // 93) Bearing Wisdom and Compassion. 88) Cf.) i n t h e sense of ' i n order t o bring h a r v e s t '. with no searching thought. 89) sasya. without any effort.J.sasyesu (loc. The multitudes of water on the earth.

sweet. C. // 46 // 101) On the impartial attitude1 0 2 ) .. -fcfe. the womb abundant with Compassion. Descending from the cloud. 103) [ 365 ] . // 45 //9 6 ) With reference to the unequality of receptacles in measure9 7 ) . Those of intermediate nature. It assumes many kinds of taste in the living beings. (Kārikās 32-34) Those who have faith 1 0 3 ) in the Highest Vehicle. sna—tshogs—ñid (vicitratā). t h e taste of rain changes '. soft. But. etc. K 1 5 . ^ ç yjg Jç'J 'u*. T . T . rgyud. T . neither perishable nor imperishable 9 4 ) . 98) Of these 5. 97 * vimātratā. Becomes of tastes of much variety. gzuñs. jj=j . T. abhiprasanna. ksarâksarâsañga—. owing to the variety of conditions of individuals 1 0 0 ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga Abiding in the celestial sphere Without affecting anything. »6> C. nects ' bhavesu ' (in various worlds) with ' samvit' line as follows: 7»H ^rl r 94 (wisdom. o m . produces the Compassion). T. But C. T. which seems to be merely an ' alankāra ' in comparison with the 8-fold Holy Path. "> āryâstâñga. C. But having touched on earth the places filled with salt. The cloud-like chieftain of sages Causes the pure crops in various worlds. And being the womb of the pure water Of meditation and mystical formulas 9 5 ) . (Kārikā 31) Cool. C. *frf. ' depending on bhājanaloka. and light 9 8 ) Is the rain descending from the cloud. dañ-ba ( b e i n g p u r e ) . and those who resist the Doctrine. C. C. mkhan) and reads this IUJ> ' u * (Having known the ' existence '. dan = dvañ-ba. says ' / V Sjj f^ 7JC' (water endowed with 8 qualities). Itos-pa med-par hjug-pa C. A . T . 95) dhāranī. I I S • > santāna. clear. K 1 7 . 102) nirapeksa-pravrtti. ' C. Similar is the rain of the 8-fold Holy Path 9 9 ) . ^ ] 100 101 *[j* j | | . for prasanna. [ ^ > C.

C. The non-arising and the arising of the water of Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion [cause suffering in each turn]. [Discharging them] with various means. yi-dags. Men and those birds who cannot fly in the sky 1 0 7 ) Experience sufferings [from lack of rain]. î S f ^ I f ^ 3 & śaila-deśa-gamika. the one who holds the waters of Wisdom and Compassion. i^xsx *fifj ' < IE £ at * £ W « ^ . Both T. hail and lightning 1 1 0 ) . Those desirous of the Doctrine 1 0 8 ) and those hostile to it. This is the point of similarity. rma—bya. J g fj^ :ggî . // 47 //106> Towards the end of the summer. methods and rules.J.£ * # J£ ? £ lit ?B Jl âft £ 5E>. agree with this reading of ' ātmadrstV'. Whether [in the burst of] egoistic view or in a dormant state 1 1 2 ) . (gamika). C. C. Similarly. 48. ri-yul soñ-ba^ C. K 21. // 49 //113> 104 ' cātaka. because of much rainfall. reads ' kleśagata-anuśaya ( Q 113 U1) ^p^) and ātmadrsti. [ 366 ] . // 48 // 109) Discharging the gross drop of rain. 109 » C . subtle or gross. rdo-than & rdo-rjehi me. 105 108> > preta. C. \X J\. respectively. C. being of no cloud. C. t * . In the rainy season. R 107) vyomny—aprâcārāh. T. And have similarity with men. 112) fne reading should be ' kleśagatâtmadrsty-anuśayān ' instead of ' kleśagatān drsty-anuśayān ' (one syllable short). C. ^>£ * P J^l • But the genitive case for ātmadrsti in T. > C. explaining the 3 groups of sattvas T. bdag-lta. peacocks 1 0 4 ) and ghosts 1 0 5 ) . adds one verse before v. is not correct. In the case of the living beings in the world. C. %& <j$& j | ) . T. mkhah mi—rgu—bahi bya. C. The cloud does not care about the subtle living beings. Nor about those who are on a trip in the mountains U 1 ) . shows the opposit sense. K 18. T. T. * 110) aśani & vajrâgni. TAKASAKI These are the three kinds of living beings. Does not mind anywhere those who are of Defilements. C. however. & C. K 20. gives a free rendering for this passage.y_i_» pel 108) j r o r dharma-ākāñksin. khagā (= cātaka). jt^jivj ^** >"t/ • (The peacock is said to be delighted when he sees clouds). The ghosts in the ground experience sufferings. T.

and. K 2 2 . » C. the cloud of Compassion Lets fall 115) the great rain of the Highest Doctrine. And [consequently]. T. Like that. " This is suffering. Suffering. //51//"») Illness is to be cognized. The searching for the objects of desire 118) is the suffering. to pacify it. > C. But. C.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga On [the function of] calming the fire of Suffering. * j | ^ < 1 § (īfc One of the 8 duhkhas. K 22. dbañ-phyug mchog. and a remedy used 122) . this is its cause. 124 > C. sevya > F o r prāpya. (Kārikās 35-37) The [succession] of birth and death in beginningless time Is the Samsāra.— Its suffering is constant and as if produced from The contact with fire. hchi-hpho (om. 119) 120 121 aiśvaryam uttaram. Mvyut. T . // 50 //116> Having known that the transmigration [from heaven] 1 1 7 ) Is the suffering among gods. Just as excretion has no good smell at all. hgro-ba. removed. tfAe 117) 118 > paryesti-duhkha. rab-tu hbebs (pravarsate). 1 R . C. Extinction and the Path. see Note VIII-242. its cause removed. K 23 (placing after v. [ 367 ] . It is because of their Transcendental Intellect. 52). salt and so forth. 112. Health should be attained 1 2 1 '. C. C. 114) samsrti (course of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ) . ^ fl| ^ ) . C. ice. C. Cf. there is no happiness. |*f . T. jg£ ( t o b e p r a c t i s e d ) . // 52 //124). The Wise men never seek for the best glory u 9 ) among gods and men. T. |EJ ffi*. its Cause. swords. because of their realizing analytically. O n ' anavarâgra \ 115) 116 srjan (V srj). for the human beings. and this is its extinction " . Because of their following the faith in the Buddha's words. Are to be cognized. reg-par-bya (D's rig-par-bya is to be corrected). duhkha). o r 122) F 123) sparśitavya. }fj|^ Jpq-y. C. /§lil • The term is here used in the sense of ' to be experienced '. in whose course 1 1 4 ) there are five Paths. T. C. 5+c. touched 123) and observed. And in these five Paths. (nisevya alike). yoñs-tshol-sdug-bsñal. T. ^Es nf. cyuti-duhkha.

dben-par spyod. mi-snañ-ba (om. 87-88 (vv. K 26 (interchanges v . With his apparitional form.yC . — sarvaloka (v.— // 53 // 126) . without any effort. the Mahayānists. It denotes here. and the arrival at his father's palace. 54). Is seen by gods and causes them to remove the desire of objects 1 2 9 ) . 128 ' sarvadhātu. Similar is the Buddha. this and the next verse (vv. 53. (Kārikās 38-41) Just as Brahma. wandering in solitude '. II. ^ ^ -A^ y^ (ābhāsânābhāse). T . C. C. His manifestation. ]5j\ç £ £ (in v. His sight is seen by the worthy people. by means of his Apparitional Body. Comes to the sight of the worthy 1 2 7 '. without any effort. In the world of gods everywhere. // 55 // 131) Because of his own original vow. Birth. 125 126> > Cf.(IV) It is said that [the Buddha's apparitional form] is like the great Brahma 1 2 5 ) . T. yul-la dgah-ba spoñ-byed. And causes them to remove all the stains 1 3 0 ) forever. // 54 // Just as with Brahma. T. 56 & v . C. / ^ ^ j^f ^ * ^ . par excellence. the Buddha. though not moving from the Absolute Body. mthu. 55). . anābhāsa-gamana. p. C. On these vastus. without moving from his palace. C. gamana). T . 127 ' bhavya. divides ' āranyapravicarana ' into plj ^§< (naiskramya) & /\~f vicarana or duhkhacariyā). JĀA 242 a. C. K 2 5 . 134) 135 C. (Kārikā 42) Descent from [the Tusita]. HK ^L vf" • 130) m ) 132 F o r mala-hara. 136) f-\ <f~J* {pT<1' [ 368 ] . Manifests his apparition. Similarly. entrance in the womb. 129) visaya-rati-hara. though he never moves from his palace. C JT§ • 133) ' anubhava. om. // 56// 1 3 3 ) On the invisibility1341 [of the Apparitional form to some people]. see S. ' C. C. 54-56). 55). 135) 136 Merry life [in the harem] . 55). skal-ldan. n all the worlds 128) . Brahma manifests his apparition without any effort. but T. Similarly with the Lord. M . inserts ' śilpasthāna—kauśala ' before rati—hrlda. always pervading the World of Desire. in all the worlds. And of the pure experiences 1 3 2 ) of the multitudes of gods. without moving from the Absolute Body.

cig-car spros-pa-yis (ekatra kâlasamaye = sakrt). —r^ (study under the guidance of tirthas) before [y mārapramathana. The attainment of the Supreme Enlightenment. C. But the sun has no discrimination in regard to the water-born flowers Similar is the sun of the Saint [in his acts] in the world In regard to the awakening of virtues and closing of defects 1 4 4 '. (Kārikā 43) When the sun becomes shining 1 4 2 ) . 141 > Cf. jf^a ^ | 3 £ . 142) tapat (<r \Jtap). ' muktā ' means ' a flash delivered from the s u n ' . And the teaching of the Path leading to the city of Peace 1 3 8 ) .^ & >p] | J p . om. With his own rays. K 2 7 . Just as the sun. at one and the same time The lotus flowers awake and the Kumuda 1 4 3 ) folds its flowers. 143) A kind of lotus or water-lily. The Buddha. C. T. simultaneously everywhere 1 4 7 ) . 147) eka-muktābhir. ¥§. 139 > For adhanya. ^ J . C. water. Of them.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a The victory over the Evil One 1 3 7 ) . (On the two kinds of people compared to the two kinds of waterborn flowers)146>. inserts cakravartin before this. shi-bahi groñ-khyer. //57//14<» (Y) It is said that the Buddha [in his Wisdom] is like the sun 1 4 1 ) . T. and this passage be an interpolation. 14 °> C. K 2 8 . though demonstrating such events. skal-med (abhavya). ^1* ^ | § . there are the simile of the sun-lotus and the simile of the receptacle of pure ' C. hereafter up to the prose commentary before v. without thought—construction. gduñ-ba (tapati). which is said to open its flower at night. [ 369 ] . but C. with reference to the converts. 63. J Ā A 242 b. Does not come to the eye-sight of those who are unhappy 1 3 9 ) . There are two kinds among the living beings: one is the non-converts and the other is the converts. C. T. respectively. C. Lets the lotus flowers come to blossom. T. 138) C. For praśamapura. 144) > 146 ' seems to 145 137 Yor guna & dosa. Jfft . inserts ^Fjj Jj £ yv Ja.

Spreading out his thousands of glorious rays. T . T. // 61 // From which.J. Appears with no thought-construction.. 149) 157) 148 pratapati. i n s t e a d of ' śailopamatā '.) and be separated from ' tannipāto '. gradually. }j^ (as in the text). 156) saptasapti. With reference to this order. He casts his rays 1 5 4 ) upon the converts Who are like mountains. chos-dbyiñs. sūryopamatā. 150) āśaya. Shines 1 5 7 ) upon the mountains. in this world. // 59 // Similarly. s t a r t s w i t h t h i s h e a d i n g . > bodhi—manda. [ 370 ] . dinakrt. there is a simile of mountains 1 5 1 ) : (Kārikās 44-45) Although the sun of the Buddha pervades 1 5 2 ) Always and everywhere the sky-like Universe 153 '. this verse. Upon the converts resembling lotus flowers. 152) f ne r e a ( J i n g S ' visrte ' & ' buddhasūrye ' are to be corrected into ' visrto ' & buddhasūryo '. though they are non-discriminative. For nipāta. // 60 // With the body of the Absolute and that of Apparition. So T. C. om. s a y i n g : ' krame ślokah '. 151) T . TAKASAKI And lets the other come to ripeness. T . ji-ltar hos-par. respectively. (manda = sāra). according to their merit 1 5 5 ) . T . C. the sun . middle. The sun 1 4 9 ) of Omniscience pervades the world With the rays of the Transcendental Wisdom. (sūryasya nipāta). hbab (prapatati). the sun that is the Buddha. snod (= bhājana). hbab. T. Arising in the sky of the Seat of Enlightenment 148) . For this. and low. Also ' vineyâdri ' should be changed into ' vineyâdrau ' (loc. everywhere in the [mind of] converts Who are like receptacles 1 5 0 ) of pure water. 155) yathāirhatah. // 62 // Thus the Buddhas. Appear simultaneously innumerable reflections Of that sun which is the Lord. // 63 // 156) Just as. Rising and illuminating the whole world. 153) dharmadhātu. 154) tan-nipāta. byañ—chub—sñiñ—po. high. but C. With the rays of the Highest Doctrine. T. manifest themselves with visible forms and by teaching among the three categories of living beings according to order.

has no equivalent word and has instead ' A^ Wi ' ( n o t break). 166) Those who are of no eyes perceive the object . Therefore. ' ekaikaroma-udbhavair '. 164) 165) And manifest all things knowable . C. (C. T . C. 161) gahana.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a Similar is the sun of the Buddha which shines 158) Upon the groups of living beings. t h e B u d d h a is n o t t h e same as t h e s u n ) . And [likewise] even those blinded by ignorance. T . T . o m . K 29. Nor does he show all things knowable [by removing] 161) The thicket of the darkness of ignorance. which runs as follows: (The one w h o is of t h e n a t u r e of compassion. 169) 17 pada. C. 160) parispharanatā. C. jjffj (several). 163 Produced from each hair ' and filled with various colours. T. Who have fallen into the sea 1 6 8 ) of the Phenomenal World. like space. & C. °J C. adds one verse before this. mtsho. tshogs. anarthajāla-vigama. Manifesting t h e t w o bodies. K 31. 164 > For jñeyârtha. //64// On the superiority of [the Buddha's] light to [that of the sun]. <gf^ g g &PR 162) visara. J l l # P C. having seen it. [ 371 ] 25 . C. T . 162) Illuminate the world with spreading bands of rays. But those who are of the nature of Compassion. ~} 165) C. C. 3 i l l /ff! . K 3 2 . K 30) 166) 167) 168) F o r artha. 163) >p. hphro. C. C. bkab ( < hgebs. T .^ ffâjî $[FJ (abhrajāla). P e r v a d e s . > bhānu. t o cover. ^ ^ l j ( t h e great benefit). tshogs. there does not exist the all-pervadingness In all kinds of lands and in the whole sky. t h e whole world. . $ $ ( ^ g J ^ V ^ . And come to perceive the T r u t h 1 6 9 ) unseen before. a p p a r i t i o n a l a n d of W i s d o m . C. And are obscured by the darkness of false views. gnas.— (Kārikās 46-47) Of the sun . 167) And. ārnava ( B H S ) ( P a l i annava ?). s p r e a d ) . l^m . cognize how to remove the net of h a r m . according to their order. F o r jāla. om. // 65 // When the Buddhas enter the city. Have their intellect illumined by the light of the sun of the Buddha. // 66 // 1 7 0 ) 158 159) 160) 159 > C.

even though the people so much 178) Long for it in the depth of the ocean or under the ground . Similarly. sa-hog gnas. But the Buddha has no discrimination regarding them. those who are of different inclinations. 17S > C. having no thought-construction 176) . // 70 // 171 > Cf. JĀA 243 a. om. separately. C. // 68 //175> Just as the precious jewel. 176 ' T. avikalpam. Come to hear the Truth in its various aspects. om. C. Similarly. (Kārikās 48-50) Just as the wish-fulfilling gem. cig-car-tu spyod-yul gnas-pa. brten-nas. Fulfills all desires of those Living in the same region 1 7 3 ) . 178) pâtâla-stha. as long as the world exists. T. T. T. According to their merit. the whole verse as well as the next one along with its heading. hbyuñ-ba ( s t a t e of being). K. without effort. K 33. TAKASAKI (VI) It is said that [the Buddha's mind in its act] has a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling gem 1 7 1 ) . — " fhj* jpj |j§£ p p . 34. iv2) yugapad—gocara-sthāna. // 67 // 1 7 3 ) Similarly. T. reads as ' durlabhaprāptas tathāgatabhāvah '. | p j "££ (living together) and adds ' Jjv jgç >\j*' (on the mind of Compassion). cintāmaniratna. [ 372 ] . C. (Kārikā 51) Here. Having approached 174) the wish-fulfilling gem of the Buddha. 173 > C. Though itself is of no thought-construction. for others. without effort. Produces the desired treasure. T . 179) durbhaga. the sight of Buddha should be known as Not easily achieved in this luckless 179) world " By those whose mind is afflicted by various passions. skal-ñan. // 69 // It is said that the Buddhas are 1 7 7 ) difficult to obtain. in this world. the Lord always benefits others.J. 177 * bhāva. it is quite rare To obtain the pure gem. 174) sametya. and for maniratna. T.

T. (Kārikās 56-57) Just as all plants 180 192) . C.K3 5 . -*p. ' u * ) . > Cf.). sa-las skye—ba. J ^ J f (as T. either inside or outside. om. 189) 192 [ 373 ] . and without foundation. T. mtho dañ dmah (high and low). In a similar way. * > C. all kinds of forms are seen in the Buddha. the voice of the Buddha Arising through the voice of others Is of no discrimination and of no effort. (but in the next verse. »«) Cf. C. 184 ) C. But. JĀA 243 c. activities] Though being so. in reality. JĀA 243 b. // 71 / / 183) has no foundation. > C. ' and invisible. 182) jr o r anābhoga. T . 36. $»»£ TW • 187 188 ' nirālamba. / | V . either inside or outside. 181) vijñapti. -jjtfç ftpE- 190 nimnonnata. (VIII) It is said that [the Buddha's body is] like space (Kārikās 54-55) Being immaterial Without support 186 . 185) Cf. C. 186) niskimcana. J Ā A p u t s this simile a t the end). J Ā A 243 c (after t h e simile of prthivl. the Buddha is not like that. T. C. (IX) //74// 1 9 0 ) . the sky is seen as low and high 1 8 9 ) . in reality. K. of others effort 182) Is of no discrimination and of no . it is not like that. ' mahîruha (== mahiruh). It is said that [the Buddha as the foundation of all is like the earth 1 9 1 ) . // 72 / / 185) 184) And has no foundation. bzo-med. cuñ-zad-med. 183 > C. dmigs—pa med. C. rnam-rig. K 38.The (VII) Ratnagotravibhāga 180) It is said that [the Buddha in his voice] is like an echo (Kārikās 52-53) Just as the sound of an echo Arising from the voice And 181) . T. K 37. But. // 73 / / 1 8 8 ) 187) Surpassing the way of eye-sight. Similarly. Formless and incapable of being shown. T .

[ 374 ] . there are nine examples Illustrated by the reflection of Indra On the surface of Vaidūrya stone. o m . This verse stands for t h e title of t h e s ū t r a . C. and for vaipulya. Proceed completely towards growth. C. // 75 // 194) Similarly. // 77 // Its purpose [of teaching] is explained By the very name of that Scripture. o m . de-don (tad-artham). 199) In this sense . hdis brgyan-pa ' (etena alañkrtāh). 195 > C. n e next verse however. T. // 78 // Adorned with l 9 7 ) this light of the great wisdom Which is the result of study. TAKASAKI Taking resort to the earth Which has no searching thought. The wise men enter rapidly In the whole region of the Buddha. om. T . which reads ' . Summarized Meaning of the Illustrations given by the Commentator. T . // 76 // 195) § 3. Therefore. Summarized meaning of these examples is as follows: The performance of actions without effort Connot be seen by us 1 9 6 ) . ' ādi ' gives no sense. . K 40.J. K 39. /PC. // 79 // For this reason 1 9 8 ) . reads as ' kriyām rte"1 and om. and the rest. Come to grow. according to T.. J§y[ for vrddhim upayānti). 199) tasmin. j$C wu (^ *^ trt F&it** -*-Ji. the roots of virtues in the world. connects ikaścid^ with ikriyām\ C. Where these nine illustrations Are demonstrated in detail. J[jl£ . dehi (tasya). n a m e l y t h e Sarvabuddhavisayâvatāra-jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. you should know their summarized meaning. The ninefold examples have been related In order to clear the doubts of the converts. C. C. 19 7) >phe r e a ( J j n g ' ālokâdy-alañkrtāh ' had better be changed into ' ālokād alañkrtāh '. thrive 1 9 3 ) and expand. brtan-pa (become firm). 196) T. prayatnam.— // 80// 193) vairūdhi. * 194 > C. Taking resort to the ground of the Buddha Who has no searching thought. 198) ity artham. 3-g . .

T. (Kārikās 58-61) The one who acts for the sake of others. 20 °) darśanādeśanā. | f | j ^>p| gives n o s u i t a b l e sense.. rañ-bshin-dow (prakrtyartha). hchi. T. 2) ' deśanā' for devadundubhi. C. Shall we accept '•darsanā* as an irregular form for darśana? If so both terms are to be written separately. Summary of examples given in Kārikās 2 0 6 ) . 205) antardhi. C. In the next verse. respectively. y \ . 8) ' kāya-guhyaka ' for ākāśa. om. 88 at the end of the illustration of prthivī. // 82 // The ' proposition ' is here the pacification of effort. // 83 // And here the 4 subject in discussion' is that These nine. Secrecy in acts by mind. î06) C. // 81 // [The Buddha's] mind 2 0 3 ) . teaching200*. 203) dhl (text. ' appearance ' and the rest. C. 5) ' j ñāna-nihsrti' for sūrya. A doubtful reading as J suggested. being the summary of all the examples.ft£&ftjjÇ ^y^ SPA •Q faf. Namely: 1) ' darśana ' (darsanā ?) for śakrapratibhāsa. being of no thought-construction. As given in the examples. 7) ' vāg-guhyaka ' for pratiśrutika. As for the treatment of this group of verses.The Ratnagotravibhāga [Namely]: appearance. /p(. see my Introduction. C. pervasion. 87. [ 375 ] . Transformation 201 '. 201) vikrti. But C. And. Ajnd acquisition of those whose nature is of Compassion 2 0 2 ) . etc. Jji^ pîjP. The ' logical reason ' is the non-discriminativeness of mind. Is such in which all the movements of effort are pacified. 202) karunā-ātmānām prāptih. . Karunā-ātmā. // 84 // § 4.). T. this passage up to v. 3) ivyāpi'> for megha. means the Buddha or the Bodhisattva. but mentions v. and emanation of Wisdom. sprul. we have other four ślokas. These 9 meanings are given to each of the 9 illustrations. which as a genitive case is connected to all these 9. T . the form of Indra. Are manifested without any effort And without birth or death 2 0 5 ) of the Preceptor. § 2. (to establish the meaning) (/PC i s used in the verse for ' susiddha '). in pi. beginning with the arising Of the reflection of Indra on the pure Vaidūrya stone. . =|=§. thugs. 204) prakrtârtha. pg|fc £|£ Pjflf Jjfljî iffl (janmântarddhim rte). & 9) ' prāpti ' for bhūmi. as vicitra-artha. thugs-rjehi bdag-ñid thob-pa-ñid. I incline to interpret that this ' karunâtmānām '. Without effort. II. There are given i examples '. 6) ' mano-guhyaka ' for cintāmani. T. With reference to this meaning (or subject). speech and body. as long as the world exists. in order to establish the 'subject in discussion' 204 '. 4) 'vikrti' for Brahma.

