S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

ROMA

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathagatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA

R O M E
I. II. III. IV. V. VI* VII. VIII. IX. 1.

O R I E N T A L

S E R I E S

Already published:
— Tucci G., The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings. — PETECH L., Northern India according to the Shui-ching-chu. — FRAUWALLNER E., On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasubandhu. — ROCK J . F., The Na-khi Nāga cult and related ceremonies. Part I and II. — Conferenze, Vol. I. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by — CONZE E., Abhisamayālañkāra. Introduction and Translation from the original text, with Sanskrit-Tibetan Indexes. — Conferenze, Vol. II. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by
H. CORBIN, N. EGAMI, M. ELIADE, J. FĪLLIOZAT, P. HUMBERTCLAUDE, J. MASUI, E. H. DE TSCHARNER. G. CCEDES, J. J. L. DUYVENDAK, C. HENTZE, P. H. POTT.

IX. 2. X.

XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

— FRAUWALLNER E., The earliest Vinaya and the beginnings of Buddhist literature. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I. Containing A s a ñ g a ' s commentary on the Vajracchedikā edited and translated; Analysis of the commentary on it by V a s u b a n d h u ; Mahāyānavimśikā of N ā g ā r j u n a ; Navaśloki of K a m b a l a p ā d a ; Catuhstavasamāsārtha of A m r t ā k a r a ; Hetutattvopadeśa of J i t ā r i ; Tarkasopāna of V i d y ā k a r a ś ā n t i . With an appendix containing the Gilgit Text of the Vajracchedikā, edited by N. P. CHAKRAVARTI. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I I . First Bhāvanākrāma of Kamalaśūa. — Materials for the study of Nepalese History and Culture: 1. Tucci G., Preliminary Report on two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal. 2. GNOLI R., Nepalese Inscriptions in Gupta characters. Part I, Text and Plates. 3. PETECH L., Mediaeval History of Nepal (c. 750-1480). — GNOLI R., The aesthetic experience according to Abhinavagupta (out of print). — ROCK J . F., The Amnye Ma-chhen range and adjacent regions. A monographic study. — CONZE E., Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā. — Le Symbolisme cosmique des Monuments religieux. Actes du Congres qui a du lieu â Rome sous les auspices de l'ls.M.E.O., avec la collaboration du Musee Guimet, Avril-Mai 1955. Conferences par R. BLOCH, J. DANIELOU, M. ELIADE, M. GRIAULE, C. HENTZE, C. LEVI-STRAUSS, H. C. PUECH,

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX.

— — — — —

XX.

G. Tucci. WYLIE T. V., A place name index to George N. RoericK's translation of the Blue Annals. FERRARI A., mK'yen brtse's Guide to the holy places of Central Tibet. Completed and edited by L. PETECH, with the collaboration of H. RICHARDSON. Orientalia Romana. 1, Essays and Lectures, by E. BENZ, H. CORBIN, A. GODARD, L . HAMBIS, V . MlNORSKY, S . P . TOLSTOV. ROERICH G., Le parler des Amdo. Etude d'un dialecte archaīque du Tibet. VAN GULIK R. H., Chinese Pictorial Art as viewed by the Connoisseur. Notes on the means and methods of traditional Chinese onnoisseurship based upon a study of the Art of mounting scrolls in China and Japan (about 600 pp. Size 30 X 22 cm.). Limited to 950 copies. MAHLER J . G., The Westerners among the Figurines of the 'Pang Dynasty of China, /•

XXI.

— Un Editto bilingue greco-aramaico di Aśoka. La prima iscxizione gteca scoperta in Afghanistan. Testo, traduzione e note a cura di G. PUGLIESE-

XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII.

troduzione di U. SCERRATO (out of print). — L E E P. H., Studies in the Saenaennorae: old Korean poetry. — GNOLI R., The Pramānavārttikam of Dharmakīrti. The first chapter with the autocommentary. Text and critical notes. — Tucci G., Deb fer dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text) [in the press]. — WYLIE T. V., The Geography of Tibet according to the 'Dzam-glingrgyas-bshad. — CONZE E., The Gilgit manuscript of the AstādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitS. Chapters 55 to 70 corresponding to the 5th Abhisamaya. Text and English translation. — GNOLI R., Udbhata's Commentary on the Kāvyāīamkāra of Bhāmaha. Sanskrit fragments from Pakistan. Edited with critical notes. — ROCK J . F., A Na-khi-English Encyclopedic Dictionary, Part I . — A bilingual Graeco—Aramaic Edict of Aśoka, Text, Translation and Notes by G. PUGLIESE-CARRATELLI and G. GABBINI, Foreword by G. Tucci, Introduction by U. SCERRATO. — GNOLI G.f Le iscrizioni Giudeo--Persiane del Gūr (Afghanistan). Text, Italian Translation and Notes. — AUBOYER J . , Introduction â Vetude de fart de VInde. — SCARCIA G., Sifat-nāma-yi Darvīs Muhammad Hān-i Gāzî. A Muslim Crusade against the Kafirs of Lagmān in A. D. 1532. — TAKASAKI J., A study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the TatLāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

CAHRATELLI e di G. LEVI DELLA VIDA, con prefazione di G. Tucci e in-

Special series:
Orients P oli a no • Studies and lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. on the occasion of the 7th Centenary of the birth of Marco Polo (1254-1954), by E. BALAZS,
P. DEMIEVILLE, K. ENOKI, L. CABRINGTON GOODRICH, E. HAENISCH, L. HAMBIS, A. MOSTAERT, L. OLSCHKI, A. NILAKANTA SHASTRI, E. H. SCHAFEK, B. SPULER, R. WITTKOWEB.

Forthcoming Works:
TūCCl G., Deb ter dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text). ROCK J . F., Na-khi Culture as expressed in their literature: an encyclopedic Dictionary. Part II. RUEGG D. S., The life of Bu Ston Rin Po Che. Orientalia Romana. 2, Essays and Lectures, by V. S. Agrawala, P. Beonio-Brocchieri, P. Corradini, L. Lanciotti.

Works in course of preparation:
PENSA C , - Vimuklisena's Abhisamayālankāravyākhyā. Sanskrit Text. Tucci G. - GARGANO A., The Abhidharmasamuccayakārikā by Sañghatrāta, text and commentary of a hitherto unknown work, the Sanskrit manuscript of which has been found in Tibet. Tucci G. - PETECH L., Grub-mHa-sel^gyl-me-loñ (Crystal mirror of the philosophical and religious systems), translated from the Tibetan. TtJCCl G. - PETECH L., The Fifth Dalai-Lama's Chronicle of Tibet, translated from the Tibetan.

IL

ISTITUTO ITALIANO MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

SERIE ORIENTALE ROMA
SOTTO LA DIREZĪONE
DI

GIUSEPPE

TUCCI

VOLUME XXXIII

LA REDAZIONE DELLA SERIE E CURATA DAL PROF. ANTONIO GARGANO

ROMA Is. M. E. O.

S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

R O M A

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA
ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER IL MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
PACE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PREFACE INTRODUCTION SYNOPSIS OF THE TEXT TRANSLATION AND NOTES

ix xi 1 63 135

APPENDIXES

I. - Supposed form of the Original Sloka-grantha II. - Corrections & Emendations to the Sanskrit Text III. - Description of the Ultimate Reality by Means of the Six Categories .

393 396 400

INDEXES

1. Index of Sanskrit Terms 2. Index of Works, Authors & Schools

411 437

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(for Synopsis and Notes on the Translation)

= Sanskrit text of the Ratnagotravibhāga ed. by E. H. Johnston Sanskrit term X ' = Tibetan translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition, Tohoku, No. 4025) Tibetan term Ç = Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Daizokyo Edition No. 1611) Chinese term O = Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, by E. Obermiller (Ada Orientalia, XI, ii, iii, & iv) J = E. H. Johnston's Preface & Notes on the Ratnagotravibhāga K. = Kārikā v. = verse Taisho = Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripitaka Tohoku = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, ed. by Tohoku University, Japan (1934). BHS = Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit BHSDic.= Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. by F. Edgerton (1953) M. W. = M. Monier-William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary PTS = Pali Text Society's Edition of the Pali Tipi^aka = Abhisamayâlânkāra of Maitreya, ed. by G. Tucci (Gaekward's Oriental Series No. 62) AAĀ = Abhisamayâlañkārâloka of Haribhadra, ed. by G. Tucci (ibid.) AAN = Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta (Taisho, XVI, No. 668) AĀS = * Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Taisho, XVI, No. 669) = AbhidhS = Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra AcintA = Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa (Taisho, X, No. 302) AksP = Aksayamatipariprcchā (Taisho, XIII, No. 397 (12)) AN = Añguttara Nikāya (Pali, PTS Edition) ASP = Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of the Abhisamayâlañkārâloka) AvatS = Avatamsakaśūtra (Taisho, IX, No. 278) BBh = Bodhisattvabhūmi, ed. by U. Wogihara BGŚ = * Buddhagotraśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1610) DAS = * Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1627) DBS = Daśabhūmikasūtra, ed. by J . Rahder AA

S

397 (11)) = Ratnadhārikāsūtra (Taisho. XII. by Stael-Holstein. by E. XIII. 353) = Samyutta Nikāya (Pali. ed. No. ed. Mūller (Taisho. by Sylvain Levi) (P) = Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. XIII. No. 666) = Yogācārabhūmi (Skt. by S. No. No. Nanjio = Madhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna (ed. No. 1579) = Vajracchedikāsūtra. Sde-dge Edition Tohoku No. XVI. XI. No. XXXI. 235) f = Vimalaklrtinirdeśa (Taisho. Yamaguchi's commemoration Volume) * = Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta (Tibetan KG. by S. No. No. by B. 397 (8)) = Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra (Taisho. ed. C. VIII. by M. XII. by Paramārtha (Taisho. by Poussin) = Majjhima Nikāya (Pali. Bhattacharya. Prof. XIII. XIII. 374) = Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (ed. ed. ed. PTS Edition) = Mahāparinirvānasūtra (Mahāyāna) (Taisho. by J . (Taisho. XXX. Levi = Source unknown (*) Sanskrit titles with the sign * are restored from the Chinese materials. 357) = Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra) ed. XIII. ed. Fragment. No. Lamotte) = Saddharmapundarîkasūtra. XIV. by E.J. ed. No. Kern & B. XII. 224) = Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (Taisho. 397 (3)) = Ratnagotravibhāga = * Sadāyātanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśisūtra) = Sāgaramatipariprcchā (Taisho. PTS Edition) = Sandhinirmocanasūtra (Tib. No. Nozawa. Tib. ed. 1595) t = Mahāvyutpatti (Wogihara's Edition) = Prajñâpāramitā = Ratnacūdasūtra (Taisho. . 310 (23)) = Lañkāvatārasūtra. 397 (1-2)) = Gaganagañjāsūtra (Taisho. 397 (5)) = Āryaśrîmālāsûtra (Taisho. Part I. 475) = Vijñaptimâtratā-trimśikā. No. No. No. by V. Taisho. Levi. TAKASAKI = Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (Skt. Nanjio = Tathāgatagarbhasūtra (Taisho. tr.

R. but others. I wish to express my gratitude to Prof. Poona. H. author. It consists of two parts. under the auspices of the Indian Government. I felt it a great honour. from August 1954 to January 1957. kindly made suggestions.. are not touched upon in this volume. Dr.A. while the second consists of a Japanese translation of the Sanskrit text. V. V. and other Japanese scholars too numerous to mention in the matter of doctrinal interpretation. Prof. Ui. Nakamura of the University of Tokyo (my faculty adviser in the Post-Graduate Course). since I felt my work inadequate and the presentation of it in English imperfect.. 1963. G. Prof. Alex Wayman of Berkeley. U. Ui. Gokhale who instructed me in reading the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the text throughout the two and half years of my stay in India and to Prof.S. It is indeed with deep regret that I must note the passing away of Dr. Therefore. I owe much to his interpretation in modifying my translation. published the « Hoshoron Kenkyū» (A study of the Ratnagotravibhāga) in 1959. H. Some are involved with the present work. Tucci. an eminent Japanese Indologist. and was submitted to the University of Poona as a doctoral dissertation.PREFACE The present volume was originally prepared under the guidance of Prof. Dr. In the meanwhile I wrote several articles related to the text. Dr.D. Wayman. but I could not immediately respond to this kind proposal. etc. Ui on July 14. Ten years have passed since I started work on this volume. I would like to give a list of my articles so far published in order . Fortunately. Karmarkar of the Bhandarkar Institute from whom I received much guidance on Indian philosophy and the Sanskrit language in general. I also must acknowledge the helpful suggestions given to me by Dr. Chinese translator. who was one of the examiners of my dissertation. Gokhale of the Fergusson College (presently of the University of Delhi) during my stay at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. kindly suggested that I publish my work in the Serie Orientale Roma. especially those written after sending the manuscript to Rome for printing. doctrinal and canonical references. When I was awarded the degree in September 1958. The first part consists of a critical and detailed studies on the text. Y. V. although points on which I disagreed with him are kept intact.

Vol. >». compiled by Nakamura and K. Appendix III). gunavattva. Kawada. Introduction. prasāda. 48-53. (This is an article in which the structure and significance of a set of three terms on faith. IS. « A Comment on the Term Ārambana in the Ratnagotravibhāga. IV. 86-109. n. VII-1. (cf. 20] in relation to śraddhā. Chap. pp. 14cf. p. Vol. 1962. astitva. 382. «Kegon-kyogaku to Nyoraizo-shiso» (in Jap. V.) (The Hua-yen osophy and the Tathāgatagarbha Theory — Development of the L of gotrasarnbhava in India — ) . Komazawadaigaku-Kenkiyo (Fac. «Kegon Shiso». Vol. Mar. n. Kyoto. P.). 155. 1960. pp. II and Appendix I). Nihon kyogakkai Nempo.) (The Texual cture of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the Supposed Form of Its Ori1 Text). JIBS. Introion. Mar. 7. Introduction. adhimukti. Chap.4). Vol. p. 1958. JIBS. Mar. pp. 275-332. 25. pp. « Nyoraizo-setsu ni okeru Shin no Kozo » (in Jap. TAKASAKI to cover the shortcomings of the present volume. (cf. « Tenne» (in Jap. « AMUKTAJNA no Gogi ni tsuite» (in Jap. 4. Vol. 144. Chap. «Structure of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Wu-shang-i-ching)». Chap. 163. Introduction. 8. 1964. viz. Translation. Jan. pp. 1. 3. pp.) (On the Meaning be Term amuktajña). JIBS.) (The Struce of Faith in the Tathāgatagarbha Theory). abhisampratyaya. If the reader has further interest on the subject. Dec. 26-33. No. Mar. VI-1. (cf.J. 186-190. pp. 24-33. and abhilāsa are traced back to Abhi- . I hope that they will consult these articles. Translation. «The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and Ratnagotravibhāga — with special Reference to the Term ' tathāgataisambhava' — ». 1958. of. (cf. 2. 30-37. IX-2. § 7). § 3. 3 mentioned ye). Mar. 22. JIBS. I l l .IV. The Journal of Religious Studies. 1958. § 7) 6. No. (a detailed investigation of the same subject as No. 9. Mar. Vol. 1961. Translation. 168-171). VIII-2. pp. Buddhism). « Description of the Ultimate Reality by means of the Six Catees in Mahāyāna Buddhism ». 1960. 89-110.) (Aśrayaparivrtti and āśrayaparāvrtti). 1960. 23. chanda. and śaktatva [cf. X-2. pp. 5. « Kugyoichijohoshoron no Kozo to Genkei» (in Jap. etc.

the responsibility of the final result rests solely with the author. In conclusion I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the professors mentioned above for their valuable assistance and encouragement without which I could never have brought the book to completion. the close relationship between the Ratnagotravibhāga and Paramārtha's said translation is made clear after picking up the parallel passages in both texts. TAKASAKI. 25 th August 1964. Antonio Gargano. etc. might have contributed little to the development of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. especially Prof. . the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhyā. the Vij ñaptimātratā-trimśikā--bhāsya. However. V. pp. Tokyo. Yūki for his Sixtieth Birthday. M. J. and that Vasubandhu. who set my rather complicated manuscript into print and gave it a nice arrangement.. including works of the Vijñānavāda such as the Mahāyānasamgraha—bhāsya.O. (JIBS = Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies). as well as those of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory such as the Ratnagotravighāga. the Buddhagotraśāstra and Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyāna samgraha-bhāsya.The Ratnagotravibhāga dharma Buddhism. Tokyo. 241-264.) (The Tathāgatagarbha Theory Appearing in Paramārtha's Translation of the Mahay ānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu). cf. In conclusion. consequently deprived of his authorship on the said parts as well as on the Buddhagotraśāstra. § 2. 1964. Chap. " Bukkyo Shiso Ronshū " — Commemoration Volume for Prof. Introduction. (In this article. « Shintai-yaku Shodaijoron-Seshin-shaku ni okeru Nyoraizo Setsu» Jap. the author suggested that the additional parts of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya unique to Paramārtha's translation are probably written by Paramārtha himself on the knowledge of the Ratnagotrabvibhāga as he might have done the same with the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarāśrâyasūtra.. R. I also wish to acknowledge with many thanks the troubles taken in the past three years by the people at Is.3). and the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarâśrayasūtra as well.E.) 10.

INTRODUCTION .

Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna 54 54 57 61 . The Commentary and Later Additions Keypoint of the Discourse 1. 4 Aspects of the Germ 3. The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 45 2. its Text. and the Vijñānavāda 3. The Anuttarâśrayasūtra 49 4. and Traditions concerning the Author 1. 10 10 12 18 19 20 20 23 26 32 32 34 35 36 37 39 40 Works on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory Contemporary with or Succeeding the Ratna 45 1. Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa 3. V . The Âryaśrīmālāsūtra 6. Supposed Form of the Original Text 4. Basic Text and Commentary 2. Buddhajñāna in the Avatamsaka 4. . The Ratna. in Mahāyāna Buddhism 1. . Translation. Ratnagotra. The Buddhagotraśāstra 47 3. The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 7. Chinese Account of the Basic Verses 3. Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga 2. as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā 2. Text 2. the Germ of the Three Jewels 2. The Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra 5 5 6 . The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 5. The Ratna. Translations & Traditions concerning the Author The Structure of the Text 1. The Absolute Genealogy of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory 1.INTRODUCTION CONTENTS PACK The Ratnagotravibhāga. The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra 53 The Position of the Ratna.

. M. Litt. No.I. S. they used the name " Ratnagotrctr-śāstra" as its title. quite recently that the Sanskrit manuscripts were discovered and critically edited l j . 3 > " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra in Sanskrit". D. H. the work of Ārya Maitreya with a commentary by Āryâsañga ". ITS TEXT. being a Manual of Buddhist Monism. XIII-5. This edition is based upon two Mss. and seen through the press and furnished with indexes by T. Rāhula Sāñkrtyāyana in Tibet. p. see JBORS. W. 34 (VII. A. Vol.O. 1931. op. and this title was justified by the discovery of a Sanskrit fragment in Saka script in which we find the title "Ratnagotravibhāga". 31 (III. v. It was. it was known only through the Tibetan and Chinese versions.. however. fn. XXI. 1935. H. vol. D.. Chowdhury. p. iii & iv. The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāśtra. 2. *' E. Vol. 2 ' " The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation. H. Bailey & E. ed. x . THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA. About the Mss. Johnston. parts ii.Text. the discoverer of this fact and the editor of the Sanskrit edition of this text. The reason for this will be made clear afterwards. ' will be used for this p. AND TRADITIONS CONCERNING THE AUTHOR § 1. Salu monastery. vol. H. 86 & 87. however. IX. The first introducer of this text to the world of modern study was Dr. E. E. ) The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra. is one of the treatises on the Mahāyāna doctrine written in Sanskrit. XI-5. Johnston. No. Salu monastery. This seems quite reasonable and I followed him in this study. Johnston. on which this present study is made. by H. (hereafter the abbreviation ' J .. 242). Before then. Acta Orientalia. p t . TRANSLATION. . 3 ) Dr.. by E. found by Rev. The reference is to pp. 43) and XXIII. Part 1. cit.S. suggested the use of " Ratnagotravibhāga " as the proper title showing the main subject of this text 4) . Johnston. Obermiller who translated the Tibetan version into English and made this text famous under the title of " Uttaratantra" according to the Tibetan tradition 2 ) . 1950. Patna. VIII. In China.

2) they are identified almost completely with the Tibetan version. . Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan-bcos rnam—par-bśad-pa {Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra-vyâkhyā).. Johnston passed away before completing his learned analysis of this text. the first one consists merely of verses in the Ratna. although it is called vyākhyā. by Bloldan—śes—rab (Matiprajna) at Srinagar in Kashmir under the guidance of Kashmiri an pandits. according to the colophon of these translations. though it differs from the Sanskrit edition in several passages. and consequently the latter. Johnston's critical edition.J. especially of the latter. 4025. about the end of the 11th . I have found some words and passages to be corrected in the light of the Tibetan and Chinese translations. the basic text of my English translation. Besides this. Some notable points for the present study are: 1) they belong to a considerably later period in comparison with the date of the Chinese translation. On the other hand. I have nothing to add here to Johnston's description as I have had no chance to examine them. Ratnavajra and Sajjana. The second one is a full translation of the Sanskrit text. so that we can further consider the authorship and date of the Ratna. it will be necessary to refer to the translations in Tibetan and Chinese. will cast some new light on the implications of this text in Mahāyāna Buddhism. 4024. Nevertheless. 2. in Tibetan Tanjur: 1. and should continue to give it critical study. I believe my work. Tohoku Catalogue No. § 2. TAKASAKI About the manuscripts. has its importance because of its antiquity. references will be made to traditions about the author in Tibet and China. Prior to describing the contents of the Ratna. however faulty. sub-sources of the present work. Both were translated. There are two versions of the Ratna. Tohoku Catalogue No. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan—bcos {Mahay āna-uttaratantra-śāstra). and 3) no mention of the name of the author leaves room for taking the Chinese tradition into consideration.Translation and Traditions concerning the Author. Buddhist scholars should regret that Dr. shows his remarkable skill in editing Sanskrit manuscripts and is an excellent contribution to Buddhist scholarship. probably of the same source as the present manuscripts. in the absence of any material in the Sanskrit manuscripts.

A. 7) will be assured of its date in the same century . the references to the Tibetan version are made according to this edition with the abbreviation. nothing is mentioned anywhere else. ) I have intention to edit this work and have already asked for permission to the authority of the Jayaswar Research Institute. > Sde-dge Edition.D. p. there are said to be two translations. Calcutta 1949. the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. pp. Roerich. Vol.). one by Ratnamati and the other by Bodhiruci.' or ' T '. which. 86-89. Hereafter. MDO XLIV. G. as one of " five treatises written by Bodhisattva Maitreya. and the point is undecided. and regards the Ratna. too. 347-350. A. the capital of the Northern Wei dynasty. Vol. in the period between the 8th. This name Sajjana reminds us of the author of the Mahay ānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. cit. 328. XXI.e. i. About the authorship of Asañga on the commentary. Tucci who has got another photographic copy of the same Ms. 5 ) . 8 > Tib. According to the K'ai-yuan che—chiao mo-lu (||f] jfc Tpp i^ |=J pf. as the work of Bodhisattva Maitreya 1 0 ) . 511 A. For the date and personage of Blo-ldan śes-rab. 6 ) This work was reported by Rāhula Sāmkrtyāyana as one of three Mss. the verse section of the Ratna. 68). at Lo-yang. 325-6. 129 a 5. Patna and to Prof.). I t was tran- slated by |Ratnamati (*$] ffi | | | Jj|-) in c. No. If we can identify both names. op. however. The present Chinese Tripitaka retains one translation of the Ratna. and probably in India.Uttara— ekayāna-ratnagotra-śāstra) (Taisho. 1Q ) " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra". 81 f. an ancient Chinese catalogue of the Tripitaka (730 A. pp. to Ācārya Asañga (Slob—dpon Thogs-med) 8). his date is 1059-1109 A. Tibetan tradition attributes the first one. According to the translator's calculation. 129 a 5 ff. Chinese tradition offers a different name as to the author. Part I. p. of which nothing is known except what Johnston tells us. entitled " Chiu— ching yi-cWeng pao—sing-lun " ( 9 ^ Jfa. Ngor monastery. This attribution to Maitreya of the verse section is traced in the Saka script fragment referred to above. ' Tib. No. of the Ratna. (hereafter the abbreviation ' O '. 9 ) See.The Ratnagotravibhāga cent. 33 (IV.D. not only in Tibet but also in Central Asia. will be used for this p. 1611). This shows that Maitreya was regarded as the author of the Ratna. and 12th cent.D. (This is an English translation of a history of Tibetan Buddhism called Deb-ther sñon-po. Obermiller. to Ārya Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa) and the prose commentary (vyākhyā in the second). (Tohoku University Copy). The Blue Annals. 5 . see George N.D. 31. given as Satyajñāna by Johnston from the Patna manuscript 6) . '—* PPI j § ! f^î pR8 •> ^. p .).D. VIII-6. quotes the opening verse and the first few verses of Chapter I I I in the Ratna. See JBORS. being bis ultimate doctrine based upon the Prajñāpāramitā " 9) .

proclaiming Bodhiruci and Ratnamati as the nominal founder of each branch. 3-16. U i . The record of the K'aiyuan—lu is perhaps created by misreading of these catalogues.). The branch of Southern Path of the Ti-lun school. founded by a pupil of Ratnamati. and this division is said to have had its root in the differences of opinions due to the interpretation of the relation between 4 ālayavijñāna' and ' tathāgatagarbha' or ' tathatā'14). The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (First Indian Edition. but later on. 4 vols. _C JH p B PJT j/E l/îît _>C 3Z Î^P (two treatises mentioned above are also translated by R Bodhiruci). 866 6-c: + ^ 6 M Iffl + H ^ (DaŚabhū- mikasūtraśāstra.). these two ) J. 714 a. because of the differences of opinions between them. and there might be room for such misreading in the circumstances of Chinese Buddhism in those days. âfî ^ (tnis an §^r I Jffii jlffl " S ΫE TT ^ ^ JC are also translated by Bodhiruci). No. N o . Nai~t'en~lu. the Ta-fang nei-fen-lu (^J^ Jflf p^J jBL Śg|ç .D. 540 b. 637 6. ) Ibid. However. 114. fjfjg) school based upon the Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra of Vasubandhu divided into two branches. p p . d tne Daśabhūmika. a few years after the date of translation of the Ratna. Taisho.). where the record mentioned above concerned two other works. Li-tai san- pao-chi. a missing catalogue compiled in c. Vol. p. 2154. Takakusu. Hoshoron-kenkyū ( i n J a p a n e s e ) . and there is no evidence of Bodhiruci's translation of the Ratna. the Ti-lun (ifcjfl. p. the Daśabhūmikasūtra-śāstra and the Ratnakūtasūtra-śāstra. This record seems reliable at a glance since it is said to be taken from the Pao-cK'ung-lu ( ^ fl|jj sift). 4 i i tathāgatagarbha ' against vijñaptimātratā ' and ālayavijñāna ' of the Fahsiang ( ^ ^Q) school founded by a disciple of Hsiiang-chuang ( ^ ^^)« Thus Ratnamati and Bodhiruci were standing opposite to each other. 49. 5|* ^jp^ | a i Sffl 29 ^§? (Ratnakūtasūtraśāstra t_. 608 c-609 a. caused in later days the rise of the Hua-yen (3J£ Jjg. Bodhiruci made his own translation separately 1 2 ) . 541 a-6. Avatamsaka) school which emphasizes ' cittamātra ' theory of the Avatamsaka-sûtra along with ' dharmadhātu '. 690 6. Cf. as the result of critical examination of this record. 12 vols. TAKASAKI which is lost now n ) . 518 A. 540 b. 55. T o k y o . Furthermore it is said that both translators collaborated at the beginning. 55. No. at all 1 3 ) . Vol. but upon the preceding catalogues such as the Li~tai-san~pao~chi (||f /f^ zL 5H $2» ^97 A. Taisho.D. 664 A. H ^ 1 14 (Hatnagotra-sastra.. 2149. p p .. . 2034. Namely. ^ flt M Iw » H %. 1956).D. Vol.). 13 12 ) H . and "> Taisho.J . it is clarified that the catalogue was not directly based upon the Pao-ch'ung-lu. 269 b: + ft& M tiffl ? ^ £ S i Pit 5? ft Ira. 1959.

on the line of the Vijñānavāda. 44. one heing that of the basic verses and the other the commentator on it. and 2) the whole work including the prose section but excluding certain number of verses in the Kārikā text. 63 c. This report. The reason is that there is no name of the author in the Chinese translation nor in any of the old catalogues. namely: 1) the Kārikā text. Vol. As will be made clear afterwards. ^ ifsl). and this translation consists actually of two parts. we may say Sāramati was believed to be the author of the Ratna. No. to settle this problem. Here one may naturally call to mind the Tibetan tradition. Sāramati ($$ | g ^ jg. was ' a Bodhisattva on the first stage ' (jfcjjî. From this fact we feel the need of assuming the existence of. he did not do it. At least. p. takes the theory of the tathāgatagarbha as its basic standpoint and is highly estimated by Fa-tsang O?Jc līJc)' t n e ^rd patriarch of the Hua-yen school. _£. was not recognized as the authority for the Chinese Vijñānavādins. Actually however. at least. This Kārikā text is quite different from that of the Tibetan version. 1626 and 1627. the Ratna. seems to be unchangeable. there remains some doubt. in Central Asia. > Ta-cVeng-fa-chieh-wu-cKa-pieh-lun-chu Taisho.). heard by Fa-tsang from Devaprajña (%£ ^§g mC ^jrf) the translator of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and a monk come from Khotan. in China. As far as the Chinese tradition is concerned. born in Central India 7 centuries after the Buddha's Mahāparinirvāna as a member of a Ksatriya clan who after learning Buddhism. > Taisho.. Still. the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and others16>.. an extract of certain verses in the Ratna. is reliable to some extent. But. till the end of the 7th cent.D. 16 15 . Nos. in that it omits those verses which seem to be supplementary to the basic verses. we should examine the whole contents and characteristics of this Ratna. 1838. was thought not to be an orthodox Vijñānavādin such as Asañga and Vasubandhu. probably due to the fact that the author of the Ratna. in Sanskrit. the authorship of Sāramati on the Ratna. A. And we cannot find any other tradition concerning the author of the Ratna.The Ratnagotravibhāga this conflict between them led people to imagine that Bodhiruci could translate the Ratna. We shall now proceed to the next stage. And it was he who left the record on the authorship of the Ratna. wrote the Ratnagotravibhāga uttaratantraśāstra. and since then the Ratna. He said in his commentary on the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa-śāstra (yC PPI VC W' vKi : ā i /Vi z Ing) 15> that Bodhisattva Kien-huei ( § ^ jjj). two authors on the Ratna.

while another part. I. 14. this verse. If we take such verses as I. persecution of the Buddhists by the Huns. There are also a C. 4. 4 & 9 to be typical. The verse I. the commentary. 820 c. In other words. In most cases. the basic part of this text is merely of verses. we have another additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text in the last chapter maintaining the respect for the teacher of the Doctrine (dharmabhānaka). I. and for this. is a combination of the basic text and a commentary thereon. More precisely. is in verse and in prose and the prose section of the commentary which follows the commentary verse or verses explaining their meaning with quotations from various sūtras is quite detailed in Chapter I. The fact that Paramārtha's translation of the 17) [ 10 ] . the first 18 verses in that text are to be omitted from this line as they are not available in either Sanskrit or Tibetan versions. in verse and in prose. it offers us a fairly good account of the basic verses. the Chinese Kārikā text is one of the aids for determining them. too.g. we may be able to compile the Kārikā-text of the Ratna. we find that the Chinese Kārikā text gives a fairly good account of those verses which are basic or original. To clarify this characteristic. 4 which expresses devotion to the ' buddharatna' as the refuge (śarana) is followed by v. e. but quite scanty for other chapters. p. or something like that. while the verse section consists again of two parts. I. the present text of the Ratna. Besides these 18. one basic. Then the text proceeds to the next subject. and the other supplementary. 9 followed by commentary verses and a prose commentary with a structure similar to that of v. 5 with a prose explanation of it and the latter is again explained in detail by the following three verses and a prose commentary which continues up to p. As its idea matches that of the 18 introductory verses.. 1.II. THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT § 1. The peculiarity of the Ratna. let us take an example from the text. the ' dharma-ratna '. Emphasis on the respect for the ' dharmabhānaka' was probably a reflection of the historical circumstances in those days. lies in the fact that it consists of two parts. For example. seems to be composed by the translator 17>. They seem to be written by the Chinese translator. But we cannot accept the whole text as basic. including the example given above. That much is regular in Buddhist literatures. beginning with v. — Basic Text and Commentary. 10. From the structural point of view.

which retains Ratna. can ' śloka ' be construed as one kind of metre. I. it seems to be a quotation from some old canonical work. e. ' maharsi ' is used for the Bodhisattva). it is said: Uktah śāstra-sambandhah // Idānīm ślokānām artho vaktavyab J — / atas tat-prathamato buddha— ratnam adhikrtya ślokah / And. 270 a-b). I. And.9. So the third assumption has no inconsistency. missing in the Chinese version. furthermore.g. . It shows the fact t h a t the passage up to ' uktah śāstra—sarnbandhah / ' is the introduction by the commentator who thereafter begins to explain the meaning of the ' ślokas'. 4 as the first basic verse is identical with t h a t in the Chinese Kārikā text (except the 18 verses referred to above).The Ratnagotravibhaga certain number of verses whose originality is doubtful to judge from the contents. Only one thing we can say definitely: those verses which are omitted from the Chinese Kārikā-text are by no means the original ones. Neither the Chinese Kārikā text nor the use of the word i śloka ' can give the final account of the basic verses. have the Anustubh metre except for v. omits this verse is another powerful proof in support of this supposition. p. however. I. which are called ' śloka ' in the text. XXX. the basic verses. I. Can we ascribe it to the commentator's caprice or forgetfulness of the rule ? Shall we assume another commentator in order to explain this change of style ? Again. and V. in the heading to that verse. 156-157 where the prose commentary disappears except for headings. and I feel no necessity to change my former supposition. IV. This is no doubt a kind of selection. This limited usage of the word ' śloka ' becomes. the commentary seems to be called the ' Slokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna' as appeared in the colophons of Chapters I. II. i. it is said: Ato buddha-ratnād adhikrtya ślokah / dharma-ratna-prabhāvaneti tad-anantaram tad— This word ' śloka ' is not used for the supplementary verses in these cases. and the word ' śloka"1 is used for both basic and supplementary verses. How to interpret this confusion seems not so simple. i. but these two are certainly the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. Being the explanation of the meaning of śloka. in turn. and v. 1. 73. 16-28 at the end of the work (Taisho. we should seek for other grounds. confused after vv. V. Anustubh7 when it is used for the commentary verses? 1 8 ) One of these three possibilities must be in point. e. because of a unique terminology used in this verse (e. 4 is the first verse for which the word ' śloka' is applied. but to go beyond this. which is. 4. as the heading to v. 18 ) All the commentary verses in Chapters II-V. Prior to v. this selection of v.

First of all. 35. 35. 9. They express the fundamental doctrine of this text and maintain a fairly archaic metre. 18-20. For them. 4. there will be no objection if we regard them as the 'basic verses.J . vv. vv. 19) . 8 categories in regard to the ' nirmalā tathatā' i. Through their classification into certain groups. II. vv. and whose terSometimes. of the same character. It shows. they have independent meaning and are understandable by themselves19). they are followed by the supplementary verses. The structure presents no doubt as to its originality. 30. 30. except for verses with the sign ' *'. Not all of them are. The result is as follows: Chapter I. 1*. 45. Furthermore. In this way. . 9*. we shall evaluate all verses in the Chinese Kārikā-text. 79.Chinese Account on the Basic Verses. I. 13. 69. require some more careful examination. the * dharmakāya ' and without other supplementary and explanatory verses. 38-41. (1) Chapter IV. itself has no independent meaning.' The verses with the sign ' * '. we shall try to reconstruct the original text of the Ratna. TAKASAKI most powerful bases for the selection. 47. according to the commentator. the subject word is ' jinagarbho 'yam ' in v. 29. 49. 1. 1-2. the point at issue is whether or not the author of the original text tried such categorization. 156-157. (4) Chapter V. e. 16-25*. let us pick up those verses which are called ' śloka ' in the Sanskrit text. (14) Chapter III. all are doubtless of genuine character in their contents as well as their style. Except for the 19 verses referred to above. vv. e. however. 42 & 45. mentioned in the Chinese Kārikā text but called merely ' uddāna' in the Sanskrit text. 8 2. the same categories are repeated in different terminology. this verse is followed by the commentary in prose and verse. 29. and those verses which are found in the Chinese Kārikā text and called ' śloka ' will be accepted as basic. I. (16) In this table.g. On these points. a series of verses expresses a united meaning under one subject word. 8. Formally. 62. 3. 84. 52-63. 66. 1. all the verses in the Chinese Kārikā text are found in the Sanskrit text. vv. vv. i And in this commentary verse called uddāna ' (summary). This verse is of doubtful originality for the following reason. 1-6. (27) Chapter II. 23. 42. however. 1) v. 13* 41*. 45. This question is posed regarding v.

29 and II. the first six. the categorization of the tathāgatagarbha into 10 aspects also will be denied of originality. the commentary sentence preceding this verse says: pūrvataram tu yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tadarthasūcanam bhavati. § |ft H f& .verses on the See note on my translation. 1. And those verses explaining the 9 examples are. This verse. ' sūtrasthānīya—śloka ' (a stanza based upon the scripture) and the following verses illustrating the examples in detail are called i vistaravibhāganirdeśa '. viz. Ill. hetu. II. Therefore the question is to be limited to the categorization itself. and are actually taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. 2) v. v. the commentary verse on v. The omission of that verse therefore. Furthermore. p. including v. 9. I. 361 a). by the commentator. illustrated in the Tathāgatagarbhasûtra and utilized in Chapter I. of rather doubtful originality. Of them. although it retains a comparatively old terminology 20) . against the Chinese tradition. 2. tad apy adhikrtya nirdeksyāmi / This ' nirdeksyāmi ' (I will explain) is immediately followed by ' uddānam '. Of the terms used for such categorization in w . there is no doubtful point. depends on the originality of the latter verses. ' sdom-ni \ C. 2. . 13.' In comparison with v. II. A further discussion will be made below along with examination of these illustrations. as will be set forth below. IX. In the same way. IV. II. 30. See Appendix III. 1 from the line of original verses. Ill. 96-98. there is no scope to treat this as original. This verse is composed with a view to succeeding detailed explanations of 9 examples of defilements which cover the tathāgatagarbha. e. 2. and hence. however. About its structural character. regardless of the author. II. IV. 4 is called ' uddāna ' according to the Tibetan and Chinese versions though not mentioned in the Sanskrit text 21\ In fact. this v. are identical with those used in the Sūtrâlañkāra (commentary on vv. I. we incline to omit v. 29 seems clearly to be a commentary verse. 4 and vv. 3) v. in showing 10 categories of the ' tathāgatagarbha. verses to be similarly considered are v. I. 13. 59-60) and in the Yogācārabhūmi (on 'śabda-vidyā\ Taisho. al 20) > T. and vrtti.The Ratnagotravibhāga urinology is exactly the same as v. svabhāva. all of these. phala. it cannot be understood independently. Hence. 29. yoga. It is called. expects the existence of detailed explanation which follows this verse. 9. As a consequence of denying the originality of v. karman. II. like v. XII-11. II. i. This seems to show that such categorization was commonly held for any subject. I. are ' uddāna1 . Without a knowledge of those explanations.

99-126. even though it was kept out of the table. taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. this one is in the series of verses illustrating 9 examples on the acts of the Buddha. 29 and. and 3) vv. they are to be termed ' sūtrasthānīya-udâharana '-verses. 96-98. with some hesitation. 34-35. 27 are included. I. 5) vv. 41. In this sense. is clearly a commentary verse and possibly the original Sanskrit text had a heading between these two verses. 5—26. In this sense.S A JVl illustrations taken from certain scriptures. and because of this characteristic. and is so important that we cannot imagine the contents of this text without. It expresses the fundamental idea of the Ratna. 4. and v. 16-25. 27. those verses mentioned in the table without the sign ' * ' except for vv. 1 are also to be cancelled. the possibility of their being original depends on the originality of the illustrating verses which follow them. V. As far as the structure is concerned. Actually. namely: 1) vv. III. I will divide these verses discussed above into two groups: 'pure'—śloka and ' uddāna—śloka''. There is one verse to be taken as basic. They have no original idea of the author but are merely ' newly composed verses' by the author out of the basic scripture. I. this verse. but the Chinese commentary says in the heading: " a s it is said in the Kārikā text (yathoktam śloka. On the other hand. 9 remain of doubtful position. 67-68. 16-25. 88. they are no doubt basic. the second group includes w . I. 28. 4) v. 9 udāharanas on the Buddha's Acts. V. I.X J\SS. 2) vv. taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. 27-30. and v. This is the three series of verses to be called ' udāharana' taken from certain scriptural passages. There is another kind of verses among the Chinese Kārikā text.J\. these verses differ from those in the first group in their being taken from a scriptural passage. I. 41. II. IV. 27. but the Tibetan and the Chinese texts do not. based upon the Ratnadārikāpariprcchā. I. v. The headings for these verses are missing in the Sanskrit text but the Tibetan and Chinese versions retain them well. The Sanskrit text shows ' śloka ' before this verse. In the first group. we cannot call them ' genuine ' to this text in the same degree. 9 udāharanas on the Essence of Buddhahood covered with defilements. IY. Ill. v. It is v." On the other hand. though it follows immediately after v. In general. ī.or kārikā-granthe). explanations on the 64 buddhagunas. 55-57. Both the Chinese and Tibetan versions have confusion in arranging this passage. 71-76. 13 as being & sūtrasthānīya-uddānaS Verses II. and we have no need to discuss its originality separately. 44-52 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). & 89-91. 64-67 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). As the result of examination. From the structural point [ 14 ] .

it is difficult to decide whether the verses were added after the Chinese translation was made or whether the Chinese translator omitted them intentionally 2 3 ). 4. It contains actually more than 32 marks and some of them are not available in works such as the Abhisamayâlañkāra. 69-70 in the 6th udāharana. 102. We have another kind of question for Chapter IV. attributed to Maitreya. one thing to be noted is the counting of the 32 ' mahāpurusalaksana ' in Chap. The third case is less simple than the previous ones.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a of view. vv. and verses 59—62 along with a heading are clearly the later additions because of their contents and style. vv. against Tibetan tradition. seem to belong to somewhat later days in comparison with the * pure ''-śloka group. Of these omissions. It seems to show that even the Ratnadārikāsūtra is composed after Maitreya and as far as this part is concerned. and vv. Of those verses contained in this passage. v. 76. 14-26 in the first udāharana. 113. furthermore. III.1. As this part is among the series of i udāharana '. Note that such repetition of the same idea is seen in the udāharana verses in I. v. 12. The Chinese Kārikā text omits a fairly large number of verses which are kept among the udāharana-xerses in the Sanskrit text and. they seem not to be the commentator's work. This last point will be proved by the examination of the third case. 88 is placed in the Chinese version immediately after v. It is in the passage between p. 1. 53-54 in the 4th. 112. however. In this connection. 42-43 in the 3rd. and the Prajñāpāramitāśāstra attributed to Nāgārjuna. vv. 1 and p. if not. sometimes it also changes the order. Maitreya was not the author. as they are followed by a certain number of verses showing ' udāharanānām pindârthah \ The question is whether the same author of the 4 pure ' —ślokas had a share in composing this group of verses or not. The second case concerns vv. 104. And. In the first case. In each example these verses have the same contents as those kept in the Chinese Kārikā text. although it agrees with the Ratnadārikāsūtra22). we shall be obliged to suppose the existence of a second author between the author of ' pure ' -ślokas and that of the commentary. 31— 33 in the 2nd. 89-91.1. the verses 36-40 along with the passage between p. at the end of the first udāharana with a heading saying: anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti. and vv. 20 and p. 63 in the 5th. . It depends more or less on the reliability of the Chinese Kārikā text as showing the original form of the text. according to the Sanskrit ' note on 23 * Chapter 22 Detailed comparison on each ' mark ' among various scriptures is given in my the equivalent passage in the English translation. 1. all the udāharana groups and hence the uddāna group as well. The first one is.

See H.J. op. p.). the sūtra has a summarized verse on this point. The Journal of Religious Studies.. 88 must have represented them in the basic text for the Chinese translation. the second Chinese translation. 46 (3rd ud. it poses another question about the omission of v. Ui. and at the end of the 4th ud. 41 does for the 2nd: 2) The Jñānâlokâlāñkārasūtra. in Jap. the anutpādânirodhatā of the Buddha is repeated at the end of every udāharana up to the 4th. but is kept in the basic text of C. If we admit such an omission by the Chinese translator himself.. (" The textual structure of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the supposed form of its original text " . This verse occupies the same position for the 6th udāharana as v. 85-87 and v. The verse in the said sūtra is as follows: 24) [ 16 ] . TAKASAKI text. But why was only one of the four kept in the Chinese version ? V. 8587 with the heading must be the result of misundertanding of the role of v. 155). 70 in the Chinese Kārikā text. this ' udāharana—samgraha seems to be a later addition since its terminology is never seen in other passages and this part is situated after the udāharana—pindârtha of 9 examples. whether they belong to the Kārikā text as the Chinese version does. or to the commentary as in the case of the Sanskrit text. one of 4 ślokas which show the udāharana—samgraha.e. i. Addition of vv. v. i. the omission in the second case in general will also be ascribed to the Chinese translator and the reliability of the Chinese version will decrease. those omissions in the second case may be added to the Udāharana group. There must have taken place an artificial selection by the Chinese translator. Difference of metre between vv. e.25) and conI have previously expressed my opinion that the whole of this passage is a later interpolation. vv.: and C omitted the three verses by mistake. 25) In the said sūtra. e. this summarized verse comes immediately after the 1st ud. [In the oldest version of the sūtra. the problem is not of their genuine character but of their place in the text. Ui's opinion. 88 is a verse which shows the significance of the three udāharanas beginning with the 7th. and as a result. i. the basic scripture for the 9 udāharanas. As for the next ones. 265. ' bhājana-vimātratāyārn' before v. etc. Such a kind of verse is observed in every udāharana up to the 6th with a special heading like ' atatprahitānām ātmâparādhe ' before v. Here I have corrected it according to Dr. 89-91. 88 yields another proof for this supposition MK However. tr. has a similar verse between the udāharanas. No. Verses as such are lacking from the 7th to 9th udāharana in the present Sanskrit text. 88 as simple summarization of the three udāharanas by a certain Sanskrit copyist of later days. cit. As a whole.). The Chinese treatment is acceptable for the following reasons: 1) These verses show the significance of the 1st udāharana as v. 41 (2nd ud. in the absence of the illustrations of dundubhi and the following two. 88 for the 7th-9th.

84 which expects the existence of v. 18-20). 91: ayatnāt krtyam ity evam darśanâdi pravartate / dharmakāyād anutpādânirodhād ā bhavasthiteh jj v. 89-91 along with an additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text were originally kept at the end of the 1st udāharana but with slightly different terms in the second pāda of v. but unless we could reconstruct the original form of v.. 91.ibhāga tinuity between v. r T7 1 . As far as this point is concerned. especially the term i darśanâdi' in v. the Chinese version recovers its reliability to some extent. 9. we should treat vv. the Sanskrit copyist shifted them to the commentary. and one perceives this and that appearance (although) the dharmakāya has neither origination nor destruction and is eternal as long as the world exists. p . 11. ibid. 251 a) 26) 27 See a b o v e ( n . being a part of the udāharana—pindârtha. 84: ayarn ca prakrto ' trârtho navadhā darśanâdikam / janmântardhim rte śāstur anābhogāt pravartate // v. C. 91. 81: darśanādeśanā vyāptir vikrtir jñānanihsrtih / mano-vāk-kāyaguhyāni prāptiś ca karunâtmānām // M > For v. 1. the case was most probably as follows: vv. At the same time.. in the thought that the subject is not exclusive to the 1st udāharana but common to the whole passage. 84 and v. 25). p. however. It can be otherwise translated into the following way: This action takes place without effort. 112.The Ratnagotrav. 81 2 7 ) . however. 12. p . T h e Ratna. there remain some difficulties in accepting it. changing some words as seen in the present text and adding an explanatory heading (p. 240 6). 91 is akin to 4 navadhā darśanâdikam ' in v. Vol. 92 as given by the Chinese version seems to be consistent. 1) the subject 'anutpādânirodhatā'' of the Tathāgata is the basic point throughout Chap. ) v. 2) their contents and wording are quite like to the commentary verses.7 ( = Taisho. Namely. In view of the antiquity of the Chinese version. # (Taisho. Thus the Sanskrit text also can claim its reasonability of their treatment. IV as well as the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra 26) . 91 2 8 ) . but afterwards. 242 b) (ibid. 89-91 as the commentary verses. p.

B. Another way is to cut out all verses. TAKASAKI S 3 . it leaves us in some doubt regarding the inconsistency of numbers in each chapter or subject 29 ). I. & the C. starting with those in Chapter II as well as v. 2) the last verse of Chapter V. e. 9 and verses in the B. ' uddāna '-group. . in Chapter I. & C. This supposition. II. which express the ' deśanāprayojana\ can stand for a kind of conclusion and by this passage. 9. As the result of examination of the Chinese Karikā text.-groups as the secondary addition. . and regard the A. we can get 59 verses as original. Thereby. ' ślokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna '. i.Supposed Form of the Original Text. 23 of Chapter I from the line of the original verses. 9 as an insertion made simultaneously with the B. ' pure '-ś/o&a-group. 156-157. II. Strictly speaking. and 3) those verses retained in the Chinese Kārikā text are to be divided into 3 groups: A. 4) in Chapter IV some verses among the Sanskrit text are to be added to the C—group. There is no possibility of abridging the original form of the text more than this. udāharana '-group. but 2) it keeps a fairly good account of those verses which are ' not the commentary verses '. By this. are somewhat of later days. The reasons are 1) w . And even if the Chapters after II were the later M) It is. all kinds 4 of classification' are deprived of this text. increases the importance of the supposed second author with regard to establishing the system of the tathāgatagarbha theory as appearing in the present Sanskrit text. however. That is why I omitted v. One way to solve these problems is to treat v.—group as consisting of the original form of text. 25) which expresses the faith in the Buddha Amitāyus is not essentially connected with the contents of Chapter I. I. and C. Denial of the originality of chapters other than Chapter I consequently means the denial of the idea of the 4 aspects of the ratnagotra. (v. however. This seems consistent in its form. as it matches the use of the title of the commentary. The problems remaining after this examination are the treatment of v. In this way only 27 verses in Chapter I remain as original. of course. B. II. not necessary to presume the existence of a text with 3 chapters. even the existence of the Kārikā text of such form at the time when the Chinese translation was made is doubtful. the tathāgatagarbha being the ratnagotra is sufficiently explained.—and the C—group by the second author.J. we have arrived at the conclusion that 1) the Chinese Kārikā text does not stand for the original text. and the form of the original text. and regard them along with v. and 5) of these 3 groups. 23 from the line of original verses.

18-20. 1. 10 —p. C. B. 1. which will be referred to in the notes on my English translation. 104. probably 4) p. 108. will be mentioned in Appendix I. 64 (p. Its style is consistent throughout the text except for the fact that the prose commentary disappears after Chapter II. being the supposed form of the original text.The Commentary and Later Additions. p.. One thing to be noticed here are the omissions and additions in the Sanskrit text as compared with the Chinese version. 15 (before na hi jātu. 53. . they had been no doubt composed before the commentary was made. II. 16. 20 . 3-12. 1. 1.p. p. 8 (with a heading 'aparah ślokârthalj. In this sense. 1. p. I shall treat in my translation all the verses in the A. 825 b) 2) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. 112. 12 3) p. groups. 1. 50. 46. 1. 829 c-830 o) 3) a quotation on the parable of a castle taken from the Eatnacūdasūtra after ' nagarddāharaiiam/' on p. 31. 16 (C. 1. This fact is construed as indicating that the commentator attached the main importance to Chapter I. 843 c) 4) two commentary verses before v. 1-13. Additions 1) p. and felt no necessity for detailed comment on other Chapters. . and no explanation will be necessary for the present. 9 as the ' basic verses ' for commenting (it means neither original verses nor ' śloka 's) under the name oîikārikā '30>§ 4. 11. Most of these passages were already noticed by the editor of the Sanskrit text. the passages to be added to the commentary as missing in the Sanskrit text and subtracted from it as additions in later days. including v. 27 verses. Omissions 1) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. p. 2) p.'') — 10 verses and prose commentary. Other minor points with respect to the structure of the text will be noticed in each passage of the translation. 1. C. 102. There seems to be no difficult point to discuss about the commentary. r 30) in 1 .) (C. 51. 16 (before samsāraduhkha—) (C.The Ratnagotravibhāga addition. 832 c) B. are as follows: A. Besides small differences between them.

40. proved through the essential identification [advayatā) of various phenomena. feature. the word ' Absolute ' contains an idea somewhat different from that in Indian philosophy and hence it is not perfectly proper to use this word for expressing the idea which is to be discussed here. the so-called Hīnayāna Buddhism whose representative is the doctrine of the Sarvāstivādin may be characterized as Realism declaring each element (dharma) as real. This > Having come with connotations of Western philosophy. Geistes und Sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse. analyzing (vibhāga) the Absolute. In this respect. In other words.J . the difference of standpoint means: " to which aspect of the Absolute. 8). Jahrgang 1954. But since Buddhism denies the existence of such an eternal substance as Brahman. And each phenomenon. Still Buddhism has its own idea of something immutable (asamskrta). or Ultimate Entity from its aspect of ' ratnagotra '. I dared adopt the word ' Absolute ' as a general term for what is immutable in Buddhism. and this difference of standpoint gradually causes the division of various schools within Mahāyāna Buddhism. or form) of the Absolute. just because . Nr. in its philosophical approach. 99 (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. is the emphasis given in the text ? " In this sense. Glasenapp. S. there is a variety of forms. The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. and this variety of forms is due to the different emphasis in each text. See H. Though monism is one. Stcherbatsky. KEYPOINT OF THE DISCOURSE } 1. This work. Mahāyāna Buddhism. though its character is quite different from that of Brahman and there is no fixed term like Brahman to express it. through its being i identical' with the Absolute. every phenomenon has the characteristics of being 'real' and is 'identical' with each other as they stand for the Absolute in one of its various ' aspects' 32>. p. we may define the characteristics of this text as a treatise. the Germ of the 3 Jewels. v. 31 . — Ratnagotra. being a treatise on Mahāyāna Buddhism. the Brahman (or Atman) is nearer to the Absolute in Western philosophy in its character than what is corresponding to it in Buddhism. the use of the word' Absolute ' seems quite improper. TAKASAKI III. and itself has no reality. In the case of the Vedānta Philosophy. 32) On the other hand. is to be characterized as monistic in its philosophical approach. f its being merely an aspect (or face. > cannot he the Entity different from other phenomena. See Th. Buddhismus und Gottesidee. But. may generally be characterized as Monism (or Absolutism) which admits the unique Absoiute 3 1 ) or Ultimate Entity.

however. see Obermiller's introduction to the Uttaratantra. the Germ of the 3 jewels. Significance of ' gotra ' in the Brahmanical system was sought for by J. ' mine ' or ' matrix ' 3 5 ) . Calcutta. Vol. 'basis'. Indian Linguistics. 1. p.v. 18-19: bljaparyāyāh punar dhātur gotram prakrtir hetuh satkāya prapañca ālaya upādānam duhkham satkāyadrstyadhisthānam asmimānâdhisthānam cety evam bhāgiyāhparyāyā veditavyâh. by a common use. Eight Chapters on the Pāramitā. while 'ratnatraya\ its result. See Edgerton.' gotra ' means something original. and the Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-ka. p. 16. Sanskrit. and Chinese sources will be required. as synonyms of 'gotra' with the range of senses. by U. 'essence'. Raghavan ("Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit". but as it is merely based upon Tibetan information (the Gser-phreñ. and explained in the śloka (v. 72. I. ' origin '. ' cause '. 33) . In his opinion. Here. Cambridge. Bodhisattvabhūmi (ed. Wogihara). I. It gives a good summary of the development of the idea from the Vinaya to the Yogācāra system through the Sarvāstivāda and the Sautrāntika. and besides ' dhātu '. 1957). 322). ' clan ' or ' lineage ' 3 4 ) . and by this the contents of the text is fully expressed. ' mūla '. a more detailed and thorough investigation on this subject based upon the Pali. ' nidāna ' (for ' cause '). an objection is raised by V. p. the sphere of those who have the highest perception from which the pure 3 jewels rise. " The Early Brahmanical System of Gotra and Pravara. a commentary on the Abhisamayâlañkāra by Tsoñ-kha-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga is the significance of the title ' ratnagotravibhāga '. a Translation of the Gotra-pravara-mañjali of Purusottama-Pandita with an Introduction". 1. but the basic line of interpretation for this word among the Buddhist literatures is 'gotra' = ' dhātu ' = lhetu\ or ''gotra ' = ibīja' 33>. ' nidhāna '. 34 * ' Gotra ' is originally a term used in the Indo—Aryan society since the pre—Vedic age. ' sāra ' (for ' essence '). Abhidharmakośakārikā. gotra s. 'svabhāva\ iprakrti\ 'dharma ' (for ' nature '). Then. 6: gotram bljam ity apy ucyate. 24). in the word ' gotra '. Brough in his work. of Jam-yañ-shad-pa). As for the development of the idea of 'gotra'' within Buddhist thought. ' ākara ' (for ' m i n e ' ) . Journal of the Linguistic Society of India. and signifies usually an exogamous unit of families of the same lineage within the Brahmin clan. all of these senses are included. it is used in the sense of' germ '. The Ratna. 35) Edgerton regards the sense of 'a mine' as uniquely belonging to Buddhist texts. ' yoni\ ' garbha' (for 'matrix').'ground'. The word ' gotra' is one of the special terms difficult to be conveyed by any other language. (ed. 3. what is ' ratnagotra ' ? This word is interpreted by the commentator as ' gotram ratnatrayasya ' (v. and analogically. ' nidhi'. 20 (dhātu means gotra). BHS Die. Part 1. Actually. In India. ' hetu' and ibīja'. 23) as ' visayah paramârthadarśinām śubharatnasargako yatah '. and hence it may be translated into English by ' element'.. ' source '. Chatterjee Jubilee Volume. 11. or 'nature'. 26.10 (hetvartho'tra dhātvarthah). we can get various words such as ' pada '. Yogācārabhūmi. this word means ' family'. 1953. ' vamśa' (for lineage). p. ' sthāna ' (for ' basis ' or ' ground ' ) . ' āśraya '. by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharva.

i. the multitude of the living beings. 4 ratnatraya ' 9r. just because 1) the Wisdom of the Buddha penetrates it. 'the Saints '. ' ratna ' or ' rattatraya ' is a name for the Absolute when it is regarded as the ' śarana ' refuge). e. in a concrete way. the living beings differ from each other owing to their appearances. I. Through the purity of the innate mind. sarvasattvāh. the Tathāgata makes its appearance (v. e. and 3) it is the igotra\ through which the result. 27). and tathāgata '. Par excellence.J . I. a name for * sattmdhātu'. (v. 49). ' tathāgatadhātu \ 4 budIhadhatu'. however. ' tathāgata\ or 4jfma\ \. despite the existence of purity. or the object of worship. the ' dharmaratna' and 4 sañgharatna ' are merely he 'natural outflow' (dharmatānisyanda) of the former 37> (p. md the other two. 2) it is by nature identical with purity. At the same time. 47) they are classified into ' sattvadhātu. i.nd combining these terms of both sides. it is the ' buddharatna '. or ' the Buddha ' (v. namely the different degrees with regard to the ' impurity' on the pure innate mind. common to all living beings. 4 buddhagarbha\ ' jinagarbha '. * This point is taken from the Śrlmālāsūtra and is called the ' ekayāna"1 theory being one of the characteristics of Mahāyāna Buddhism. I. is proved by the all-pervadingness of the Wisdom of the Buddha. I. 47) 38>. 30) which is found in the 4 innate mind ' (cittaprakrti) of living beings (v. according to the text. not essentially connected with them. all living beings) s. 38) In another place. 37 36 . 3 6 ). e. but merely temporally associated with them as the accidental defilement (āgantukakleśa) and itself has no reality because ' All of these terms are taken from this text. par excellence. ' ratnatraya ' is synonymous with 'buddha'. itathāgatagotra\ 'buddhgotra\ etc. sarva—dehinah. This 4 sattvadhātu \ or sattvarāśV (in other words. I. On the other hand. The existence of this purity.mployed ? The tathāgatagarbha is. This ' impurity' is. are identical with each other. I. called ' tathagatagarbhāh '. all living beings. we can get those terms like tathāgatagarbha '. those who have the Matrix of the Tathāgata. 7). irrespective of their conditions or appearances. TAKASAKI parlgraha ' (for ' family ') etc. and have various names. in other words. 28). i. Thus we know the word ' ratnagotra ' used in the title indicates /vhat is called ' tathāgatagarbha ' and this text is a treatise on the Tathā'}atagarbha theory. viz. but essentially there is no difference between the two kinds of classification (the Saints are par excellence' bodhisattvas ' in the Mahāyāna Buddhism). The point of its identity with the Absolute lies in its 4 essential purity ' (prakrty-asamklistatā) (v. as synonyms of '"ratna\otra '. the Absolute. In this ense. by that of the Body of the Absolute (dharmakāya) (v. how are these terms ' tathāgatagarbha ' or ' tathāgatagotra ' . Then again. 'the ordinary beings'. bodhisattva.

the text explicates the doctrine in five chapters 4°). I. Of these five. the sattvadhātu is the ' gotra ' of the Buddha. (v. 1) 2) garbha (jñānadhātu-āptinistha). (v. 60-63). 4) Tathāgatakrtyakriyā. they become the Buddha. it is removable from them and when they remove it by realizing its accidental nature. and 5) Anuśamsa. 3) Guna. 24) while Chapter I includes 3 ślokas on the ratnatraya and the commentary thereon. sattvârthakrt. It would be better to pick up such denominations before analysing their characteristics and significance. On the basis of the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha referred to above. 23 and which show its inconceivability in each respect (v. i. bodhi. nirmalā tathatā. the last chapter is the conclusion in which the merits of having faith in this doctrine of the tathāgatagarbha are described. I. I. agrabodhi (jñānâpti). vimalā buddhagunāh. e. I. 3) samalā tathatā. guna. 23) 39) The whole account of this passage on the [fundamental characteristics of the ' ratnagotra' was taken from what I considered as the original text. (v. jinakriyā. karman. dividing the Chapter on the Tathāgatagarbha into 7. dharmāh. 3). 40) The Chinese version gives 11 chapters. I. Thus.4 Aspects of the Germ. which at the same time constitute the core of the doctrine described in this text 39>. The other four stand for the 4 aspects of the gotra.The Ratnagotravibhāga it is constructed by the ' irregular thought ' (ayoniśomanasikāra) (v. under the titles: 1) Tathāgatagarbha. But this categorization does not have as much significance as the 4 aspects of the gotra. along with the commentator's introduction 4l>. these 4 aspects of the gotra form the basic frame of this text and the authors refer to them in various places with various denominations. respectively. I. 2) Bodhi. . . when they accomplish the purification. Those are the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha. Therefore. 41 ) The commentary mentions the 3 Jewels along with 4 aspects of the Germ in its open verse and calls them the 7 vajrapadas. and its pure innate mind is regarded as the Buddhahood (buddhatva) or the Essence of the Buddha (buddhadhātu). 1) dhātu. which are mentioned in v. Because of this possibility. But this division has probably no source in the basic text for the Chinese translation. § 2 .