. like the sky and like the earth. T. like the sun. Having the great sphere of the clouds of Wisdom and Mercy. 209) according to T. he shines always. // 85 // The excellent teacher 2 0 8 ) has an appearance Like the reflection of the chief of gods on the jewel. i. legs—par hdoms—mdsad. Being the seat 213) of all virtues. like the divine drum. If we take ' agra ' as ' beginning '. (as an epithet of the Buddha). — • yJ Wa 7$ Mî 213) 214) and § ^Jr }$ *$£ |j|§ (as the earth is āspada of ausadhi. takes de- vadundubhi as relating to this word. C. YS\. like clouds. an echo.e. Without moving from the immaculate place 2 1 0 ) . \ffi IQ1. T. 208 ' sudaiśika. Not being expressed by letters211) . yi-ge-min (om. C. And his mind [acts] like the wish-fulfilling gem. gshir gyur-pa. . . C. His voice is like the [sound of] the divine drum. ' anaksara-ukta. the Buddha Shows himself variously with the apparitional forms. TAKASAKI īndra. the meaning is ' since the very beginning of the world '. śukladharma-ausadhī. T. T. like the wish-fulfilling gem. Brahma. Up to the highest limit of existence 209) . // 87 // Like an echo is the Buddha's voice. rnal-hbyor-rig. T. He pervades an unlimited number of living beings. J ^ >fa -^p> ^Hç īj/£ wliich gives proper sense. T. and om. the remedy 2 1 4 ' of the whole world. . îl6 > C. sañs-rgyas-sa. ' vibho rutam '. [ 376 ] . Like the sun. the Buddha's bhūmi is āspada of śukladharma. The translation is T. . is [the Buddha] who knows a means [of precept]2 0 7 ) . . which shows the proper interpretation of the simile. //86// Like Brahma. C. // 88 // 215) Like Like Like That 2 0 7) yogavid. āspada. dkar-pohi chos-kyi sman. The Buddha is sudaiśika. ā bhavāgratah. 212) 211 buddhabhūmi.J. T. 81 °) anāsravāt padād. being ausadhi). K 41. which denotes ' anāsravadhātu '. spreading the light of Wisdom. ukta). And like the earth is the State of Buddha 2 1 2 ) in this world. srid-rtsehi bar-du. Being all-pervading. formless and eternal. dharmakāya. Like space is his body.

in his Body of the Absolute 219) that is like īndra. > C. C. The Point of Dissimilarity 223) This is the summarized meaning of similes And this very order is told in order to show That the dissimilarity of the former example 2i6) This passage is again doubtful with regard to its position in the text. is the Buddha. his actions. And this purity of mind is intensified By the irresistible 217> faculty of faith. inserts the following 3 verses. the purity in the mind Is the cause of the Buddha's appearance. 9. dharmakāya. C. K 10. // 90 // 220) Thus. From the Absolute Body. T. The verse added in C before v. which never arises nor disappears. 28). § 2. But. mi-zlogs-pa. to work among all living beings. Why. '^jjj» jf|j |-»rj^. As long as the world exists 221 '. who is always of neither origination nor extinction. The Lord does never appear nor disappear. puts v. Are manifested without any effort. Like the Vaidūrya stone. there are three verses]. ' śakrapratibhāsavat' (after v. [ 377 ] . -A^ Jsj?t. see my Introduction. 223) So-called ' vyatirekâlañkāra ( 0 ) . 84. > C . 1 Ratnagotravibhāga Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood 216) . > C . 221 222 ' ā bhavasthiteh. om. The forms of the Buddha appear and disappear. II. then. 89 is as follows: #H t ā î S ^ S c 217) 218 $£ I asamhārya. in this exposition of examples. C.The § 5. //91// 2 2 2 ) § 6. As for the treatment of this passage. 92 immediately after v. explained to be seen with appearance and disappearance and as having actions. without effort and without interruption ? [To answer this question. // 89 // 218) Owing to the appearance and disappearance of purity. C. along with one additional verse and with the heading ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti ' at the end of the 1st illustration. apparition and the rest. K 11. K 219) 220 C.

But the sun cannot remove darkness fully.kramah punah / pūrvakasyottarenokto vaidharmyaparihāratah / ' = punah. '). the author seems to have had an opinion that the earth is the foundation of everything. is not like him. It shows the sense that ' megha ' cannot remove ' anarthablja '. 20). // 97 // ' ' . rim—pa yañ sña—ma phyi—mas chos—mi—mthun spans-pahi sgo—nas brjod—pa yin. where ' ākāśa ' is [ 378 ] . [Being of no cause] 2 2 8 ) he has a resemblance to space. After all J's reading seems correct. being of no voice. quite against the other cases in this text. he is like the wish-fulfilling gem.. is not like him. [Being the root of virtue] 2 2 6 ) . But it is not the case. being a dissimilation of ' prthivl ' with the Buddha. Which however. 230) In this series of illustrations. [Being endowed with voice. being unable to ripen perfectly. [As the darkness-breaker]. pūrvakasya vaidharmyasya uttarena parihāratah '. mundane and supermundane 2 3 0 ) . // 95 // The Buddha has a resemblance to an echo 2 2 7 ) . he is like the sun. T. // 93 // [Being beneficial everywhere]. he is like a big cloud. ' durlabdhatva ' of cintāmani was mentioned previously (v. not being the basis of virtues. and consequently. //92// Buddhahood is like the reflection [of īndra]. having no seed of virtue 225) . is not as difficult to get as he is. C. // 96 // The Buddha resembles the region of the earth. 226) C. reads ^Y* U *]vf. 228) £ £ ' tathāgatavyoma nimittavarjitam ' (II. But the reflection. ' being acala like Brahma ' % 2 2 7> Here we cannot get the proper similarity of echo to the Buddha by means of the same operation as it is used in former examples. ' megha ' cannot distinguish either ' sārtha ' or ' anartha '. the Buddha] is like The divine drum. he is like great Brahma. Which however. T. Which. Since he is the ground and foundation 229) For the achievement of all the virtues Of living beings. so it is not like him. Which. however. JTQ JlgiJ frf* fî% /fc3t 224 225) sārthabîja. however. don-med-pahi sa-bon spoñ min (for ' na sārtha. 70) as a point of similarity to the Buddha. is the nearest simile for the Buddha. ~J~~ /-\* -fcii 229) C. Brahma is not like him. kramo uktah. It is. ^H ^"J? TpQ ||fj ^"Jjl ~jp. //94// [As the cause of perfect maturity]. in another word. is not like that. . TAKASAKI [With the Buddha] is removed by the latter one 2 2 4 '. But.. being a product of causes. . Since it is not everywhere making benefits. v. which however does not match him. C. Echo cannot be 'durlabdha'l Furthermore.J . is not like him.

Mvyut. brten-nas. and hence. IV were not composed by the same author as that of the Basic verses in Chapter I. [ 379 ] . Mvyut. There arises the supermundane Path. ārūpya. // used as the most suitable simile for the Buddha. respectively. for the sampatti in 4 kinds of ārūpyadhātu (Cf. And as this very ordex was arranged in the Udāharana—kārikās against the order given in JĀA (which puts the simile of ' ākāśa' at the last). maitrī. karunā muditā & upeksa (Cf. /& Pile (Buddhas perform these actions. C.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga By resorting to2 3 1 ) the Buddha's Enlightenment. 162). There emerges the Path of virtuous actions. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. agamy a. at one and the same time). 67). we may be allowed to say that those Udāharana-kārikās in Chap. apramāna. ' dhyāna"" stands for the 4 kinds of dhyāna (Cf. 'apramāna'' stands for those. saying: £JL~~ Jl~w |3 Ji f •tit*. and 'ārūpya'. the immeasurable mind And the absorption in the Immaterial Sphere 2 3 2 ) . | i v ( = āśritya). Consisting of meditation. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] ' the Summary of Meaning of the ślokas'. | p 3fU j$£. abiding always in [various] worlds. 98. // 98 // Finished is the fourth chapter entiled ' the Acts of the Buddha'. Mvyut. T. adds one verse more after v. dhyāna. 69). 232) 231) C. without effort.

the Enlightenment of the Buddha. [ 380 ] . & C. and the Buddha's Acts. C. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . (Kārikās 1-6) The Essence of Buddhahood. Buddhagunāh. C. mos—pahi phan-yon. we have six ślokas. / / I // But the wise one. T.CHAPTER V. 6) And. being possessed of the desire [to obtain] The inconceivable properties [of the Buddha]. in Chap. They are inconceivable even to those of the pure mind 3 ) . The Superiority of Faith over Other Virtues in Regard to Their Merits. • T . I . 3) śuddhasattva. reads -gunâbhilāsāt. | p | -*A/ \I&& • 2) Namely: Samalā tathatā (or tathāgatagarbha) in Chap. T. I. I l l . and Buddhakriyā in Chap. I I . C. Becomes a receptacle of the whole collection of properties. Nirmalā tathatā in Chap. For guriâbhilāsayogāt. add ' catursu ' before ' sthānesu '. THE MERITS OF HAVING FAITH IN THE DOCTRINE OF THE ESSENCE OF BUDDHAHOOD § 1. 23 of C h a p . IV. T. whose intellect 5 ) accepts the faith In this exclusive sphere of the Buddha. as if ' buddha '. I * ' adhimukty—anuśamsa. B u t T . buddhi. THE MERITS OF FAITH (ANUŚAMSA) XVIII. Being the exclusive sphere of the Leaders 4 ) . C. Hereafter. hdren-pa. T . YJW • T h e verse c o r r e s p o n d s t o v . [ p j ~|tr] {=p" A - 4) 6) 6) nāyaka. The Buddha's Properties. dag-pahi sems. with reference to the advantage of faith X ) possessed by those who are believing in these [4] subjects 2 ) which have been duly described above.

constructed 8 ) by jewels As innumerable as the sands in the Buddha's lands.p . samskrta. Would offer golden lands. After hearing of it. // 3 // Suppose a wise man. always. _ I ^ ^*. Which suppresses the fire of defilements in the 3 worlds n '.. C. r e a d s ' h a v e n o . mtho-ris. C. ' itas '. ] [ 381 . To the Lord of Doctrine. if he hear but one word of this teaching. ito-bāhyas ( S . would have faith in this Doctrine. After hearing of it. 12) 13) For pārami-gata. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits 1 0 ) of an offering. Would be irreversible 13 ' from the means of Enlightenment. if he hear but one word of this teaching. speech and mind. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits of morality. C. 14) For bhoga. from t h i s religion. C. in course of innumerable aeons. 16) svarga. srid-pa gsum. (3»>Ç). Would keep pure moral conduct by his body. would have faith in this Doctrine. 15) Morality leads people to the blissful world . . C. om. And meditation is conducive to the removal of Defilements. Another. T . punya. day after day. C. spros-pa. // 5 // 14> Charity brings people only to [worldly] enjoyment . ^ £ A ^ T3. having been transferred 12 ' to the abode of Brahman in heaven. being anxious to obtain the Enlightenment. 3© / C 4 T 'tK ^ P • F o r acyuta. T . would have faith in this Doctrine. T. tribhuvana. T. a d d s ' bhāvanā _ ^ ^5( ( to ' (bsgoms). C. 'fīf ^ g et richness as merits). The latter would reap merits far more than even the merits of the mystic absorption. Without effort. Another. And. being desirous of the Highest Enlightenment. T . Another if he hear but one word of this teaching9 ) . Suppose one would give himself up to the mystic absorption. 2 8 . But the Transcendental Intellect can remove 7) 8) 9) 10) X1) prasava. . // 2 // Suppose there were one who. itah padam. After hearing of it. not clear. Cf. 6 ) . o m .T h e R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā ga He surpasses the abundance 7 ) of merits of all living beings.

350 b. ^ ^ _£.<j£. . śruti is t h e supreme. Needless t o say. M v y u t . but the reference is to ' karma-phala'.). MSbh (P). Taisho 31. T. /XXr Spfc? T . (e. ^+^ JñL i r f » W?f 4AJ îāīlî •> resp. 19) 20) 17) '. as he is full of devotion and faith exists ' this inconceivable sphere. // 6 // The summarized meaning of these ślokas should be known*by the following 9 verses. This is for ' buddhakriyā '. The Its basis [of Buddhahood] 17) . probably under the influence of the Ratna.). g. as J . 11. nus-ñid. J s . āśraya.P r o b a b l y t h e original r e a d i n g w a s ' -parivrttau' suggested. he quickly attains the potentiality Of acquiring the state That there 16) 4 22) of the Tathāgata. With regard to its existence. 24-30. yon-tan-ldan-pa. The // 7 // 20) 21) wise one has become full of faith . and ' triratna '. t h e first 3 a r e called ' punyakriyāvastu ' (Cf. where it is applied to 'gotra-astitva'. T. ' āryasatya '. and not to ' gotra'. gnas. C. 194 6-200 c. C. 16) Therefore. (bhavyatā in the sense of ' excellence ' and is regarded as an apposition to 'tathāgata-padâpti'). 812 c-813 a (as the 3 fundamental points of discussion of the work). p. Hsūangchuang's tr. explaining: " T h e r e f o r e . gyur-pa. ^pj . C. after hearing of t h e doctrine (. 799 c (adding ' acintyatva ' . 26. is) "plug j s t h g only case w h e r e t h e t e r m ' parāvrtti ' is used i n s t e a d of ' parivrtti (T. yod[~ñid].£§*. T. and BGŚ. of welfare 19) 18 properties and the performance . 22 21) > pada. I t d e n o t e s ' dhātu' o r 'tathāgatagarbha'. C. // 8 // Indeed. | 5 \ p y f £ * Wf" C. bhavyatā. TAKASAKI All [the obscurations of] defilements and ignorance. ffi ft S I • [ 382 ] . go-hphañ. Which have been explained above. don-grub. etc. Of t h e s e 4. astitva. adds 3 padas a b o u t t h e merit of having faith W S H S E W itb ^ f a ^ ) "• T h i s arrangement of the 4 pāramitās (which a r e c o n s t r u e d w i t h t h e 6 pāramitās b y t h e c o m m e n t a t o r ) seems t o show t h e p r e vious stage of t h e 'pāramitā' d o c t r i n e . In these four aspects of the sphere of Buddha's Wisdom. Intellect is the supreme one [of all virtues] And its very source is the study of this Doctrine . B u t t h e r e is n o proof for this suggestion. śaktatva & gunavattva. 795 c-796 a (applied to the 3 meanings of tathāgatagarbha). T . power and virtue Therefore. -tā) C. skal-ldan (om. (Cf. 811 b (as the first 3 of the 5 meanings of garbha explained through 9 illustrations). Its application to gotra seems to belong only to the Ratna. counts 4 points of faith). This theory of ' 3 points of faith ' is often found in the works of Vijñānavāda with the order of ' astivta-gunavattva-śaktatva '. artha-sādhana. C. p.J . [yjC\ J y î Tyf. its transformation ). BGS makes use of these 3 points in various passages: 794 6. VMT Bhāsya. 93) a n d r e p r e s e n t ' punya-sambhāra '. of MSbh.

28) I t is explained in v. 4 And the perfect purity' is caused by his removal of the opponents. Transcendental Intellect. 29) 80) 3 are ' g i v e r ' . = p J ^ gg JJÎC %A 27) punya\ T. byaû-chub-sems. // 10 // 25) As this mind constantly exists . ' r e c e i v e r ' F o r vipaksa. energy. which corresponds to ' punya-sambhāra '. And this sphere. rdsogs. T. pūri & pariśuddhi. And both Patience and Meditation. C. the Highest Intellect is the supreme one of all. And. etc. Being a receptacle of virtues like zeal. (mādrsa). // 13 // Discrimination regarding the 3 aspects of activity. According to T. t h e r e a d i n g ' taccittapratyupasthānād ' is to b e corrected tannityapratyupasthānād'. The opponents 2 9 ) [to the 5 Highest Virtues].. £j) f^. jealousy. ' endowed with such virtues '. C. // 14 // But. contemplation. & C . // 9 // 24) So in him the mind intent on Enlightenment . C.The 4 R at n agot r av ib h āga 23) That it can ' be realized by one like him . = p ^ . 27) With regard to the Highest of Merits . )y\ J O V S • T h e reading 'easya' is to be corrected into 'câsyā"1 (being a p r o n o u m for prajñā). Therefore. [ 383 ] . They are the Obscurations of Defilements. B o t h are to be t a k e n as c o n n e c t i n g w i t h punyapāramitā '. as the source of i t 3 0 ) is the study [of this Doctrine]. 12) C. bsod-nams. T. // 11 // 4 The [Highest of] Merits ' means the [first] 5 Highest virtues. B u t it is n o t t h e case (see v.t i^T "SI ^ • 25) into ' 26) For 'pūri'. // 15 // 23 ' lit. punya-pāramitā. and ' g i f t ' . 26 And he reaches the accomplishment and the perfect purity '. without the Highest Intellect. Morality is the merit consisting of moral conduct. For i 24 > bodhicitta. Comes to exist always. like me.. Memory. is that of practice. 4 Its accomplishment ' is owing to his being non-discriminative 28) With regard to the three aspects [of activity] . etc.. The son of the Buddha becomes irreversible. T . It is this study that is the most important. reads vikalpa. That i$ the Obscuration of Ignorance. 14 as ' trimandala-pariśuddhi. Charity is the merit consisting of granting gift. 3 S . has been attained. But Exertion is the merit common to all. The other 5 cannot be the cause of their removal.

of MSbh (Taisho 31. with the aid of a lamp.e. But C. including those two. and Characteristics of This Text Being the Correct Doctrine. 26-28) along with heading thereon is inserted with exact order aVid wording in Paramārtha's tr. rje-su-gzuñ. p. with reference to the basis and motive. and how this doctrine has been explained and what characteristics it has. Motive. Except for this and the last one. Similarly. 24. 270 a-b). o m . seems to divide the first one into ' āpta ' & ' āgama ' and says ' |§f$ jfti yfc ^ £ . ' anugraha.. The topic of each śloka is. however. retains all the headings. f^ j3> ff| ^ Q | | j | ' (' āpta ' in the sense of ' āptavacana '). This treatise is expounded by me in order to attain Perfect purification for myself. This one is according to C. however. 32) āptâgama & yukti. First of all. the heading for v. C. this is in order to assist 33) Those intelligent people who are endowed with faith And accomplishment of virtues 3 4 ) . and C . T. 35) katham (or yathā) udāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. Of a precious stone. ' kuśalasampad '. C. T. (Kārikā 7) Thus. of lightning. //16// [Next we have one śloka stating how this treatise is explained] 35) (Kārikā 8) Just as. there is one śloka™]. ^ g . 88 iti. i. has all of them. according to T. [ 384 ] . exclusively. 'kirn artham » 34) 36) bhāskara. [Hereafter we have ślokas mentioning on which basis. T. on the basis of the authoritative Scripture and of Logic 32) . I have expounded this treatise 31) The headings which are given in brackets are missing in S. C. param yataś ca yannimittam ca yathā ca yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokāh /) tatra yamāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. of the moon and the sun 3 6 ) . Authority. kuśalâpasampadā. The following passage containing 10 Kārikās (vv. TAKASAKI § 2. Those possessed of vision can perceive objects. 16-25) and 3 commentary verses (vv. for what motive. yid-ches-luñ & rigs-pa. given in the commentary verse. Emendation: (atah. At the same time.J.

~J\Z tj/j (illumination. C. 46) Ace. flash of idea). \^i~jr^ yT*»l ^I->ft j £ j ^ ] . bzlog-pa. "j^j jgj£ [ ^ gama. Such a word is that of the Great Sage 4 3 ) . a n d s e p a r a t e s i t f r o m dharmapada 41) 42) 43) ārsa. gsuñ. 46) uddiśat. light) is for either ' prabhākara ' or ' pratibhā '. by the light of the Buddha's doctrine. And can demonstrate the advantage of Quiescence. drañ-sroñ-gsuñ. spobs ( O . I n d . pada). C. p . This topic is called ' nisyandaphala ' i n t h e c o m m e n t a r y . This term ārsa is. 17 c d. And all others are of perverse character 4 4 ) . arthavat. T. (f$C $L $ i i^O. I have expounded this teaching). ^ Jji] | J C • T i l i s verse is q u o t e d i n t h e Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā (Bibl. the word 40) 37) prabhākara. used originally for the Vedas. (Kārikā 10) Whatever is spoken by those whose mind is not distracted And who refer to4 6 ) the Lord as the only Preceptor. As the doctrine has such a benefit. C. C. C. dharmapada. gives clearer sense though the original S. don-ldan. 432). C. Ace. was probably as T. T . V ^ / f ī j . ( ^ | IpBî* T .^ J ī§§$. like āptâ- viparita.B u t T . C. those possessed of vision of intelligence come to see. . // 18 // [Next we have one śloka stating by what means this treatise is explained]45>. T . p u t s here t h e heading which is t o be p u t before v . chos ( o m .The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga // 17 // Relying upon the Lord who is the sun 3 7 ) Manifesting38) the Doctrine of great welfare. C. . to C. hod-mdsad-pa (illuminating). 38) pratibhā. T . (Kārikā 9) Whatever that is connected with the scriptural texts41> It pursues the [ultimate] aim [of living beings] 4 2 ) . C. Is conducive to removing the Defilements in the 3 Worlds. t o T . ffi U . reads: (Similarly. B u t T . F o r v .'yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah '. 40 39) > vacas. T. edition. reading of this verse is r a t h e r 44) [ 385 ] . dbañ-byas (uddiśya or adhikrtya). C. [Then we have one śloka stating the characteristics of the correct 39 doctrine] >. yenâdāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah. T . 19.

J . g ^ . gnod-pa t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e B u d d h a and is opposite to laid down). and himself is hindered b y t h e stains.. t o T. which is.. Needless t o say. // 20 // difficult to identify with S. the Scripture should not be interpolated 4 9 ) . 51) pratibādhana. C. Which is discoursed 5 0 ) by the Sage himself. a l t h o u g h he preaches t h e dharmapadârtha [in order to] rem o v e t h e kleśas i n t h e tridhātu. t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h e sūtra which is spoken b y t h e B u d d h a s who h a v e r e m o v e d t h e suffering caused b y kleśas a n d are of t h e i m m a c u l a t e Wisdom is to be accepted. rgyal-pahi bstan-pa hbah-shiggyis dbañ-byas. No other who is omniscient and knows completely The highest Truth according to the right method. or [the word spoken b y ] one who accepts a l i t t l e p a r t of t h e B u d d h a ' s doctrine. T. F o r v. it will do harm 5 1 ) to the Highest Doctrine Because of destroying 52) the teaching 53) of the Buddha. TAKASAKI And is favourable to the Path of the [2] Accumulations which lead to Emancipation. T. dharma-raksana.. 49) vicālya ( < vi— •/cal). 63) [ 386 ] . C. spyi-bos. T. gshag ( < hjog-pa. // 19 // § 3. neya [-artha]. Therefore. tshul. gshig ( < hjig-pa). C. C. byed-pa. or t h e beneficial words spoken in t h e worldly books. (lit. Otherwise. 50) fa&ftin* SSSSIfi* mmM^A nīta. 19 6 (śāstāram ekam jinam uddiśadbhih). ' ātmaraksanâpāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau /. instead of ātmaraksana. rāga. 47) mūrdhnā. 52 » bheda. ^ī> f§§ ? nlti. par excellence.J. T .§§. That is also to be accepted with respect 4 7 ) As if it were taught by the Great Sage. T. The Means of Preserving Oneself within the Doctrine. b y t h e head). ^ . T . 48) Ace. even t h o s e words could be accepted [as t h e correct t e a c h i n g ] . C. still has vision whose intelligence is covered b y avidyā. etc. It is as follows: (The [word] of one who. [Here we have two ślokas referring to the means of preserving oneself from becoming deprived (of this Doctrine) 48) ] (Kārikās 11-12) Indeed in this world there is no one wiser than the Buddha.