V. 26) buddhadhātu. the third aspect signifies the attributes or the qualities of the Buddha. the Absolute. 42). &c. so to say A2\ At the same time. these two latter aspects are less independent and less important than the former two and can be included in one of them. buddhadharmâh. I. 4). tadparāvrtti. V. being the natural outflow of the Buddhahood. though it is common to both. 49. and for the 'result'-aspect. samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā. the first aspect represents the tathāgatagarbha or the gotra. karman (v. In this respect. Because the Buddha is one aspect of the Absolute. I. TAKASAKI 4) 5) 6) 7) bodhya. This relationship is expressed in another couple of terms. Tathatā. Gotra is different from the Absolute in its being actually not enlightened {abudha) (v. V. samalā and nirmalā. ' to be enlightened ' or * capable of getting bodhi'. i. Here. 155 and v. The interrelation between these two is that of ' cause' and ' result'. the acts of the Buddha. what is to be called the Absolute. For the acts of the Buddha. buddhabodhi. but it has a relation to the latter in its being ' bodhya '.4 ff. 4 cause ' and ' result '. gotra has obtained its name of i cause '. 7) Of these four. Here we may notice that there are two aspects of the Absolute. bodhyañgāni. the 4 aspects of gotra are fundamentally reducible to two aspects. 66. etc. tadgunāh. I. 4 c d). I. while the identity of both is expressed by the term tathatā. (v. amalā bodhi. bodhana. buddhakrtya. 42) [ 24 ] .J. these two are regarded as 4 aspects ' of the gotra. Taking an example from the table mentioned above. and this capability is sought for in the fact (or postulate) that gotra is (or is to be) essentially identical with the Absolute (tathatâvyatireka). being inseparable from him. Because of this capability.) and similes of lantern and ocean are used for its explanation (v. bodhi. I. 43) V. e. they are to be termed as ' bodhya ' and ' bodhi '. the fourth. I. 1) vyavadānadhātu. I. 42 and commentary thereon (on yogârtha). the difference between two aspects is shown by each attribute. Thus. they are ragarded somehow as the natural outflow of the Buddha's Compassion (karunā) towards living beings (v. On the other hand. (gunaprakrtiyogatah). gunāh. and the second. 43>. because of its identity with the Absolute. 25) āśraya. the Absolute as in common with the The relationship between the Absolute and attributes is often expressed by the term ' avinirbhāga. (v. is characterized as nirmalā in comparison with gotra. (v. Therefore. p. the tathāgatagarbha is said to be endowed with the same qualities and acts as those of the Buddha. arthasādhana. amuktajña (avinirmuktajñāna) (p. 3. the latter two are said to relate to the Absolute as being * attribute ' and ' function ' inseparable from the Absolute or ' substance '.19 (anādicittavyavadSnadharmasahajâvinirbhāgatā).

tathatā will be regarded as 4 medium '. I. 27. division of the 3 aspects is what is called svabhāvatraya of gotra (p. we know. cause and result are called bodhya and buddha. the third aspect is preferably called 4 ground '. and 3) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. let us examine the characteristics of the Absolute. In other words. 3 aspects are often used for analyzing the tathāgatagarbha in this text. dharmakāya and tathatā are either result' or ground'. Here. the Absolute can be established as ' result ' because it is in common with the gotra. is therefore to be regarded as the third aspect which is necessary to establish the relationship of cause and result. tathatā stands again for 4 medium '-aspect. If we apply the same idea of ' medium ' in this case. It may be termed ' ground'-aspect or 4 medium'aspect. tathatā. and tathāgatagotra. buddha) under the name of bodhi in comparison with the gotra's being hetu. 2) tathāgatas tathataîsām garbhah sarvasattvānām. The first application of the 3 aspects theory is v. while tathatā is explained as tathāgata in the sense ' tathatā śuddhim āgatā '. being the 4 ground ' which renders gotra as * cause '. and dharmakāya as 4 result' since the word dharmakāya stands for one aspect of buddha showing his essential nature. 17 ff) by the commentator based upon v. and tathāgatagotra. 4 while from the standpoint of the Absolute. By examining in this way. and regarded as ' result'. 26 where the Absolute is on the one hand regarded as phala under the name of ratnatraya and on the other hand as pratyaya for establishing ratnatraya (i. the former is to be regarded as 4 cause ' and the latter. The names of the 3 aspects are dharmakāya. See my translation of each passage. respectively. tathatā. . dharmakāya is interpreted as the Absolute itself. we come to know that these aspects are interchangeable according to the respective standpoint. I. 70. According to the commentator. gotra is result ' as well as 4 cause '. e. 44 ' The word tathāgatagarbha is interpreted in the Ratna. 44) Such is the fundamental structure of the Absolute and its aspects in this text. however. namely: 1) tathāgatasya ime garbhah sarvasattvāh. This Absolute. the Absolute '. (p. respectively. i. as * result '. and more important. taking this structure into consideration and subsequently clarifying 4 4 the process from cause' to result'. They correspond to dharmakāya.The Ratnagotravibhāga gotra is the ' ground '. Here the third aspect is characterized as 4 medium ' (pratyaya) and on the basis of bodhi as medium. e. From the stand 4 4 4 point of gotra'. For ground ' of cause '. if we restrict the observation only to the relationship between dharmakāya and tathāgatagotra. Another kind of. and including this aspect. 69. Next.17). as common to both cause and result. In this case. in three ways. and 4 result ' is considered 4 to become one with 4 4 the ground.

Of course both aspects are interchangeable as has been seen in the case of 'dharmakāya'' and '•tathatā'' in the preceding passage. and hence the universe is called 'dharmadhātu\ the realm of truth which is the essence of the nature (tattvasya laksanam) and is regarded as the Absolute itself in the sense of ' reality '. ' tathatā' or itattva'> (suchness). it penetrates all things or phenomena including the living beings. or by the terms. and hence. Thus the all-pervadingness. nirodha and mārga. On the other hand. Being the nature of things. 45) The following description does not exactly follow a historical development of the idea but is made with a logical approach. Firstly. the Buddhist Absolute expands its contents in two directions 45>. This is nothing but the 4 ground '— aspect of the Absolute. But in its fundamental characteristics. This truth is to be realized by oneself ('pratyātmavedanīya'') as the Buddha did for the first time. and hence the oneness of the Absolute.J. The Absolute is expressed in various terms in this text. This is a kind of ' personification ' of the Absolute. as this 'impersonal' truth shows the real nature of 'things'. . śūnyatā. the character of being ' attainable ' introduces the ' result '-aspect and is shown by the absolutization of the Buddha caused by veneration and glorification of the Buddha as the founder among Buddhist followers. Originally and basically the Absolute in Buddhism is dharma. however. this nature is also regarded as the Absolute under the names of ' dharmatā' ( = dharmasvabhāva). From the standpoint of the development of the idea or from the literal meaning of each term. etc.The Absolute. and based upon these two characteristics. is characterized as ' adhigamadharma\ Thus the Buddhist Absolute. these terms can be divided into two groups: to one group belong those expressing the Absolute from the ' ground 'aspect. samudaya. TAKASAKI § 3. which is unchangeable and immutable (asarnskrta) and whose contents are expressed by the 4 āryasatya of duhkha. to the other those doing the same from the ' result '-aspect. is ' impersonal ' and ' attainable '. such a division seems possible. being the truth. in those two points we can find the peculiarity of the Buddhist Absolute. pratītyasamutpāda. the universal law. or the highest truth (paramârthasatya). Sanskrit terms mentioned with quotation marks in the following passage are the technical terms on the Absolute used in the Ratna. is introduced into the conception of Buddhist Absolute. .

Mahāyāna Buddhism rebelled against the dualistic conception of Nirvana and Satnsāra and emphasized the oneness of both in the sense that Nirvana is the only reality. in the case of ' nirvana '. the existence of an innumerable number of Buddhas is possible and even ordinary beings. nirodha) of defilements (kleśa) and hence the term nirvana is much related to the purification of mind (cittavyavadāna). On the other hand. or ' dharmakāya'. In the case of ' bodhi '. the manifestation of the truth. In this sense. are postulated to have the same nature as the Buddha. Introduction of the ' result'-aspect into the Absolute thus effected the absolutization of Buddha. which is believed commonly in India . It is ' nirvana '. At the same time. and Nirvana was regarded as synonymous with ' dharmatā'. anybody can become ' buddha ' if he experiences and practises what the Gautama Buddha did. in other words. combined in one as the sine qua non for the realization of the Absolute. ' dharmadhātu'. it shows the ' result '-aspect of the Absolute. ' nirvana'' and ' bodhi'. Both of these attainments of ' jñāna' and ' vyavadāna'. there is another important term for the Buddhist Absolute. This same nature is called ' gotra ' or ' dhātu ' and the existence of this nature is explained by the expression ' dharmakāyapa~ rispharanatā'' or ibuddhajñānântargama''-tva. though they are actually not the Buddha. Originally.The Ratnagotravibhāga but even in this case. if one may discuss the matter apart from the religious feeling* the Buddha is regarded as * impersonal'. Namely. however. of the attained state. the emphasis is on the disappearance or extinction (ksaya. and consequently there is no strict distinction of use between both terms. and even of the medium or instrument for such an acquisition. however. This term was absolutized even in the Pali and in the Adhidharma Buddhism as an idea contrary to samsāra and is stated to be the realm of peace (' śāntipatha '). are. the state of 'buddha' is attainable as the result of practice. Thus the absolutization of the Buddha consists in making the Buddha impersonal and this Buddha as the Absolute is called ' dharmakāya'. the term ' buddha ' is originally applicable to any person as an adjetive. we cannot overlook a rather primitive and magical idea that to know something is to become itself. by ' nirvana' is meant a state 4 attained ' by the Buddha and hence. like ' bodhi'. For the introduction of such a conception. Besides ' buddha ' and ' bodhi'. since he realized the truth and his essence or nature as being ' buddha ' lies in his realization (' bodhi ') of the truth. the intuition (prajñā) or wisdom (jñāna) by which the Buddha attained the enlightenment occupies an important place and is elevated to identity with the Absolute under the name of 4 prajñāpāramitā ' or 4 buddhajñāna ' as the essential nature of the Buddha.

* 8) See VI. At the same time.g. Establishment of the Buddha as the Absolute under the name of dharma46> e. . iii-2-9) is regarded as one of the important authority for the Vedāntavāda. it could not but take the appearance of Monism as a result of Absolutization of the Buddha. the Monistic philosophy was used as the background. the Absolute is often spoken of as the dharmakāya of the tathāgata. (Mundaka Up.J. e. i. etc. which is characterized as ' āśrayaparivrttV (Revolution of the basis. Up. and the Vijñānavāda). jyesfhaś caśresthaś ca svānām bhavati. Among the 3 jewels. § 2. it is an inevitable character for all systems which declare their philosophical standpoint as Monism. and approach the Upanisadic thinking in its philosophy. however. observed in the use of terms such as 'samalā tathatā^ and '•nirmalā tathatā\ 'vaimalyadhātu\ 'viśuddhicittaprakrti'' or by the definition of tathāgata as itathatā śuddhim āgatā\ and of tathāgatagarbha as 'sarva kleśakośakotigūdhas tathāgatagarbhah\ Such terminology is characteristic of this tathāgatagarbha theory compared with stress on jñānâpti in the vijñānavāda as the ultimate goal 48>. 47 ' 'sayo ha vai tatparamambrahma veda brahmaîva bhavati'. viz. the stress lies on the purification of mind from the defilements. vi-1-1: yo ha vai jyestham ca śrestham ca veda. the purpose of religious practices was made to be the acquisition of the Buddhahood rather than the Arhatship of Abhidharma Buddhism. of the tathāgatagarbha) or jñānâpti. In this characterization the process from cause to result is observed. Emphasis was placed on the Buddha rather than the Dharma and effected the ' ekayāna ' theory of the Buddha. Brhad. Rather. In this last point lies the significance of the tathāgatagarbha theory of this text. TAKASAKI since the Vedic Age 46>. In relation to the term tathāgatagarbha. It was also the basic idea for the theory of the oneness of Brahman and Âtman in the philosophy of the Upanisads as well as of the later Vedāntavāda 47>. And for explaining the possibility of anyone's acquiring the Buddhahood. In relation to the conception of the Absolute in 4 ground ' and ' result ' aspect. Basically. of knowable things (jñeya-āvarana) and of defilements (kleśa-ā. And when Buddhism developed itself into Mahāyāna Buddhism. On the other hand absolutization of the Buddha made Mahāyāna Buddhism more religious than Abhidharma Buddhism. the jewel of the Buddha came to be regarded as the only ultimate refuge. and this process is understood as the removal (' visamyoga'') of two kinds of obscuration.). (The Ratna. one thing to be noted here is the development of Buddhology. This theory is in one sense an inevitable result of the development of Mahāyānistic Monism in its religious expression.

is ' result ' and the dharmakāya is ' ground' for the second body. immediately followed by the triple kāya theory. 27 and 28). This division of two bodies corresponds to the two aspects of the Absolute. 43 ff. Why is its Junction limited to para-sambhoga ? If the dharmakāya is regarded as svârthasampatti. i. I l l . it corresponds to the division of two satyas. ' sārnbogika' and ' nairmānika' are of conventional character. and the manifestation of these Buddhas is regarded as for the sake of people. the interpretation of sāmbhogika leaves some doubt with us. namely. This was originally a problem of how to treat the historical Buddha in the Buddhist doctrine. referring respectively to the body for the assembly of Bodhisattvas and to the body for common people in order to lead them towards the Enlightenment. Furthermore these two are said to represent 4svârthasampatti'' and 'parârthasampatti\ respectively (v. (v. but by this term all the Buddhas in ten directions and in three divisions of time. the Body for other's enjoyment. r oo . to leave the dharmakāya m its pure character of truth or reality. Therefore. 1). II. This triple kāya theory seems to be basic for the Ratna. It may be more logical to include the dharmakāya's character of jñānâpti or svârthasampatti ln to the second body of sambhoga. ' bodhi' or ' buddhajñāna. and called 4 paramārthakāya'' and *samvrtikāya. paramārtha and samvrti. and is hence included under parârthasampatti. however. e. Here. 1). e. past. However. and by it. I. An usual nomination for the three is ' svābhāvika\ ' sāmbhogika' and 'nairmānika\ respectively (vv. ' svābhāvika' is for the dharmakāya. Of them. it is to be called ' svasāmbhogika ' in contrast with the sanibhogika which represents parârthasampatti. II. ' buddhajñāna' is replaced by dharmakāya without interpretation (v. 61). In turn.151-2. the historical Buddha is defined as 'nairmānika'. this second body is called ' rūpakāya' (v.' and hence the dharmakāya's original character as ' result ' is still retained. 1. That is why. This double kāya theory is. in this text. as has been observed above. the fact of being the Buddha's own nature. the rūpakāya. the former being lokottara and the latter being laukika. sāmbhogika means para-sāmbhogika. Also. by dividing the second one into two.The Ratnagotravibhāga subsequently caused another aspect of the Buddha to rise besides the dharmakāya. these latter two are called parârthasampatti. the Apparitional Body.). future and present are signified. Here. i. Literally sambhoga means enjoyment or bliss of the dharma by the Buddha himself as the ' result' of realization of dharma. In comparison with the dharmakāya. I l l . the Buddha's own nature means. On the other hand. and dharmakāya is called svârthasampatti because of its including jñānâpti within itself.

. it stands for the 'ground' aspect of the dharmakāya. I. attention should be paid to the division of dharmakāya by the commentator into ' muktikāya ' and ' dharmakāya ' in regard to its function (v. These two kāyas correspond to i prakrtiviśuddhi ' and ' vaimalyaviśuddhi ' (p. respectively. since it is nothing but the samudānītagotra being the result produced by the prakrtisthagotra (v. Thus being the case. 21). the commentator divides the dharmakāya into (1) dharmadhātu which. It is one of keynotes to decide the date of Mahā- . the correspondence between each of the 3 couples of terms is not clearly observed. in contrast with the former. * 9) In Mahāyāna Buddhism. and lastly resulted in another kind of the triple kāya theory. which constitutes ' deśanādharma ' characterized as ' parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. even in the commentary 49>. which it calls ' the realm of avikalpajñāna '. II. but it might well have done so. 30). In this description. In Chinese Buddhism reference is often made to these two kinds of the triple kāya theory calling the former ' K'ai-ying-ho-chen (pfj J|/j>|| / py J|l. and the first body. i. Here. the dharmakāya stands for the ' result ' aspect. e. or to ' prakrtisthagotra ' and ' samudānītagotra ' (v. the former might be said to represent svârthasampatti. in the sense 'the Body which represents the innate liberation'. whose characteristic lies in the division of the dharmakāya into two kāyas. being the realm of avikalpajñāna. The development had taken place from the double kāya theory in Nāgārjuna's philosophy to the triple kāya theory as in the Ratna. 150). and in the same way. in comparison with the latter. the said twofold Body is referred to as the substratum of sva-parârthasampatti. the muktikāya remains without arthasampatti ? An answer is not clearly given in the text. 149). Commenting on the dharmakāya as one of the svabhāvatraya of the tathāgatagarbha (p. Here the text does not call the latter the realm of prsthalabdha-jñāna. the muktikāya is to be identified with the Absolute Essence characterized as ' dharmadhātu\ ' cittaprakrti ' or ''prakrtisthagotra''.. In turn. 80). but it is apparently ' no '. svârthasampatti is to be regarded as inherent to the muktikāya or dharmadhātu. the natural outflow of dharmadhātu. which is characterized as 'parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. Shall we then consider that the svârthasampatti is represented by this second body. 70). Being 'innate'. Buddhology occupies an important part among its doctrines. or separation of the jñāna from the attributes of the dharmakāya. represents ' adhigamadharma '. and we may conclude that the complete separation of the ' result ' aspect from the dharmakāya is not observed in the Ratna. but it may be proven in the light of another commentary passage. which is caused by means o f avikalpajñāna ' and ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna ' (v.) ' and the latter ' K'ai-chen-ho-ying S * 'PJ* MH) '» respectively. Namely. and (2) ' tadnisyanda '. TAKASAKI In this respect. I.J. II. the dharmakāya.

The Ratnagotravibhāga There is another thing to be noticed here with reference to the aspects of the dharmakāya. what is proper to the nirmānakāya is the term nisyanda. 60) In the Lañkāvatārasūtra (p. The terms which show this variety and which are used in the Ratna. 8). the dharmakāya appears in its ' ground ' aspect. is rendered into the Chinese . the term nisyanda-buddha is mentioned as indicating the second Body (p.At the same time. This usage seems to relate to the character of sambhogakāya as the ' reward ' of infinite practice (bhāvanā) before Enlightenment. On the other hand. Of them. 4»Q I7p). result is the same as cause or is involved within the cause. the term nisyanda is used for indicating the relation of dharmaratna and samgharatna to buddharatna (dharmatānisyanda. 1. Studies in the Lañkāvatāra Sūtra. the tathāgatagarbha. About Buddhology of the triple kāya. while in the case of vipāka. Enlightenment or jñānâpti may also be termed vipākaphala because of its character of svasambhoga. 1. Namely. 1). i. or dharmakāya as the result of purification or attainment of Enlightenment (p. 57. pp. In the Ratna. curiously enough. In this case. yāna Sutras and Sāstras. and between avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. however. is said to be vipāka-phala. p. 56. and in the case of nisyanda. there is a certain variety. Now the third one. 7) or the relation of deśanādharma to adhigamadharma as mentioned above (dharmadhātu-nisyanda).) (c. Up to now I have often referred to the i result' aspect without distinction. this term is used along with visamyoga in the same context as dharmakāya and rūpakāya (v.4 & 11).T. however. representing parârtha. see D. in contrast with nairmānika (see BHS Die. The same relation must be observed between samudānītagotra and the twofold rūpakāya (v. 150). 1. 283. in contrast with paramārthakāya as visamyogaphala which represents svârtha. the first one. Suzuki. =P|X. But in regard to its contents or its relation to ' cause' or ' ground '. 308 ff. * niryanda ' and ' vipāka '. 8 & 18. the term vaipākika is used for sāmbhogika. while to include the nirmānakāya within vipākaphala is improper. II. This last usage actually refers to the relation of the rūpakāya to the dharmakāya in the sense that the rūpakāya is merely an aspect of the dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. in the case of visamyoga. Namely. vipāka-phala is an entirely different one from the other two in its original character. I. cause and result are exactly the same. This is nothing but what I called the ' result' aspect of the dharmakāya whose ' cause ' is gotra or dhātu. 80. are ' visamyoga '. samvrtikāya. If it were so. 82). visamyoga-phala is used for characterizing āśrayaparivrtti. cause and result are dissimilar from each other. because this kāya is said to be the incarnation of the dharmakāya50>. e. which.

Among the scriptures utilized in the Ratna. 3) Ratnadārikāsūtra. from which the 7 Vajrapadas are derived as the body of the treatise. from which the 9 examples garbhasūtrodāharananirdeśa) (Chapter I). from which the 64 Attributes of the Buddha are derived (v. In the preceding chapter. seems merely a collection of scriptural passages concerning the tathāgatagarbha theory. the Ratna. Also. the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is the most important one as it expounds mainly the tathāgatagarbha theory. 51) ranlrājasūtra). illustrating how the Germ is covered with defilements are derived (p. we have examined the fundamental character of the tathāgatagarbha theory in the Ratna. the Ratna. according to the commentator. 4) Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. 5 1 ) . has been much aided by various scriptures which expound the same theory. GENEALOGY OF THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY § 1. 79). IV.J. The number of Scriptures utilized in the Ratna. tathāgata- . . Of them. 7) Avatamsakasūtra {Tathāgatotpattisambhava— Bibliographical information of these scriptures is given in my notes on the English translation under the first occurrence of quotations or name of each scripture. I l l . following ones: 1) Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (or Tathāgatamahākarunāsūtra).Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga. and its essential doctrine constitutes the core of this text. is more than 20 and quotations or altered scriptural passages seem to occupy more than one third of the whole text. Besides the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. (v. In one sense.18. 1. 66. and those frequently quoted are 5) Āryaśrîmālāsūtra and 6) Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta. For its explanation. however. 27. those relating to the Kārikā text and hence assuming important roles in the arrangement of the text are. TAKASAKI IV. 2 dhā2) Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. III). the main sources of the Ratna. from which the 9 examples illustrating the Buddha's Acts are derived (v. ratnasūtra) (Chap. Sometimes it presents the whole passage by quotations without its own words. which seems to be the first treatise exposing this theory systematically and in its pure form. sometimes it uses the scriptural passage as if it were its own words without any sign of quotation.

5 2 > See my note on the Engl. the Ratna. utilized them only along the lines of the tathāgatagarbha theory and never referred to the Vijñānavāda. There are two works. 17) Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa. (111-53). and 11) Ratnacūdasūtra are quoted. v. but it is necessary and possible for clarifying the tathāgatagarbha theory to trace its genealogy back to its origin by examining these sources. 18) Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra). and the tathāgatagarbha theory. 8) Mahāparinirvānasūtra {Mahayāna) {Tathāgatadhātuparivarta). tr. in the Ratna. To discuss and examine the character of all the scriptures mentioned above is beyond our present purpose.The Ratnagotravibhāga parivarta). are mentioned in the Ratna. which occupy a unique position in comparison with the former group of Scriptures. both of which are regarded as the main authorities on the Vijñānavāda. quotes once from 14) Vajracchedikā and once from 15) Astasāhasrikā altering the sentences into the commentary's own form. among the quotations. 52 onwards. For this purpose. as well as of the authorship of the Ratna. which corresponds to the passage. two main and basic scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. the names Prajñāpāramitāsūtra and Saddharmapundarīka. This last one is significant in its exposition of how phenomena are originated from one essence (ekadhātu). As for the Prajñāpāramitā. as well as in its ascription of the cause to irregular thought (ayoniśo-manasikāra) 52>. They seem to have appeared after Nāgārjuna. we will pick up some important ones and will refer to their historical order. 1. at least. There is no quotation from the Saddharmapundarīka. Besides these scriptures on the tathāgatagarbha theory. They are 12) Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra and 13) Mahayānasūtrâlañkāra. . These two seem to hold a key for solving the problems of the relationship between the tathāgatagarbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. the Ratna. much with its ekayāna theory and the doctrine of the eternal Buddha. They expound more or less the same theory of tathāgatagarbha. 5) 6) and 8) are the representative scriptures on this theory. 19) ISadāyatanasūtra (or § adindriyarāsi-sūtra) and from more than eight unknown sources. of which one is in Prakrit. 9) Sāgaramatipariprcchā. is an entirely new and later theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. not used in the works of Nāgārjuna. but it is clear that this scripture had influenced the Ratna. and especially nos. besides its indirect influences on the Tathāgatagarbha theory. Other quotations are from 16) Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta. not often but with long passages. However. 10) Gaganagañjābodhisattvapariprcchā. One remarkable point is that all scriptures or parts of scriptures mentioned above are unknown to Nāgārjuna or. like the Vijñānavāda.

2. p. 3) the Vātsīputrīya—-* Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra (Taisho. 3. p.. 397 (Vol. p. ". 10). AN (ibid. Among other sects of the Abhidharma Buddhism. " cittasamkleśāt sattvāh samkliśyante. 5. 53) . Characterization of defilements or phenomena in general as ' accidental ' attachment on the mind is. 210 ff. 32. 27. cittavyavadānād viśuddhyante". 57 ' The Sarvāstivāda did not accept this theory of cittaprakrti. p. or similar ones. for which the same corresponding expression. etc. the Gaganagañjā. 9-10 (PTS. the Ratnadārikā. etc. the most important and principal point of the tathāgatagarbha theory is to purify the mind. No. 697 b). 2) the Vaibhāsika—Mahāvibhāsāśāstra (Taisho. the Aksayamati—pariprcchā. the Ratnacūda. The Dhāranīśvararājasūtra together with the Sāgaramatipariprcchā.Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa As has been said above. SN (vol. 92). which form parts of the Mahāsamghātasūtra 56\ are also standing fundamentally on the theory of the cittaprakrti. S4 56) ^ C Jl'^f ^ C M I S . This is not an exclusive facture of this theory. but was also the principle of practice from the outset of Buddhism. . 13). 140 b). vol. 1. 6) seems to belong to the same line of doctrine found in the Pali canons. > e. I. A Prakrit verse quoted in the Ratna. seems also to be old and to have its origin in the Pali canons 54>. 3. 1. are used sometimes in the Pali canons 53>. p. and they are probably written by one and the same group who later developed the tathāgatagarbha theory.Taisho. 257). Another expression of this same idea of purification of mind. 151). 28. See C. SN (PTS. (p. Milindapanhā iv-7-2. e. The peculiarity of the tathāgatagarbha theory lies in its emphasis on this point in association with the fundamental identification of living beings with the Buddha under the name of tathāgatagarbha. TAKASAKI § 2. Akanuma: Bukkyo—kyori no Kenkyū (Japanese) (Studies in the Buddhist Doctrine). vol. 1. vol.g.. 163 b). The term tathāgatagarbha was an entirely new usage but its basic idea is found in the expression " prakrtiprabhāsvaram cittam āgantukair upakleśair upakliśyate. S5 > e. etc. 4) the Mahāsamghika—* Laksanânusāraśāstra (|*m >rn PRfl) (Taisho. though it is not traced in the present Tripitaka. not found among those scriptures belonging to the oldest group in the Pali canon and there was a controversy about this characterization among schools of the Abhidharma Buddhism 57) .g. the following four are known for their acceptance of this theory: 1) the Theravāda of Ceylon—Dhammapadâtthakathā.J. however. p. AN. 5.g. This purity of the innate mind is often compared to that of gold 55>. p. p. Compilation of this big collection of sūtras in the present form has probably taken place after the composition of the Ratna.

This Ratna. (pp. this passage teaches only the dependence of the phenomena on the citta. whose first exposition is found in the Daśabhūmikasūtra 58>. Strictly speaking. — " Buddhajñāna " in the Avatamsaka.The R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga This idea had been fully accepted by the Mahāyāna Buddhism. though it makes no use of the term cittamātra. as for the former it has not sufficient explanation to resolve the problem even in the Ratna. The source of the citta-mātra theory is often sought for in the following passage: tasyaîvam bhavati / cittamātram idam yad idam traidhātukam / yāny apîmāni dvādaśāngāni tathāgatena prabhedaśo vyākhyātāni tāny api sarvāny eva cittasamāśritāni V (Rahder's ed. Questions which arise pursuant to the idea of cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa are (1) why and how the phenomena of unreal character are originated and (2) how the cittaprakrti is pure and identical with the Buddha or the immutable Absolute being. Taisho 9. .D. and was translated early in the 3rd cent. which will be observed in the passage expounding the origination of phenomena from the cittaprakrti. there is a stage of development with respect to the identification of living beings with the Buddha. The term buddhajñāna is a synonym of buddhatva or buddhatā. no. The first exposition of these two points (consequently the first establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory) is seen in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 22-24). this characterization of defilements led to the idea of non-reality of all the phenomena and resulted in the cittamātra theory. Prior to the establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory by the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. It is the idea of the penetration of the Buddha's Wisdom into the living beings described in the Avatamsakasûtra and quoted in the Ratna. and. 49 c. It describes only how the defilements come to cover the pure innate mind and how they are to be removed. however. Furthermore. is no doubt based upon this theory. and we can find a frequent use of the above two expressions among the Mahāyānistic scriptures. p.. 291. The Avatamsakasūtra as is seen in the present form is a collection of minor scriptures among which the Daśabhūmika. A. The tathāgatagarbha theory seems to put the accent on the latter of the two. into Chinese by Dharmaraksa as an independent Sūtra 59 ). the Gandavyûha are important and of early origin. 558 b). p. Still there is no doubt that the citta-mātra theory and the Vijñānavāda have their starting point in this passage. M) 58) ' Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching (#P ^ 5 | MB $ S \ Taisho. § 3. The passage containing the description of the buddhajñāna (Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa) also seems old.

Vol. § 4. the Jñānâlokâlañkāra and the Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra seem to be consistent with the Tathāgatotpatisambhavanirdeśa. This article stresses the development of the idea of ' gotrasambhava '. one of the important terms in the Hua-yen philosophy and locates the first use of this compound in the Ratna. pp. 61> These four passages are in Taisho. 60) . 3) Having thus observed. This buddhajñāna is often compared to the sun. anger and ignorance. 11. 16. buddhacaksus. p . one thing to be noticed here is that a scriptural passage of unknown source quoted in the Ratna. No. a Buddha sitting in the interior of every lotus flower: 1) I (the Buddha) observe. In their emphasis of buddhajñāna. 73). with special reference to this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna. that all living beings. (p. 7. . have the buddhajñāna. though they are among the defilements of hatred.The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. 72. 2) [Thus] all living beings. The last one is quoted in the Ratna. 1. are possessed of the tathāgatagarbha which is always unpolluted and. 457 6-c. with respect to the Tathāgatgarbhasūtra.J. the Buddha preached the doctrine in order to remove the defilements and manifest the Buddha nature [within the living beings]. (p. 26. These scriptures expound on one hand the eternity of the Buddha and his acts which corresponds to the all-pervadingness of the buddhajñāna and form the basic idea of the Absolute 60>. 4) esā dharmānām dharmatā. for which the acquisition of jñāna is indispensable. TAKASAKI because the Buddha's nature is represented by his Enlightenment. In relation to this. being endowed with the virtuous properties. 8-9). though they are abiding in various worlds with bodies full of defilements. with the buddhacaksus. and buddhakāya sitting motionless. 11. they are not different from myself. with special reference to the term ' tathāgatagotra-sambhava ' (j%\\ yjv '|£n /chi) '\ JIBS. 10-11) seems to belong to the same group as the two said scriptures in the use of terms: tathāgatadhātur utpanno garbhagatah. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh6 1 \ On the relationship between the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa and the Ratna. Tokyo. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is a small scripture whose main part consists merely of the 9 examples illustrating the covering of defilements over the tathāgatagarbha. as it appears from the Ratna. 1958. I wrote an article in the Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies: " The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratnagotravibhāga. The core of its doctrine is stated in the following four sentences in the first example. (p. (48)-(53). or the Jñānâlokâlañkāra.

and to know the tathāgatagarbha is said to be the same as to know śūnyatā. and those . 59 & 76). However. 27. 28. A Sūtra which deeply investigates the characters of the tathāgatagarbha in a more developed form than the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra and has a significant role for establishing the tathāgatagarbha theory is the Āryaśrīmālāsūtra. dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. 4) the aśūnya and śūnya character of the garbha (Q in pp. all of these points form the basic idea of the tathāgatagarbha theory and are deepened by the subsequent scriptures. respectively. dharkāyagarbha. Moreover. 15 & 22) It is another expression of the same idea of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa '.. (quotations in pp. and as far as the philosophical approach is concerned. In the fourth sentence. the so-called i 5 meanings of garbha ' (clarified in the Buddhagotraśāstra). buddhadharmas which are inseparable from the dharmakāya which is the reality. and in relation to this. it is expounded how this tathāgatagarbha theory is an eternal truth. tathāgatagarbha. than any other scripture. e. but deepened the idea by the phrase " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh " •which probably was declared for the first time in this Sūtra. while garbha is aśūnya since it is endowed with. lokottaradharmagarbha. Here is seen the criticism on the sarva-śūnya-vāda. such an observation is regarded as the real conception of śūnyatā. vv. dharmadhātugarbha. than does the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. in short. it occupies a much more important position in the Ratna.The Āryaśrîmālāsūtra. i. . The original points of thought of the tathāgatagarbha expounded in this Sutra are as follows: 1) Two faces of the mind: prakrtipariśuddhicitta and upaklistacitta. 7-11). and they represent. & prakrtipariśuddhagarbha give the full characteristic of garbha on its pure side. and because of this co-existence of purity and impurity on the mind. I. is the whole contents of this Sūtra. That. viz. & 11. 3) Union of the tathāgatagarbha with innumerable attributes of the Buddha.. the tathāgatagarbha has got its name and is characterized. 26. as * samalā tathatā \ 2) In relation to those faces. The explanation for this is that garbha is śūnya since it is devoid of kleśas "which are of unreal nature. tathatâvyatirekârtha. It is quoted more often in the Ratna. what is called the three meanings of the tathāgatagarbha by the Ratna. and gotrasambhavârtha (p. which identifies the garbha with the dharmakāya.The Ratnagotravibhāga The first three of those statements are based upon the Avantamsakasūtra. § 5. in the Ratna.

7) Lastly. ātman a*id śubha. and the problem remains unsolved. theg-pa-gcig-gi mthah). dhruva. the Ratna. 9. or to become tathāgata. And to realize this ekayāna is said to acquire the anuttarasamyaksambodhi. 220 c. the garbha's being ādhāra of pure dharmas. One of such expressions is the tathāgata's possession of 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. the acceptance of One Vehicle of the Buddha. (Q. the fundamental standpoint throughout this Sūtra is the ekayāna theory.and vyavadāna-dharmas. 62\ 5) Such criticism of the śūnyavāda naturally leads the Sūtra to describe the dharmakāya. terms ' Chiu-ching-i-ch'eng (^L J?ĪL —* ^R) ' which is identical with the Chinese . is nirvānadhātu. t h a t . 12. 7. in pp. as well as the garbha. sukha. Introduction. accepts the buddharatna as the ultimate refuge among 3 jewels. 6) Another expression of the idea of the śūnya and aśūnya of the garbha is its being the support (ādhāra) of both the samklista. 35 & 73). but its research never goes beyond this. 57). p . in p . i n p . is proved by its being endowed with buddhadarmas and its being considered the ground of having intention towards the Nirvana (Q. According to the Tibetan translation. i. śiva and śāśvata are used for the dharmakāya.. (cf. VI. At the same time. § 1. in pp. It consequently admits the Nirvana only to the Buddha (Q. e. p. 64) Ibid. e. is probably taken from this term. In another place. i. which is nothing but the ' extreme of the ekayāna ' . 72) But it does not give any account of how and why such samsāra or unreal defilements come out and cover over the garbha.J. in pp. Thus we 82 63 > Cf. the Mahāyāna inclusive of the other two Vehicles of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. 33) which is also regarded as being anādikālika. to realize the dharma64) kāya. > Taisho. while the former has the simple explanation t h a t the samsāra exists owing to the existence of the garbha which is beginningless (anādikālika). the Sūtra contends t h a t the garbha identical with the dharmakāya of such characters is not the Ātman mentioned by the tirthās 6 3 ) . with positive expressions and thereby the character of the dharmakāya or garbha approaches the Atman of the Vedāntavāda. & 20). Also 4 attributes of nitya. its original word seems to be * ekayānanisthā '. and declares t h a t the tathāgatagarbha is only accessible to the Buddha or those who believe in the buddhayāna. p. 222 6. in another word. 12. i. e. This ' extreme of the ekayāna ' is translated into Chinese by title of the Ratna. 55 & 84). (T. 72). the Sūtra seeks for the basis of origination of defilements in avidyāvāsabhūmi (Q. (Q. TAKASAKI adhering to the śūnya-vāda are criticized by being called ' śūnyatāviksiptacittā'' sattvāh. However the idea of the Chinese title of the Ratna. or of samsāra and nirvana ( Q . in p . The latter point.

12 & 54). the following fact is to be noted here. in the Sūtra. namely in the use of a term ' avinirmuktajñāna '. Referring to them. See my note on the Engl. 3 is explained thruogh the 10 meanings of tathāgatagarbha. Special contributions of this Sūtra to the Ratna. are 1) inseparability of the dharmakāya and the Buddha's dharmas explained by similes of lantern and gems (cf. and 3) three divisions of the dharmakāya under the names of sattvadhātu.The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. The main point of its doctrine is the nonincrease and non-decrease of the dharmadhātu. The Mahāparinirvānasūtra. bodhisattva and tathāgata (Q. In most passages. K 6. p. There is a small Sūtra contemporary with the Śrīmālāsūtra named Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa 65>. the Sūtra ascribes it to the removal of dualistic views of various kinds. by E. esp. in p. There is however no description of the non-possibility of acquiring Buddhahood on the part of the icchantikas as discussed in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra (of Mahāyāna) 67) . 39). 2) fixation of 4 terms of nitya. Q. it has similar terms as the Srīmālāsūtra with respect to the dharmakāya. the Ratna. 1-23. depends to a great extent on this Sūtra for its fundamental standpoints and that quite a little of its original development is added to this Sūtra. which is abbreviated in the latter to ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña '. to its possession of innumerous dharmas or gunas. 1 & 2 are to be explained by the 9 illustrations on the defilements covering the garbha (S. 67) This work is quite a different one from the Mahāparinirvanasūtra ed. 59 11-14). 476 6). namely: 1) anādisāmnidhyasambaddhasvabhāva-śubhadharmatā anādisāmnidhyâsambaddhasvabhāva-kleśakośatā y 85) M3 î~F i£)> 2) J%* AH TPJ rf!H ' T* Ypf î^P if3»)> and 3) aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidya- that no. p. Waldschmidt which is a Sanskrit equivalent for the Pali Mahāparinibbānasuttanta. śiva and śāśvata as the 4 attributes of the dharmakāya (Q. in pp. The Sūtra has a passage explaining the characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in three points (AAN.. ' icchantika ' (Q. and consequently the full identification of the sattvadhātu with the dharmakāya of the Buddha. 28). which exposes the eternity of the dharmakāya of the Buddha from the standpoint of the Mahāyāna and borrows In one point this Sūtra seems older than the Srlmālāsūtra. dhruva. .The Ratnagotravibhāga know that the Ratna. the Universe. tr. mānatā (^C ^K I S ^ ^§F 'fi A ^ ¥£). and those who have such dual-conception are called. whille nos. 41) 66 \ About the perception of the garbha as identical with the dharmadhātu. in p. says . 66) In addition. to the tathāgatagarbha's being covered with kleśas and to its accessibility only to the Buddha. in p. of increase and decrease with respect to the sattvadhātu as well as the dharmadhātu or nirvānadhātu.

TAKASAKI its style of structure from the Mahāparinibbānasuttanta of Primitive Buddhism. . 12. 37). de-bshin-gśegs-pa sñih-pohi mdo-sde chen-po. where the simile of gold hidden under the ground (Cf. there can hardly be found any new and advanced doctrine. It describes the eternity of the dharmakāya by attributing the 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. consisting of 68 ) It is at least sure that the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is known to the author of the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. Vol. [ 40 ] . 74) and applies to the tathāgatagarbha the term 69 ātman >. Another point to be noted here is the doctrine of the icchantikas. it refers often to the icchantikas who being agotra have absolutely no possibility of attaining Buddhahood. yjgfaflfccī ? ' — -HJ 3R !?fc © ^ ft tt ft M # *£ • . No. . Peking Ed. The sūtra. I t is said to be a work of Maitreya with a commentary by Vasubandhu. by Fa-hien in 418 A. 367). is regarded as the oldest version of the MPS. I. but its description is detailed in several points. 12. Tu. but the final solution of this problem seems to be the denial of the existence of such people from the ultimate point of view through introducing the idea of the Bodhisattva's compassion or the idea of the long time needed before their achieving Buddhahood. See. Vol. however. The Ratna. utilizes this second idea and construes the theory of icchantikas as a conventional teaching to convert people (p. have on the other the same opinion on this problem as the Vijñānavāda. Taisho. The Sûtrâlañkāra. while exposing the doctrine of tathāgatagarbha on one hand. sukha. 112-114) is spoken of. 407 b. Some Mahāyānists. emphasizes the innate possession of the buddhadhātu in every living being. 31. seems to have completed its present form in days a little 68 later than those of the Srīmālā and the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. p. tr. The Sūtrâlañkāra is the only Sāstra quoted in t h e Ratna. Such descriptions are sometimes contradicted in various passages. It may be called a unique point of this Sñtra. as one exposition of the garbha theory. 185). vv. which was a sort of taboo among early Buddhists. 97 a 6 (Photo. p. 69 ' Taisho. is enriched by detail with similes (Q. in p. KJ. 881 6: %\l ^. It is one of key points for distinguishing the pure tathāgatagarbha theory from the Vijñānavāda. Mdo. This version (Taisho. As for its tathāgatagarbha theory. but on the other hand.(Tib. The Ratna.The Mahāyānasūtrâlahkāra. p. ātman and śubba as the result of the! double negation of misconception (viparyāsa) as the Śrīmālā did but. D. § 7. attributed the final agotratva to those icchantikas who abuse the Mahāyāna doctrine. and the Lañkāvatāra... Such an opinion is often found in the works belonging to the Vijñānavāda. repr.J. for example.

The division of chapters has a resemblance to the chapters of the Bodhisattvabhūmi in the Yogâcārabhūmiśāstra. Rather. 7. but at the same time has passages referring to the ta~ thāgatagarbha as seen in the quotations in the Ratna. ''parāvrtti'' is used. V. treating the subject of buddhatva has a doctrine quite similar to the Ratna. and āśraya means tathāgatagarbha or gotra nh What is meant by āśrayaparāvrtti and what is meant by āśrayaparivrtti are finally the same Absolute. 71) A n exception is found once i n v . [ 41 1 . ' āśrayaparivrtti '. and the difference lies in what is meant by āśraya. although this Śāstra seems to accept basically the theory of the prakrtiprabhāsvaratā of citta and āgantukakleśa. As for the garbha theory. Including one verse preserved only in the Chinese version 70\ all of the three verses of this Śāstra quoted in the Ratna. instead of 'parivrtti'. In the orthodox Vijñānavāda. this Śāstra has no development to compare with the Sutras referred to above. 4 tathatā '. 12 we have ' buddhatvam — āśraya70) After p . But whether parāvrtti and parivrtti differ from each other in their sense is somehow questionable. It expounds mainly the theory of the Vijñānavāda. ' anābhogâpraśrabdhakriyā' with the simile of the Divine drum. while in the Ratna. 4 anāsravadhātu '. one notable thing is the use of the term 4 āśrayaparāvftti ' or 4 -parivrtti' and its meaning. are found in Chapter IX. 4 tathāgatagarbha\ and the 4 trikāya'-theory of 4svābhāvika\ *sāmbhogya\ and * nairmānika % with all of which we are acquainted in the Ratna. 4 āśrayaparāvrtti '. according to the Chinese tradition. This much is clear in regard to the difference between the two theories. it describes the practices of the Mahāyānistic Bodhisattvas. 1) 6 verses beginning with v. As if to answer this question. attributed. 12 in Chap. however.. The term tathāgatagarbha is used only once throughout the passages. the chapter on 'bodhi\ This chapter. 1. IX are said to be referring 4 to āśrayaparāvrtti \ Of them. nor has any systematization on it. V I I I (III & IV)-32. which it regards as the same as parinispanna—svabhāva. the term āśrayaparivrtti is used for characterizing dharmakāya or bodhi. 31. where. This point may be called unique in this Śāstra as showing a germ of reciprocal influence between the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. In this chapter we come across such terms and subjects as ' buddhatvasya śaranatva '. the Sūtrâlañkāra has various relevant passages. to the same author.The Ratnagotravibhāga 21 chapters. in v. In relation to this. and āśraya means ālayavijñāna. 15 nairātmyameva ātmani krtvā. the term āśrayaparāvrtti or āśrayasya parāvrtti is used for denoting the anāsravadhātu. it is inclined to approach the trisvabhāva theory in its interpretation of cittaprakrti. t r . See note on t h e Engl. 4 dharmadhātuviśuddhi '.

e. 44 runs as follows: padārtha—deha—nirbhāsa—parāvrttir anāsravah / dhātur. i. the commentator says that what is taught in v. IX. āśraya is shown in the next verse where it is referred to by the term āryagotra characterized as vimala. e. ' āśrayaparivrtti ' is explained. e. due to parāvrtti of 5 indriyas and others. 42 of the same chapter. which is. e. the commentator mentions ' āśraya ' as the last of the 5 yogabhūmis and explains that ' āśraya' means here 4 āśrayaparāvrtti \ But v. e. 13) over other kinds of āśrayaparāvrtti is explained. XI. [ 42 ] . one obtains ' vibhutva ' (power) and enters upon the amalâśraya of the Buddhas. 77 to be the dharmakāya. v. e. e. dharmâlambana. 33 is the acquisition of ālambanaviśesa (special basis). 7) In the commentary on vv. 42 mentions only the first 4 and the 5th bhūmi. in the sense. TAKASAKI syânyathāptih \ Here ' anyathāpti ' seems to be an interpretation of ' parāvrtti '. sama. bījaparāvrtteh sa ca sarvatragâśrayah \\ and thereon the commentary says that ' bījaparāvrtti ' means ' ālayavijñānaparāvrtti ''. i. which is quoted in the Ratna. 15 with a simile of sky. referring to ivibhutva\ speak to the effect that. 12. 9) v. viśista. which refer to the investigation of samkleśa and vyavadāna. 13. i. ' parāvrtti ^ of i padârtha-deha-nirbhāsa '. 32-33. tathāgatānām parivrttir isyate\ It is interpreted by the commentator as ' āśraya iti yo sau parivrtty āśrayas tarn darśayati* (that which is parivrtti is that which is āśraya. i. existing also in the śrāvaka and the pratyekabuddha. i. 60. as the result of fixation {yoga) of mind on svadhātu. i. the commentator says that by this second verse the superiority of the tathāgata abiding in that state (sthitaś ca tasmin sa tathāgato.J . the ' vimukti \ It ( = anāsravadhātu) is also ' sarvatragâśraya '. IX. 41—48. 14 refers to the 10 meanings or characters of āśrayaparāvrtti and says ' āśrayo. 14). 2) The commentary says that by this v. 8) In the commentary on v. This last point is shown in v. 4) V. grāhya and grāhaka. which refers to the ' yogabhūmi' of Bodhisattvas. (p. 6) The same amalâśraya is explained in v. XI. 3) Commenting on v.) Here the term āśraya seems to be synonymous with buddhatva as 'sarvagatâtmaka'' (v. which causes the disappearance of the manifestation of dvaya. in turn. ' change of basis from A to B '.. of vijñānas (other than ālayavijñāna) is the 4 anāsravadhātu '. i. and anyūnânadhika. tathatā.. defined as ' āśrayaparāvrtti-laksana ' in the commentary on v. and that the one who has acquired this state is called ' parāvrttâśraya ' (one whose āśraya has been changed). 71) 5) Verses IX.

In conclusion. 29 says that āśrayaparāvrtti takes place for the first time in the first Stage of Bodhisattva. is annihilated or no more exists (akhyāna of asadartha). 12) v. Furthermore the ' āśrayas ' are here to be understood as caksurvijñāna. etc. 13) v. i. udgraha and vikalpa-. XIX. 2) āśraya = bīja = ālayavijñāna (whose parāvrtti. etc. being the substratum of unreal things or phenomena. v. ' āvrtti ' of manas. 49) and the manifestation of the reality (sadartha = tathatā). that there is a variety in usage of the term āśraya: 1) āśraya (in pi. 66). 54 runs as follows: akhyāna-khyānatā jñeyā asadartha-sadarthayoh / āśrayasya parāvrttir mokso ' sau kāmacāratah Jj Here āśrayaparāvrtti is defined as the non-manifestation of the unreal objects (asadartha = nimitta. In this third meaning. IX. the acquisition of anuttarapada and sarvâkarajñatā takes place with those Bodhisattvas who practised the tajropama—samādhi. anyathâpti is buddhatva). and this ' āvrtti ' is explained in the commentary to mean parāvrtti.The Ratnagotravibhāga 10) The same parāvrtti of vijñānas are referred to in the next verse (v. 45) with another expression. and as the result of parāvrtti. the 5 outer-sense-based vijñānas. and not with parāvrtti. in v. while at the same time there takes place the manifestation [ 43 ] . though it is not brought out clearly by the author. and vv. because parāvrtti means 'change of basis (from A to B)'. 60. e. e. This use of the term āśraya relates to the characterization of svābhāvika or dharmakāya as the āśraya of the other two kāyas (IX. i. i. we may say. the commentary says: on these three nimittas are bound citta—caittā accompanied by āśrayas. and 3) āśraya — āśrayaparāvrtti = tathāgatānām parivrtti = sarvatragâśraya = amalâśraya = anāsravadhātu = dharmakāya = buddhatva = = āryagotra = svadhātu. āśraya should be compounded only with parivrtti. 11) In chapter XIV. That is the description of āśrayaparāvrtti in the Sūtrâlañkāra.) = caksurvijñāna. the former basis.. 49 runs as follows: pratisthā-bhoga-bījam hi nimittam bandhanasya hi j sāśrayāś cittacaitās tu badhyante ''tra sabījakāh fj For the second line. e. 45 & 46 say that the final āśrayaparāvrtti.

Yogācārabhūmi. ' —yoginām parivrttâśrayānām sarvaklistadharma-nirbīja āśrayah parivartate* (Yogācārabhūmi. the term āśrayaparivrtti was commonly used by the Vijñānavādins and in the Tathāgatagarbha theory. but also in the Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā. defining āśraya as ālayavijñāna. (Dharmadh)73) . 1-2. Bhattacharya. and it is this ' manifestation ' of the reality that is meant by parivrtti 7 2 ). Sthiramati's commentary on the Madhyântavibhāga. This supposition bears upon the authorship of the Ratna. p. e. The most important one is the third interpretation. Part 1. gañ gshan-gyi dbañ-gi Ao-bo-ñid de-ñid-kyi gñen-po skyes-na. rnam-par byañ-bahi char gyur-paho. not only is the term āśrayaparāvrtti found in the Sūtrâlamkāra. tathatā) which is a new āśraya. 27. 6. Wogihara's edition. respectively. In this sense. including the Bodhisattvabhūmi. 11. could remain before and after the enlightenment without changing its nature. 2) akhyāna. gañ kun-nas ñon-moñs-pahi chal dog cih. 11. 72) [ 44 ] . Appendix to the Mahāyāyasūtrâlañkāra. And as the result of the ' parāvrtti ' into ' tathatā '. i. 190. by S. 74) Mahāyānasamgraha. I I Manobhūmi). being āśraya. etc. astam prayātam. p. Tib. we find āśraya in combination with parivrt. In these two Śāstras. (gshan-gyur-pa — parāvrtti). could not employ the latter expression. ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' means āśrayasya bijasya tathatāyām amalâśraye parāvrttih ' . the disappearance of the asad-artha (inclusive of blja) signifies its returning to the reality. These facts seem to show that the term āśrayaparāvrtti was used for the first time in the Sūtrâlamkāra (kārikā) and has gradually been fixed as a technical term of the Vijñānavāda by Asañga and Vasubandhu. disappearance. e t c . 73) Bodhisattvabhūmi. 4 (āśrayaparivrtter) svabhāvapraveśas tathatā' vaimalyam āgantukamala—tathatâprakhyāna—prakhyānāya'. that is to say. sā câsya niruttarā āśrayaparivrttih ' (Bodhisattvabhāmi). 3) āvrtti. with such expressions as 4 — dausthulyasya prahānad āśrayo 4 sya bodhisattvasya parivartate\ i asyâśyayah parivrtto bhavati. that is to say.. p. 368. ' tathatā ' alone manifests itself fully without obscuration. and that before that term was introduced. Sde-dge edition. Namely. This last interpretation of āśraya and its combination with parivTtti is supported by the usage of these terms in the Yogācārabhūmi. ed. On the other hand. ed. nirasyate. was no doubt acquainted with both expressions—parivrtti and parāvrtti—but the Ratna. p. Levi. fragments. to disappear (phenomenal sense). The commentator of the Ratna. and due ' Parāvrtti ' is interpreted in three ways in the Sūtrâlañkâra. by V.of the reality (khyāna of sadartha. * tathatāyāh parivrttih ' takes place.. but not with parāvrt. ' tathatā-parivrtti '. 25-26. and the Dharmadharmatāvibhāga attributed to Maitreya. etc. Ri 36 b 2: gshan-gyur-pa ni. the Lañkāvatārasūtra. 405. 11. 1. returning (doctrinal sense). and the Mahāyānasamgraha of Asañga has probably the same use of āśrayaparāvrtti along with its definition 7 4 ). because gotra. 6 & 9. 1) anya~ thâpti (in literal sense). Dharmadharmatāvibhāga.

see Appendix I I I . date. 76 ^ These terms are reconstructed from the Chinese translation which gives the 78) ft (ffi). 2) g | . and hence discussions will be mainly devoted to them in this chapter. and even their originality. This fact cannot be a fully reliable proof for the present problem but suggests the point to some extent. 3) g ft . 4) paryāya. 9) ffi JR. 4) J £ & . must be someone other than Asañga or Vasubandhu 75>. and is mainly based upon two Sutras. 7) asamklista. As has been referred to above. this small Śāstra is attributed to Sāramati in the Chinese Tripitaka. and these problems are relating to the date and author of the Ratna. 2) hetu. Among them those to be referred to here are (1) Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. THE WONKS ON THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY CONTEMPORARY WITH OR SUCCEEDING THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA There are many other works on the garbha theory which are never reffered to in the Ratna. 5) abheda. As for this. the commentator of the Ratna. 11) arthakriyā. 8) nitya. The Description of the Ultimate Reality. that casts various problems about their authorship. 8) ^ fi. The Chinese insertion of one verse from the Sūtrâl. and hence is nothing but the tathāgatagarbha. (4) Lañkāvatārasūtra and (5) Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśātra. 3) svabhāva. The text describes this bodhicitta under 12 divisions.The Ratnagotravibhāga to the specialized use of the term āśrayaparivrtti. referred to above is accompanied by a prose commentary whose explanation is exactly the same as Vasubandhu's commentary on this very verse. There is another point which shows the close relationship between the Mahāyānasūtrālañkāra and the Ratna. It is the use of the six categories (sat-padârtha) beginning with svabhāva. (3) Anuttarâśrayasūtra. the Āryaśrīmālā and the Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa76). 9) yoga.fiS m ? t 11) ft ft M. The main point of doctrine in this work is the i bodhicittai which is synonymous with 'cittaprakrtV in the Ratna. V. in their contents. From its contents. — The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. namely: 1) phala. all these are known only through the Chinese sources. 6) ft . 10) A. § 1. 7) m Ife. though regarded as of Indian origin and preserved in the Chinese and the Tibetan Tripitakas. (2) Buddhagotraśāstra. 5) ft 3g &] . Except (4). and 12) ekatva (or ekadhātu). 6) avasthāprabheda. the first three are in close relation to the Ratna. 10) anarthakriyā. Especially. this work seems quite consistent with the Ratna. 12) — ft[ 45 ] following terms: 1) ^ .

The remaining parts not described above seem to be taken mostly from Chapters II & IV of the Ratna. 1. 80) or the distinction of prakrtisthagotra and samudānītagotra in the Ratna. the āryasatya or the Nirvana. and ' tathāgata' seeking for its authority in the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa.. the second. and explains it in the same way as the Ratna. prakrtyasamklistatva is said to be the own nature of bodhicitta. samādhi and karunā. the tathāgata. like ākāśadhātu. In particular. the text says phala means nirvānadhātu which is nothing but the dharmakāya characterized as āśrayaparivrtti. II. of neither origination nor destruction (anutpādânirodha). Besides. TAKASAKI This division has a resemblance not only in its terminology but also in its contents to the 10 meanings of the gotra described in Chap. dharmâdhimukti. seems to have been written from the same standpoint as the commentator of the Ratna. 53 & 54 of the Ratna. a reference to the 2 sides of bodhicitta under 3) svabhāva. of which the first one is identical with v. I of the Ratna. in its contents. And lastly.).J .'. unlike the Sûtralañkāra. and IV of the Ratna.. The verse in 8) nitya. 155. similes used under 10) anarthakriyā and II) arthakriyā are the same as those in Chapters 1 (among 9 illustrations).. did in its explanation on the ' śuddhâvasthāyām avikārârtha ([IX]-c). In this case. with a verse containing the same idea as v. prajñā. and the 10 characteristics of asambheda under 5) can be traced one by one in various passages in the Ratna. a verse under 7) asamklista resembles v. Thus examining the contents. a verse referring to the śūnya and aśūnya of the gotra. as this text.. Namely. 26 ff. Under 3) svabhāva. explaining that dharmadhātu is. e. saying ' śukladharmamayalaksana and vaimalyapariśuddhilaksana reminds us of the characterization of dharmakāya with prakrtiviśudhi and vaimalyaviśuddhi (p. it is possible that the latter is identical with the author of this text. under 1) phala. saying that the bodhicitta is nothing but the dharmakāya. [ 46 ] . Under 2) hetu. and Sāramati to whom this work is attributed may have been the author of the commentary of the Ratna. In 4) paryāya. and emphasizing oneness of nirvana with buddhatva. (pp. we may say that the author of this text composed it on the basis of the Ratna. is called śubhâtmasukhanityapāramitā and so authorized by a quotation from the Srīmālāsūtra. compressing and revising the form according to his own view. in its classification of living beings into ' sattvadhātu ' . 6) avasthāprabheda is fully identical with that in the Ratna. the text has two verses. 1. ' bodhisattva '. i.. Under 9) yoga. 34 of the Ratna.. II. a synonym of bodhicitta in its phala state. it explains 4 causes. 42-c d of the Ratna. the contents of 12) ekatva are the same as those under 'asambheda'' (X) in the Ratna. 3 in the Ratna. with I. is identical with verses I.

and sometimes those passages which are in other chapters or other parts of Chap. of which the last one treats the subject of the 10 meanings of the gotra under the title: Analysis of the characteristics (laksana) (of the Tathāgatagarbha). 2) (V) yoga includes explanations of ' dharmaratna ' and ' sañgharatna ' which appeared in Chap. in most parts of the text. satkāyadrstipatitā. The whole text consists of 4 chapters. II of the Ratna. ' ft ft ffffl '. I). 72). Besides those insertions in the passages on the 10 laksanas of the garbha. I of the Ratna. I (among explanations on the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra. It is translated into Chinese by Paramârtha. 4) explanations of (VII) nitya and (VIII) acintya in Chap. but with the same terminology and with explanations much similar to those of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. to Vasubandhu 7?) and highly esteemed among Chinese Buddhists throughout the centuries as a representative work on the garbha theory. but sometimes doctrines based upon the Vijñānavāda are interwoven among passages.The Ratnagotravibhāga c 2. The Buddhagotraśāstra is another work which. 3) descriptions regarding Buddhology of the trikāya—theory which is taught in two places in the Ratna. p. are inserted under (IX) avikāra as characteristics of the dharmakāya. by ' j f f$f\ . This attribution is rather doubtful. but this work poses interesting problems for us because of its very close similarity to the Ratna. like the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. are inserted in (X) asambheda. important changes of arrangement in this work are 6) shift of the deśanāprayojana ' which is at the end of Chap. . according to the Chinese tradition. is attributed. are inserted between lines. etc. 66-72) are inserted under (IX) avikāra. 1610. by '^C ^ft '. are inserted under (IX) avikāra. No.. I in the Ratna.. 5) descriptions of the ' śūnya and aśūnya ' of the garbha along with the 4 kinds of sattvas. pp.The Buddhagotraśāstra. viz. The main differences between the two works as mentioned in the previous paragraph are as follows: 1) 9 illustrations of the garbha taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra along with the explanations of the 9 kinds of defilements and of the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra (Ratna. expounds the 10 meanings of the gotra described in the Ratna. I in the Ratna. in Chap. and 7) "> Taisho. even in their wording. to the beginning of the work forming the nidānaparivarta' (Chap. Explanations under each ' laksana ' are in most cases quite equivalent to those in the Ratna. II (under (VI) vrtti) and in Chap. tr.

as far as the garbha theory is concerned. Another point of interest is the use of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra in the Buddhagotraśāstra. VI § 1 & 2). of the 5 meanings of the garbha taken from the Srīmālāsūtra. pp. and nirvana (in [V] yoga). one Tibetan version of the Ratna. of the 6 meanings of avikāra. and 78) "phe Ratna. though the verse is not found in any edition of that Sūtra. So it is not impossible to imagine that the Ratna. [ 48 ] . some of which are based upon the Vijñānavāda. this work was composed by borrowing many sentences from the Ratna. has a subtitle: Sandhimocana Mahāyāna-uttara-śāstra. " On the Uttaratantra". of the ' 5 laksanas and 5 gunas ' of dharmakāya as one of trikāya (in [IX] avikāra). III-V of the Ratna. An interesting fact is that among these quoted verses. but there is no doubt about their being taken from the Ratna. is also called ' Sandhinirmocana'. 51. except for the first one. This relates to the fact that the text is lacking those passages on the 4 aspects of gotra (Ratna. Throughout these passages. but arranging them more systematically by adding the author's own opinion. IX. 1935). the name of the source is not mentioned. etc. Furthermore. For these. Tsukinowa's information. the text expresses the doctrines of the Vijñānavāda such as 4 3-fold nihsvabhāva ' ' 3-fold svabhāva ' and i 5-dharmas '. we have 3 which are identical with vv. which is never quoted in the Ratna. Why such a statement is made is not clear 78>. Japanese. 154 & 155 of the Ratna. 7. vol. of the attainment of the Buddhahood by the icchantikas (in [IV] karman). Tsukinowa. 23 of the Sūtrâlañkāra which is preserved in the parallel passage in the Chinese version of the Ratna. 21-23) and Chaps. These two points show that the purpose of this text is to describe the buddhagotra only from its gotra aspect but not from 4 aspects as in the Ratna. along with its prose commentary. Thus examining. (K. It also indicates that this work was composed after the Ratna. dharmakāya. and the first one is said to be taken from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. (See Introduction. the text is written in prose except for a few verses which are quotations. has a similar character of being * sandhi—nirmocana ' in its position among the Mahāyāna Buddhism. of the 3 natures of the garbha taught in (I) svabhāva. the Ratna.J. in passages other than those referred to above. Annals of the Nihon Bukkyogaku-kyokai. These passages show the more developed doctrines. we are led to imagine that. of the āśrayaparivrtti. Thus the Buddhagotraśāstra is based upon two works. This author's opinion appears in descriptions of the ' 5 dosas ' and the 4 5 gunas ' in relation to the purpose of the teaching. According to Prof. I. and one identical with v. as an authority. for which the source is probably the Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. TAKASAKĪ shift of the explanation of the 3 meanings of the term tathāgatagarbha to Chapter III with detailed explanation.

one may notice in this Sūtra. At a glance. 689).e. IV. ) This term is restored from the Chinese * 3PīÇ _fc. respectively 8°). a n d t h e core of t h e tathâgatagarbha t h e o r y lies in its ekayāna theory. see M. N a m e l y . p. and V. IV. 81) I n Chinese. T h e connection of t h e tathāgatagarbha theory w i t h t h e S t ū p a worship a n d t h e eulogy on t h e B u d d h a is n o t a merely mechanical and accidental connection a t all. ^JJ \fâ p p . respectively. Leaving aside the first and the last two chapters which form its introduction and conclusion. 688. but a doubt arises about its date because of its being later than the Ratna. and the Buddhagotraśāstra. I . V I I is a k i n d of eulogy on the B u d d h a (buddhastotra) a n d Chap. is t h e Adbhutasūtra whose versions are available in Tibetan a n d Chinese as well ( T i b . a n d whose main subject is t h e a d m i r a t i o n of merits of t h e S t ū p a worship as t h e highest observance of Buddhists. respectively 8 1 ) . The term anuttarâśraya8 2 ) seems to mean the Tathāgata that possesses these 4 aspects. we should next examine the Anuttarâśrayasūtra 7 9 ) . " Busshoron no Ichi—kosatsu "' (Japanese). but their description can be traced word by word in the 79) p o r these problems on the Buddhagotraśāstra discussed above.The Anuttarâśrayasūtra. I I I . ^ •$£ p p .The Ratnagotravibhāga ^ke Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. 80) The original of C h a p .. the Sūtra emphasizes the inconceivability of these 4 subjects. V I I I Parlndana—parivarta is a n enlargement of t h e conclusion of t h e Adbhutasūtra i n accordance w i t h enlargement of the central p a r t . & #U ^K •=p 82 p p . and trying to combine both theories. Tathāgatadhātu-parivarta. jf> pp. at the end of each chapter. t h e S t ū p a worship a n d the eulogy on t h e B u d d h a h a d originally taken place a m o n g a group of B u d d h i s t from which t h e M a h ā y ā n i s t c o m m u n i t y came i n t o existence. Tathāgatakriyā-p. § 3. Furthermore we have to put the Anūttarâśrayasūtra between the Ratna. This standpoint is somewhat similar to that of the Sūtrâlañkāra and hence the author was probably a Vijñānavādin who had a tendency similar to that of Yasubandhu. Taisho. i. the central part of this Sūtra consists of 4 chapters whose titles are II. Furthermore. Tathāgatabodhi—p. j{\\ < 3$. To solve this problem. 319. N o s . the Chinese attribution of this text to Vasubandhu seems quite reasonable. Hattori. vol. t h e pure ' faith i n t h e B u d d h a as often referred to in t h e Ratna. Tathāgataguna-p. Tohoku. Bukkyoshigaku. As far as this point is concerned. a similarity of its chapter divisions to those of the Ratna. while C h a p . These are quite identical with the 4 aspects of gotra described in the Ratna. respectively. . b u t i t shows t h e existence of a n essential interrelation among t h e m .. flX '• [ 49 ] . 160 ff. which quotes the Sūtrâlañkāra. being a work on the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. N o . 1955. %[i Pfś.

. Taisho. 12. 469 c. On the other hand..I Ratna. [ 50 ] . 469 b. It is only the chapter on Tathāgatakriyā that differs entirely from the Ratna. are included in the chapter on tathāgatadhātu in this Sūtra but with a slight difference in arrangement and wording. as a kind of sutralization of the latter. 5-10). 16. A passage on the meaning of gotra being sadāyatanaviśesa taken from the Sadāyatanasūtra (Taisho 16 p. in its contents. As to Chap. Namely. a passage on anutpādānirodhatā of the Tathāgata taken from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra (p. (2) hetu.9-25. p. This fact does not show that the Ratna. (7) vrtti. 16-17). (3) paripantha. 31. (4) phala. (6) yoga. 22. a stronger factor which shows that this Sūtra is an imitation of the Ratna.. Taisho 16. Although (9) āvenika has no equivalent passage in the Ratna. but quite to the contrary.J . is that this Sūtra refers to certain passages which are quotations from other Sutras in the Ratna. in the explanation of (1) svabhāva.h 1S $ S . 2. but names for the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas are identical with those mentioned in the Ratna. II) 1. This hypothesis will be proven upon examining the contents of the Sūtra. 84) fe . Its ten divisions are (1) svabhāva. 475 c. (2)-(4) are identical with (II) hetu and (III) phala among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna. p. it seems to show that this Sūtra was composed after the Ratna. (8) nitya. Tathāgataguna—parivarta. ft ft fw . I. (9) āvenika and (10) acintya. whose idea is fundamentally identical with (I) svabhāva of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. similar to that in the Ratna. except for (9) āvenika. 470c. RGV. For instance: (Chap. but under the chapter on ' bodhi ' . 21. 22. However. 23 & 24 8 3 ) . but utilized in the Buddhagotra84). TAKASAK. as if they were its own sentences. Taisho. 55. imitated the structure of this Sūtra or borrowed such an idea from this Sūtra. its idea is taught here and there. 24. 470 c. This is actually a mixture of the 10 meanings of4 gotra ' and the 8 meanings of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna... Besides these similarities with the Ratna. the six subjects starting with (V) yoga among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna.3.. (5) karman. RGV. respectively. 476 b-c. of which (3) paripantha is included under (III) phala in case of the Ratna. 801 b. the Sūtra refers to ' āśrayaparivritti ' with its 4 characteristics which are not in the Ratna.. IV. in its prose commentary on v.5. while the last six (nos. = Anuttarâśraya 473 c. 83) Ratna. are identical with the last five subjects among the 8 meanings of' bodhi ' in the Ratna. 6-10).17-18. This Sūtra uses a categorization with respect to the characteristics of gotra or dhātu. the Sūtra mentions the 180 āvenikadharmas including the 80 anuvyañjanas which are not in the Ratna.8-9. p. p.

r si ] . 471 c. 16-41. 471 6. 5. 4696-c. 18). RGV. pp. p. RGV. a parable of a householder with respect to the Bodhisattva's compassion taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. 28. 11-12). a passage on the Icchantikas taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. ātma. 16.The Ratnagotravibhāga 3. a description of the Buddha. the Anuttarâśrayasūtra is clearly a composition based upon the Rotna. 28. pp. a passage on cittaprahrîi and āgantukakleśa taken from the same Sūtra (p. 47.19-31. 13). p. a passage on dharmakāya endowed with the Buddha's properties w are avinirbhāga. p. Ill) 12.2-5). 79. a passage on those who are proud of their conception of śūnyatā taken from the Kāśyapaparivarta (p. amuktajña. p. RGV. 5-9). 9. 73.8-9). 3. pp. 40. RGV.16-27. 10. 26. RGV. 470 a. 4. viz. a simile of the Vaidūrya stone taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. 24. a passage on the 3 epithets of the Tathāgata.1-4). 470 c. 7. a passage on the 4 gunapāramitās (śubha. RGV. 470 c. 9-50. (Chap.3). a passage on the 3 states of dhātu (avasthāprabheda) taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. V) 17.469 6. taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. a passage on tathāgatagarbha covered with millions of defilements taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. being an authority for the Triple Jewel taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. RGV. sukha. RGV. 8. RGV. a passage on the inconceivability of tathāgatakriyā taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. acintya. p. (Chap. 14. 6. 10-14).5). 13. RGV. nitya) taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p.7). Thus. 11. 469 c.16). 22. p. 476 b. and aparāntakotinistha taken from the Daśabhūmikasūtra (p. pp. 32. a passage on dhātu being āśraya of all dharmas. RGV. taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. 2-6. RGV. 1-2). a passage on the inconceivability of dhātu taken from the same Sūtra (p. 12. real and unreal. 15.3-4). which is the highest basis {anuttarâśrayd). 7-48. 49. 469 6. a passage on the penetration of tathāgatajñāna into the living beings taken from the Tathāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka ( p . reshaping its contents into the frame of sūtra style and keeping !ts stress on the bodhi aspect. 49. 30. 470 a—6. 472 a. pp. RGV. p. p. RGV. his teaching and disciples. 10). p. ākāśadhātuparyavasāna. 472 a. dharmadhātuparama. RGV. 470 a. etc. 471 a. p. 470 b.

6 (a part of a quotation from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra). Paramârtha's translation gives two meanings for ' dhātu'.5 (a quotation from the 3) p. 31.. A key to solve this question as well as the question of the author of the Buddhagotra seems to lie in the hands of Paramârtha. p. It was after Vasubandhu that the combination again took place. while the orthodox Vijñānavādins like Vasubandhu have gradually deepened their theory on the side of pure Vijñānavāda. Paramârtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (Taisho. TAKASAKI But what was the intention of the author in composing this * Sūtra' ? This Sūtra is quoted only in the Buddhagotra. More interesting is the fact that the quotation is much more similar to the Ratna.. 7.13-73. 469 c = RGV. . while interpreting a verse from the Mahāyāna—abhidharmasūtra (Anādikāliko dhātuh) which is quoted also in the Ratna. The latter interpretation is identical with the Ratna. than to the Anuttarâśraya. 16-17 (a quotation from the Sadāyatanasūtra). 259 c-260 a = AĀS. 40. p. (77. pp. 12. 55. and both are translated into Chinese by Paramârtha 85>. 806 6 (i\\ $$ _L 13-15 (a commentary passage). but intentionally. 31.J. it was probably some one in the circle to which Paramârtha had belonged or rather Paramârtha himself who composed these Sūtra and Śāstra as authorities for the propagation of his unique doctrine. As 85) Quotations of the Anuttarâśraya in the Buddhagotraśāstra are as follows: . some insertion between lines. 469 6 = RGV. and the Ratna. the latter was a great and respected scholar of the Vijñānavāda. and hence it was not desirable for the Vijñānavādins to use the Ratna. p. was not written by Asañga or Vasubandhu.. the garbha theory is inserted only in Paramârtha's translation 86>. . 4) p. Of course. in turn. . 806 6 ($£ $ | ± 16-41. Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa). 812 (#H M _ h ft $ S nft. the combination of both theories was already traced in the Sūtrâlañkāra to some extent. This supposition will be supported by the fact that among Chinese translations of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya of Vasubandhu. ft H? I S . but it was not intentional nor as clear. 2) p. a quotation from the Sāgaramati-pariprcchā). ) = AÂS. pp. [ 52 ] . seems to have tried to purify its standpoint on the garbha theory. 49. 156 c). But the quotation is found neither in the Tibetan version nor in Hsūan-chuang's translation of the same text. 1595) also quotes the AĀS (Vol. No. p. p. pp. If we may surmise so. as an authority. p. 469 c = RGV. 469 6 = RGV. 469 b-c = RGV.8).e. tathāgatagarbha (Taisho. 86 * For example. One is ' ālayavijñāna' and the other is 'gotra'. Attribution of the Buddhagotra to Vasubandhu will be a subsidiary proof of the fact that the Ratna. ) = AĀS. p. p. . i. which has. 11-50.) = AÂS. a combination of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. 41. ft M ! £ .

_ The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda—śāstra. As for the Śraddhotpādaśāstra. among which the garbha theory.. but now missing. Another point which seems to be under the influence of the Ratna.D. the date of the Ratna. It reminds us of the samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā of the Ratna. and the Vijñānavāda are prominent. Some scholars wanted to solve this contradiction by regarding the author as another Aśvaghosa different from the famous poet. That is why the Lañkāvatāra is regarded by modern scholars as a work produced after Vasubandhu. As far as the present problem is concerned. This latter opinion is not 87) According to old Chinese Catalogues on the Tripitaka. Later Vijñānavādins regarded the Lañkāvatāra as one of the authorities. cannot be placed after that year and probably lies in the 4th cent. there is some doubt about its authorship. the famous poet contemporary with the King Kaniska. (prior to this translation) there was 6aid to have been another translation done by Dharmaksema (fig ^Sg g||j) between 412-433 A.The Ratnagotravibhāga other examples of this combination we have two works. is its establishment of tathatā as the ultimate principle that is the basis of both klista and aklista elements. and it is in one sense the most systematic exposition of its kind. its doctrine is purely of the garbha theory in spite of its use of the term ālayavijñāna. even in those of Vasubandhu. The unique point of these two works with respect to the garbha theory is their identification of the tathāgatagarbha with the ālayavijñāna— an identification which has never been seen in previous works. A. One point of similarity to the Ratna. The Lañkāvatāra is actually a collection of various theories among Mahāyāna Buddhism. to which we will refer at the end of this introduction. It is impossible that such an old poet is the author of this work containing such a new theory.D. and these two are combined under the theory of cittamātra taught in the Avatamsaka. 8 7 ). [ 53 ] . It is attributed to Aśvaghosa. ç 4. the Lañkāvatārasūtra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra. there is no difference even if we accept this tradition. However. is the expression of faith in the Buddha Amitāyus towards the end of the treatise. but some are trying to prove that this work is of Chinese origin in the absence of Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. and it was translated for the first time into Chinese in 433 A. Therefore. but in China it was respected by the followers of the Avatamsaka school as well.D. This is quite significant for determing the fate of the garbha theory. because of its exposition of the cittamātra and garbha theory. This is another Sūtra not known to the Ratna.

r si i . expresses its purpose of discourse. detailed examination of this Sūtra could not be pursued up to now. IN MAHĀYĀNA BUDDHISM § 1. in the history of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the sense " one that comes after the Prajñāpāramitā. this Ratna. It is clear that the Sutras which expose the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' with similes of megha. Namely. and that. 14. this work is in the same position as the Buddhagotra. 83-86). calls itself the ' uttara-tantra '. See N. TAKASAKI untenable since. and there were probably a great deal of influences from the Ratna. . No. 191) and it was translated into Chinese in 591 A. svapna. but it is at least sure 88 that this work shows the final development of the garbha theory \ VI. in contrast with the Prajñāpāramitā taken as the * pūrva ' exposition. according to the Tibetan version. At the end of Chapter I. 158-9). V. criticizing the latter. is Arya— candrottaradārikā-vyākarana (Tohoku no. the Ratna. Takata. as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā. the subtitle: Uttaratantra denotes the position of the Ratna. being translated by Paramârtha. etc. criticize the Prajñāpāramitā ? As a matter of terminology. But one difficulty in accepting this opinion is how to explain the existence of two versions of this treatise in China. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies {īndogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyū) Vol. in its contents. the Ratna. But this ' asti-vāda ' does not mean the negation of 'śūnya-vāda\ Rather. 1. signify the Prajñāpāramitā and the like. THE POSITION OF THE RATNA. emphasizes ' asti' in contrast with the ' śūnya ' of the Prajñāpāramitā. no.The Ratna. the later exposition. the Ratna." On what point does then the Ratna. 1957 (pp.J . saying that the text was exposed in order to establish the existence (astitva) of buddhadhātu so that one could avoid the faults created by the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' described in the ' previous ' Sutras (I. As I received this information only recently. 480) Its composition seems to be later in date than the Ratna. (Taisho. There is no work which refers to this treatise in Indian literature.D. regards itself as the real successor to the ' śūnya-vāda ' of the Prajñāpāramitā declaring that the real meaning of ' śūnyatā ' is to know the ' astitva' of the Germ having within itself both the ' śūnya' of defilements and the ' aśūnya"1 of 88) There is another Sñtra which exposes the garbha theory and bears a resemblance to the Ratna. Its name. The second translation was made by Siksānanda who is said to have come from Khotan.. The problem is still under consideration. On the Aryacandrottaradārikāvyākarana—nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra {Japanese).

when this ' prajñā ' is stated to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. the 3rd fault: ' abhūtagrāha ' denotes the ' Ātmavāda ' of Heretics or the ' sarvâstivāda ' of the Abhidharma and is said to be removed by ' prajñā '. and. and characterized as lokottara and laukika. identical with the Absolute. 154—5). ' prajñā ' has two functions. In other words. as a natural outflow of ''prajñā '. and hence the word ' śūnya' implies ' aśūnya ' of this Germ. and hence is based upon the Compassion. We may take this statement as an eX planation of ' śūnyam sarvam '. but to its short or unclear explanation. therefore. i. (I. is to remove such faults in order to make known the real meaning of ' śūnya-vāda '. some become the ' nāstika ' and never believe in the existence of the dharmakāya but rather abuse such a reality. As the Prajñāpāramitā was lacking in a clear explanation of such a kind. The former have a kind of ' abhūtagrāha '.. Thus the Ratna. many people are likely to misunderstand the meaning of ' śūnya ': on the one hand. respectively. This is exactly what is aimed at by the Prajñāpāramitā. These two sides of 'prajñā' are shown in another passage by the terms avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna).e. the aim of the Ratna. defining ' sarvam ' as ' sarvakleśa ' from which all phenomena arise and which excludes the Germ inseparably associated with the Buddha's Qualities. This [ 55 ] . as represented by 4 prajñā' and ' jñāna '. The text calls both kind of people those of ' śūnyatāviksiptacitta ' (P. man will have the fault of ' ātmasneha '. Namely. on the other hand. assumes for that reason many faults among the followers of the prajñāpāramitā.The Ratnagotra\ibhāga the Buddha 's Qualities. some regard ' śūnya ' as something substantial. 75). the Ratna. and to establish the ' bhūtadharma '. to negate the ' abhūtagrāha '. that is to say. karunā or maitrī. emphasizes karunā along with prajñā as associating inseparably with each other for the acquisition of the Buddhahood. This point becomes clear after examining the 5 faults described in the Ratna. Thus the criticism is directed not to the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā itself. the commentary mentions ' jñāna '. Here the term ' laukika ' signifies the function of jñāna to make known the reality to the ' worldly ' beings. especially the last three of them. However. This seems to be the reason for maintaining ' ātmasneha ' as the last of the 5 faults and ' maitrī ' as the remedy for it. respectively. Here ' jñāna ' has the character of criticizing ' prajñā ' in the sense of affirming the existence of the reality undone by i prajñā \ But the text seems to regard this ''jñāna ' as one side of ''prajñā''. the latter have the fault of ' bhūtadharmâpavāda '. Unless this function of jñāna operates. This is nothing but a function of providing benefits for others. As the remedy against this fault. for the world. which forms the 4th of the 5 faults.

Here we see the stress lies more on the karunā than on the prajñā and this standpoint relates to the ekayāna theory whose origin is in the Saddharmapundarīka. viz. anātman and aśubha as the correct view (aviparyāsa) with respect to the dharmas. 27-35) Namely. 323). e. It seems to show that the Ratna. but. another expression of the same idea of ' dhātvastitva ' being explained through the characters of the gotra as 4 śūnya ' and i aśūnya '. XV-1: Acintyā kalpasahasrakotyo yāsām pramānam na kadāci vidyate / prāptā mayā esa tadagrabodhir dharmamca deśemy ahu nityakālam // (Bibl.. In contrast. P. never afflicts the world. these prohibited terms are used as attributes of the dharmakāya but in the reverse order. Saddh. while here the same term is used for the function of establishing the dharmakāya expressed in the positive way. This is a kind of revolution in Buddhist thought. or in the garbha theory in general. understands the prajñāe.g. which declares the eternity of the Buddha89>. samādhi. as has been examined above. as the cause for attaining the dharmakāya. the function of prajñā (or prajñāpāramitā) is to establish the correct notions of anitya. and mahākarunā. prajñāpāramitā. but it is. 89) [ 56 ] . Also. sukha. while the practice of mahākarunā is said to be the remedy for any selfishness whose typical form is found in the Pratyekabuddha. p. nitya. the text mentions four kinds of practice. Another important point to be noted here is the positive expression of the dharmakāya to be the śubha-ātma-sukha-nityagunapāramitā. it is said that the result of the former practice is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' ātmapāramitā ' extending as far as the limit of space (ākāśadhātu—paryavasāna). while that of the latter is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' nityapāramitā ' continuing as far as the limit of time (aparântakotinistha). in this Ratna. the ātmavāda of heretics and the like. Buddh. prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā are relevant to the present discussion. owing to the practice of prajñā. The practice of prajñāpāramitā is said to be the remedy for all kinds of substantial views. never remains in the Nirvana (apratisthitanirvāna). ed. In the Prajñāpāramitā. Of them. teach the notions of anitya. (pp. duhkha. the phenomena. adhimukti. These four terms. TAKASAKI point is also mentioned in the explanation of the process from cause to effect with respect to the Germ. And the Bodhisattva is said to be the only one who practises both prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā and who. owing to the practice of karunā. etc. viz.J . Special attention is to be paid to the point that the ātmapāramitā is said to be the result of the practice of ' prajñāpāramitā. including the Prajñāpāramitā. and most scriptures. i. ātman and śubha are usually regarded as wrong notions with respect to the phenomena.

This statement is placed towards the end of the chapter. The Sūtra says 9 1 ): By the first Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. Literally and originally. 16. is a successor of the Prajñāpāramitā in its introduction of the idea of parârthasampatti into jñāna. which. the former has a somewhat functional character. or ' prajñā which does not work out in the world as jñāna '. by E. What is criticized is ' prajñā. In clarifying such a structure of prajñāpāramitā. This prajñā of the Prajñāpāramitā and consequently of Nāgārjuna was again analyzed by the Vijñānavāda. A critical approach to this subject will be one of the big themes in future studies of Buddhist thought. (Chapitre VII. 2. op. § 2. in spite of its similarity to the Sarvāstivāda in its analytical method. not accompanied by karunā '. Nihsvabitāvalaksanaparivarta. prajñāpāramitā as consisting and jñāna or of prajñā and karunā. (Lamotte. However. there was taught the doctrine of the āryasatya and on its basis the astivāda of the Abhidharma has been developed.). G. sought for its basic term in jñāna as the Sarvāstivāda did. prajñā is the intellect or intuition by means of which the Buddha attained the bodhi. But a revolutionary point of Mahāyāna Buddhism in comparison with Abhidharma Buddhism is in the emphasis laid on * parārthasampatti'. in turn. This distinction is of fundamental character throughout the history of Buddhism. that of Mahāyāna Buddhism may be characterized as ' practical'. 30-31).f p. pp. in other words. 437-439. V.The Ratnagotravibhāga paramitā in its two aspects. Taisho. pp. as mentioned above. In contrast with the logical approach of Abhidharma Buddhism. but there was a variant in each school in the usage of both terms. which opens with a question by Paramārthasamudayagata Bodhisattva (Tib.The Ratna. and hence on karunā. There is another system in Mahāyāna Buddhism that criticizes the Prajñāpāramitā in a manner similar to the way done by the Ratna. . p. 85 f. Don dam yañ-dag-hphags) on this point. and the Vijñānavāda. Concretely speaking. while the latter signifies what is attained by the former. by Hsûan-Chuang (Taisho. Tib. Cf. This is the Vijñānavāda whose authority is sought for in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. No. Vol. 90>. Tokyo. such an analysis was made for the first time by Pali Abhidhamma Buddhism. prajñā and jñāna are of a great significance in Buddhism since its beginning. while jñāna is the knowledge which forms the contents of bodhi. 91) Sandhinirmocanasūtra tr. cit. and in primitive Buddhism there seems to have been no strict distinction in the use of these terms. and the Vijñānāvāda. No. while the Prajñāpāramitā emphasized prajñā as the highest 'practice '. Diagramatically speaking. which changed the character of jñāna to its ground. ed. I I . Sasaki. 65 f. the Sarvāstivāda laid stress on jñāna in which the function of prajñā is implied. This astivāda was negated by the Prajñāpāramitā and there has been established the śūnyavāda of the MahāBoth terms. Lamotte (1935). 693 c-697 c. " Prajñā and Jñāna ". 676) Chap. 90 J [ 57 ] . (Japanese") Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. ' Sandhinirmocana' on account of ' nihsvabhāva' is the main topic of this chapter. but this prajñā included both aspects of jñāna and prajñā. negation of the wrong view and manifestation of prajñā o f the reality. the Ratna. deserves to be called the successor to the Prajñāpāramitā.

i. For example the Prajñāpāramitā teaches the nihsvabhāvatā in regard to the sarvadharma. terms borrowed by the Ratna. to analyze and clarify the significance of the śūnya—vada. in its criticism of the Prajñāpāramitā. He refers to the source of this trisvabhāva in the Prajñāpāramitā {op. op. cannot be regarded as a work of the Vijñānavada. This standpoint is precisely held in common with the Ratna. In spite of such interrelations of both theories. at least on the commentary. VII. Along this line. the unique standpoint of the Ratna. Also. has many authorities for its doctrine that are. is in one sense a sandhinirmocana on account of prajñā94) and the Sandhinirmocana may be termed the uttaratantra as the ultimate exposition of the śūnyavāda described from the two sides. v . the Sūtra establishes the doctrine of the 3 meanings with respect to the nihsvabhāvatā as the basis of the trisvabhāva theory93>.J. but its way of exposition is ' with an esoteric meaning. are.. cit. Lamotte. Chap. 67). the Sūtra is called ' sandhi-nirmocana '. the Sūtra continues: The ultimate doctrine of the Mahāyāna is no doubt taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. the Ratna. as has been referred to above. not acquainted with the Vijñānavāda at all. 93) 92) [ 58 ] . V. but what is meant by this nihsvabhāvatā is not so clear. the Disclosure of the Knot or Secret Doctrine. 94 ^ See Note on Introduction. Preface. samdhi. Avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna).and śūnya-vāda is now done by the Sandhinirmocana.ASAKI yāna. These facts seem to tell us that the garbha theory. and it is the last and the highest Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. pp. Furthermore the Ratna. IAK.. in turn. samdhāya. or ' with a hidden intention ' 92>. The quotation of a verse from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra (anādikāliko dhātuh—) also shows the influence of the Vijñānavāda on the Ratna. 3. e. although it criticizes the PrajñāCf. from the Vijñānavāda. may be observed in the fact that there is no quotation from the Sandhinirmocana. we have already observed in the Sūtrâlañkāra the co-existence of the garbha theory and the doctrine of trisvabhāva and ālayavijñāna. 14-16). nor any use of terms like trisvabhāva or ālayavijñāna: hence. Indeed. the Ratna. and lastly resulted in the amalgamation of both theories. Just because of this standpoint. s. The purpose of the Sandhinirmocana is to explain this meaning of nihsvabhāva ' in a clear manner '. cit. E d g e r t o n B H S D i e . & samdhā. 3 (p. or āśrayaparivrtti and the six categories beginning with svabhāva for describing the ultimate reality.. The amalgamation of both asti. Such a community of historical background brought the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda to assume a similar appearance of ' astivāda ' and to have common doctrines to a great extent. of śūnya and aśūnya. that is to say. As the justification for this statement.

but as something that manifests kleśa. The starting point of the garbha theory lies in the doctrine of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa' and the stress is laid on the purification of the mind which is regarded as the attainment of the Enlightenment. is a completely different system from the Vijñānavāda by origin? and. the ultimate purpose is the realization of bodhi. we find a germ of such a theory in the Ratna. even for the Vijñānavāda. This cittaprakrti is unconditionally identified with bodhi or dharmakāya and is called ' dhātu ' or ' gotra \ From such a theory of cittaprakrti. the Vijñānavāda was really a successor of the Abhidharma Buddhism. its analytical method found the origin of the nature of sattvadhātu covered with kleśas in vijñāna as the function of distinguishing object from subject. not as pure cittaprakrti. Nevertheless. we may expect the development of the cittamātra theory as exposed in the Avatamsaka or the Lañkâvatāra. In its methodology. Of course. Thus the standpoint of the Vijñānavāda is the analysis of phenomena from the viewpoint of the sattvadhātu and thereby it stands in a clear contrast with the garbha theory which.The Ratnagotravibhāga nāramitā. in its possession of many Sutras. On the other hand. In fact. in turn. When the Sandhinirmocana established the theory of trisvabhāva as the result of the analysis of nihsvabhāvatā taught in the Prajñāparamitā. never uses the expression of cittamātra. and ' citta '. karman and janman from cittaprakrti by the force of ' ayoniśomanasikāra' is set forth. the emphasis lies on the identification of gotra or garbha with the dharmakāya and any difference of the garbha or the sattvadhātu from the dharmakāya is rather neglected. but there is no explanation of the reason why such unreal kleśas are originated from the cittaprakrti. The term cittamātra is replaced by and explained more concretely as ' vijñaptimātra ' . of the real meaning of śūnyatā. what is done by the Vijñānavāda is the investigation of this very point of difference between sattvadhātu and the Buddha. somewhat precedes the Vijñānavāda. but it was the Abhidharma based upon the śūnyavāda of the Prafñāpāramitā. or manifestation As regards bodhi. and hence deserves to be called ' mahāyānâbhidharma ' . exposes its doctrine always from the viewpoint of the dharmakāya or bodhi. This is a weak point of the garbha theory. as shown in the title of one scripture. In other words. or as the basis (āśraya) of phenomena. The passage referred to above is used for explaining how the cittaprakrti is real and how the āgantukakleśa is unreal. [ 59 ] . the Vijñānāvada seeks for the process towards its realization in the acquisition of ' jñāna ' as a result of the conversion of ālayavijñāna. and with this ' jñāna ' acquired. is named ' âlayavijñāna'. the Ratna. in the passage where the origination of the 3 impurities (samkleśa) of kleśa.

This absorption seems to have taken place not so long after the Ratna. however. failure to introduce the ālayavijñāna made the garbha theory weak in its explanation of the gotra as the substratum (ādhāra) of Samsāra or the phenomenal world. XAJS. is regarded as fully identical with bodhi or dharmakāya. preventing the former from establishing an independent school of its own. i. namely 'prakrtistha' and *samudānīta ' . in spite of its acceptance of the Vijñānavāda in its interpretation of4 jñāna * and others.A&AK. ālayavijñāna. This point is accepted in the Ratna. ālayavijñāna is said to have a mixed character of real and unreal (JfiÇ -%£ 7(\\ ' o )• This characterization seems to be his unique interpretation of that term. One thing to be added here is the similarity of the Ratna. though being anādikāliko dhātuh and being āśraya of sarvadharma. and the Ratna. and kjñānâpti ' is said to be the perfect manifestation (pari-vrtti) of such ' āśraya \ while in the Vijñānavāda.1 it is said. in the field of the pure garbha theory.j . the garbha theory was no doubt of an independent character. it no longer remains. This is the reason why the Ratna. and ' jñānâpti ' is said to be the result of the revolution (parāvrtti) of āśraya. different from the Vijñānavāda. however.. 4 avihalpajñāna ' can realize itself in the world. otherwise it cannot. e. too) to the Upanisadic philosophy in the expression of 95) According to Paramārtha. Furthermore. could remain thereby. [ 60 ] . always remains as a principle of ' samklistadharma ' and is never regarded as identical with dharmakāya 9 5 ) . probably influenced by the tathāgatagarbha theory. and why the Ratna. the garbha theory in its later development could not but introduce the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. as seen in the Lahkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda. being 4anādikāliko dhātuh'' and the ' āśraya of sarvadharma ' . Because of this weak point. is that the gotra. At the same time. In other words. gotra involves two sides. owing to which function the basic prajñā. e. The only difference. (and the Vijñānavāda. was the first systematized and at the same time the last independent and pure exposition of the garbha theory. and there was an attempt at identification. Thus this 4 jñāna ' is characterized as ' laukika ' ' prsthalabdha ' . change of basis from ālayavijñāna to jñāna. of garbha with ālayavijñāna. never introduced the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. At its starting point. such an innovation of the Vijñānavāda resulted in the absorption of the garbha theory into the Vijñānavāda. but of an essential character. the * vijñaptimātratā' can be understood. in the period when the Vijñānavāda had formed an independent school as the rival of the Mādhyamika. i. and hence has the same structure as 4 avikalpajñāna ' and 4 tatprsthalabdha '. while ālayavijñāna can never be identical with 4 avikalpajñāna ' and in 4 jñānâpti ' .

T. (The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Vijñānavāda and Vedānta.Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna. it seems quite necessary to investigate such mutual influences and interrelations between the Brahmanical thought and Mahāyāna Buddhism. 1955.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga the Absolute with positive terms 96) . In its essence.D.. the middle of the 3rd cent. 1955) Especially. Prof. however. e. A. came probably after Asaûga and Vasubandhu but not so far from their time. 32. 2) The lower limit is 433 A. V. and hence at early 5th cent. Gokhale (A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. 97) Recently. when the Lañkāvatāra is translated into Chinese for the first time. A. it is clear. too wide to cover here. the text consisting of the basic Kārikās and a commentary on it in verse and prose. Murti has appeared on this field of comparative study. . As for its date: 1) The upper limit is the date of Nāgārjuna and Âryadeva. to establish its monistic doctrine. is of a cruite different character from the substantial Absolute of the Upanisad. Still it is not impossible to suppose that there was an influence from the Upanisadic thought for the astivāda of the Ratna. V. S. it may not be useless here to have in conclusion a summarized consideration of the date and authorship of the Ratna. 96) A verse of the Ratna. 90-91).. many scholars have already remarked the influence of the Vijñanavāda on the Vedāntavāda in its change of character from the realistic philosophy of the Brahmasūtra to the idealistic philosophy of the Advaita-vedānta which is established by Śaûkara through the philosophy of Gaudapāda. To clarify the historical and social background of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda.D. Kyoto. being the manifestation of śūnyatā. At the same time. 3) Completion of the present form of the Ratna. Chap. however. 52 = Bhagavadgitā XIII. [ 61 ] . a great work by Prof.D. R. e. V. pp. As a result of investigations throughout the previous passage. London. As far as the historical approach is concerned. the Absolute taught in the Ratna. and I cannot but reserve its investigation for my future studies 97>. quite similar to one of the Bhagavadgītā is pointed out by Prof. § 3. so far no work has been done systematically. i. Yamaguchi's Commemoration Volume. XIII of his work is devoted to the subject of the Absolute seen by three systems. Mādhyamika. i. This subject is. It is common to the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda in general. viz.

fore. especially those verses called ' śloka ' and kept in Chapter I. Because of this similar position.J . it is quite doubtful to attribute the Buddhagotraśāstra to him. As for the author: 1) The author of the commentary must be Sāramati. the Ratna. Thus it is not impossible that the same author of the above two works composed the original ' śloka' of the Ratna. For certainty of Maitreya's authorship of the Ratna. but the Vijñānavāda is likely to have started with Maitreya. Sāramati was the systematizer of the garbha theory in its pure form. and we shall be required to engage in further and detailed examination of all the works attributed to Maitreya.. seem fairly old in both their style and contents. TAKASAKI 4) As for the Kārikā text. seems to have been composed next to the Abhisamayâlañkāra This is because the garbha theory precedes Maitreya. after the present investigation. 3) The Vijñānavāda had probably been established in its pure form by Vasubandhu. with the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 2) Most probably the authorship of the original ' śloka ' is to be attributed to Maitreya. while the Abhisamayâlañkāra expresses no Vijñānavāda. hence its date is no doubt earlier than Asañga's. In the case of the Sūtrâlañkāra. both theories may consequently have taken place after Vasubandhu and Sāramati. [ 62 ] . Sāramati may Amalgamation of have been almost contemporary with Vasubandhu. since the Lañkāvatāra was unknown to either of them. This seems to be the most reasonable assumption on the date and author of the Ratna. He was no doubt acquainted with the garbha theory Therebut devoted himself to the systematization of the Vijñānavāda. but before the Sūtrâlañkāra. But against the Tibetan tradition. This is certain through comparison of the Ratna. the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda are taught side by side. however. taking the Tibetan tradition into consideration. pieces of evidence are still not enough. 4) In the same way.

TRANSLATION .

TABLE OF CONTENTS (for Translation & Notes thereon) Chapter I. The Meaning of the 3 Jewels The Germ of the 3 Jewels in 4 Aspects 1) Inconceivability of the 4 Aspects 2) The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its 4 Aspects . . . . . . . The Sermon: All Living Beings are possessed of the Tathāgatagarbha . — THE MATRIX OP THE TATHĀGATA FAGS Introduction 1) The Meaning of the Adamantine Subjects 2) Authorities on the 7 Subjects 3) The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects 4) The Inherent Connection among the 7 Subjects The Jewel of the Buddha 1) The eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood 2) Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra The Jewel of the Doctrine 1) 2) 3) 4) The Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine Nirodhasatya & Mārgasatya The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 141 141 143 146 153 155 156 159 163 164 165 165 168 172 173 174 175 176 176 180 180 181 184 185 186 188 194 196 The Jewel of the Community 1) Manner and Extent of Perception a) Right Manner of Perception b) Unlimited Extent of Perception 2) Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception 3) Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community The 3 Jewels as Refuges 1) 2) 3) 4) 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint The Doctrine and the Community are not the ultimate refuge . [ 137 ] . Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the ultimate Standpoint . .

PAGE

VIII. Analysis of the Germ from 10 Points of View (I) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu 1) The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata 2) Obstructions and Causes for Purification (III) Phaîa & (IV) Karman 1) The 4 Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 2) Concordance between the 4 Supreme Virtues and the 4 Causes for Purification 3) 4 Impediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 4) Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 4') The Unstable Nirvana 5) Functions of the Germ for its Purification Yoga 1) The Union of the Germ to the Factors of its Purification 2) The Union of the Germ to the Result of Purification Vrtti (Manifestation) Avasthāprabheda (Different States of Manifestation) . . . .

199 200 200 201 207 208 210 214 218 219 221 225 225 227 229 230 233

(V)

(VI) (VII)

(VIII) Sarvatraga (All-pervadingness)

(IX) Avikāra 234 (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State 235 1) Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind 238 2) Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind 241 (B) Unchangeability in the Pure-and-impure State 243 1) Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva 243 2) Defilements endowed with the Virtuous Root 245 3) Bodhisattva's Compassion — The Parable of a Householder . . . . 246 4) Bodhisattva's Perception of the Pure Mind 248 5) ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva 250 6) Bodhisattva in his 6th Stage 250 7) The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha 253 (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure Sta;e 256 (X) Asambheda 1) 2) 3) 4) IX. The 1) 2) 3) Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana The Parable of Painters Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun 258 259 261 263 265 268 268 277 281

9 Illustrations on the Germ covered with Defilements The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities of the Mind Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and 9 Kinds of Defilements . [ 138 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga
PAGE

4) The threefold Nature of the Essence a) Dharmakāya b) Tathatā c) Tathāgatagotra X. The Essential Characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1) The Saying: ' All Living Beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' is the Highest Logical Truth 2) The 4 Kinds of Individuals to whom the Faith in this Essence is necessary 3) The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as representing Non-substantiality XI. The Purpose of Instruction

283 284 287 288 294 294 296 300 305

Chapter II. — THE ENLIGHTENMENT

XII.

General Characteristics of the Reality free from Pollutions

310 314 314 315 318 322 324 326 328 329 331 334

XIII. 8 Points on the Undefiled Reality (I) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu Phala Karman Yoga Vrtti

a) The Body of the Absolute Essence b) The Body of Enjoyment c) The Apparitional Body (VII) Nitya (VIII) Acintya

Chapter I I I . —

THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

XIV. XV. (I) (II)

General Characteristics of the Buddha's Properties The 64 Properties of the Buddha The 10 Powers The 4 Forms of Intrepidity

336 338 338 339 341 343 347

(III) The 18 Exclusive Properties (IV) The 32 Marks of the Superman (Commentary)

[ 139 ]

j . TAKASAKI

Chapter IV.

— THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA
PAGE

XVI. XVII.

General Characteristics of the Acts of the Buddha The 9 Illustrations on the Buddha's Acts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Buddha's Magnanimity The 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlankārasūtra Summary of the Illustrations given by the Commentator Summary of Examples given in the Kārikās Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood The Point of Dissimilarity

351 355 355 356 374 375 377 377

Chapter V. — THE MERITS OF FAITH

XVIII. The Merits of Having Faith in the Doctrine of the Essence of Buddhahood 380 1) The Superiority of Faith to other Virtues in regard to their Merits . . 2) Authority, Motive, and Characteristics of this Text being the Correct Doctrine 3) Means of preserving oneself within the Doctrine 4) Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine 5) Conclusion 380 384 386 387 389

[ 140 ]

ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS 1}
(A Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle) 2)

CHAPTER

I.

THE MATRIX OF THE TATHÂGATA (Salutation) I bow to the Saint Vajrasattva 3>.

I. INTRODUCTION - The 7 Vajrapadas § 1. The Meaning of the 7 Vajrapadas. The Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Community *>, The Essence [of the Buddha] 5>, the Supreme Enlightenment 6>, The Virtuous Qualities [of the Buddha], And, last of all, the Act of the Buddha; — These are the 7 Adamantine Subjects, [which show] Briefly, the body of the whole text. // 1 //
*) Ratnagotravibhāga. The word ' vibhāga ' is the correct Skt. form of P a l i ' vibhañga ' which means ' explanation ', ' commentary '. In BHS, however, the form ' vibhañga ' is more often used as in cases of Madhyântavibhañga, Dharmadharmatā-vibhañga and so on. In these cases, ' vibhañga ' is taken in the sense of ' distinction between two '. But here, the meaning ' analysis ' seems more suitable, because the wofd ' ratnagotra * indicates ' dhātu ' or ' tathāgatagarbha ', and not ' ratna & gotra '. Cf. gotram ratnatrayasya S. p. 21.6. 2 ) Mahayāna—uttaratantra—śāstra. About the title, see my Introduction, Ghap. I. 3 ) T. offers salutation to " the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas " . C. om. the salutation, but has 18 verses instead before entering the main text. This salutation to Vajrasattva, who has an important role in the Tantric Buddhism, does not match with this text which has no connection with Tantrism in its doctrine, in spite of the use of the word * tantra' in the title. Probably this is a salutation made by the copyist of the present Skt. text under the influence of later Tantric Buddhism. *) gana, T. tshogs, C. £fc |gj
B

( = sañgha).

) dhātu, T. khams, C.

ft.

• bodhi, T. byañ-chub, C. j l f . ) [ 141 ]

J.

1AKASAKI
7

The word * vajrapada ' (adamantine subject) > means the term (pada), i.e. the basis (sthāna), which expresses the meaning of the Enlightenment (adhigama) which is similar to a thunderbolt [or diamond] (vajra). Here, it 8) being difficult to be penetrated by the knowledge consisting in studying and thinking, the meaning [of the Enlightenment] which is not capable 9 of being explained but is to be realized by oneself >, should be understood as 'like a thunderbolt'. Those letters, which express that meaning by making manifest the way which is favourable for its acquisition, are called 4 pada% just because they are the basis of that meaning. Thus, by both meanings, i.e. being hard to be penetrated and being the basis, the character of 'vajrapada', of the meaning as well as of the letters, is to be understood. 4 4 Now, what is artha ' (the meaning) and what is vyañjana ' (the letter)? 'Artha' is the sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment, viz. 1) the Buddha (buddha), 2) the Doctrine (dharma), 3) the Community 10 (samgha), 4) the Essence of the Buddha (dhātu) \ 5) the Supreme Enlightenment (bodhi), 6) the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha (guna), and 7) the Acts of the Buddha (karman)u>. These are called 4 artha ' l2>. The letters, by which this sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment is indicated or is manifested, are called 4 vyañjana ' 1 3 ) . And this teaching of i vajrapada ' should be understood in detail according to the Sutras.
') T . rdo-rje gnas, C.J
8

) prativedha,

T. phigs-pa

(to m a k e a small hole, to penetrate).
rig-par bya-ba, C. P ^ -5j* ffî£ V2*

9

) pratyātma-vedanīya,

T . so-so-rañ-bshin

10 n

> C. >$* S i ( = sattva).

) For these 7 subjects, T. & C. give the following terms: 1) sañs-rgyas, 7) phyin-las, | i p | .

2) chos, ' ? £ ; 3) dge-hdun, fft'; 4) khams, ft ( ^ >^£); 5) byañ-chub, =§?• 6) yon-tan, SjJ j ^ ;
12

) C. adds here the following scriptural passage: " ^>C 0ft —* |f| ) Instead of this sentence, C. puts the following one: "J^ff ī=f ^ p ^ff

paramârtha satya) gf | g , ifr fâ fig} ^ P f i g f t L f a f f i ^ ^ ^
13

^•i "^F T J "?* » •?- *HJ (phrase), ī=| an (word), jffi\ 5=p (sound), ^tj ^ K (expression), î b 1/u (description), ^ b RrJ (explanation), ^ b / J ^ (indication), JtL ' u *M ^ ^ » And it adds the following scriptural passage: " _^\., THT ^rjj (samvrtisatya) ^ § ,

1 -ft n * 0rffl^ * , ^ ^ . * ^ , Wfs. 0r ft These two passages are quoted from the Aksayamati-parivarta (C. I, M. # • % OP , Taisho, XIII, p. 197 fc). 197 [ 142 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

8 2. Authorities on the 7 Subjects. 1) ' Buddha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, invisible is the Tathāgata. He cannot be seen by eyes " . 2) ' Dharma ': " Verily, O Ānanda, unutterable is the Doctrine. It cannot be heard by ears ". 3) ' Samgha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, the Holy Community is of an immutable 14> character. It cannot be completely served, either by body or by mind ". These are the [first] 3 vajrapadas, which are to be understood according to the Dfdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta15). 4) ' Dhātu ': " Verily, O Śāriputra, this meaning is a subject for the Tathāgata [and only belongs to] the sphere of the Tathāgata. This meaning, O Śāriputra, can neither be known 16> nor be seen, nor be examined correctly throngh the knowledge of the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. Needless to say, this applies to the case of ignorant and ordinary beings, except when they have faith 17> in the Tathāgata. O Śāriputra, the ultimate truth is really approachable only by faith [in the Tathāgata]. O Śāriputra, the ultimate Truth is a synonym of the mass of living beings (sattva-dhātu) 18>. The mass of living beings is, O Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Matrix of the Tathāgata {tathāgatagarbha) 19\ The Matrix of the Tathāgata is, Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) " .
14 ) asamskrta, T. hdus-ma-byas-pa, C. 3*9? >w{f» Lit. 'being not created by causes and conditions ', or ' not caused by samskāras (the active forces) ', i. e. ' not belonging to this Phenomenal World '. 15 ) T. Lhag-pahi bsam-pa bstan-pahi lehu. Here, ' brtan-pa' is preferable to ' bstanpa\ Cf. Tohoku No. 224 which gives the Skt title; Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta. This sūtra is lacking in Chinese Tripijaka. 16 ) According to T., ' jñātum vā ' should be supplied after ' svaprajñayā ' (T. śes-pa). 17 ) śraddhā-gamana, T. dad-pas rtogs-pa. As for the importance of faith, see S. p . 74 1. 1 f. (v. I. 153).

nVt.
1S

•!_, |33

) T. sems-can-gyi khams, C. ?fc f-^_ -yi*, Here dhātu means ' a group ' (jāti or gotra) and sattvadhātu is used as a collective noun for sattvas. At the same time, however, this word, being synonymous with tathāgatagarbha, maybe interpreted as " t h e Essence of the sattva, being the ' cause ' of the Buddhahood " , according to the special use of the word ' dhātu ' in this text.
19

) T. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi sñiñ-po, C. }$[ yjv |!15c. The meaning of tathāgatagarbha

will be discussed under (VII) & (IX) - 4) (in Chap. I) (S. p. 26, 70 ff.).

[ 143 ]

i.

j . .ri.rv.tvi3i4.JVl

Thus is the fourth ' vajrapada ' and is to be understood according to the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa—parivarta20). 5) * Bodhi ' : " O Lord, the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment {anuttarā • samyaksambodhi) is a synonym of the Sphere of the Nirvana 21>. The Sphere of the Nirvana is nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . Thus is the fifth Vajrapada which is to be understood according to the Ārya Śrīmālā-sūtra2 2 ) . 6) 4 Guna ': " 0 Śāriputra, that which is called the Absolute Body, preached by the Tathāgata, is of indivisible nature, of qualities inseparable from the Wisdom, that is to say, [indivisible from or endowed] with the properties of the Buddha which far surpass the particles of sands of the Gangā in number "23>.

« C. ^ P if!" A^ $ S H [ , Taisho, No. 668, XVI, 467 a. T. has no translation of > this sūtra. Hereafter, AAN will be used as the abbreviation.
V|~T rftfV \'Jr\

2

) nirvānadhātu, T. mya-ñan-las-hdas-pahi dbyiñs, C. £35 ^ ^ •yf'. T. dbyiñs (for dhātu) means ' a heavenly region '. ' bhagavan ' in the Text is, to be corrected into ' bhagavams '. 22) = Śrîmālādevîsimhanādasūtra. T. Hphags-pa dpal-phreñ-gi mdo (Dpal-phreñ lha-mo señ-gehi sgrahi modo) C. 3g. '^=1 /j/r 3 C ntC. • There are two translations in C :

21

i>* * w ^F ift — ^-k.~n &is'9i M *.by * m &. PB m
(Gunabhadra), Taisho, No. 353. and 2) $$f- " ^ ^ A . *f[. vol. 48 of ^ 5 8 Jf{ jf8£
(Ratnakūta-sūtra), Taisho, No. 310. Hereafter the first one will be used as the reference under the abbreviation of SMS. This passage, SMS, Taisho, XII, 220 c. 23 ) The whole quotation runs as follows: mā,

(S.) j o ' yam, Śāriputra, tathagatanirdisto dharmakāyah, so'yam avinirbhāgadharavinirmuktajñānaguno, yaduta, gañgānadī—vālikā—vyatikrāntais tathāgatadharmaih; (T.) Sārī—bu, de—bshin-gśegs—pas bstan—pahi chos—kyi sku gañ—yin—pa de—ni hdi— Ita-ste, gañgāhi kluñ-gi bye-ma-sñed-las hdas-pahi de-bshin-gśegs-pahi chos-dag-dañ / rnam—par dbyer—med—pahi chos dañ Idan-pa, ma—bral—bahi ye~śes—kyi yon—tan—can yin—no

^

tation, but its additional part is identical with the quotation in S. p. 39 from the same sūtra). dbyer-med-pahi chos dañ Idan-pa ( = . . . chos-can), C. simply A^* pj|t and om. 'dhar-

M ^ JB i £ ft ?£ #ū * ^ S ^J @ (C. has a longer quoFor ' avinirbhāgadharman ' (' -dharman ', ifc. ' of the nature of'), T. mam-par

man* (usually, ^ ^ g ^ g £ ?£).
For ' avinirmuktajñānaguna', T. ma-bral-bahi ye-śes-kyi yon-tan-can, which does aot seem correct (it should be 'ye-śes-dañ ma-bral-bahi yon-tan con'); C. -A^

[ 144 ]

73. namely: 1) Jg^ (translator unknown). G. b I I « ^ (Jñānagupta). 55.14). Instrumental case-ending of the word ' tathāgatadharma ' (which is translated into T. No.14-15. JjjjJ . ' gañgānadivālikā-vyativrtta ' (p. 12. the Qualities of the Buddha). translator. As for the term ' gañgānadivālikā-vyatikrānta ' it is also an adjective.. not clear. being an adjective to 'guna' (which means ' buddhagunāh ' or ' tathāgatadharmāh ' i . offers no help. 304. 76.16).2-3. T. 2 *) AAN 467 a. the Tathāgata never imagines anything nor distinguishes falsely. and probably the whole sentense could not be understood properly by C. i.2-3. pp. Here. 85. by Śiksānanda. ' gañgātīrarajo 'tīta' (p. No. And hence. by which the Buddha has realized ' bodhi '. this term ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is an attribute. 3) ^C ^ f M A #0 3fc ^ . (See S. That is to say. 302). these are t h e 7 Vajrapadas which should be known as the body of this whole text. I t should mean ' unreleased from jñāna'. by ' dan ') shows the implied meaning of ' -upeta '.. No. p. ' avinirmuktajñāna'. his acts of this kind flow forth without any effort. In other passages. ' avinirbhāga ' and ' acintya '. ibid. ' samanvāgama '. 55. C.9) or ' gañgāsikatā 'tivrtta' (p. Therefore. or otherwise is to be related to ' avinirbhāga ' as shown in the present translation. They are nothing but the abbreviated forms of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' and seem to have the same sense as the latter. In short. in l which the former part ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is relating to the latter part guna* as an apposition. 26 ) uddeśamukha. 42. being appositional to ' dharmakāya '. ' jñāna' signifies ' buddhajñāna '. [ 145 ] ibid. p. ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña ' is used as an attribute to ' guna '. 42. X.12). See S. but -^3 JHfc -Ç/J "f@ is placed at the end. where a simile of lantern is used for clarifying this meaning and lantern is said to be of ' avinirmukta-guna '. in t h e sense of being a collection of preliminary 26 explanations >. bstan-pahi sgo. (sometimes in the form of ' gañgānadîvālukāvyativrtta ' (S. 2) ^ l p |gt W± i$fr £fl ffi ^m Wi ^ A tW * fl § S JS §i i t # M tr. pp. This passage is in Taisho. y fH S iSv | H & tr. omitting the word * jñāna '). 7) ' Karman ' : " 0 Mañjuśri. This is the seventh Vajrapada which is to be understood according 25 to t h e Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra—nirdeśa >. 39.2. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities and often used along with ' amuktajña '. e. 302. ' -yoga '. 915 b (No.^ Jf!£ -R/ f^. seems to show the latter interpretation. the Wisdom. The term ' avinirmuktajñānaguna '. 80. 303. T.9. without any imagination or any thought construction " .The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a This is the sixth Vajrapada and is to be understood according to 24 the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. Taisho. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities. e . forms again a kind of Bahuvrīhi compound. is a Bahuvrīhi compound. 25 J Chinese Tripiçaka retains 3 kinds of translations of this sūtra.

it is said: " The Lord has perfectly realized the equality of all things. 2S ) == Dhāranîśvararājasūtra. C.) (Taisho. has set the wheel of Doctrine going well and has kindly trained numberless disciples " 33>. and om. has the title ' Tathāgata-mahākarunā—nirdeśa-sūtra '. XIII. // 2 // [The meaning of this verse is as follows]: And of these seven Vajrapadas. to the remaining part. TAKASAKI § 3. the three subjects should be known as being from 3 1 ) the introductory chapter (nidāna—parivarta) of the Holy Dhāranīśvararājasūtra. So T. accompanied 3 0 ) by the explanation of their own characteristics. II " Dhāranīśvararāja-bodhisattva-parivarta " . Taisho. as well as to ' catvāri [padāni] \ For ' svalaksanenânugatāni '. Accompanied 2 7 ) by their own characteristics. as if ' svalaksanasyânngatāni '. ( = ^ C ñ « I S . ^ $§£ ' (Taisho. under the titles of Chap. Jīfc rfT.. No. [ 146 ] . the caseending of ' esām ' (hdi-dag). See below. Literally. and the " Bodhisattva-tathāgatadharmabheda-(parivarta) " . the Dhāranirājasūtra occupies the vols. Of these [seven subjects]. T. It seems that the " Nidāna parivarta " is equivalent to the Alañkāra-parivarta. C. T. T. 409 o). Chap. a n d jina ( = buddha). I " Alañkāra-parivarta " and Chap. blo—ldan & rgyal—ba. . It should be ' nidānaparivartād anugatāni '. II. 397). 30 For ' dharma '. takes it as locative.J. • DRS 1 a. 2 (nidānatah). ) anugata. 32 ) This sūtra is available in both Tibetan and Chinese Tripitakas. sl ) The reading ' nidānaparivartânugatāni ' i r rather obscure. T. 29 a7 ) dhīmat ( = bodhisattva). rañ-gi mtshan—ñid bstan—pa dañ / rjes-su hbrel-ba ni. ' anugata ' is related to ' trlni padāni '. Therefore. T . i. The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects. (dañ is probably for Instrumental case-ending). p. 398). (ablative) Also v. which is identical with the title of Chinese translation ' y^. But C. In this Mahāsamnipātasūtra. 1-4. not clear. anugatāni'. C. and then the remaining four [are to be known] from the chapter on the distinction between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha respectively 32>.. Beside this independent sūtra. No. respecti- vely. ^ ) For ' svalaksananirdeśena (jñāna). denoting the contents of this chapter. has another (yC translation of the same sūtra as a part of the Mahāvaipulya-mahāsamnipāta-sūtra y/J "^f y^. One should know respectively the [first] three subjects From the introductory chapter in the Dhāranirāja—sūtra 28\ And the [latter] four from [the chapter on] the distinction Between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha 29>. rjes-hbrel-ba ( = anubandha).e.

C. C. it is said: "Having realized the perfect Enlightenment. on the 8th Stage of Bodhisattva. C. cream '. translation.. brings all faculties [of living beings] 38) to the highest perfection and becomes an expert in the removal of the chain of Defiling forces39) in all living beings. C. T . one who has the qualification for preaching the Doctrine). The remaining four subjects are to be known as the statement of the accomplishment of the causes which correspond to the origin of the three Jewels 35\ Now. / $ Wl)) triratnotpatty-anurūpahetu-samudāgama-nirdeśa. ) bodhi-manda. chos-smra-ba-ñid. Mvyut 41. as the power of controlling all elements of phenomena has been attained. anu- samdhi). 36 39 3ā ) vāsanā-anusamdhi. viz. ' the highest state of Enlightenment'. translation ' sñiñ-po ' shows the same meaning. translation ' f^Jâ $ £ ] j j | | H Iffi ^ / 2 l | t £ ' . hgrub-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga By these three fundamental sentences. ' manda ' has originally meant ' the scum of cooked rice. it denotes ' the excellent place of the Enlightenment' as C. < £ ptP ( t e a c h e r of t h e D o c t r i n e . he is endowed with the power of expressing the Highest Doctrine37\ knows very easily the intentions of all living beings. On the 9th Stage of Bodhisattva. ( o m . or the essence of milk. T .. T. Sometimes ' bodhi-manda ' is explained as denoting Bodhi-tree. On the 10th Stage of Bodhisattva. j 6 ^ <^\s \7f* fig^. vlrya-i. i.. 38 ) indriya. he is immediately calmed in the Buddha's effortless 40> acts uninterruptedly 41 ). bag-chags-kyi mtshams-sbyor-ba. after attaining the anointment for the prince recognized as the next king in the highest religious empire of the Buddha. it is said: " H e who has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going has kindly trained number3 *) anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. $ & fffj ^ T • C. rim-gyis skye-ba hgrub-pa. so it is said: " He ( = the Lord). g 41 ) apratipraśrabdha. -yC 0ft -3£ W /PC 5vC • Here the word ' samudāgama ' (also in the next line) means ' siddhi '. he has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going " . samādhi-i. Ihun-gyis grub. There are 5 indriyas. rgyun mi~hchad-pa(r). But in later scriptures. 37 ) dharmabhānakatva. namely śraddhā-i. it is used in the sense of ' essence ' (sāra) ' excellent part'. respectively. In Pali. " ) anābhoga. T. one should know the arrangement of the three Jewels [in the aspect of] their successive origination and accomplishment 34>. Therefore ' bodhi-manda ' means literally ' the essence of the Enlightenment'. Therefore. Here I preferred C. [ 147 ] 11 . T. Therefore. &prajñā-i. and is often accompanied by the word 4 vara ' as in the text. T. realized perfectly the equality of all things " .. (T. e. C. sitting in the excellent Seat of the Englightenment 3 6 ) . ^ ^p\. smrti-i.

The term is often used as an epithet of the Buddha. through the completion of various kinds of worship with divine things 4 8 \ and through the pouring of rain from the cloud of praises 49>. yon-tan rnam-par dbye-ba. 48 C. C. khyams (court-yard). through the splendid arrangement 5 0 ) of the seat of the Doctrine and its brightness. T. the establishment of the distinguishable qualities > of the Jewel of the Buddha is to be known through the accomplishment of a great palace adorned with circular ornament of jewels >. ~$t R . . shes- 42) A _ yāvat . however.B (beginning w i t h A u p t o B). bkod-ba. C. -^^ ?fc . It runs as follows: " He was together with the assembly of a large number of monks ) and with the assembly of numberless Bodhisattvas " . it is said: " Thus being endowed with the virtuous qualities. a-b. For . *») DRS 1. as S. __ ") pariklrtana. ^Y* fî£\ g ^ | -sfl. into T. Of the two ' vyūhas ' in the text. collects ' (viz. T . And next. For parisat—samāvartana. yons-su bsgrags-pa. . . bkhor—hdus—pa (hdus-pa < hdu—ba. . 42 As he has well trained those who are in the enlightenment of the Śrāvaka and up to that of the Buddha. JjJt ^ one. BHS Die. " &c. C. T . s. immediately after the [passage of the] doctrine on the nature of qualities of Śrāvakas and Bodhisattvas. *') samāvartana < samāvartayati (BHS). b u t seems t o o m . as ' vimala '. C. 49 ) These passages are extracted from the same sūtra. but T. C. t o come t o g e t h e r ) . (palace of jewel). the same qualification of having trained numberless disciples is shown in the same text. khyu-mchog (' the best b u l l ' = rsabha). 44 ) vrsabhitā (BHS). and the second vastu).(acintya^ 2 c //'J (gunaprabheda). . T. C. 46 I n t h e following cases. T. om.' vipula '. > And then. shes-bya-ba-nas bya-bahi bar. .v. C.less disciples " . / J H-\ . ' gathers. «Ç/J j ) vipula-ratna-vyūha-mandala-vyūha-nivrtti. 5 1 ! Mx. parisad. C. Furthermore. and through the glorification 51) 47 46 45 44 43 of the name . 80 > vyūha. (DRS 1 c-3 c). immediately after this sentence. ' bkod-pa '. * 5 l H x ' s e e m s to include the meaning of ' mandala '. (decoration). C. T . R/J (/J\ t 148 ] . F o r samāvartana. ) C.). dravya. the first one is translated into T. 45 ) F o r ' gunavibhāga '. through his bringing the people together > into the assembly of Tathāgatas. . reads it as ' visaya '. . and has * J | >fM 1^> ^ C instead (vividha-divyā-pūjā?). step by step. in the reference to the Buddha's inconceivable leadership > in regard to tranquillity. C.

to offer). spyod-yul. 85 86 ) gocara-visaya. C. there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Community 5 6 ) . mthah-ñid (avasānatva) C. T.suggested. the highest establishment of the distinguishable qualities of three Jewels is to be understood 62 ). ' . gtam-gyi dños-po.The Ratnagotravibhāga and qualities of the variety of doctrines 52) . t i l Jī^t • [ 149 ] . after the introductory chapter of this Sūtra. T. chos-kyi rnam-grañs. through these three. C. spobs-pa t a l e n t of speech). through the description 5 9 ) in the form of discussion 6°) of the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. om. there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Doctrine53). C. DRS 5 6-6 c. And next. . 'anyonya' had better be connected with ' bodhisattva ' in a compound. <\~f jjf| -TT . ) upanyasana ( < upa-ni-V as) T. T. \ J . seems to omit ' prabhā-samdarśana '. And. B u t t h i s r e s o l u t i o n of t h e c o m p o u n d is n o t good. ) C. through the manifestation of the attainment of the highest sovereignty 61 ). 68 ) pratibhāna (from P a l i patibhāna. T. phan-tshun. w h i c h h a s t h e special m e a n i n g of ' readiness (cowardless in s p e e c h ' o r ' confidence of s p e e c h ' . the Essence of the Buddha is explained by a description of the sixtyfold appliance as 62 ) dharmaparyāya. in the reference to the Buddha's presentation 5 7 ) of the highest fearlessness and confidence [in speech] 58) on account of the prince of the supreme religious king [to the Bodhisattvas]. For ' tat-pratipatteh '. §/£. 61 w ) avasānagata. immediately after this. through the sprinkling of the Buddha's light. through the explanation of the highest praise to the true virtues of the Tathāgata. Then. e x c e p t t h e t e r m ' upaharana '. T . C. respectively. H e r e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s according t o T . 64 ) anyonya. And again. And also therein the introductory chapter of this Sūtra is known to have come to the end 6 3 ). besides t h e usual sense of intelligence o r manifestation of m i n d ) . ^ 1 ^ * j ^ I p J f p f XJ 4a. > D R S 4 e-5 b. ne-bar bkod-pa. resolving the compound into ' anuttaradharmarāja-jyesthaputra-upaharana ' and ' paramavaiśāradyaupaharana '. # P j j f fjj£ ^ (because of the practice of that Mahāyāna by rule). and in the light of the description of their various forms of qualities. C. om. . confidence). and. 60 ) kathāvastu (subject of story). {l^ ») Cf. DRS 3 c-4 d. according to C. as the result of that knowledge. respectively. in the light of the mutual 54> manifestation of the power of the acting sphere55) of various tranquillities of the Bodhisattvas. (to give. jyesthiputra' meaning Bodhisattva. aiśvarya. T. ») Cf. j ^ i Ī3>« As J. 69 (courage. C. 67 ) The reading ' upakaranatā ' is to be corrected into ' upaharanatā '. which translates it twice by JjjP & JJRj. C. C.