T . J s | t . Indeed. t o T . mithyādrsti. want of faith in the virtuous Doctrine6 0 ) . T . rnam-bsgyur. C. (Kārikā 13) Want of intelligence. skur-pa. shen-lta. 67) abhiniveśadarśana. neyârtha. But it is not the case.( O D S C U " ration caused by the dharmâpavāda in the past). g Ç . All this is the Defilement of those whose nature is And is created by a prejudiced conception 57) . C. Probably it is merely a repetition for arranging syllables. 5 © ~ £ R5> V A l-^. But T. T . T. only clean cloth can be dyed 5 8 ) But not one that is spoiled by oil and dust. ksatihetum ' adhimukta-śvkla—viraha. '. C. J{§> 7JIJE • T . C.The R a t n a go t r a v i b h ā g a The fact that people abuse 5 4 ) the Sages And blame 5 5 ) the doctrine taught by the Sages. C. vyasana. S\* J == $ (imperfect meaning). " | $ fâ\ f j E . Interpretation of the conventional sense 6 2 ) as the [ultimate] Truth.. ' saddharmaksatim B8) 69) 60 A c e .. tshon-gyis ārabhya C. 64) apa-\Jvad. T. i. C. greed of 63) 62) 61) attaining something) and C. t a k e kleśa t o g e t h e r w i t h vimūdhâtmānām a n d m a k e t h e sense of ' of o r b y those whose n a t u r e is afflicted b y kleśa a n d vimūdha'. [ 387 ] . there is one śloka]5 9 ) . * 4 ) darśana in the sense of drsti.e. ārabhya. rmoûs. & C . brñas. C. Greediness 63) . your mind should not be attached To the dirt of the prejudiced conception. dran-don. *3i£ T J . Therefore. Obscured nature through the rejection 6 1 ) of the Highest Doctrine. T . rañga-vikrtim upaiti. C. ślokah /. C. [With reference to the causes of the loss of the Doctrine. * / l'^' JJ=J j u j / ^ . Devotion to those who hate the Doctrine. B6) 66) vimūdha. f p y . // 21 // foolish56) § 4. F o r t h i s defect. T . . [adherence to] false conception 64) . T . dkar-mos bral. rñed-la brtam (lābha-gredha. phoñs-pa. V garh. Indulgence in false pride. Both Zofe/ia & gredha have the same sense. Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine. ^§5 /|jÇ ^ Ç ^ j ^ TJJ[3( (adherence to worship and respecting). |§ lobha-gredhatā.

there are two ślokas] 69>.. C. 77) arihat (BHS) = arhat (ari-han. C. About this form. and the Saints 7 7 ) . bya—ba—min—byed (to do what is not to be done). s t a n d s for hīnayāna. bya—ba— min = anācarana (vice). thog. one who kills the enemy. father. 73) 72) pratisevya. gÇ f £ ^U gg)( (blame of those who know the doctrine). [ [ 3 $fe J S ] | $ B • C. 76 ' For ācaranakrt. Of violent poison of snake. 65) āra ( d i s t a n c e . chos-hdsin. by these causes. pāpa-suhrd. ^ lj^ p j )ffi ]ffl_ (to injure the Buddha with bad intention. sdig-grogs. adds |^f 71) T. T. T . dharmabhrt. C. At most. ' ksatiphalam « > For arhat. C. and lightning. 'dgra-bcom-pa' for Arhat is according to this etymology). Ace. an enemy. adds sf* \=f j[j§ ^ 69) fī[| as the general cause. repeatedly serving 73) bad friends 7 4 ) . T . ' J ' * ^J^t Vz* • hīna. j § L {iijjj§. (Kārikās 14-15) The wise one need not be so much afraid of fire. may deprive one of [this] life But one will not go. // 23 // Even one who. // 22 // [With reference to the result of this loss. translator. j£C ( t 0 approach). t o T . And delighting in the inferior Doctrine 6 7 ) . and commits the acts 7 6 ) Of killing mother. 4 a %\\ H ^ So C. here. TAKASAKI Keeping at distance 6 5 ) from those who convey the Doctrine6 6 ) . 66) 67) 8 C. i\±-> 7»P RBX • J 74) buddha -dustâśaya. bsriñs. adds /X. a snake. As he should be afraid of the loss 7 1 ) of the profound Doctrine72>. fj^f f$j . By all this.J. C. T. one becoraes deprived of the Doctrine of the Saint 68>. see J's note on this word. or of lightning 7 0 ) . C. ' mams'1 is a mistake for 'hams' (ksati). C. See below. To the most terrible world of Avīci. 24 referring to the necessity of having respect towards ' dharmabhānaka '. T. n e a r o r f a r ) T . of murder. C. It is probably an intentional addition by the C. ^ ārabhya dvau ślokau / '. and this addition corresponds to the Introductory verses in C. Because a fire. 75) [ 388 ] . ™> For aśani. and one additional verse after v. & C . Is hostile to the Buddha 7 5 ) .

Hi&m. ñes-par bsams-pa. &. MSbh (P) 270 a: This heading is lacking in T."If. nidhyāna. . 122. rnam-par-byañ-khams.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga And breaks the unity of the Highest Community 78) . after the Buddha's parinirvāna. These 7 are called ' vajrapada ' by the commentator in the open verse of this treatise. C. TJJÇ ( H J | f | i ) . turn away from the wrong view and enter the right path). T h e first one in this t e x t comes a t t h e end a n d is called ' tathāgatasyântike dustacitta-rudirâtpādanam ' as C. the perfectly pure Essence 8 3 ) .&nmPfc & [ 389 ] . how would it be possible for the Liberation to arise 81) In one whose mind is hostile to the Doctrine ! // 24 // § 5. M v y u t . reads (see N o t e 75). and is reconstructed according to C. (itv ^ s . Note that this additional verse is not found in MSbh (P). (C. the [Buddha's] Properties and Acts. pancâ- nantaryâni. Conclusion. m m ft st n Cf. By the merit I have acquired through this. C. The 3 Jewels. Ypî Î^P '|~£ • = tathāgatagarbha. It runs as follows: 80) 79) (If one lets the people study this doctrine and teaches how to believe in it. /si H %)• 3£K^*nSHIt f 83) vyavadānadhātu. [Here. the genuine character of this verse as a Kārikā is somewhat doubtful. Therefore. 3 i | \ >2/> • I n s t e a d of dharmârtha. (Kārikā 16) I have thus duly expounded the 7 subjects. The Immaculate Enlightenment. because he lets the people. he is as our parents and is a good leader. adds one verse more referring to the necessity of having respect towards the dharmabhānaka. 81) C. T. T . has * dharmatva ' a n d C. But. May all living beings come to perceive 78) These 5 are regarded as t h e worst sins for t h e B u d d h i s t . T. a wise man. ' saddharma '. Even that one can quickly become delivered from that sin If he meditates upon 7 9 ) the meaning 8 0 ) of the Doctrine. at the end we have one śloka in order to turn the merit acquired by the author through this teaching towards the people] 8 2 ) . Cf. 82) tit * 0rn ?# $ .

a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] 4 the Summary of meaning of the ślokas '. T. // 26 // Two ślokas refer to the means of self-protection86). the [following] two ślokas88) Explain the result of this loss. 16-25) should be known by the following 3 verses. 22. 24. may they. in v. 85) Of these 5 topics. This topic. 17. C. // 28 // Thus is finished the fifth chapter entitled ' the Merits of Faith ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. An epithet of the Lord Amitāyus. the third. It seems that there is a certain relationship between the Amitāyus—cult and the tathāgatagarbha theory. C. T. y ^ . ^ ^ HI* ^Ç/J f^§ ^ . 21. 19. 16. for But here. adds the following summary: 91) £ 390 ] . v. Instead of samraksana. And what is the natural outflow [of the Buddha's Doctrine]. for what motive. dharmârthavāda. // 5 // 8l) anantadyuti. T . tshe dpag-med. Obtain the Supreme Enlightenment. the first 2 are taught in v. // 25 // The summary of topics discussed in these 10 ślokas (vv. which is one of the treatises on the tathāgatagarbha theory. For Amitāyus. ^ 86 ' ātmasamraksanopāya. Pfl * K ^ • samsāra-mandala. bzod-pa. C. v v . T. 24. in vv. Owing to what basis. And one. 18. chos-brjod-pa. owing to the arising Of the immaculate vision of the Doctrine in them. 20. 89) 90) ksānti. H [§ 87) 88) "% ~)$ ffi] as S. C. TAKASAKI The Lord Amitāyus endowed with infinite light 8 4 ) . T. om. reads samśodhana. And. which C. having seen him. // 27 // And finally. This prayer to the Lord Amitāyus >Ç is also found in the Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda-śātra. And then.J. 2 3 . 3 » jHC "^P 1/P» T. These topics are explained by the [first] 4 ślokas85). usual translation is ' f^Ç jgf ~J\Z {Jflj ' . these 2 results of teaching of the meaning Of the Doctrine9 1 ) are explained by the last śloka. C. C. and the 5th in v. In accordance with the insertion of one verse after v. the acceptance 8 9 ) [of the Doctrine] By those living in the world of Sāmsāra 9 0 ) And their acquisition of Enlightenment. respectively. How and what is expounded [in this treatise]. the 4th in v. hkhor-gyi dkyil-hkhor. to the cause of the loss [of the Doctrine]8 7 ) . >>f£ ( = sattvāh). But C.— In short. mthah-yas hod-mnah.

APPENDIXES .

see Introduction. 4) Yo nâsan na ca san na câpi sadasan nânyah sato nâsato 'śakyas tarkayitum niruktyapagatah pratyātmavedyah śivah/ Tasmai dharmadivākarāya vimalajñānâvabhāsatvise Sarvârambanarāgadosatimiravyāghātakartre namah // 2 // (I.APPENDIX I RATNAGOTRA-VIBHĀGA (Śloka-grantha) x) (Śarana-traya) Yo Buddhatvam anādimadhyanidhanam śāntam vibuddhah svayam Buddhvā câbudhabodhanârtham abhayam mārgam dideśa dhruvam / Tasmai jñānakrpâsivajravaradhrg-duhkhâñkuraîkacchide Nānādrggahanopagūdha-vimatiprākārabhettre namah // 1 // (v.13)2) (Gotra) Buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśes Tannairmalyasyâdvayatvāt prakrtyā / Bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārād Uktāh sarve dehino buddhagarbhāh // 4 // (I. I I . referring to the 4 aspects of gotra.30) for t h i s selection. ) In the present text. 2 lj [ 393 ] . 23) between this and the next one. 9) Ye samyak pratividhya sarvajagato nairātmyakotim śivām Taccittaprakrtiprabhāsvaratayā kleśâsvabhāveksanāt / Sarvatrânugatām anāvrtadhiyah paśyanti sambuddhatām Tebhyah sattvaviśuddhyanantavisayajñāneksanebhyo namah // 3 // (1. I. § 3. we have a śloka (v. 3 ) C. 27) 3 ) Sadā prakrtyasamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / Dharmâdhimuktyadhiprajñāsamādhikarunânvayah // 5 // (1. puts verse 29 as a ' Karikā * after this.

42) Prthagjanâryasambuddhatathatâvyatirekatah / Sattvesu jinagarbho 'yam deśitas tattvadarśibhih // 8 // (I. 58) Ayonisomanaskāro vijñeyo vāyudhātuvat / Tad-amūlâpratisthānā prakrtir vyomadhātuvat // 18 // (I. satvo. 45) Aśuddho 'śuddhaśuddho 'tha suviśuddho yathākramam / Sattvadhātur iti prokto bodhisattvas tathāgatah // 9 // (1. J's text reads vimuktā.J. T. 49) Yathā sarvagatam sauksmyād ākāśam nopalipyate / Sarvatrâvasthitah sattve 5) tathā 'yarn nopalipyate // 11 // (I. Ms. 53) Yathā nâgnibhir ākāśam dagdhapūrvam kadācana / Tathā na pradahanty 6 ) en am mrtyuvyādhijarāgnayah // 13 // (I. 63) Nirvrttivyuparamarugjarāvimuktām 7 ) 4) 5) 6) 7) J's Text & T. TAKASAKI Śubhâtmasukhanityatvagunapāramitāphalah 4 ) Duhkhanirvicchamaprāpticchandapranidhikarmakah // 6 // (I. 54) Prthivy ambau jalam vāyau vāyur vyomni pratisthitah / Aprathisthitam ākāśam vāyvambuksitidhātusu // 14 // (I. 61) Na hetuh pratyayo nâpi na sāmagrī na codayah / Na vyayo na sthitiś cittaprakrter vyomadhātuvat // 21 // (I. pāramitā phalam. 56) Ayoniśomanaskāraś cittaśuddhipratisthitah / Sarvadharmesu cittasya prakrtis tv apratisth. 52) Yathā sarvatra lokānām ākāśa udayavyayah / Tathaîvâsamskrte dhātāv indriyānām vyayodayah // 12 // (I. 62) Cittasya yā 4sau prakrtih prabhāsvarā * Na jātu sā dyaur iva yāti vikriyām / Āgantukai rāgamalâdibhis tv asāv Upaiti samkleśam abhūtakalpajaih // 22 // (I.47) Sarvatrânugatam yadvan nirvikalpâtmakam nabhah / Cittaprakrtivaim.atuh sarvatragas tathā // 10 // (I. [ 394 ] . J's text teads pradahati. sarvasattvesvavastithas tathâyam nopalipyate. 60) Karmakleśâmbusambhūtāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Utpadyante nirudhyante tatsamvartavivartavat // 20 // (I. 59) Cittaprakrtim āllnā 'yoniśo manasah krtih / Ayoniśomanaskāraprabhave kleśakarmanî // 19 // (I. 57) Prthivldhātuvaj jñeyāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Abdhātusadrśā jñeyāh karmakleśāh sarlrinām // 17 // (I. 35) Mahodadhir ivâmeyagunaratnâksayâkarah / Pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayuktasvabhāvatah // 7 // (I. 55) Skandhadhātvindriyam tadvat karmakleśapratisthitam / Karmakleśāh sadā 'yonimanaskārapratisthitāh // 15 // (I.alyadh. B.itā // 16 // (I.

71) Sa dharmakāyah sa tathāgato yatas tad āryasatyam paramârthanirvrtih / Ato na buddhatvam rte 4rkaraśmivad Gunâvinirbhāgatayā 4sti nirvrtih // 25 // (I. 66) Ananyathâtmā 'ksayadharmayogato Jagaccharanyo 'naparântakotitah / Sadā ldvayo lsāv avikalpakatvato 'vināśadharmā 'py akrtasvabhāvatah // 24 // (I. 157) iti ratnagotravibhāga-ślokagranthah samāptah // [ 395 ] . 156) Līnam cittam hīnasattvesv 4 avajñā bhūtagrāho bhūtadharmâpavādah / Âtmasnehaś câdhikah pañca dosā Yesām tesām tatprahānârtham uktam // 27 // (I. 84) (deśajiāprayoj ana) Śūnyam sarvam sarvathā tatra tatra Jñeyam meghasvapnamāyākrtâbham / Ity uktvaîvam buddhadhātuh punah kim Sattve sattve 'stîti buddhair ihoktam // 26 / / (I.The Ratnagotravibhāga Asyaîva prakrtim ananyathâvagamya / Janmâdivyasanam rte 'pi tannidānam Dhlmanto jagati krpodayād bhajante // 23 // (I.

12 9. used by Johnston for editing the Sanskrit Text.C) (T) (misprint) (cf. S. C) (context) (T. line) 2.9 11.C) (cf.5 19.8) (C) (context) (Ms. S.9 3. [ 396 ] .15 for read svapraj ñay ājraīium vā drasçum bhagavams tathā[vā —dharmā'vi— -parivartāc? anugatāni anyonya-bodhisattvaup ahar anatām unmīlya ? vithapeti abhāvasvabhāvāra (Ace. S.APPPENDIX II CORRECTION & EMENDATION TO THE SANSKRIT TEXT OF THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (This table excludes those errata which were already corrected by the publisher). T.2 10.11 10.1-2 (T) (Q (T.14) (T.6-7 20. 11.) (cf.17) (T. Tibetan Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition).9 19. Corrigenda (Page. C. A.10 18. Chinese Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Edition).7 10.C) (T) (context) (T) (before) mahāprthivī- ** T. S.2 12. & B. 39.14) (T.19 15.9 16.10 20.16 4. Ms. bhavati j (should be inserted) upaklmârtho -śuddhyaifa (or śuddhyā hi) avaivartyā bhabodhisattvayânifeān gambhīra-pratityadhaTtaa bhavati / syād vadhakapuruse / tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayaZafesopa— virāgadharma— pāramārthikam ekam euâtrane sarvâfeāra (to be omitted) (mahācakravālapramānena mahācakravālah 1) (Source)*) (T) svaprajñayā drasturn vā bhagavan tathā-dharinā / avi-parivartānugatāni anyonyam bodhisattva upafcaranatām utksālya viçhapati abhāvasvabhāvāt —any atamâvi śista— abhisambuddhabodeh sarvāramwana -dharmā / —saîyadarśana(after) sprśanti / (before) katham upakleśârtho -śuddhyā avaivartyāe? bhabodhisattvān pratītya gambhira-dh.) -anyatamâvaśisÇaabhisambodhibuddhyā ? sarvāramftana -dhavmatayeti —tattvadarśana nâpi dttam samfeîistam.2 3.5 15.2 12. 44. 22.14 5.1 5. S. those Mss.4 15. 13. S.6 16. C) (context) (Ms.2 18.4 3. B.8 20.7 22.10.2) (T) (T.15 22. bhavati syād vadhakapuruse tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayavirāgadharmap āramārthikamevâtrane sarvâcāra laksana— (grammar) (cf. 49.

14 28.The (Page. 27 sattvârtham nirapeksatā trividhāh -samatâpatti —patitā ihadhārmikā sattvās tadyathā —pāramitā phalam/ -hetava esām (before nityapāramitā sarvatra parama— -nirvāna-s amārop amithyātva—niyata— (after pranidhim iti / pāposamucchedanipatanti * * * anāgataki -sādharmya avinirbhāgadharmā / avinirmuktagunah / yad-upagūdhah / sarapradahati balī yo (before sarvadharmā esa / —vimuktā asyaiva sresthino grhapater ekadarśanena sa ca ekaputrakâdhy ā śāya— premârcunīto śres^hi grhapatir iti āsravaksaydt/ii//îâ&/wmukhydrdhayā'dhyāśayapratipattyā pratiiHcyemāmbodhisattvaga no tathā śesebhyah (Q —āryamārg opadeśena (T.5 36.) (context) -hetava uktā esām (Ms. C) (C) (T.17 39. C) (T) (T) [ 397 ] .13 24.7 47. 29.4-5 27. 29. C) insert) bodhisattvānām (T.cti āsravaksayâbhimukhydrçf/iod/iyāśayapratipattyā pratired/iyemām— bodhisattvaguno(T.19 for Ratnagotravibhāga Corrigenda read (Source) tathâśesebhyah -ārye ria-mārgop ade śena vainayikesu nimitāfcāranam (before) triratnavamśabodhanā—padam after v.18 48.13 45.13 50.17 42.12 36.9 50. 32.AĀS.2-3 36.4 24. C) (T) pāpâsamuccheda— nipatanti tān upakurvanty anāgata— (T.2 46.17 25.9 46. T. C) bodhano—padam (grammar) (anena kim darśitam) (context) sattvârt/ie nirapeksatā or s attvârf/mnirapeksatā (T) duividhāh (C.6 46. 32.19 36...10 24. C) —'pāiaiaitāphalah / (bahuvr. 30.13 38.9 26.11 34. C) tryadhvânubaddha (to be inserted) (T. S.4) -patitāś cehadhārmikā (C) s attvāfe caturvidhāh /tadyathā (T.BGŚ) -samatâpti(T.2-3 48. B.17 37.11 52. C) (T) sarvatraparama nrvānâsamāropa(C) aniyata— (C.11 44. line) 23.17 47. T) esa/i/ (grammar) » —vimuktā— masyaiva (vimuktām asya—) (Q sresthino vā grhapater uoîka. p.6 40. C) darśanena / sa ca (context) -ipremâlambanatah ? (T) śresçhī vā grhapatir t.(T. BGŚ) insert) tatra cchando 'bhilāsah j (T.16 29.7 28.17 51. C) vaineyikesu (vineya) nirna/iāfcaranam (T. C) (misprint) kim —sādharmyam (misprint) avinirbhāgadharmā'i'i— nirmuktaguno yad— (context) -upagūdhah sara(context) pradahanti (grammar) balīyo (comparative degree) insert) mūlaparicchinnā (Mss.15 24. 30. context.

7 74.15 79.11 76.5 73.12 79. B) (misprint) (T) (context) (S. C) vikārā— (misprint) sarve(misprint) tatra (misprint) -advaidhīkāreti (gram. 132 tathāgatagarbha iti —āvrtâ dbidhā vainayikadharmadhātor avivikārā sarve tatra-advaidhīkāro ti mahādharmâdhirdjfatvāt iti parikabpam asya vacanāyeti vikalpayitavyā'dhimoktavyā te'tyantasāsravaread (Source) tathāgatad/iātor kim samadharmatayā tathāgato nânyo nispatty-asamekena câkārena jagatujjTutamrāgâdicbiñmoha (Ms.4 67. C) sūtikāsadmosthita (T) (context) -amalais tribhih (to be connected in Devanāgari) acinty ârhattvam (T.19 56.J . C) (T) 75. line) 55.) śubha aviparyastam śūnyatatphalam visamayogah / -visamyogaś ca yathākramam / (T.14 72. . context) (context) gāmbhlryaudārya (context) -vinirmukfe fathāgata(T. A) aśubhâdib/utvanājûāna(T.13 84. TAKASAKI Corrigenda (Page.13 69.21 67.19 for tathâgatagarbhasya ki samadharmatayā tathāgato 'nyo ni sp ats v-as amekena ca kāranena jagat ujjñitamrāgâdidviehnoha aśubhâdibAouojñāna(v. .2 58.18 84. con.7 -śabha-aparyantam śūnyatatphalam dvividham / -visamyogaś ca / yathākramam gambhīryaudārya-vinirmuktestathāgata(after)-prsthalabdham j ātyandhafcāy a vat sūtikāmad/iyasthita -amalai stribhih acintyoprāj3ti^ pratyātmaveditā prāpyanirvāna- (context) (misprint) (T.1 64.) mahādharmâd/iirā/yatvāt (T) iti parikalpitam asya vacanam iti (context) vikalpayitavyā kevalam tv adhimoktavyā te ' tyanfam sāsrava(change the pargraph from ' yathāca s a .16 79. Ms. (misprint) vaineyika— (<vineya) dharmadhātur avi(T.6 73. context) tathāgatagarbhā iti (context) -āvrîam (T.5 71.) dvidhā.15 74.13 88.7 79.6-7 68.8 71. C) pratyātmaveditam prāptonirvāna(T.11 79.3 70.19 85.9) (T) (misprint) (misprint) (misprint) (Ms. C) (context) (C.8 86. C) into prose) (C. . C.6 70.9 71.2 55. C) [ 398 ] .7 55. ' and connect 'tad yathā'pi nāma.B) (insert) laukikam j ātyandharūpavat (T.3 70.12 71. ' after 'prasādhitah/ 'without changing paragraph.3 57.16 68.13 61. . 58.