T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s word is n o d o u b t ' washing '. ' dhātu ' is ' viśodhya—gunavad— artha '. lan—tshvahi chu rnon-pos. in the third case (f^P* Jjp^. [j=ij] p £ I' | [ T ^ ) « Cf. b u t i n t h e special sense of ' m e t a l i n g '. 6 Because the Essence of the Buddha deserves to be applied the purification. for ' parikamma ' in the verse quoted in S. / A (in the sense of ' method '. etc. reading. T. and ' ^ g ' . T.e. 67 ) D R S p . C. and having washed ) it with acid salt water ). 6. 69 ) uiksālya i n t h e t e x t . 6. 188c. or ' appliance ') in the former two cases. C. p. take for instance a skilful jewel-maker who knows Having taken out an 69 71 68 quite well how to purify precious stones.7 (ratnagotra-puspapratimandite . i. and hence. too. the meaning seems as follows ' viśuddhi—guna ' is ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' of ' dhātu '. T . yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba (pariśodhana. see b e l o w .. ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' is inherent to ' dhātu ' in the form of ' Sūstyākāra-viśuddhiguna ' . C. (Cf. 1: 11. after the description of the Acts of the Buddha. [ 150 ] . And because of the effect of this meaning. ' yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba '. nor—bu rin—po—chehi rigs ( = maniratnagotra). 64 i. 70 unpurified precious stone from the mine ). A t t h e same t i m e . 66) in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva . C. J^K /TJ 3B M=x seems to show the actual process of purification. . As t h i s ' unmilya ' is found twice i n Ms. C.samudra-malaya-śikhare). we c a n n o t s a y ' unmilya ' is absolutely correct. cleaning). the allegory of unpurified Vaidūrya stone is illustrated. translates it by ' Ypf i~r '» which has the same sense as T. 186c. 44 O noble youth. yoñs-su sbyoñ-bas sbyoñ-ba byed-do.4AJ |7Uīi» f° r viśuddhi-parikarma-guna). 21 c.).the purifying factors of that 65) Essence *>. 10. So I adopted it in the translation. tad -viśuddhi-parikarma-yogāt. ' t a k i n g d u s t off i n order t o m a k e jewel or m e t a l m a n i f e s t ' ( i n causative sense). I t sounds better in comparison with ' asminneva ca sūtre'1 in the next sentence. p i ^ ^ -»j£ 70 ) tiksena khārodakena. p. there is illustrated again an analogy In this Sūtra (the Dhāranirāja—sūtra) It runs as follows >: 67 of the purifying process of gold. however. 1. he then polishes it by rubbing ) with black- ) sasty—ākāra—tad (=dhātu) —viśuddhi-guna—parikarma—nirdeśena. unless we find o t h e r examples of t h e same u s e . J^A. p . C.. 65 ) viśodhye ' rthe gunavati. In comparison with ' viśuddhi-guna-parikarrnan ' and ' buddhadhātoh sastyākāraviśuddhi—parikarma-gunāh ' in S. A b o u t ' viśuddhi-guna—parikarman''. jglt / A (sharp a s h ? ) ' khāra ' is a Prakrit form of Skt ' ksāra '. i t seems r a t h e r difficult t o consider i t as a m i s t a k e . But in another case. 68 ) manigotra.e. After all. B reads ' unmîlya \ There seems t o b e no definite reason for changing ' unmilya ' i n t o ' utksālya' against Ms. ' makes perfectly clean by means of purifying instrument'). T . b u t Ms. 71 ) paryavadāpanena paryavadāpayati (lit. In other words. For ' parikarman '. the most suitable translation for this term is ' process of purification or ' appliance for purification \ 68 ) The significance of this ' daśasu bodhisattvabhūmisu' is not clear. in so far as it has qualities of an object to be purified . Taisho. says instead ' i n the Daśabhūmika-sūtra'. L a n k .

krsna). the receiver. > sattvadhātu. ) . ^Y* Jj^ . and signifies 'non-substantiality' (śūnyatā). he causes those living beings who have 72 73 ) krsna-keśakambala. . suffering. C. J^. B H S D i e . as usual. tshul (— nay a). ^V\ %HI ^ ^ . After that. T . zañs—kyi klu—pa rnon—po.J . 78 ) abhijāta (' well b o r n '.e. '. C. the Tathāgata too. T . y\^. through the teaching of the irreversible wheel of the Doctrine 83> and through the teaching of the ' purification of three circles ' 84>. ^ . the giver.Hl ^fl. T. . and the gift. he polishes it by rubbing with a woollen blanket 7 4 ). ' T h e s e a r e called ' caturvidhâviparyāsa—samjñā ) netrl. tfe ^ £ f^. C. 84 ) trimandala-pariśuddhi. ' b o r n i n t h e noble family '. S. C. i. Even with this much work. s. kāca' s e e m s t o b e a g e n e r a l n a m e for dust or piece of metal and glass mingled within jewels. skrahi re-ba (om. ' noble ' ) .IjjC j | / £ J^_ + \ . b u t C. dri—ma dañ bral—ba(ni). ' non-distinction ' (animitta) and ' desirelessness ' (apranihita). 79 80 81 C. he never ceases to make efforts. With this much of act the Buddha never ceases to make efforts. impersonality and impurity [of this world] 8 0 ).7|^ (a piece of wood covered with cloth). Even with this much of act.(against the usual translation.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hair cloth 7 2 ) . having washed it with great medical liquid 7 5 ) . T. having washed the stone with meat juice 73) of bitter taste. >-*-. rigs-chen-po 74 75 ( = mahākula). [ 151 ] . ) mahā—vaisajya—rasa.|îr/A &PI £4f» 77 ) apagatakāca ( B a h u v r ī h i c o m p . T. 76 ) sūk'sma-vastra. he never ceases to make efforts. Cf. T . the Tathāgata never ceases to make efforts. 82 ) (trini vimoksa—mukhāni). ) khandikā. C. jf^ ]£f| 3gc 'KC • ) tlksa āmisa-rasa. creates disgust in the mind of those living beings who are attached to the world of transmigration through the teaching of being afraid of the non-eternity. T . Similarly. it is called a precious 78) Vaidūrya stone. T. p . After that.] ' non-substantiality ' {śūnyatā). ( = mahā). he makes them realize the guiding manner 8 1 ) of the Tathāgata by the teaching of [the threefold gate to the emancipation 82\ viz. v . Jpflj Ypf r~r )• It means usually the purity of three things in donation. 0 noble youth.. having known the unpurified element of living beings 7 9 ) . hkhor-gsum yoñs-su dag-pa. p]P: vE|P| jylJj i > • ^ 3p|i[» Wft JÇHU " ^ 3 "5fcf • A c c o r d i n g t o C . After that. C. and causes them to enter the discipline of the sacred Doctrine. After that. But with this much work. v i z . he polishes it with closely-woven cotton cloth 7 6 \ After having been polished and having been separated from all impure metals mingled with it 77>. 3 0 . lal-gyi la-ba. 83 ) avivartya-dharmacakra. VzC Wffl (dharmacakra).

/ \ ^|S ^ . jfa (pañca—āvarana. & vicikitsā-ā.e. ^ L 1 ^ (sapta-māna. 7. 2J^L S\ y \ (sadāyatanaasmimāna. 3. which are the sixtyfold factors of purifying process87) of the They are. (DRS 9 a-10 a). (DRS 5 6-8 b). 4. i. ^ (jñāna). in this world of living beings The Tathāgata [becomes visible by purification] " . IHT 1P3. 5. H ^ 2. 12. mamakāra). y j^c Ypf r~r (as if ' prakrtipariśuddhi '). f â ffl (punya-ksetra). 2. 88 ) According to DRS. 3) 16 ' karunās '. *££ (dharma). (ślla). 86 88 ) daksinlya (worthy to receive ' daksinā \ i. ūnamāna & mithyāmāna). C.iiii> ^ ^ (daśa akuśalāni abhimāna. i. rāga—ā. 2.J.. 3jp J j ^ (mithyā-drsti). TAKASAKI different kinds of characteristics and origins. 10. adhimāna. styāna-middha-ā.l i ? 8 S (prajñā) & 4. Pfe J H / £ (dhārani). and (4) 32 kinds of deeds >. 8. 6. Tl. (durgati). 5.). 3. yoñs-su dag-pahi rigs. 7. to enter the sphere of the Tathāgata.e. is removed: 1. when they have realized the true nature of the Tathāgata. but is not found among the present Pali Tripitaka. C. H^J): 1. 6. ignorance about the 12 añgo's of causality. ^ 2) 8 ' avabhāsas' Çjfc. | r 152 ] . ^ (apratihatajñāna). abhiniveśa). ^ ^ 4.) »7> See above (Note 65)... (loka-mārga ?). donation). 9. ^ (manas). Having in view this Essence of the Tathāgata. (avidyā—mātsarya—rāga ?). ^ " j \ ^ / | jYu (ahamkāra. The source of this Prakrit verse is unknown. Similarly. Now. gift. namely. mānâtimānu. auddhatya-kaukrtya-ā. f^ i j § (abhijñā).. 4 ^^ i l l . (16 kinds of ' mi11. T. T. (1) 4 kinds of ornament of Bodhisattva's Essence of Buddhahood? Bodhisattvas. -Jjv? »yj ilk W^. karmani). those same beings. TJf (satya). yon-gnas (place of gift). and sands. which is of pure origin 8 6 ) . -fT (caryā ?). māna. (samādhi). these gunas are as follows: 1) 4 'alañkāras' ( ^ $§• )jf H ) : 1. 88 ) viśuddhigotra. by which each of the following ' mithyās' of the living beings 3. & 8. it is said as follows: " Just as gold. (It is apparently in Pali. ^ (smrti). (3) 16 kinds of Bodhisattva's great compassion. are called unparalleled venerables " 8 5 ). though it is invisible among stones Comes to be seen by the process of purification. JZQ MH j§i] (caturvidha-viparyāsa).e. pratigha—ā. (2) 8 kinds of illumination of Bodhisattvas. Having entered [the sphere of the Tathāgata].

what is the inherent connection 9 2 ) between these subjects? From the Buddha comes the Doctrine. 5. 6. IV (III). 422 a-425 a). 9 °) See Chap. Owing to the Doctrine there is the Holy Community. 13. prabhā. affliction to ' tribhava\ 14. 7. 9. The Inherent Connection between 7 Subjects. which is thyādrsti'). Tñv ^ÎS S>v Wot {asamjñā. Thus.1^. 91 ) DRS 26 6-27 b. (?) (DRS 11 b-14 a) (Chinese terms in brackets are taken from y^. 89 ) The Supreme Enlightenment is said to be accompanied by the following 16 qualiK î? (śuddhi-śānti). T T ^ * ^fJF (tryadhva-samatā). 2. etc. records only the form of ' aim- [ 153 ] . Each of the 32 ' karman's is indistinct. BHS Die. ^V Jfv (anu-krama). 82 ) anuślesa ( < anu-\/ ślis). DRS 14 c-21 c (there is no description of the 32 Mahāpurusalaksana in DRS). < C H^ "^Li ^ ^ i oF (śānti. # ^ # $\> (M ffl te f^) (animitta-akrtrima ?). 8.. the Acts of the Buddha are explained by the indication of 32 kinds of Supreme Acts of the Buddha 91>. 12. (DRS 10 c-11 6). 4) 32 acts practised by Bodhisattvas. Jj5^ flbc* Taisho. fîf ^ / 3. . And then. these 7 Vajrapadas should be understood in detail through the indication of their own characters according to the Sūtra. ignorance about the gate to Nirvana.. _g|. which are the counterpart of 32 bad behaviours of living beings. anupeksā ?. 10. 15. A* ^J f^ / (anabhilāpya). 4 kinds of Intrepidity and 18 Exclusive Pro90 perties of the Buddha ). 16. these two are equal and undistinguishable from each other). there is explained the Supreme Enlightenment of the Buddha by indicating the 16 kinds of Great Compassion [imparted by] the Supreme Enlightenment a9\ Next to this description. f^ -^f |(l3 TST 7J Jv'J "• (The Supreme Enlightenment and the Great Compassion. pp. (DRS 10 o-lO c). 14. DRS 11 b. ffPJ . C. arana?). Here the reason why these qualities are called ' mahākarunā ' is that they are inseparable from ' mahākarunā ' and Buddha's Enlightenment realizes itself in the form of the acts of ' mahākarunā \ Cf. 15.The Ratnagotravibhāga Immediately after this statement. ^ ^ . 4. ^ Jg M 16. JU tf% ( ^ 0T ^ ) (anāsrava. § 4. namely: 1.). 8. 13. ^ ^X $ j | (3E I©) (apratisthita). 5 * (śūnya).% 3>P? > s | (asamskrta). "Q^ ^ J (safya- pado). In the Community exists the Matrix.P -»iX. T. The use of ' anuślesa ' seems to be quite rare. | | | £ (māra). }»»§ y H wj i l l (nirvikalpa-padârtha). fj^ ^p§ (kāma ?). § ft fpf ffi (prakrtipariśuddhi). jtfif ^ ^ (ākāśavat). 11. " ^ _L ^ SI ^ ^ C S S . there is explained the Buddha's Virtuous Qualities by the indication of 10 Powers. . anārambana). ^* "far (anudgraha. And next. hbrel-pa ( = sambandha). ties.

reads as ' sañghād apratihatadhātuh (-}$$ ijU £ X ) .//3// Finished [the explanation of] the relation between each subject in the text 94>. & C. y±. T. s. (Supreme Enlightenment) 94 ) śāstrasambandha. though against T. And accompanied by altruistic Acts for all living beings. Which is endowed with the Qualities. TAKASAKI The element of Wisdom. Its acquisition of the Wisdom is the Supreme Enlightenment. C. is quite correct. BHS D i e .J. (' āpti-nistha ' seems to mean 'having (jñāna—)āpti as the end'. aiming at its acquisition 9 3 ) . But it is not agreeable. viz. mthar. For sambandha. 10 Powers and others. iii-71-14. C. v. in each case. For ' nistha '. takes it merely to show the order of succession between each subject and uses. T. C. g¥^ <āg +Q (dharmârthasvalaksana ?). Therefore. which is indicated by ' tad ' in the next line. hbrel-pa. the reading ' sañghe ' in the text. 93 ) ' jñāna-dhātu-āptinistha '. 'jñāna—dhātu' seems to mean ' garbha '. L 1541 . ślista ' (ppp. dhātor jñānam ' and om.) found in Mahāvastu. the ablative for the preceding one. ' jñānadhātvāptinistha ' & * agrabodhi '. In comparison with it.

3) vibuddha. Hereafter I shall use the Sanskrit word śloka without translation when it indicates the basic verses. 6) ekacchid. C. THE JEWEL OF THE BUDDHA Hereafter we should explain the meaning of Slokas (basic verses) x). & C omit eka. both T. having in hand the excellent sword and thunderbolt Of Wisdom and Mercy. Those living beings who were lead by the Tathāgata. dvañs-pa (purity. it is clear. jjjjj • * § . (viparyasta-mati. Therefore. the-tshom (doubt). first of all. there is no śloka. taught the Path. cuts in pieces 6> all sprouts of Sufferings. abhippasāda.text starts with the following verse (v. I. especially in Chap. middle nor end. SMS 221 a. though we have 3 ' verses '. 7 ' vimati. chos~ñid-kyi rgyu-mihun-pahi dvañ-ba. abuddha. while taking their refuge in the Tathāgata.. C. having realized himself. 4) 6 buddhatva. T. Introduction.II. In I. dvañ-ba. 4). For abhiprasāda. Pali. It is used mostly in case of certain verses which I picked up as the basic verses. -ff^- T»IX ^Q ^ ^ (respecting the Tathāgata). About a detailed discussion on the basic verses. wrong view). faith. And who. T. C. there is one śloka with regard to the Jewel of The Buddha. > abudha (BHS). ' one who has enlightened '. [ 155 ] . T . T. Cf. C. reads this passage as follows " and breaks the wrong view and all forests 8> [of defilements] {<yfy iy%) concealed in the mountain of various views " . where emphasis lies on the 'ekaśaranatā' of t h e B u d d h a . (Kārikā 1) I bow to the one. Sloka-or Kārikā. ljy|{ |3tjj Jf^. in order to enlighten the ignorant 5\ And who. also take refuge in the Doctrine and Community through the faith as the natural outflow of the Reality 2 ). S e e also V . Fearless and eternal. sañs-rgyas-ñid. and is quiescent. = S k t . The three jewels as refuges. 2) dharmatānisyandâbhiprasādena. who has realized 3) the Buddhahood 4> Which has neither beginning. And breaks the wall of doubts 7) concealed In the forest of various views s\ // 4 // *) The word śloka has a strict use in this text. see my Introduction. trust).

benefit for oneself. hdus-byas-pa. 7) rañ-gi don phun-sum tshogs-pa. are as follows: 1) hdus ma-byas-pa-ñid. // 5 // By this verse there has been briefly explained the Buddhahood as being contracted by eight qualities. It is immutable. ^ n) gyi rkyen-gyis mñon-par rtogs-pa ma yin-pa. ^ >w§ • [ 156 ] . TAKASAKI § 1. pratyātmam 13) samskrta. The Buddhahood has two kinds of benefit. [Also] Being endowed with Wisdom. 4) ye-śes. and 8) fulfilment of benefit for others (parârthasampad)11). Which are the 8 qualities? Namely. It is cognizable without any help of others. — thus remembered by tradition // 6 // Being realized by oneself12^. // 7 // It is Power because of destroying Suffering and Defilements by Wisdom and Compassion. It is free from any effort. What is shown by this [śloka]? Being immutable. it is Compassion. Compassion and [supernatural] Power [imparted by both]. 2) being free from any effort (anābhogatā). As having neither beginning. not dependent on others (aparapratyayâbhisambodhi)9\ 4) Wisdom (jñāna). Q f£v£ î 3) gshan. 'ftji >r'J -śnfc.J. By the first three qualities. C. // 8 // 1) asamskrta: The word i immutable' {asamskrta) should be understood as being opposite to being conditioned or caused (samskrta)lsK Here 9) 10 aparapratyayodita in the verse. & C. p ^ -£§' § J î § . Being the body of quiet character. 1) Immutability (asamskrtatva). 5) thugs'|{j^ yî\\ . -^I"* f^ r e J i ^\S>» 6) nus-pa. {3 ^*'J ^gât» 8) gshan-gyi don phun-sum 12) tshogs-pa. • adhigamya. free from efforts And not being dependent upon the others. The Eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood. 5) Compassion (karunā) 10\ 6) [supernatural] power (śakti). Because of preaching the way. Thus awakened in a threefold way. 7) fulfilment of self-benefit (svârthasampad). C. it is Wisdom. And by the latter three. benefit for others [is indicated]. T. j \ . 3) Enlightenment. middle nor end by nature. * kārunya in the verse. -7re? >w\j H a î 2) Ihun-gyis-grub-pa. Translations of these 8 qualities in T.

1. ^ ^ . ceaselessly and uninterruptedly as far as the world exists18>. Cf. to spread out. Thus. C. these 3 are implied the beginning. ^T*: . i. 13. Here the word ' udaya' means 4 perfect enlightenment ' (abhisambodha). 1. I. manifold ( = prapañca-vacana) and not ' t h e phenomenal world ' as in the Vedānta philosophy. in which the sense 'origination' is implied17). p . Sometimes. by which is meant originally the acquisition of Enlightenment by Sākyamuni. as well as destruction 14> are conceivable. JPç) between sthiti and bhañga. Abhidharmakośa. middle and end. mam-par rtog-pa. utpāda = tathāgatotpatti. JM. as being Tathāgata. skye—ba. (udaya. Though it is not a literal translation of Skt. and bhañga. p £ . Ekapuggala-vaggo. T. the term is usually accompanied by vikalpa. a view. 4 (ā samsārāt).9 (ā bhavâgratah). any pluralistic view is considered as a false view. the Buddhahood should be seen as having neither beginning. though it is immutable and of the characteristic of non-activity. it catches the significance quite well. 4 a n d p . spros-pa. 113. In the Buddhist texts. Here. to enlarge). Cf. & 6) śakti: Thus. Pali AN. 45 and comm. p . 79. C. I I . the whole action of the Perfectly Enlightened One proceeds without any effort. T. That is to say.e.) 17 18 ) ā samsārakoteh. we count 4 characteristics of samskrta. i. of which origination. ^f)£ pffij • T. 2) anābhoga: It is free from efforts because all dualistic views 15) and false discriminations 16> have ceased to exist. S. 5) karunā. 88.e. not having heard the Buddhahood. T. " 3 ^ 7} ZrJ (sometimes only '/J ArJ )• ) T . skye-ba-la ni ma yin-no " means " here the word ' udaya ' is to be understood in the sense of ' abhisambodha ' and not in the sense of ' utpāda ' " . in Buddhist thought. from somebody else. sthiti. by means of self-born knowledge which needs no tea14 ' utpāda. C. C. T. as O translated. p .The Ratnagotravibhāga 'being conditioned' (saniskrta) means the thing. this term signifies ' pluralistic view '. ) vikalpa. which shows almost the exact sense of this Buddhist term. as in the śloka. 112. gnas—pa. and being represented as the immutable Absolute Body. 4) Jñāna. ^Rv > p I " > N (from t h e beginningless p a s t ) . p . r e a d i n g " odaya ni hdir mñon-par-rtogs~pa-la hdod-kyi. 16 ) prapañca (Pali papañca). but having perfectly cognized its unutterable nature 4 by ones e l f (svayam). 1. 4 ( a bhavasthiteh). 3) aparapratyayâbhisambodhi: It is 4 enlightened without any help of others ' (aparapratyayodaya) because it is realized through one's innate knowledge. Because of the absence of these characteristics. C. by which the one entity is regarded as plural. which is a quite marvellous and unthinkable sphere. hjig—pa. inserting anyathātva (C. from the Buddhist point of view. 1. showing an opposite sense between them. 'Kyi' of 'hdod-kyi' in the above sentence is a conjunction of two clauses. lasting. means literally 'frivolous talk'. middle nor end. 32. But. respectively. C. 16 [ 157 ] . 1. shows merely a literal translation of the term prapañca (pra-\/pac or -Vpane. Cf. T. 17 ( ā bhavagateh). C.

P a l i MN vol.s u t t a ) . They a r e mithyādrsti. mire dañgzugs.e. the Suffering.J . [the Buddha] has preached 21) the path to follow22) that [Buddhahood]. Here. and. 21 22 ) vyupadeśa ) anugāmin. C. ston—pa. by which the individuality is distinguished from each other ' . a n i n n a t e defilement. 1. ' nāma ' means the 4 skandhas other than irūpa\ therefore. Thence. C. 171 ( Ā r y a p a r i y e s a n a . drsti-parāmarśa. T . The Defilement. a n d is t o p e r i s h b y bhāvanā-mārga. With respect to their abolition of the roots of others' Suffering (duhkha) and Defilement (kleśa). [the Buddha] should be understood as being endowed with the supreme Wisdom and Compassion. 2? [ 158 3 . ' m e n t a l e l e m e n t s a n d m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s . who are ignorant 20> and blind by birth. i. it is akin to the wall concealed by a thick forest. false opinion. it should be known that the Buddha's power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of sword. as being contracted in the Individuality. saikāyadrsti is. T . C. 19 ) anācāryaka ( P a l i anācaryaka). ^=J ( t r i b h a v a ) . ^ J Ç ^ . sakkāya). T . ( B H S ) ( p e r h a p s a wrong form for S k t . in order to enlighten the others too. physical T. the power (śakti) of Wisdom and of Compassion of the Tathāgata. with respect to his comprehension. Of these. r e a d s i n s t e a d ' anuttara '. ^pj -£}". The fearlessness (abhayatva) of Path is due to its transcendency. TAKASAKI cher 1 9 ) . īj/£ . The transcendency is due to its never again being turned back. is difficult to be understood and hardly to be overcome by means of mundane knowledge. The root of Defilement is anything which is based on the prejudice25) to the individual existence26). ) nāmarūpa. Therefore. ) There a r e 4 kinds of ' kleśas ' which a r e caused b y t h e wrong discrimination and are t o perish b y darśana-mārga. rjes-su rtogs-pa ( = anubodha). should be regarded as having the state of sprout because of its character of origination. Cf. ) abhiniveśa (Pali abhinivesa). vyapadeśa). superstition. respectively. p . slob-dpon med-pa. srid-rnams-pa. 26 ) bhavāh T . T. it should be known that Buddha's Power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of thunderbolt. mñon-par śen-pa. is explained by means of the examples of sword and thunderbolt. ZZ. T . As having the character of breaking. which is contracted in wrong view and doubt and is to be destroyed by the Path of true perception. C.hjig-tshogs(& body. ) satkāya ( P . 20 ) abudha = S. C. collection perishable). C. the root of Suffering is. abuddha. in short. śīlavrataparāmarśa a n d vicikitsā. wrong view and doubt 2 7 ). nāmarūpa is a synonym of pañcaskandhāh. ^i^ $ £ p i P p f ] . one kind of origination of Individuality 23) (nāmarūpa) on the [three] existences24). As having the character of cutting it. o n t h e contrary. 24 25 23 c IE.

T. the 9 illustrations on the Buddha's Acts utilized in the Ratna. which seems to show the original type of this sūtra. 7: hetvānupurvyā (Ms. 1. 3) " j ^ fft ^ C ^ A ^3 ^t H^| rf± M M tr. so. No. it is said as follows: " O Manjuśrī.e. see Chap. 359 D (12./ P ^-p Pu*]. Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkāra—sūtra. vithapyante. vithapanū. D. 99 ff. 1. 358 (12.). T. by ff" -fJO I g H (Samghabhadra)& c. By this.( t h e l l t h cent - A . sems-par byed-pa. vithapitā. And immediately after this. will be shown according to 1) (abbr. 240 b. the simplest edition is 2). 33 ) The term ' vithapati ' is to be corrected into ' vithapeti '. 1. first of all. See N o t e 1 1 . devoid of thinking 35> and ) ānupūrvl (anupūrvi?). C. 253 c-265 b). Mañjuśrī. with reference to this very meaning of the Tathāgata's being neither originated nor destructed. bsam-du med-pa ( = acintya).). No. He is unimaginable. S. p. the Tathāgata. the Perfectly Enlightenend One " 3°). See B H S Die. Of them. should b e i n s e r t e d after ' acitta '. £>. p. 2. the Arhat. IV (S. indiscriminative.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a fi 2. 240 c. . he who is of no origination or destruction is (i. according to the Sarvabuddhavisayâvatārajñānâlokâlarnkārasūtra29\ In that Sūtra. 357 (12. Pali. S. p . p. Thus. A ^ J©» vñV JS> ^ ^ ® » B ^ ' a c m i y a ' [ 159 ] . as a hybrid form of vithapayati. it is said as follows 3 2 ) : " Thus. the Arhat. the six qualities of the Tathāgata mentioned above should be understood by this very order 28> and wdth detailed and analytical explanation. 34 ) prapañcayati. B anu—). Taisho No. 49. (501 A. 31 > About the 9 illustrations. JAĀ. 1.-)> Taisho. p.1 5 . anupubbī. p. 250 a-253 c). Taisho. However. vi\)sthā. 32 ) JAĀ. go-rims. hence hereafter the equivalency in C. 31. 3 °) C. 35 C. Caus. the Perfectly Enlightened One neither moves nor produces any thought 33>. (511-520 A. Cf.v. 2) j j —"QJ t f ffî ft •§?. JAÂ). of Skt. 29 ) We have 3 translations of this sūtra in the Chinese Tripitaka : 28 (Dharmaruci).).IH tf ñ. it is explained that the Tathāgata is of immutable character. neither explains in a dualistic way 34 ) nor imagines falsely nor discriminates. has the epithets) the Tathāgata. by S nS &c . are partly lacking in 2). s. Cf. 239-250 a). > T . M tr. by nine illustrations beginning with the illustration of a reflection of the Indra on the surface of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone 31 ).

of quiescent character. There. or heard. i. 37 ) C. 2476. He cannot be seen.. -observing the nature of all living beings. (Acc.minding. O Mañjuśrī. Having enlightened " means 4 having known truly by means of Buddha's non-discriminative Wisdom \ 44 Of [all] living beings " means 4 of those [living beings] who are in the 36 44 ) upaśamaprabheda—pradeśa. Such is the explanation of various kinds of aspects of quiescence36>. the Creat Compassion named 4 mastery ' sets in forth on all living beings ". The former 3 epithets are translated in an opposite way. or tested. there is explained by the remaining texts the Tathāgata's perfect enlightenment realized without any help of others with respect to all the gates to the Perfect Enlightenment of the real nature of all elements 37>. in his own acts. or smelt. 'immaculate'. regards ' sarvataihatâbhisambodhamukhesu ' as a quotation. which is equivalent to JAĀ. 38 > Cf. with reference to the Tathāgata's 16 kinds of Enightenment 3 8 \ it is said as follows39>: There. M !S >l>. ñe—bar shi—bahi tshig—gi rab—tu dbye—ba (== upa- śamaśabda-prabheda ? ) . has neither making known nor being made known. Note 1-89. " all the elements of such a nature " means * [all the elements. /fc5£ i ^ ^c. as soon as the Tathāgata has enlightened all the elements of such a nature and has observed the essential nature of all living beings as 4 impure ' ' not removing stains ' and 4 blemished '. sets forth the Compassion which is 'pure'.e. •> JAÂ. i. or touched and has no characteristic remark. 40 by accepting T. but it is probably a wrong translation. reading * dños-po med-pahi ño-bo-ñid-du to * nirdistān '. .e. hence. 'not blemished ' and ' mastery'). /7'J ^ZL T O ( — upaśama-prabheda-laksana). And after this. ) ' abhāva-svabhāvāt * in the text should be corrected to ' abhāvasvabhāvān'.)-ho ' as an apposition [ 160 ] . of neither origination nor destruction. By this the Tathāgata's possession of Supreme Wisdom and Compassion is demonstrated. m • * ^ f t ID ⣠VS W M tfe M IA % a %. all dualistic views and false discriminations have ceased to exist. the character of non-existence 40>. By this it is indicated that. C. H e r e ' pradeśa ' seems t o m e a n ' a s p e c t ' (visaya o r gocara). 247 6. after the explanation of [nine] illustrations. having the nature] as has been said before '. After this. T . " and so forth. the Tathāgata is free from efforts.

" Having observed " i means having perceived all kinds (i. 45 ) Instead of ' tadubhayâniyatama-viśistayā ' in the text. impure. 46 > T. because of [their] retaining [the impression of] one of both [obstructions] 45>. & C . e x p l a i n s t h e w o r d s from ' sarvasattvānām ' t o ' avalokya ' t o g e t h e r . uses t h i s word twice. t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s passage r u n s as follows: " I t is ' vikrīditā ' because [the B u d d h a ] . & C. F o r ' vinayopāya \ b o t h T . lhag-ma. & C. añgana. because [the Buddha]. s. b u t T . the feminine form is used. IV-1 ' vineyadhātau vinayâbhyupāye '.. ^ J j S p cf. and C. instead of the usual mam-par rol-pa. has ' fj^ •Jf"' ' along with ' ' ij^ [££. On the contrary C. connects t h i s 'vividhā' t o ' m u M a ' a n d C. C.e. Here. " The great Compassion sets forth on all living beings". The term vikrldita is often used in the sense of ' having perfect mastery ' in BHS as E. the reading should be (remained). But here C. t o ' mukha'. connects it t o ' supravista '. skyon-dañ bcas-pa. mñoT-par rdsogs- r . T . O n t h e c o n t r a r y . enters t h e various gates of that means " . C. B u t t h e r e seems t o b e n o t so m u c h difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s as t o t h e i r sense. T h e prefix ' vi. T . chos-kyi dbyiñs.v. (brtse-ba = sneha [affection]. [The Compassion is * named] mastery (vikrīditā) " 46> because it enters well into * the gates of accomplished means of training in various ways (vividhā) 47>. etc.) through the Buddha's eye to which nothing is obscure' 4 3 ) . g. ' "p| ' tadubhayânyatamâvaśistatayā'. which is usually equivalent to ' vijrmbhita ' (manifestation of the Buddha's power). " Not removing stains (avimala) " means * [stainful nature] of the Śravākas and Pratyekabuddhas ' because of obstruction on account of knowable things (jñeyâvarana). r e a d as ' vineyopāya '. Lalitavistara). 48 ) T h e reading ' abhisambuddhabodheh ' i n t h e t e x t is doubtful.' is i n t e r p r e t e d b y ' vividhā'. trivimoksamukha—vikrîdito. T. 47 ) T h e reading of t h i s passage is r a t h e r obvious. translates it by ' § | | Tiiy '. unconformed (aniyatar-) and wrongly conformed (mithyā-niyata-) groups (rāśi) '. sāñgana. mentioned (e. J/C j3Î in the quotation (instead of the usual ' î ^ -^r '). S. Cf. in common with S. being an epithet or an apposition to ' karunā '. C. having realized 4 8 ) the characteristics of all living beings through 41 ) T. There is no exact concordance between S. hence the whole means ' taking compassion in various ways ' ?). fZC B S ' (dharmatā. 44 ) T . D i e . which is not different from his own quality by nature ' 4 2 ) . " Impure (aśuddha) " means i [impure nature] of the ignorant and common people ' because of obstruction caused by Moral Defilement (klesâvarana). once connecting t o ' upāya' a n d i n t h e second case. T. " Blemished (sâñgana) " 44) means ' [blemished nature] of Bodhisattvas '. dharmasvabhāva ? ) . rnam-par-brtse-ba. 43 ) C. h a v i n g k n o w n ( = sampanna ?) t h e various m e a n s b y w h i c h living beings a r e t o b e c o n v e r t e d . S. B H S . For 'avaśistatā'1 ^ \ ^ ' shows nearly the same meaning. v .. " Essential nature (dharmadhātu) " 4 1 ) means 4 the Matrix of the Tathāgata.The Ratnagotravibhāga state of conformed [in right way] (niyata-). 42 ) (sattvānām) dharmadhātu — svadharmatā-prakrtinirviśista-tathāgatagarbha.

. _5f? signifies ' nirvān • 51 * <g)C p£f" ft^ •£?. i & ' p. And even if wc*1006?*.t n e double expression. et( *s ' t n e fulfilment of benefit for others ' (parârthasampad).I. i. i. After this. " It seems C. Note 11-42. 49) samata1. having attained the Great Enlightenment. par byañ-chub'as na (abhisambodheh). the fulfilment of sef"k enent *s designated.J.e.t it is not certain whether it is the translation of this terin or that of ' adhie:amaprāpia ' O e a ds to the acquisition). still it is better to be ' abhisambodhibuddhyā '. C. / v r f 4/E ' * s m e r e l y an interpreting word by the Chinese translator. By the word ' Wisdom '. ' 3. and [the quality connected with] the remaining three. the fulfilment of benefit fo others is designated. ^ a s t n e intention to lead [the living beings] to the acquisition of thei o w n nature 50). [the Buddha] has no relaxation of activity for effectuatag t n e setting in motion of the Wheel of unparalleled Doctrine. 7) St7âriasa]r?ljPa<^ & 8) parârthasampad: Here. upaśāntipada [ 162 ] . Usually. 1AJ4. Cf. •=f^' Jg£ ' seems to be connected with ' i!i> wC *^~ īlF AO ' ( to ' ^n orc ^er t 0 ' o r having intention to) as an apposition to ' 3ÎU 7 £ enghten the same as the Buddha. See. in so far as the highest. eternal and cruiescent plPe 51^ n a s the character of being the basis of his own perfect enlightenmei • By the words ' Compassion ' and ' Power '. J-[J£'. id.e. immutable.££. Besides [thee *s another meaning]. because of their character of being the basis for set*ng forth the Wheel of the highest and greatest Doctrine. Wisdom. is 4 the fulfilment of self-benefit' (svârthasamfd). VII . to make them enlighten the Great EnlighteJ i e n t < Therefore. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra the Thāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa (Avat S). seems to have a double expression ' fjg -4^ £££. or the lack of differencp (nirviśistatā) between the Buddha himsel£ n d all sattvas. so) £_ r e a c the whole passage as follows: " ' mah5!>rui}ū ' [signifies] that. If so. i. the equality. etc. to enlighten the Highest Enlightne- ment).e. i. having aroused the supreme Wisdom an Compassion. a e r ' tuahākarunā iti\ and ' ^gjf y^. [the Buddhal o l " n s t n e Great Compassion equally for all living beings with intention to make living eings realize what the Buddha did.I equality 49).AS5AK. [it is called ' mahākarunā ' ] .e. ) paramatyopaśāntipada. C. because there is another expression *JĪJ5C -4^ . the Enlightenment. of these six qualities of the Tatbg ata > according to order [the quality] connected with the first three ualities. This [activif] should be known as ' power ' of both [Wisdom and Compassion] in egard of acting for the sake of others. takes ' svadharmatā ' i ' Buddha's own nature'.

And which. immediately after [the explanation of] the former. The present transla- . Which is neither non-being nor being. ' 3fT| | P J ' means usually ' vitarka-vicāra ' and I could not trace the use of ' j | ? j Hit' for 'ārambana' in other texts. W. So ^« /JiE (moha).v. timiranud. But revealed [only] by introspection 2> and is quiescent. And neither different from being nor from non-being X). Dictionary. Pali dosa). with rays of light of the immaculate Wisdom. But. so-so-ran-gyis rig (-parlj bya-ba). 4-8. THE JEWEL OF THE DOCTRINE Now. moha or avidyā. W ® ?£ . 1. s. ' timira. I bow before the sun of-the Doctrine. timiraripu.C 'li* fft a t SB) and XVII-187 (for ' nirālamba'. 5) ārambana (āramvana in the text is probably a misprint) (BHS fr. Pali āram- mana — Skt.) and C. there arises the Jewel of the Doctrine. 122. Nor both being and non-being together.fa i|> fcj .III. etc. 7. dvesa. M. hatred 3) and darkness4) with respect to all the basis of cognition 5 ). timirâri. seems to show this sense. C. (Kārikā 2). cf. etc. in comparison with the simile of the sun. Destroys passion. Note VI-70 (for cittârambana.). sdañ(-ba) (she-sdañ).. ^ C 163 ] ( § ) . j ^ S f$t ? C. Madhyamaka-kârikā I. 3) 4 dosa (BHS for Skt. dmigs-pa. translation is curious. Lañkāvatāra p. T. Therefore. Skt. It means doctrinally the ignorance. ^ J ||}£ or »_!?£ pip. from the Jewel of the Buddha. ālambana). T. // 9 // This alternative proposition is called ' catuskotikā\ Cf. timiranāśana. rab-rib. flji£ |*Jp. viz. Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra VI. Which cannot be speculated upon and is beyond explanation. C..C. But. what is to be destroyed is timira (the sun is often referred to by such terms as timiracchid. J. T. we have one śloka concerning the latter. 2) pratyātmavedya ( = pratyātmavedanīya in comm. T.

3) non-discriminativeness (nirvikalpatā). 4) purity. & C. as well as in BGS are as follows: 1) acintya. & 8) yena virāgah. v . 3) niskalpa. TAJK. hatred and ignorance.. The C. [V] vrtti. passions. (BGŚ ^ ^ î ^ " ) . I V . mñonJ £A| )î 6) vipaksa gñen-pohi phyogs- par gsal-bar (byed-pa). Which are the eight qualities? They are 1) unthinkability (acintyatva). non-dual. which is Deliverance and also by which arises Deliverance Has the characteristics of the two Truths. 5) [being] manifest (abhivyaktikarana). Cf. tion is according to T. dag-pa. and all [other] defilements " . hdod chags dañ bral-ba. and ' j^lj ||p£' to vikalpa or ayoniśomanasikāra. 7) yo virāgah. 7>fç 73 [A7'Jj.J . Cf.researching and investigation (jSjjJ Çpt) [by discriminative mind]. // 10 // By this verse. ( u n d e r C h a p . 7) Terms in v. (BGS -7HÇ . ^TJj' M R ^ ^ / (BGS ) j ^ ñid.' seems to be equivalent to vibandha '. translation is more understandable than S. (śuddhi). Cf. bsam-du med-pa-ñid. 10 and translations of these 8 in T. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its being unthinkable. 4) śuddhi. s. Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine 6>. 6) hostility [against obstacles] (pratipaksatā). where these 8 categories are explained as the qualities of the Buddha's ' āśrayaparivrtti '). 2) non-duality (advayatā).ASAKI § 1. And because of its pureness. 3E>|. pjfl: ^ ^ (BGS pgjt ^ ) . 1-^)* i>e. in brief. manifestation and hostility. hdod-chags dañ bral-bahi rgyu. translation for the whole line runs as follows: " Destroys several kinds of darkness (H_5£.). Buddhagotraśāstra ( B G Ś ) 801 b ff. 'i* yf^ "pT* {B |âfe fRPŚ /T^ UT ® B *V . gñis-su med-pa-ñid. ç?^ pip. About the use of the term ' ārambana '. rnam-par rtog- pa med-pa-ñid. and 8) cause of Deliverance (virāgahetu) 7 ). [ 164 ] . î^p". BHS Die. and C. 2) advaya. ^ ^ / fî\ |2si). 7) Deliverance [from passions] (virāga). pgfl: |AJ (BGS BGŚ 8016. 5) vyakti. 3EJ j p . (ārambana 6) & ālambana). — e . the Jewel of the Doctrine is explained as being contracted by eight qualities. see below (Note 111-39). and being non-discriminative. „„ - „_. The Doctrine.

8) ' virāgitā '. hphags-pa. which are. ' being of the nature of Deliverance (virāgadharma)u ) ' means ' having characteristic of the two purifying Truths12>. " That which is Deliverance " means [the Doctrine.The Ratnagotravibhāga § 2. translates ' nirodha—mārga—satyābhyām ' as the subject. T . . the Truth of Extinction is explained. C. And by the remaining three qualities. 9) Which are each to be known By three qualities according to order. 10) abhisamasya ( g r . Consequently there is no difficulty in C. § 3. Nirodha-satya and Mārga-satya. T. t h e s t a t e of b e i n g virāgin (one w h o is passionless). non-duality and non-discriminativeness.e. ' [hdod-]chags [dan] bral[-ba]-ñid ' seems e q u i v a l e n t t o ' virāgatā \ C. The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction. te (ete) veditavye '.e. ' Having joined these two together10>.vffî iyn ' vyavadānasatyadvaya ' means ' the 2 satyas concerned with purification ' i. manifestation and hostility. w h i c h is t h e c o m m o n n a t u r e of b o t h ' nirodhasatya ' & ' mārgasatya '. Extinction and Path. [ 165 ] . From this [explanation] it should be known that the Deliverance [itself] is contracted. i. the Truth of Path is explained. mnon-par bsdus te. f^p* fZC . unthinkability. C. -^3 ^gf . T. Deliverance 8) is summarized In both truths. C. And because of its being the knowledge of Saints 13>. . pij|£ f S • This is an interpretation of the word ' virāgitā ' (or virāgatā) in v. 9) The reading ' ete ' in the text should be understood in the sense ' yābhyām nirodhatnārgasatyābhyām . as] the Truth of Extinction. rnam-par byañ-bahi bden-pa gñis-kyi mtshanñid. See above. and takes ' samgrhita ' as active voice. it is explained. T . ' pjjft also shows n o t h i n g special. H e n c e ' v i r ā g a t ā ' seems here a more natural form than ' virāgitā '. Unthinkability [of the Doctrine should be known]. // 11 // Of these six qualities. and is opposite to ' duhkhasatya ' and ' samudayasatya '. o f abhi-sam-^as). nirodhasatya and mārgasatya. to be termed ' samkleśasatyadvaya \ 13 l l j ' ārya. in their turn.e. . Because of its being beyond speculation and explanation. and from this. by the first three qualities. reading. 11. C. i. 12) vyavadāna-satyadvaya-laksana. it should be known that the cause of Deliverance is contracted. C. purity. T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s w o r d is s h o w n below b y t h e t e r m ' virāgadharma '. and " by which arises the Deliverance " means ' by [the Doctrine as] the Truth of Path. . ' Q " ..

About the etymology of ' vyavahāra'. P T S D i e (' kamma ' ) .ghosa.J. ravita (artificial sound). See above. T. t h e n e x t birth. ?R ^ ( 4 ^] H S 1H). T. vyavahāra. p. TAKASAKI Because of quiescence it is non-dual and non-discriminative. samketa. ( B G Ś also quotes t h i s sentence). In another passage. see Note VIII-(IX) A-61. By which three? Because.e nonbeing. [ 166 ] . By knowing deeply that 14 ) So-called ' catuskotikā '. vākpatha. 16) A A N 467 b. 2) advayatā & 3) nirvikalpatā. 18) dharman (ifc). 44. way of speech. 13 and p. explanation. word a n d t h o u g h t . being. [as by deed. tha-sñad. skad ( = bhāsā). . 'karman' is t h e cause of 'janman' (or bhava). C. I n t h i s sense ' k a r m a n ' should be r e g a r d e d a s t h e ' active force '. 21) T. p. 4 dual ' (dvaya)19) means ' action ' or ' active force ' (karman). having the nature 18> of being non-dual and non-discriminative " . and 3) it is to be revealed by the introspection of Saints. ñag-gi yul. nirukti. 10 ff. Equivalency to each term pt in C. conversation [and so forth] 15>. 1) it is not a sphere of speculation even by four categories [of existence] 1 4 \ i.1. ^ J . purity etc. And three [qualities]. ^*H g / j j .). ^\ . 14). C. p e r h a p s i n t h e sense t h a t ' śiva * is an epithet of ' nirodha '. Whenever 'karman1 and ' kleśa ' a r e mentioned side b y side. Here. 13. respectively. 7 ff. i discrimination (vikalpa) means 'Irrational Thought (ayoniśomanasikāra)'21) which is the cause of origination of Action and Defilements. word and thought] ' 2 0 ) and ' Defilement (Mesa). 1. T. T. being and non-being together. T. 19> 17) dual'?). T. 20) ° " m ^1 ^ Z2 ITS I S ^ H (what are two.C 2gp (echo ?). C. 42. 16> ruta. C. the same sentence is quoted changing * dharmā ' into ' dharmatayā '. C.e. As for its being a cause of Defilements and Actions. see S. C. in short. t h e former signifies t h e a c t u a l deed b y body. T. Vpf i 5 > • ^ u t T . 2) it cannot be explained by any sound. voice. quiescent l 7 ) is this Absolute Body [of the Buddha]. C. speech. " E ī m . C. agreed term. tshul-bshin ma-yin-pa yid-la byed-pa. are akin to the sun. designation. B u t i n t h e relation t o ' janman '. of which is taught ' non- See below (S. 1. It seems to be the original reading and is preferable here. EL abhilāpa. T.^ . sgra (= śabda). of which t h e cause is ' kleśa'. _ p . some kind of energy a n d h a s a sense similar t o ' samskāra '. Cf.. and neither being nor non-being. (S. śiva. hgog-pa ( = nirodha). i. p . // 12 // 1) acintyatva: Unthinkability of the Truth of Extinction. brda. How should here be understood nonduality and non-discriminativeness of the Truth of Extinction? It is taught by the Lord as follows1 6 ) : " O Śāriputra. should be known by three causes. is not sure. 5=p . mñon-par brjod-pa. C. brjod-pa ( = vacana). ñe-tshig.

it is [called] the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. 1. Wherever no mental action takes place. there is no origination of duality and discrimination. C. J|_j^ ^g. released from covering of 22 > JAĀ 247 a. 12 ft. however. ' manas ' ' ādâna-vijñāna '. consequently. p. > anādikālika. O Lord. 20. One who applies himself with rational thought never makes Ignorance arise. starting with ' avidyā '. ^[j* Jlā» JHf« H * (but AĀS & BGS. p . quiescent. 26 > ŚMS 221 c. immutable. 72.1. (in BGS. vv. ' ajāti ' = ' anutpādânirodha \ The term ' ajāti ' reminds us of the idealistic philosophy of Gaudapāda. @^C). brtan-pa. BGŚ 801 (quotation from ŚMS). Cf. the chain of causation (pratītyasamutpāda). 54. everlasting28). non-originated. 1. sems dañ yid dañ rnam-par śes-pa. T. 53. It is said as follows 22>: O Mañjuśrī. purified by nature. ^ ' H ® tt> respectively (496 b) BGŚ ^ ? ft B S 8 6 $& ( 8 0 1 c ) ' [ 167 ] . II. 27 etc. rtag-pa. extinction of Suffering does not mean the disappearance of element. This is called the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. It should never be explained that. eternal. C. AÂS (which has the passage after ' asamskrta ' up to the end of this quotation). T. 469 b) BGŚ quotes the first sentence from AĀS and regards the remaining as its own explanation. dhruva. mental actions as mind. By the term. Paramārtha interprets that ' citta ' means the ' former ' (i. C. śiva. (BGS 801 c). ' ālayavijñāna '. O Lord. mi-skye(-ba). & śāśvata. because of extinction of something. Cf. 28) These 4. the usual set of) 6 vijñānas.) Cf. Non-arising of Ignorance means non-arising of the Twelve Parts of Existence (dvādaśa-bhavâñga) 24>. It is called 4 non-birth(ajfāti) 2 5 ) . p.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga this Irrational thought is extinct by nature. of no destruction. This is usually an adjective to ' dhātu \ See S. I^J ' t ā Vpf î/K *> S ! ) a r e °f ten u s e d i n this treatise as the modifiers of ' dharmakāya' or the Absolute Truth. for this reason there is absolutely no origination of Suffering. nitya. (T. See below (S. e. C. These three are synonymous with each other and here seem to have no special meaning as in the Vijñānavāda. thog-ma med-pahi dus-can. and ' vijñāna '.e. 23) 44 44 citta-mano-vijñāna. free from destruction. | P £ jfâ [ ^ jf& i f r ^ ] . shi-ba. 4 Extinction of Suffering '. "> T. in case there is neither origination nor extinction. mi-hjig-pa. I t is quite against the Vijñānavādin's way of interpretation. Also said [in the scripture]26). p. there is no false imagination by which they would think irrationally. there is designated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is beginningless 27>. ' " and so forth. intellect and consciousness never take place 2 3 ) . 10. 82. ^ ^J£ (BGS A^ ^ £ ) .) 24) i. 13. AĀS (beginning of Chap. of no birth. constant.. p. 81.

p. . The term ' amuktajñair ' had better be inserted after ' avinirbhāgair '. C. (quotation from AAN). & C). C. [when it is] unreleased from the covering of moral 30) defilements. sgom-pahi 32) lam. (C. because. text and T. 2) through the common characteristic of being the manifestor of forms. 58. the way to attain the Absolute Body of Tathāgata named Extinction of Suffering is the Path of perception and practice 32) based upon the nondiscriminative Wisdom (avikalpa-jñāna) 33\ And this [Path] is to be known as similar to the sun with threefold common characteristics 3 4 ) . and 3) through the common 29) .. gañgāvālikāvyativrttair avinirbhāgair acintyair buddhadharmaih samanvāgatas . tathāgatakāyo ' vinirmuktakleśakośas T h i s is a f a m o u s ^\f definition of the term ' tathāgatagarbha \ Chinese refer to this often by ' śf\\ p | | 31 > Cf. The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 3 1 ). 34> 33) [ 168 ] . C. because of being apart from all the minor defilements and stains. and * bhāvanā-mārga ' those Stages after the second one. brol-bar śes-pa (= muktajña). T. j||£ . . Similarity of ' jñāna' to the sun is also referred to in S. ŚMS (both T. And this very Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. darśana-mārga. 107 ff.. . and endowed with inseparable and unthinkable qualities of the Buddha. is called the Matrix of Tathāgata. ^ ^ T h e t e r m ' samanvāgata 30) $ ? $fc ^ . q u i t e clear.. 4) śuddhi. [Namely] 1) through the common characteristic of purity of the disk. because of making manifest knowable things of all kinds. except the present Skt. T. p. ŚMS.. T. C.all moral defilements. 5) abhivyaktikarana & 6) pratipaksatā: Now indeed. have this term. J^J. . C. AĀS. 93 ff. vv. mam-par mi-rtog-pahi ye-śes. • ' darśana-mārga ' signifies the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. see Note 1-23. For this expression. & bhāvanā-mārga. mthoñ-bahi lam. all other editions i. § 4. (sūryavad iti. AÂS & BGŚ.e. which are far more than the sands of the Gañgā in number 29>. TW t=î B^Ś A* -fjjf Jiff ^ ? the last two seem to show the best translation. . and forth). BGŚ 802 a (j|ft $£ 0 ) . 0 Lord. T.) ' m a k e s t h e i d e a signified b y ' gañgāvālikā tathāgatagarbhah —. 4 N $fc 4 ^ j | | ) . y@g 3JH. ^ ft $1] ^§?. etc. " Thus all the determination of the Truth of Extinction of Suffering should be understood wholly and in detail according to Sutras..

C. T. T . it should be ayoniśomanasikāra ' in its implied sense. de-kho-na mthoñ-ba ( = tattva-darśana). ( b u t usuIX-77. ' p o t e n t i a l s t a t e ' . because of being the enemy of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception35*. but BGS. i. 1. And of those people who T. As being based upon the unreal feature. hdod—chags. t h e a c t of t a k i n g hold of ' abhūtavastu-nimitta ' [as real]. T . p. t h e compound ' abhūta . yid-la byed-pa. 37 ' rāga. 8 in S. p. C. seems t o regard i t as being appositional. way. See below. [they regard the unreal thing as the real characteristic] because of its detestable looks (pratighâkārena). o m . yañ-dag-pa ma-yin-pahi dños-po rgyu38) mtshan—gyi yul. and when Ignorance conies forth. C. ' manasikāra ' here is determine d a s ' abhūtavastunimitta-ārambana'. 'not of its nature (atatsvabhāva) ' thing as the [real] characteristic because of its desirable looks (śubhâkāra)41> when Desire comes forth from its state of tendency. >P}A'/1>* Jp|^ "^p" ^ffl. has no equivalent term. I n other words. 67. manasikāra. fift. ^ ? F o r ' śubhâkāra [ 169 ] . T . 36 35) C. bag-la ñal-ba.The Ratnagotravibhāga characteristic of hostility against darkness. g r a m m a r . This word > T. however. respectively. If we construe T . BGŚ B|f seems to stand for ' timira ' in the kārikā. d e t e r m i n i n g t h e characteristic of ' manasikāra '. As for t h e relation of this ' ārambana ' t o ' manasikāra '. m a k e s a B a h u v r ī h i compound. the uncertain passage in Ms. Jjt^ . ' can ' should be inserted after 'yul'.e. C. T . a n d hence is to b e understood i n t h e sense ' [manasikāra] whose ārambana is abhūtavastu—nimitta ' a n d ' ārambana ' c a n be t r a n s l a t e d into ' senseobject '. regards t h e t e r m 'ārambana' as ' visaya'' (sense object) a n d connects i t with ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta ' b y t h e genitive case. fn. C. J ^ . u n d e r s t a n d s 'ārambana'' in t h e sense of ' t a k i n g hold o f or 'grasping '• This v e r b a l sense seems b e t t e r here t h a n t h e nominal sense. when Hatred comes forth [from its state of tendency]. then it is the same because of its obscure looks (avidyâkārena). T. 1. On t h e c o n t r a r y . . By reason of this T. ally H I ) . C. translation as well as by the reading ' sarvâkārasya tattvadarśanavibandhasya ' in S. dvesa. B. C p j ^ moha. Hatred and Ignorance 37> preceded by the thought 3 8 ) which takes its basis [of cognition] upon the characteristic of unreal things Z9\ It is due to the union of the state of tendency (anuśaya) with manifested state (paryutthāna) [of defilement] 40>. . a n d for paryutthāna. t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e light of this S k t . T . C. C..e. And t bondage ' (vibandha) 36> means the origination of Desire. kun-nas (S. being appositional t o ' manasikāra '. ārambana '. ^ p ^ A^ t w ( b u t usually |§|f S|^) ' sleeping Idan-pa. she—sdañ. Indeed.= paryavasthāna 41) T . 13. s t a t e '. See note '. gegs. 17. C. F r o m t h e point of S k t . 17). 39 ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta-ārambana. 0 t f p *?£ (the thing to be dispelled). 7JIJE. (see J. 12) should be read ' tattva ' instead of ' satya ' inserted by J . /MR -£Ç J) ft'] j]l^ . Or ' ayoniśo manasikāra ' = ' abhūtavastu—nimitta—ārambana-manasikāra '. i. because ' arāmbana' is a kind of a c t . people regard the unreal. T . 40) anuśaya. gti—mug. _fpl.

It is also identical with cittaprakrti. etc. speech and thought. dmigs-pa-la spyod-pa. produce the Irrational Thought. z?t£ (7P1E ^Rc)« A general term for kleśa. karman & janman. The function of ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is to be compared to that of ' manas ' in the Vijñānavāda. [Of them]. e. come forth because people do not know. Due to this [origination of Defilement]. from Action there results Rebirth. as before (-»IA). T. 43) Here ordinary beings (bala) are said to be ' anuśayavat'. p. For those people whose mind is occupied with the Irrational Thought. 13. and (4) janma-samkleśa. khams gcig. i. Here. Because of origination of Defilement. for ' ārambana '. — ' *gf ft 5?" > ( B G Ś — ' 5^) T. Cf. > eka-dhātu. (v. 39). Thus these people. and this ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is defined as ' vikalpa ' (S.). .. of which the Defilements in dormant state are causes. ' nimitta-grāhin ' and ' ārambana-carita ''. nor perceive the one [real] essence 45) as it is 4 6 \ 42) rāgadvesamoha-nimittam ayathābhūlam ārambanam kurvatām. they make the actions born oi Desire by means of body. (3) karma-samkleśa. T. Here ' ārambana seems to show more clearly the sense of ' an action to hang on '. there arises Rebirth. ayathābhūtam can be regarded as an adjective to ārambana. TAKASAKI incorrectly take hold of characteristics of Desire. (tattvadarśana-vibandha) pf| . and the Irrational Thought i3 the cause of associated origination. 46) About the process of origination of the phenomenal life (samkleśa) see S. and making it the basis of cognition. 58 f. Because of the association of these three. î | § . having tendencies [of Desire. the Absolute. affections towards the five sense-objects are conditions. all the phenomena^ life. i. These three show successive activities of mind preceding to ' manasikāra '. 42 f. p. Furthermore. In this process. 2) or ' abhūtavastunimittârambana-manasikāra ' (S. 1) (see Note 38. dmigs-pa. but from the context. mtshan-par hdsin-pa-can. BGS 802 a: -JÇ J ^ Bpf [yp. from the origination of Action. dharmatā. Action Rebirth. 12. T. C. and also [in the same way] they produce the action born of Hatred. e. etc. from which consequently arises Defilement. p. 1. 1. the latter two). regarding the [unreal] characteristic [as real]. ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' occupies the important role. [affectionally] hanging on it 43>. And all kinds of impurity (samkleśa) 44> of these Defilements.&• / £ . 44) samkleśa. the action born of Ignorance. I rendered it into an adverbal sense. For ' nimitta-grāhin '. there arises Action. \m M ' l ī l ffiE > ^ C ¥ K ffi • Me t i (anuśaya) M H (ayonisomanasikāra) (The tattvadarśanavibandha means (1) a complexed action of mind. C. It may be termed [ 170 ] . it is called ' a complexed action of mind '). Hatred and Ignorance. 45 dharmadhātu. (1) a complexed action of mind is [a mental activity]. (C.J . Hatred and Ignorance as the basis of cognition 4 2 \ the Irrational Thought occupies their mind. (2) kleśa-samkleśa. om. kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa. %M. there takes place the Defilement of any one of Desire. Hatred and Ignorance]. C. and for ' ārambana-carita ' T.