The (Page. 69 (C.5 (before v.11 102-21 103. C) (context) (T.1 116.2 98. 25) tatra yadāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah / yathodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yenodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ ātmaraksanopāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau / ksatihetum ārabhya ślokah / ksatiphalam ārabhya dvau ślokau/ āptapunyaparinamane ślokafc / (C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T.13 117. C) (context) (The following headings had better be inserted:) 117.4 vyanumeyo R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga Corrigenda read vyupameyatah vyupameyo tatAā-tad-adhikrtya (add) uddānam / svayam jñāpanā— apratisamkhyāya hānir (as in the text) musitaîâcitte abhayam -arkaraśmi pravisrta(to be separated) —vad iti vayam apy acirād —sthânā'ntaramalā -vaśād gha\titā sambuddhafe/ierer upoyāti āyāti nikhilam / kle śagatâtmadsrÇyvisrto buddhasūryo vinetâdrou fannipāto -ālokād-alamkrtāft (insert) catursu tanrutyapratyupasthānād câsyā mūlam (C.11 118.3 100.9 100. context) (T. C) (C) [ 399 ] . (Source) context) . v. 4) svayamj ñāpanā apratisamkhyāpahānir ace. v.6 115. ms.9 117. .17 118. 17) 18) 19) 20) (before v. . C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T. v. C) (T.15 119. B.5 117. 22) (before v.14 106.14 91.14 117.3 118. line) for 90.16 108. context) (context) (T.10 94. context) (metre) (context) (T) (context) (T.6 108.6 91.16 104.16 111.11 93.10 101. v. . 16) (before (before (before (before v.15 92.15 108.5 vyanumeyatah 90. context) tathatâmadhikTtya (before v. oy (T) (T.6 93. to J's correction) musitatā citte abhayadam —arkara śmipravisrta— -tvād iti adyaiva na cirād -sthānāntaramalā -vaśād agha^çitā sambuddhaîūrya tu yāti āyānti nikhilam / kleśagatān drs£y— visrte buddhasūrye vineyâdri-tannipāto -ālokādy-alamkrtāh (before sthānesv-) taccittapratyupasthānād câsya mūlam . • v. 23) (before v.

(1) svabhāva to (6) vrtti.. 27 . 1958. After a brief explanation of the threefold 2) meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha made on the basis of v. Of its eight categories in all. i. the phala aspect of the tathāgatagarbha. & (10) asambheda. [ 400 ] . p. I. i. while the threefold meaning belongs only to the RGV. I. About this threefold meaning.. & gotrasambhavârtha. (1) svabhāva.e.1 1 . 5-10. namely. (8) sarvatraga. the first six categories are the same as those used in Chap. 2) RGV. 1 0 . Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. IX. vrtti. the RGV says in the commentary that there is a (tenfold) category by which all kinds of explanation of the meaning of the tathāgatagarbha exist (i. the Buddha's nature). 1) yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tad ( = tathāgatagarbha)-arthasūcanam bhavati tad api. § 2. (7) avasthāprabheda. while the remaining two are (7) nitya and (8) acintya. (5) yoga. 11. Similar terms are used in Chap. This statement. 26. As for the ten categories in Chap. see my article: The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratngotravibhāga (Uttaratantra). 348-353. (6) vrtti. p . 2.e. No. 11. pp. with special reference to the term tathāgatagotrasambhava. *' This article originally appeared in The Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies. are made) with no variance anywhere in the scripture 1 } . I the following ten categories: namely. I I I .e. the commentary says: (3) phala. The 3 meanings are: dharmakāyaparispharanārtha. the statement mentioned above probably means that these ten categories are commonly used in the scripture for describing the tathāgatagarbha. 1. (2) hetu. I I as categories for describing the ultimate reality. needs to be corrected to some extent by the following descriptions in the same RGV. The Ratnagotravibhāga (RGV) uses in Chap. 26. 1961 and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor. VII. however. No. Vol. Also see Introduction. (4) karman. (9) avikāra.e. tathatâvyatirekârtha. I. after explaining the sixth category. i. R G V .APPENDIX III DESCRIPTION OF THE ULTIMATE REALITY by Means of the Six Categories in Mahāyāna Buddhism *' To describe the characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha (the matrix of the Tathāgata. vol.

II. 3 5 ) (1) . hetu. p. 12-14. i. 11. And also: All those teachings on the immaculate Ultimate Reality (anāsravadhātu) taught by the Lord in detail through various forms of doctrines are contracted in brief into these six categories. 4) ye kecid anāsravadhātunirdeśe nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu bhagavatā vistarena nirdistāh sarve te ebhir eva samāsatah sadbhih svabhāva—hetu-phala—karma—yoga—vrttyarthaih . RGV. we shall see how it is applied in the basic verses (śloka) of the RGV. 40. I. 40. and hence the basic one. 79. 5—6. (2) (3) . . p. This is proved from the use of the same set of categories in Chap. and thirdly that the RGV added four categories to the regular set in order to explain the mode of manifestation (vrtti) of the tathāgatagarbha. .term pravacana ? At first. phala. . What we come to know from these passages is that a set of categories which is commonly used. The reason for the correction will be shown below. yoga and vrtti 4 ) . •' -tā phalam / in the text. vrtti 5) . svabhāva. . 11. 30) śubhâtmasukhanityatva-gunapārmitā-phalah I 6) d u h k h a n i r v i c . as showing special characteristics of the vrtti aspect of the Ultimate Reality characterized as bodhi or āśrayaparivrtti. sadā prakrty—asamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / dharmâdhimukty—adhiprajñā-samādhi—karunânvayah/ (v.k a r m a k a h /1 ( I . karman. RGV. p.The Ratnagotravibhāga After this passage. but is the Ultimate Reality in every aspect inclusive of the aspect of tathāgatagarbha. (4) mahodadhir ivā 'meyagunaratnâksayâkarah / s) atah param etam eva vrttyartham ārabhya tadanye catvāro 'rthāh prabhedanirdeśād eva veditavyāh. 11. .e. where the seventh and the eighth categories are said to be included in the sixth. but the first six categories beginning with svabhāva.c h a m a p r ā p t i c c h a n d a p r a n i d h i . . B) tribhir gāmbhiryaudāryamāhātmyaprabhāvitair buddhakāyair nityam ā bhavagater acintyena prakārena vartanam vrttih. the other [remaining] four categories are to be known through separate explanations 3 ) . is not the whole of the ten categories. 16-18. [ 401 ] . with reference to this very category of vrtti. Then how is this set of six categories used in the scripture (pravacana) and what is meant by the. RGV. and that the object to which is applied this set of six categories is not the tathāgatagarbha alone. .

sarvadharmadvayâvara—tathatāviśuddhi—laksanah I vastujñāna-tadālamba-vaśitâksaya—laksanahj/ (v..— Being. As being by nature united with its properties inseparably. Quite a similar application of the same mode of description in a series of verses is found in the Mahāyānasūtrâlamkāra (MSA). 57) kāyavākcittanirmāna-prayogopāya-karmakah/ samādhi-dhāranī-dvāradvayâmeya-samanvitah jj (IX. . See also Tib. These four verses. 58fy svabhāva-dharmasambhoga-nirmānair bhinnavrttikah / dharmadhātuviśuddho yam buddhānām samudāhrtab // (IX. IX. Having aversion from the Suffering and desire for and vow to the attainment of the Quiescence as its functions. like an ocean. as a lantern [is inseparable from its light and others]. See note 6.— Thus is it taught by those who perceived the Truth). Meditation and Compassion:— Having the climax of qualities with respect to purity. the excellent intellect. unity. 56) sarvatas tathatājñāna—bhāvanā-samudāgamah/ sarvasatva-dvayâdāna-sarvathâksayatā—phalah// 8 ) (IX. an imperishable receptacle of treasures of innumerable qualities. tā phalam/ ' in the text is corrected for the same reason as above. happiness and eternity as its result. t h e reading ' -pāramitā-phalah' as a Bahuvrīhi comp. 45) (5) (6) (Being always ujidefiled by nature. 42) pfthagjanârya—sambuddha—tathatâvyatirekatah/ sattvesu jinagarbho '•yam deśitas tattvadarśibhili // (I. [ 402 ] . though they are interrupted by the commentary passages. .— And as its [various manifestations in the forms of] ordinary beings. should b e accepted. like the pure [character] of a treasure. the Sages and the Buddhas are not differentiated from the Reality. the sky and water: Following after faith in the [Mahāyāna] doctrine.J. 59) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 7) Being appositional t o 'jinagarbho 'yam'. which has 'hbras-bu-can''. TAKASAKI pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayukta—svabhāvatah // (I. are no doubt composed in a series. whose subject word is 4 jinagar~ bha1 in the last verse 7 ) and in which is applied a mode of the set of six categories previously known to the author. 8) ' . [there exists] this Matrix of the Victor ( = Tathāgata) among the living beings.

Nishio's information 10) .) (Studies on the BBS and the Buddhabhūmi-vyākhyāna. though there is no example of application of the same mode in a series of verses as above. Thus in the application of the same mode of description. bliss and wisdom]. It is especially certain about Chap. 23) jchos mams kun—gyi de—bshin—ñid/ jsgrib gñis Idan dag mtshan-ñid-can / /dños-po śes-pa de dmigs-pa/ /dbañ tshad mi—śes mtshan—ñid—can// /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad-nas/ MSA (Peking Mdo-hgrel. 10) Kyoyū Nishio. 1940. 108. texts). Phi. II of the RGV which.— It is originated from the practices of wisdom with regard to the Reality in all respects. Repr. by that of Enjoyment of the doctrine. 2-5.) These four verses in a series are said to be the ślokas on the topic of tdharmadhātuviśuddhi' which is. And is the inexhaustible controlling power of the knowledge of the nature and the object of its cognition. the RGV and the MSA show a close relationship between them. But the MSA cannot claim its originality of the use of the six categories. the influences of the MSA are scarcely observed except for the application of the six categories mentioned above. the triple kāya theory.— Its function is the transformation of body. like 'jinagarbha' in the example of the RGV. and as the RGV quotes the MSA in the commentary. avikalpajñāna and tatprstalabdha.— It manifests itself variously by the Body of its own essence. it was no doubt the RGV which imitated the MSA.e.. BBS (Nishio's text. the subject word for the whole sentence.e. 2 Vols. etc. Nagoya. versions. The following is a comparative table of the 4 verses of BBS & MSA in their Tib. about the commentary passage of Chap.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (Its characteristic is the purification of the two kinds of obscurations with regard to the Reality of all phenomena. studies. translation & the Tib. but. at the same time. speech and mind as the means of appliance. I. almost the same ' The same is possibly said. benefit and happiness] by all possible means for the sake of all the living. 12 b. and by that of incarnation:— [Thus] is explained this immaculate Ultimate Reality of the Buddhas. It is endowed with the gates of meditation and mystical formulae and with the immeasurable accumulation of the two [i. 9 ) . as for the ślokas or basic verses in Chap. Vol. p. Bucchikyoron no kenkyū (in Jap.g. p. It is the result of the inexhaustible formation of the two [i. 7) /chos rnams kun-gyi de—bshin—ñidj /sgrib-gñis dag-pahi mtshan-ñid-can j /dños-po śes-pa de-la dmigs / jdbañ zad mi-śes mtshan—ñid do II /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad—nas j 9 [ 403 ] ?7 . because according to Prof. has many traces of the influences of the MSA on its doctrine (e. I.

e. and at present we have no objective proof to fix the order of composition between the two treatises. (Repr. What is meant by the term ' pravacana' in the RGV is. hjug-pa. hbras-bu. in which is also found the mention of the same set of categories U ) . but without any detailed comment. Furthermore. Also. are as follows: no-bo-ñid. Dsi. has not such a clear theory as that found in the BBS on the buddhakāya or has no exposition of the four kinds of wisdom (i. There seems to be no use of such a set of terms in Sanskrit grammars although most of the terms used for the six categories are the technical terms of grammar. It is found in a couple of verses /bsgoms-la yan-dag hgrub-pa-can / /bsgoms-pa las ni yañ-dag hbyuñ/ fsems-can kun-la gñis bskyed-pa/ jsems-can kun-la rnam-kun-tuj jrnam—kun mi—bzad hbras—bu—can// /gñis bskyod mi—zad hbras—bu—can// jlus dañ ñag dan sems sprul-pahi/ jsku dañ gsuñ dan thugs sprul-pahi// jsbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can yin/ /hbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can te / /tiñ—ñe-hdsin dañ gzuñs sgo dañ j jtiñ-ñe-hdsin dañ gzuhs sgo dañ j / dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /rañ-bshin chos~rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /rañ-bshin chos-rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /sprul—pas tha—dad hjug—pa—canj /sprul de—dag—gi(s) tha—dad—hjug/ /sañs-rgyas rnams-kyi chos~kyi dbyiñs/ jhdi-ni sañs-rgyas rnam-dag-gi/ /mam dag hdi ni yañ-dag brjod// jchos-dbyiñs rnam-par dag-par bśadj/ u > YB (Tib.).. it is found in the passage where the science of grammar (śabda-vidyā or vyākarana) is explained as one of the five sciences (vidyā-sthāna). curious enough is the manner of mention of the said categories in the YB. [khyad-par-du] sbyor-ba (viśesa-yoga). Vol. Now. ādarśa-ñ. Besides their application to the dharmadhātuviśuddhi. (Ch) Taisho. we shall proceed to examine the extent of application of the said categories. [ 404 ] . Namely. there is another mode of application in the MSA. bya-ba (kriyā). both of which are the central topics of the BBS. In this respect. It is however still difficult to regard the BBS as the only source of the set of six categories.. and hence the originality seems better to be ascribed to the BBS.) Peking Mdo-hgrel. but is to be understood as 4 the word of predecessor'. Vol. not necessarily to be affixed to any special scripture or treatise. there are other passages in the MSA where the doctrines taught in the BBS are summarized. even in the days of the composition of the YB. pratyaveksa-jñ.. Because the Yogācārabhūmi (YB). rgyu.J. 5-6. TAKASAKI verses as in the MSA mentioned above are found in the Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS) towards the end of the text as a kind of concluding verses. The six terms in Tib. 30. krtyânusthāna-jñ. 304). 230 a. p. I suppose that the set of terms are put or rather inserted in that passage in connection with the word 4 artha ' (meaning) just because there was a traditional usage of those terms as a mode of description among the Vijñāvādins. 109. 361 a. therefore. p. samatā-jñ.

sarvabhūmi-viniJjisrtah / (1. and makes them liberate. ( 6 ) (Thou art the one who is perfect-transcendental. lokesu drśyase / (5. 150 b (No. According to the Commentary. among which we find the triple Body theory under the category of vftti. 258 a). who has come out of [the practices in] all stages. 334).— And who is endowed with virtues. 46 b 3-6 (Repr. adfśyaś c as a r v a t h ā d e v a m ā n u s a i f y // ( 6 1 ) . Mdo-hgrel. 31. i. 1595). Śi. They run as follows: nispanna-paramārtho 'si. The third mode of application of the six categories is found in the first two of the dedicative verses placed at the head of the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhā. . 2) saTvasatvâgratām pTāptah. 1592). Vol. and this is commented upon by Vasubandhu: 'the highest' means 4 belonging only to the Mahāyāna. a commentary on the Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS) of Asaûga. 141). p. this is found only in Paramārtha's translation (No. Tib. 31. not common to the Hīnayāna' 1 3 ) . It seems to show that the use of this set of categories belougs only to the Mahay ana. . 131 a (No. p. 111 a (No.Vol. these two verses refer to the characteristics of the Buddha (buddhalaksana). 1593). p. sarvasatvavimocakah 11 (XX-XXI 60) . Taisho. who has attained the highest point among all living beings. They run as follow 14): /rtogs-pa des gnas dri—med don j (1) Jgañ çpyod rgya-mtshohi ia pha-rol gśegs / (2) > MS Taisho.The Ratnagotravibhâga at the end of the work. and Vasubandhu's authorship is somehow doubtful.e. Peking Mdo-śgrel. 13) However. The same verses are quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha (MS) of Asaûga 12) explaining that they refer to the highest qualities of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya). 4) aksayair asamair yukto gunair. [ 405 ] . (3. 143 b 3-5 (Repr. Li. M X ' h Ś t *¥ ^ H j& ^ Wt M ^ -h (Taisho. Peking Ed. 113. which are a kind of eulogy on the Buddha. Thou art perceived in various worlds and in the circles [of the assemble of Bodhisattvas through thy two apparitional Bodies]. 6) mandalesv a>py. However invisible is thy [Body of Essence] by all means to those who belong to the world of gods and human beings). 31. ") AS. Cf. 1594).Vyākhyā. inexhaustible and unequalled. . 112.

This explanation is exactly on the same line as in the MS. 765 b-c.e. Pradhan. pp. Santiniketan.e.. Before giving a conclusion to this investigation. to Jinaputra (Rgyal-babi sras). I think. the categories of svabāva. 113. Śi 344 a 345 a 8 (Vol. we have got. No. it is ascribed to Sthiramati. [ 406 ] . in treatises of the Vijñānavada.— He is endowed with the immeasurable and marvellous qualities. I must lastly refer to the Abhidharmasamuccaya in which is an explanation of this set of categories as one of the seven methods for interpreting a topic in discussion (sāmkathya-viniścaya) under the name of artha-viniścaya17). Commenting on these verses by himself. bsam mi—khyab / /hdul-bahi thabs-kyis hdren-pa-can / / Jgshal-med legs gyur yon-tan ni / Iran dan gshan don gñis-la brten / Jsañs-rgyas chos dañ hphags-pa-yi / jtshogs-lahañ de-phyir phyag-htsal-lo // (3). however it may be called. & C ) . while in Tibet. i. and the Sāmkathya") According to Chinese tradition. (Sthiramati) ibid. 31. by P.J . one is the collection of terms concerning the phenomena (laksana). (Skt. (C. 693 b. the commentator15) says that by the first two there are shown the six categories with respect to the excellent qualities of the Buddha. Thus examining. (4) (4) (5) (6) (I bow to the Buddha. i. 17 ) AS (Tib. And having [attained] the controlling power over the phenomena. 102-103 (This passage is restored from Tib. ibid.) Taisho. 1950. because— He is [by nature] the realization and the immaculate truth established by it. a fairly good account of the idea of the six categories and their applications to the Ultimate Reality. and to the Doctrine and Holy community as well.) ed. Having reached the other shore of the ocean of practices. 144 a 2-3. The Abhidharmasamuccaya is a kind of classified lexicon of technical terms of the Mahāyāna Abhidharma. the other is that of terms concerning the interpretation {viniścaya). p. hetu etc. He leads [the living beings] by skillful means and in an inconceivable manner.) Peking. It is divided into two parts. And is the foundation of the benefits of his own and of others).. 5555). le ) AS Vyākhyā. 16) . the works of the Yogācāra school or the Vijñānavādins. TAKASAKI jchos-kun dban-phyug.

of impure or pure character. to Pradhan's text). can be described. hetu . parinati-. 3. it seems difficult to limit the application exclusively to the Ultimate Reality. 2. 3. āvasthiko y. 4. . samskrta or asamskrta. viparyāsa-. . The explanation of the six categories in the AS is. we may safely say that there was a traditional use of the set of six categories among the Vijñānavādins for describing the Ultimate Reality. laksana-. I will give a rough observation on the modified use of this set of categories in the works belonging to the so-called Tathāgatagarbha theory. 1. visamyoga-.. parikalpita. vrtti . 3. y.. 2. terms are ace. It shows us merely the terms of three to five kinds of each category 18) . pravrtti—. purusakāra-. It may be natural from the logical point of view as the terminologies used for the six categories do not contain any evaluation in themselves.. unsatisfactory for us.. 5. it modified the six categories according to its own need but without losing their original character. i. there is no example of their application to any subject other than the Ultimate Reality. 4. 5. 1. 4. avasthāna-. so that by using one of them any kind of subject. 2. . questioning (sampraśna). 1. though it is written by one of the Vijñānavādins (it may be sure at least from his knowledge of the use of the said categories). vipāka-. Additionally. . The RGV. and taking the explanation in the RGV referred to at the beginning of this article into consideration. Actually. because the sub-divisions of the six categories include all the varieties. and implication (abhisandhi). 5. 1. 2. pra- bheda-. vaikāriko (6) 18 svabhāva . . phala . upalabdhi-. vyāvasāya-. 3.The Ratnagotravibhāga viniścaya is the last of the four chapters belonging to the latter part. this arthaviniścaya is clearly a mode of description or interpretation recognized by the authority of the Vijñānavāda. sāmbandhiko y. But the modification was further extend'ed until the character as categories of general use has disappeared by mixing or replacing of the new terms which show the characteristics ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5. adhipati-. siddhi-. kāritra-. . sāmūhiko y. has established the system of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. however. 3. commentary (vyākhyā). prāpti-. 1. exhibition of difference (prabhidyasamdarśana).e. . and to describe its doctrine. [ 407 ] .. dialogue or logic (vāda). parinispanna. aviparyāsa-. karman. and that its latest example available to us is observed in the AS Vyākhyā. summary (samgraha). 1. 3. ānubandhiko y. nisyanda-. but not any example of application of the whole set as examined above. . utpatti-. 2. yoga . .. . paratantra. 4. (Skt. Rather.. 2. however. Being thus situated and in comparison to the other six methods.

892 o. 16. BGŚ. and their Skt. (All of these works are kept only in the Chinese Tripitaka. p. DAŚ. 796 6. 470 c. and the twelve categories of the bodhidtta in the Dharmadhātvavis'esaśāstra (DAŚ) 19>.J. As such examples we have the ten categories of the tathāgatabodhi in the Anuttāśrayasūtra (AÂS) . TAKASAKI of the Absolute belonging to the Tathāgatagarbha theory. p. 19 [ 408 ] . 32. p. Taisho. Taisho. 31. titles are restored from C). the ten categories of the tathāgatagarbha in the Buddhagotraśātra (BGŚ). ) AÂS. Taisho.

INDEXES .

92 aksayya ( = aksaya). mahāpurusalaksana (G IV) karman (RG IV) (9 illustrations) (I-IX) K s. 108. 70. 342 a-cintya. 94. 353 agra-sattva ( = buddha). 4. 2. 154 ~ -aye vyākaranam. 74 aksaya-dharma-yoga[tā]. 349 a-krtaka. 289 akrtrima-dharma. 240 [ 411 ] . § VIII (III-IV)-5\ 40 agni (s. Terms with the mark § refer to the subject matters of the text. Abbreviations : vajrapada (1-7) VP RG ratnagotra (4 aspects) (I-IV) TG tathāgatagarbha (3 meanings) (a-c) (10 aspects) (I-X) (9 illustrations) (1-9) B bodhi (RG II) (8 aspects) (I-VIII) G guna (RG III) (I-IV) vaiś. 321 acintya-prakāra. 112. 256 a-citta. § XIII (VIII). 164 acintya-namana-cyuta. Terms in brackets refer to those not found in the Ratna. 326 acirasthāyin. catur-vaiśāradya (G I) bala daśa-bala (G II) āven. 314 a-kuto-bhaya. 82. 84. 315 akrta-svabhāva[tā]. 311 acintyatā. 346 a—grāhya. (B VIII). 74 agra-bodhi (VP 5. 273 a-ksūnam (ksûna = dosa). for mrtyuvyādhijarā). Reference is to the pages in the present work or section numbers applied in the present work. 23. 258 a-ksaya. 92 a-krtrima. 216 acintyârhattva. RG II). 339 acalā (bhūmi). 116 agra-yāna. 317 a-kalpana(-jñāna). 188 a-gotra. 192 a-gocara-visaya. 92. 130 acintyatva. 114 aghosavat. 90 agra. 3.INDEX OF SANSKRIT TERMS 1. 296 acala-prākāra. 260 acintyā pārināmikī cyutili. 130 a-caksumat. 159. 92. āvenika-buddhadharma (G III) mahāp. simile amśu. 76. 68.