334. C. T . p. ' ārambana '.). this is to be known as the ' enemy ' (pratipaksa) of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception. 353. 4-7 & 11-15. 333. 12. US. but BGŚ —° ~ffl n§ ?£ (sarvadharmāh). . 51) asad nimittârambana. Astasāhasrikā-Prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of AAA pp. seeks for. 9-12.g. . med-pahi rgyu-mtshan-gyi dmigs-pa and C. 47 > parigavesayat (one who investigates) ( < p. T. running: together. for which the original reading is as follows: " . because we cannot see any characteristic nor basis of non-being51). C. B3) M ®#H.). asamavadhāna. then can he perceive the Reality 48 ). And because of the origination of this enemy. Cf. g. investigates. /MR 3 C < £ TR (unreal characteristics of things) a'nd om. 1. p. For ' nimittam ārambanam vā '. i. 332. where a passage from ASP is quoted. these elements 49> are perfectly realized by the Tathāgata as equal through 50 equality ). 2-5 & 15-16.if4iiin3Kjçjn^^ftfj| J5']-. rgyu-mtshan nam dmigs-pa. 1. when he perceives neither characteristic nor basis. 230 ff. g. 1.14 & 17-18. and we can see the real character of being as the absolute truth. T. of parigavesayati. 1. T . inserts a short quotation. And thus. BHS Die. VIII. 52) asamgati. This is indeed the Path of perception and practice based upon the non-discriminative Wisdom. the content of realization is shown. T. 1. v. [ 171 ] . which is the cause of attaining the Absolute Body [of the Tathāgata] and which is to be understood in detail according to the Sñtra named Prajñāpāramitā 53>. s. which had literally better be translated into ' unreal basis of characteristics '. 335 b). $$. (Wogihara.e.The Ratnagotravibhāga [On the other hand] these impurities should be seen in the same manper as by a perfect investigator 47 ) who does not perceive any [unreal] characteristic nor any basis of these impurities. yoñs-su btsal-ba. 1. this realization of all natures by Wisdom. tatra bodhisattvayānikah pudgalo yair vastubhih anumodeta yair ārambanair yair ākārais tac cittam utpādayet api nu tāni vastūni tāni vā ārambanāni te vā ākārās tathopalabhyeran yathā nimittîkaroti ". bral-ba. as being equal without any addition nor diminution because of these two facts. 1. /fâ\ (as if * nimittârambana ' as in the previous cases). caus. *g£ f 4 • «> dharmāh (pi. C. 334. 354. ^ i ^ "\^ ^r. Thus. (Skt. 1. there is absolutely no association nor harmony 52) of the obstacles. 332. C. (e. AAA (GOS Edition. 9-12). 22-335. 1. p. [Because]. of pari- gavesate. yañ-dag-pa. Here the use of ' ārambana ' is obviously objective. jr«-* f o r b o t h e. 48 > bhūta. med-pa. 'ff f 4 . ^yç. • 60) By the term * iti '. case-ending) T. has the sg. C. pres. 5-9). C.

having understood 2> perfectly The extremity of non-substantiality of all the worlds as quiescent. 15. C. namely: prathamacittotpādika. 1. from the Jewel of the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. and newly creating the 10 ' bhūmi 's. being ranked as the 1st. immediately after [the explanation of] the former. ranking the old 10 stages at the beginning under the name of 10 ' vihâra 's. has •§ some misunderstanding on the third line and due to this misunderstanding. i n t h e 1st line. T . (Kārikā 3. 13 i n d i c a t e s ' sarvajagat' m e a n s ' p e o p l e i n t h e world ' . ^V* ^ g J p | | . S. changes the order of the commentary. it is regarded on one hand as the name for the 7th ' vihāra\ but on another hand. C. // 13 // *) avaivartika ( = avinivartanīya). T. As for ' avaivartika '. C. About the equivalence of this state to the Bodhisattva's i bhūmi'' or (vihāra\ there is a variety among the Mahāyāna texts. rtogs(-pa). there arises the Jewel of the Community of Bodhisattvas who are abiding in the irreversible state 1 ) . -tā).). 1. the former 4 have got their place among 10 stages. T. C. 13. Confusion occurred after the apperance of the Avatamsakasūtra which established the 41 stages of Bodhisattva. Notes IV-31. p. (Cf. rdsogs-pahi sañs-rgyas (om. we have one śloka referring to the latter. there seems to have been 4 divisions of states on account of the Bodhisattva's rank. caryāpratipanna. Those whose intellect is unobscured. see S.) I bow before those who. sometimes to the 7th bhūmi. t h e ' j a g a t * asvabhāva. Pramuditā & c. as the highest group of Bodhisattva's stages. j | j (or ^ P ) . ño-bo-med[-pa]. 52. See S. as being equivalent sometimes to the 1st bhūmī. p. And whose eye of Wisdom has its objects In the pureness and infinitude of the living beings. C. -/Sç 0f_ . 4) 3) 6) sambuddhatā. avaivartika & ekajātipratibaddha or abhiseka (of these 4. the division of 10 stages also seems to have an old history and as a result of the combination of both. Therefore. phyir mi-ldog-pa. C 172 ] . Besides this division.IV. T. 2) prati-vidh. Perceive the Buddhahood 5> penetrating everywhere. 16 ff. 16. Here the commentator seems to have used the term ' avaivartika ' as indicating the Bodhisattva on the 1st bhūmi. p. Because of their perception of the unreality 3> of defilements Through the brightness of the innate pure mind of all the world 4) .1. THE JEWEL OF THE COMMUNITY Now. At the beginning of the development of the 'bhūmi' theory. 13). 3rd. ' tat' of t h e 2nd line of v . j?fj fī* • * " rlE v r C. respectively. 7th & 10th.

[ 173 ] .\ ' samvrti-satya \ This is the traditional way of interpretation in Tibet. 'being as it i s ' (yathāvad-bhāvikatā and 4 being as far as ' (yāvad-bhāvikatā) 8\ yathāvad-yāvat.\\ J8^ \v£ 'fT & T. pure and impure. 486 b etc.C. C.e. ' . t\\ 0 f ^ft tt & ffi 0T ~fâ ft (Taisho. ' . 5-9). . that the Jewel of the Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas is endowed with supreme qualities.e. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t h e following prose respectively: C. res r ÎM ls> ^"3* ' P. p. both of these relate to ' lokottara-jñāna'1 or ' lokottara-prajñā ' (S. (Lamotte's Sandhinirmocanasūtra. by both of which the two kinds of ' tattvârtha' are represented. ' 'jjg* 4~T ' f° ' bhāvikatā' is probably a misreading. XXX. and yāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means sarvatā. T. p. p. [manner and extent] i. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its purity of perception by introspective knowledge. 14. in brief. while ' yāvad-bh. As for their meanings. C. O's way seems an overinterpretation. // 14 // By this it is explained. . 699 c). Therefore. BBh. C. 215. ji-lta-ba bshin-du yod-pa-ñid & ji-sñed yod-pa-ñid edition. 11. T . Manner and Extent of the Perception of the Community. 98 & 99). ji-lta-ba-bshin-yod-pa & ji~sñed-yod-pa. ^ Cf. It means ' yāvadbhāvikatā' signifies all phenomena. here. 1. 0 translates the terms into 'Absolute and Empiric'al character'. p. because of its purity of perception by supermundane knowledge. ' avikalpajñāna' and not to ' laukika. KU ^[ a n d o m . replaced by ' "^j ' after the next occurrence ($U *3î & This term ' \g£ ' is p 3 & KU JUT J^J ). On the other hand. ' is said to relate to the perception of ' tathāgatagarbha-asiitva' in all living beings. as if ' yathāvad-bh. with respect to two aspects. While the Bodhisatlvabhūmi says that yathāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means their ' bhūtatā '. 11. ji-bshin. refers o n l y t o ' yathāvat' c o m m e n t a r y before v .The Ratnagotravibhāga § 1. 7) 8) 6) ji-sñed. 11).. the only special feature being that the ' yāvad-bh. 258. 2. respectively. Sandhinirmocana defines them. The Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas [Is endowed] with the supreme qualities 7>. while ' yathāvadhbāvikatā' signifies the essence or the Absolute (tathatā) inherent in all phenomena. This is rather close to the original interpretation. It seems to show the original sense of these terms. . But as far as this text is concerned. yāvat. 1. 1-2. & ' kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa dañ mam—par byañ-bahi chos de-dag ñid-kyi de~bshin-ñid gañ-yin-pa de-ni ji-lta-ba bshin-du yodpa—ñid yin .e. . %. i. Yogācārabhūmi (Bodhisattvabhūmi) #H 0 Î ^ tt S I $ T -ft ft (Taisho. ' kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa dan mampar byañ—bahi chos mams—la rnam—pa rab—tu dbye—ba thams—cad—kyi mthar thug—pa gañ-yin—pa de—ni ji—sñed-yod—pa yin . So far as its manner and extent are concerned 6) . 15. 16. 39. i. 1-19. AĀS ^ 0 Î J L #H j i t (470 c).' or ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna '. XVI.' signified p aramârtha-satya '. but see BGS 802 b where these two are said to be the cause of ' virāgadharma ' representing ' bhāvanā-mārga ' under the names of %\\ K g | ^ & >flj H i \e£ • however.

C.j | | . T. 14) C.e. [with respect to the manner]. it cannot be afflicted by defilements. in short. the innate brightness of the mind and the defilement on the mind. Bodhisattvas) have understood the extremity of non-substantiality (nairātmyakoti) of the whole world called Individualities and Separate Elements (pudgala—dharma-ākhya) as it is (yathāvat). And this understanding. TAKASAKI a) Right Manner of Perception (yathāvad-bhāvikatā). these two.>g5£ jg=p" . and not such a perception as existing after the realization by dispelling the defilements. 7JC ^ 3>ī£. and because of their perception of * being destroyed from the outset ' (ādiksaya). The bad mind is [also] momentary. because of their perception of the innate brightness (prakrtiprabhāsvaratā)1® of the mind. C. good and bad. [ 174 ] . nihsvabhāva. a good mind is momentary 14>. nirodha. hjig-pa med-pa. . the extinction of defilements on the mind. ittif^ife t * * * g i * t » f t . T. Namely. ksanika. there is no succession of a second mind because both minds. in the immaculate sphere. C. f£^ . T . ' i n k. it is said 13>: " 0 Lord. C. they (i. p. i. even this [bad] mind cannot be afflicted by defilements. which shows the denial of the conception of destroying something.e. 3 . 1. 12. * } ' . And this [understanding] is caused by The purity [of the innate mind] and Their perception of the defilement as being destroyed from the [outset 10 ). Their manner [of perception] is ' as it is ' . gdod-nas zad. Ś M S 2 2 2 b. defilements cannot 9) śānta-dharmatā. 'being as it is {yathāvad-bhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because.e. g f^ V ^ VT (= prakrtipariśuddhi). rañ-bshin-gyis hod-gsal-ba(-ñid). 12) 13) avināśa. // 15 // Here. is produced. ' avināśa T. # Stiff S ff W*J* 5 p ^hl (Real perception means the perception of the non-existence and quiescence of individuality and separate element from the outset. See S. 7^lJ J& j j ū . act together as one and the same. by two causes. relating to the non-annihilation U ) of Individualities and Separate Elements because of their nature of absolute quiescence from the outset. shi-bahi chos-ñid. Because they have understood the quiescent nature 9) of the world. i.J. are quite difficult to be understood in relation to the fact that. Therefore. 4-5 (on ' nirodha-satya '). has a long interpretation: 11} T . 0 Lord. This is a word for ' śivā nairātmyakoti 10) ādiksaya. skad-cig-ma. Here. rr-fc j j A —/-•{• H e r e . ' = ādiksaya.

i n prose: ififfl y@g <fj* (yāvadbhāvikatā) --Q . ('dhyā' in t h e 1st line a n d ' d h a r m a t ā ' i n t h e 2nd line a r e omitted).) 19) dhl = prajñā (lokottara prajñā). with reference to [the manner of] ' being as it is '. '. moñs-pa 16) asparśa-dharmin. still there is defilement and there is defiled mind. C. to T. S. Thus. 20) C. 'A^ }§3y f£C • 17) T h e r e a d i n g ' upakleśârtho ' is preferably t o b e corrected i n t o ' upaklistârtho Cf.^ * "MJ fc3 WÇ. by means of the supermundane intellect (lokottara-prajñā) which reaches as far as the limit of all knowable things 21>. [ 175 ] . T. Because they perceive the existence Of the nature of Omniscience 1 8 ) in all living beings. By the intellect 1 9 ) reaching as far as the limit of the knowable 20>. (sarvasattvesu sarvajñâstitvadarśanāt). because [verily in that Stage]. C. can be afflicted by darkness? O Lord. T . Moreover. gpf jtfijj ~\ j Q i * y) Xfc "7T S \ (jñeya-paryantagatayā).The Ratnagotravibhāga touch that mind. S. Jjj'* •'"i x j§gQ !K|| '[pg = nâpi dttam samklistam bhavati. p . the meaning that the mind purified by nature is defiled 1 7 ) is difficult to be understood " . reg-pahi chos-can ma lags-pa. p. 1. cittasyopaklistatā dusprativedhyā. the explanation of the meaning ' difficult to be understood ' should be understood in detail according to the Sūtra. the Absolute Essence is realized in the sense of all-pervading ' (sarvatraga). 9 (Quotation from Avat S. they perceive the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata in all living beings. Tathogatotpattisambhavanirdeśa). how is it possible that the mind. O Lord. And this perception of Bodhisattvas takes place in the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. sems ñonyañ ma-lags na. 22. // 16 // Here. 15) Ace. 6) Unlimited Extent of Perception (yāvad-bhāvikatā). 10 ~ 24. Jfc * ~%JJ J^K £ t î . 'being as far as (yāvadhhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because [with respect to the extent]. one sentence should be added here (as in brackets). 21) Cf. up to those who are in the animal kingdom. & C. 22. [And the mind cannot be touched by the Defilements] 15h O Lord. 2. Their extent [of perception] is * as far as '. of untouchable character 16) . 18) sarvajña-dharmatā = tathāgatagarbha ( i n t h e comm.

by this way. e. again i n prose. / u A /v Tf • 24) upanidhāya. unco23 mon to others >. cig—śes ñi-tshe—bahi the knowledge of Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. -j||Ç |«ip. or i n comparison with t h e n a t u r e of ' viśuddhi-hetu of t h e former. Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community. i f ^ ffi ^ ft | ? (jft) (Because of in the commentary . T . i. T. t h e l a t t e r is ' paripūrna-hetu ' (802 b). (§=jp f4j U=F J x . that perception has no hindrance 27>. apratihata BGS adds some more sentences o n 'yathāvad-bhāvikatā ' a n d ' yāvad-bhāvikatā '. And this [perception] is called perfectly pure in com24 25 parison with ) the superficial knowledge of everyday life ) because. [ 176 ] °> For v. t a k e s i t a s showing (apratigha in t h e verse). therefore. 26 ye—śes. while t h e l a t t e r is ' phala '. /[* ^-> — sv-.. // 17 // * Thus. respectively. in such a way' (ity evam). T. chags—pa med—pa. Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception. 2 their perception of pure ' buddhajñāna ' through the Path of the true intuition). Pratyekabuddhas and ordinary people.śuddhyā' c a n b e m a d e u p b y 'hi' o r ' e t a ' (śuddhyaiva). through 'being as l l it is ' and being as far as ' . 28) T h e s h o r t a g e of syllables after ' . T .J. in brief. C. It is superior as [being the same as] Buddha's Wisdom 29> 22 23) ) C. but 'jfzr shows it. TAKASAKI § 2. what is called understanding in such a way % That is the perception by one's own wisdom. i. 27) T. 18 a b. C. uncommon to Srāvakas. . Because it is free from attachment 22) and has no hindrance . has no word equivalent to ' anuttarā ' in the verse. what is called understanding' (avabodha) of the supermundane path. Thus. . 4 Through the purity of their perception by wisdom2 8 ) . 3H§ PH ( = ^v§ $11). C. l a Itos-nas. and through its being as far as. thogs-pa med-pa. i.e. and because it 'has no hindrance' (apratihata)2e\ Here. has ' na ' after ' dag-pas '. BGS 5 ^ | ^flf & fJPJ Ç|j§. Which ones? Because it is 'free from any attachment' (asañga).e. the perception [of the Saints] is free from any attachment. C. UP n i t | 3 ) - * asañga. as its field is the innate purity of the essence of living beings through its being as it is. 2S * itara—prādeśika—jñāna. is here intended to be the perception of the Saints by the supermundane wisdom of their own (pratyātmam). %\\ H ^ J jg. of two reasons. C. C. It is pure in the Immaculate Sphere. § 3. its field is the unlimited number of knowable objects. . saying t h a t t h e former is ' hetu '.

sup. 10) Jf^ Ijfjp ^ ^ _C anuttara-phala. 2. T. the Saints abiding in the irreversible state 30> Are [worthy of being] the refuge of all living beings. It seems the present Skt text is lacking one paragraph which was in the original text of C. 5) j|ff JQi bhūmayah. 34) The first two of the 6 pāramitās are mentioned. 7) $j? J £ ^C SU n P« i their compassionate mind H regarding people equally. ( ^ ^ ) . in their birth. ^/J ffijj. 2) ijffj Jyj JJ§1 "TH^t •iī^ Wfe ±>cs£ -fen adhigama. n SU ±jfiS -feo H$£ (ñS ^3 Wr). ñe-bar gnas-par hgyur-ba. 31 30) ' avinivartanlyabhūmi—samārudhānām bodhisattvānām. C. (fpL JJTT). 9) J^. (JrJJ jig* J # f ) . 10 vaśitās. sup. has one verse on the superiority of bodhisattva—sañga from 10 points. Indeed. casting off the new-moon-like Bodhisattvas. moral conduct. in gunāh. In this sense. because the former is not worthy of being worshipped 35>. etc. in the accomplishment being the Supreme Enlightenment.i Nirvana as being obtained after SU salvation of all living beings. donation. this ' purity of perception by wisdom ' of Bodhisattvas who mounted to the Stage of being irreversible 31> is to be known as 4 the 32) supreme '. sup.The Ratnagotravibhāga Therefore. Cf. 6 abhijñās. in qualities. or otherwise 33>. are as follows: 1) ^5āi "^i ' visaya '. immediately after the Jewel of Community of the Bodhisattvas. the term ' jñānadarśanasiddhi ' has the implied meaning of ' darśanamārga ' as in C. {] śuddhi. sup. 3S ' C. 18. (0$ j \ JJTT). because it is superior to the other qualities of Bodhisattva. ( ^ ^ ) sup./ £ . in their supernatural powers. in purity. and a prose commentary thereon. because it approached the highest purity of the perception of Buddha's Wisdom. there is no wise man who. samyag-āsannatoditah (produced by sitting perfectly near). 3) g S ^ ^Jg nirvana. because their birth is ajāti (/JÎÇ f £ ) in its ultimate sense.-mahākarunā. ^ < jātis tathāgatakule. who The reading ' avaivartyād bhavanty āryāh ' should be corrected into ' avaivartyā bhavanty āryāh ' ace. (^rfc ^ § /3ZT)» P . translation. (letters in parentheses show the terms in commentary). 32) upanisadgata. to both T. etc. (r)am (after phyir) I t denotes another interpretation of ' anutîarā '. There is no mention of the Jewel of Community of the Śrāvakas. translation of v. AA III. amala. 8) ^ £ /fe ^ P ^ <îK iffl vaśitâbhijñāsampad. superiority in perception of objects. (|ffj Jill )3/r)? P« *n their Stages. it is said that Bodhisattvas in the irreversible state are worthy of being the refuge of all living beings. 3S) vā. & C. [ 177 ] . pj ^ 1 j ^ £ B^j |*li J^i ?llL '* X S *^£i ^Pv • I* is clear that avinirvartanîya-bhūmi is here regarded as the 1st bhūmi of Bodhisattva on which stage he accomplishes ' darśana-mārga '.. // 18 // Thus. ( t f ^ "=ff ^L^ 9^*)' ]j#).3i\ On account of this purity. T. 10 points of superiority mentioned in C. 6) W M S ^ sampūrnā. having known the distinction of qualities between Bodhisattvas and Śrāvakas. sup.

& C..) up to the end of the verse is a long quotation from some Sūtra (source unknown). TAKASAKI have the lustre-disk of Wisdom and Compassion filling with great accumulation of merits and knowledge 3 6 ) for the Great Enlightenment.. 38) prādeśika-jñāna. .. Indeed. t3 Î C £ 5 ) ' Of the 6 pāramitās. has the same sense as ' purusa ' in BHS. prajñā-pāramitā is called ' jñānasam'. samvara. C. [^K 5 £ fa:] fT ^ W (gahana-samtāna?). although having attained certain limited superficial knowledge 3 8 ) . If it be so. indifferent to the nourishment of others 4 2 ) . C.. 5) upapatti—v.. in its turn. and are standing in the illumination over the group existence (gana—samtāna) 37) of innumerable living beings and entering the way favourable for going toward the full-moon of the supreme Tathāgata. (usually. (Mvyut. & 10) jñāna-v.. T. which. there is no wise man who . have light only for their own illumination. who in their turn. 45) ' vaksyati hi ' in S. The meaning is clear as being compared with ' svasamtāna ' in case of Srāvakas. śdasamvara (under samvara [1]). Bodhisattvas and Srāvakas by an example of moon and stars. gañ-gi phyir . saying that the Buddha is like the full moon. 41) 42 niranukrośa. om. . && * S . T.shes-gśad-do. ^1^* ^fjçîj /flj -fifc •ftli ^ ^ . although having attained perfect purity of immaculate moral conduct and discipline 43>. both of them have illumination for others. T. [ 178 ] . while the Srāvakas. See BHS Die. D. the passage only available in C will be ascertained to be the original śāstra passage for which this long quotation is mentioned as the authority. T.. $J jtfe SI © # SI £ *l> f t # K ^ (1PJ M 'fr # īK). om. rjes-su brtse-ba med-pa. C. ' ^ £|£ . it will be said 45>: punya-jñāna-sambhāra.J.^ . 9) rddhi—v. v. . 44> etc. can overcome the holy Śrāvakas who are pitiless 4 1 ) . a n d t h e o t h e r 5 a r e called ' punya-s C. even those Bodhisattvas who have resolved to attain the Enlightenment for the first time 40> by the quality based upon the purity of altruistic intention. . are standing in the illumination for their own existence (sva-samtāna) like stars 39>. (wealth). 3) pariskāra—v. 39) The whole passage illustrates the comparison between Buddhas. gshan rgyas—par byed—pa mi—ldan—pa. ? Really. 8) pranidhāna—v. 40 ' prathamacittotpādika . shows that the following verses belong to the same text. T. Bodhisattvas are like the new moon. C. C. Though both T. sems dañ—po bskyed—pahi byañ—chub- sems-dpah. being like stars. but not to a quotation from another scripture. 37) / 36) £n bhāra '. sdom-pa (%>\). 27). The style of these passages seems near to the sūtra style.i } .. * ananyaposiganya. See BHS. regard only the following 43) 44 verse as a quotation (T. 4) karma—v. See above (Note IV-25). bodhisattva. 7) dharma—v. . ^ C T~^ r$9 ī î ) > ** seems that the whole passage after ' na hi jātu panditā ' (Indeed. 10 Controlling Powers. tries to bow before the Śrāvakas. om.' for 'posin' is probably a misreading for 'poso'. T. . 6) adhimukti—v. s. bsod-nams dañ ye-śes-kyi tshogs. 2) citta—v. How much more is the case of the other qualities of Bodhisattvas. ' 10 vaśitās are namely: 1) āyur—vaśitā. C.

C. n o u r i s h i n g oneself. C. praśuddha. One who. J^l @ g J|. \%£ <f7*. 46) 47) 48) bibharti ( P r e s . Renders services for others' livelihood like fire.fjfc . Such a one is a [real] moral man. water and earth. C. o n e w h o n o u r i s h e s himself) T . ( l i t . and others are of sham 49> morality. of bhr).The Ratnagotravibhāga One who feeds 46> moral conduct for his own sake. 3 sg. T . having aroused the highest Compassion toward others And having accepted the moral conduct. C. 49 ' pratirūpaka T.48> Such a saint is never called a man of pure conduct. bdag-ñid rgyas-byed. | ^ 7 p • [ 179 ] . T . rab-dag-pa. ātmambhari. o m . And who is endowed with pure wealth of moral conduct only for his own nourishment. rnam-rgyas-śiñ (= vivrddhyā?). wind. gzugs-brñen. Apart from compassion on the living beings of bad conduct 47>.

bstan—shiñ mam—par gshag—go. With reference to those who belong to 3 Vehicles And to those who devote themselves to religious observance 4) Three Refuges were taught 2 ) [by the Lord]. 7 * The reading is preferably ' bodhisattva-yānikān * instead of * bodhisattvān' in comparison with the uses of ' pratyekabuddhayānikān ' and ' śrāvakayānikān' in the following paragraphs. T. • 4) kāra (BHS). 3 ' arthena = . C. there is used ' deśitam prajñaptam '. guna-udbhāvanârthena (in the comm. v. but C. rnam-par gshag-pa (vyavasthita) in the introductory sentence and in v. [ 180 ] . T. But. THE THREE JEWELS AS REFUGES l) Now. translation ' byed ' or ' bya-ba byed ' shows nothing special.). Usually this term is accompanied by ' kriyā ' and other forms delivered from kr as in the prose comm. j^p ^jjtf J<£ . Also. VŚJU )/. s) buddhabhāva (= bodhi). The teaching: " the Buddha is a Refuge because he is the highest among human beings " 5 ) . ) prajñapta (made known = taught). The teaching: " the Doctrine is a Refuge because it is the highest of what are devoid of passions ". for what purpose and for the sake teach 2) the 3 Refuges (śarana-traya) ? of whom did the Lord In order to show [the virtues of] 3 ) The Teacher. pj*) / £ . § 1. sañs-rgyas-kyi dños-po-ñid. BHS Die. In the commentary. in order to show the virtue of the Teacher (śāstr). the Teaching and Disciples. T. it was established 2) . f^ ^ . however. It is interpreted doctrinally that the Buddha is standing on the basis of 'jñāna' and ' karunā '. ' dbah-du byas-nas ' as usual. worship') (Cf. & * dvipada. B^_] . who belong to the Vehicle of Bodhisattva 7 ) and those [people who] devote themselves to the highest religious observance of the Buddha. 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint. rkañ-gñis rnams. T. for the sake of those people who approached the nature of Buddha 6 ) i. T. 19.V. (T. // 19 // [in 3 forms. byañ-chub-seems—dpahi theg-pa-bahi. C. (= pūjā. C. ) . s. It seems that the term prajñapta' has both senses here.). 'homage. C. C. for which T. it was established. in order to show the x) ' adhikrtya' has a more concrete sense than usual here.. J $ cfSj ^ 2 \) (for the sake of).e.

for these three purposes. T. 'pratitya' (T. in short.e. are as follows: 1) tyājya (T. T. but from the highest standpoint. Q f^v jfî[. [ 181 ] . That is to say.).B reading 'svayam gambhīra-pratitya-dharmânubodha' is preferable. and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance in the Community. being of deceptive nature. See below. ' rañ- ñid rten-hbrel-gyi chos zab-mo rje-su rtogs-pa . equals 'yāna' instead of ' nay a'. who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance of the Doctrine. from sañga-śarana to buddha-śarana. from śrāvakayāna to bodhisattvayāna. reading. C. * sdañ' is to be corrected into * span' (fut. § 2. ' . C. C. ' The regular method ' means ' from the lower standard to the higher standard. hjigs-dañ bcas-pa. slu-bahi chos-can. but C. 4) sabhaya (T. Being non-existence and being possessed of fear12). • About these three formulae on ' ratna-traya '. . for the sake of those people who approach the enlightenment of profound Doctrine of the depen8 dent origination by [depending on] themselves *. ~ñj J £ ) . As being abandoned. Pretyekabuddha is said to be a buddha who enlightened the doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda. 267.e. only the Buddha is the Refuge. C.The Ratnagotravibhāga virtue of the Teaching (śāsana) of the Teacher. i. n ) anupūrvanaya. ty\. see Mvyut. (D. distinctively did the Lord establish the teaching of these three 10) Refuges from the empirical standpoint . for the sake of those people who approach in order to understand the voice heard from others. span.e. The Doctrine and Community are not the Ultimate Refuges. . of ' span-ba '). from the empirical standpoint. the terms used in S. C. C. Pf|j "py£). T. Çf^ . 2) mosadharma (T. i. $}£ $]). there are 3 Refuges. rten-hbrel. & C. |2vJ /fâfc) seems to mean 'pratltya samutpāda'. in order to make living beings 11} enter the regular method . for the sake of six kinds of people. The two kinds of Doctrine and the Community Are ultimately not the highest Refuge. T. who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka. from being adhimukta to yānika. ) 10) samvrti-pada-sthānena. ) Ms. in order to show the virtue of Disciples (śisya) well enrolled in the Teaching of the Teacher. /MR 3C)? 3) abhāva (T. 12 ) For these four reasons. The teaching: " the Community [of the disciples] is a Refuge because 9 ) it is the highest of communities " . med. Thus. it was established. i. // 20 // 8 [respectively]. /\* "f^ -fjjj yQ f pfc |2y n$i i £ • Here. according to the faculties of living beings.

mñon-par rtogs-pa. [but still] they have [many] 4 13) On these two categories of ' dharma '. see SMS 221 o. This passage is exactly an extract from that sūtra. ^tî^ paryavasāna. because. That is to say. $ p f f l j . njī£ i l l • See S.135 J *>G£ *~^^ īt-j-*. C. ai) For the following passage.J. and letter. s. C. bstanT . 4 by which realized ' and 4 that which in realized ' . Vaj. T. the Path. For 'koiopama' (kullūpamo dhammoy 16) Cf. C. the Doctrine as Teaching (deśanādharma) and the Doctrine as Realization (adhigamadharma)1 3 ) . brdsun-pa Die. pahi chos & rtogs-pahi chos. 95-97. 23. The Community ' is a term for the community [of the Saints] belonging to three Vehicles21>. Of them. PTS Die. p. 22) nihsarana. [respectively] 1 8 ) . the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction in the sense. mthar-thug-pa (paryanta). ñe-bar hbyuñ-ba. translation ' |J_ç£ i l l . C. Pali musā-mosa-dhamma. deceptive nature (mrsāmosadharmin)19). rEf*. JSJP. It is synonymous with ' moksa \ [ 182 ] . C. See B H S sified form of ' musā ' (deceptive). 70 (v. 20).e. § 104. 14 ls ) kāya. See M v y u t . 10 a n d comm. tST |HJ ( = loka-nihsarana). That which is included in the artificial character is of false. p. And the Extinction realized by this Path also represents. T . Also. And they are always possessed of fear (sabhaya). Of them. 17) 18) 19) (This t e r m is for tyājya i n v . word. 134. the mere absence of Defilement and Suffering. Jmt 3 c > T . A s for these three kāyas. and that which is non-eternal cannot be a refuge. And it is said that this Teaching is akin to the boat 1 5 ) because it ends 1 6 ) with the acquisition 17) of the Path. they have taken refuge in the Tathāgata and are seeking for deliverance22). the Doctrine as Teaching is [the Doctrine] of sūtra and other teachings and it consists of the collection14) of name. T. as learned people. I. > kola. TAKASAKI The Doctrine has two kinds. jy\ BJ£ i A & fy\ nS. i. is included in the artificial character. deceptive nature is untrue (asatya). the author substitutes Srāvaka for it and never refers to that of Bodhisattva. C. according to the system (naya) of Śrāvaka 2 0 ) . abhisamaya.) T. gziñs.. p . that which is untrue is not eternal. C. 145 and comm. **v v$G >?H T £ J Tup ^ J P G ' catches t h e meaning well. MN.). tshogs. v. 20) I t is remarkable in this text that whenever the subject refers to the unworthiness of Dharma or Sañgha. 20). 11 (v. ' mosa ' i n Pali is t h e intenslu-bahi chos-can. just like the extinction of a lamp. That which is of false. see S. (' mosadharma ' i n v . The Doctrine as Realization is [again] twofold by the division of cause and result. T . *7* •r e s p . C. a non-existence (abhāva) cannot be a refuge nor a non-refuge.

cannot be the 23) pratipannaka (Pali patipannaka = maggatthaka. śaranam upagacchati) as a quotation from SMS. a learned man 30) seeker of deliverance. T. C. jJñq" ^fg. ' ārsabha '. As being a learned man. C. regards this passage (arhatām api . highest state 3 2 ) . The text should have Danda between ' vadakapuruse' and ' tasmāt '. and before the quotation has the same commentary passage as the Skt. rtag-tu rgyun mi-hchad-par. 39. gśad-mahi skye-bu. 3. hdu-byed. text up to ' pratyupasthitā bhavanti\ Cf.The R a t n a g ot r av ib h ā ga things to be done (sakaranīya) and are approaching (i. and consequently seek by fear they take refuge in the Tathāgata 29) verance. ŚMS 221 a. leadership. but not ' attained [the Enlightenment] '. 26) punarbhava. C. 26) 27 c •* % % tk ?t i t ffl ft n m & n H i i H # K' is quite satata-samitam (BHS). ' ārsabha-sthāna ' = Pali āsabhatthāna. T . as if standing in face of the executioner [by itself] never seeks no refuge. T. ' shugs—pa ma yin—no ' is probably due to a misunderstanding of this ' pratipannaka ' for the actual attainment of Enlightenment.) 32) ārsabha (Lit. the Community. . 1. . 29 ' C. having Deliverance '. are for the Deli- . 31) On the contrary. frightened by this or that fear. And as being a 31) And thus one who seeks for a refuge because of his being possessed of fear. T. one who has entered upon the Path).. is i one who has things to be done ' (sakaranīya) . shugs-pa lags-so. and the emphasis is on the approach. om. Buddha is said to be * aśaiksa'. > samskāra. descendant of Rsabha (name of a former Buddha).e. though having extirpated rebirth Defilements]. It is used here in the sense of ' gone towards '. yañ-srid-pa. How are they posses- sed of fear? As the Arhats (the Saints of the Vehicle of Śrāvaka). T. 28) [ 183 ] . Pali * āsabha ' means a hero or great man and is an epithet of the Buddha. SMS 219 6. S. rsabha). the first place. being frightened . So they have not attained the ultimate delightful Just as living beings. i. C. will inevitably seek for the deliverance from fear. (For the parallel passage in SMS. On the contrary. 991: # l j " II 30) śaiksa. C. Hence correct. ' entered the way '. p. coming from a bull. T. T. For vadakapurusa. 24 > Cf. with reference to the destruction of the root of fear. For this reason. similarly even the Arhats have their fear. <ffj . . have not yet destroyed the Impression [of constantly26) a strong 27) there therefore exists always and 28) notion of fear in all physical life with raised sword 22 . and. (Cf. ^ J J ^ ( = sāsravadharma). ^ f ^ ^f fâ . khyu-mchog (the highest bull). he is 'one who has undertaken ' (pratipannaka) to attain the fearless. J\. Indeed. the Highest Perfect Enlightenment. slob-pa.e. have not yet realized) 23) the Highest Perfect Enlightenment 25) 24) . where the negative ' ma ' is not used). aśaiksa-sāntānika. being a partial refuge. T. [that which is] a refuge for refuges [in others].

the Tathā33) paryantakāla-śarana.).ñg. it is an adjective to ' buddhatva \ But T. r< iJi^ JfiÇ> •!££. the Community [of the Saints] belonging to the three Vehicles sets the ultimate goal of acquisition 37) . the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction). mthar—thung—pahi dus—na skyabs rib t^Z -fr. § 3. 38) aparântakotisama. 36) T. 34) pāramārthikam. is [only one] 3 9 ) .fâīf T$C eSSii' A correct translation is shown in SMS. (ŚMS 221 a). eternal Refuge. 37) nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. the end '.. the Doctrine and the Community). ~7\_t Jjfo t p î i^Jr gtSi (ova.J. meaning ' having kāla which has paryanta. Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the Highest Standpoint. 19. C. liberated from passions and [characterized36*] as the Two Truths of purification (i. is endowed with the body of the Doctrine.e.iSS i=Ef . (C. where for * paryantakāla '. C. About ' sabhayatā ' of the Srāvakas. . It is helpful t o m a k e t h e m e a n i n g clear. that which is the imperishable Refuge. on this verse. 39) ' ekam ' should b e inserted after ' pāramārthikam t e r m ' ekatra ' i n t h e verse. „ . dus-kyi mthah-mchis-pahi. r e a d s p r o b a b l y ' śivâdvayavirāgadharma). . 14 (vyavadānasatyadvaya-laksano virāgadharma iti). But it is wrong. phyi-mahi mthahi mu-dañ mñam-pa. interpret this term as ' nâtyantakāle śarane '. which seems better to grasp the meaning in comparison with the Empirical standpoint in v. from the ultimate standpoint. See below. inserts ' mtshan-ñid ' (laksana) after ' vyavadana-satya-dvaya '. that is to say. f ma—yin—pa.T. putting a negative. takes it in the adverbial sense. /fK ^ . ' paryantakāla ' is a Bahuvrīhi comp. & C. dharmakāya). C. See S. limited). 58ç > p ^ r ^ Wf> =P^ J^L ( a s if * pūrvântakotinistha '). 35) nistha = nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. Also. \ being t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e [ 184 J . ^f~ zHu Ji^L . ti. From the ultimate standpoint 3 4 ) . (T. Buddhahood is the sole Refuge of the world. In Skt. 1 1 . TAKASAKI ultimate refuge. are called ' temporary refuges' 3 3 ) .being an adjective to buddhatva as S.. see v. Therefore. a n d tannisthatva = dharmakāyaviśuddhinistha. Because the Sage has the body of the Doctrine. Both T. the Sage (muni). ^pj pR (having limitation. C. I. which lasts as long as the utmost limit 3 8 ) in the unprotected and refugeless world. and everlasting Refuge. Thus these two Refuges.e. p . And because in that the Community sets the ultimate goal 8 5 ) . // 21 // As has been said before. T. represented as neither becoming originated nor disappearing. T . adnigama). saying ' dam-pahi don-tu ' (paramârthatah). t-l-~ r^. 32 and comm. (i. see the prose comm. mthar-thug-pa thob-pas mthar phyin-par hgyur-ba. 1. and in the purity of this Body of the Doctrine ( = the Absolute Body. T h e s a m e with T .

dge-ba. by the sixfold common nature with Jewels. praśamsā (praise). because they are supermundane. 2) Through the common nature of being immaculate. 48) śobhā. because those people who have not ripened 4 3 ) the root of virtue cannot get any chance to meet them. & 6) āsravaksaya-jñāna. because they are apart from all kinds of45' dust. om. | U ' 42) T . 5) rddhividdhi-jñāna. 5 0 ) . T h i s ' ekayāna durlabhotpādabhāva. are called ' Jewel '. T. 125. A^ fjft /f?f (unable to obtain). yaśas. And 6) through the common nature of being unchangeable by praise. Cf. 49 * prativarnika. ayaśas (praise and blame). 2) divyāśrotra. sukha. the 6 Supernatural Powers (abhijñā) 4 7 ) and so forth. reading ' sarvâkāra ' instead of ' sarvâcāra '. 40) 41) pi. if} . ma bskrun-pa. ^ f|r|. duhkha. 14. T . C. Cf. instead of ' stuti-ninda '. 5) Through the common nature of being superior to the artificial 4 9 ) jewel. bsñan—pa. 4) Through the common nature of being the ornament of the world.e. 4) pūrvanivāsânusmrtijñāna. C.t h e o r y is o n e of i t s m a i n p o i n t s of t e a c h i n g . because they are the cause of beauty 4 8 ) intended by the whole world. because of their non-artificial nature. 50) These are called ' asta-lokadharmāh. om. C. § 4. alābha (gain & loss). C. quiescent and unchangeable Refuge is to be understood in detail according to the Âryaśrīmālā-sūtra41). Mvyut. eternal. C. nindā (blame). lābha. Doctrine and Community. in the text. the Perfectly Enlightened one 4 0 ) . So. 3) Through the common nature of power 4 6 ) . these three named Buddha. 2 2 . THT | H j | f j £ / fv§ : ( i n v . 3) ceta-paryāya-jñāna. TfiT \Q\ J\ iS• [ 185 ] . 1) divyācaksus. 43) For this passage. T. anavāpta. C. i. They are immaculate and powerful. * 45) I accepted T. M v y u t . T. translation is * » kalpa. cf. 46) 47) prabhā. And being the highest and unchangeable. because Their appearance is difficult to obtain. mthu. S M S 221 a. 1) through the common nature of their appearance being difficult to obtain 4 2 ) . BGS 808 a. because they are endowed with the quality of unthinkable power. C. And because of their being the ornament of the world. The Meaning of the 3 ' Jewels \ [They are called] ' Jewels '. T. dkon-pa. ever-lasting. as ' sarva—sāsravadharma '. That is to say. the Arhat. bskal-pa. ' . And this teaching of the unique. * stuti' is for praśamsa. hbyuñ~ba ^R" ^ f ) . // 22 // In short.The Ratnagotravibhāga gata. blame etc. even during a long succession of eaons 4 4 ) . C.

24) = sarvajña (in c o m m .VI. what is the birth-place 1} of purity. and also these 4 stand for the latter 4 of the 7 vajrapadas. II. (Kārikā 4) The Reality mingled with pollution. paramârihadarśin = sarvadarśin tta 1/K » XH ^N . Cf. 3) This is the stanza by which the basic subjects of this text are shown. for the respective case. in Chap. of which now only the Chinese translation is available (C. It seems that this Sūtra.. and ^fl. This sūtra also men- tions the same 4 subjects with which the main part of the sūtra is formed. skye-bahi gnas. Saddharmapundarīka. (T. // 23 // What is elucidated by this śloka ? The Germ of these Three Jewels 2) Is the sphere of the Omniscience . No.(kriyā) of the Tathāgata in Chap. probably in order to authorize this theory of the 4 subjects. C. (paramārthadarśin). Each one of these four is treated in each chapter (I-IV). IV. o m . has literal translations).V. \rf\. ) C. namely: yf" (dhātu) of the Tathāgata in Chap. 1} 2) yoni. in Chap. 97. The Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha. mundane and supermundane. I. S$) f^ (guna). (in v . 669). ?RÇ _£. there is one śloka with reference to the question. in what circumstances are there born the Three Jewels. has been composed after the Ratna. etc. I l l . [ 186 ] . There is a Sūtra named " Anuttarâśrayasūtra " (AĀS). THE GERM OF THREE JEWELS IN FOUR ASPECTS Imraediately after the explanation of the Three Jewels. Detailed discussion of this problem is given in my Introduction. I t ) Taisho. [These are the four aspects of] the sphere Of those who perceive the Highest Truth. ^ ^ (bodhi). though it bears the name of ' sūtra '. T . 2 ) From which arise the pure Three Jewels 3 ) . jffj yjp . and his Acts. And [the Reality] apart from pollution. v.

unceasingly.. IfÇ. therefore. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . i.e. gnas yoñs-su gyur-pa. This point is called ' parivrtti '.e. highest act of these Qualities of the Buddha. i. t h e R e a l i t y . C. Then. 10 > Cf. T. these four subjects are inconceivable 1 0 ) for four reasons. etc. coming to an end. T . T h e prophecy vyākarana-kathā. i. T h e t e r m ' āśraya-parivrtti ' seems t o h a v e somehow a different sense t h a n t h e ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' often used a m o n g t h e Vijñānav ā d i n . ^ (?) ' nisthita ' means ' being done. [ 187 ] . fixed or completed. they are called the Sphere of Omniscience 1 ] ) . respectively. II). Only because of ' āgantukakleśa ' a t t a c h e d t o i t . dri(-ma-dañ) bcas(-pahi) de-bshin-ñid. 7). med-par ma gyur-shiñ* C. And also.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā g a And it is inconceivable in fourfold For four reasons. characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis. C. ^ ^ ( • ^ ^ $ 3 £ ) p C • on t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e Highest E n l i g h t e n m e n t . C. i. this dhātu becomes manifested fully. 2) The Reality apart from pollu5) tion ' (nirmaîā tathatā) is a term for the same Essence. T . as being t h e reality itself. when it is characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis (āśrayaparivrtti) 6 ) in the Stage of Buddha. c o m m . the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. ' anisthita' means ' always not coming to an end '. 1) * The Reality mingled with pollution (samalā tathatā) ' 4 ) is a term for 4 the Essence (dhātu). 3) ' Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha ' means Supermundane Qualities of the Buddha—10 Powers and so on—in this Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. fift pFfcl î t f • vîfv rfcî 6) T . y f^ (natural). i t c a n n o t manifest itself fully. V. unreleased from the sheath of defile4 ments'. so-so-rañ-gi (of its own). is regarded as t h e s a m e as ' dharmakāya '. without end9 ) . T. // 24 // Here. o n t h e verse q u o t e d from t h e Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra). which continues to give prophecies 8 ) to Bodhisattvas. Jp--|! r E p . p . ' ālayavijñāna ' n o longer r e m a i n s t h e same when ' āśrayapāravrtti ' t a k e s place. ' āśraya ' signifies also ' dhātu ' b u t i n t h e sense of ' ālayavijñāna ' (see S. B y r e m o v ing such ' kleśa '. while i n case of ' āśrayaparāvrtti '. without interruption. for which four reasons ? 4) samalā tathatā. dri-ma med-pahi de-bshin~ñid. So. A n d here ' dhātu '. C. 4) ' The Buddha's Act ' means the automatic 7 ) . C. a n d this change of basis is called ' parāvrtti \ See my I n t r o d u c t i o n I I I . n > See note VI-2. 7) pratisvam. where t h e uses of these t e r m s i n t h e Sūtrâlañkāra a r e discussed. 8) 9) anisthita.e. H e r e ' āśraya ' signifies ' dhātu ' or ' gotra ' i n t h e sense of ' tathāgatagarbha ' (see v . respectively. T. AĀS 469 6 (beginning of Chap. being ' cittaprakrti '.e. jlM. the Matrix of Tathāgata. luñ-bstan-pahi gtam. T h e difference is p r o b a b l y d u e t o w h a t is m e a n t b y ' āśraya '. ^flj -""M ?P|£ 5) nirmalā tathatā. ready. 10 Powers. 73.

TAKASAKI § 1. Because. too. p . i 22> prakrti-prabhāsvaram cittam. 17 * Indicating Srīmālādevī. T . at the same time. mentions * śrāvaka ' along with v pratyekabuddha '. 18) Cf. pure and defiled. spyod-yul-du ma gyur-pahi yul. 12) [The Qualities are] of inseparable nature [from the Absolute [Body]. ( = S.J. 2) ' The Reality apart from pollution '. III). Because it is said 1 6 ) : " O Goddess 1 7 ) . Therefore it is said : [the Tathāgata] perfectly enligh12) 13 avinirbhāgadharma. A Ā S 470 c. 1) 4 the Reality mingled with pollution ' is always. The doctrine of relativity (pratîtya-samutpāda). T. this is not an understandable sphere 1 5 ) . It is also difficult to be cognized that this very mind is defiled. the heroine of the Sūtra. though it is originally not defiled by pollution. J § . It seems the following saying is an old aphorism taken from some other source. It is difficult to be cognized that the mind is pure by nature. this point is inconceivable 1 3 ) . this point is inconceivable. 5). [The Absolute Body is] of no impurity. > ŚMS 220 c. pft jA| ^ ^ f £ • C. 2 1 . O Goddess. for the other Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. C. de-ni de-kho—na bshin śes-so (tat tattvavad jñānam. 1. ^ p >f|j ^ff* . 22. £P 'l> tt 20} 41 c in W. So does AĀS. >> * ifijta * in & £p. 0 Goddess. Inconceivability of the 4 Subjects. (JtU * . 16 15) 14) »> DRS 20 6. C. C. these two points are to be understood only through the faith in the Tathāgata "18>. so C. ^V* i ^ R T P Î PjÎE f2»» > Cf. agocara-visaya. This is the real knowledge as 21) 22) it is . but DRS itself has this sentence saying ' ^ _ § ( fig llf '. yet it is purified afterwards. and yet purified. [the Germ is] pure but defiled [at one and the same time]. those who can hear these two points [with understanding] are only either yourself or Bodhisattvas who are endowed with the great qualities. I I ) . p.. AĀS 473 c (end of Chap. >& * tat tathaîva jñānam. // 25// Here. ' inconceivable ' is] in the sense that even for the Pratyekabuddhas who believe in the way of profound Doctrine 1 4 ) . [Here. . 11. ( e n d of C h a p . these two points are quite difficult to be cognized. 17-18). and [The Acts are] effortless and of no discrimination. Because it is said 1 9 ) : 20) " The mind is clear by nature . j$Ç M i J . T. [ 188 ] . rnam-par dbye-ba-med chos. ( = S. C.

Tathāgatotpattisambhava—parivarta (itU This Chap. have it. thogs-pa med-par. 32 ' mahāpusta (big book). Cf. mentions the material and C. ' buddhajñānântargamāt' (v. [ 189 ] . p. 28 ^ tt with another independent Sūtra named Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa (C. T. O Son of the Buddha. 241. 3\U >îs. of the size equal to the Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds. 2 (asañgena tathāgatajñānena). & C. I. IV). makes its appearance again unobstructedly 3 1 ) . self-born Wisdom. 3) 'Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha' are always 25 ' found? even in the stage of those ordinary people who are absolutely 26) defiled. The Great Earth would be described in 23) 24 The text om. By removing this taking of conceptions. suppose there would be a big painting cloth 32 '. IX. T. 16. See my Introduction IV. 96. ilaksana'> after 'ekaksana" in the Text should be omitted. see S.8-9). AĀS 475 c (end of Chap. ^gn ^§f (roll of scripture). " " ^ . l\j* ^ Q J ^ (citta. And indeed. skad-cig-ma gcig dan Idan-pa. * dar ' & ' j " & ' both mean silk. This is a modifier of ' prajñā ' by which the Buddha has attained ' anuttarā samyaksambodhi '. ')$£. hdu—śes—kyi hdsin—pa. Lank.). 1. the whole Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds would be described completely. Taisho. T. 30 ' samjñā—grāha. Nevertheless.e. on this big cloth. Gaudapāda-Kārikā IV. ' anuttarā '. C. 14. p. C. C. this point is inconceivable 27) . but both T. (-. So do T. )S PO). sña—phyir. instead of laksana). |^f^ . 157. ' ekaksana—samāyukta'.S. 623 c-624 a (No. |§I| |Σj. Next.' asañga' is a modifier of [Buddha's] jñāna. C. gcig-tu. 25 ' paurvâparyena. i. 11. 31 ' asañgatah. 27). 1. " [p] . T. he cannot cognize the Buddha's Wisdom [residing in himself]. ^ t * MM ^EC I tr. by Dharmaraksa. Chap. 278). T. & C. shows the form of the ' big book '. ^JÇf V ^ . dar-yug (a narrow ribbonlike piece of silk stuff (Jāschke). No. 29 ' ' tathāgatajñāna ' in this Sūtra is identical with ' dhātu' and igotra\ and shows the origin of the tathāgatagarbha theory. T. ' The Avatamsakasūtra. ' prajñā ' in which both prajñā and dhyāna are associated at one moment. C. Because it is said 2 8 ': 44 There is no one among the group of living beings in whose body the Wisdom of the Tathāgata does not penetrate at all 2 9 ) . C. Cf. lj|f| pel] (viparyasta). ekânta. 291). The use of such silk is for painting. as taking [wrong] conceptions 3 0 ) . of no differentiation through the inseparable nature [from the Absolute Body]. the Wisdom of Omniscience. XXXII. XXXII is identical 26) 27 > Cf. 22.The Ratnagotravibhāga tened the Supreme 2 3 ) Perfect Enlightenment by the Intellect endowed with contemplation at one moment 2 4 ) . T. p. Taisho. according to the manner peculiar to each country.

and of Gods living in the Sphere of Form 3 3 '. .. om. T. too. rgya—mtsho chen—po. See below (S. . om. Furthermore. T. A ^J^ *af C. that of Gods living in the Sphere of Desire. C. ~ | * IHT yf~ '. śar—gyi lus hphags-kyi gliñ. C. . 5) sāhasra-lokadhātu. U 2) (mahācakravāla) (S. 11) uttarakuru-dvîpa. T. (Hu J'^c i ā .. T. ma-lus-pa (aśesa) and om. khor-yug chen-po. 6) cāturdvīpika. ' godāniya"1 is preferable. the [Western] Continent of Godāvarī. C. ston-gñis-pahi. om. All the terms mentioned here are as follows: 1) trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. ([/£| ^f* j i [ yTl). 10) godāvarī-dvīpa. -'J'* ~~| 1HT T f i |* . there enters a big cloth of the same size. ^ Uj (~F. 1. ^ f 13) bhūmyavacara—devavimāna. C. the Palace of Gods living cm the earth. [§] {-f. j ^ I y C | T T v r . . anya. byañ-gi sgra-mi sñan-gyi gliñ. ri-rab. 153-155.J. om. C. the Greai Ocean. om. all of these would be written in their own size. T. has it). in the same way. . T.\ but it is not the case here. C. C. 35) 34} C. (but usually. om. hdsam-buhi gliñ. sa chen—po. . in each of all the other 3 5 ) l particles of atoms.) (T. And [thus] this big cloth would have the same size as the expansion of the Great 3-thousand thousands of World's.. C. T. T. T. T. om.Jg£ /T| or mm 9) pūrvavideha—dvīpa. 8) jambudvīpa. W( ^jf|. this very big cloth would enter within one particle of an atom 3 4 ) . anya but retains sorra. '\x\ J \ ^ . Cf.): lhahi gshal—yas-*khañ. gzugs-na spyod-pahi. yy|)» 12) sumeru. 7) mahāsamudra. The 2-thousand Worlds [would be written] in their own full size. the Eastern Continent of Videha. the Four Continents.. but T. TAKASAKI the exact size of the Great Earth. 3) mahāprthivī. C. ffity T. [ 190 ] . T. 33 khams. but T. Suppose there ' This passage describes various worlds.) after ' rūpâvacara-d. [In the same way] the thousands of Worlds. paramânu... 13: tathāśesebhyah paramânubhyas. sa—la spyod—pahi 14) kāmâvacara-d. Just as this big cloth lies within one small particle of an atom. T. T. C. & C. the Mount Sumeru. the Southern Continent of Jambū. hdod-pa-na spyod-pahi. C. nub-kyi ba-lañ spyod-kyi gliñ ( = avara godānīya-dvîpa). ['y] y\. stoñ-gsum-gyi stoñ-chen-pohi hjigrten-gyi khams. 4) dvisāhasra-lokadhatu. rdul-phra-rab. according to the Buddhist cosmology. sarfla.). C. has ^KÇ I*-1. C. T. 15) (rūpâvacara-d. Mvyut. from larger one to smaller one. gliñ bshihi hjig-rten-kyi khams. C om. the Northern Continent of Kuru.. C. ~y\ Q (ārūpyâvacara-d. stoñ-gi hjig-rten-kyi .

the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. O Son of the Buddha. 45) T . 48J C. C. thoroughly 4 3 ) penetrates within the mentality 4 4 ) of every living being. being endowed with tathāgatajñāna.. "> samjñāgrāha. which appears in the next sentence in S. A S SI ffil). 43 ' sakalam. A* 5 £ n=j 'Ij* (not producing faith in. sems-kyi rgyud. the profitable wisdom for all living beings 42> . o m ..e. 40) The reading is preferably ' tathā śesebhyah ' instead of * tathâśesethyah '.. M @| M ( S 38 M 181 . I will break this particle of an atom by the force of great efforts 3 8 ) and let this great cloth become useful for the world. he would act in the same way 4 1 ) . o m . instead has ' :J|y? /I'M f=3 HH^» vftv t?(l f^3 ^ H £ ' (animittajñānam T . om. Then. clever. intelligent. * 7 ) anu-\ bhū. 44) citta-santāna. Therefore. well learned.The Ratnagotravibhāga should appear one person. asañ- gajñānam). having observed the state 4 8 ) of all the living beings in all the universal re36) 37) mīmāmsā. gnas ( = sthāna). o m . (sattvasantāna. T. [^fC £ £ ] J§[\ See BHS Die. ' santāna \ Often ' santāna ' alone is used in the same sense. C. ' sūksma—vajrena '.ye-śes dan hdra-bar tshad med-do. being bound by misconceptions 4 6 ) does neither know nor cognize nor understand 4 7 ) nor realize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within himself].). . anutisthate T . he would break this small particle of an atom with a subtle diamond 39 ' and would make that great cloth useful for the world as was his intention. (upāyena or upāya-sawjanayitvā). But T.. producing the strength of great efforts. C. verb. 39 ' C. T . ma-tshañ-ba med-par (aśesena). t h i s s e n t e n c e . C. is also apramāna. the Tathāgata. the last bhavana. C J|7J \ p fj jlcî. wise and possessed of the skill 3 6 ) to approach there (i. adds ' vajrena '. reads ' lus-pa med-pa mthah-dag-las\ as S. spyod-pa ( = caryā. Only the ignorant. Not only for one particle of an atom but also for [all] the remaining 40) atoms. C. And his divine eyes were perfectly pure and clear. And every mental disposition of a living being has the same size as the Buddha's Wisdom 4 5 ) . however. 42) 38) C. which is the immeasurable wisdom. (Ātmanepada). 41> C. ' h a b i t ' ) . to the big cloth). With these divine eyes he would perceive [and say]: Why does this big cloth of such a great nature stay 3 7 ) here in such a limited small particle of an atom! It is of no use to anybody! So he would think: Now. T. [ 191 ] . o m . Similarly. t h e whole sentence.

according to the intention [of the living beings].'[f{ (probably om. O ! I shall try to withdraw all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions for the sake of these living beings through the teaching of 50) [8-fold] Holy Path . the reading is preferable ' -vaineyikesu (vaineyika > vineya C.3=L iU=L • See below (S. hphags-pahi lam. And when all the obstacles created by wrong conceptions are withdrawn. according to [the faculty of] the living beings who are to be disciplined 5 1 ) without fault 5 2 ) . Bj 'j'LJ. probably by mistake). cast off the big knot of conceptions and would recognize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within themselves]. om. ' Cf. C. always. everywhere. T. and supports the reading 'yathā ' in the text. in conformance with their merits 5 3 ) . though they are unlimited. ' guna'). resolves to be a teacher [and says:] 'What a pity! These [living beings cannot cognize properly the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. 3). ( = S. 9. though it penetrates them. 25. Because it is said 5 5 ) : " In order to enroll the living beings [in the Buddha's Doctrine] 5 6 ) the Acts of Tathāgata. 60 ' ' āryena mārgopadeśena ' in the text. But cf ' sarvadharmadhātuprasrtam tathāgatajñānam ' (Rāsfrapālapariprcchā. T. [In accordance with this declaration]. gdul-bya) aksūnam. . T. 5: āryamārgabalâdhānena. 12) C. are taught as if 49 ' sarvadharmadhātu-sattvabhavanāni. T . Therefore. S5) DRS 21 c. AĀS 476 b (end of Chap. 1. p. But it should be corrected into ' āryamārgopadeśena \ since 'ārya' modifies 'mārga' but not ' upadeśa '). C. p. TAKASAK1 gion 4 9 ) by his unobstructed Wisdom. T. T. p. without efforts. this point is inconceivable 5 4 ) . 4) ' the Buddha's Acts ' proceed forth at one time. 1. 66 > I accepted C reading ' ^ — " t $ ^ ^£ A ft V Î tf* (in buddhadharma) \ [ 192 ] . also that they would obtain equality with the Tathāgata '. rjes-su mthun-par. regards ' sarva ' as relating to bhavana.) (For this mārga. mtshañ-ba Die. Now. reads jñāna. by accepting the power of the Holy Path. chos-kyi dbyiñs sems-can-gyi gnas thamscad-la. ' aksūna'). ksūna = dosa (see B H S anugunam. ^V* p g ^ I N j j | ^ . then this immeasurable Wisdom of the Tathāgata becomes useful to all the world " . 1. (|§t )lH "5J <ffc *fc £}£ fll H i ) .J . |^|^ . and it makes the meaning clear instead of ' vainaikesu '. 24. 1. ' dharmadhātu '. C. T. 4. V) where the following quotation from DRS is utilized. 5S) 64 s2) «> So in C. 24. p. they remove all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions through the teaching of the [Holy] Path of the Tathāgata. in order that they would by themselves. without discrimination. med-ciñ.

9 ff. & C. T. agree t o p u t one epithet more before ' triratnavamśa. . 5. •*) D R S 21 c. ••> anavadya. difficult to be acquired by others. text) is acceptable. Y{\ I t t ^ p R|K (by this example). related to the three divisions of time 6 7 ) . 4 T . inconceivable. C. indescribable by letters. > samksepamātrakena. 476 b. rnam-grañs hdis. tha—dad—du dbyer—med—pa.). T. '•/[* yf. \~ ^rf (tryadhvasamam). C. by deed. uncognizable by all the world. that which is the true act of the Tathāgata is immeasurable. reading is here accepted. f£C |fE « S (dharmadhātu-svabhāva). the Buddha never casts off the sky-like nature of his body 6 9 ) and he shows himself in all the Buddhas' lands. T. C. -JftÇ J j ^ 5>»T ^yx* Art-. ^g. and not interrupting the lineage of the 3 Jewels 6 8 ) . nirnānākāranam (Ms B. precious Vaidūlya stone 6 3 . o Noble Youth. Chowdhury in his introductory note to the Skt. ' nānākarana '. C. T. C. C. word and mind. ' shows a different reading (apratipraśrabdha). without casting off the indescribable nature of his 67) 44 68 pramānatah. T .""*.v a m ś a . UL dañ rjes-su hbrel-pa (tryadhvânubaddha). of no discrimination as being equal to the sky. after showing the example of pure. See B H S Die. hbad-rtsol dan bya-ba. |P~ WL (prob. 1.kārana '. Then. T . Residing in this inconceivable Act of the Tathāgata. C. . it is taught as follows 6 4 ) . ^ Ç ^ § ( A Ā S _~ZL ^ C I ' ) ' ākāśasvabhāvatā. far beyond all works of exertion 6 0 ) . However. ^pj J§T . O noble youth. T. dus gsum 62 * 6 ) anena paryāyena. established 5 9 ) in all Buddhas' lands. dkon-mchog-gsum-gyi gduñ. ") See S. 67) T. AĀS fog. nowhere blamable 66) . om. as T. failed to catch this point. gnas-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga they were somewhat limited 57) . *. C.. Cf. A^ «]* Hñf (AĀS $ f § ^ ) . p . . reading corrected by T.M>tS} * dharmadhātu-kriyā. Hereafter t h e reference is to t h e 3 actions. but it is preferable to read ' . C. karana ' instead of 61) 60 ' . Cf. of no differentiation 6 1 ) as being the act of the universal essence " 6 2 ) &c. this Buddha's inconceivable Act should be known as rendered in equality [with all the Buddhas]. C. ". with summarized number 5 8 '. rendered in equality with all the Buddhas. C. med-pa. ^ ffi f p l f £ . tshad-dañ Idan-par. in this manner 6 5 ) . C. But AĀS is apparently correct. T . kha-na-ma-tho-ba T . AĀS. jifft ^ ^ fJZ -Mf". S9) adhisthita.. . [ 193 ] . So in T. > ābhogakriyā. '. 68) 69) t r i r a t n a .

t h e reading is preferably corrected into ' cittacaritān āśayāms ca '. Only through the attributes of Enlightenment is there instruction for others. 76) Of these 4. 71) cittacaritâśayāmś ca. p. the first subject should be known as c the object to be enlightened' (boddhavya)'?4:). The object to be enlightened. ^ f ^ t f ^ J ^ ^ (citta-indriya-āśaya?). therefore it is the Enlightenment. p. (Cf. has confusion in its interpretation. = [ 194 ] is as follows: * 0 f ft (bodhya) # j g ££ (bodhi). to T.. in this sense the fourth subject. 39. —" 'fcJJ i^K £ j £ *lj"» jy\ ^^ H I . N o t e C. § 2. t r a n s l a t i o n of ' ārambana' by f^t or jy\ . "fife # S | ft (bodhyañga) %\\ . C. 73) i. 2 (v. One subject signifies the cause. Thus with reference to these 70) sarvacittârambana. C. of these four subjects. jffj 'Li"* 4~T" (om. sems-kyi spyod-pa dan bsam-pa yah. [The remaining] three are the conditions For the purification of the former 7 3 ) . translation of the first line 1 4 !&£ 73 ^&C \Ck (bodhana. It correspond to ' gotra ' itself. AĀS. T . . 110 (v. The second subject. Cf. ' the object to be enlightened '. The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its four Aspects. in this sense the third subject. C. g^ I|JL» and compare to S. The attributes of the enlightenment. C. the Enlightenment. still he can understand the deeds and intentions of the minds 7 1 ) of all living beings. 'the Enlightenment' (bodhi) should be known in the sense that the object to be enlightened has been awakened. AÂS J ^ | •§f). IV. with reference to their inclusion of all knowable objects.1. TAKASAKI speech. 11. respectively. where ' ārambana ' is translated by ' 3 î L ftp£ '. Ace. otherwise ' ca' is to be removed as a n excess. 74 > 'bodhya* in v. See Note III-5. the reading bodhanā is to be corrected into bodhana). [Of these four]. 4 the attributes of the Enlightenment (bodhyañga)' is to be known. 3J9? H ) .J. 9). Also see S. āśaya). they are called Buddha's attribute. 72) Four subjects from the standpoint of Enlightenment (bodhi). The act to instruct the enlightenment 7 2 ) . ' the act to instruct the Enlightenment (bodhana)9 is to be known75). and being apart from all objects of the mind 7 0 ) . Being the portions of enlightenment. 73): nirālambe (C. 26.e. // 26 // Indeed. he teaches the Doctrine for the sake of living beings through the proper word-communication.