70. 205 an-aksarokta. 21). 319. 167 anādikāliko dhātuh. 92. 110 a-trptatā. 205 anāvarana—dharma. 306 adhikrtya. 216 anabhisamskrta-kriyā. 92. 112. 114 adrsta-pūrva. 158 anātma-samjñā. 339. 132. 108 adhisthita. 363 a-tat-bhāva. 26. 118 an-abhisamskāra. 114. 321 anāsrava-dhātu. 92. 252 a-nitya. 376 an-āsvādana(tā). 30. 112 anāsrava-karman. 248 an-artha. 200 adhimukta-śukla-viraha. 380 adhisfhāna. 201. 239 an-aparânta-koti(tā). 78. 102 anādi-bhūta. 86. 68. 224 an—ādi—madhya-nidhana. 390 ananyathā ( = yathāvat). 275 anātha-śāla. 209 a-dvaya. 120 ajñānândhakāra-vidhamana. 185 an—ācāryaka. 112. 331 a-tulya-tulya. 373 anābhogatā. 318 atulyatuly a-dharmatva. 257 anartha-jāla-vigama. 351 an-āvarana-gāmin. 279 anāsravam karma. 74. 182 ~ & deśanā-dharma. 74. § XVIII. 275 an-ādi-kālika. 86 adhimukty-anuśamsa. 122. 92. 193 adhyālambati. 256 ananyath£-bhāva (svabhāva) (TG b). 401 anāsrava-pada ( = anāsravadhātu. 219 an-apacaya. 313 ~ -samanvāgama. 232. 156 anābhogâpraśrabdha (buddhakārya). 124. 142 adhigama-dharma. 286 a-tattva-bhāvitva. 246 adhyāśaya. 130 atyanta-vināśa. 215 anāsravatva. 217 a-drśya. 118 ativāhana. 217 an-anya-posi-ganya. 76. (bala 5) 120. 130. 193 anavarâgra (-samsāra). 68 an-ādimadhyânta. 82. 359 an-āsrava. 180 adhigama. 256 an-abhilāpya. 244. 243 ananyathā'tmā. 240 an-avāpta. 126. 86 açavī. 104 ~ -duhkha-anātma-śānti (śānta). 70. 334 a-tat-prahita. 328 a-tat-svabhāva. 114 an-ābhāsa-gamana. 371 an-avadya. 328 a-tarkya. 104 atyantânanyathābhāva. 167. 245 atyanta-tamo'paha. 368 an-ābhoga. 214. 164 advayatā. 84. 262 anda-kosa. 82. 169 atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. 382. 367 an-avasthita. 244 a-jñāna. 116 an-abhisamskrti. 282 anda-sāra. 78. 74 ~ -duhkha-anātma-aśubha.J. 82. 147. 82 a-nātha. 116. 273 a-jāti. 116. dharmakāya). 128. 381 ajasram. 126. 84. 275 anāthâvasatha. 114. 178 an-apakarsana. 275 anātha—veśman. 376 anantâcintya-rasa-rasâgratā (mahāp. 387 adhimukti. 233 an-āvilata. 104. § XVIII (IV). 74. TAKASAKI a-cyuta (pada). 130. 257 "*> -apatita. 164 a-dvitīyam paurusam sthāma. 126 [ 412 ] . 80. 130 atyanta-pācaka. 369 adhika. 345 ananta-dyuti (amitābha). 114. 182 adhiprajñā ( = prajñā). 297. 232 adhanya. 328 an-argha. (-bhāvanā) (TG II hetu 1). 231. 92. 70.

151 a-pratikūlo darśanena. 246 a-pratigha ( = apratihata). 98 a-nisjhita. 222 anuśaya. 268 aparāhata. 239 an-upāya-patita (sattva). 330 a—parimita. 80. 80. 151 abhijñā. 86. 368 anu]/bhū. 74. 176 apramāna (catur-apramānāni). 74. 275 antahpura-rati-krīdā. 324 animittatā. 191 anuśamsa. 203 anyonya(m). 76. 231. 387 apavāda. 184. 158 anugunam. 182 abbijāta. 128 an-udgraha. 356 abudha ( = abuddha). 114. 327 apravrtti-laksana.The Ratnagotravibhāga antika. 114 a-niyata-rāśi. 204. 82. 197 antargata. 377 anutpādânirodhatā. 241 apratisthita-nirvāna. 146. 327 antar-amala. 287 anugāmin. 191 an-uttara. 283 anusandhi (vāsanā-). 394 antarvat. 192 anugraha. 126. 384 anujāta. 329 [ 413 ] . 264 an-utpādatā. 51 anuttarā samyak-sambodhih. (artha-) 219 a-nairyānikatva. 23. 176 apratighāta. § XVII-5. 24. 149 —anvaya. 158 abhaya-da. 72 [anuttarâsraya]. 249 anya-tīrthya. 128. 334 an-upacaya. 246 apakarsa. . 355 a-praśrabdhitah. 126 apsaras. 343 abhayatva. 379 a-prameya. 207 anutisçhate (anu]/sthā). 147 . 358 antarīksavat ( = ākāśavat) (G III) antargama (buddhajñānântargamāt). 220 aparinirvānagotraka. 131. 88. 220 a-pratihata (yāvadbhāvikatā). 264 a-paryanta . sattvarāśih. 116. 76. 161 aniyatab. 283. 227 abhinirvartayati. 205 a-nirodhatā. 114 anisthāgata-bodbisattva-sāmtānika. 76. 232 antardhi. 114 anutpādânirodha (tathāgata). 80. 363 aparântakoti-nistha. 86 a-pranihita (vimoksamukha 3). koçi-gūdha. 248 apagata-kāca. 187 a-nispatti. 323 apratisthānatā. 15. 86 a-pariśuddha (ksetra). 114. 200 anvādhana. 363 anuślesa. 156 aparādha. 181. § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 263. 104 a-parapratyayâbhisambodhi. 340 anutpattika-dharma. 72. 56. 202 aparinirvāna-dharma. 112 a-pratipraśrabdha (K). 342 a—parinirvāna—gotra. . 147 anubhava. 213 aparântako^i-sama. 366 anuśaya-vat (bāla). 84. 151 apaneya. 268 apaj/vad. 216 apakāra. 158 abhaya. 155. 238 anitya-samjñā. 70. 361 antadvaya-vivarjita. 181 anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. 144 an-uttrasta-gati. 343 abhāva. 49. 302 aprthag-bhāva ( = yoga) (TG V). 118 anuttaram karma. 124. 351 a-prādeśikatva. 147. 114. 116. 50. 114 apratisthāna—mūla. 68. 68. 354 anugata. 82 a-nimitta. 112. 156 a-parapratyayodita.a-pratisthāna. 84. 170 anuśāsana. 124. 245. 153 anusañga. 278. 334 apratisthita-pada. 185. 169. 76 anuttara-tathāgata-jñāna-sama. 363 anuśāsti-prātihārya. 80. 80. 118. 74. 203 anupūrva-naya.

387 a-bhinna. for buddhatva). 228 arpana-bhāva. 407 artha-sandhi. 118 a-vikalpa. 76 avikāra. 168. 108. 155 abhimukhī (bhūmi). § VIII (TG IX). 237 ayoniśo-manasikāra. 94. 108. 168 ~ & tatprsthalabdha. 98 alamkāra. 176 avabhāsa.J. 74 abhisamasya. 199 artba-sādhana (RG IV). 364 avaruddha. 74. 59. 234. 217. 88. 72. 100 ambuda (kleśa). 70. 116 avikalpa(tā) (tva). 24. 292 amūla-mūla. 237 abbūta-grāha. 388 arūpitva. 263 a-vandhya. 235. 326 avalīyanā. 269 avacchanna. 363 avaśistatā. 142 ~ & vyañjana. 114. 24. 92. 342 a-mala. 222 abhisamskrta. (TG X). 110 avikalpa-dhātu. 385 arthavad-dharmapada-upasamhita. 302 . 305 abhūta-dharma. 169 a-yoni-manas-kāra. 169 [ 414 ] . 70. 82. 70. 246 abby-ut]/ksip. 236 ayoniśomanaskāra. 158 abhiniveśa-darśana. 106. 94. 152 alpa-phala. 382 arthânubhava. 114 arka (s. 106 abhūta-vastu-nimittârambaça. 230 avākyavattva. 114. 262 amalā bodhi (RG II). 82. 199 abhedya. 58. 241 avikāritva. 282 avadhārayati. 355 artha. 24 amalârka (mohavisamyoga). 132 [artha-viniścaya]. 94 abhisambodha. § VIII (VII) (TG VII). 70. 215 avidyâkāra. 210 abhilāpa. 165 abhisambuddha. 124 a-yathā-bhūta (— atatsvabhāva). 215 abhinirhāra. 114. 132. 259 amedhya. 199. § VIII (IX) avasthā-prabheda. 88. 145. 114. 252 abhimukhī-bhavati. 274 abhyupeksana. 390 amukta-jña (buddbadbarma). 224 avasthā (a-c). avikalpa-lokottara-jñāna. 250. 236 aribat ( = arhat). 130. 152 avabhrtka. 108 avikalpatah (K). 365 abhiprasāda. 263 abhiniveśa. 118 abhisyandana. 322 abhisamaya. 362 arbat. 388 arhat tva. 325 abhinna—prakrti. 358 avabodha. 198 artbavat. 251 abhirati. 124 avikalpa-jñāna. § III-4. 335 abhiseka—labdhā bodhisattvāh. 68 abhūta-kalpa. 110 amitāyus (rsi) (a Buddha). 161 avasāna-gata. 336 abhiprasanna. 222 abhivyakti-karana. 199. 88. 114 arhat-sāmtānika. TAKASAKI abhinirvrtti. 149 avasānika. 164 abhiseka. 100. 250 abhisamdhāya. 317 abhisamskāra. 88. 182 abhisamaya-paryavasāna. 259 amukta-jñāna ( = amuktajña). 348 abhyutksepa. 90. 241 a-mrsā-mosa-dharmitva. § VIII (IX a-IX c). 166. 236 ayoniśo manasah krtih. 247 abhyupāya. 169 abbeda. 166 abhilāsa. 172. 199. 66. 70. 142 artha-pada. 92 avidyā. 98. 145. 76. 157 abhisambodhi. 23. 249 avavāda.

104. 172 a—svabhāva. 321 a-samhārya. ~ (-avasthā). 292 avinirbhāga-dharman. § VIII (IX b) 88. 327 asamskrtatva. for kleśa) 96 a-śuddha (bāla-prthagjana). 262 a-sañga (yathāvadbhāvikatā). 255 avyatibhedatā. 98. 68. 98 aśuddhabhūmi-gata-kleśa. 182 asad-ātmagrahâbhirati. 315 avinirmukta—klesakosa (tathāgatagarbha). 172. 279 aśuddha-bhūmi. 92. 377 a-sakta. 86. § XV (III). 341 a-sambaddha.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a avidyā-vāsa-bhūmi. 112. 68 asukhatva. 82 aśubhâdi-bhāvanā-jñāna. 130. 120. 112. 161. 76 avinirbhāga-vrtti. 228 a-ślesa. 266 avinirbhāga-dharma. 278 a-vināśa. 270 astamyādi-bhñmitraya-bhāvanā-jñāna. 74 aśuci-samsārâbhirati. 82. 82. 130. 174 avināśa-dharma. 171 a-virata. 188. 144 avinirbhāga-dharmatā. 211 avaivartika (bodhisattva). 171 asamāropana. 297 ahitatva. 100 a-vyatireka. 168 avinirmukta—gun a. 92 a-vivartya (-dbarma-cakra). 382 < ' -gunavattva-śaktatva. 171 asatkāma. 156 asamskrta-dharma. 361 ahlādaka. 246 asamskrta-dhātu. 98 astādaśâvenika-buddhadharma-samanvāgata (buddha). 114. 114. 114 a-samkoca. 321 avinirbhāga ( = yoga. 177 a—viparoksa. 90. 212 a-samskrta. 257 asamskrtapadatva. 120. 86 avinirbhāga-guna-dharmatva. 172 asvāmikatā. 265 a-viparyasta. 219 asamāhita (citta) (āven. 84. 294 a-vimala (śrāvaka & pratyekabuddha). 98. 94. 156. 74. 82 a-sama. 20. 88. 228 avinirmukta-jñāna. 340 astambhitatva. 327 a-samavadhāna. 82 aśuci-samkāra-dhāna (TG 4. 361 astamgama. 112. 327 a-samkhyeya. 238 a-stambhita. 231 aśuddha-bhāvanā. 72. 38. 110 avināśitva. 198 a-visamvāditva. 259 aśūnyatā. 104. 94. 236 asamskrta-pada. 145 avinirmuktajñāna—guna. 74. 120 astitva. 198 aśani. 114. 92 avinā ś a—dharmin. 106 a-śaiksa (buddha). 302 a-viparyāsa. 72. 76 a-vivartika (bodhisattva). 268. 222 a-samkhya. 4). 143. 110. 112 asaûgatah. 361 asatya. 151 a—viśesana. 230. 278 aśuddha-śuddha (avasthā). 327 asambheda. 68. 248 ahamkāra. (TG X) § VIII (X). TG V). 112. 98 a-śūnya. 388 a-śarana. 24. § VIII (IX a). 366. 114. 124. 382 — asparśa-dharmin. 189 a-samgati. 98. 208 a—vipralambha. 24. 104. 100. 144 avinivartanīya-bhūmi. 26. 176 (buddha-jñāna). 118. 214 avidyāvāsabhūmi-samgrhīta (-kleśa). 292 a-sambhinna. 241 asi (s. 183 aśaiksa-samtānika. 189 —' & apratigha (apratihata). for jñāna). 258 a-sāra-mūla (sarvadharma). 231 aśubha-samjñā. 341 a-samsarga. 212 <~ vihārâbhirati. 349 r 415 .

84. 112 ākāśavat (buddha). 363 ādhāra. 128 ākāśa-svabhāvatā (buddhakāya). 167. 112. ( = bodhisattva) (TG VI 6). 360 [ārūpyâvacara-devavimāna]. 112. 106. 108. 130. 86 ālokanīya. 132 ātma-samraksanopāya. (G III). 207. 254 āśaya. 368 ārambana. 264. § XVIII-2. 170 ārūpya. (RG I) ( = gotra). 376 ā bhava-sthiteh. 132 āptâgama. 274 ātmam-bhari. 126. 106. 132 āniñjya. 82. for kleśa). 323. 21. 44 /—' & cittaprakrti. 348 āryâstâñga. (TG III. (B V. 151 āra. TAKASAKI ākara. 154 ā bhava-gateh. 96. animittatva).. 116 (for āvenikabuddhadharma. 157. see cittaprakrti āgantukatā. 165. 124 āgantuka-kleśa. 379 ārūpya (-samāpatti). 163. 211 ātma-darśana. 388 ādhya. § XVII-2 (II). 124. 194 ārambana-carita (bāla). 273. G III). 82. 359 āvrti. 170 ārambanamykr. 179 [ātma-raksanopāya]. s. 374 āvarana.). 266 ākāśa (s. 211 ātmâvajñāna-dosa. 208. 170. 102. 157 ā bhavâgratah. 112. 82. 289. 193 āmisa-rasa. 118. 209 ātma-prapañca. 288 ādāna-nimitta. 124 āvenika-dharma. 40. 340 ārya-gocara. 213 ākāśalaksano buddhāh. 98 ārya-mārga. 366 ātma-pāramitā. 232 ālokād alamkrta. 52. 208 ātroa-sattva-sama-sneha. 237. § XIII-2 (VIII). 86. 84 ātma-bhāva. āvaraça 2). 371 ārya. 60. 159 āpanna-sattva-nārī (TG 8. (ratna-). 192 ārya-satya. 100 (for tathāgata. 205 ātma-drsti. 231. 102. § XVIII-5. 124. 132. 86. 190 ārnava. 370 āśraya. nisthāgamana). K VIII). 275 [āpta-punya-parinamana]. 104 ācarana-krt. pañca-]. 106. 279 āniñjya-samskāropacaya. 183 ārsabha-sthāna. 174 ādi-prakrti-śāntatā. 72 ādi-pratijñā. § V I I I (I-II)-2. 94. 94. 132. 132 āpti-nistha. 355 ākāśa-dhātu. 386 [ātma-śuddhi]. 228 āgantuka-mala. 118 ādeśanā-prātihārya. 306 ātmâparādha. 21. 388 āranya-pravicarana. 213 āgantuka. 24. 310. 55. 385 ārsabha. 259 ādi-nirodha. 80. 377 ābhoga-kriyā. 60. 324 ādi-ksaya. 365 ārsa.J. 279 ānupūrvī. 315 ~ ksiti-pratyupasthāna. 108. 53. 290 ālīna (āi/lī). 132 [ālaya-vijñāna]. 384 ~ & yukti. § XV (III). 122. 290 ~ paryavasāna. tad-ā. 120 āvedha. 122 (for buddhakarman. 157. 193 ākāśopama (. 88 (for dharmakāya). 56. 309 ātroa-sneha. 144. ( = buddha). 390 ātma-samjñā. § III-4. 225 ākāra. 66. 183 ārsa-vacas. 201 āvilata. 316 ātman. 382 [ 416 ] . 8. 22. 26. 332 ādi-praśānta. 253 āryapudgala-sāmtānika. 116. 307 ātmopādāna-mūla. 126 ātmâbhipreta. 237 āloka (of pradīpa). 128. 58/. 292 [ānantaryāni. 80. for cittaprakrti).. § XVIII-3.

312. 149 -upahita. 162 upasamkleśa. § XVII-4. 187 āśrayaparivrtti. 216 upaVgam. 149 upapattim ca tusitesu. 120. 248 upaklista (citta). 385 uddeśa. 28. 84. 339 indhana. 118 āśv api. 209 upādāna. 160 upaśānta. § IX. 177 upaneya. 46. 332 uttara-tantra. 222 itara-prādeśika-jñāna. 212 upaśama-prabheda-pradeśa. 266 upātta. 157 udāna. 114. 295 upāya-kauśalya. 254. 39. 86. ~ & tad-parāvrtti. 147 indriya [-parāpara-jñāna-bala] (bala 3). 310. 190 uttarana. 176 upanisad-gata. 225 upakāra. 130 [āśraya-parāvrtti. 204 iha-dhārmika. 124 uccheda-drsti. 60. 86 92. 242 upalambha. 227 icchantika (TG II-III. 341 āsraya. 343 āsanna-dūrī-bhāva. 102. 203 upāya-vid (buddha). 16. XV. 344 utsukatā. 50. 278 upasarga. 14-17 udhāharana-pindârtha. 331 uttame yāne paripācana. 116.The Ratnagotravibhāga udaya ( = abhisambodhi). 41-44. 80. 6). 353 upaharanatā. XVII (comm. 84. 150 uttama-yāna. 80. (RG II) § XII-XIII. 214 upāya. 329 upabhoga. 357 îryā-patha. 80. 241 upastambha. 298 uparodha. 306 uttari-bhāvayitavya.). 299 uttara-kuru-dvīpa. 246 upāya-patita (sattva). 60. 297 utpāda. 202 icchā. 122 udāharana-samgraha. 321 uddeśa-mukha. 82. 157 āspada. 220 ā samsāra-koteh. 247 upadrava. sattva 1). 203 indriya. 120. 270 upacāra. 215. 244 -upādāya. 330 upāyāsa. 176 ito-bāhya. 68 upaśānti-pada. 297 upagūdha. 209 upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. 12-13. 338 uddiśat. 104 upanyasana. 245 [ 417 ] . 175 upakleśa. 106. 80. 187. 357 u ucchitti. 145 unmīlya. 202 I îpsitara padam. 199. 124. 112. 157 ā samsārāt. 86. 82.). 228 iha. 219 ujjhita. 130. 37. 321 ucchitti-praty ay a. 197 upaydā. 227 āsrava-ksaya-jñāna. 128 uddāna. 112. 285 udāra. 376 āsrava-ksaya. 157 utsañga(-pādatā) (mahāp. 150 unmūlita. 41-44. 274 * utksālya. 72. 401 ā śrayaparivrtti-prāpti-naya. 361 upeksâpratisamkhyā (āven. 361 upanidhāya. 116 uttara-kāla(m). 327 udāharana. 96. 358 upaśama. 300 upavāsa. āśrayasya parāvrttih]. 15. 258.

for dhātu). § VIII (III-IV)-5. 72. 100 ekâgrī (-bhavati). 271 kathā-vastu. 375 karunā-nisyanda. § XVIXVII. 14). 122. 345 [ 418 3 . 80. 68 (jñāna--^) keśa-kambala. 6). 156. 84. 68. 346 eneya-jañghatā (mahāp. 118.J. (B IV). 151 kāma-dhātu. 26). 242 kāranânubhavana. 226. 124. 302 ekânta. 253 krtyâsramsana. 189 eka-jāti-pratibaddha (bodhisattva). bhāvanā. 170 eka—nay a. kuśala-dharma. 342. 332 rddhi-prātihārya. 311 karma-kleśa. 118. 306 krtya-sampādana. 38 eka-rasa. 70. 190 kāya. 338 karma-samkleśa. 98 kāraâvacara-devavimāna. 108. 180 kāra. 28.). 90. 200. 185 kalyāna. 346 ekaikaviślista-mrdûrdhvadeha-pradaksinâvarta-sūksma-roma (mahāp. 244 kuśalamūla-samprayukta (kleśa) § VIII (IX b)-2. 120. 189 ekânta-cārin (=pratyekabuddha). (nāma-. 242 kārunya. 124. 319 <--' ena pravrttih. 146 kanaka-bimba. 307 krpā (=karunā). 275 kupyanti. 313 aurasa. 66. 82. 371 ekaika-viślista (roma). 122. 224 kuśala-mūla. 317 kimkaranīya. (buddha-k. 332 rddhi-pāda. 238. 384 [kuśala-sampat-sattvânugraha]. 23. 110. (TG 9. 367 AU audārika. 245 kuksu. 166. 287 kāca. 344 AI aiśvaryam uttaram. 82 kalala—mahābhūta-gata. 22). 116 krtrima. (TG IV). 332 kālânatikramanatā. 275 kalaviñka-ruta (mahāp. 96 kambu-grīvatvam amalam (mahāp. 22. 303 ekaputraka(-samjñā). 363 rsi (=buddha). 285 audārya (sambhoga-kāya) (B VI6). 86 karunâtman. § XIII-(IV). 361 kālusya. 132 kuśalopasampadā. 118. 70. 118. 346 karunā. 180 kāranā. 364 . 90 [ekayāna]. 349 ekaika-romodbhava. 100. 245 kuśala-sampad. 209 K kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrīhi. 92. 114. 116 karman. 128. vyañjana-k. 199. 337 E ekakbana-samāyukta (prajñā). 122. 346 R rddhi. 100. 255 eka-dhātu. 375 kāya—dvaya. s. 156. 249 kumuda. 369 kuśala-karma-patha. 323. TAKASAKI -up eta. 55. pada-. 151 Ū ūrdhva-dehâvarta (roma) (mahāp. 345 kalpa.) (VP 7) (RG IV). 88 karma-vipāka-jñāna-bala. 384 krtya-kriyā. 28). 182 kāya-guhyaka (K 8). 86 usnīsa-śīrsa (mahāp. 122. 180 kāra-kriyā. 145 ubhayatâvikalpana(tā). 122. 220 usna (of pradīpa).).

106. nitya) guna-prakrti. 100. 149 gotra (VP 4) (RG I) ( = dhātu) § VI-1 (ratnagotra). 80 garbhâvakramana. 90 geya. 285 gāmbhīrya (svābhāvika) (B Via). 88 gunavat. 320 gāthā. 210. 284. 94. 76. 102. 100 gotrâstitva (->. (TG 2. 336 guru.. (5 g. 84. 328 kola (-upama). 382 guna-vibhāga. 366 khandikā. 66. 158. s. 36. 96 ksaudra ( = madhu) (TG 2. (VP 6). 161 ~ & jñeyâvarana. 285 gocara-visaya. 303 guna—nispatti (caturākāra—g. 206 gañgā-tīra-rajo 'tīta (buddha-dharma). 348 guhya. 108. 329 Vgarh. 222. 82 kleśâvarana. 281 kleśa-viśuddhi. 351 garbha (=tathāgata-garbha) (VP 4) (RG I). 145 gana ( = samgha) (VP 3). 114. buddha-dharma). 283 garbha-gata (dhātu). 145.tathāgatagarbhâstitva) godāvarī-dvīpa (godānīya-dvīpa). — g.) 1) 106. 128.—sarvatā. 116. 311 guna ( = buddha-guna. 70. 259. 110. 124. 254 grantha. ātma. 96 ksetra (apariśuddha). ( ~ & dosa). 331 kaivalya. (B VI). 291 gamana. 262 guna-pāramitā. 265 grhapati (for bodhisattva) (parable of) § VIII (IX6)-3. 78. 114. 23. 190 gospada (=gospada). 271 khārodaka. for dhātu). 150 gunavattva. 68. 269 garbha(-sthāna) (s. 74 kleśa-nirodha. 290 garbha-vestita.The Ratnagotravibhāga ' ^ avabhāsa. 142. 100. 112 kleśa—mala. 306 kleśa-kośa. 114 kleśâvarana-visamyoga. 2) 114 guna—dharma. 49. 28. 166. 313 gāmbhīryaudārya-māhātmya. 387 gahana 363. 330 KH khaga (vyomny apracārah khagah). 72 gati. 118. 74. for samādhi). 96 kleśa-karma-vipāka. 148. (RG III). 124 kleśâvarana-prahāna. 21. -aprameyatā. 116. -acintyatā. 108. 178 [ 419 ] . 275 garbha-kośa-mala. 390 ksiti ( = prthivī) -> prthivī-tala ksiti-pati (-> cakra-vartin) ksudra-prānaka. VII (tathāgata-gotra) (TG c). 167 gañgā-nadī-vālukā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 268 klesa-duhkhâbhāva. 151 khādy-asusamskrta. § IX-1 (1-9). s. 110 kleśa-samkleśa. 141 gana-samtāna. 122. 88. 150 gagana-gañjā (samādhi). 371 gahvara. 86 ksanika. 174 ksati. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyatikrānta (buddhadharma). 94. 145 gañgā-sikatâtivrtta (guna). sukha. 108 kleśendhana—dahana. 369. for kleśa). 130. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 209 graha. 182 klesa. 150 gotra-svabhāva (TG c). 233. -viśuddhiparamatā). (TG III) § VIII (III-IV) (4 — śubha. (mani-gotra). 37. 130. 114 (-tva). 218 ksānti. 254. 387 ksaya. IX-4 (gotra-svabhāva) (TG c) 21 &.

82. 90 jñāna. 151 catur-vaiśāradya-prāpta (buddha). 88. 68. 222. 94. 233 citta-mano-vijñāna. 233. 361 ghosa. 100 citta-samkleśa. 236 jarā-marana. 329 cyuti-duhkha. 24. 22. 70. 344 cañkramyamāna (īryā-patha). 110 jaghanya. 329 jāta-rūpa. 96 cittavyavadāna-hetu (tathāgatadhātu). 118. 23. 295 citta-samtāna. TAKASAKI GH ghatita. § XVI-XVII. 266 jāla-pāni-pādâvanaddbatā (mahāp. 344 citta. 308. 239 chidrâbhra. (=buddha-jñāna) 108. § XV (II). 92. laukika-jñāna). 263 cintāmani (s. 34. (na ~ sya hānih) (āven 7). 328 citra-lekhaka (parable of) § VIII (X)-3. 191 cittasya prakrtih.J. 360 citta-caitasika. 250 citta-nidhyāpana. 163. 122. 277 citta-samjñāpana. 236 cittâbhisamskāra. IX). 365 cātur-dvīpa. § XVII (VI). (TG 8. 222 citra. 172 jagat-parispharana (karunā). 269 jathala. for dharmakāya. 76. 96 cittavyavadāna-dharma-sahajâvinirbhāgatā. 339 [catus-kotikā]. 420 ] . 359 citratā. 196 cihna. 269 janman. 298 jāla. 203 caryā-pratipanna (bodhisattva). § VIII (VIII. 100. 35. 128 cintitârtha. 223 caraka. 166 catuh-śukla. 304 jagac-charanya. 84. 346 citâmśa. 342 jinatva. 27. 255 cātaka. 78. for dhātu). 106. 341 chavi. 166 cakra-vartin. 299 ghattita. 190 cāru—vaktra. 146 jina-kriyā (VP 7) (RG IV). 72. 329 janma-samkleśa. 82.) 227. 298 citta-prakrti. (RG I). 72. 243 cyutim tatah. 82 jambu-dvīpa. 367 CH chanda. 344 jina (-buddha). 236 citta-vyavadāna. 59. 90. 92 jagat. (for sāmbhogika). 402 jinatā. 102 cakrâñka (-pādatā) (mahāp. s. 172. 60. 3). 270 jātakāni. (=tat-prsçhalabdha. 96 cittasamkleśa-dharmâgantukatva. 167 [citta-mātra]. 59. 116. 216 jala-ruha. 152 jāti. TG a). 120.. 317 . 70. 116. 230 (-viparyāsa). 229. 22. 363 cyavate (]/cyu). 216 jātya. 90 cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu.). 357 caturvidhâviparyāsa-samjñā. 190 jarā. 120. 53. 114. 76. jñātr. 357 citta-viśuddhi. 96. ~ vat. 347 cetanā. ( = āsravaksaya-j. 120. 22. 116. 104. 222 cetah-paryāya. 156. 236 ~ & āgantuka-kleśa. 96. 124 jina-garbha (=tathāgata-garbha).

198 tathāgatagotra-svabhāva. 288. 169 tarkâgocara. 177 jñāna-dehin (=dhîmat). 112. tridaśeśvara. § VII. 104. XVII jñâpana. 382 tathāgata-gotra (VP 4) (RG I) (TG c) § tri-bhūmigata-mala. 76. 100 tīrthika. 229 tathāgata (=buddha) (VP 1) (TG IX c). 37. 98. 230. 356 299 tri-dhātu-samkleśa-nibarhana. 287. 181 (TG a-c) § VII. 202 tathatâvyatibhedatā. 323 jñāna-dhātu. 151. 36 421 ] . 120. 315 tathatā (TG b). 327 30. 340 jñeya (-vastu).The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a ~ & karunā. 26 taruna. 114. 98 tathāgata-mahākarunā-vrtti-hetu. 70. 110. 76. 292. 102. 116 tathāgata-kula. 154 jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra. 100. 8. 86. 198. 202 tathatâvyatireka. 24. 24. 23. 88. 259 tad-āśrayah (B V) ( = yoga). 154 jñānadhātv—āptinistha. 286. VIII. 288 tathāgata-jñāna.. 114 tattvadarśana-vibandha. tādrśa. 342 jñānâpti. 21 ff. 149 tathāgatagotra-sambhavârtha (TG c). for kleśa) tathāgata-karman. 189 tathāgata-tathatā'vyatirekârtha (TG6).). 198 tathāgata-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I) § VIII-IX. 196. 100 tīrthya (TG II. 126 jñeyârtha. 25. 230. 272 tat-prsthalabdha (jñāna). 258. 357 tathatā-svabhāva (TG b) § IX-4. 82. 169 tala. 145 tathāgata-dharmakāya (VP 5) (RG II). 72. tri-jñāna ( = śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-j. 102.. 104. § II-2. 231. 114 jñeyâvarana-visamyoga. 154 jñāna-nihsrti (K V). 199. 30. 161. 266. 375 jñāna-pūrvamgama (karma) (āven. 78. 25. 116 141.#74. 74. 78. 161 jñeyâvarana-prahāna. 94. 100. 28. 278 22. 360 tathāgata-krtya-kriyā. 78. 23. 325 ^ vipranasta-citta (pudgala). 110 tattva. 389. 72 198. 100 tri-mandala-pariśuddhi. 78. 22. trikāya. IX-4. 28. 68. 108 jyesçhi-putra. (RG IV). trayâvarana-nihsrta. 94. 124 tusitesv upapattih. 215 tri-bhuvana. s. 92 jñāna-darśana. 74 tathâgama. 100. 198 tathāgatatva. 60. 53. 108 tad-ubhayânabhilâsin. 36. 381 tathāgatagarbhâstitva. 23. 102. 344 tattva-darśana. 383 IX-4. 260 tārā-rūpa. (TG 3. 100. 108. 109 tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. 80 tūrya. 24. 287 timira. 163 samalā t. 369 tamas. 203 tamo—vidhamana—jñāna. 143. 124 tathāgata-garbha (VP 4) (RG I) § VII-XI tyājya. 80. 287. 288 (-> gotra) trimandalâvikalpa. 132 tridhā-vimukta. 128. 108. 395 tusa ( = bahistusa). 120. 74. 287 tisthat. 78. 323 tathāgata-garbha-śūnyatârtha-naya. 72. 198. 80. 68. sattva 2). 76. 76 tathāg ata-dharmakāy a-p arisphar an art ha (TG a). 226 tathāgata-śarana-gata. 96. 130 tathāgatagotra-sambhava. 82. 70. 290 (-> dhātu) tathāgata-bodhi-jñāna. 122. 90. 291. 22. 371 jñeyâvarana. 266 jñānadarśana-śuddhi. 13-15). 400 (^garbha). 114. 8. 259. 202 tapat. & nirmalā t. ' tīvra-rāga-dvesa-moha-paryavasthānalaksana (kleśa). IX. 70. tri-bhava. 187. 319 tathāgata-dharma (RG III).

130 duhkha. 58 traidhātuka. 104 dāna. 285 deśanā-prayojana. 80. 128 daśa-pāramitā. 190 dvīpâgrâdhipa. 2). 347 dakacandra-vat (buddha). 318 dvaya. 124 daksinîya. 70. 4). 110 dina-krt. 375 deśanā-dharma. 74. 355 durgrhīta-grāhin. 190 [tri-svabhāva] (parikalpitâdi). 370 divaukas. 198. 280 (-viparyāsa) deva-dundubhi (K II). § XVII-3. 193 tvak-kośa. 330 duhkha-nirodha. 182. 255 dūsya. 348 drdha—karunâdhyāśaya. § XVIII-2 (VI). 126. 122. (K II). 108. 128. 205 duhkha-samjñā. 16-18). 344 D daka-candra (=ambu-candra) (G IV). 180 dvipadâgrâdhipatya. 74 try-adhvan.J. 328 deśanā. 70. 387. 174. 305 deśanī. 128 durlabha-prāpata-bhāva (tathāgata). 278 [ 422 ] . 120 daśa-bhūmi. 84 duhkha-nirvit. 98.anupaccetr. 106. 126 duhkha-cārikā. 205 duhkhâgni-praśamana § XVIII-2 (III). 285 [deśanā-naya]. 124 dūramgamā (bhūmi). 92. (?). 351 deśana (nt. 193 < . 318 dvisāhasra-lokadhātu. § XI. 158. 94 dīrghâñgulikatā (mahāp. 41. 284 trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. 339 dīpti. 344 dundubhi. mārga). 82. 163 dosâgantukatā. 375 darśana-prahātavya (kleśa). 278 darśana-mārga. 169 dvesânusaya-lakasana (kleśa). 122. 233. (K I). 118 dvātrimśan-mahāpurusa-laksana-rūpadhārin (buddha). 128 darśanā-deśanā-pravrtti-krama. 70. 197 dosa (TG VIII a). 356 divyā-caksus (=cyuty-upapatti-jñānabala) (bala 9). 166 dvay a-graha-vimukti. 283. 367 (duhkha. 193 ~' triratnâtpatty-anurūpa—hetu. 167 dvidhā darśanam. 124 daśa-bhūmi-stbita-bodhisattva. 203 durbhaga. 290 ^^ — pratibimbaka (manomayakāya). 126 devadundubhi-vat. 122. 116. 88. 338 dvi-pada. 88 daurgandhya-vāsanā. 116. § XV (IV). 167 darśana-heya (-vyāvrtti).). 84 duhkha-bhīrutva. ~ -hetu. 92 traiyānika-gana. (for niryāna). 110. 128. 116. TAKASAKĪ tri-ratna-vamśa. 269 dvesa. 128 durlabh6tpāda-bhāva (of ratna). 232 daśa-bala § XV (I). 147 trividdha-svabhāva (of TG) § IX-4. 343 dvādaśa-bhavâñga. 342 tryadhvânubaddha. 74. 278 drdha. 130 dāridrya-vinivartana(tā). 48. 236 darśana. 342 tryadhva-jñāna (āven. 229 drstānta. 372 durlabhatva (K VI). § XV (IV). 252 drsta-satya (— tattva-darśin). § XVII-2 (II). 47. 100. (bīja-tvak) (TG 6)./. 158. 100 darśanā. 150. 185 durlabhodaya. 98. 80 drdhâdhyāśaya. 104 dosa (=dvesa). 375 darśanâdi-navadhortha. 98. 110. 216 dravya. 263 dm-mārga-bhāvanā (=darśana-bhāvanāmārga). 122. — -nirodha. 120. 128 drsti. 126 deśa-kāla-gamana. 254 dehin. 122. (5 dosa). 70. 96 tvañ-mdru-śrī-tarunatā (mahāp. 128. 152 dagdha-pûrva.

70 <~ -gunavibhāga. 92. for tathatā). 104. 171. 343 dharmatā-gahvaratva. 344 [ 423 ] . § II. 72. 285 dharmadhātu-parama. 224. 232 dharma-sthititā. 30. 182 naya-mukha (-ena). 175. 339. 86 dharmadhātu-svabhāva. (TG a) § IX-4. 339 dhruva. 291. 126. 70 dharmakāya-parispharanatā. 56. 296 nāga-ko śavad-vasti-guhyatā (mahāp. 292. 22. 290 ( = hetu). 26. 78 nabhas-tala. 132 dharma-meghā (bhūmi). hetu 1). (VP 2). 74. ( = guna) (VP 6) (RG III) 23. 266 dharma-divākara. 388 N nagara (parable of). 102. 284. 370 dharmadhātu-kriyā. 132. 389 dharma-bhrt. 108. 225. 248 dharma—skandha. (VP 2) ( = dharma). 231 dharma-bhānakatva. (dkāranir āj asūtra) § 1-3. 94. 303 dharmakāya—prāpti. 22. 70. 74. 68 dharma-tattva. (VP 5) (RG II) (āśrayaparivrttilaksana . 225 ( = hetu). 118.. 320. 268 dharma. 68. 72 nava-yāna-samprasthita (bodhisattva). 231 nabhas (s. 74. 352 dhātrī (s. 294 dharmârthavāda. 110 dhyānâdi-kleśa-vaimalya (bala 7). 80 dhāranī. ( = mārga). 56. 122. 104. 88. 271 dharmaiśvarya. 104. 299. 268. 112 ~ & (vi-)muktikāya. 187. 224 dharma-pada. 303 dharmadhātu-nisyanda. 223 ( = yāna). 100 dharma-kārakriyā. 46. 403 dharmadhātu-samanvāgama. 102. 144. 196. 304 naya. 114 dharmâkāñksin. 100. 102. 238. 235. 365 dhāranīśvararāja (sūtra). 8. 257 dhruva-dharma. 160. 66 ~ -ātmabhāva. 26. 294. 239 dharmeśvara. 94. 70. 30. 292 dharma-kāya. 112. 149 dharmarāja-putra. 200 dharmānām dharmatā. 118. 21. 110. 100. 235. 108. 106. 78. 295. 255 dharma-ratna (VP 2). 390 dharmâloka-mukha. 39. 31. 28 ff. 366 dharmâkhyāna-naya. 22. (catur-). 130. 161. 29. 167. 126 ' dharma-dvisa-sevana. 116. 214 dhātu. 234. for karunā). 23. 124 dharmakāya-garbha. 322 dhyāna. 144. 375 dhīmat (=bodhisattva). 132 dhīra (dhīmat). 70 dharma-dundubhi. 290. 120. 36. 74. 147. 205. 10. 276 dharmâdhimukti (TG II. 225. 262 dharma-paryāya. 325 -dharman. 330 dharmacakra-pravarta. 142. 166. § XVIII-4. 379 dhyāna-vāry-abhisyandana. 252. 7). 66. 25. 320. 244. 155 dharmatva. (VP 4) (RG I). 320 ~ & rūpakāya. 149 ~ — mukha. § XVIII-4. 339. 104. 116 dharmatā. 141. 31. 252. 325. 114. 21.~). 405. 295. 110 dharma-rāja-jyesfa-putra. 142.The DH Ratnagotravibhâga dharmabhrd-āra. § VIII (IX b)-6. 120. 116. 314. 219. 226 dharmakāya-svabhāva (TG a). 118. 132 dharma-ksati-hetu. 385 dharma-parameśvara. 192. 184. 76 193 dharmadhātu-garbha. 261 nava-candra-vat. 82 [dharmadhātu-viśuddhi]. 198 ~ sya śodhanam. 92. 68. 120. ( = yāna). 110 ~ -hetu. 112. 80 dharma-viçhapanā. 96. 322. 86. 146. 323 dharmatā—nisyanda. 132 dharma-dhātu. 146 dhī ( = prajñā). 66. 132 dharma-cakra (-pravrtti). (bala 4). 27 dharmakāya-viśuddbihetu. 308 dhī—māndya. 331 ~ -prakāśana. 72 dharma-ksati-phala. 290.

106 nirnānā-karana. 178 nirantara-citâmśatā (mahāp. 294 nirātmatā. (TG 5) (s. 170 nimitta-bhūtatva. 248 nirālamba. 158 nāyaka. 348 nirj/han. 170. 233 nisthā-gata. 285. 370 nimitta. 9). 325 nidāna-parivarta. 122. 352 nidhyāna. 262 nisthāgata-bodhisattva. 266 nirvrti ( = nirvana). 389 nipāta. 290 nir vānâdhigama. 74 [ 424 J . 122 nirmamī-karana. 242 nirmala. 66 nirodha-mārga-satya. TAKASAKI nānātva-samjñitā (na ~ ) (āven. 348 nistha. for sattva. 358 niranukrośa. 209 nitya-samjñā. 122. 21. RG II). 258 nirdainya.~. 380 nārakâgni (s. 102 nirvānâdhigama—kriyā. 184 nispatti. 122. 116. 308. 92 nisthāgatabodhisattva-sāmtānika. 106 niravajya.J . 284. 165 nirodhâpti (vaiś. 94. 221 nirvrtih paramā. 289 niryāna (=yāna). 341 nāma—paryāya. 171 nimitta-grāhin. 348 nirīhaka. 184 nisthā (-guna) (TG VIII c). 122. 39. 84. § XIII (VII). 321 nitya. 120. 346 nāśa. 82. 373 niyata-gotra-svabhāva. 4). 165 nirodha-satya § III-3. 86 nirvāna-dhātu. 122. 261 ~ & samsāra. 310 nirmāna (-kāya). 108. 258. 112 nimitta-varjita (tathāgata). 124. 70 nirviśistam. 326 nirvedhika(tva) (G I). 84. 116. 84. 243. 182 nihsarana-paryesin. 84. 116. dhruva. 320 nimittârambana. 126. 74 nirmalā tathatā (VP 5. 270 nivartya. 213 nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. 27. 321. 122 nirīha (G IV). § XII-XIII. 250. 164 niskimcana. for [dhātu. 292 nisanna. 118 nirvāna-gotra. 341 nirāsthatva. 331 nivāsânusmrti (bala 8). 74. 166 niruttara-tathāgata-karman. 5). 120. 353 nirvana. 208 nidāna. 21. 373 niskaivalya. 106. prakrtistha-gotra). 74. 114. 328 nisyanda-phala. 259 nāma-rūp a. (B VII). 340 nirgranthi-putra. 352 nirvrjya. 311 . 221 nihsamkleśa-visuddhi. 146 nidhāna (s. 257 nitya-pāramitā. 114. 124. 31). 389 niravaśesa-yogena. 161 niyama. 294 niyata-rāśi. 357 nirukti. 264 niśraya. for vyādhi). 120. 344 nirapeksa-pravrtti § XVII-2 (III). 38. 92. 120. 31 nihśrayena. śāśvata. 193 nirbhayatva. 167. 262 nispādya. 354 nidbi (=nidhāna). 367 niskalpa. 373 nirāstha. 203 nirdeśa. 257. 126. 144. 102. 82. 170. 116. 76. 222 nihśritya. 88. 357 nisevya. 365 niravajñā. 76 nihsarana. 76. 108. 318. 330 nirvikalpatā. 23. 270 nivarana. 339 niśchidra. 102. 98 nisthāgamana. 167. 171 nimnonnata. 90 nārāyana-sthāma-drdhâtmabhāva (mahāp. śiva. XVI). 187. 31. 92. 70. 208. 27. 102. 351 nisyanda. 348 nirdosa.

367 pavitra (tā). 74. 253 paricchādita. 169 paryesti-duhkha. 186 paramârtha-dhātu ( = tathâgata-dhātu). 285 parampara. 310 padma-(kośa). 210 para-pratyaya-sambhava. 148 parigavesayat. 285 nīti. 114 parama-bodbi. 386 nllotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (mahāp. 288 parinirvāna. 184 paryavadāpana. 126 naiskramya. 84 paramârtha. 184 paryanta-kāla-śarana. 294 parispharanatā. 372 pāpa-suhrd. 128 parama-tattva-jñāna-visaya. 322 parusa-sparśa-rabita. 330 naihsvābhāvya. 29. 66 pada ( = sthāna. 285. 231 parama-śūnyatârtha. 292 parikīrtana. 308 nairātmya-koti. 124 p arama-vi śuddha-dharmatā. 245 parimārganā. 162 parāvrtti. 82. 199 parama-dharmaiśvarya. (TG I. 132 nairātmya. 307 nīca-citta. 130. 116. 388 [nihsvabhāvatā]. 258 paramârtha-kāya. 98 para-cakra. 151 neyârtha. 332 nyagrodha (-> vrksa) nyagrodha-pūrna-druma-maçdalâbha (mahāp. 7 8 nairmānika (kāya). 252 parijñātāvin. 104 paramânu. 209 pattra. 318 parsad-gana. 29. 382 parikarma-krta. 94. 262 pariśuddhi. 112. 213 pātāla-stha. 199 paramârtha—laksana. 96. 171 parigraha. 353 parigrahana. 106 nîta. 324 parikalpita (or parikalpa). 122. 361 paratah. 68.The Ratnagotravibhâga paramârtha-darśin (== sarvadarśin. 74. 112. 371 parusa. 112 parârthasampatty-adbisthāna. sarvajña). 58 mca. 260 parârtha-sampatti. 24). 214 paripāka. 108. 29. 336 [ 425 ] . § VIII (III-IV)-3. 100. 203 pariśrānta. 30). s. 346 pañca upādāna-skandhāh. 150 paryavasāna. 295 paryāpanna. 84 nairmalya. 26. 112. 174 nairātmya-prapañca (-vigama). 254 paryanta-kāla. 102. 324 nairyānikatva. 21. for kleśa). 346 nrpatva. 104 paripantha. 387 neyârtha-tattva-graha. 270 patthara-cunna ( = prastara-cūrna). 118. 120 parârtha-sampad. 118. 114. 21. 193. āspada). 348 paligodha (->• phaligodha). 277 paryāya. 245. 263 paryutthāna (=paryavasthāna). 371 padârtha. 130. 319. 124. 148 parispharana. 114 -paryanta. 120 paramârthakāyatā. 120 "^ & samvrti-kāya. 252 parikarman. 100. 187 parivrājaka. 142. 257. 150. 386 [nītârtha]. 322 paramârtha-satya. 383 parisat. 110. 122. 195 para-pārami-prāpta. 214 parama-nirvāça (TG X). 211. 269 netrī. 190 paramâtman. 116. 222 parivrtti. 72. 156. 182 paryavasthāna. § XIII (VI c). 224 parijaya.