How are there three conditions ? The Tathāgata. ^ ^ 9t ^ S '• Tli explanatory adjective to ' bodhana % and be read ' bodhana. C. 16 ( a c e . as being the seed of the supermundane thing. but in the verse C. etc. of these four subjects. being endowed with the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha. 76) Cf. p . Thus " one subject signifies the cause " . However. 1. of these four subjects.The Ratnagotravibhāga four subjects. adds 2 padas showing this. a detailed and analytical explanation will be made known in the remaining chapters. t o D R S ) . This is to be understood as the condition (pratyaya) for the origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to the purification of Germ based upon the voice of others 7 7 ) . 6. C. which corresponds to ' pratyātma ' (each own) with reference to ' hetu '. applies each phrase for each subject in the prose commentary. Thus " [the remaining] three are the condition " . and the remaining two as ' parâr- e last pada ' ^ £|* jfjj . again failed to catch the sense and regards the former two subjects as relating to ' svârtha '. 77) paratah. C. by which the people attain the enlightenment'. should be understood as the cause (hetu) of origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to its ( = of the Germ) purification based upon ' each own ' correct thinking. has no interpretation in the prose commentary. It is obviously wrong. having realized the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. Of this correspondence. 10 Powers.^ JH ' should be taken as an *•• Mug mSfermsto [ 195 ] u . Here. the first one. Nevertheless. Hereafter. the arrangement of the Germ of the 3 Jewels in the state f cause and conditions is to be known. manifests the Act of Tathāgata of 32 features 7 6 ) . S.

Buddha's eye. C. 666 ' ^ C ~J^ ^ i # P 3fv ^ ^ ' tr. No. A. it is said: All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata X ) . Tohoku No. Buddha's body sitting firmly in the meditating form). see Note VI—28. ~}j | | f # 0 ^ ^ ^M ' tr. by Amoghavajra in the 8th cent. THE SERMON: ALL LIVING BEINGS ARE POSSESSED OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA. and by combiNote 2 on foil. it is clear that TGS borrowed this idea from that Sūtra and established the above formula. i. of which the Skt. SAMALÂ TATHATĀ VII. (esā — dharmānām dharmatā. and No. to%i& & ft 'A* 'H. m * Bg. p. text is missing now. have the Buddha's Wisdom. Now.I. 667 ~)\. [ 196 ] . (With Buddha's eyes.). I observe that all living beings. After the first sentence. This formula runs in C. is retained in both T. 457 r). No. By which meaning is it said thus 2 ) ? x) This formula shows a principle common to a group of Sutras and Sāstras which express the tathāgatagarbha theory. Taisho. anger and ignorance. 29. This shows the reason for the statement mentioned above. with reference to ' t h e Reality mingled with pollution'. 73). " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh ' and as this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna is expressed in the Avatamsakasūtra (Tathāgatotpattisambhava—pariv. This third one shows that the formula is the eternal truth. the Sūtra furthermore says: * I?. D. The Sūtra. though they are among the defilements of hatred. & C. Kg Mdo XXII. (ibid. and my Introduction). 666 will be used for the reference with the abbreviation. mainly depends. The first appearance of this formula seems to be in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra on which the Ratna. 258.: T. Hereafter C. by Buddhabhadra between 408-429 A. p. as follows: î l ffi H & Prior to this sentence.e. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh) (quoted in S.D. the Sūtra says: tū&MM (TGS. TGS.

C. e t c . it looks all right and it is imaginable that the text used for C. T .e. ffi. resides). S. Their immaculateness is non-dual by nature.. C.e. on the contrary. As regard this point. 28) like T.The 3> Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikā 5) The multitudes of living beings are included in the Buddha's Wisdom 4 ) . It is difficult to identify it with the present Skt. T. And the Germ [of the Buddha] exists [in the living beings]. and lastly. equal to all the Buddhas). & C. Here in the Ratna. 3) 4) rāśi. 27 was put after the explanation. 28). but omits the usual heading before the next commentary verse (v. p . the 9 illustrations in order to show how living beings are covered with defilements. translation had this order. Therefore.\\ |$g /QÎ.. B u t T . N o t e V I I . it puts v. it is said: all living beings 7) are possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. the author analysed and systematized the tathāgatagarbha theory. ' ? J f 4 ^ ' identified with it ? 6) bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. 8) Inserted according to the conformity. keeps quite a regular order starting with the Kārikā (v. Reality is of undifferentiated nature. First of all. starting with the commentary verse (v. translation of this line is as follows: fîfc . 27 after ' tathāgatagarbhasūtrânusārena nirdeśo bhavisyati ' with the heading: as said in the Kārikā text (V{. [ 197 ] . ñer-brtags. About C. ffijC \\\ jJ īra DP• f ' \\\ Oj/J īra D P i i^ "^f **-* |_E =^T» (because of the body of real nature. v. Therefore. basing himself upon the TGS. the author picked up the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in the 3 meanings. j ^ R t^3 (being n o t separated from B u d d h a ' s W i s d o m ) . buddhatā. i. Its result 5 ) manifests itself on the Germ of the Buddha 6 ) . he next explained its features and functions summarized in 10 points. C. J-TÎ -îdte. ^ ). and v. tshogs. as t r a n s l a t i o n . T. all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. 2 * The order of the text differs among S. has clearly confasions in the prose commentary as J suggested. (see above. 29 with no heading. F o r upacāra./&) 3 ^ .1 ) . (In t h e sense of * carati '. 28 is followed by v. Is C. (anena kim darśitam /). dharmakāya. we can get the main doctrine of the sūtra. T. 5) T h e result of i m m a c u l a t e n e s s i. This idea is shown i n t h e Avatamsaka q u o t e d i n S. // 27 // [What is shown by this śloka ?]8 ) The Buddha's Body penetrates everywhere. // 28 // ning these three sentences together. But from ' pūrvataram tu ' up to ' uddānam ' is missing in C. 22. the main purpose of the teaching is to emphasize this point and. 27). 7) sarve dehinah = sarvasattvāh = [sarva] śarīrinah (in t h e following verse). 'A^* p|ji.. or of sattvarāśi. ' buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh ' m e a n s g r a m m a t i c a l l y t h a t sattva-rāśi goes into buddhajñāna. reading.

The first one shows the all-pervadingness of' dharmakāya ' the 2nd should be applied to ' samalā tathatā ' in the sense ' sarvakleśakośopagūdho dharmakāyah'. 17). tathatā and tathāgatagotra is also a point of emphasis in the text. 27. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi rigs yod-pahi don. it is said by the Lord that all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of Tathāgata.7 3 . de-bshin gśegs-pahi de-bshin-ñid rnampar dbyer med-pahi don. T. as well as the ground of the statement: sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. are applicable to any subject (sarvatrâviśesena) and are already used in the scripture. These three are the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha. And of these three subjects 1 0 ) . T. TAKASAKI In short. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d for e a c h s u b j e c t . and the 3rd shows the existence of 'gotra'' among sattvas. 6 9 . 16-18. Prior to it. 1. is the undifferentiated whole. 10) n arthapada. T . 72. 7-9) as well as in BGŚ (795 c-ff. C. With reference to that as well. beginning with svabhāva. de-bshin-gśegschos-kyi skus hpho-bahi don. pravacana. of garbha ' enveloping ' tathāgata. and 3) there exists the Germ of the Tathāgata (tathāgatagotra) [in every living being] 9 ) . Significance of this sentence is as follows: The 3 meanings mentioned above are applicable exclusively to Tathāgatagarbha. b u t i t seems t o b e not enough to express the idea contained here. These are called pahi * trividha-svabhāva ' of tathāgatadhātu (S. Cf. ^ P $Q . / > See S. p p . upacārāt ' in v. 69. 70. T . i. C. reads this word as the subject (gsuñ-rab) See below. See Appendix I I I . . in comparison with the phrase: ' gotre. That is to say. 71. See Note X-139 140 150 151 169 170. on the other hand. 1. 1. 1) (sarvasattvesu) tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. T h e t e r m ' sambhava ' would m e a n b o t h ' b e i n g ' a n d ' b e c o m i n g '. p. there is [another] meaning by which this meaning in all its aspects is indicated in the Scripture 1 2 ) with no variance anywhere l 3 ) . 'yod—pa' shows t h e first sense. T. p. 12) [ 198 ] . 2) tathāgata-tathatā-'vyatirekârtha. Equality through dharmakāya. 3) tathāgata-gotra-sambhavârtha. don-kyi gnas. as garbha in which sattvas are ' enveloped '. That is to say.e. 9) UP p £ ' respectively. T . *ii* IL. This sentence is missing in C. The threefold meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha mentioned below (S. I shall now explain. BGŚ 808 a. Three terms in BGS are as follows: 1) A/T Vvî $& : tathāgata. by the following three meanings: 1) the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) of the Tathāgata penetrates all living beings. the sense ' origination ' or ' manifestation ' is to be implied here.. uJ I f § | . however. p. the [detailed] explanation will be made below n ) according to the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. 1.lL. V ^ r% .) is also an implication of this same idea. p. 3) Hb tPRF $lxi'•sattvas possessed of garbha of tathāgata.J . 2) BH» vīL $$û '• garbha in which tathāgata is ' hidden '. 10-12. the following meanings. 2) the Tathāgata being the Reality (tathātā). by three kinds of meaning. 13) aviśesena.

3) B) 6) C. C. . [ 199 ] . The result. and 10) non-differentiation (abheda) [of the Germ with the Reality] 8 ) . This verse on the 10 meanings (v. 2) rgyu. which is the sphere of the highest true knowledge 6 ) . paramalattva — jñānavisayas tathāgatadhātuh. 'tH. ANALYSIS OF THE GERM FROM 10 POINTS OF VIEW Summary 1 J : The own nature and the cause.VIII. mam-par gshag-pa. dgoñs-don (implied meaning).ifctf2) x> 5f? (succeeding paramârtha-dhātu. C. T. ' J . . there should be known The implication 2) of the Absolute Essence 3) .e. 5) Idan-pa. 4) las. 7) the various states (avasthāprabheda) [of its manifestation]. gotra). <$? | | | | y\. T . // 29 // In short. uddāna. 3) hbras[-bu]. Because it follows immediately upon the word ' vaksyāmi ' in the last sentence. . I ventured to omit this verse from the line of Kārikās. 8) all-pervadingness (sarvatraga) 7 ) [of the Germ]. 3) the result (phala) [of its purification]. of tathāgatadhātu. |f\ . Artt • v y+. 0 . C. union and manifestation. sdom. i. don-dam-dbyiñs. 5 § | / . "jfg īij . | f | .J i . The qualities always unchangeable and non-diiFerentiation. An explanation of the term para- mârthadhātu in the verse. with reference to 4 ) these 10 meanings. 6) the manifestation (vftti) [of the Germ]. 8) Corresponding terms for these 10 in T. What are the 10 meanings ? They are namely : 1) the own nature (svabhāva) [of the Germ]. C. function. & C. there should be understood the various aspects 5 ) of the Essence of the Tathāgata. 5) the union (yoga) [of the Germ]. Therefoie. 4) the function (karman) [towards the purification]. 4) abhisamdhāya. 5f? * . f£^ jffE (dhātu in t h e sense vyavasthā. T. are as follows: 1) Ao-bo. Various states and all-pervadingness. T . order of the excellent meanings). 2) the cause (hetu). though it is mentioned in the Kārikā text of C. C rendering of tathāgatadhātu here is ' \fç$ |f£ '• 7) sarvagatva i n t h e v e r s e . 29) has a doubtful position as the original Kārikā. ^ . In these [points of view]. it seems that this uddāna was composed by the commentator prior to explaining following Kārikās. arthasamdhi. 9) unchangeability (avikāra) [of the Germ through various states].

8) $T fi.. 2) g j . rañ-bshin. 2. 5) M ^ 12) —* ft.las byuñ-ba (come out from. H ^ 3*[? /j'J (kāla-prabheda). 12 * dharmâdhimukti. n ) -anvaya. C. MSA. It follows after n ) the faith in the Doctrine. chos mthun-pa-ñid.. and being moist. ft. C. comm. The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata. 45. ^ Q f£J. XXX. 9 10) dhicitta ' (DAŚ 892 a). 4) ^ | g ffi .. T. 0 ) . 9) mi-hgyur-ba. and the application of the same 6. svabhāva & II hetu). Cf. 8) kun-tu hgro-ba. Identity. from svabhāva to vrtti. Also the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa—śāstra (DAS) mentions 12 categories with respect to ' bo- 6) # ft. // 31 // •T0 J/£*» 6) hjug-pa. [ 200 ] . IX. samādhi. Meditation and Compassion 12>. #'] . > Cf. See below. 4) J | | ^ . adhiprajñā. 36 a). is also observed in YBh. A.. karunā. Like the pure jewel. 3) g ft .(I) SVABHÂVA & (II) HETU 9) Now. ii) f£ ^ ^Ij. etc. C. 4~r '•> 7) gnas-skabs-kyi rab-tu dbye-ba. II). (Kārikā 6) 4 own nature' and ' cause * [The Matrix of the Tathāgata] is always undefiled by nature 1 0 ) . // 30 // § 1. For prakrti. The highest Intellect. Here. (Taisho. om. . See Appendix III.. 13) sādharmya. the sky and water. 3) ^ ffi . which show the cause of purification. BGŚ 796 b (I. y p £ . 5) jffi 3§il ft J a n ' °^ these 10 categories. the first 6 are common to the 8 categories on ' nirmalā tathatā ' (Chap. respectively. The subject term for this and the following Kārikās is ' jinagarbha ' in v. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of its own nature of power.^ !>§£.). namely: 1) J|c. ^ W$ ffc . dbyer-med-pa. § prakrty-asamklista. 9) ffi |K. 10) S ft£ ^ fI]. DAŚ 892 a (3. the sky and water. in these [three points] [The Essence of the Tathāgata has] a resemblance l 3 ) To the quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. 7) 31 Ife. 56-59. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. 2) 0 ffi . T.BGŚ7966: 1) g f | ffi . T. 3ή ' %}] | © .

with reference to its moist nature (snigdhabhāva) of mercy towards living beings as the particular characteristic. C j^C Wv» BGS ^p^ ^fl* 'KX • > Cf. 3) T. sgrib. 0 f fçj\ (C. Obstructions and Causes of Purification 18) .e. ^ ^ . bsam-pahi don. u ) vv. 19) 20) [ 201 ] . but not found in S. 16) cintitârtha. the innate purity as the common characteristic. brlan-pahi rañ-gi ño-bo. § ft 2) 18 j] . C. 28 and its commentary. T . C. Now. grub-pa (= siddhi). BGŚ #H ^ rañ-gi XJ f^ f^. respectively. the own nature of powers (prabhāva). a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling jewel is to be known of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. T . ffî ^ (as T. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka (v. A resemblance to water is to be known 1 7 ) of the Germ of the Tathāgata. s\* ^ ç . of all t hese. praligha. khoñ-khro ( h a t r e d . T. the sky and water is to be understood. i. C. And now. 31 of C. i.e. trividhasvabhāva of tathāgatadhātu. T . A resemblance to the sky is to be known of the Reality.). fulfillment of desired 16) objects etc. by nature. in v. which are already mentioned above 1 4 ) . |*!p. the sky and water. & BGŚ (796 6) runs as follows: _ 1) T. C. w r a t h . has a lacuna after samrddhi up to the end of the commentary on v. 31. C. 17) For these 3 terms showing the similarity in particular characteristics. T. e n m i t y ) . first of all. with reference to its own nature of identity [everywhere] (ananyathābhāva) as the particular characteristic. gshan-du ma-yin-pa-ñid-kyi ño-bo. but it puts ' JS» '/m ' (cmfā £t£) * before ' tathāgatadharmakāye ' and it seems to correspond to ' jQfr fÇ lH? '. T. BGS TfîÇ . C. āvarana. Now. should be known with reference to its particular and common characteristics. ^ ^ ' j ^ . with reference to its particular l5) characteristic. the resemblance of the Essence of the Tathāgata to the purified quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. § 2. C. C. ' 0 f ft ' after ' 0 f &% ' is probably a misreading of prabhā for bhāvanā). B G Ś 797 a. 1B) samrddhi.. absolutely.. mthuhi ño-bo-ñid.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga * In these ' three [points]. with reference to their being undefiled always. this very resemblance [of the Essence] to the purified qualities of wish-fulfilling jewel. 30) ? There are four kinds of Obstructions 1 9 ) : Enmity 2 0 ) to the Doctrine and perception of the Self. 27. pjj (abuse).

srid-pa-dañ bral-bar hdod-pa. But from the viewpoint of the tathāgatagarbha theory. C. a) The people whose intention is against the path to Emancipation and who never belong to the family of the perfect Nirvana (aparinirvānagotraka)27).). .// 32 // [These are respectively] of the Icchantikas 22\ Of the Heretics23) . T. 6. A^ ' T. BHS Die. C. Of them. y\ j g [ ( = anyatîrthika) — ttrthika. although belonging to this Our Religion (ihadhārmika) 28>. 1) those who cling to the worldly life ' should be known as twofold. rañ-byuñ. HR J § . (—' W] J H ) (of this literal meaning. sems-can don-la Itos med-pa. C. AA II. that of Mahāyāna. 29) i. s. v. ^ 3 T ^ f . p. one who abuses the Buddhist doctrine. C. 1) T.).). see below). 2) T. ' The reading should be ' sattvârtha—nirapeksatā ' (or -arthe nirape-) instead of * -artham nirapeksatā ' in the text. Some of these are hostile to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle.e. > icchantika. esp. are The four Causes of purification. 23) 22 21 tīrthya. Cf. yoñs-su mya-ñan-las mi-hdah-bahi rigs-can. 28 [ 202 ] . Cf. the faith [in the Doctrine] etc. T. > svayambhū in the text (T. C. C. srid-pa hdod-pa. 3) those who wish neither of both (tadubhayânabhilāsin) 26>. Those are only seeking for Phenomenal Life and not for Nirvana.J. With reference to them. T. res- C j S . > T. ' sarnsāram eva icchanti na nirvānam '. it means one who longs only for worldly pleasure ( = bhavâbhilāsin. the Iochantika is said to be able to get Enlightenment as taught in this text (S. <K l K IH. [/jQ yj\j {£Z '-p] Pflj :Ja£ JpJ \\L (as same as Icchantika in their position). 37. v. hdod-chen. 2) those who seek for deliverance from it (vibhavâbhilāsin). And b) Those people who. the Śfāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 24>. The virtues. have definitely fallen into the former's way 2 9 ) . mu-stegs. The capacity for Enlightenment of this Icchantika is usually denied as being ' aparinirvānagotraka '. ^ $j? ffc ^ (within the Buddhist fold). C. Pali idha. C. 1. // 33 // In brief there are those three kinds of living beings among their multitudes 2 5 ) : 1) those who cling to the worldly life (bhavâbhilāsin). ") Cf.. The word * iha ' here means ' in this religion ' but not ' in this world '. As a Buddhist technical term. F P <î^ "W î pectively. TAKASAKI Fear of Suffering in this world. BGŚ 797 b ff. AĀS 471 a. vSÇ /r£ 5 5 I-E • This sentence and the next show the definition of Icchantika. more strictly. which is used in this sense in Vibhañga 245 (PTS Die. s. 27 ) « de-gñis-ka mñon-par mi-hdod-pa. @ 5t£). 1 fli. chos hdi-pa-ñid. And indifference to the profit of living beings 21 ). 24 26) Of these 3.

30 > AAN 467 c. mun-pa-las kyañ ches."J^C • But T. T . Here.e. This seems to be the original reading. ~^C y\. C. PP) a s a n example. Cf. regards t h e m as t h e S ā m k h y a (If rgyu (one who goes everywhere). the Carakas35). reading is accepted in this translation. T .. from gloom to greater 31 gloom ). ' two '. thabs-la shugs-pa. but whose conduct is in common with the Heretics 3S\ They. 38§ ? R i l l ~/J iSl î 2) T. [ 203 ] . i. & BGŚ. as migrating from darkness to another darkness. ii) those who have the perception of the substantial Ego (pudgaladrsti) 4 0 ) and have no faith in the Highest Truth. ^ | <fc i H /J US. With reference to them. Of these 2. & T. religious wanderer). i. gcer~bu-ba (naked people). take hold of bad conceptions 39>. \ja\ . 31 > tamasas tamo * ntaram andhakālān mahândhakālagāminah. 'those who are of no method' are again divided into three 3 3 ) . C. various kinds of Heretics (anyatīrthya). / £ | $ £ |Sfcî ^=f J t £ "j • ' durgrhītagrāhin. the Parivrājakas 36 '. respectively. tsa-ra-ka. thabs ma-yin-pa-la shugs-pa. i) Outsiders of this Religion (itobāhya)34>. C. mentions Vātsīputrīyas (^fH ~J * The source is unknown. the Lord said 4 1 ) : " One who has no faith in Non-substantiality is not different from the Heretics " . the Jains 3 7 ) . mun-pa chen-por hgro-ba. ii) & Hi) Insiders of Our Religion. what are they ? They are namely. regards them as the Vaiśesika (Hi "tit $$). a) Those who have fallen into a methodless way (anupāyapatita) and 6) i those who are in [the correct] method ' (upāyapatita) 3 2 ) . 2) i those who seek for deliverance from this worldly life ' are also twofold. O Śāriputra. C. '£<£ j^J y\. T. etc. kun-tu C. C. (lit. into one. The word ' itobāhya ' is literally an adjective to ' tîrthya '. om. dkah-bahi Ita-ba hdsin-pa (durdrstigrāhin). T. hdi-las phyi-rol-tu gyur-pa. Then. though being faithful in [Buddhism]. So do AÂS. l j | | | |33 (viparyāsagrāhin). T. combining the latter two in S.e. C. (and AAN as well) ' I will call them icchantikas\ instead of ' tamobhūyisthā '. AĀS 471 a. 35) 36) caraka (lit. they are not my pupils. 1) T.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Lord said as follows 3 0 ) : " I am not their teacher. 39 40) 41 C. "$£. Next. I say of them that they are chiefly filled with darkness. C. C. 37) nirgranthi-putra. 34) In contrast with ' ihadhārmika '. C. 33) 32) as well. T. wanderer).

This is a passage in Kāśyapa-parivarta of the Ratnakūtasūtra. talented faculty. 47 ' pratipanna. mi—gnas—pahi mya—ñan—las—hdas-pa. T. Sumeru is better than the conception of Non-substantiality on the part of those who are proud of it " . their activities 5 0 ) are based upon Phenomenal Life 5 1 ) but without being defiled by it. A^ ft VM 5 S A ft Btl S iSS). nor are they those who are in no method like Heretics. 4 samatâpti-mārga-pratipannāh). [Both of them] have proceeded on the fixed way of rightfulness 4 6 ) . adds brten—pa (āśrita) after nir- vana). having entered 47> the Path to obtain 4 8 ) [the intuition of] the equality of this Phenomenal Life with Nirvana. TAKASAKI Hi) Those who have the conception of the Non-substantiality and are proud of it are doubtless at the door of Emancipation through the Nonsubstantiality 4 2 ) in this religion 4 3 ) . They are not seeking for the Phenomenal Life as the Icchantikas do.J. See S. but T. iha. b) 'those who are in [the correct] method' are again twofold. T. nor those who are in the correct method [for deliverance] like Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. brten-pa(= āśrita). p. they intend not to stay fixedly in the Nirvana (apratislhitanirvāna) 4 9 ). it follows for them that Non-substantiality itself becomes a [wrong] conception 44) . offers no help). As by J. C jpÇ >fJi ^ c *y* (Ratnakūtasūtre). shugs—pa (to enter). Lank. p. 61) [ 204 ] . āpti had better be accepted. (C. With reference to these. jl|£ 4 T • samsāragata. T T [Mj ' f T . Here. (Cf. 46) samyaktva-niyāma. AĀS 471 6. 3) ' those who wish neither of both the worldly life and deliverance from it' are the people who are standing firmly amidst the Great Vehicle and are of the highest. C. C. 48) āpatti in the text.This is the highest and ideal feature of nirvana in the Mahāyāna doctrine. 49 45> * T. BGŚ 797 b (quotation from AĀS). and their root is perfectly 42) 43) tad-vimoksamukhe. i) Those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and ii) those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha. 29 1. but. yañ-dag-par ñes-pa-ñid. T. (Taisho. (T. thob-pa. XI. 2 ff. C. 50) prayoga. Cf. C. p. 634 a). p. 11-13. S. see Note V—23. But as they are intoxicated with this Non-substantiality. sbyor-ba-can. om. C. he ( = the Lord) said [in the Scripture] 4 5 ) : " O Kāśyapa. And next. ^y The same use as in ' ihadhārmika '. 35. 146. 1. T.'s suggestion. the whole compound. H For ' -gata '. really even such a conception which maintains substantial Ego as much as Mt.

and its Antidote 5 9 ) is the practice of the faith in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā) by the Bodhisattvas. & C. and its Antidote is the practice of Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect (prajñāpāramitābh. 1) those people who cling to this wordly life. reference is m a d e t o t h e 4 kinds of people a n d t h e i r i m p e d i m e n t s .e. Y^£ ^ | ' u * (the intention to attain Nirvana). And here 5 3 ) . there are four kinds of Obstructions on account of which they cannot understand or realize the Essence of the Tathāgata. 84 ' ' ca ' should be inserted before ' ihadhārmikā '. h a v e i t . What are then the four Obstructions ? That is to say. ^ . the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. sñañ-ba.e. the Heretics. 66) anāvarana-gāmin (one who goes w i t h o u t a n y obstacle). C. H e r e ' anāvarana ' indicates strictly N i r v a n a . lhag-pahi bsam-pa. 1) the enmity 5 8 ) to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmapratigha). 2-o) ' Those people who seek for deliverance from the worldly life but have no method ' are called (B) the group of people unconformed (aniyatafi s. though it is missing in S. sgrib-pa med-pa rtogs~pa (one who knows t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d thing) and C. 68 > T. the Icchantikas.). This is the Obstruction of the Icchantikas. B u t T . gñen-po. ' caturvidha '. T. 3) The notion of Suffering (duhkhasamjñā) [or rather] the fear of Suffering {duljkha-bhlrutva) in Phenomenal Life. has it. %%. 2-6) ' Those people who seek for deliverance with the correct method ' and 3) ' those who wish neither of both and have entered the path through which [the intuition of] the equality [of the Phenomenal Life with the Nirvana] is attained are called (C) the group of people who conform in the right way {samyaktvaniyatab s. though belonging to this Our Religion. Of these [four groups]. 62) 63 adhyāśaya. o m . keeping aside those people who stand firmly in the Great Vehicle and follow the unobstructed way 56>. b u t b o t h T . 65) Hereafter. reference is made to the relation between the 3 kinds of people above mentioned and the 3 groups of people. Cf. pratipaksa. 69) [ 205 ] . other people are [fourfold] 57\ i. BGŚ fff C. have definitely fallen into the former's way are called (A) the group of people who conform in the wrong way (mithyātvaniyatah sattvarāśih). •JC /J^ -/Hfe |*ip. s?) S. flfjfc j J L (one who seeks for t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d w a y ) . i. T. This is the Obstruction of the Heretics. Of 55) these [groups of living beings]. t r a n s l a t i o n .) by the Bodhisattvas. & T. 2) The conception of the Self (ātmadarśana) on the separate elements (dharmesu). C.The Ratnagotravibhāga pure as being grounded in the firm Compassion and Superior Intention 52) . C. I preferred C.). the Icchantikas and5 4 ) those who. * Hereafter. 3?J fpj .

This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and its Antidote is the practice of Meditations (samādhi-bh. pfjj "p^ \VT J J "Q*. And having practised the four kinds of Antidotes to these Obstructions. AX. by the Bodhisattvas. • 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la mos-pa. the Absolute Body. 4) sñih-rje chen-po. the highest truth. 3) tiñ-ñe-hdsin. Gaganagañjā 6 0 ) etc. These are the four kinds of Obstructions of the four kinds of living beings. Q ~h£> fâffc Jjtftl -nSdu i L . the faith [in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle] etc. Q Q ~W* ( J3 f\^r 61) 3) hkhor-ba-la sdug-bsñal hjigs-pa. accompanied by these four causes of origination of purity. the Bodhisattvas attain the highest purity. 4) sems-can-gyi don-la mi-ltos-pa. This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and its Antidote is the practice of Great Compassion {mahâkarunā-bh. 5 6 6). are as follows: 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la sñañ-ba. 11: dharmâdhimuktibījāt pāramitāśresthamātrto jātah dhyānamaye sukhagarbhe karunā samvardhikā dhātrî C. JJ=J f£C» 2) śes-rab [-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa]. The terms for the 4 obstructions in T. 4) Aversion to the profit of living beings {sattvārtha-vimukhatā) or Indifference to the profit of living beings (sattvaartha—nirapeksatā). C. adds ' śūrañgama ' /Ht) as a name of samādhi. . •• ^5 And the terms for the 4 causes of purification. How are they ? It is said 6 2 ) : 6 °) T. they become the sons of the Religious King in the Buddha's family.. i. 62) ^f. 9 . p5!? ft* • 2) bdag-tu Ita-ba. ^£? ^ ^ (ākāśagarbha).). Yf~f ILL. nam-mkhah-mdsod. i. & C.. the idea must be borrowed from an old source. however. The same idea is expressed with slight difference in the following Sāstras. p. C.e. =g* «pQ. Jan. •ffâ fSftt: ^ = * ^j< ^r. T ». 73X. At least. >J. regards it as its own. each of them. The following verse is probably a quotation from some canonical work.) by the Boddhisattvas 61>. has no corresponding verse. y\^ ^ ^ . \ IJJC. And. XXXI. 1) MSA IV. but in the commentary there is a passage saying: Ā ? L # t [ 206 ] (Taisho.e.

[ 207 ] . 35 a b h a d b e t t e r pāramitā-phalah ' ( B a h u v r ī h i comp. Zl 1fc j h #H Hit Ba » IZQ Jffij jg/fc W -fL 1% (hetu is like pitr. [Towards this purification] it has the functions. t h e N o n . 65) guna-pāramitā. They are the sons. // 34 // (III) PHALA & (IV) KARMAN Now. r/es[-su] s&yes. should b e understood essence or t r u t h itself. C. yon-tan pha-rol[-tu] phyin-pa. C. Whose abiding womb is the blissful meditation And whose nurse is called Mercy. shi thob-pa. H e r e ' ātman ' in t h e sense of ' dharmakāya ' or ' dharmadhātu ' as t h e universal which r e p r e s e n t s . Cf. Unity 66>. like mātr. T . āfman. longing for and praying for the acquisition of Quiescence 68) . Aversion to Suffering. pratyaya garbha. V T Î 5+S ( = nirvana) and om. • guna'jinagarbha' i n v . Whose mother is the transcendental Intellect 63 \ On account of the origination of Buddha's Doctrine. A . C. T . f in the Prajñāpāramitāsūtra. 67) As being i n t h e series of K ā r i k ā s . āśraya like ^C ffi ¥L • 63) 64) 3) DAŚ v. there is one śloka. C.: is often called ' buddhamātrka ' T . with reference to the meaning of i result ' and ' function '. 45. prāpti. (Kārikā 7) The Supreme Virtues 65) of Purity. [These] are its results [of the purification] 67) . i n i t s t u r n . sMMMcUf prajñāpāramitā anujāta. whose subject or viśisya is 86) 68) śama-prāpti. >(0 " H ^ ^ P (together with ' pu«ro ' ) . and siddhi like dhātrl). bdag.The Ratnagotravibhāga Those whose seed is the faith in the highest Vehicle. ^ ^ = paramâtman.). T .s u b s t a n t i a l i t y (nairātmya) and individuals. translation of the Ratna. Bliss and Eternity. of s e p a r a t e elements b e r e a d as ' •. v . // 35 // 2) BGŚ 798 a: — H #[I 3£ ^ 5 h ~~ l # #H f*f. the after-comers 64> of the Buddhas. C. '$>C _ ^ «Çj} f ^ .

phyin-ci-log (anything wrong. Now. The context of this verse is not so clear. of no substantial Ego. and impure regarding just those separate 69 > Cf. C. C. as C. On the other hand. though it has no support in T. T. ^ § § @J $£ . gñen-po (antidote to poison). 71) pratipaksa. AĀS 471 c. ' Of these [four causes] '. viparyaya. 74) rūpâdike vastuni. // 36 // Those terms. i. bzlog-pa. these 4 pāramitās should be the antidotes to ' viparyāsa—viparyaya '. 4 the faith ' etc. respectively. ' viparyāsa-viparyaya ' and * gunapāramitā '. reversed). blissful {sukha). The Four Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 6 9 ) . Which four ? That is to say. " C.J. the notion of being non-eternal. in short. of substantial Ego (ātman). T. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of the change of value 7 0 ) in the Absolute Body. translation shows the following meaning: " These results are. This word does not include the or 'viparyāsa ' is always 70) sense of ' wrong ' or ' mistake '. have been taught 7 3 ) as the causes of purification of the Essence of the Tathāgata. etc. 71 [The Purity. as being correspondent to ' viparyāsa '. the four kinds of Supreme Virtues {gunapāramitā) of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata are to be understood as i the results' on account of their being Antidotes to the opposites of four kinds of delusion. Such a notion is called 'the fourfold delusion' (viparyāsa). in short. In this sense. l||f| [îi] [<£]. is 72) supported by T. Chowdhury. -=^? 38v l ī l "^P" ^P• T. respectively. dharmakāye viparyayah (instead of viparyayāt). phyin-ci ma log-pa. instead of ' caturvidha-viparyāsa '. there is a notion of being eternal (nitya). full of sufferings. (T. aviparyāsa. viz. & C. 'viparyasta'' used in a bad sense.] represented as the Antidote > 72) To the four kinds of delusion . The results of these [4 causes] are. 73) The insertion of ' uktāh ' after viśuddhihetu. there should be known 4 the fourfold non-delusion (aviparyāsa) 7 5 ) . T. Or otherwise. |$j] (lit. BGŚ 798 a. Here. of no substantial Ego and impure. C. [f||£ 4T"j 3?J I O VS « viparyāsa. ( = rūpâdi-vastuni anitye). According to the prose commentary. of being pure (śubha) regarding the separate things consisting of form and others 7 4 ) wh:ch are really non-eternal. picks up three phrases. this ' caturvidhaviparyāsa'' should be taken as including two kinds of '4~fold delusion'. caturvidha-viparyāsa. it will be easier to catch the meaning. shown as pratipaksa of viparyaya of the 4-fold viparyāsa in dharmakāya. deceptive). See below. in brief. T. JjQ t**. bśad-pahi. C. [ 208 ] .e. C. TAKASAKI § 1. respectively. full of sufferings. and pratipaksaprabhāvita.. indicated by T. by the reading ' caturvidha-aviparyāsa '. as well as C. C. [nj j|J£). Being opposite to this notion. 75) T.

MPS. the Supreme Bliss (sukha-pāramitā). The meaning is ' skandha in the form of individual or phenomenal things and not in the form of each separate element '. see S. zin-pa (finished. For upātta (Pali upāta). the Supreme Unity (ātma-p-). T . merely ' 'M. Cf. if there would be the people who have the notion of Eternity.2pC jjyf / j N adrsta-pūrva. raised). this very [notion of non-delusion] is implied as ' delusion ' with reference to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata whose characteristics are eternal. there is established the fourfold Supreme Virtue of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. fâ ] £ ffi 3 i ^ '?£ ft ^fe 1 # V£ tfe M* being as the explanation of the word ' aurasa putra'. slon-pa-ñid-kyi ye-śes. T. Even all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. 81) C t H @] § J }pi (the reading '/f* ' before ' H ffij ' in the Taisho edition. | ^ £ fjj '. sñar ma mthoñ-ba. etc. the Supreme Eternity (nityapāramitā). T h e first appearance of this theory is probably in SMS. That is to say. etc. O Lord. they would be the legal 8 3 ) 76) should be removed). C. jpl. 166. and are peculiar t o t h e garbha theory. bshuñ. this sense is implied. AĀS as C. but C. 80) upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. T. 79 > Ś M S 222 a.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga things of form. But in the last sentence of this quotation. p. and Purity [regarding the Absolute Body]. 77) These 4 pāramitās are t a u g h t in SMS. . T. T . 83) aurasa ( < uras) (produced from the heart). śūnyatā-jñāna. C. o m . instead 82> has ' jj=3 |9p īfrj B \ ' (because of their believing in the Buddha's word). They have a notion of eternity on the non-eternal things. 76 (a quotation from the same Sūtra). And again. Such a notion is called the fourfold Opposite of delusion (viparyāsaviparyaya) 7 6 ) . thugs-las skyes-pa. a notion of bliss regarding painful things. t 209 ] . C. and the Supreme Purity (śubha-p. [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. O Lord. And this subject 7 8 ) is to be known in detail according to the Scrip79) ture . Bliss. 5 ^ ^ 3 . and have a notion of purity regarding impure things. Unity. J ^ . So C. ~Jr and adds ' ^yt I/P M ^ī^ (produced from the Buddha's mouth). O gives the translation: as far as manifesting themselves in an individual. Being the Antidote of this notion. Usually when ' pañca-upādānaskandha ' is spoken of. etc. also have a miscomprehension in regard to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is the sphere of the Wisdom of Omniscience and has never been seen before 8 1 ) just because of their knowledge of Non-substantiality 82 '. C. Manu Smrti IX. of substantial Ego regarding non-substantial things. the people have a miscomprehension regarding the phenomenal things consisting of five personality aggregates which cling to existence 80 '.)77>. 78) grantha. About this śūnyatā-jñāna.

2) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the perception 8 9 ) of unreal Ego by the Heretics who perceive an Ego in the individual things consisting of five personality aggregates. one should know the reversed arrangement 8 7 ) according to the order of causes. mñon-par graha.. And this very thing as has been perceived by the Heretics does 90 not correspond with ' the [real] characteristic of Ego. T . slu-ba-daū Idan-pa falsehood). And again. of these four Supreme Virtues of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Unity is the result of 4 practice of supremacy in the transcendental Intellect'. the Supreme Bliss. regards 'para' as an attribute to ' nairātmya\ [ 210 ] .sons of the Buddhas and be of no miscomprehension.). the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is verily the Supreme Eternity. as the Ego though they are of the unreal nature. ^ p . (for t h e whole q u o t a t i o n ) . Here. Indeed. A Ā S 471 c f. C. dgah-ba.. 1) being opposite to the taking of delight in 8 8 ) the ' impure ' Phenomenal Life by the Icchantikas who have hatred against the Doctrine of Great Vehicle. visamvāditva. 0 Lord. a d d s 'sarve' after * te'. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Purity is the result of ' Practice of the Faith in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle' by the Bodhisattvas. § 2. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity. C. Those who perceive perfectly are. dam-pahi pha-rol-tu C. T. T. [verily] they would be of perfect perception. }jfi[ -%£ j phyin-pa brñes. * 88) abhirati.85>. those people 8 4 ) who perceive the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata in this way.. C. all the other Heretics consider the things consisting of form. 86 > Cf. 89) term 'jjfljl 90) 91 T . hdsin-pa. bzlog ste. gff ^ X • For ' ātman' (slu-ba. 92) So C. of t h e Heretics. the Tathāgata has attained the highest supremacy. ' para ' in the sense of ' parama '. For what reason ? [Because]. T . O Lord. ' para-pārami-prāpta. etc. T. B G Ś 798 b f. 85) 87 ) pratiroma-krama. AĀS 472 a f. O Lord. perceive perfectly. uses t h e ^ jilj. hence it is always non-Ego. the legal sons of the Buddhas " &c. ^ ' . 9 1 ) [knowing 92)] non-substantiality of all the phenomena by means 84) T . C. On the contrary. ['L*] ^ r c ? a n d adds ' g § •HX ' (graha). mentions t h e actual order Q^p* 3>C ~§§ ^ ). C. O Lord. Concordance between 4 Supreme Virtues and 4 Causes of Purification 8 6 ) . H?IJ Çf^ IK. Cf. (/JJ.

_ 94) avisamvāditva. C. om. C. Therefore. As the pure and real emptiness. and adds the explanation of ' nairātmyam eva ' (ts|J 7»ÎÇ T?C) and ' ātmâbhipreta ' ( ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ J ^ > 0 ' saying that the former is in the sense of the absence of the Heretical ātman. the Absolute Body (5f| — " VPf î ^ j | . Therefore the Buddhas *s are said to have attained the pure controllingfpower] ('frf Vñ Î^F @ 'TE)* ^ n sense the Buddhas could be the highest powerful Ego (5fy * ^]^^ 0 /ffc TA. And again. C. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called * non-being ' (TîiÇ). > yathābhūta-jñāna. KN 38Ç ^ C -%3 y«nf ^rl ^ C a n ^ seems to omit ' nairātmyam eva ātmani krtvā'.Hence. -*T ) means that the Tathāgata has attained the highest pure Reality. Because. hence there is always the implication of Ego 95) (ātman) . 96 ) C. Because. yañ-dag-pa ji-lta-ba-bshin-kyi instrumental case-ending).The Ratnagotravibhāga 93) of his Wisdom perceiving the truth . sY* fm>. we cannot say there is no Absolute Body.. etc. this quotation whose source is unknown. it is said that they attained the great body.KU V £ which is the real nature ( gÇ •PC) °f ^11 the Buddhas. Having attained the self-controltn g ot the pure body (Vpf î ^ * ^ " ) . It runs as follows: Having attained the highest Non-substantiality. as his feature. T. he himself is absent (flW ^ C ^ ^U 7 £ 38£ W^). Here ' attained the great body ' (^Tf y\. adds a verse with commentary thereon. with reference to the same meaning. with reference to this meaning. by taking non-Egoity {nairātmya) in the meaning of Ego. as has been said: 44 He stands by application of no standing place" 96) . ling body ( y /ffc 1S)> ne ^).) ". 3 C » 7 r DUt PR] • 95 93 ye-śes. he does exist. Because [all phenomena are] of non-substantial nature (?!»Ç T?C ^TH)' °f tne nature of non-being (Tkfç V2* T0)* Hence he cannot be called ' the being '.) in the Immaculate Sphere. with reference to this ' supreme Ego '. The Buddhas obtained the pure body. he did neither explain (A* ff2) nor reply {/V* ^ . > ātmâbhipreta. The verse mentioned at the top has a similarity to the verse IX-23 of the [ 211 ] is . while the latter is the Buddha that has attained the ' mighty Ego '. For this reason. when Heretics asked the Buddha whether the Tathāgata would have body (fâ Jf" 1 $ ) after death or not ( ^ J^f* jf|$). as his nature. And furthermore. 3(0 jH. Only because his body is the Reality itself (J^X PfE ^ 1 I K jl|« KU ^ C WEL). At the same time. S3 (om. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called the being (/^). And this very non-substantiality 94) has been perceived by the Tathāgata is quite consistent with the a s characteristic of non-ego. C.

It runs as follows: " tatra cânāsrave dhātau buddhānām paramâtmā nirdiśyate / him kāranam ? / agranairātmyâtmakatvāt / agram nairātmyam viśuddhā tathatā sā ca buddhānām ātmā svabhâvârthena tasyām viśuddhāyām agram nairātmyam ātmānam buddhā lābhante śuddham / atah śuddha-ātmalābhitvād buddhā ātmamahātmyam prāptā iti paramâtmā vyavasthāpyate I j na bhāvo nâpi câbhāvo buddhatvam tena kathyate / tasmād buddha tathāpraśne avyākrtanayo matah // tenaîva kāranena buddhatvam na bhāva ucyate j pudgaladharmâbhāvalaksanatvāt tādātmakatvāc ca buddhatvasya / nâbhāva ucyate tathatālaksanam bhāvāt j ato buddhatvasya bhāvâbhāvapraśne bhavati tathāgatah param maranān. throughout the text.). fffi 13Ī <J5Σ. it along with ' abhirati ' and instead has ' b h î r u ' (fear). but without commentary and regarding it as a ' sūtragāthā ' As for the prose commentary. saying: Zl ^ E « ^ tŚic$H$C© (798. named Gaganagañjā. but we have no definite proof for saying this. which has parallel passages with the Ratna. also mentions this verse in the equivalent passage. [ 212 ] . T. na bhavatîty evam ādir avyākrtanayo matah // (MSA p. is a quotation from the MSA by the commentator from the same source he quoted in other passages (e. upaśama. is the acquisition of the Supreme Bliss 9 8 ) concerned with all matters. One strong reason for this supposition is that BGŚ.g. C. /JjX. because practising [for the sake of others] Sūtrâlañkāra. 98 ' T.3) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the cessation 9 7 ) of Sufferings of the Phenomenal Life alone by those who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka and who have fear of the sufferings of Phenomenal Life. and C. S. 71) and the present Skt. C. om. mundane and supermundane. text has a lacuna of this passage. ñe-bar shi-ba. it should be understood that the result of the practice o" various kinds of meditation. which runs as follows: " śūnyatāyām viśuddhāyām nairātmyān mārgalābhatah / buddhāh śuddhâtmalābhitvād gatā ātmamahātmatām // ". it should be understood that the Bodhisattvas' practice of Great Compassion has the acquisition of the Supreme Eternity as its result. Most probably the verse kept in C. p. etc. 37-38). it was probably not in the original text. 4) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the isolated 9 9 ) abode by those who belong to the Vehicle of Pratyekabuddha and who are indifferent to the benefits of living beings. T. however. hdu-hdsi med-pa (samsarga means ' company '). Also. # M 3fe B & S # W (|^ osamsargavihārâbhirati). add parama. we can find a similar passage of the prose commentary mentioned above in the following passage of the Sūtrâlañkāra along with the next verse (IX-24) and the commentary thereon. RET ^ or 97) % »). (paramasukhapāramitā). " ' asamsarga.

nam-mkhah Itar) is relating t o nisthâgamana. without interruption. T. by J. v. [the Tathāgata] has realized perfectly the non-substantiality of living beings and of the material world. Indeed. C 3 £ H i >ft =il • On this passage. just as the l04) sky [reaches up to the limit of the world] and. The reading ' sarvatra parama. etc.S u b s t a n t i a l i t y of bhājana-loka ( o m . has attained the highest state of the Absolute Essence which is the ultimate purity. 14). we should record this form as a varia lectio. Through the practice of the supremacy in 103) the transcendental Intellect. hence he has become the highest Absolute Essence. we get this meaning. sbyoñ. shows a sense similar to ' pariśuddha '. the Tathāgata is the highest Absolute Essence. the Tathāgata. cf. p. s.' (in one compound). namely. BGŚ 798 c. Cf. but from the context. respectively. Thus.). AÂS 472 a: tV-XâL^ 103) R i£. through the practice of faith in the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. the Meditations and the Great Compassion.) T. ^ jtfc 0 f|§ — " g j %\\ ^ ®H^7]t3cffi. B Jit m H — V) in * T tt^^ft^JI (therefore it is taught by the Buddha). mthar~thug-pa-ñid-tu rtogs-pa. Bliss and Eternity are brought about on the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata as the result of Bodhisattvas' 4 kinds of practices. AÂS 472 a. " dharmadhātu-vipulam ākāśadhātu-paryavasānam aparântakotinistham " % i£ s.' is to be corrected into lsarvatra-parama. sattva).) and if we change a letter ' ñ ' into ' r' in T. (' pali ' is a rather common transformation of the prefix ' pari ' in Middle Indie. Daśabhūmikasūtra (ed. r e n d e r s t h i s passage as follows: T h e T a t h ā g a t a completes t h e sky-like dharmakāya through [the 104) realization of] t h e absolute ( ^ L _^L nistha) n o n . but most probbably it is a wrong reading. 545&. their attachment to the benefits for living beings is perfectly pure. yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba (D) (pariśodha. T . Unity. same as Ms. Cf. ākāśopama ( T . through the practice of phaligodha in the text. These are used there as modifiers of 'pranidhāna' of Bodhisattvas. As for the form ' phaligodha ' instead of paligodha. hence ' yoñs-su sbyor-ba ' might be the translation of ' paligodha ' . B. the Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect. 101) 102) 100) Cf. those of Faith [in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle]. 4 kinds of Supreme Virtues named Purity. B Ś 7 8 : G 9c « m ft 5f ^ * * *ś nisthâgamana (lit.The Rat na g o t r a v i b h ā g a 100) as long as the world exists. For this meaning we have a word ' paligodha ' (BHS Die. C. [ 213 ] . Pali paligedha). the meaning ' attachment ' or ' clinging to ' seems better. reaching u p t o t h e l i m i t ) . Rahder. l01) And because of these four [Supreme Virtues in the Absolute Body] it is said. he reaches up to the limit of the space and he lasts as long as the utmost limit [of the 102) world] .

1) ' Phenomenon of condi on' means the Dwelling-place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmi) 1 1 2 ) . there are four Impediments (paripatha) 1 0 8 ) even in case of the Arhats. 110) aāsravadhātu. § 3. 1 fF. 108) ^ gegs. That is to say. j ^ j | | 7^ * * 9i (ffl U 1& B). through the practice of the Great Compassion. 4) $£ C 5{{Ç W/j pE «Ha b u t T. Cf. U2) «. T . Ā: 4) # & ^ j . 109) zśitāprāpta-bodhisattva. C. y ^ ~J\ pj* ^ 1 • t is not necessary to limit this qualification to those Bodhisattvas who abide on the 10th lūmi as mentioned in the Tibetan commentary. 2 ) 4 H i . ^j£ ^ g . 1) 4 phenomenon < condition' (pratyayar-laksana). T h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n anāsrava a n d sāsrava will be seen i n t h e following assage. 2) rgyuhi mtshan-ñid.J. and 4) 'phenomenon of destruction ' (vibhava-laksana)1U). [he has mercy towards all living beings beyond the limitation of time.. show i t b y a b l a t i v e case-ending only. Am now. 3) :# ^f £ 5E. C. I n B U S . I t is e q u i v a l e n t t o ' lokottara ' a n d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t is ' sāsrava ' equivalentto ' laukika '. 4 inpediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 1 0 7 ) . p. Eś: i) ^ in 4 5E. 2) 4 phenomenon of cause' (hetuf laksana)3) 'phenomenon of origination (sambhava-laksana). 21: sarvabodhisattvahūmisu vaśitāprāptah). los) prama-dharmaiśvarya. 18. r e n d e r i n g of t h i s passage isas * sarvatra sarvadharmesu aiśvarya-prāptatvāt \ 108) pādāya. TAKASAKI various kinds of meditations named Gaganagañjā. 4) hjig-pahi mtshan-ñid. 2) m B 4 5E. 1 U ) C t h e s e 4 t e r m s . i t is m o s t l y concerning t h e obstacles or i m p e d i m e n t s i n B o d h i s j t v a s for a t t a i n i n g bodhi. C. 1. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisatvas who have obtained [10] Controlling Powers 109) . 107 > f. & C. p . though they are abidng in the Immaculate Sphere 1 1 0 ) . 274. . AĀS 472 b. for the acquisition of these four kinds of Supreme Virtues of the absolute Body of the Tathāgata. (Cf. T . etc. it is said he lasts as long as the utmost imit [of the world]. 3) hbyuñ- bahi mtsha-ñid. B G Ś 799 a. |*Jp. We can regard this ' vaśitāprāpta ' asan epithet for Bodhisattwas in general. chos-kyi dbañ-phyug dam-pa. A S l ) 4 ! l l . 3 ) f * . a r e as follows: 1) kyen-gyi mtshan-ñid. & C. [ A | 4*0. ma-rig-pahi bag-chags-kyi sa (avidyā-vāsanā— [ 214 ] . t h e Rāstrapālapariprcchā. 1. he has perfectly perceivd the omnipresence 1 0 5 ) of the power of the highest truth everywhere. dbah-thob-pahi byañ-chub-sems-dpah. T . Lañkāvatāra. Because of these two acquisitions. with reference to 1 0 6 ) this point. he reaches up to the limit of spaci [And lastly]. i$fc 7^. Therefo3. Here.

See S. this kîeśa is said to be that of Arhats. gzugs-kyi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . to SMS (220 a). of which avidyā—vāsabhūmi is the basic and the strongest. The body of the saints is said to be consisting merely of ' mano-skandha '. The other four are 1) C. I 215 ] . As for the meaning of * vāsabūmi*. C. and 4) C. 1. 2) C. yid-kyi rañ-bshin-kyi lus. to perfume). says ' hetulaksana ' means ' avidyāvāsabhūmi-pratyayā samskārāh '.). there are said to be five vāsa—bhūmis. and T. . therefore. 116) abhinirvrtti. 'ij/C 2sc 1l£ J u l . [and it is to be] compared with the Predispositions [of ordinary people] 1 1 4 ) . H e r e ' upādāna' is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h The four upādānas are usually. ñe-bar len-pa bshi. 3) C. these four are ' ksanika '. . But it may not be the case here. or from vas.. translation of SMS. . = kleśa. (*rūparāgasthita-v.). n. is compared to samskāras in the sense that karman is the cause of the next birth. * ~LJJ J^a tEE -HHI » T. C. just as the origination 116) of the Three-Worlds (tribhava)n7) is conditioned by 4 kinds of Graspings (upādāna)118) and caused by the Passioned Actions bhūmi). 130 where the term ' vāsanā * is used for indicating ' avidyāvāsabhūmi '. of which the exact counterpart is sāsravakarman. £ £ :£§•. 67. there are traditionally two ways of interpretation: one is shown in C. p. v. Jrçj. the other is shown in T. srid-pa gsum. T. translation of the Ratna. seems to regard * samskāra ' of avidyā-vāsabhūmi as something different from * anāsravakarman '. 2) drsti. lls) T. m * C. p. Ita-ba gcig-la gnas-pahi gnas-kyi sa (*ekadrstisthita-vāsabhūmi). see S. 115) ( _ manomaya-kāya). it is the strongest. Zl. it is said.) 1 1 5 ) . T . mñon-par grub-pa. . srid-pahi hdod-chags-la gnas-pahi. 3) 4 Phenomenon of origination ' means the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind (manomayâtmabhāva. which agrees with Ms. and from this samskāra. conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance and caused by the Immaculate Action. (*kāmarāgasthita-v. zag-pa med-pahi las. C. Furthermore. The second interpretation is also shown in this Ratna. 17-19). C. C. I. while * avidyāvāsabhūmi * (T. 117) 118) T. has confusion in interpreting this passage.. It relates more or less to the etymology of the term vāsanā (from V r o s » to dwell. ^ p . hdod-pahi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . (*bhavarāgasthita-v. instead of 5 upādānaskandhas as in the case of ordinary beings. 1) kāma. 6. 3) śīlavrata and 4) ātmavāda.The Ratnagotravibhāga [It is the condition of birth of the Body made of mind for the Saints] just as Ignorance (avidyā) is [the condition] of Predispositions (samskārāh) [for ordinary people]. T. Here anāsravakarman. t-L i3< t E -^a» T. ^JÎÇ î^|j ^ ^ . J^jf. 7 T ( = tridhātu). just as * vijñāna ' is produced from ' samskāra '. 2) 'Phenomenon of cause' means the Immaculate Action (anāsravam karma)ll3) conditioned by the Dwelling-place of Ignorance [as the cause of the Body made of mind]. T . ma—rig—pahi gnas—kyi sa) is ' anādikālikā ' and cannot be destroyed except by ' bodhijñāna ' of the Tathāgata. C. Ace. >^J ^5^ pE J l H . In this sense avidyāvāsabhūmi is here related to the defilement existing in Bodhisattvas (in another passage in the Ratna.. C. there is conditioned * anāsravakarman '. T. JZy ^ ī | [ >HX . B reading..)t and are said to be the basic Mesas from which all the defilements in the form of intense outburst (paryavasthāna.or paryutthāna-kleśa) come out. 33.

apakarsâparyantatvāt ' (7JC -fTf TjC KJ$Q instead of ' yogāt \ sūksmanimitta-prapañca. Both T. C. 122) . And. Cf. a t J ' s suggestion. have not extirpated the Dwelling-place of Ignorance which is the ground of all the subsequent Defilements121). 127) [ 216 ] . J) . And. •^Y* f j j™> g ^ | ^ ^ •zh y^U (cyuti means literally ' fall '). ending with the removal of • . 124) 125) C. on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance. About apakarsa. See above (Note VIII-113)- °) T. t o b e corrected into anabhisamskārām. anabhisamskāra. C. T . takes this as a n a t t r i b u t e to all t h e 4 pāramitās along w i t h atyanta. But the reading is not clear. seems peculiar to SMS). Now. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained (10) Controlling Powers.J^x. hence they cannot attain the Supreme Purity as the end of removal 122) of all the dusts of defilements with their bad-smelling impressions123). drir—bahi bag—chags. C. mi-khyab—par yoñs—su bsgyur—pahi hchi-hpho—ba. The counterpart of this death in the case of ordinary beings is called C. the Arhats. . . . but connects drir-ba with mala. r^y T-f itX _ £ . and because of their being accompanied with 1 2 4 ) the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view 125) . ^ W /f^ ^|)£ pflg . . reads instead ' bag-chags . ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa. and C. ^ U » T. 123 ' daurgandhya—vāsanā. SMS 219 c (this term. 126) C. . hdus ma-byas-pa. there is [still] the arising of the Mind-made aggregate 1191 12 T. POFE • • • (apakarsâparyantatvāt). they cannot attain ultimately 1 2 6 ) the Supreme Unity which is characterized as no accumulation of Active Force 1 2 7 ) . . T. upa). T. as an attribute to ātmapāramitā. gives no translation of daurgandhya and has instead ' avidyāvāsabhūmigata-mala '. on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance and Immaculate Action caused by the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance. 4) ' Phenomenon of destruction ' means Death as the inconceivable Transformation {acintyā pārināmikī cyuti) 1 2 0 ) conditioned by the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind. & C. . see SMS 220 a: j \ • • • EH. ^J* $ | Jf|. T. 5{îÇ yñ?& • C. take ' paryanta ' as ' atyanta ' and attach it to śubhapāramitā as an attribute. 121) upakleśa. T. . C. apakarsa-paryanta (lit. T h e reading anabhisamskāram is. reads as ' . takes it probably as an attribute to anabhisamskāra. TAKASAKI (sāsravakarman)119). C. y]C \īf jM. dañ Idan—pahî phyir '. ) . C. zag-pa dan bcas-pahi las. rgyun-chad-pahi hchi-hpho (death as the interruption of flowing).J. About avidyā-vāsa- bhūmi being the ground of all upakleśas. AH TPî r>V (ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa gañ-gāhi kluñ-gi byema-las hdas-pa sñed-kyi rten-du gyur-pa). It corresponds to the Decrepitude and Death (jarāmarana) conditioned by the Birth (jāti) [in the Three-Worlds]./yH *|^ (om.

has instead ' dharmakāya \ 13 and See above (Note VIII-115). C.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (rnanomaya-shandha)128). 129) C. 131) 132 ^ samkleśa (T. T. there are born the 3 kinds of body made of mind of the Arhats. there are produced the three spheres of existence. Actions and Originations. there are no Supreme Virtues of Purity. they cannot attain the ultimate Supreme Bliss as the extinction of this Spiritual Aggregate. T. &c".. [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. C. C. Here. . And [lastly]. Therefore. the Dwelling-place of Ignorance is purity of Defilements [in the case of ordinary of Immaculate Action corresponds to the the 3-fold origination of the Body made Inconceivable Transformation corresponds nation1 3 2 ) . atyanta). Thus. duhkha is mentioned (C. [jfcfc] J H ^ [ 217 ] ^ (the lands of the 3 vehicles). °) atyantânanyathābhāvu. gshan—du gyur—pa med—pa. 133 > ŚMS 220 a. in these 3 Bodies made of mind of the Arhats. ff£* . The performance 1 3 1 ) Impurity of Actions. likewise. just as. C. (om. [Thus] O Lord. they cannot remove Death as the Inconceivable Transformation. kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa. for janman. Unity. it is replaced by ' vipāka ' or iskandhadhātv-āyatana \ In all cases what is meant by them is the same Phenomenal Life. 134 » tisrsu bhūmisu. also. om. being conditioned by the dwellingplace of ignorance and caused by the immaculate actions. regards it as an apposition to anāsravakarman. Bliss i2s) f>t yid-kyi rañ-bshin-gyi phuñ-po. O Lord. [And] of mind and Death as the to the Impurity of Origi- And this passage is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture 1 3 3 ) .. T. they cannot attain the absolutely unchangeable 1 3 0 ) Supreme Eternity. \^ • . connects atyanta to nityapāramitā. 3^S. r i * for the three). '/l>* 2 ^ abhisarnskāra. Consequently.Pv H a • G. unless they realize the Essence 129> of the Tathāgata as being arisen from the entire extinction of all impurities in forms of Defilements. ^ < ) is a general term for all the process of samsāra in which kleśa. Pratyekabuddhas Bodhisattvas. to be compared with the Impeople]. . Sometimes. but C. karman and janman are included. being conditioned by [4] graspings and caused by passionate actions. for the birth of the 3-fold Body made of mind in these 3 lands 1 3 4 ) and for the origination of the immaculate actions the dwelling-place of Ignorance is the [inevitable] condition. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained the [10] Controlling Powers.^f jjjg .

T . Therefore. by two reasons there should be known the Supreme Purity in the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. 3) & īft. [ 218 ] . Having destroyed 1 3 8 ) the dualistic view of Ego and non-Ego. should be understood by two reasons : 1) because of the removal of false imagination of Ego by rejecting the extremity peculiar to the Heretics. The Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 136) Verily 137) . T . o m . On the other hand. Both of them have one passage preceding to it. AĀS 472 b. . ātma-. Therefore. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity " .T R » r e s p e c t i v e l y . rtogs(-pa). 4) } § 3 C I B (trouble by fault or death). the Supreme Bliss. BGŚ 799 b. o m . // 37 // He is blissful because the Mind-made Aggregate And its causes have been removed [completely]. J|_ âfc ] g # ] # 1g M flf)136) Cf. That is to say. 140) usual. // 38 // In short. He is the highest Unity because he is quiescent. C. G. on the 4 troubles (ff]£) corresponding to the respective impediments. ( h a v i n g r e m o v e d ) . He is eternal because he has realized 1 3 9 ) The equality of the Phenomenal Life and Nirvana. namely: 1) %g| '(pśl Ifi î 2) S I SB. 138) 137) ksaya. 1) through his being perfectly pure by nature. and the Buddha got his appellation because of his attainment of this purity. sāmānyalaksana & viśesalaksana. C. f § . T . as Here ' sāmānya ' means common to all living beings.J. and 2) because of the removal of false imagination concerning non-substantiality by rejecting »»> ŚMS 222 a (C. it is peculiar to the Buddha and shows the superiority (jffi) of the Buddha. | A | * R & Jj/T . as the common feature. too. and 2) through his being perfectly pure by the removal of pollution. 139 > prativedha. TAKASAKI and Eternity. as the special feature [to the Buddha] 1 4 0 ) . the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is pure Because of his innate purity and removal of Impressions. it is the cause (|S|) for the attainment of the highest purity. ffj£. § 4. C. it is said1 3 5 ) : " Only the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is the Supreme Eternity. removal of pollution is not innate to living beings. therefore. The Supreme Unity. Ā C. treats these two verses in prose and regards them as the commentary on the quotation above mentioned. pjfl.