72. 102. 80. 289 pratibimbaka. 130. 264 pratisarati. 231 prthagjana-śaiksa-sāmtānika. 358 pranudana. 321 pūtivastra (TG 7. 222 pranihita-manas. 250 pratibhā. 108 prakrtistha (gotra). 132 pudgala-drsti. 130. 266 posa ( = purusa). 288 prakrty-asamklisça. 254 pratipannaka. 360 pratapati. 128. 178 posin. 80. 184 pāramārthika-śarana. 205 pratipaksatā. 386 pratibimba. 55. 27. 96. 207 prajnāpāramitā-bhāvanā (TG II. 106. 108. § XVII (IX). 204. 169 pratijñā. 179 pratiroma-krama. 102. 210 prativarnika. 383 punya-sambhāra. 124. 205 pranidhi. 84. 370 pratārayati. 203 pudgala-dharmâkhya (jagat). 72. 104. 165 pratipad. 290 prthivî-tala (TG 5. 201 pratighâkāra. 183 purojava. s. 330 pratikrti. hetu 2). 200 praklinna. 174 pudgala-dharmâvināśatva. 303 prakrti-pariśuddhi. 84 ~ & jñāna. 94 pindârtha. 288 ~ & samudānîta. 100 pūri. 120 prajñā. 86. 234 pitr (s. 355 pratiśrutka-śabdavat. 190 prthag-jana (TG VI o). 130 prthivī-dhātu. 72. 78 prakrti-prabhāsvara (citta). 388 pratisvam. 236. 82. 90 puçya. 94. 102. 22. 74. 86. 385 pratibhāna. 128.) . 269 -prakhyā. 142. 188 prakrti-prabhāsvaratā. 189 prakalpayati. 110 pūrna-vimalendu. 172. (ekaksana-samāyukta . 10). 171. 383 pūrna-candra. 55. 245 puçyâpti. 21. for kleśa) prthivī-vat. for bodhisattva). 263 pratigha. 248 prakrtârtha. 269. 185 pratividhya. 86 ( = avikalpajñāna). 70. 94. 130. 381 punya-jñāna-sambhāra. 363 prajñapta. 149 pratirūpaka. 84. 187 pratītya-dharma. 80. 363 pratipanna. 112. 375 prakrti. 341 prajñā-pāramitā.J. 72 punar-bhava. 315 prakrti-śuddhi. 183 pratibaddha. 70. 283 praghosa.) ( = paramārthakāya). TA&ASA&] pāramârtbika(m vapub. 80. 128 pratiśrutya. 27. 94. 98 prthivī (K IX). 108. 30. 84 -^ & vaimalya-śuddhi. 381 pāramitā (sac) XVIII-1. 256 pratibādhana. 104. 74 pārami-gata. 106 nāsti prajñayā hānih (āven. s. 300 pratisevya. 218 pratiśarana. 112. 128. 292 prati-samydhā. 342 pūti. § VIII (I-II)-2. 76. 120. 263 pratisthā. 189. 84. 317 pūrva-videha-dvīpa. 90. 291. 239 prakrti-citta-jñāna. 178 paurvâparyena. 76 prakrti-pariśuddha-dharma-garbha. 128 prsjha-labdha (jñāna). 120 pāramārthika (buddha). ( = citta-prakrti) 88. 174 prakrti-viśuddhi. for kleśa). § XVII-2 (VII). 352. 253 prativedha. 106 — & karuna. 295 pratiśruti (K VII). 128 pratipaksa. ( = prajñā-pāramitā-bhāvanā). 57. 308. 181 [ 426 ] . 178 puçya—pāramitā. 98.

312. 199. s. 242 prākrtâgni (s. 84. 381 prasādhita. 74. 116 prabandha. 345 pramathana. 120 prāpya. 188 pratyaya. 98 bāla-prthagjana. 367 prārthanā. 375 prāpty-upāya (B II). sarvakālam. 96. 110 B bala (G I). 354 pratyekabuddha (TG II-IIĪ. 100. 179 bimba (=nirmāna-kāya). 338 bahis-tusa (TG 3. 120 prāptavya. § XIII (VI). 82. 128. 230 praśama-pura ( = nirvana). 330 prāptab. 160 prapañca. 86. 104 bāla-sārtbâtivāhana. 181. 72. 356 preta. 124. 327 prabhūta-jihvatā (mahāp. 242 prādeśika-jñāna. 12). 204. 246 prabhava. 178. 108. 163 pratyātmâdhigama-dharma. 80 [ 427 ] .The Ratnagotravibhāga prasanna. 360 pramānatah. 285 pratyupasthāna. (K IX). 108. (svabhāva) (TG a). 362 prādurbhāva. 254 pramoksa-citta. 94. 108. sattva 4). (B III). 345 pravacana. 74 prāpta-nirvāna-samjñin. § XIII (III). 311 phala-tvak (-> tvak-kośa) phala-vrksa (-> vrksa) phala-samanvāgama. 314 pxāpana. for prajñā). 110. 179 PH phala. 310. 385 prabhā-mandala-viśe&ana. 80. 342 prahāna. 314 pravrtti (=vrtti) (TG VI). § XV (I). 326 pratyātma-vedya. (B VI). 220. 2). 227 pbaligodha. 126. 80. 159 prapācana-vyākarane nidānam. 294 pramuditā (bbūmi). 82. 214 pratyaya-sambhava. 228 prahāra. 346 pradīpa (s. (TG" III). 176 pratyātma-lokottara-jñānadarśana. 248 prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. 102. 122. § VIII (V)-2. 122. § XVII-2 (V) prabhāva. 142. 86. § VIII (III-IV). 106. for jatā). 157 prapañcayati. 355 prabhāsvara. 213 pbalgu. 318 ~ -vyapagama(tā). 361 prādeśika-śarana. 234 prāpti (B II) ( = prāpty-upāya). 222 prāsāda. 70. 21. 116 prabhāvita. 163 pratyātma-vedita. 193 pramānī-krtya. (s. 195 pratyaya-laksana (paripantha). 255 prathama-lokottara-dharma-darśanajñāna. 366 protsāha. 308 [pratītya-samutpāda]. for adhimukti). 369 praśuddha. 120 balânvita (buddha). 226. 26. 130 pratyātmam. 78. 331. 92. 280 prathama-cittotpādika (bodhisattva). 156. 104 pratyekabuddha-yānika. 26. 92. 226 pralambba-bāhutā (mahāp. for TG V. 20). 227. 82. 198. for kleśa). 312. 249 prayoga. 401 pravicaya—jñāna. (s. 201 prabhāva-sampatti. 90 prāni-gana ( = ksudra-prānaka) prātihārya. § VIII (VI). 298 praskîialita ( = skhalita). 290. 314. 120. 185 prabhākara. 66. 72 pratyātma-vedanīya. 98 pradaksinâvarta. 84. 116 bibharti. 285 prabhā. 72. 114. 178 prādeśikatva. 90 prathama. 276 prākrta. 326 bīja. 365 prasava. 108. 221. 86 pradeśa. 357 prātihārya-traya.

§ IX-4. ( = bodhi) (RG II). 80. 35. 104. 76. 94. § XIII (I-II). 285 bodhisattva-bhūmi.J. 24. bodhisattva—mahākarunā. 118 bhava-śānty-anudgraha. 194 bodhana (RG IV). 96. 278 bhāvanā-mārga. 106. (TG 1. ( = buddha-bimba) (TG 1. 266 buddhi. 98. 98. 76. 23. § IV-3. 118 buddha-dharmâvinirbhāga (dharmakāya). for dhātu. 45. 197 buddha-jñāna-samudāgama-hetu. 152 bodhisattva-pitaka. 100. 157 bhaya-samjñā. 299. 86. 142. 100. 24. VIII (IX 6)-6. § VIII (X)-2. samudānītagotra). 152 bodhisattva-yānika. 66. 124 buddha-ratna (VP 1). 158 bhavya. 90. 118. 353 bodhya (RG I). 310. 334 bhavâgra. 80. 59. 388 buddha-dharma (RG III). 197 antargama(tva). 28. 261. 353 bodhisattva-karman. 76. 380 boddhavya. 104. 108. § XII-XIII. 78. 194. 147. § VIII (IXb)-7. 23. 74 bhava. 22. 197 brahman ( = mahā-brahman. 72 buddha-krtya (RV IV). 331. 370 bodhimandâvakrānti. 122. 22 buddha-guna (VP 6) (RG III). 21 brahma-svaratā (mahāp. 194 bodhy-aûga (RG III). 72 bodhisattvâlamkāra. 24. 243 bhavâbhilāsin. 376 bhavāh (=tri-bhava). 180 buddha-bhūmi. 130 bhāvanā-jñāna-heya. 72. 110 buddha-kāya (-traya). 126 bhāti muktam. 100 bhāvanā-prahātavya (-kleśa). 94 buddha-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I). 130. 357 bhāskara. 191 bhava-nir vāna-d vay agr aha-vimukti. 128. 355 [<~ & ātman]. 128. 96 buddha (VP 1). 24. 22. 106. 78. § I V-3'. 368 bhavyatā. 96. 299 bhāvita. 307. s. 76. 29. 76. 316 bhānu. 256 buddha-mandala. s. 158. § V-3. 124. § II. 66. VIII (I-II)-2. 100. 404 buddha—sāmtānika. for dhātu). 66. 66. 68. 66. 371 bhāva. 226 buddbatā. 336 buddha-gotra. 345 BH bhañga. 330 bodhi-sattva. 48 (-> bauddha gotra) buddha-jñāna (TG a). 72 [buddha-laksana]. 235. 152 bodhisattvâbhāsa. 130 buddha-bhāva. 24. 130. 180 bodhisattva-samgha. 27. 106. TAKASAKI bījâñkura (TG 6. 94. 50. 313. 66. 106 buddha-bimba. 130 buddha-kriyā (RG IV). m) (K IV). 352 buddha-dustâśaya. 23). 194 bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). 84. 239 bhājana-vimātratā. 98.-7. 384 [ 428 ] . § XI. 305 ~ astitva. 22. s. 88. 360. 376 <• -ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha (bo"' « dhisattva). for dhātu) ( ^ buddha) buddha-bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). 128 buddha-garbha (— tathāgata-garbha). (TG VII. IXc). 102. 142 bodhi-citta. XIII (VI) 102 buddha-kāra-kriyā. § XVII-2 (III). 116 bodhimandâpasamkrānti. 383 bodhi-manda. (X)-3. 231. 252 bodhy-āpti. 24. 168 bhāva-vināśa. 66. 382 bhājana-loka. 88. 24. 224. 309 buddhatva. 141. 106. 128 buddha-śarana. 68 ~ -gunavibhāga. 152 bodheh sattvah. 22. 24. 92. 92. 372 bhāvanā. 202 bhavana. 74. 72. 66 buddha-visaya. 132 bauddha gotra. 80.

190 mahā-bodhi-karunā. 184 muni-prabhākara. 80. 362 bhoga. 230 muni. 313. 165 mārgah sarvatra-gāmini (bala 6). 359 manomaya-kāya-trayah. 74. hetu 1). 191 mīmāmsā. 217 manomayâtmabhāva (=manomayakāya). 82. 190 mahî-ruha. 84. 358 manas ( = citta prakrti). 92. 305 bhūmi. s. 172 (daśa-) § VIII (IX 6)-7. 369 māra-sainya-pramadana. 369 mukti-kāya (^vimukti-kāya). 132 mīdha-kūpa. 132 mithyātva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. 205 mahârya-saddharma-rasâgra-vindana. 104. 283 mahā-dharmâdhirāja. 386 bheri. 90 mātsarya (-ādi). (for śrāvakayānika). 106 bhūtadharmâpavāda. 241 mūla-pariśuddha. 100. 189 mahā-prthivī. 11. 276 manasi-kāra 169 manāpa. 264 māyā-nirmita. 346 mahodadhi. 368 maharsi (=bodhisattva). 70. 92. 335 mahā-karunā. 287 madhu. 15). 120. 74. 80. 151 mahā-samudra. 98. 148. 106 mahāyāna-dharma-pratigha. 124 mātr (s. 372 mandanaka. 205 mithyā-niyata-rāśi. 98 bhramara-prānin. 292 muktā. c). 112 mahā-vaisajya-rasa. 191 mukta-jñāna. 122 mahā-pusta (parable of). 66 mahābrahmavat. 373 mahendra-nīlâmala-ratna-keśa (mahāp. 3). for dhātu). hetu 4). 271 madhyastha. 80. 29). 339 mārgâkhyāna (vaiś. 120. 255 bhūmy-avacara-devavimāna. 122. 74 mārga-satya. 246 mano (-guhyaka) (K VI). 306 bhūta—dharma. 80. 3). 114 mala-hara. for prajñā). 94' mandalaka. 386 mūla. § III-4. 359 xnama-kāra. 114. 297 mala-vigamatā. for cittaprakrti). 80 mrgendra-hanutā (mahāp. 132 muni-pati (=buddha). 126. 358 muni-vrsa ( = buddha). s. 330 mārga. 308 mahākarunā-bhāvanā (TG II. 357 bhūta. § XVII-2 (IV). 262 0 mano-rūpa. for kieśa). 239 māhātmya (B VI. 128. 84. 96. 100. 358 (mithyā)darśana. 279. 381 bhramara. 116. (of arka. 30. 205 mahāyāna-samprasthita. 282 M mani-gotra. s. 345 mrt-panka-lepa (TG 9. 215 mano-rama. § VI-1 (III). 122. 340 mārsāh. 106. 171 bhūta-koti. 190 bheda. 120. 355. 90. 153. 251 mahā-cakra-vāla. 100 manomaya-skandha. 80 mahāyāna-dharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā (TG II. 120. 320 mukhâvadāna. 161 mithyâbhimānâśraya. 21 mūla—paricchinna. 206. (K). 375 mano-maya-kāya. 190 mahâtman ( = buddha). 306 māra-pramathana. 80. 276 bhū ( = prthivī). (TG 2. 150 mani-ratna. 317 musitatā. 126 [ 429 ] . 355 māhendra-marutā.The Ratnagotravibhāga mahā-maitrī. 342 musitā smrti (nāsti --w) (āven. 289 mahā-purusa-laksana (G IV). 298 mandala. 341 mūrdhnā. 197.

308 moksa-mārga-pratihatâśa. 173. 325 yoni. 332 loka-vid (buddha). 324 msrā-mosa-dharmin. 72. 98 rāgâdi-carita-sattva-sāmtānika. a). 102 ratna-svagarbha. 291. 174. 74. 169 mohânda-kośa. 186 ratna-guna-vibhāga.) (s. 329 loka-vyavahāra. § V-4. 124 ravita. 311 yoga-vid. 295. 106 maitrī.-ākrti). 76 yāna (-> niryāna). TAKASAKI mrtyu. 229 yathāvad-bhāvikatā. 233 rūpa-ratnâkrti. 90 yoga. for jñāna). 341 raśmi (arka—r. 343 R rañga-vikrtim upaiti. 116. 70. 114 laksana-prayoga. 114. 116. 104 lokottara-dharma-garbha. 118. 108. 109. 124 yāvat. 108. 110. 305 loka-dharma. 102. 225 rava.bimba. 112. 185. 211 yathābhūta-darśana. 166. 236 mrtyu-mārâvabhañga. 141 ratna-gotra § VI-XVIII. 108. 181 moha. 311 yathā vaineyikesu. 98 yathâbliiprâya-pūri(tva). 86 laksana. 20 f. 86. 208 rūpârūpya-dhātu. 173. 166 rūpa. 145. 355 meghavat. 98. 370 yathāvat. 74. 182 megha (K III). § II-V. 295. 21 ratna (dārikā) sūtra.J. 98 rūpâvacara-deva-vimāna. (TG V) § VIII (V). § XV. 110. (B V) § XIII (V). 316 ruta. 76. 112. b). 285 yathā'śayesu. 102. 412. 242 lokâlañkāra. 197 rāhu. 106. 98 lokottara-dharmakāya-prakrti-pariśuddhi. § XVII-2 (III). 227 laksana-vyañjana. 280 yathā-drsta-lokottaradharma-bhāvanājñāna. 70. 116 yathābhūta-jñāna. 126. 357 līna-citta. 141 ratna-gotra-vibhāga. (5 laksanāh) (of svābhāvika). 72. 96. § IV-1. 110 rūpâdikam vastu. § IV-1. 96 ratna-vigraha (TG VII. 118 mrtyu-vyādhi-jarā (-agni). (of mahodadhi). 372 yugânta-(agni) (s. 376 yogin. 80 mosa-dharma. 328 rūpa-kāya. 98 mohânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 278 rāśi. 98. 311 yukti. 29. 169 rāga-rati. 74. 352 ratnâkara. 72. 368 ratna. 290. 110. 249 yathârhatah. 94 rāga. 173. 254. 173 yāvat kālam (B VII). 196. 175. 20 ratna-traya. 190 rūpin. 331 rūpa-kāya-dvaya (see dharmakāya) rūpa-gata. 118. 387 rati-krida. 120 ravi. 118. 122. 2). 303 [ 430 ] . 76. 363 loka-nātha. s. VI (4 aspects). for dhātu). 278 yathā (ca tat) (B VIII). 311 yathā-drsta. for mrtyu). 225. ( = r. 120. r. (nāsti ravitam) (āven. 384 yugapad-gocara-sthāna. 311 yāvad-bhāvikatā. 90 mrdu-karmanya-bhāva. 21. 98 rāgânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 74 lokottara-jñāna. 333 loka-dhātu. 303 yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. 347 ratna-nidhi (-> nidhi). 126 meghâdivat (śūnya).

120. 86. 155 ( ~ prākāra) vimala. (for karunā-vrttihetu). 124 vikriditā (karunā). 76 lodyeta (ylud). 239 vipāka. 142. (for ayoniśomanasikāra). 274 [ 431 ] . 8. 164. 249 lobha-gredhatā. 202 vibhāga. for TG c). 31. 114. 78. 166 vāg-guhyaka (K VII). 370 vindana. 23. 208 viparyasta. 70. 214 vasudhā. = timira). 112 vimati. 110 vimalâśraya. 279 vara. 214 vibhavâbhilāsin. 208 viparyāsâbhirata. 178 vaśitā—prāpta—bodhisattva. 356 vibhūti-rūpârtha-vidarśana. 341 vikrama-sampad. 116 vijñapti. 82. 23. 248 vidyā. 351 vinayâbbyupāya. 321. 155 vibhava. 238 vāri (s. 296. 70. 169 vibandha-pratisedha (vaiś. 82. 124 vinivrtta. 385 vajra. 86 vaśitā. 227 lokottara-prajñā. 98 vadhaka-purusa. 230 viparyasta-samjñā. 122 vajrâgni. 68. 351 vineyâdri. 102. 338 vipāka-phala. 386 vicitra-rasa. 228 vimala-gunopeta. 80. 366 vajropama—samādhi. 407 vinihatya. 263 varna (of pradīpa) (s. 375 vikrama-stha. 124. 209 vipaśyanā. 312 laukika-vītarāga-sāmtānika. 157. 320 vipaksa. 385 viparyaya. 59 vitapa (dharma-v. 94. 274 vidbi. 147 vāsa-bhūmi. 141 vibhu (=buddha). 112. 241. 82. 88. (— avidyāvāsabhūmi). 351 vibhutva. 86. 215 vikāra. 297 vinaya-kriyā. 114 ( ~ ucchitti). 104 viparyāsa. 241 vibhava-laksana (paripantha). 267 viydhā. 319 vibhūti. 183 vadhya. for karunā). 98 vatnśa. (K IV).). 340 vibuddha. 128. 128. 340 vidhura. (for karma-kleśa). 277 vāsanânusandhi. 86. 88 vāsanā. § XV (I). 347. 120 vipula. 375 vāta-mandala. 244 vinirbhāgadharma. 387 laukika (-jñāna). 148 vipratipanna. 238 vāyu (s. 21 vacas. 383 viparîta. 373 [vijñapti-mātratā]. 241 vikalpa. 124. 31. 132. 337. 110 vimalā (bhūmi). 2). 175 lokottara-buddha-dharmāb. 159 vithapyante. 252 vipranasta. § 1-1. 161 vigraha. § III-4. 76 vimalâmbu. 142 vajra-pada. 166 vikurvita. 120. 82. 389 vajravat. 100 vasudhântarita. 303 viparyāsa-viparyaya.The Ratnagotravibhāga vithapeti. 325 vicālya. 285. 270 vinīti-kriyā. 280 vajropama-samādhi-jñāna. 369 vikrti. 120. 255 viroalā buddha-gunāh (RG III). 282 vāk-patha. 352 vineya-dhātu. 100 vicitra-dharma-sambhoga. 141. (daśabalâdi). 124. 92. 299 vibandha (tattvadarśana-v. 329. 292 [viniścaya]. 68. for āsravaksaya). 74. 66.

27). 315 nāsti vimukter hānih) (āven. 184 ~ laksana (virāga-dharma). 70. 150 iślesa. 24-2). 306 ividhā. 76 •• iśuddha-sama-dantatva (mahāp. 130. 11). 118. 24. 122. 166 vyasana. 252 dmūdha. 31. § 1-3. 112 ~ dmukti-jñāna-darśana. 28 iśuddhi-parikarma-guna. 356 vaidūrya-mani (parable of). 327 iśesa-laksana. 340 vrksa (TG VII. āven 8). 112. 158 vyupameya. 164 vyañjana. 108. 148 vyoman (s. 18). 374 vailāradya. 337 isamyoga-phala. 84 vaimalya-viśuddhi. 315. 342 (nāsti ~ sya hānih) (āven. 365 imukti. for parama-bodhi). 108. 66. 345 vrtti ( = pravrtti) (TG VI). 377 vyapagata-visama-sthāna. 110. 108 vairūdhi. 192 vaipākika. 112. hānih. 387 dmoksa-mukha (śūnyatâdi). 66. 285 vyavasthiti. 70. 305 vyākarana-kathā.l . 165 irāga-hetu ( = mārga-satya). 13 isāmagri. 122. 368 isamyoga (B III). 161 iśāradatva. 337 vaipulya. 11). 321 vyāyata (pādatā) (mahāp. 282 ivarta. 346 vrsabhitā. 375 vyāpitva. 76. 70. 108. 164 irāga-dharma. for dhātu) cf. 124 vrata. 100. 12). 344 vyupadeśa. 114. 114. 187 vyādhi. 387 vyākarana. 311 vrsa-paksma-netra (mahāp. (B VI). 86. 108. 1-c). 122. 94. 312. 204. 94. 328 vyavahāra. 110 dmukha.J. 110 << sya pūrnam. 249. 152. ( = virāgatā) ( = nirodhasatya). 199. 151. 374 vaimalya ( = āsravaksaya). for dhātu). 237. 358 vyavadâta-sūksma-suvarna-varna-cchavih (mahāp. 371 isarati. 128. 236 vyāpi. 86. 218 iśodhya (-artha). § I I I . 120 isamvāditva. VIII (IX 6)-4. § VIII (VI). (K III). 227 vaimalya-dhātu. § III-2. 122. 354. 302 istara-vibhāga-nirdeśa. 199 vyavasthāna. 148 vaijayanta. 52. 342 dmukti-phala-dānatva. 74. 345 isuddhi. 110. 338 iśuddha. 285. 150 iśuddhi-pārami-prāpti. 264 drāga. 70. 172. 150 iśuddhi-gotra. 221 iśuddhi-cittaprakrti. 122. 346 vyavadāna-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha) (RG I). 228 <— & samklista. 310. 165 irāgin. 241 ihāra. 334 vyūha. 165 vyavasthā. 31. 340 vyakti. 357 [vyatirekâlañkāra]. 90. (na ~tah. 279 îrya. 120. 238 ivikta. 28 vaimalya-pariśuddhi. bījâñkura vrtta-ślaksanânunnāma-bāhutā (mahāp. 210 isara. § XIII-(VI). 263 iśuddhi-guna-parikarman. 229. 315 isaya-rati-hara. 378 vaineyika. 142. (s. 66 vaidharmya. 328 [ 432 ] . TAKASAKI dmātratā. 299 dyoga. 164 irāgitā. 122. 315 vaimalya-śuddhi. 341 dmukti-kāya. 389 vyavadāna-satya-dvaya. 255 īta. 70. 165. 108.