§ 4' (The Unstable Nirvana). its cause. It would never be the true perception at all. ^V* $s|ç & sv* -tjA» respectively. to annihilate duhkha means to realize that duhkha is extinguished by nature. & C. T. shows this way of interpretation. snon-pa) in its sense. BGŚ ' / | > % 3 j | *$% & 3S§ ^W ^Si > resp. Hence the reading should be nirvānâsamāropana-). 2) nor does he fall into the Eternalistic Extremity through his not intensifying 1 4 4 ) the eternal Nirvana. it would be better to consider the annihilation of duhkha and that of vāsanā as ' two reasons '. The Supreme Bliss is to be known likewise by two reasons: 1) because of the abandonment of the origination 141) of o f all suflferings as well as the extirpation of succeeding origination Impressions.e. there is no duhkha in the ultimate sense. tshul-gyi sgo. though it has some confusion on the way. In other words. 141) 146) fa 147) ucchedadrsti 148) & śāśvatadrsti. From the context. because [the Bodhisattvas] realize the Unstable Nirvana (apratisîhitanirvāna). i. C. 143) ^ in) anapakarsana & asamāropana. Logically. respectively. the reading in C. C. cf. O Lord. has hbrid-pa. and similarly ' duhkha ' signifies that of ordinary people. this view would be an Eternalistic Perception 147 '. It is said as follows 1 4 5 ) : " If someone would perceive that all the Phenomenal Worlds are non-eternal. om. therefore. This ' vāsanā-anusandhi ' corresponds to manomayakāya of the Saints. (a negative particle is required before samāropa. T. this view would be a Nihilistic Perception1 4 6 ) . [ 219 3 . by this introduction to the theory 1 4 8 ) of the Absolute Essence. have kāya instead of skandha. C. T. which means ' t o impose' and is close to samāropa (T. 1) shows an actual ' annihilation ' and 2). And it would never be the True Perception at all " . BGS 799 C nayamukha. and 2) because of the realization of all sufferings as well as the realization of extinction of the Mind-made Aggregates142). seems better.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a the extremity peculiar to the Śrāvakas. For apakarsana. it is said from the highest view-point that the Phenomenal Life itself is Nirvana. being indiscriminative of both [the Phenomenal Life and anusandhi. C f£C \ 4 • For this passage. [And finally] by two reasons the Supreme Eternity is to be known: 1) Because he does not fall into the Nihilistic Extremity through his not diminishing143'. O Lord. neglecting the non-eternal Phenomenal Life. mtshams-sbyor-ba. If someone would perceive that the Nirvana is eternal. 142) Both T. Therefore. 145 > ŚMS 220 a. (But the meaning is the same) Of these two columns.

[So it is said] 1 5 4 > : [Though] Having destroyed affection for himself By means of the Intellect. sbyor—ba. Lit. for which two reasons ? Here. the Bodhisattva has exterminated without remainder the tendency of desire. completely. for two reasons. and parinirvāna is. therefore. 39. hence. Thus these two qualities (i. as do those who seek only for Quiescence (śamaikayānagotra)153). this apratisthitanirvāna. Then. C. 153) T. he is not remote from them since he never abandons them owing to his Great Compassion. 150) āsanna-dūrl-bhāva. shi-ba bgrod-pa gcig-pahi rigs. 149 » ubhayathā'vikalpana. Being opposed to either of them. the Bodhisattva is not entirely involved among all living beings because he has completely rejected all tendencies of desires by means of the Transcendental Intellect. 39 in its contents. 154) This verse seems to be a quotation even if the preceding prose commentary is genuine. T. i. C. being deeply intent towards the Nirvana for his own sake. he never abandons those suffering people. It signifies śrāvakayānika & pratyekabuddhayānika. By means of the Intellect.e. having activity 1 5 2 ) in this Phenomenal Life. hence.I Nirvana] 1 4 9 ) . (One who has non-discriminative [Wisdom] distinguishes neither Phenomenal Life nor Nirvana. The term pada signifies actually nirvana. j J t jfcfc Z l ffi A^ 'ft fy\ tfc • Of this point. (but the verse is a quotation) and that later on that verse was replaced by the following passage along with v. mi—gnas-pahi gnas. 39. T. the Intellect and Great Compassion) are the root. But C. [At the same time]. have no further explanation. owing to his Great Compassion. These facts seem to show that the original text was as C. This is the means for the acquisition of the Supreme Enlightenment of which the Unstability is the essential nature. the explanation will be made merely about how to attain this Unstable stability 1 5 1 ) . puts one verse which explains this point: & T. Bodhisattvas may be termed as ' parinirvānagotraka '. 152 ' prayoga. indeed. in this world.J. for the sake of others.e. in the ultimate point. Here. Moreover. but it is difficult to identify both verses. near and remote state. in whom the mind of Compassion towards living beings is lacking. [ 220 ] . om. they are neither entirely involved among all living beings nor remote from them 1 5 0 ) . S. [At the same time]. aparinirvānagotra and śamaîkayānagotra. This verse has a similarity to some extent with v. he does not abide in the Nirvana. he does not stay in the Phenomenal Life as the lineage of no Nirvana (aparinirvānagotra). and perceives the equality of both Nirvana and Phenomenal Life). the foundation of the Highest Enlightenment. m ' apratislhita—pada. the following sentences along with v. TAKASAK.

pratyupasthāna. // 40 // So it is said 44 159) : O Lord.) ' aniyata-' seems to be the original reading. Nor will there be desire nor earnest wish. T. even of those people who are fixed in the wrong way 1 6 1 ) has the two kinds 162) of foundation of its actions. The form nih—śri is etymologically a wrong reading for ni-śri and probably caused by actual pronunciation. 6. in brief. The Saint approaches neither this world nor Nirvana 1 5 6 ) . C. with reference to the subject of ' function' which is previously maintained (in verse 35). does not approach Quiescence because of his affection for the people. (e. (aniyata-sattvarāśi) and BGS agree with C. <\* _/£. Nor prayer for Nirvana. 1. T.g. as S. The Functions of the Germ for its Purification (IV) 1 5 7 ) .e. // 39 // K 5. the Essence of the Buddha. BGŚ 799 c-800 c (4. T. it produces disgust * nihśritya. brten—nas. what is shown by the latter half of that śloka ? jf 158) there is no Essence of the Buddha. nihsyanda for nisyanda). 162) cause [ 221 ] . There will be no aversion to Suffering. p. 9. nor earnest wish for it or ptfayer for it ". 158) sacet (BHS). 156) samvrti (covered) and nirvrti (dis-covered) in the text. being full of Mercy. then there would arise neither aversion to Suffering nor desire for Nirvana. 167) Cf. Now. lei) F o r mithyātvaniyata-. Pali sace. ñe-bar gnas-par byed-de (upasthita). Here. 159 155 > ŚMS 222 6. Yñ î^F I n | 2 | (viśuddhi-hetu). BGS. insertion of Visarga after ni. See S.This is an apposition to buddhadhātu. ^ffc . mam-par dag-pahi rigs. That is to say.The Ratnagotravibhāga The Saint. See Note VIII-211. C.• • ( t o to work).' the Icchantikas are implied and this passage does not refer to the Icchantikas. (Cf. the perfectly pure Germ 1 6 0 ) . as samsāra and nirvana. f)b I P .before double consonant bearing a sibilant at the head. C. i. (T.. These two means of Enlightenment. T. 160) viśuddhigotra. since by the term ' mithyātvaniyata~ s. Ypf }^r* ifE). karman). if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. Thus standing on 1 5 5 ) both the Intellect and Mercy.

cetanā. 168) 169) cetanā cittâbhisamskāra. ) . de-la hdun-pa ni mñon-par hhod-paho. — The former is full of Suffering. E3 *VPV ( kuśalamūla). ' from pāpa- [ 222 ] . Indeed. 170) gotram antarena. together with an explanation of this Cf. i S 3t§ fr (adhigama)). C. Thus this perception does not take place without causes or without conditions. has a similar sentence. C. Here anuśamsa stands for guna in the following verse and corresponds to dosa in case of samsāra. T . om. without causes and conditions and were not brought about through the extirpation of sinm > . C. i«5) This sentence is lacking in S. j g 5JC & j j | j fnj . if it were without Germ 1 7 0 ) . T . The rendering from T. And does not exist with people of no Germ. lvi) >phe r e a d i n g should b e corrected i n t o * pāpâsamuccheddayogena samucchedayogena (ace. tshol-ba. and that Nirvana is blissful. T. f o r t u n e . T. {\j^ ^jj* ^ y / f T » b u t T . anuśamsa. Cf. phyogs-pa (abhimukha. is as follows: tatra cchando * bhilāsah 166) T . & C. jjf R ^ (mukti). dkar-po [hi] cha / (so J ' s fn. śuklâmśa. earnest wish and prayer for the Nirvana. desire. "jj/Ç *\jf. Here.. and it calls forth longing. parimārganā is a unique form in B H S for Skt. (śukladharma). term (3 amśas.J. b r i g h t l o t . The context shows its necessity. dkar-pohi chos. It exists only in case the Germ of the Buddha exists. // 41 // The perception that Phenomenal Life is full of suffering. ^5t WFC f° r sukhânuśamsa. C.). basing itself upon the perception that happiness is the merit 1 6 4 ) . The latter is of bliss. C. ^ p " JJ (as S. . phan-yon. But T. T . hence it is the fault. it would exist even with 163) 164) nihśrayena. * longing ' (chanda) means * expectation ' (abhilāsa)165>. TAKASAKI witn Phenomenal Life basing itself upon 1 6 3 ) the perception of the fault of Suffering. — this perception belongs to those people who are possessed of good virtues 1 6 9 ) and exists only in case the Germ [of the Tathāgata] exists. t o strive t o pro167) cure). C. ' Prayer' (pranidhi) means ' will ' (cetanā) or 4 manifestation (abhisamskāra) of the mind ' 1 6 8 . going ahead). = C. The perception of Phenomenal Life and Nirvana. hence it is the merit. P a l i sukkâmsa. i t . o m . hence is the fault. f l v .jjjg f|* ft (punya). t o T . don-du gñer-ba (to provide for. BGS. b u t D. ' Earnest Wish ' (prârthanā) means ' searching for ' (parimārganā)167) the means to attain the intended object. therefore it is the merit. /[* | 2 ^ î p § . C. For prârthanā. * Desire ' (icchā) means 4 unco war dliness ' (asamkoca)166) for the attainment of the intended object. parimārgana. .

3 2 : Tathāgatotpattisambhava-parivarta). to prevent the generation of bad quality which has not yet appeared). -îjjj.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Icchantikas who are of the lineage of no Nirvana. adds jñāna after tathāgata. 242 c. ^<j£ JS\ =P Hfc TlE H*-i T ' ī=î (tasmād uktam Avatamsaka-gotrotpattau j tatah paścād . translation. ' anyatamadharma). C. BGŚ (Z9 i f } 1= fflg (catur[ārya]cakra as T.•£?. ' j ^ £ | (to practise). (The saying: the Icchantikas are of no Nirvana. [ 223 ] . . 175) It ha^s an explana- T.. chos. B u t a sentence closer to this q u o t a t i o n is found i n J A Ā . : "•> Cf. beginning with having contact with a personage of high virtue 1 7 5 ) . There is. .). According to C. 3) |=} Spo) 1/Ç . according to O. .). ) . T . 3) to contemplate the meaning of the doctrine. and its four items are 1) to approach the personage of high virtue.. BGŚ 787 c-788 c ( $ J 2^L 5}" W> H tf* #JÎE '}* =31 î f t p p W> —')» de—hi hog—tu . C. . however. catuhśukla. 616 b (in Chap. but C. tion of the term ' cakra '. and 4) to practise according to the teaching. to avoid the bad quality already produced. it cannot take place unless they bring about the Germ which is purified from accidental pollutions and the faith in any one of three Vehicles 1 7 2 ) through being endowed with 1 7 3 ) the 4 kinds of good actions 1 7 4 ) . 3) mi-dge-bahi chos skyes-pa spoñ-ba. 179j T. ' stands for > samavadhāna.^»P H f e ' which includes monks as well where discussion is held around t h e existence of ' buddhagotra ' a m o n g various schools of B u d d h i s m . Really. 173 * ^ J . to produce good quality which has not been produced. it is called ' JiiJ ā p fjj ' (catuskuśaladharma. 2) to attend and accept the teaching. but most probably for catuhśukladharma). T. 2) the accumulation of virtue. as laymen. ^ t (C. 2) skyes-pa mi-ñams-pa. The latter fourfold group seems not relevant to this passage. 4) fff 7^ ^ y r&i. skyes-bu dam-pa. and 4) sublime vows and correct appreciation. to retain what is produced. The third and perhaps the most suitable one is found in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 174) of Mahāyāna. 178) Tjjg reading ' yatra hy āha / tatra paścād' is somewhat doubtful. and 4) mi-dgebahi chos ma—skyes—pa rnams mi—bskyed—pa. 2) j g ^pp TCP |fj£. T. (as O's note). yañ-dag-par hbyor-ba. They are the 4 wheels of the great vehicle. 3) a favourable dwelling-place. another fourfold group in Tibetan under the name of ' catuhśukladharma (dkar—pohi chos bshi) ' or ' caturākaraśukla (dkar—po mam bshi) ' (they are namely: 1) dge-bahi chos ma skyes-pa bskyed-pa. and C. hkhor-lo bshi (catuścakra). which are. 1) the reliance upon a saintly personage. according to C. shes gsuñs—so ' (yata āha I tatah paścād . . Cf. satpurusa. 177) Avat S. gañ-gi phyir. is only conventional) 176) It is however said [in the Scripture] 1 7 7 ) : " After this 1 7 8 ) the rays of the disk of the sun-like Tathāgata179> 172 > dharma is here used for yāna. T . which are 1) # 0 *?£ ft US ~T.

/ (T. 190) paricchādita. About this beginningless nature of samsāra. \ y. this being the cause of their being Icchantikas and refers to a certain period of time 1 8 3 ) . as there exists the Germ which is pure by nature. T . Cf. with no difference. they cause them to thrive with virtuous qualities 1 8 1 ) . ^j< ^H ^*'J iSfc • iZ^ 182 (śukladhamra). dus-gshan-la dgoñs-nas. f 4 . one phrase of ' tān upakurvanti ' should be inserted. TAKASAKI fall upon the bodies of even those people who are fixed in the wrong way and make benefits for them 1 8 0 ) . T. 186) Tjjg s o u r c e u n k n o w n . have the possibility 185) of being purified. ' t h e shape of gold '. ' In the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. 72 11. indeed. T . C. but not forever. 188) dhruvadharma. And furthermore producing the cause of future [bliss] [in them].$K. tha-ma dan Idan-pa. It is endowed with Eternity 1 8 8 ) . 184 185) > -dharman bhavyatā. Indeed. with reference to the fact that all living beings. Being pure by nature. T. o m . [The Phenomenal Life] has its end 1 8 7 ) . 180) Ace. jiv VRÇ ER mf . Therefore. Just as the gold 1 8 9 ) concealed 1 9 0 ) [in sand and dust] " . C. C. gser-gyi gzugs. • T . de- dag-la phan hdogs-par hgyur shin. none could be of the absolutely impure nature 1 8 4 ) . BGŚ 786 c: jj§ j ^ ffi£ tf* . the Lord has said again 1 8 6 ) : " Though being beginningless. The meaning is that the Icchantikas remain as aparinirvānagotraka only for the certain period of time when they have hatred against the doctrine of Mahāyāna. to T. 13-16.J . [ 224 ] . T . It should be noted that samsāra is not endless. & C. &c. [This nature] is however invisible. p. This sentence a n d t h e following verse are missing in C. (ifc). . Being covered from outside By the beginningless sheath [of defilements]. And also the saying : " the Icchantikas are by all means of the nature of no Perfect Nirvana " 1 8 2 ) is taught in order to remove the hatred against the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. 189) suvarnabimba L i t . bsgribs ( = vrta). see S. 183) According to O's interpretation. See Note VIII-242. ruñ-pa-ñid. 18 7) avasānika.

^pf . That is to say. dhātu. It is akin to the lantern. with reference to the meaning of 4 Union ' {yoga). BGS 801 a (5. consisting of prajñā and karunā. One is the union of dhātu. where ' āśrayaparivrtti ' and ' nirvana' are discussed along with this subject. i. the Essence of the Tathāgata has a resemblance to the great ocean in three ways. because of its nature of Being endowed with properties indivisible [from it] 1 9 3 ) . // 43 // On account of three points. T. jñāna and āsravaksaya. phala. ^ ^ ^j£ |5l sattvas are ' dhātu' because of their being ' dharmadhātu-samgraha ' of dharmakāya. Lvirtues. C. The other is the relation of dhātu. consequently he is endowed with abhijñā. Here. there is one śloka. Of the Buddha's Wisdom and Compassion 1 9 5 ) . avinirbhāga). a sattva is called dhātu: and just because he is dhātu.) between jñāna and karunā. [ 225 ] . with its properties. (Kārikā 8) Being the inexhaustible storage 192) of jewels of immeasurable [The Germ of the Buddha is] like the Ocean. See commentary. // 42 // § 1. D Ś 893*: JÎD * ? | ft ft. yoga). jewels and water.The Ratnagotravibñaga (V) YOGA 191) Now. And this union is an unseparable accompaniment (samanvāgama. here in the sense of ' hetu '. Cf. and through this Under this subject of 'yoga\ two kinds of ' u n i o n ' are discussed. khams. sambaddha. 194) 19sJ 191) »> Cf. being possessed of hetu of dharmakāya. gnas. avyatireka. respectively. 192 ' ākara. Through being receptacle. with dharmakāya. e. The Union of the Germ with the Factors of its Purification. inserts ' samādhi ' (>çH. in the sense of hetu. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because it consists of the sources 1 9 4 ) of the Absolute Body. dhātu. in the sense of dharmadhātu. C. « A C. * j g ft S f f i . T. There is shown the similarity of the Germ with the ocean.

always translates i t into * hjugs ' without prefix. the accompaniment 196) x. hisattva's Compassion has a similarity to ' water' same taste 2 0 3 ) . TAKASAKI similarity. which are the three points ? 197) They are namely: [its being provided with] 1) the cause of purification of the Absolute Body {dharmakāyaviśuddhihetu) . (D) has ' tathāgatamahākarunā (de-bshin-gśegs-pahi thugsrje chen-po). in all the 202 world. "$C P 9 ^P? ^ ffi< Wt ' dhātu-samgraha ' in the verse is h e r e explained b y this ' hetii—samanvāgama '. has. and 3) the cause of the manifestation of Buddha's Great Compassion {tathāgatamahākarunāvfttihetu) 198) . it manifests the highest moisture with the feature of one and the i. Then. in this [receptacle]. ( D ) h a s ' kāya '. the practice of faith in [the Doctrine] > of the Great Vehicle has a similarity to the ' receptacle' because. 2) ' t h e cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom'. the subject ' Union' should be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is provided with causes [of its purification] (hetu-samanvāgama) 196) . The practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation has a similarity to ' jewel ' because of its being indiscriminative and being endowed with inconceivable and powerful virtues. -dah Idan-pa. 200) Great Compassion 201 . This coherence (sambaddha)204) The practice of Bodbecause. T . and 3) ' t h e cause of the manifestation the practice of Bodhisattva's 199 ' of Buddha's Great Compassion'. 41" ( = pravrtti). Here prayoga has the sense of ' presentation or manifestation ' in connection with the term laksana (laksana—prayoga. B G S s a y s ' XtL H~^ 198> ^ equal to S. About ' pravrtti '. 201) T . For prayoga. there is an accumulation > of the jewel of Intellect and Meditation as well as the water of Compassion which are immeasurable and inexhaustible. T . which is apparently one taste ' and om. 2) the cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom (buddhajñānasamudāgamahetu).e. simply ' tasyām aparimeya—aksayatvāt' a n d o m . Here. h a s ' ^ f f ' (prāpti) i n s t e a d of ' vrtti '. C. the practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation. 200) i ^ distinguishes t h e karunā of t h e B u d d h a from t h a t of t h e Bodhisattva b y using ' thugs—rje ' for t h e former a n d ' sñiñ-rje ' for t h e latter. 197> Against J ' s n o t e . /fJEJ 4~T [ 226 ] . T . 202 ' samavasarana.®: fft-W-fflfflT. 199) Against J ' s note.J . Here. laksana. ' prajñāsamādhiratnakarunāvāri—samavasarana '. but C. C. h a s ' dharma ' after ' mahāyāna '. C. hjug-pa. which C. C. rgyu dah Idan-pa. T. T . hdu—ba (mixing u p ) . B u t T . B u t . 1) ' the cause of purification of the Absolute Body' is to be known as the practice of faith in [the Doctrine of] the Great Vehicle. 203) >p# reads ' its nature of the highest moisture in all the world is endowed with teM^S^C ftaSffi®:.

$j|j ^ff (vaimalya in the verse. ' ^ b ' °f ' Hb <O » Hb /<7§ ' stands for this term and shows the meaning of ' being capable of'. vimalâśraya is synomynous with dharmakāya. The Wisdom and Immaculateness 2 0 7 ) are inseparable from Reality. -dan Idan-pa. ñe-bar gnas-pa (originally from Pali paccatthāna). through its similarity to a lantern in three ways on account of three points. dri-med-gnas. Here. Cf.-s. 211) pratyupasthāna. 209) T . T. 38§ "Çrî > f ° r respective term. 7Î»Ç 7 0 v r (vimala-dhātu).-s. ffl 'Û" • A^ ^ $jfl (absolutely inseparable). Therefore. 13): #0 * • W 3& fe H j B t § S ffi #H M. The Union of the Germ with the Result of Purification. T. and 3) the Extinction of Evil Influence (āsravaksaya)209). etc. C. fp| i § ) . & 5) pūrvanivāsânusmrti-j.-a. 4) paracetah-paryāya-j. 14. which are the three points ? Namely. is here called ' Union'. C. 210 > 1) rddhi-visaya-jñāna-sāksātkriyā-abhijñā. 4 Union ' is here to be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is accompanied by the results [of its purification] (phala-samanvāgama). [ 227 ] . and hence. [-dan] hbral-pa. 3) zag-pa zad-pa. On account of its light. fll ^ vimalâśraya. the practice of faith. i f s ( = Jjîîp l i s ) . 2) divyacaksuh -j. Here āśraya is used for dhātu. Now. & C.-a. the 5 Supernatural faculties 210) have a resemblance to ' light of flame ' because they have a characteristic of engaging in 211) the extinction of darkness which is opposite to the know- §2- 204) T.The Ratnagotravibhāga (samanvāgama)2 0 5 ) of these three things (the Absolute Body and others). DAŚ 893 b (v. C. Mvyut. respectively.-a. •with these three causes.-a. 205 > T.-s. Then. 3) divyaśrotra-j. C.. jfcW $|§ īgtf ^ 3 (jñāna in the verse. 206) 207) C. i f t | . ^ 5 . // 44 // The subject.-s.. 2) zag-pa zad-pahi ye-śes. j^3). T. the supernatural faculties. (āsravaksayajñāna). dri-med. T. In C. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? In the immaculate basis 2 0 6 ) .. [the Essence of the Buddha is endowed with] 1) the Supernatural Faculties (abhijñā). they have a resemblance to a lantern. heat and colour 208 '. 2) the Wisdom by which the evil influence is destroyed. ye-śes. for these 3 terms are respectively: 1) mñon-par śes-pa. C. " > Cf.

pjfl. the example of a lantern is to be understood in detail according to the Sūtra 2 1 8 ) . jñāna. mi—slob~pahi rgyud. lAiiASAKI ledge which perceives an object 2 1 2 ) . Here t h e word jñāna. -JJ^ îrfi -£f . T . C. T. the 5 Supernatural Faculties. '. heat and colour. 214) T. the Wisdom destroying the Evil Influence and the Destruction [of Evil Influence]216). from light. 219) avinirmukta-guna. 5a£ / f ] ^ p . is o m i t t e d . reads ' ftj g ft t f ^ f 1 fL ~ J i ^ 4 S tS ' (its being the body ' aśaiksa—sāntānika. just as a lantern is of indivisible nature and its qualities are inseparable from i t 2 l 9 ) . h a s a peculiar t r a n s l a t i o n . The Wisdom by which the Evil Influence is destroyed is similar to * heat' because of its characteristic of engaging in consuming the fuel 213) of the Active force and Defilements. not different [from each other] and coherent with 2 1 7 ) the Absolute. 218) A A N 467 a. 'J£f| TE*I • I t s t a n d s for āśrayaksaya. Thus. T. indhana (T. colour and shape. 21S C. being āgantukatā. Here. Cf. spañs-pa.. . reads as ' tad-ubhaya-āgantukalā-aprakrtitah ' (glo-bur-pa-ñid-kyi rañbshin ma yin-pahi phyir-ro. om. it is ' stainless ' because it has destroyed the 0b» struction caused by moral Defilements. pure (viśuddha) and radiant (prabhāsvara). C. " O Śāriputra. the Absolute Body. which q u o t e t h e same passage. 313) 212) of innate purity. DAS 893 b. taking prakrti as cittaprakrti. they are not the innate character). It is 4 radiant ' [by nature] because these two [Obstructions] are merely of an occasional nature 2 1 4 ) . It is ' pure ' because it has destroyed the Obstruction on account of knowable things. T . which a p p e a r s i n t h e case of dharmakāya (avinirmuktajñānaguna). [it is] indivisible [inseparable]. t h e whole p a r a g r a p h after ' esa ca yogârtham. . are in the Immaculate Sphere. o m . taught by the arthânubhava. The Extinction of Evil Influence as the [result of] the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis has resemblance to ' colour ' because of its characteristic of being perfectly stainless (vimala). om. C. the properties of those people who have nothing further to learn 2 1 5 ) summarized in these seven. don ñams-su myoñ-ba. And with reference to this subject of 4 Union '. bud-śiñ). in brief. 217) j r o r samanvāgama.j. O Śāriputra.e. a d d s anāsrava before abhijñā. T. c o u n t s 6 anāsravajñānas a n d prahāna s e p a r a t e l y . In the same way. inseparable from each other. ' \~ -=2f a p ? j ^ ' {samânvāgama ?). inseparable]. from its light. The precious stone is also [indivisible. C. C. leaving no residue. i. C. [ 228 ] . these two are occasional defilements). C. That is to say. 216) prahāna. I n s t e a d of ' sapta '. This point is here called 4 Union '.

Enlightenment). Therefore. ' n ) » T. 2 2 3 ) And being of the perfectly 224) right conception. as usual. [the Saints are] the perceivers of the truth. BGŚ 805 c f. Consequently. from the Properties of the Tathāgata which are far beyond the sand of the Gañgā in number ". The Ordinary People. in the sense ' with reference to tathāgatadhātu (^jj ^N i S V r T/« '. C. in the Prajñāpāramitā. That is to say. T. The Buddhas are apart from the dualistic view. // 46 // In connection with the introductory teaching 2 2 5 ) of the Non-discriminative Wisdom. Wisdom (i. for the Bodhisattvas that the Essence of the Tathāgata 226) has the general charac220 > 221) different 222 * 223) Cf. JfjjJ. sgo-la gdams-pa.e.The Ratnagotravibhāga Tathāgata is of indivisible nature. and the Buddhas. of the qualities inseparable from.. jinagarbha = tathāgatagarbha. ^ reads as ' tathatā-vyatirekatah ' and inserts vrtti (manifests the tathatā in way). b u t regards dhātu as dharmadhātu slight difference in t h e meaning. ^ Ç yathāvat = samyak. // 45 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Ordinary People are of erroneous conception. — Thus it is taught by the perceivers of the Reality. Being opposite to them. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. (6. the Matrix of the Buddha 222) exists among [all] living beings. it has been taught. [indivisible. bden-pa mthon-ba. 224) 225) mukhâvadāna. [ (3 ] f£C | J (in the sense of dharmamukhâvadāna). (VI) VRTTI 220) Now. as locative. drstasatya = tattvadarśin (C. 226) T. it shows a [ 229 ] . vrtti). C. also as loca- tive. the Saints. — They are indivisible from Reality 221) . (Kārikā 10) i manifestation' (vrtti). inseparable]. but C. etc.

and 3) citta-v. TAKASAKI teristic of being Reality. have destroyed the delusion. there are threefold different manifestations (pravrtti)228) of three kinds of people:. p. 2) drsti-v. i. Also cf. . ī£5 . ^ . ' of the right conception ' (aviparyasta). T. the perfect purity. 227) [ 230 ] . 231) samjñā. om. XXX. In this translation. C. there is one śloka. T. with reference to the subject. BGŚ 806 a. and 4 of the perfectly right conception 230) and of no dualistic view '. other four subjects should be understood through the detailed explanation [on each subject]. ' different states (avasthāprabheda) ' among these three kinds of people. . AĀS 469 c. Yogācārabhūmiśāstra vol. T. 229) C. sems. 230) G. they are ' of the erroneous conception ' (viparyasta). hdu-śes. T. Cf. And perfectly pure — these are said of tathatā.e. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation '. means ' abhilasitakleśasya kriyā '. being opposite to them.J . BGS 806 a. I repeated the word tathatā twice in order to make the meaning clear. it should be known in brief. the Suchness227) of all the elements. Here. citta. On the basis of this general characteristic. respectively. abhilāsah. (VII) AVASTHÂPRABHEDA 232) Hereafter. has the same translation as in the case of vrtti. Here. ' I J * . (Kārikā 10) Impure. here samyag-aviparyasta. mind and perception 2315 . of the Ordinary People who do not perceive the Truth. 'Of the right conception ' is because the Saints. 314 6): 1) samjñāviparyasta means ' anitye vastuni nitya-parikalpa-pravrttih. Ita-ba. 232 > Cf. ' of the erroneous conception' is because Ordinary People have delusion on account of their conception. & C. respectively. 228) _ Vrtti. C. In other words. adds dharmakāya after tathāgata. drsli. 8 (Taisho. ' of the perfectly right conception and of no dualistic view ' is because the Perfectly Enlightened Ones have dispelled the Obstructions of moral defilement and of knowable things along with their Impressions. [first of all]. [partly] pure and [partly] impure. of the Saints who perceive the Truth and of the Tathāgata 2 2 9 ) who has attained the ultimate purity. C. means ' tatparikalpite chandah. [And lastly].

Designated by 3 different names.. C. C. the Bodhisattva. ^jfī *]§. ' own nature '. see Appendix. T. ? £ ft f § • anāsravadhātu. in accordance with its 3 states. III. 1) in the ' impure ' (aśuddha) state [the Essence of the Buddha is named) ' the Ordinary Beings ' (sattvadhātu)239). khams. beginning with ' own nature '. taught by the Lord in detail through various divisions of Scripture 2 3 7 ) is hitherto briefly summarized by six subjects. koti (-gūdha). j^K f E • Here sattvadhātu stands for prthagjana. A Ā S 469 c. ' result ' [of purification]. 239) 2 37 ) C. " O Śāriputra. That is to say. C. 241) aparyanta. being carried by the stream of 2 3 p o r ārya in the previous Kārikā. ' function ' [towards purification]. // 47 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 5 ) . namely. [hitherto briefly explained] By these six subjects. when it is covered with the limitless 2 4 1 ) sheath of defilements. 'union' [with the cause and result]. ' cause' [of purification]. C. T. ^ $$. V £ |£E.'tM & ft§ H • • • [0T IK][ 231 ] . And the Tathāgata. this Absolute Body. f£C 1 J (mukhesu = dvārena). For dhātu. the Tathāgata.. Ife * # # gl ft ft fit * P 235 » For dhātu. 240) A A N 467 b. It has been said by the Lord2 4 0 ) . Cf. respectively 234) . Here it is specified that ārya is par excellence 3) the Bodhisattvas. respectively. 2) in the ' [partly] pure and [partly] impure' (aśuddhasuddha) state. This very Essence of the Buddha is here to be known as being taught through the teaching of 3 different names in accordance with its 3 states. vrtti See note VIII-8. bye-ba mthah-yas-pas (gtums-pa).The Ratnagotravibhāga The Ordinary beings. whereas the remaining four subjects are peculiar to the tathāgatadhātu. 236) nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu. as forming sub-divisions of the sixth category. // 48 // Any teaching referring to the immaculate Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 6 ) . and 'manifestation' 2 3 8 '. Is. As for the six padârthas. the Bodhisattvas 2 3 3 ) . and 3) in the ' perfectly pure ' (suviśuddha). 238 ' It shows us that the 6 subjects mentioned above are the fundamental categories by which any kind of teaching can be summarized. (koti is regarded as a unit of number).

XXXV. ABORI. It is used in nearly the same sense as dharmaparyāya or dharmapitaka. 247) 24S ālokanîya. jātijarāmaranasamsāra iti j avidyā—nivaranānām . On the contrary. ' upāya '. 234-5). C. thog-ma dañ tha-ma med-pa (of neither bottom nor top. ^ £ P ^ (= ffi H e .J. C. chos-kyi phuñ-po. abiding in the Absolute Essence which is the highest point of purity 2 4 6 ) . C. a new interpretation of ' nadir nâpi paścimam ' was added to its meaning. doing the practice towards Enlightenment by means of the 10 243) 244) Supreme Virtues as including and representing all of the 84 245) thousands groups of Doctrines . samsaratām . TAKASAKI the Phenomenal Life and moving to and fro between death and birth in the course of the beginningless 2 4 2 ) Phenomenal Life. when it has become averse to the Suffering in the stream of Phenomenal Life and become free from all the objects of desire. (viz. and. p. l i t . ^ j ^ fft ^ VÎ. T. 243) ' pranidhi\ ' bala\ and 'jñāna' are counted under this. antargata. etc. r e p r e s e n t e d b y or s u m m a r i z e d i n [ t h e 10 p ā r a m i t ā s ] . this term was interpreted in two ways. has attained the unexcelled. translation shows this sense. 1) uktam hi Bhagavatā j Anavarâgro hi. O Śāriputra. having been perfectly released from all the sheaths of defilements. however. anamata was changed into anavara (reason unknown) and regarded as the compound of ' an-avara-agra '. ip*. blta-bar bya-ba.The number of group is usually counted as 84 thousand. pūrvakotir na prajñāyata iti II {Prasannapadā. 245 » dharmaskandha. pūrvā prajñāyate kotir nety vāca mahāmunih j samsāro'navarâgro hi nâsyâdir nâpi paścimam j / (MK XI. 151. T. but from the literal meaning of its Sanskritized form ' anavarâgra '. . SN II. . when. this very Absolute Body. which seems to mean ' whose beginning is unknown '. 178. . V. ascending to the stage to be looked upon 2 4 7 ) by all living beings. it has its origin in Pali anamatagga. Poussin. We have a good example in Candrakīrti's Prasannapadā. As an epithet to samsāra. p. Furthermore. *j]q£. a prefix of intensitive sense). By Sanskrit^ zation. 144. O Sāriputra. having rejected all stains of subsequent defilements. is called 4 the [ordinary] living beings '. Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. -JftÇ iSr 'flf (there is nobody superior to him). This same Absolute Body. 246 > paramaviśuddhadharmatā. it is called 'the Bodhisattva'. T. sattvānām . Bap at. 244) daśapāramitāh. fj\ H&. C. . having surpassed all the Sufferings. In Sanskrit sources. bhiksavo. manly strength 2 4 8 ) among all 2121 anavarâgra. 193: III. T.). vol. (an'-amata-agga. V Î S b . C. gñis-su med—pahi skyes—buhi mthu. P. it has become pure. Besides the 6 pāramitās taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. Here I suppose that the term anamatagga had originally the sense ' pūrvā kotir na prajñāyate '. without beginning nor end). 3s*Ç 5 o ^N (°f beginningless time). T. . 218) (Cf. * advitīyam paurusam sthāma. [ 232 ] . C. on'— anu. . perfectly pure. has retained the original sense of this term.

T. sarvatraga). C.T h e R a cn a g o t r a v i b h ā g a knowable spheres. nisthā is replaced by ' gunaviśuddhinisthā ' in the commentary. nisthā. silver or gold. (VIII) SARVATRAGA 2 0 5) The Essence of the Tathāgata is ' all-pervading (sarvatraga) ' in these three states. cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu. JHQ . respectively. C. virtuous or the ultimate point of pure virtue. 264) C. or superior. ^ | 5 J ^ . pijfl: Cf. £j} jî@ . C. Just as space occupies all the visible forms 2 5 3 ) . With reference to this meaning. AÂS 469 c-470 a. (Kārikā 11) Just as being of indiscriminative nature. just as space penetrates all the receptacles regardless of material. viz. Either inferior. BGŚ 806 b (8. gñes-pa. Therefore. there is one śloka. T. v. The immaculate nature of the mind 2 5 1 ) . it is all-per249) 260) 254) anāvarana-dharma. [ 233 ] . see next (IX) Avikāra. whether clay. C. the virtuous and the ultimate 2 5 2 ) . the Perfectly Enlightened One " . T. sems-kyi "u)j P-Ip. mthar-thug. JEJ |_E TRÇ ^ 3 " LJ* (prakrti—vaimolya—citta). T. rañ-bshin dri-med T. gzugs-. 252) dosa. which is of no obstruction 249 ' and of no hindrance. BHS Die. f*^ . and has attained the Controlling Power on all separate elements. 2B1) dbyiñs. Space pervades everywhere. guna. as in the Kārikā. T. § ft î H ^ p 'l>. C. yon-tan. the Arhat. // 49 // What is shown by this Śloka ? It pervades with common feature The defective.. T. s. of the Saints and of the Buddhas has a common feature in these three states. irrespective of their being defective. 253) rūpagata ( = rūpa). sgrib-pa med-pahi chos-can. then it is called the Tathāgata. // 50 // That which is the indiscriminative Innate Mind (cittaprakrti) of the ordinary people. middle. Similarly all-pervading is the Essence. Of these three.

C. which are shown by the [first] 12 ślokas and by the [next] one śloka. 0 Śāriputra. unchangeable (avikāra) either by Impurity or through puiification 258) . pūrva-paryanta. there are 14 ślokas. pravrtti. of no difference and is present always 2 5 5 ) . Therefore it is of unchangeable character In the beginning as well as afterwards 2 6 0 ) . respective255) prāptā sarvakālam. [Prior to the explanation of these ślokas]. which is quoted in BGŚ (806 b) with a heading ' ]£\\ vRv _Ll YI\ nixi ī=l ' ( a s n a s been said in the Anuttarâśrayasūtra). C. samkleśa-vyavadāna. is. With reference to this subject. sthiti. BGS 806 c (9. all-embracing. viz. moreover. it treats ' avikāritva ' from 6 points. however. rçç. being all-pervading in these three states. however. ' ' "tj/J ftf ^ . 258) samkleśa-vyavadāna. find out any similar verse in the present texts of the Sandhinirmocana. It is. has ' dus tham—cad—du khyad—par med—par gyur—pa '. BGŚ ^ g . 260 > The same vexse appears in BGŚ 806 c: ^ ||| ^ {|| ffi ^f § ft f^ Ā£ #H J 5 ^fe SP IB J § 3S£ 18 JH ffl • It is regarded in BGŚ as a verse from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra ( ^ n 1 ^ @ ^ ® ^ ? ^ ^ t S l S P Î f f i S f l l W). T. it has been said in the same scripture 2 5 6 ) .. 25 7) Cf. and the Absolute Body is nothing but the living beings. endowed with virtues by nature.We cannot. For this reason. jāti. the summarized meaning 2 5 9 ) of these ślokas is to be known by the following verse: Being possessed of faults by occasion. 256 > AAN 467 b. immediately after the explanation of different states: " Therefore. connecting nirviśistā with this phrase. Avikāra) Under this subject. equal. T. 259) pindârtha. (IX) AVIKĀRA 257) Now. and bhañga. bsdus—has-pahi don.J. TAKASAKI vading.^ ^ . the [ordinary] living beings and the Absolute Body are not different from each other. C. These two are non-dual by meaning. ^fc fjf (impurity and purity). the Essence of the Tathāgata. C. [ 234 ] . Furthermore it adds the 9 illustrations on kleśa there. For dharmatā. // 51 // In the impure state as well as in the pure and impure state. J f f^ | § . and different merely by letters " . The living beings are nothing but the Absolute Body. P)fy B/£ . A quite equivalent passage is found in AÂS (469 c).

90—91). indicating the identification of this verse with v. since this verse is in a series of Kārikās and ayam denotes ' cittaprakrtivaimalyadhātu ' in v. but T. being the subject noun for ' ayam '.The Ratnagotravibhāga ly. bodhi. who. denoting the same subject of cittapraknivaimalyadhātu (C. as far as the independent use of ' ayam ' is concerned. This is a special adjective to buddhadharma or -guna. A similar case is found in v. j t #P tt . See Note 1—23. inseparable from Wisdom 2 6 2 ) . seem to support the reading in loc. in the perfectly pure state. pp. This [Essence265*] remains unpolluted [by defilements]. adj. the same as sattvadhātu- 264) [ 235 ] . amuktajñu (BHS. showing inseparability of guna from buddhajñāna. translates ayam into ' j^p '(££ '. {A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I.). what is said in 12 ślokas ? (Kārikās 12-23) Just as space. pp. 49. 261 // 52 // ' dharma —•.guna. Studies in Indology and Buddhology. & C. pp. 52 = Bhagavadgltā XIII 32. 55 & 76). This is an abbreviated form of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' which occurred in a quotation from AAN (S. Gokhale. V. i. However. [the Essence of the Tathāgata] is possessed of faults caused by fundamental and subsequent defilements ' by occasion '. 3 & 39) and its first use is probably in SMS (see quotations from SMS in S. ' -M^ /JJu ' (unreleased) does not exactly convey its meaning. treats this passage in verse. (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State First of all. 1955. B) is raised by Prof. (So C. Cannot be polluted because of its subtle nature. [On the contrary]. S. it is 4 essentially ' endowed with the Buddha's virtues 261> which are indivisible [from the Absolute Body]. XIII. is of absolutely unchangeable character throughout different states 2 6 4 ) .e. being all-pervading. inconceivable and far greater in number than the sands of Gangā. C. Yamaguchi. buddhadhātu). T. C. 32 in the Bhagavadgltā. shown by the 14th śloka. abiding everywhere among living beings 2 6 5 ) . Therefore it is explained that the Essence of the Tathāgata 2 6 3 ) . It should be ' ye—śes dan ma bral—ba '. also ' y)p j f £ ' ) . like space. Similarly. 265) A doubt about the reading ' sattve ' in the text (for satvo in Ms. suggested the reading ' sattvas ' instead of sattve. T. with reference to the subject of ' unchangeability ' [of the Essence of the Tathāgata] in the Impure State. Therefore. Kyoto. 54. V. bral mi—śes or C. there seems to be no problem. where enam is also used independently. Presented in Honour of Prof. reads the second line as ' sarvasattvesv avasthitas tatha'yam ndpalipyate / Here ' sattva' seems to be used in a collective sense. 263 262) > For dhātu.

^ C. And the Active Force and Defilements exist always On the basis of the Irrational Thought 2 7 3 ) .# £n H ft A ^ $3 M Â S in Jb 9 272) skandha-dhātv-indriya — skandhâyatanadhâtavah (vv.^ IE iâî cittaviśuddhi — cittaprakrti. jarā: T. rga-ba. prakrti. T. Vpf ÎT [ 236 ] . // 54 // The earth is supported by water. l j > . hchi-ba.^ A ) . C. •»)Cf.. hdus ma-byas dbyiñs.l2):in— 268) 269) S70) -eJffrH dagdha-pūrva. Grammatically the form should be ' pradahanti ' instead of ' pradahati*. mrtyu. phuñ-po [dañ] kham [dañ] dbaû [-po] ( = skye-mched). ( = anāsravadhātu). lE S 'I"S. // 55 // Similarly all the component elements [of Phenomenal Life] 272) Have their foundation in the Active Force and Defilements. // 56 // The Irrational Thought is founded In the [innate] mind which is pure2 7 4 ) . ^ 274) # S 'fft. no support In any [of the worldly] phenomena. nor in the earth. TAKASAKI Just as the worlds have everywhere Their origination and destruction in space. tshul-bshin ma-yin yid[-la] byed[-pa]: C. It seems to indicate cittaprakrti (see v. By these. The innate mind has. y Q . By the fire [at the end of the world].^ f H ( 1 ^ . // 57 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life 266) asamskrta-dhātu. no support Neither in air. The sense-organs appear and disappear 2 6 7 ) . na-ba. 57).DAŚ893«(v. of illness and decrepitude 2 6 9 ) Cannot consume 2 7 0 ) this [Essence of the Buddha] 271». and air by space. vyādhi. nor in water. ayoniśomanasikāra. 273) ayonimanaskāra = ayoniśomanaskāra. Similarly. 58. Likewise the fires of death. C. cittasya prakni. all the Phenomenal world is indicated. however. . Space has. 61). PH . Water by air. T. jfj^f . // 53 // Just as space has never been burnt 2 6 8 ) . however. on the basis of the Innate Essence 2 6 6 ) . 8 3 a (v. T. ii).J. ^Ei * resp. C.

C. four periods within one Kalpa. C. fl\ . the impurity 2 8 0 ) by stains of desires. // 58 // The Irrational Thought is known As having resemblance to air. Just as [the world repeats its] evolution and devolution 2 7 8 ) . T. 3 (vikalpa = ayoniśomanasikāra). has ' de-bshin ' (ladvat). hjig-pa. 281) [ 237 ] . JJX. The Innate Mind is like space. tat-samvarta-vivartavat (lit. Show their appearance and disappearance [repeatedly]. ' ayoniśo manasah krtih = ayoniścmanasikāra. It has neither origination nor destruction. a circle of world process. etc. abhūtakalpa. devolution and evolution). C. // 61 // The Innate Mind is like space. hchags-pa. M L ^ 5) Jv\ • It stands for ayoniśomanasikāra. empty). 12. // 63 // 275 > For ' tad '. and for vivarta ( = vividham vartate). Originated from the water-like Active Force and Defilements. as S. 279) sāmagrî. Being of no root and of no support 2 7 5 ) . ālīna (ā lī) (c. gnas. and samvartasthāyin (£??. The 4 are namely: vivarta (/PC). . shows negative sense: ' ñon—moñs mi-hgyur '. T. By the Irrational Action of mind. T. ^ 0 'Û* • 280 ' T. There occurs the irrational action of mind 2 7 7 ) . j ^ | . // 60 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life. however. Nor even stability [between two points]. // 62 // The innate nature of the mind is brilliant And. ace). Or complex [of producing factors] 2 7 9 ) . See Note VIII-305. The Active Force and Defilements are produced. p. T. See S. vivartasthāyin (tī£)> samvarta (JiPI). has no transformation at all. // 59 // Abiding in 2 7 6 ) the Innate Mind. yañ-dag min rtogs. with respect to pollution by āgantukakleśa seems to be the usual way in Tibetan tradition. Being of no cause or condition. *£? fjH iVfff But C. For samvarta. like space. These are two of 276) 277 278> C. C. This word reminds us of ālayavijñāna. T. It bears. Which are of accident and produced by wrong conception 2 8 1 ) .. .The Ratnagotravibhāga Are known as akin to the earth. (-TrT H& Al^ Negative interpretation of T. And the Active Force and Defilements of living beings Are known as akin to water. tshogs-pa. 1. T.

Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind. C.J. seems. ( = samcaya. > vivarta = abhinirvarta. a group of fires of death. which is. how is the unchangeable character of the 282) Essence of the Tathāgata in the impure state explained ? I t is said 283) as follows : The accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements 284) Cannot produce this space-like [Innate Mind]. But this origination 286) of t h e world never causes the evolution of t h e Innate Mind which has 287) a resemblance to space. hjig-par byed-pa. both S. accumulation). 64 as a quotation is not reasonable. C. C. however. Bñ'^'AQ 'S&fâ. But even by this ari> For dhātu. run as follows: 283 282 i)*īESt8S ttitfiCtii*. ' Y$~^ >i9fy ' is p r o b a b l y a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C. J's further suggestion of v. T. f S 7fc). [ 238 ] > C. 286 287) 288) 289 skandha. // 64 // The origination of t h e world classified into [5] elementary groups. By this analogy of space. in its turn. Two verses in C. In the same way. 284) 285 abhinivartayati. 18 component elements or 12 bases of cognition which is founded on t h e accumulation of air-like Irrational Thought and water-like Active Force and Defilements 2 8 9 ) . of illness and old age Cannot consume [this Innate Mind]. T. om. C. And. /5Î\ îpj|j} . TAKASAKI § 1. rluñ-gi dkyir-hkhor. rāśi. And even the growing fires of death. has other two verses before v. and the next sentence as that of the next two. regards the first sentence in the commentary as the explanation of the first verse. jEfc ( = nirodha). tshogs. T.( | j | ft S . the term ayoniśomanasikāra is required by the prose commentary and also there might be terms such as loka or skandhāyatanadhātavah in verses. since this text puts always a certain number of commentary verses after original Kārikā or Kārikās. 288) of illness and decrepitude arises in order to destroy the world classified into five elementary groups.— fe C. as J suggested. 64. F o r ' vivarto na bhavati '. C. T . seem to have a lacuna of two verses here. C. ^\* ^ p sY* j r H . From the context in the following commentary. & T. to have failed to catch the contrast between vivarta and samvarta by treating ayoniśomanasikāra and kleśakarma as something of destructive force. inserts ' ft ' (samskāra) after karma. #fl ^R ft • ' C. 285) based upon wind-circle of Irrational Thought. [18] component elements or [12] bases of cognition is conditioned by the accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements. astamgama. ) vāta—mandala. sñiñ-po.

Ihag-mthoñ. ^jjj |U" | 0 j (opp. from mūla ' to ' parikalpāh kleśāh '. this great earth has its foundation in water. neither originated nor dest293) 294) 290) 291) bhājanaloka. T . etc. space is more powerful 298 ' than any of the other three elements. ( = prakrtiviśuddham mūlam). 643 b-c). and hence dharmâlokamukha means dharmamukha as C. jj$j ~f" ( ^ ^ "J"). the Innate Essence of the Tathāis. O Honourable Men. it is explait a ned as being absolutely of unchangeable character. But. Defilements are merely accidental. C. ^ j | § § ? Ñ. in its turn. but the Innate Mind is indiscriminative. p. 297 ' mūlaviśuddhā prakrtih. kavi (probably chavi is t h e b e t t e r reading). f Defilements. C. C. C. of no origination and destruction. C. *^ prakrti. earth. 124 c). Cf. to sattvaloka). and ' chavi' here seems to mean 'coloured' or 'dark-coloured' ( = krsnacchavi or black-cloud?). om. Defilements are of weak power but the 296) correct intuition is powerful. T. chos snañ-bahi sgo. = maharsi C. Water is supported by air. Jit jftj 28 ft. j R ) . T. water or air. in the impure state. And this example of space which refers to the introduction to the light 291) of doctrine on the Innate Purity [of the mind] is to be understood in 292) detail according to the Scripture : " O Honourable Men. and air is founded on space. though all the Impurity a nnot be destroyed. Thus. drañ-sroñ-chen. T. ' prakrti ' here stands for cittaprakrti. o m . / / P 1 p (neither composing nor scattering himself). XIII. neither increasing nor diminishing 299 '. f2^ I J» ' dharmâloka' would mean ' dharma as āloka '. In contrast with ' āloka'. It is also firm. ' anupacaya' (for anapacaya. dharmâlokamukha.The Ratnagotravibhāga :na. mrsa?). it should be known that the Innate Mind Thus. ft ^ ^ $ R (usually. «) vipaśyanā. snod-kyi hjig-rten. T . rañ—bshin—gyis rnam—par dag—pa ni rsta-baho. hgrib-pa med-pa). Therefore. 299) anupacayo '•napacayo. Defilements are of wrong discrimination. C. the Pure 295) [Mind] is the light. 292) Against C. 5»8î H S ( — mārsa. But space. Defilements are the darkness . For example. translation is better. ^ & ^ $ 1 PO J § A (Taisho. like space. • . T. ^C M ~X J ^ ^ 293) 294) IK # K ffi PPI M. [ 239 ] . 298) T h e reading ' ball yo ' i n t h e t e x t should b e corrected into ' ballyo ' (comparative degree). vol. attribution. this quotation is from the Gaganagañjā-pariprcchā as O found. immovable.of the fires of death. A^* fjpt. 8 (Taisho. ( = tamas). XIII. C. mun-pa JSSL 3 C . among these four gross elements. of Active Force and Birth show their appearance and dis290) ppearance like the material world . T.. has no foundation. T. translated. 297) but the Innate Mind is of a pure root .

where this theory is attributed to the Vātsīputrīya. 18 component elements. The Mahāvibhāsāśāstra of Sarvāstivādin. respectively. > acirasthāyin. TAKASAKI royed and is stable with its own essence 3 0 0 ) . namely whether or not cittaprakrti can be polluted. T. being polluted by accidental defilements. but space is by no means changeable 3 0 3 ) . the Active 300) 301 302 svarasa-yogena. the whole. shifts*. [but it]is polluted by the occasional defilements 3 0 5 ) " . H Z3C pîflî) attributed to Nāgārjuna. Therefore. After this passage. text has no vocative case (mārsāh). IV. This sermon has its origin in Pali canon (e. or 12 bases of cognition have their support in the Active Force and Defilements. [On the contrary]. T. C. p. nature). See also ^ ^ ] }$J W % j i g Wft{Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra ?) (Taisho. ^S^SJHISBfSfe (Taisho. 1-2). ^IJ Jj\) ^\* pE • C. who did not accept this cittaprakrti theory. (rasa = dharmatā. S there o [ 240 ] . all these phenomena. but we have an example of the same interpretation as T. has simply de-la (tatra). . yun riñ-du mi-gnas-pa. 306 The reading ' tatra paścād ' is somewhat doubtful. 204 a). like the Vibhajyavādin. and the style looks as the commentator's own explanation. its feature is impure) (Taisho. 5. p. which mentions * mārsāh ' or ' kulaputrā' between sentences.q£ } U* seem to be two ways of interpretation with respect to ' pollution '. 9-10. in the Mahāprajñāpâramitāśāstra (yK. the Skt. XXVIII. 140 b). it is said: the Mind is radiant by nature. mi—gnas—pa. 697 b). (Most probably for arranging the style of the Chinese sentence). C. flttt'fr+ewîP. all the component elements [of the Phenomenal Life classified into] 5 elementary groups.g. " In a similar manner 3 0 4 ) . the quotation seems still to be continuing. interpretation has no foundation in the sūtras as far as its literal sense is concerned. * anavasihita. SP>. But. has the opinion of viśuddhi cittaprakrti. these three gross elements [other than space] are possessed of origination and destruction. **£*#»!rest. mentions it as an opinion of the Vibhajya3fl3) vādin (#• g\\ m. * #1 'l> tt M W. 3os) ip# «na klisyate ' (ñon ma moñs-paho). But it seems that not all the Buddhist schools accepted it. but. C. It is clear that T. (Someone. The Active Force and Defilements are founded on the Irrational Thought and the latter has its support in the Innate Pure Mind. AN I. JJJÇ f3£ *|§]§? pfc ( = abhūtadharmā ?). M ft JS'l tñ # . T. saying:!! . rañ-gi hañ-gis. from the context and C. Ñ. XVIIX. 304 ' Hereafter. Q f£^ .J. XXV. the Irrational Thought. adds anitya and nitya after vikāra and avikāra. C. T. p. They say that the mind is pure by nature. unstable 301) and of no long duration3 0 2 \ It will be perceived that these three gross elements are changeable. om. it is continued as follows 306) : "Now. saying: y/X.

) . On the contrary. T . respectively. B . T . C. Therefore. T . in its turn. We have not. ' vipāka' a n d ' upasarga '. When these causes and conditions lose their complexity 307) they are immediately extinguished. and [lastly] all of the Component Elements of Phenomenal Life. all phenomena are completely devoid of any root 3 0 8 ) and based upon an unreal and unstable foundation. illness and decrepitude to 309) the gross element of fire as being the cause of the annihilation of Life 3l0) and on account of their characteristic of being ' infection ' . but at the same time] they are founded on a pure [essence] which is. rtsa- ba yoñs-su chad-pa. the Active Force and Defilements are like water and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are akin to earth. the fire at the end of the world. . 307 308) ) visāmagrî (losing complexity). • mūlaparicchinna (which is t o b e inserted ace. the Innate Mind is of no cause nor condition. [because they are of unreal nature. on account of their characteristic of ' cause' (hetu). have a resemblance to air and water. Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind. 310) [ 241 ] . C. have a resemblance to the earth on account of their characteristic o f fruit ' (vipāka). the Irrational Thought is like air. hjig-pa. it is said:—. a n d all of these stand for the counterpart of ' avikāritva ' of cittaprakrti or tathāgatadhātu. 309) vibhava. Here. We have already explained that in the impure state the Innate Mind has a resemblance to space on account of its i unchangeable ' (avikāra) characteristic. being founded on the Innate Mind. on this point it is said as follows: The three fires. § 2. Consequently. T h r e e aspects of ' vikāra ' i n t h e P h e n o m e n a l W o r l d a r e n a m e d here ' hetu '. ^ 78v T P C • ' T ^ • T h e whole saying is as follows: sarvadharmā mālaparicchinnā asāramūlā apratisthānamūlāh śuddhamûlā amūlamūlā iti Cf. the Irrational Thought and the Active Force and Defilements. [dañ] bral. the Innate Mind is like space. T. it has no complex [of cause and condition] and hence there is neither origination nor destruction of it. however. jflZ. tcçk. / ^ Q ( a n analogical t r a n s l a t i o n ) . 3*Et nL> ( c a l a m i t y ) . C. mgohi nad.The Ratnagotravibhāga Force and Defilements. as well as T . So. C. t o Ms. and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are originated by the complex of their causes and conditions. being produced from the former two. AAS 496 b. upasarga. of no root " . discussed the similarity of the fires of death.

never decays. we can easily find out the sense. [. hgags-pa (— nirodha). T. have ' duhkha '. [$£] I t | $ [ R f 8 ] . nirmamī-karana (cause to destroy something conceived as ' mine'). bdag-gi-ba med-par byed-pa (bdag-gi-ba stands for mamatva). 'kārana'. The similarity of death. 0 316) . respectively. Prof. to make pain on somebody by torment \ Cf. 3 b 1 P 'ffi i"M c f • For kāranā. T. C. illness and old age to fire should be known. lokavyavahāra. 317) 316) 314 uparodha. and is often used along with kr. sdug-bsñal sna-tshogs myoñ-bar byed-pa.). something is born. of sickness and old age. This vyavahāra is also used as a synonym of ' samvrti' in connection with ' satya \ C. p. something is dead. 315) Ś M Ś 222 6. T. the sense ' usage' is attached to the term vyavahāra. 235. Scripture] 315) With reference to this point. The saying something is dead'. has a sense of 'torture' or 'torment'. f t • 318) [ 242 ] . V. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is never born. C. ABORI. for three reasons. 'punishment'. ' samskāra-paripāka. // 65 // These are to be known respectively as the analogy For three fires. prādurbhāva. T. om. 312) 313) 311) vicitra-kāranânubhavana. A Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. has two senses. as the sanskritized form of Pali vohāra. which is picked up from Daśakumālacarita). C. W. Bapat.J. T. TAKASAK1 The fire of hell and the ordinary 311 ' fire. such sayings are merely a worldly usage means. Something is born 0 Lord. in the sense to make punishment. the Essence of the Tathāgata in its impure state cannot be changed at all. O Lord. Cf. P. ^ | . it is said [in the : " 0 Lord. 2) [illness] makes sufferings of various kinds of tor'. y\. origination of new sense organs. However. T. XXXV. T. translation shows this meaning. Lord. and mixing both. (M. thob-pa ( = prāpti). 38 'kāranā' 1. to destruction ments 3l3) 312) [Which are the three reasons ? the 6 [internal] bases of They are cognition 314 namely]: 1) because [death] leads . vyāhāra (speech) and vyavahāra (behaviour). 178. . that of death. vyavahāra. The word kāranā (f. p. C. being delivered from Pali kārana. hjig-rten-gyi tha-sñad. & C.yv] (fire made by human being). which means the readiness for the next birth. BHS Die. prākrta. tha-mal-ba. PTS Die. this phrase and regards the other two as part of a verse. 317) 318) i this means the destruction of sense organs. repetition of life in samsāra. C. and 3) [old age] leads the Active Forces to their ripening Even by these fires. C. I I . Here in connection with anu-bhū. gives the meaning * pain '. ' to feel pain as a result of experiencing torment.

p. So C. T . constant. See BHS Die. 3UJ 13^ • ananyatha'vagamya = yathābhūtasya darśanāt (v. 323) [ 243 ] 17 . the Matrix of the Tathāgata. O Lord. bhajante. For what reasons ? Because. . 321) jijjg r e a ( i i n g « -vimuktām '. . i n s t e a d of ' vimuktā \ should b e a d o p t e d . enam = cittaprakrtim). 54 (na pradahanty enam mrtyuvyādijarāgnayah. regarding this term as an adverbial use. illness and decrepitude cyavate ( < cyu). being beyond the sphere characterized as being caused and conditioned. de~yi rgyus for tan-nidānam. take place. because of the rising of Compassions towards the world. Cf. to C. Still. has ' fj£ y j j ' for janmâdivyasana. C. T. for that reason. 68). 2§^ (to change. tan-nidānam . /J> •? -^R _l£ v$C (assume the existence of origi»& nation and destruction). They assume the cause of calamities 3 2 3 ) . quiescent and everlasting " . T. hpho-ba.The K a t n a g o t r a v i D û a g a never deceases. (B) Unchangeability in the Pure and Impure State Now there conies one śloka referring to the meaning of Unchangeability ' in the pure and impure state [of Bodhisattvas]. phoñs[-pa]. r e a d i n g is n o t clear. T. 322) 319) vyasana. v . T. // 66 // § 1. Ace. What is shown by this śloka ? The sufferings of death. is eternal. The Bodhisattvas have no calamity 3 2 2 ) of birth and so forth. C. C. S. (Kārikā 24) Having truly 3 2 0 ) realized the Innate Mind As being released 3 2 1 ) from birth and death As well as from illness and decrepitude. 295 (under ' nidāna ' ) : tan-nidānam. nidāna seems to mean the existence (bhava) on which janman. ji-bshin—ñid. C. I . however. 320 ' ananyathā. never passes away 319) or arises [again]. to move from one place (life) to another place (life). The Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva. etc.