106 śūnya & aśūnya. 231. § VIII (X)-3. 278 śuddha-sattva. 98 śuddha-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 98. 143 śrāvaka (TG II-III. 118 śamaikayāna—gotra. 345 śuddha-bhūmi. 84 suci-śīla-jighrana. 380 śuddhi. 209 śūnyatā-drsti. 382 śakti. 365 samvidyamānatā.The Ratnagotravibhāga śubha. 181 śīla. § 1-4. 116. 130 śloka. 74 śruti. 257 śāśvata-drsti. 72. 268 śubha-ratnatraya-sargaka (gotra). 98. 76 śubha-samjñā. 112. 68. 185 śraddhā. 11-17. 108. 72. 122. 268. 330 śānty-anuśamsa-darśaka. 104. 333 śāstr-gaurava. § XVII-2 (I). 104. 357 śarana. 268 samvrti. 296. 124. 70. XVIII-1. 355 śakra-pratibhāsavat. 27. 310 [sat-padârtha] (svabhāvâdi). 38. 22. 82. 309 śaktatva. 164. 220 śayana-sthita. 339 śānti-patha ( = nirvana). 280 śaila-deśa-gamika. 54 f śaiksa. 46. 345 śuklâmśa. 58. 158 śakra (K 1). bala 10). 301 śūnyam sarvam. 13). 118 śarīra. 390 samvara. 167. 178 samvarta. 80. 308 śāstra-sambandha. 84. 82. 219 » śāśvata-(loka-nātha). 104. 126 śama-prāpti. 80. 360. 74 śarana-traya. 376 sukla-pravara-damsjratā (mahāp. 114. 319 samyojana. 84. 54. 57. 359 śarīrin. (B I). 72. 68. 80 śūnyatā-viksipta-citta (pudgala). 19). ( = āsravaksaya-jñāna-bala. 282 śāśvata. 72. 104 śūnya. 326 śānti-pathâvatāra(-nidana). 74. 169 śubhâtma-sukha-nityatva (-guna-pāramitā) (TG III). 156. 114 śānta-dharmatā. 68. 50 sad-indriya-visaya. 197 śānta. 303 [śūnya-vāda]. 366 śobhā. 180. 209 śubha-dharmatā. 183. 276 śisya. 309 ślokârtha-samgraha-vyākhyāna. 154 śiipa-sthāna. 90 śrāvaka-samgha. 11. 167. 74 śrāvaka-yānika. 104. 72. 237 samvit. 72. 130 śīla—samvara. 72. 151 śūnyatā-jñāna. 112 śuddha-prabhā-mandala-gātratā (mahāp. 45. 180 śaranatrayâbhyupapatti. 120. 130 śuci. 68. 244. 245 samraksana. 84. sattva 3). 208 śubhâkāra. 116 śānti-mārga. 329 śiva. 108. 207 śamâmrtapada-prāpti. 208 śubha-pāramitā. 54. 82. 200. 102 śraddhā—gamana. 178 eukla-dharmausadhī. 122. 130. § V. 155. 174 śānti. 166. 112. 400-408 [sat-pāramitā] (dānâdi). 132 śāli. 221 [ 433 ] . 68. 18. 179 śāstr. 106. 104 śrāvaka—naya. 264 sad-āyatana-viśesa. 84. 74. 13. 104. 106. 118 śāsana. 74. 222 śuklâspada. 106 śflnyatā. 329 śilpa-sthānāni kauśalam.

344 sabhaya. 84. 82. 132 samsrti. 39. 118 samsāra-gata. 204 samsāra-duhkhopaśama-mātrâbhirati. 244 samślisja. 272 samketa. (TGVII. 323 samtāna. 68. 272 samkāra-dhāna. 187 samavadhāna. 66 sacet. 72. 78. 151. 72 samgha-ratna (VP 3). 100 sapta-sapti. 158 satkaya-drs^i. 183 eat-kāya. 118 sattva-rāśi. 122. 72. 235 (catur-vidha ^ ) (TG II. 296. 245 samavasarana. 275 samnāha. 202. 80 (trividha). 370 saptârtha-pada (^vajra-padāni sapta). 132 saddharma-samgraha. 183. 132 saptâtsada-śarīratā (mahāp. 234 samksepa-mātraka. 80 sattva-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha). 313 sama-preksin. 365 samtārana. 358 saddharma-rasa-dānatā. 390 samsāra-mandala-ksānti. 118 saddharma-salila. 5). 120 samvrti-kāyatā. 126. 68. 182. tīrthya. 104. karma-. 297 sattva. 345 samVślis. janma-). 156. TAKASAKI samvrti-kāya. pratyekabuddha. 82 samsāra-mandala. 72 <~ -guna-vibhāga. 223. 66. 170. 158 satkāya-drsfi-patita (-pudgada). 181 samvrti-satya. 340 saddharma. 301 samanta-bhadrâpratima (-ātma-bhāva) (mahāp. 354 ~ —aksayatva. 90. 72. 116. 265 san-nātha. 242 samskrta. 367 samskāra. 230 sat (-^ dhîra). 285 samvrtta-skandhatā (mahāp. 122. 104. 84. 22. 74. 106 samalā tathatā (RG I) (VP 4). 301 samkleśa-vyavadāna. 200 [ 434 ] .J . 254 samdrśyate. 82. 23 sattvârtha-kriyā. 251. 193 samgraha. 32). 70. 78. 345 samādāya. 100. 215 samskāra-paripāka. 22. 86. 189. 319 satata-samitam. 74. 206 sattvârtha-vimukhatā. 332 samgrāma. 191 8amjñā-citta-drsçi-(viparyāsa). 221 samcintya. § VII-XI. 346 samanvāgata. 122. 80. 250. 191 samkara-pūti-dhāna. 360 samgha (VP 3). 82 samanupaśyati. 22. 286. 206 sat-purusa. 143. 16). 197 sattvâtma-sama-darśikā (maitrī). 356 samādhāna. 100. 86. 223 satya ( = āryasatya). 76. 142 samgha-kāra-kriyā. 303 satkāya-nirodha. 267 samā catvārimśad-daśanatā (mahāp. 122. 244 samjñā (-viparyāsa). 381 sa-karanīya. 227. 118 samādhi. 78. ( = sattva-rāśi). ( = prthag-jana). 116 sattvârtha-nirapeksatā. 248 samnihśraya. śrāvaka). § IV. 181. 230 samjñā-grāha. 336 samvrti-pada-sthāna. 226 sama-vimukti. 217 samkleśa-nimitta. 23. 183 sakalam. 364 sadma. 231. 291 ~ & nirvana § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 161 sattvârtha-krt (RG IV). III) (-+ icchantika. samatā. 244 sapta-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 290. 106 sattvānām dharmadhātu. 10). 90. 145. 88. 250 samsāra. 92. 110 saddharma-vyasanâvrtâtmaka. 167 samanvāgama ( = yoga). 74. 245 saddharma-kāya (=dharmakāya). IXo). 80. 74. 166 samkleśa (kleśa-.

333 samādhi-bhāvanā (TG II. 80. 199 sarva-cittârambana. 114. 116. 130. 25). 118 sambaddha.The Ratnagotravibhāg sarva-dharmadhātu. 96. 82. 382 sambhrti (=sambhāra). 364 sahaja. 353 samyag-aviparyasta. 112 sarvajñatā. 88. 92 sasya. 226. 76 sarva-dharmâbbisambodhi (vaiś. 86. for G II). 248 samāpatti (-āvarana). 186 sarvadarśinām vis ayah (gotra). 204 samyak-pratipatti. 265 samrddhi. 270 sāksātykr. 201 sametya. 148 samāhrtâdyamah. 346 sukathā-śuci-śrava. hetu 3). 82. 230 sarva. § VIII (VIII). 292 sambandha. 32 ( dvaya) sambhedatah. 94 sāmtānika. 262 sarvâkara-gunopeta-śūnyatā. 29. 198 sambhava-laksana (paripantha). 124. 252 samyak-pratipanna. 124 sukha-pāramitā. 80. 104 sāhasra-lokadhātu. 190 simha (s. 102. 86 sambuddhatā. 237 sāmānya-laksana. 122 simha-pūrvârdha-kāyatā (mahāp. 269 sārârtha. 263 sarvagatva ( = sarvatraga). 218 sāmbhoga. 348. 76. 114 sarve dehinah ( = sarva-sattvāh). 175. 368 sarva-sattva. 82. 326 samārūdha. 112 sukha. 260 samudānīta (-gotra). 118. 82. 325 samudāgama. 84. 172 sambodhi. 197 salila-bandhana. (sarvaśarīrinah). 124. 177 samāropa. 270 samyaktva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. 200 sādhumati (bhūmi). 342 sambhoga-kāya. 124. 94 sarvâvabodhitā. 24 (-avinirbhāgatā). 194 sarva-jña. 279 sāmnidhya. 8). 352. 114 sarvajña-dharmatā. 192 sarva-dhātu (=sarva-loka). 298 sa-vāsana-maloddhrti. 209 sukha-samjñā. 1). 86. 289 sāmbhogika (kāya) § XIII (VIb). 94. sahasra-koti-niyuta. 208 sukha-sampatti. 98 sârtha. 122. 268 sāmagrī. 154 sambuddha ( = tathāgata) (TG Vic). 120. 282 sārârtha-darśana. 122. 372 sampatti. 68. 186 sarvajña-jñāna. 330 sambhava. 161 sādharmya. 120 simhavat. 288 samudra. 344 [siddhānta-naya & deśanā-naya]. 76 sarvatraga (TG VIII). 21. 102 sammiñjita. 302 samāvartana. 252 samyak-sambuddha-dharmatva. 352 sarva-sattvârthakrt. § XV (II). 68 sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. 118. 331 sârtha-bīja. 82.& jñāna-). 214 sambhāra (punya. 130 sarva-darśin ( = sarvajña). 324 sāra. 112 samāna. 78 sarvâkāra. for dhātu). 285 sītâmalornodita-c^ru-vaktra (mahāp. 197. 199. 175 sarvatra. 266 sarvajña—jñāna—gocara. 216 sâsrava-dharma. 30. 378 sâsrava-karman. 206 samādhi-samsparśa-sukhânubhūti. 120. 302 sāmketikam vapuh (^samvrti-kāya). 116. 332 sampatti-yoga(tva). 102. 233 sarvathā 'rthakrt. 337 sâñgana (bodhisattva).340 [ 435 ] . (TG 3 s. 84 sukhatva. 205 samyaktva-niyāma. 266.

etc. 142 Bthānâsthāna (-jñāna-bala) (bala 1). 367 sevana. 100. 367 spharana (of arka). 126 svakarmodbhava. ( = pratyeka-buddha). 82. 130 svacchâvirala-dantatā (mahāp. 120 sevya (-viddhi) (mārga). § VI-2. 120 svârtha-sampad. 252 su-pratisthita (-pādatā). 126 bina ( = hīna-yāna). 285 sūksma—vastra. 296. 118. 315 svayam. 108. 225. 323 sūtra ( ~ . 78. 332 hema-bimba (-> kanaka-bimba).J . 267 hīna(yāna)ruci. 236 skhalita (nāsti /— m. 195 hetu-laksana (paripantha). 102. (-avasthā) (TG IX c). 290 ~ & pratyaya. geya. 124 [ 436 ] . 122. 241. 199. 367 sauksmya. 120. 9). 124. 108 svabhāva (TG I). 78. āven. 344 sumeru. 226 hetv-ānantya (-tva). 338 sthiti. (B II). 108. 311. 240 svarasa-vāhin. 120. 29. s. 106. 100 suvarna-bimba. 324 svârtha-sarnpatti. 92. 68. 341 stuti-ninda. 356 sūrya (K V). 161 sva-parârtha (B IV). 126 svaccha-jala-bhājana. 76. 21.). 216 sūtikā-sadma-sthita. 151 sūksma-nimitta-prapañca. 349 svābhāvika (kāya). § XIII (VI a). 120. 201 sparśitavya. a. (TG. 340 hitatva. 108. 17). 120. 21. 341 sva-karman. 305 hetu. 102 hema-mandalaka (-> suvarna) heya (-vastu) (->• duhkha-samudaya). 214 hetu-samanvāgama (TG V). 96. 120. IX-4 (trividdha-). 124 snigdha-bhāva (-svabhāva) (TG c). § VIII (IX c). 156. tathatā). 341. 1). for dhātu). TAKASAKI sugata (=buddha) (TG I. 178 svasamtānâvabhāsa. 238 skandha-dhātv-indriya. 341 sthairyatva. 102. for dhātu. 132 hînasattvesv avajñā. 120. 318 su—daiśika. 224 su-viśuddha. 88. 13. 128. 264 svarga. 25. 236 skandhâyatana-dhātavah. § VIII (I • II). dhātu). 146 sva-samtāna. 283 hāni-kārana-krti. 345 svadharmatā. 360 sva-citta. 88. 102 svabhāva-gāmbhīrya-nayâvabodhana. 128 sūryavat. 381 sva-laksana. 388 hīna-pranīta-dharma. 120. 1). āven. § XVII-2 (V). 344 BU—pratisthita—cakrâñkra—vyāyatâtsañga— pādatā (mahāp. 122. 120. 310 svaparârtha-sampatti (B IV). (B I). 376 su-parikarma-krta-cetas. 128 srjat. 21. 157 svayam-bhū ( = buddha). 72. 269 sūksma. II). § VIII (I-II)-l. 190 sura-pati. 112 skandha. 282. ( = gotra. 202 svarasa-yogena. 100. 72 sva-stha (G II). 114. 147 sthira (-stha). 108. 231 su-sāra. 285 sūtra-sthānīya (-śloka). 112 svabhāvâparinispatti. 162 H hata-satkāyasāra. 112 svârthasampatty-adhisthāna. 358 suvarna (TG 4. 86. 126. 29. § XIII (I-II) svabhāva-kāya ( = svābhāvika). 185 sthāna. 94 smrti (nāsti smrteh hānih. § XIII (I-II). 289.

260. 213. 235 Blo-ldan śes-rab. 332. 300. 263. 240. 204. 343 Abhisamayâlañkārâloka (AAA). 327. 223. 33. 44. 193. 155 [ 437 ] . 324. 62. 295. 33. 225. 167. 37. 7 Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā. 324. 45. 331. 33. 219. 188. 268 *Anuttarâśraya-sūtra (AĀS). 200. 59. 7. 52. 61. 234. 322. 224. 51. 315. 285. 51. 59 Abhidharmakośa (Kārikā) (AK). 213. 45. 8 Hsūang-chuang. 339. 329. 260. 292. 192. 214. 15. 290. 232. 8. 221. 187. 341 Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (DDV). 9 Gaganagañjā-sūtra (Gaganagañjābodhisattvaparivarta) (GagS). 171 Adbhuta-sūtra (Adbhuta-dharmaparyāya). 385 Bodhiruci. 185. 54 Âryadeva. 261. 223. (Vyākhyā). 144. 339. 269. 407. 39. 281. 61 Aksayamati-pariprcchā (AksP). 32. 234. 232. 338. 52. AUTHORS & SCHOOLS (Those with the mark * are the titles restored from C) Abhidharma Buddhism. 176. 189 Gser-phren (of Tsoñ-kha-pa). 264. 254 Chien-Hui ( = Sāramati). 320. Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirde śa-p arivarta (AAN) 32. 170. 49 Advaita Vedānta (School). 210. 198. 186. 34. 164 ff. 9 Dhammapadâtthakathā. 7. 259. 150. 329. 300. 53.45. 21. 146153. 143 Fa-hsian (School). 327. 354 Bhagavadgītā. 277-280. 286. 173. 51. 35. 404 •Buddhagotraśāstra (BGŚ). 189. 192. 288. 334. 142. 406 Abhisamayâlañkāra (AA). 166. 204. 8 Fa-tsang. 241. 171 Aśvaghosa. 9 Bodhisattvabhūmi (BBh). 408 (Ārya)candrottaradārikā-sūtra. 8 Devaprajña. 287. 144 Hûa-yen (School). 305-9. 260 Amitāyus Buddha. 34 Dhāranīśvararāja-sūtra (DRS). 194. 258. 218. 300. 203 Jñānagupta. 210. 390 Amrtākara. 333. 290. 62. 35 Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta (DrdhP). 296. 343. 28. 310. 9 Chiu-ching-yi-ch'eng-pao-sing-lun. 46-49. 234. 382. 338. 44 *Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (->• Mahāyāna-dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra) Dharmaraksa. 57 Jain. 35-36. 341. 208. 218. 312. 406. 6 Blue Annals (Deb-ther sñon-po). . 214. 193. 233. 53 Avatamsaka-sūtra (Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa-parivarta) (AvatS). 189. 200. 308. 334. 336. 209. 203. 260. 4952. 318. 33. 28 Catuhśubha (of Nāgārjuna). 61 Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitāsūtra (ASP). 254 Añguttara-nikāya (AN). 230. 233. 212. 188. 228. Up). 175. 173. 302 Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS). 351. 208. 167. 285 Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS). 44. 21 Gunabhadra. 157. 177. 408 Brhadāranyakopanisad (Brhad. 173. 289. 213 Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra. 34. 7 Daśabhūmikasūtra (DBS). 61 Ārya-śrīmālā-sūtra -> Srīmāla-sūtra Asaûga (Slob-dpon Thogs-med). 8. 331. 230. 21 (Vyākhyā of Yaśomitra). 239 Gaudapāda.. 201. 258. 48.INDEX OF WORKS. 206. 61. 283. 311. 34.

143 Śuklavidarśanā. 368. 40. 144. 52. 9. 8 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra (TCS). 32. 33. 36. 300 Ta-ch'ang-fa-chieh-wu-ch'a-pieh . 163. 11. 272. 240. 19. 51. 188. 34 Saundarananda-kāvya. 390 Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (MSA). 44 ~ bhāsya (of Stbiramati). 382. 35. 35 K'ai-yuan-che-chiao-mo-lu. 62 Majjhima-nikāya (MN). 224. 240 Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa). 10. 46. 33. 251. 6 Sadāyatanafrāśi] sūtra (SadS). 51. 290 •Mahāyāna-dharmadhātv-aviśesa-śāstra (DAŚ).ahāsaaghātasūstra (Mahāsamnipātasūtra). 290. 185. 182. 58. 33. 54. 302. 7 Saka fragments (of Ratnagotravibhāga). 61 Sañghabhadra. 285. 158. 5 Ratnakūta-sūtra. 323 Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta ( = Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta). 171. 60. 301. 45. 300 Sumangala-visāranī. 56 Sāriputrâbhidharma-śāstra. 300 Rāstrapāla-pariprcchā. Up. 267. 173. 200. 22. 263 Ratnadārikāsūtra (Ratnasūtra) (RDS). 236. 163. 207. 257. 315. 408 Mahāyānasamgraga (MS). 249. 369. 203 Samyutta-nikāya (SN). 250. 264. 384.lun-chu (of Fa-tsang). 5 Ratnagotravibhāga. 33. 34. 155. 374 Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching. 232. 32. 183. 286. 300 Pao-ch'ung-lu. 316. 51. 33. 251 Ratnamati. 277. 45. 45. 338. 62. 53. 33. 28 Nāmasamgīti. 214. 57. 305 Mādhyamika. 260 Saddharmapundarīkasūtra (SPS). 301 Manusmrti. 219. 225. 341. 163. 144. 9. 7 Kaniska. 285. 13. 32. 7 Mahāvibhāsāśāstra. 265. 296. 339. 289. 59. 48. 322. 218. 167. 292. 211-12. (Parmârtha's translation) (MSbh(P)). 240 Sarvāstivāda. 15. 182. 293. 227. 343 M. 34 Mundakopanisad (Mund. 189. 206. 298. 52. 50. 204 Laksanânusāra-śāstra. 372.' 48. 34. 33. 53 Kāśyapa-parivarta (KāśP). 240. 53. 261. 405. 60. 305 Prasannapadā. 7. 159 Sāramati. 304 [Mahā]prajñāpāramitā [-upadeśa]-śāstra. (Bhāsya). 15. 60 Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-pa. 21 Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (PP). 16. 294 Sandhinirmocana-sūtra. 364.). 223. 6. 286. 300 Nāgārjuna. 33. 34 Lañkāvatāra-sūtra (Lank). 301. 291. 288. 34 Mahāyānâbhidharma-sūtra (AbhidhS). 167. 382. 192. 291. 245 Sajjana. 33. 214 Ratnacūda-pariprcchā (RCP). 209 Milindapañhā. 60 Madhyântavibhāga (MAV). 295 Li-t'ai-san-pao-chi. 9 Ratnavajra. 217. 293. 228. 33. 56. 232. 8 Madhyamaka-kārikā (MK). 303. 312. 347 Ratnagotraśāstra. 53. 44. 14 f. 402 Mahâyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra. 216. 267. 9 Ta-t'ang-nei-tien-lu. TAKASAKI Jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra (JAA). 61. 34. 204. 5 Mahayānottaratantra śāstropad e śa. 39-40. 389 *Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda (-śāstra). 8. 47. 50. 260. 174. 287. 232 Pratītyasamutpādahrdaya-kārikā (of Nāgārjuna). 54. 186 Sāgaramati-pariprcchā (SāgP). 44. 231.J. 45-46. 31. 37-39. 57. 10. 145 Srīmālā [devī-simhanāda]sūtra (SMS). 52. 33. 204. 8 Paramārtha. 59. 295 Śañkara. 32. 52. 291. 356. 146 Mahāsañgika. 242. 61. 200. 300 Siksānanda. 215. 34. 4144. 150. 262. 343. 292. 300 Mahāparmirvāna-sūtra (Mahāyāna) (MPS). 300. 262. 259. 7. 44. 5 Sāmkhya (School). [ 438 3 . 373. 235. 359. 17. 159-160. 209.

28. 33. 322 [ 439 ] . 40. 44. 39. 5. 48. 8 Tsoñ-kha-pa. 406 Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā (VMT). 268-276. 28. 281. 52. 61 Vibhajyavādin. 47.The R at n a got r a v i b h ā g a Vasubandhu. 61 Uttaratantra. 407 Yogācārabhūmi (YB). 35. 34. 40. 162. 290. 240 Vedānta Philospphy. 203. 54 Vaiśesika. 13. 294 Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatārasūtra (AcintS). 21. 277 Yogācāra (School). 200. 33. 8. 51. 61. 33. 147 Tathāgatotpattisambhava-nirdeśa. 189. 145 Tathāgatamahākarunā-sūtra. 57-61. 404 36-37. 203 Vaibhāsika. 36. 382 Vimalakīrtinirdeśa (VimN). 240 Vijñānavāda. 40. 269 ' Ti-lun School. 44. 47. 49. 62. 52. 53. 405 Vātsīputrīya. 38. 20 Vedāntavāda. 21 Upanishad. 28. 34 Vajracchedikā-sūtra (Vaj C). 49. 230. 196.

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