^ . duhkha. C. . there are in reality no such phenomena of birth. ñe-bar len-pa. because of their contact 3 2 8 ) with the virtuous root 3 2 9 ) . illness and decrepitude is the Birth based upon the Irrational Thought. bsams-bshin-du. Because of their perception of the truth. just as the fuel [is the causa materialis of ordinary fires]. There is a birth by the power of Active Force and Defilements. basing themselves upon 3 3 1 ) the power of origination by their will 332) . 325 They. C. etc. (ind. make appearance Of birth. » dhātu.). 326 3271 328) samyojana (== samprayukta). khams. T . dge-bahi rtsa-ba. 1AK. C. yañ-dag-par sbyor[-ba]. they have truly perceived that the Essence [of the Buddha] 3 3 4 ) is of no birth and of no origination 3 3 5 '. jJg. of old age. // 67 // Now. decrepitude and illness. kun-tu sbyor-ba. 4§T m • TO sam]/ślis T . the Active Force and Defilements. C. T. there is also no flame of fires of suffering at all in the Bodhisattvas who have attained the Body made of mind. // 68 // Indeed. C.J.ASAKI Are destroyed by the Saints to the root. T. f f c ' I j * . Bodhisattvas attach themselves 330) to the Phenomenal World consisting of three spheres. > T . the causa materialis 3 2 4 ) of the fires of sufferings ' like death. om. has anutpatty-anirodha. Jpf # 0 ft f 4 • [ 244 ] . among them. hdas gyur. ~7Jj ( t o m a k e a p p e a r a n c e ) . Though they have got rid of327) birth. etc. Also they make appearance of birth. however. ^fC ( = pūrvika). flîp ! § ! • T. 334 335) I n s tead of ajāty-anutpatti. C. C. ' anābhāsa—gamana. T. adds srid-pa (bhava) before samyojana. (References to the Scriptures) 324 325 ' upādāna. Because 333) . In the pure and impure state. being full of mercy. in the impure state. 329) 3301 kuśala-mūla. 332) samcintya 333 ' yathāpi is omitted in T. there is no appearance 3 2 6 ) whatever of such a cause that we can know of. 7jC v$L «tfg • vinivrtta T . C. As there is no birth [of such a kind] The saints have no root [of defilements]. of course. 331) fjjg form samnihśraya for samniśraya is notable. snañ—bar med—par gyur—pa. C.. of illness and of death. yi\ . T. T . Still. death.

^ § : f § : 4i3< (kuśalamūlāni). are the virtuous roots called 'Defilements ' ? . T. XIII. phrad—pa. C. C. bsod-nams-kyi tshogs. Non-abandonment of propensity 347 ' of desire for phenomena. [The Lord] answered: Because. 347) 348 anuśaya. 1. p. T. C. by these Defilements of such kinds Bodhisattvas attach themselves to the Phenomenal World. bsam-pa (intention). J. bya-ba ci-yod-pa. T. ^ flp. R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Defilements endowed with Virtuous Root. y.. paripāka. 46-74). XIII. dam-pahi. ?P£ 4^J |ff^ / £ . 346 345) > utsukatā. ' samyojono r 245 ] .. p. 13. And this state of Bodhisattvas is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture.. but quite ' kuśalamūla-samprayuktā kleśāh. C. 6. p.CJ 339 340 ' punya-sambhāra. T. O Sāgaramati. \Lk • ' parigraha. yoñs-su smin-pa. T. 400). * for the living beings '. C. ?% î § # K W fri W ^P ?£ ñ & 0*. O Lord. C. mi-ñoms-pa. simplified. ' saddharma. . C. ^5^. . O Sāgaramati. thus are the Defilements endowed with the virtuous roots by which the Bodhisattvas attach themselves [to this world]. T. the same as above (Note 340). • . ' 7pi\ ^^T ' i s implying the sense. ^ i l l S ^ I S ^ ī S i i S l f t (Taisho. [—' \ĪJ] ^ f»$j] ^ ? ffe • 342) 343 344 kimkaranīya. Endeavour 3 4 5 ) after works to be done 3 4 6 ) for the living beings.J_4y. Jj^. but they are never affected by the fault of Defilements.. ' parigraha. 18. by I f & of Suang. No. T. And this Phenomenal World is of origination 44 > The Sāgaramati-pariprcchā. See S. 337 338) 36 3 Taisho. It is said 3 3 6 ) : Which are the Defilements endowed with virtuous root 3 3 7 ) that cause [Bodhisattvas] to reside in the Phenomenal World ? They are namely: ]Non-satisfaction338) in searching for the accumulation of merits 3 3 9 '. hgrus-pa. •-§* >^|K ^*pi J>E> A§l 'U*I • atrptatā. Acceptance 340 ' of existence through origination by their own will.. ^pp *JX • 341 ' samavadhāna. This passage is in Taisho.The S 2. & C .. C. Then [Sāgaramati] asked: Why then. Unweariness towards the perfect maturity 3 4 2 ) of living beings. Nonreluctance from fetters 3 4 8 ) of the Highest Virtues. C. T. chos. . C. 68 a. T. T. C. The earnest wish to meet with 3 4 1 ) the Buddhas. Efforts for the perfect apprehension 343 ' of the sublime Doctrine3 4 4 ) . yoñs-su hdsin-pa.

simply med-pa. it is called ' Defilements endowed with the roots of virtuous qualities. Bodhisattvas' Compassion. T. and would see his only son fallen in the pit of night-soil. They could not. would fall into a pit of night-soil while playing. fzî yj • anvādhāna. lament and would cry out. This parable is also found in AĀS (470 a-b). T. pulling out '. [It is called so] inasmuch as they attach themselves to the Phenomenal World. Upon seeing this they would deeply sigh. 8. 0 Sāgaramati. hdon-pa (pulls out). Bodhisattvas attach themselves at their own wishes by their skill of means 3 4 9 ) and through producing 350) the power of virtuous roots. &J . Thereupon the mother and relatives355* of this boy would see him fall into the impure pit. So ' śrestino vā grhapater vā ' would be a better reading. 1. but not because of [actual] defilements on the mind " . 354 ' apratikūlo darśanena (lit. J^j. (For the previous three. ' upāya—kauśalya. C. C. which reads ' bu gcig-po hdon-par hdod-pahi sred-pas byas '. there should be a Danda. take the boy out3 5 6 ) by entering into the pit. & C. 357) T h e r e a d i n g ' ekaputrakâdhyāśaya—premânunīta' is d o u b t f u l as J said. Now suppose this boy. 355) C. There. mthoñ-na mi-sdug-pa C. 351) Continuation from § 2 (quotation from the same Sūtra). seems 356) to omit this word and reads: ^j£ —" -~f~ afl [ 246 ] S i jsc nl> *& (having ekaputraka . After darśanena. § 3. T. Suppose he were beloved. yj \J*z. T. [^Pç] j ^ \ . thabs—la mkhas-pa. affectionate353) quite agreeable in his appearance 354 *. T. in the sense of ' taking out. insert a word for ' vā '. inserts ' pita '. After that the boy's father would come to that place. •fff ||5Ç -|āj" .. suppose there were an only son of some distinguished person or 3 5 2 ) householder. not disagreeable). handsome. however. " For example 351) . But C. Therefore. C. T h i s translation is according to T. but it is not the case. 352) Both T. C. yid-du hoñ-ba. skyed-pa. The parable of a Householder. C. adhyālambati (BHS). 350) 353) 349 manāpa (BHS). 48. The word ' hdon-pa ' is used in the preceding sentence for ' adhyālamba '. Upon seeing that sight. and for ' abhyutksepa ' in S. om. being a child. to this very Phenomenal World.from Defilements. p. he being affected by the intention to pull out his only son 3 5 7 ) .

at the same time. as S. asamskrta-dharma. ' a pit of night-soil' is a name for the Phenomenal Life. i An only son ' is a name for the living beings. phyuñ-ba. unpolluted. vā. by the powers of virtuous roots and Compassion. dum-bu. *Jjj. such is the Great Compassion of the Bodhisattva that. T. connects himself3621 to the Phenomenal World by his own will. because Bodhisattvas have a notion of the only son towards all living beings. regards this passage as a quotation from the same Sūtra (SāgP.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a would hurry to enter the pit with full speed without any feeling of disgust. C. but T. but have no capacity to rescue [the living beings]. om. T. Cf. T. in order to extirpate all the bondage of Defilements from the living beings. he is not polluted by the world owing to the powers of means and the Intellect. he again assumes 363) the origination into Existence. being perfectly free from all bondages. (Instead of ' anunīta '. having seen the living beings fallen into the world of transmigration. ' Mother and relatives ' is a name for those people who belong to the Vehicles of Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. have it. but. and. C. p j . C. but C. T. and would take out 3 5 8 ) his only son. 4p. S. & C. this example was made in order to make known a special meaning. ' adhyālambanatah ' would be preferable to accept). C. 3581 abhy-ut\J ksip. 4 * . mtshams sbyor-ba. =§f| (artha). om. pratisam V dhā. but still. nirdeśa. 3591 3601 3611 362) 363 prabandha. T. Which relation 359) should be known [between illustrations and illustrated meaning]? O Sāgamarati. of unpolluted mind. has attained the direct perception of the immutable Absolute 361) . O Sāgaramati. 5îw >is\j J^« >flj V £ v r ' (dharmadhātu). For pada. there is explained the pure and impure state of Bodhisattvas who have the Controlling Power through two points: [namely] the Bodhisattva attaches himself at his will to the origination in the world.. C. i The distinguished person or 3 6 0 ) the householder ' is a name for the Bodhisattva who is pure. T. T. he is never affected by impurities. O Sāgaramati. AĀS jg/» " j ^U^ j§[. Being possessed of the skill of means and the Transcendental Intellect. since they. he preaches the Doctrine " . for the sake of others. are distressed and lament. 364) [ 247 ] . len-pa. in order to bring living beings to the maturity. don.). samjñā and premâdhyāśaya). By this explanation of words in the Scripture 3641 . > upa\/dā.

chos-ñid. lifeless. well cleaned. C. o m . ^} @ f £ H . these elements are illusorily created 3 6 8 ) according to desire. O Sāgaramati. vistarena. 68 a. o m . B H S D i e . T . v . suppose there were an invaluable 376) Vaidūrya stone. after adjective) (Pali. T . rab-tu rtogs-par . 373 ' dharmatā. T. B H S D i e . gshan-du mi-hgyur-bahi chos (ananyathābhāvadharma) is probably caused by a misunderstanding of the term dharma. u p t o here. He will be possessed of the pure and immaculate perception based upon the Wisdom that there is nothing which causes benefit or harm 3 7 2 ) . t h e s a m e ) .: ' hundred years '. p . 370) prakalpayati. 365 > dharmatā. Cf. 3. of caus. It is said: '* O Sāgaramati. This point 366) should be understood in detail according to the [same] Scripture. T. 368) vithapyante (pass. pham-hdogs-paham gnod-par byed-pa. SāgP. 36 " samāna ( = sat. 377) 376 has [ 248 ] . 375) C. After all. 36 6 > T. T . he knows correctly the essential nature 3 7 3 ) of separate elements. then 365) he can obtain this essential quality as a Bodhisattva. 367) asvāmikatā. T . For nirātmatā. of no substance. 371) dharma-vithapanā. when a Bodhisattva has attained the correct perception of the Essence of the Tathāgata as being of no birth. bdag med-pa-ñid. (But the second Chinese translation of the SāgP. T. C. .v. they cannot cause [one] to think or to imagine 3 7 0 ) . And thus he does never cast off the armour 3 7 4 ' of the Great Compassion 3 7 5 ) . T. s. offers no help to fix the meaning of ' vithapyate '. of no creator. AĀS 469 b-c. bdag-po med-pa-ñid. For example. 372) upakāro vā 'pakāro vā. T h e q u o t a t i o n is from SāgP. Cf. byed. perceive that separate elements are of no real essence. om. T. • Cf. well polished. well purified. Suppose it might be thrown into mud and would remain there for a thousand years 377> . Thus. a h y b r i d form. ' tathā vithapyante vithapitāś ca samānā'. no origination. C. Believing in the fact that separate elements are created illusorily sn\ O Sāgaramati. the Bodhisattva does never produce the feeling of disgust for any phenomenon. and s t a r t s t h e n e x t quotation with t h e parable of t h e Vaidūrya stone. As being 3 6 9 ) illusorily created. of vi \f sthā. s. . Bodhisattva's Perception on the Pure Mind. 5k»> | ^ . go-cha.J. > anargha.). i t k j ^ ^ M ^ î ^ l f l l f E l t S l (this word of the Sūtra has already been t a u g h t ) . non-existence. Now. rin thañ-pa (mahārgha). ' thousand years '). 374) samnāha. Cf. T . TAKASAKI § 4. of no personality and of no owner 3 6 7 ) ! Indeed.

Being accidental. a n d for t h e former p a r t . rab-tu hbro-ba (but it should be -hgrol-ba). These defilements would never penetrate into the radiant Innate Mind of the living beings. These defilements. when they are inspected by the real and correct perception 3 8 3 ) . 49. 50. p. it would never abandon its nature of jewel. C. 380) avalîyana 381) avaliyanā. 3-9). C. wrong discrimination. P r o b a b l y from Pali ollyanā ( S k t . h a s ' £). It is notable that Paramārtha's translation is. (S. 17-20. ' na punah ślesah '. pure and immaculate. 78. this stone would be drawn out from mud and would be washed 3 7 8 ) and cleaned. In the same way. pramoksa-citta. passage than to AĀS. These defilements are [produced] by incorrect discrimination. rather closer to the Ratna. They should be investigated by us so that they might not contaminate again. of weak power. sbyañ-ba. T. perfectly cleaned and polished. B H S Die. he never has his mind demoralized380) and. om. T . insertions equivalent to other passages of the Ratna. T. 7) is quoted in Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya as from AĀS. 1. opt. I can teach the Doctrine for the sake of these living beings in order to remove their accidental 379) defilements. They are powerless. avalīyate. They have no real foundation at all. which has. (MSbh (P) 259 c-260 a). 1. it is a good thing not to be contaminated by defilements. 383) yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. 45. of V lud). T. O Sāgaramati. Again he thinks as follows: These defilements have no power and ability. IE J€ • 384) 385) na kupyanti. ' | ^ &fâ (timid). p. thad-tu. [/JC] f$Q • T. . o m . }Çp }$£. in turn. 11. shum-pa. 11. C. C. />«. 9—p.The Ratnagotravibhāga After the passing of a thousand years [in mud]. C. If I were contaminated by 378 > lodyeta (caus. not a good thing to be contaminated 385 '. A* [ 249 ] . anavallyanatā. Thus. ?) Cf. cannot be excited 384) by any means. C. v . H | jfjQ. though abbreviated. Indeed. s. T. with great intensity. he gives rise to the intention towards liberation 381) in the case of382) living beings. Then the Bodhisattva thinks as follows: . A* fJb 'frf )E= (cannot rise). . these defilements are the production of unreal. e t c . āgantuka and instead has upakleśa. As being washed well. 379) This passage (S. He perceives also that the same mind is defiled by the accidental defilements. p. the Bodhisattva knows the innate radiant nature of the mind of living beings. ji—lta—ba-bshin—du tshul-bshin—du yid—la byed— 382 > -antike. ^ j £ A H ÎP*l C.

it is the Nirvana because it is not manifested under the influence of the passionate Active Force and Defilements. S ' ( t0 practise pāramitās). T. mñon-du gyur-pa. There is the Nirvana. therefore... C. we should be attached to the defilements . ffi i^T • T > ŚMS 221 b. by which we are bound to the world of transmigration. Because. At the same time. it is the World of Transmigration because it is manifested 388) under the influence of immaculate roots of virtue. 0 Lord. being endowed with the manifestation of mind and mental 390) 391) states mixing both. C * Cl» Wi V ^ • samślista. the expression ' World of transmigration' (samsāra) implies the three kinds of Body made of mind in the Immaculate Sphere. And here. > 390) 391) citta-caitasika. in order to bring the living beings to 386) their maturity. » citta - 892) T. C. we shall teach the Doctrine to the living beings in order to remove the bondage of defilements. which are at the same time endowed with the roots of virtues " . And this state is predominantly established in the 6th Stage of Bodhisattva called Abhimukhl (ready for the Enlightenment) 392) . the conditioned and the unconditioned. /Çf\ \tyt \ffli 1 ^ V £ . this is called ' the pure and impure state '. § 5. how could I teach the Doctrine for the sake of the living beings who are bound by the bondages of defilements. And moreover. 388 389 T. in order to remove these bondages of defilements ? Oh ! really. conditioned as well as unconditioned " . TAKASAKI defilements. C. Bodhisattva in His 6th Stage. om.J. it is said 3 8 9 ': " Therefore. hdres-pa. |f| >^C. being an image similar to that 3 8 7 ) in the Phenomenal World. T om > abhisamskrta. gzugs-brñan-yid. 387) -pratibimbaka. C. we are not attached to defilements. Indeed. With regard to this point. § 6. usual. Here. inserts ' f ^ 4 T »ff $ £ %&. ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva. as C.3% gj [ 250 ] . 386) C. there is the Phenomenal World. conditioned as well as unconditioned.

' many gates' are for the gates of samādhi. and ' to go back to his son' is the parable for [the Bodhisattva's] leading of living beings. 397) x. he does never realize the Enlightenment. ^ ffi. XI. it and instead has moksa. he. he could pass over the steep path and reach a gate of the castle. he does never realize i t ' . & T. T. Taisho. as usual. there were a castle of one square yojana. 173-184. this is due to [the Bodhisattva's] [ 251 ] . ' the other leg remained outside ' is for the Bodhisattva's non-realization of moksa. However. does act among the world of ordinary beings. . & T. ' Though having the capacity of attaining the Liberation. Having accumulated them and being ready for the acquiring of āsravaksaya. T. H ^ | § £ is a mistake for 5 | Iff |§£). 3fc flś^. 395 > C. have a lacuna here. ' a castle' is the parable for mahāparinirvāna. Here. namely 1) y\C J] Ç ç 3 ^ ^^ f^| p p _5f$ | * (Mahāsamnipātasūtra. For the sake of the people. is better omitted. 'the steep p a t h ' is for the various actions of demons. 2) ~fc fl* ^ |§ ^ |5J ~p ~fc Hf ® Us i^T $ * W (Mahāratnakūtasūtra. mñon-du phyogs-pa. omission) 3 9 8 ) . he would go back to his only son. Chi^=f J\. 80 thausand in number. om. 394) The word abhijñā in both S. No. the other leg remaining outside. the people who could enter this castle were enjoying a lot of pleasure. without making use of his abhijñā for āsravaksaya. It runs as follows: (. facing the acquisition 393 ' of the Extinction of Evil Influences 3 9 4 ) through his practices of unobstructed Highest Intellect and the Great Compassion395). XIII. 11. By skilful means. . he wanted to enter that castle leaving his son behind. . the illustration is as follows: " Suppose. which has many gates. 47th Parisat) (originally called ^ §i ^ I H l/f |PJ #X> Ratnacūdabodhisattva-pariprcchā). But it is not the case. p. ' the only son ' is for all living beings wandering in 5 paths (gati): * to remember his son' is for the Great Compassion. the Bodhisattva. the Bodhisattva is also like him. but the path towards its gates were steep and dark. Taisho. ' t o reach the gate of the castle ' is for [the attainment of] 5 abhijñās. Suppose again there were one person who had an only son and loved him. and full of dangers. 3 8 » > The Ratnacūda-pariprcchā nese Tripitaka retains two versions of this Sūtra. regards mahākarunā-bhāvanayā as being connected with asāksātkarana. . (D) has mi(= nara) instead of nagara. 310 (47). Why? Because. The illustration of a castle is available only in C. O noble youth. C. he accumulated the 5 abhijñās. According to C. 393) -abhimukhī. sattva-parivarta). ' stepped inside with one leg ' is for [the attainment of] the Wisdom. O noble youth. Having heard of the pleasure within the castle. O noble youth. With reference to this Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences. 396 > sattvadhātu. he would remember his son and think: Why hadn't I accompanied my only son! Who could nourish him and let him get rid of suffering? And rejecting the pleasure in the castle. due to his compassion towards living beings. still does never realize that acquisition in order to protect all living beings 396 '. C.The Ratnagotravibhāga rjn this Stage]. ^p* (C. but probably S. there is an illustration of a castle 3 9 7 ) in the Scripture. But when he stepped inside with one leg. C. RatnacūdabodhiChap.

In this way is explained the 4 pure ' state of the Bodhisattva who has obtained the power for realization of the Extinction of Evil Influences in the [6th] Stage of the Bodhisattva named Abhimukhī. T.). C. & C. 409) T. the Bodhisattva gives rise to the 5 Supernatural Faculties. for the sake of the living beings who are facing the world of transmigration. (Cf. C. through the origination of the Great Intention [towards the Nirvana] 3 9 9 ) by great efforts and exertion. Having cultivated the Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences in order to rescue all living beings through the origination of the mind of Compassion. C. owing to the Great Compassion. the Great Mercy and Compassion of the Bodhisattva is inconceivable " . saying: I will lead the others also to this true practice 4 0 5 ) . yañ-dag—par rtogs—pa. 408) (catur)dhyāna. 402) 403 404) 399) »y- -ill- 11 y—*i £ • inserts an explanation on • [eg 47*. T. [On the other hand]. C. drdhâdhyāśaya. in number. For parijaya. lhag-pahi bsam—pa brtan-pa. he. XIII. not anāsvādana. T. Thus. one can be born in t h e World of F o r m (rūpa-dhātu). though having practised 4 0 3 ) correctly for his own sake. C. C . JO . [y an-dag-par] shugs-pa (to enter). 0 noble youth. unclear. 40 °) parikarma—krta. C. I ventured to omit this vocative word in this translation and treated the whole passage as an explanation by the commentator. T. he. which seems better. yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba.) is probably an excess. ^ § * jfvV **-^ 4T« attainment of the 4th and 5th Stages (bhūmi) here. still wishes to save the living beings who are on the wrong way 4 0 4 ) . While cultivating the means for the bliss of the Quiescence. vimukha. with perfectly purified mind 402>. bodhyañga. T. produces the unobstructed Intellect in the 6th Stage and again becomes ready for the Extinction of Evil Influences. Taisho. C. But both T. 405 406) 407) T . I t is said t h a t b y t h e practice of these four dhyānas. p. [Jll] vipratipanna. byañ-chub-kyi yan-lag. jâ^ jjjj. suparikarmakrtacetāh. T h e y are said to be 7 r 252 ] . The following passage is actually not a quotation. Though abiding [in the desireless World of Form] with [4 kinds of] contemplations 4 0 8 ) in order to accomplish the factors for the acquisition of Enlightenment 409) . ^\* ^ Q " . ro mi-myañ-ba. om. T. TAKASAKI Thus. read as abhimukhasya. 401) parijayam krtvā. skilful means (upāya). 181 a).. reads as ' drdhâdhyāśaya-pratipattyā '. he becomes ready for the Extinc401) tion of Evil Influences. T. log-par shugs-pa. JZ3 f ^ > . bsam-gtan dag (pi. ^ J H . yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba byas—pa (pariśuddha—krta). T. but not in order to taste it [by himself] 4 0 6 ) he turns his face 4 0 7 ) away from Nirvana. RCP. ' samyakpratipatti. clear.J. the > [samyak-]pratipanna. Having the mind purified 4 0 0 ) by the contemplation and Supernatural faculties. & C. C. C. §|£ [yj *U\ T. and the word ' kulaputra ' (S.

See S. ' yāvad āśu '. 414 ) ārya—gocaj a. 411) 410) [ 253 ] . parigrahana. Similarly. // 72 // His intelligence is always burning like fire 415) For bringing about the welfare [to the world]. o m . as Chawdhuri noted) would be better than prativicya in the text.The Ratnagotravibhāga ke voluntarily assumes 410) again the existence in the World of Desire J wishes to work for the sake of living beings as quickly as posn( sible 411)« [Thus] he has obtained the power for manifesting the body f ordinary beings by assuming various births [even] in the form of anio mals. T. The Highest Means and Compassion. C. Is still perceived by the ignorant In the appearances of birth. which is therefore probably a later insertion. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. The son of the Buddha. though having understood 413> that This Absolute Essence is unchangeable. BHS Die:'pratividhyati' (Pali pativijjhati). 415) krtya-sampādana. $lHj £ J £ . From these points mentioned above his state is explained as ' not perfectly pure '. B. (Another interpretation of the verse 66) 4 1 2 ) . He acts in the world for the sake of the world Without being affected by the worldly pollution. 66). {gocara = caryāvisaya). 19: dharmatā—prativedhāt. // 71 // Just as a lotus flower growing in the water Is not polluted by the latter. 412) C. p. There is another meaning of the śloka (Kārikā 24. The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha. etc. for the friends of all the world. Cf. 52. v. T.:This is really wonderful! // 69 // Having attained the position of the Saints 4 1 4 ) . bya-ba sgrub. om. T . he is. // 70 // Being superior to all kinds of worlds. Therefore. rtogs-nas (having understood). The heading ' aparah ślokârthah' also supports this suggestion. He is nevertheless not apart from the world. C. though having been born in the world He is never polluted by worldly matters. s 7. the whole of the following paragraph. He is nevertheless seen among ordinary beings. 1. 413) The reading pratividhya (Ms.

By conduct [of ordinary life] or by religious observances 4 2 0 ) . sbyod-lam. 419) j?OT deśanyā rūpakāyābhyām. Tucci. // 74 // The Bodhisattva. p . See B H S Die. 418) āvedha. T . 417) This a n d t h e following 5 verses ( v v . // 77 // There is however a great difference Between Bodhisattvas and the Buddha. TAKASAKI At the same time.e. a n d is edited along with t h e T i b e t a n version b y h i m . of two apparitional forms 4 1 9 ) . //75// In such a way. to the other shore. 420) īryā-patha. [the first] 9 verses refer to the comparison [of the state of Bodhisattva] with the absolute impurity of those who rank below the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva named Pramuditā pratipanna. sñoms-par shugs-pa. T. The Bodhisattva becomes equal to the Tathāgata On account of his act of conveying 423) the living beings In various worlds. mthah Mas (ananta). A m r t ā k a r a ' s quotation reads deśanā-rūpakāyābhyām. Or in [the water] in a foot-print of a bull 424) and in the ocean. 236-246. 74-78) were q u o t e d i n A m r t ā k a r a ' s T ī k a on t h e Catuhśubha of N ā g ā r j u n a . I s M E O . limitless 4 2 1 ) like the sky. 1958). I I p p . // 76 // Having obtained this position4 2 2 ) . B u t T . gospada in Skt. he does always. yañ-dag sgrol-ba. G. R o m e . sambhoga-k. 421 ' -paryanta. was found b y Prof. 109.J . tshul ( = naya). & nirmāna-k). 422) F o r gati^ x . With no effort and with unobstructed Wisdom. // 73 // Owing to the continuing force 4 1 8 ) of the previous life. bstan dan gzugs-sku dag dan ni. T. w h i c h suggests t w o rūpakāyas (i. hphen-pa (— āksipta). Bring benefits for the living beings Among the world. knowing who is to be trained In what manner and by what means [Performs it] in the proper manner: By means of teaching. deśanī is a r a r e form. Such difference as lies between the atom and the earth. And because of being free from all discriminations. //78// Of these ten verses taken respectively. ' pūrvâvedhavaśāt ' or ' pūrvâvedhāt' is t h e usual form. He does not use any exertion at all For bringing the living beings to their maturity. āvedha (2). *23) samtārana. T. 416) [ 254 ] . (Minor Buddhist Works. he is always practising 416) Meditation and concentration on the Quiescence 4 1 7 ) . T. of which a Sanskrit M s .). 424) gospada (BHS.

the Stage of the Buddha). ' * ^•p ' j ^ Ifeîi). T. these four stages are regarded as older than the 10—bhūmis theory of the Daśa bhūmikā. the first one is said to be equivalent to darśanamārga and the second to bhāvanāmārga. the 3rd. 428) -phg reading ' gana ' in the text is corrected into ' guna \ in comparison with the following three examples. chos-kyi sprin (C. mthoñ-bahi phyir (darśanāt for prativedhāt). T. | | 43i) T. both below and above]. The four kinds of Bodhisattvas are as follows: 1) He who has resolved upon the acquisition for the first time (prathamacittotpādika). 2) He who is practising the way towards the acquisition (caryāpratipanna). 3) He who has ascended the irreversible stage (avaivartika). yoñs-su dag-pa (pariśuddhi). (C. \ j i ) . ^) skye-ba gcig-gis thogs-pa (C. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is practising the way to the acquisition in the Stages beginning with [the 2nd named] Vimalā 4 3 0 ) up to [the 7th named] Dūramgamā (Far-Going)4 3 1 ) . there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has got the irreversible next birth (ekajātipratibaddha) 427) . because [in this stage] he has understood 4 2 9 ) the highest supermundane Essence which had never been seen before since beginningless time. --jjjfj jgç iU^). because [in these stages] he practises the unpolluted practices. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities 4 2 8 ) of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the Stage of Pramuditā resolving upon the acquisition for the first time. respectively. T. 429) prativedha (BHS for Skt. 425 > T. 3) phyir mi-ldog-pa. j n s tead has mi-gyo-ba (acalā. 2) spyod-pa-la shugs-pa 428) 427) f< (C. Often these four are identified with the first.The RatnagotraviDûaga (Joy) 425)> a n d the 10th verse refers to the comparison with the supreme purity of the Stage above the [10th] Stage of Bodhisattva named Dhar(Cloud of Doctrine) 4 2 6 ) (i. there is explained in brief the purity and impurity of the four kinds of Bodhisattvas in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva. By the 5th verse. by the first and second verses. also has ' yon-tan '. T X i a ) . [ 255 ] . This is probably a mistake. 4) He who is expected to be the Buddha in the Here. Of these four. prati\/ vyadh). the 8th Stage). For viśuddhi. 430 > T. From the point of wiew of the development of the bhūmi theory. -^1^ ^ S $!r). but how to combine both sets is not determined. and. dri-ma med-pa (C. V S j ^ sems dañ-po bskyed-pa (C. the 7th and the 10th of the 10 vihāras (C.e. The combination of these 4 groups with the 10-bhūmis seems to be the latest development. [In mameghā comparison with the states. By the third and the fourth verses. WK T. rab-tu dgah-ba (C.

there are explained the equality and difference between the purity of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has reached the ultimate point with regard to the aim of others and of his own. -A^ 2§B J ^ 1 • See v * 66. [ 256 ] . T. It is the refuge of the world Because it has no limit in the future 4 3 4 ) . // 79 // What is shown by this śloka ? It is not born. because [in this last stage] he. (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure State. gshan-hgyur-min-bdag. It does not suffer [from illness]. nor does it die. 7th and 8th verses. TAKASAKI state in the [8th] Stage named Acalā (Immovable). Because it is eternal. is connected with the Stage of the Buddha by one and the last birth 432) on account of the acquisition of the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. C. being expected to be the Buddha in the next birth. f l A^ ^ L . Also it is of undestructible nature Because its own nature is not created [by conditions] 4 3 5 ) . anaparântakoti. C. C. By the 6th. ananyathâtmā. (Kārikā 25) This [Essence of the Buddha] is of unalterable nature4 3 3 ) Because it is endowed with inexhaustible properties. It is always non-dual Because it is indiscriminative. and that of the Buddha's qualities. nor is it decrepit. Now. because [in this stage] he has firmly stood in the meditation as the practice immediately connected with the acquisition of the Great Enlightenment. phyi-mahi mthah-med myur-thug. 79 d. having attained the ultimate point of means for fulfilling all the benefits for his own as well as for others. which is difficult to be identified with S. By the 9th and 10th verses. 3»§? 3i§ |?J> • 433) 434) 438 > For v. T. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the 10th Stage named Dharmameghā. 432) buddhabhūmy-ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha. we have one śloka with reference to the meaning of 4 unchangeability ' in the perfectly pure state [of the Buddha].J. ^ * fi^ ffl W^ j lj* J] $fc .

this Essence of the Tathāgata. By each couple of terms. T. 2) dhruva. Being everlasting. In regard to the immutable Sphere 4 4 1 ) Is to be known. 4) śāśvata. // 81 // Being quiescent. y)\ gîpj: (parigrhīta). C. C. T. phala of bodhicitta) D ^ $fr #fl ^fc ftb ^ —-BJ tt *a ® * % R & * * & £ mm 439 440) 441) w«. it does not die Even with the Inconceivable Transformation. asamskrta-pada. T. pure and radiant by its own nature. are of Bodhisattvas and don't belong to the Buddha. 5»îv i^H J ^ 9 r (anāsrava-). f{3 . fff ^ . Bodhisattvas are regarded as ' partly impure '. gyuñ-druñ. A^ 8 § . T.^kitst C.). ^^ $6m. JMT ( = t h e world of transmigration). shi-ba. C. ma thog-pa. C. Therefore.w ffi* Si anarthāL_@. (asamskrtadhātu in the prose comm. brten-pa. it does not become decrepit By the accumulation of the Passionless Active Force 4 3 8 ) . manomayakāya. DAŚ 892 b: (under the item 1. it is never born even in the form of Body made of mind. ^ 437) .. rtag-pa. T. Thus. C. And. it has no suffering From the illness of subtle defiling forces. Being ' everlasting ' in regard to its end. Being ' quiescent ' in regard to both. not falling into misery 4 4 0 ) . it never suffers from illness depending on 4 3 9 ) the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. don-med-pa. the meaning of Eternity. F o r apatita. is ' eternal' in regard to its beginning. // 83 // 436) These 4 terms are as follows: 1) nitya. quiescent and costant 4 3 6 ) . being constant. etc. /\ patita is t o b e resolved i n t o anartha-apatita. T. 438 > Cf. T . hdus-ma-byas-kyi dbyiñs. in case it is abiding on the Stage of the Buddha which is absolutely immaculate.The Ratnagotravibhāga Everlasting. //80// Being eternal. etc. // 82 // Indeed. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. C. Here. it does not die in the manner of the inconceivable Transformation. it is ' constant '. 3) śiva. anartha. respectively. T. it is not born Even with [the form of] the Body made of mind 4 3 7 ) . > parigraha. beginning and end. C. and consequently never becomes decrepit through the transformation brought about by the Passionless Active Force. Because of the birth in the form of manomayakāya and others. [ 257 ] .

it is the Tathāgata. this Absolute Body is Quiescent. bstan—pa & bśad— pa. o m . Being of uncreated nature 4 4 4 ) . ' everlasting '. paramârtha. B G Ś 8 1 1 c ff.J . (as well as Ms. b e c a u s e i t was t h e u s u a l case t o use t h e t e r m dhātu i n such h e a d i n g s i n this t e x t . There is no Nirvana. 447) -phe c o m b i n a t i o n of paramârtha w i t h nirvana (nirvrti i n t h e t e x t ) is peculiar. is Eternal since it is of unalterable nature through its inexhaustible properties. of undestructible character ". ' quiescent ' and ' constant% the distinction of the meaning of each term in regard of the Immutable Sphere is to be understood by each couple of terms showing ' statement ' and 4 explanation ' 4 4 2 ) . is Everlasting. namely ' eternal'. With reference to this meaning of ' undifferentiation ' we have one śloka. > Cf. T .) adds two verses here. this Absolute Body is Constant. akrtrima-dharma. C. r e n d e r i n g is helpless to fix t h e m e a n i n g a n d C. C. the everlasting refuge. which are no doubt interpolations. 446) ^ h e r e a ( J i n g ' tathāgatadhātor ' i n Ms. because it exists as far as the farthest limit. T. (10. Does i t m e a n Nirvana of the Buddha and not that of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha? 445 444) Cf. B . ^v!p. ^ p | p V S . the Highest 4 4 7 ) Nirvana. being indivisible from qualities like the sun with its rays. a n d t h e r e is no essential difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s . according to the Scripture 4 4 3 ) . respectively. apart from the Buddhahood. // 84 // * 4 2 ' uddeśa & nirdeśa. Being of indiscriminative nature. DAŚ 893 c (on Ekatva): jft IP M. JLAJi-ASAKI Of these four terms. (Kārikā 26) It is the Absolute Body. m ) AAN 467 b. 0 Śāriputra. B. Therefore. T . of non-dualistic nature. This Absolute Body. 0 Śāriputra. A s a m b h e d a ) . does n o t h a v e t o b e corrected w i t h ' -garbhasya '. Also it is the Holy Truth. (X) ASAMBHEDA 445) The Essence 448> of the Tathāgata characterized as having reached the ultimate point of perfect purification in this pure state is of undifferentiated (asambheda) nature. respectively. It is said as follows: " This Absolute Body. & # t mm^—m mm^mm m us at mm mm [ 258 ] ī £ IP J t *D # #U j | . JQ±. 0 Śāriputra. O Śāriputra.

464) 2) — 'W m @ £H. f 2 * U s ^\* /MM: 3 C • 451 > ādiprakrtiśāntatā. vv. On this conception. 448 * nāmaparyāya. T. Then which are the 4 meanings ? It is indivisible from the Buddha's Properties. T. // 85 // In short. what is shown by the former half of the śloka ? It should be known. de-bshin thob-pa. [ 259 ] . bral mi-śes-pa. inseparable [from Wisdom] 4 5 4 ) and are greater in number than the sands of the Gangā " . 76. mi-stoñ-pa.^: tathāgamah). § f $ 7J£ ^ ^ 0 J ¥ ' should be ' ^ ' according to the meaning). B Ś ibid. JpÇ #H ("$•£ JpÇ $D f. there should be known 4 synonyms 4 4 8 ) . further explanation will be given in S. T.The K 1. miñ—gi rnam-grañs. There are 4 synonyms. deceptive nature 4 5 0 ) . unreleased from the wisdom). 154-5 and commentary thereon. Ratnagotravibhāga Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata. ^ ^ /0U (lit. C. C. Its Germ has been perfected as it is 4 4 9 ) . With reference to this meaning. p. T. In accordance with these 4 meanings. C. K 1) — '8J ft ?£ f t ^ ^ ffi 81 i amuktajña. It is not of false. // 86 // 1) The first meaning: [the Essence of the Buddha] is indivisible from the Buddha's properties. 4) * ^ 3g P . 453) aśūnya.: W < l # G «2» ŚMS 221 c. -^f (ft for tadgotrasya "9» tathāgama. C. C . Lit. there are four meanings in regard to the Matrix of the Tathāgata as the Immaculate Sphere (or Essence). 450) amrsāmosadharmitva. indivisible. C. ^ ^ ^ ^ . it is said as follows 4 5 2 ) : " O Lord. An explanation of the meaning of ' tathāgata '. 3) # g B M ffll V£. in brief. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not empty 4 5 3 ) [because it is endowed] with the Buddha's Properties which are inconceivable. Here. tathāgatagarbha is not empty of buddhadharmāh (buddhadharmair aśūnyam). Cf. And it is quiescent from the very outset 4 5 1 ) . the Absolute Body and others Since [the Germ] in the Immaculate Sphere Has four meanings from different aspects.

T. C. the Tathāgata. 461) T # reading shi-ba(śama) 2§£ H>C (śāśvatadharmatayā). 458) parampara. AksP. deceptive nature. Cf. according t o C . brgyud-nas (from ancestors). i . — āgama (in the verse). BGŚ quotes the sentence as from AĀS (812 a) f/S | $ for ? £ Hf). having attained the Absolute Essence. (Cf. I suppose this quotation is also from t h e Sadāyatanasūtra. it is said as follows 4 6 2 ) : 44 Being in Nirvana from the very outset. [ y \ ^pc] % 4 _/£ . C. C. does not mention t h e n a m e of t h e source. 1 460) The source is uncertain. The following quotation shows a quite unique interpretation of the word tathāgata. has come down since beginningless time from one existence to another existence 4 5 8 > assuming 4 5 9 ) various forms consisting of six organs of cognitions. AĀS 469 b — * %/J ^ flj?^?. a n d I could n o t find t h e exact passage i n SMS. by its being quiescent " 4 6 1 ) . 2—4 (on prakrtistha-gotra). It stands for tathā in the verse. 462 > J Ā A 241 c. With reference to this 457) point. samudāgama.e. BBh. in the form of various living beings) " . it is said as follows 4 6 0 ) : 44 44 With Here. bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pahi rnam-pa. T. 11. (i. de-hdra-ba (connecting with sadāyatanaviśesah). it is said as follows : [This Germ]. With reference to this point. thob-pa. 3) The third meaning: It is not of false. jffc. the Arhat.e. because. V s U s ^* 459) . a d ā y a t a n a s ū t r a seems t o have h a d a structure similar t o t h e SMS. 3. T. reference to this point. T. the Perfectly enlightened One is of neither origination nor destruction " . the Innate Nature has been 455) 456) perfected in an inconceivable manner . TAKASAKI 2) The second meaning: Its Germ. whose nature For what reason ? Because the Germ is eternal is undeceptive. [ 260 ] is preferable from t h e context. ^EcX which is missing now. 457 ^ C. Sadāyatanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśi—sūtra) 458) 455) I a -£*T3 "H^y ^ 7 7 ? ( y \ \\X. b u t C. that which is the Highest Truth is Nirvana. i. a vocative ' bhagavan ' is also inserted i n t h e previous quotation and t h e S. O attributes i t t o SMS. 197 b).J.e. someone is expressing his understanding i n front of t h e B u d d h a a n d t h e B u d d h a acknowledges i t . has no literal translation. acintya-prakāra. 4) The fourth meaning: It is of the nature of absolute quiescence. tādrśah. mentions the name of the source.

Namely. § 2. and hence. there are four synonyms. that which is called ' Buddhahood ' because of its Perfect Enlightenment regarding all kinds of phenomena. 2) the Tathāgata. 222 a. respectively. and 4) the Nirvana. 220 c. T . 464) 466) 467) C. Now. nothing but the Tathāgata " . there is indicated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. See c o m m e n t a r y . namely. C. reads ' inseparable from t h e highest truth ' ( / p J|ft I f ? —* ffH). tshul-gyi sgo-nas. O Lord. being endowed with such properties " . " The Sphere of the Nirvana. is the name for the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . And being the removal of pollutions along their root4 6 5 ) . what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? Being the Perfect Enlightenment in all aspects. 468 > nayamukhena. by means of the Doctrine of non-duality. " O Lord. " Under the name of the Extinction of the Suffering. is the name for the Absolute Body. O Lord. T. A n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e 'na' is t o b e inserted before ' a n y o dharmakāyah' (-gato nānyo dharmakāyah). [?£] f*^ (' /f* | | 8 — ' V Î f*l 'f* Pjji: * f^ *gg' for advayadharmanayamukhena).The Ratnagotravibhāga For these four meanings. abbhinna. for which C. Therefore. and that which is called 'Nirvana' because of its removal of pollutions along with their remaining forces which takes 467 a . 465) T n e fij. [ 261 ] . respectively. Buddhahood and Nirvana Are one and the same in the highest viewpoint 4 6 6 ) . O Lord. o m . Ś M S 220c. 3) the Highest Truth. the Tathāgata and the Absolute Body. 1) the Absolute Body. 468) these four are one in their sense. * yq'C (ekarasa). the following fact is to be known. O Śāriputra. It is said as follows 4 6 3 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata. The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana. these both are not different from [each other 4 6 4 > . // 87 // These four synonyms of the Immaculate Essence converge into the 467 undifferentiated ' meaning of the Essence of the Tathāgata.st o n e j s f or buddhatva a n d t h e n e x t o n e is for nirvana. The Absolute Body is.

0. 9 & 12). These 4 are called ' caturākāragunanispatti ' in the commentary. 473 > ŚMS 219 c. B u t T. HH 5!*. 474) dharma-parameśvara. 472 473) 476 rfy ī ? atavî. which are Of all kinds. asamkhyeya. the Perfectly Enlightened Ones are endowed with properties showing the ultimate point of the entireness. T. [ 262 ] 1. that is the Tathāgata ". having realized the Nirvana which is characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment 4 7 8 ) mahâbhisambodhāt. p. An epithet of the Buddha. & T. the Tathāgatas. ^ ^ ^ ^ *^§ § S $£ tf1 {yata aha Mahāparinirvānasūtre). respectively. Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas) against retreat. buddhatva & nirvana. O Lord. adds one epithet m o r e : sy* ^*g pjjffc (avinirbhāga). C. ap? j^L. hbrog-dgon.e. T. C. inconceivability and purity ". unthinkable and immaculate 4 7 2 ) . are lacking the heading. C. amala. > ŚMS 219 c.' in the text should be corrected. the Nirvana is merely a means used by the Tathāgata ". which makes t h e meaning clear.J. it is said in the Scripture 4 7 3 ) with reference to the Nirvana of the Arhat and Pratyekabuddha: " [Here]. By this passage it is explained that. dub-pa. indivisible and inseparable 4 7 0 ) in the Immaculate Sphere. [So it is said] 4 7 1 ) : " Liberation is of the characteristic Indivisible from the properties. [On the other hand] it is said: 4 7 7 ) : " By reason of having attained Nirvana. By this passage it is explained that this [Nirvana of the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas] is a means made by the Perfectly Enlightened Ones who have the highest Controlling Power on [all] phenomena 4 7 4 ) in order to protect them (i. 58. these two are non-dual. 471 > Both S. acintya. The place in MPS remained untraced. o m . 478) nispatti (the reading ' nispatsv. grub-pa. the Arhats. TAKASAKI place simultaneously with 4 6 9 ) the Perfect Enlightenment. C. . Also. adds lhan-cig (together). C. innumerable. O Lord. 477 > pariśrānta. ^ f^. This Liberation. 470) 469) C. nisthāgata (in the quotation). immeasurebility. as S. sarvākāra. But C. See S. it is just like the illusory city in the forest 4 7 5 ) made for the travellers who are tired 4 7 6 ) after their long way [in order to encourage them]. T.

m M m m $. in the Immaculate Sphere. mchog ( = śrestha). pratikrti. // 89 // Then the painters. thos-gyur t h e c o m m a n d m e n t of t h e king). no one 4 8 1 ) can realize Nirvana apart from Buddhahood. 485) citra-lekhaka. C. ^ ^ ^J] (_. om. . the Perfectly Enlightened Ones identify themselves with Nirvana 4 8 0 ) . BGŚ 8 1 2 c : ^ ^ C . hgah yañ (= kaścid). na). = # s *i B 480) 3) acintya. 484) This illustration of the painters is originally taken from the Ratnacūdasūtra. T. 481) 482) T. 479) See Note 471. C. C. (having accepted 488) 489) pratiśrutya. The others could not understand 4 8 6 ) . So that whatever skill possessed by one of them. [ 263 ] . C. T. 4) viśuddhi. having promised 4 8 9 ) [to the king]. — ^ Z —" 'HI % tadātmakam bhavati. j j | (î>£) i t ] H . T . RCS 176 a. ri-mo hdri-byed-pa (for hdri. 38§ | ^ A —-— (kasyacid . Cf. m i§. the Buddhas are possessed of all kinds of properties since they have accomplished 4 8 2 ) the Non-substantiahty endowed with all sorts of excellency 4 8 3 ) . te (having heard of i t ) . quotes the original account after the verses. Now. t h o u g h t h e former is often used). as both of these. // 88 // Then a mighty king would give them A painting cloth 4 8 7 ) with the following commandment: On this [cloth] ye all should draw my portrait 4 8 8 ) . C. zin-pa (to apprehend). (ffS). T. hbri. T. t o draw. vara. 2) aprameya. gzugs. Buddhahood and pftrvāna. Cf. [Each of them] expert in a different sphere. Of these [painters] engaged in this work. /\\. J^. 487 > dūsya. . C. therefore. are endowed with inseparable properties. K 3. This is here to be known through the illustration of the painters 4 8 4 ) . TO abhinirhāra. ( U ^ 8 -9J f^ ^ * . The Parable of the Painters. T. C. Would start their work of painting. Here (in SMS).The o Ratnagotravibhāga f properties of four kinds 4 7 9 ) . T . . the four terms are as follows: 1) sarva. would be b e t t e r in sense. mñon-par bsgrubs-pa. Suppose there were some painters 4 8 5 ) . ras. C. 7JN * ^ . 483) 486) avadhārayati (to understand).

tshad med-pa. skyon med-pa (without defect). C. Thus the parable is made. Bji). 5) viksepa (C. > I* . the Non-origination of [all] the elements 4 9 7 ) is realized. // 91 // The painters who are meant here are Charity. each one is differentiated into limitless varieties in accordance with the Buddha's Sphere [of activity]. for which C. 49S > 1) mātsarya (C. T.J. the 2nd of the 4 characteristics. â [ 264 ] f£^ (natural). T . 4 9 5 ) . Morals. adds one verse saying: ' One painter is absent' means the lack of one ākāra. has it. 258 b. On the basis 490) viyoga. /f\ PuL). through practice by means of Meditation on the Nonsubstantiality endowed with all sorts of excellencies. om. 92. having exterminated the remaining force of pollutions 4 9 4 ) by its enemies. it should be known as being ' inconceivable ' and. On account of its number and power. 3RT £ E I S 3o> ( = anutpattika-dharma-ksānti). dhyāna. ksānti. it should be known as 'immeasurable' 4 9 3 ) . of these [excellent virtues]. respectively. 491 492 493) aparimita. ^ an f ^ ) . vīrya. (D) inserts unnecessarily one Pada between c and d of v. T. mi-skye-bahi chos-ñid. [each virtue] is to be known as being ' pure '. Now 4 9 6 ) . d 6) moha (C. C. saying: de-la mñon-par sbyin rnams-kyi. om. \$f /§»). BGŚ 8 1 3 > . 3) dvesa (C. śila. and prajñā. TAKASAKI One would have gone abroad 4 9 0 ) . Because of this realization. 5Sv | H i (without interruption). 496) Hereafter. 3»W iSk • This is for aprameya. // 92 // Here. 494 > T. but C. faultless 4 9 8 ) . T. etc. C. f|g). T. mala. The Non-substantiality is called the picture 492>. [Bodhisattvas can] ascend to their 8th Stage called Acalā (Immovable). 498) 497) niśchidra. ma tshan (incomplete). ākāra. -jftÇ* T. on t h e relation of t h e 4 characteristics t o t h e Stages of Bodhisattva. in the form of ' envy '. without any break and bearing its own taste 4 9 9 ) . // 90 // Because of his absence during his being abroad This picture would remain Without the completion of all parts. Patience and other dispositions 4 9 1 ) Being endowed with all kinds of these excellencies. 4) kausīdya (C. ' non-completion of the king's portrait' means the non-endurance of the knowledge of non-substantiality. MSbh (P). 2) kaukrtya (C. Therefore. where they can get the knowledge of the Path which is indiscriminative. anutpattika-dharma. charity and the rest. C. Cf. 7^E)î a r e vipaksas of dāna. \X • These are the so-called sat—pāramitāh. ' C.

they can obtain the knowledge 5 0 1 ) for assuming the immeasurable properties of the Buddha. is explained to soo) p. the highest ' purity ' of Buddhas' properties is completed.o r samudra. T. 5ft Bill • samdrśyate. T. On the basis of this knowledge. C. Therefore. ffî£ . (as Parasmaipada). // 93 // That which is indicated as the Sphere of the Nirvana characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment of four kinds of properties through the Intellect. 603 > guhya. Cf. aviparoksa. T. and the disk of the sun. The Intellect. the 4 immeasurability ' of [Buddhas'] properties is completed. Immediately after this stage. radiant. [ 265 ] . they are said to be far from the Sphere of the Nirvana 5 0 5 ) characterized as being indivisible from the accomplishment of the properties of the [above mentioned] four kinds. T. T. on the basis of knowledge which leads to the liberation from all impediments on account of Defilements and Knowables along with their remaining forces. reads brgya-stoñ ( = śatasahasra). basing himself upon the knowledge revealing 5 0 2 ) the secret 5 0 3 ) state of all the Buddhas. Ikog-tu ma gyur-pa. 504) 605) 506 > abheda. The rays. the Wisdom and the Liberation. aiming at the acquisition of the Stage of Buddha. On the Bodhisattva's [last] Stage called Dharmameghā. mthoñ-ba.The Ratnagotravibhāga f this knowledge. 501) 502) C. ' to be '. calls t h i s jñāna ' śūnya(tā)-j ñāna ' (^-r^ ^ 3 ). but C. ŚMS 219 c (after the explanation of ' caturākāraguna ' of the Tathâgata): C. by means of immeasurable forms of Meditation and magic formulas like the ocean 5 0 0 ) . the Wisdom and the Liberation Are [respectively] bright. C. the 4 inconceivability' of Buddhas' properties is completed. Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun. they are similar to the light. the entireness of Buddhas ' properties in the Immaculate Sphere is completed. ^ J . On the Stage of Bodhisattva called Sādhumati /perfect Knowledge). and clear. tha-dad-med. the foundations of these Stages [above Acalā]. As the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas cannot perceive 5 0 4 ) these four knowledges. C. gsañ-ba. And they are inseparable 5 0 6 ) from [the Absolute Essence]. § 4.

C. Therefore. Avoiding 5 1 2 ) its light and rays. C. the true introspection 5 1 7 ) by the Intellect 5 1 8 ) free from attachment and of no 507) kārana i n t h e t e x t .T. nirvrjya (fr. T. simply |g (in comparison with prajñā 510) S11 > jāla. has ' § J U ' . darśana. for which C. through its penetrating everything knowable of all kinds. 616) avinirbhāga-gunadharmatva. ^ ^ ^^j . -tva. T. I t is preferably corrected. om. 616) 617) For dharmatva. 508) ( T . 2) The Wisdom of Omniscience 509> 510) which is attained subsequently is. prajñā. om. Just as it is impossible to see the sun. prsthalabdha. by three aspects 507> on account of the Intellect. C. C.J. T. akin to the radiance of the net 5 1 1 ) of rays. there exists the essential nature 5 1 5 ) of the indivisible properties of Tathāgatas. ñe-bar gnas-pa ( = upasthita).. C.rjes-lathob-pa. om. 1) The transcendental Intellect which is supermundane and indis criminative is. ' tribhir ekena ca kāranena '. 514) sāmnidhya. C. T. C. T. without the acquisition of Buddhahood. T. has a resemblance to the purity of the disk of the sun through its being perfectly free from pollution and its being radiant. o m . and by one [in general]. 3) The Liberation of the Innate Mind. dra-ba. and instead has anāsrava.e. [ 266 ] . rnam-pa). the basis of the above two (Intellect and Wisdom). there is a similarity to the light and others through their indivisibility [from the sun]. akin to the light [of the sun]. {J^ =Ef (— dharmakāya). nir V vri-> P a n nibbajjeti). om. Therefore. J H | P | . // 94 // Thus. sañs-rgyas-kyi rgyud-la mñah-ba. C. There is no attainment of Nirvana. C. jñāna-darśana. -dañ Idan-pa. Here in the Buddha's body 5 0 8 ) . and 4) As these three are undifferentiated from the Absolute Essence. buddhasāntānika. śes-bya thams-cad-kyi ye-śes (sarvajñeyajñāna). etc. T. namely. upahita. into ākāra. through its engaging in the destruction of darkness [that hides] the highest true essence of everything cognizable. i. T. T. without exception. TAKASAKI have similarity to the sun in four aspects. yon-tan mam-par dbyer-med-pahi chos-ñid 613) 512) yin-pa. j^p 1 <£C =*7 • * %)J ^t)« 509 > sarvajña-jñāna. from sāmnidhya up to upahite. ye-śes-kyi gzigs-pa. spañs-nas. respectively. within the Essence [of the Buddha] which is endowed with 5 1 3 ) the virtuous qualities as its own nature constantly associated 5 1 4 ) since beginningless time. unless the Buddhahood 5 1 6 ) . tathāgatatva = buddhatva. S18 > T.

or those who have attained the Therefore. just as we cannot see the disk of the sun without a 5l9) perceiving its light and rays. T .e. true introspection through the liberation of equality. prior to the quotation has an interpretation of this subject. ' hina—pranlta—dharmānām (Bahuvrīhi comp. V$ . there is no acquisition of the Nirvana for [those who maintain] the inferiority or superiority of [all] the elements 5 2 0 ) . How may it be possible for the superior nirvana and the inferior nirvana to exist within one dharmadhātu? Also. available [only] to [those who know] the equality of all the elements. T . 0 The acquisition of the Nirvana is. C. of equal taste. > ŚMS 220 b. O Lord. those who . b u t C. If otherwise. (Lit. that there is only one way of the One Vehicle. [ 267 ] .). with Wisdom 519 523) O Lord. [it is of one and the same] taste and Liberation " . 6!!3 > vidyā. Therefore. dhātu. it is said : " O Lord.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hindrance. has i t . we cannot say we get one result on the basis of higher or lower causes. the realization of the Sphere of Nirvana characterized as the liberation from ll the impediments. S20 DAS also quotes the same passage and. If there were a difference among the causes. therefore she (= Śrlmālādevl) said). That is to say. the acquisition will not take place. have the liberation of equality 521) Lord. [In other words]. (DAS 894 a). o m . it is for those who have the Wisdom of equality. rig-pa. it is said the Sphere 5 2 2 ) of the Nirvana is of unique taste. 621 * B22) sama—vimukti. It runs as follows: " I t should be known. there should be another nirvana than this. furthermore. is understood. there would also be a difference among the results " . i.

And hereafter. ' covered ' in the meaning. this Matrix. ^ samvidyamānatā. 8) sāmnidhya. rig-par bya-ba-ñid. // 95 // Thus. ñe-bar gnas-pa (upasthita). j [ 268 ] . But S. See my Introduction. dharmatā. koti. BGŚ 806 c-808 c. chos-ñid. as concealed by the covering of defilements Is to be known by the following illustrations. we have hitherto explained the characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata from 10 points of view. 5) asambaddha. T h i s f o r m u l a (aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidyamānatā) is. om. T. 467 6. TGS 457a-460 6. VzC flU • * aparântakoti—sama. it should be understood. and the pure Essential Nature. x) 2) 2) 3) C. C. C. Like honey surrounded by bees. phyi-mahi mthahi mu dan mtshuñs—pa. n o t clear. C. Now. is essentially connected with it [as being its own nature]. Which are the 9 illustrations? (Kārikās 27-57) Like the Buddha in an ugly lotus flower. with reference to the fact that the covering of defilements is essentially unconnected 5 ) [with the Innate Mind] although associating with 6 ) it since the beginningless time 7 ) . T.IX. likewise associating since the beginningless time. ma hbrel-ba. The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. T . C. 66. m ® t S 0 Î 1 8 PO I S A • Cf. THE 9 ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE GERM COVERED WITH DEFILEMENTS « § 1. that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the limitless 9 ) coverings of defilements. T . 4) as eternal as the ultimate limit [of the world] . Thus have been explained the characteristics Of the Matrix of the Buddha from 10 aspects.. For aparyanta . with reference to the existence of the Essential Nature . 3) 4 7) 8) 9) So T. anādi-. (f8& # p 1 f r •§?' :$£). originally taken from AAN. (thog-ma med-pahi dus-nas) and C. together with the next two formulae (on kleśakośatā and śubhadharmatā). T .. n. C. by 9 illustrations based upon the Scripture 8 ) .

(om. x1 ' alpa—phala. Then the Lord started his pronouncement on the Essence of the Tathāgata abiding within each living being. In the living beings obscured by occasional stains of defilements. Like the bark of a fruit. Jp|p $flfl -3Î. {EE • • • T ^ . jfr1] j§£ ^ — dvipâgrâdhipa (v. T h e s t o r y given i n t h e S ū t r a is as follows: Once t h e L o r d . T G S 457 c. ' jathala. . ^ ($£ ^ ) . gold. cleaned kernels And a purified precious statue. Bodhisattvas were surprised at this sight and asked the Lord for the explanation of this miracle. . T . there abides this Essence // 97 // 13) 14) 15) // 96 // woman.The Like kernels of 10) Ratnagotravibhāga grains covered by the husk. They came to blossom at the same time. C. T . T. There appeared thousands of lotus flowers having the apparitional Buddha within and shining with splendour fragrant. sñiñ-po. ^ . C. honey. ^ ^ . Like the kinghood in the womb of a poor And like a precious statue in the earthen mould. ñan ( u g l y ) . showed a miracle. • - la) 13 14 ' nrpatva. shining with a thousand marks [of virtue]. And the Buddha. T. aīpd). C. The Defilements are like the ugly sheath of lotus flowers. .. lto[-ba] (belly). The (I) excellent Essence has a resemblance to them. 16 18) 16) garbha-vestita. and like earth tormented by the fire of pains. hbras—chuñs. bees. [ 269 ] C. mi-bdag. But still there was the Buddha sitting within each flower. sitting in the assembly of Bodhisattvas. In such a way. susâra. 98) T . Like gold fallen into impurities. Like a sprout. etc. T. Like a woman of misery. 17) Cf. Were abiding in the inside 1 8 ) a faded lotus flower. A Nyagrodha tree. the Highest Lord of the world. (cakravartin). 12 Like an image of the Buddha wrapped in a tattered ' garment. husk. J g ^ Jfjç @ ^ |H!2 (poor a n d u g l y ) . 98). pollutions are like A lotus flower. T . like a tattered garment. grown from a small fruit U ) . C. hrul. the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the Buddha 1 7 ) . [In these illustrations]. Like a treasure under the ground. but all at once they became faded and began to give a bad smell. praklinna = pūti (v. a precious image. and Suppose the Buddha. This idea of the origination of the Tathāgata is probably borrowed from the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of t h e Avatamsaka. ' jaghanya. C. 10) sāra. The edible part of grains.hi khoñ gnas-pa. impurities and the ground. treasure. // 98 // 16) ..

being immaculate. thum[-pa] (something packed or wrapped up). T. And wishing to get it. And rends asunder t h e petals [in order to draw him out]. T . possessed of the eyes of the Omniscience. sgrib-pa ( = āvarana). 7fâ Tfp . Accomplishes the non-connection 2 7 ) of t h e Essence With t h e bees-like obscurations. t h e Lord. [ 270 ] . |Vij£ ( t o r e m o v e ) . Desire. // 100 // Just as a person of divine sight perceives A faded 2 1 ) and ugly lotus flower and the Buddha within it. 23) 24) And kills its Obscurations because of Compassion. with his Buddha's eyes. T . reads jalaruha as locative. Q |* ffi ffl E& "fill. ) . "> Cf. 22 > C. completely.4 5 8 a . sahasra-koti-niyuta.. as S. aślesa. similar t o T . C. and t h e Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the h o n e y 2 5 ' . C. — // 99 / / Similarly. | M | i3>u (as T . // 103 // Just as a man who is desirous of getting honey Hidden by thousands. ^ g . T. — // 102 // Similarly. for niyuta). having seen Honey surrounded b y 2 6 ) cloudy bees. // 101 // (II) The Defilements are like honey-bees.|?§). C. > = being eternal (C. T. Suppose a clever person. 23) 24) nivarana. reads padma instead of pattra. etc. C. TAKASAKI And a man of immaculate divine sight would perceive him And release him from the sheath of p e t a l s 1 9 ) of lotus. reads analogically ' ^ £ ^ ^ ' (petals). with skillful means. standing at the utmost limit 2 0 ) and being full of Compassion He releases them from the obscurations. T . millions 2 8 ) of bees. nir\Jhan. t h e Great Sage. C. the Lord perceives t h e world. bya-ba khrab-khrig ston (niyuta-koti-sahasra). T G S 4 5 7 c . hjoms-pa. ' kleśa '. T . Perceiving this Essence known as akin to honey. In t h e same way. covered with the sheath of stains. 26) 27) 28) upagūdha (concealed). T. The Matrix of the Buddha. Here pattra stands for kośa.(ffl EÎ3 "ftfe = nayuta. bskor (surrounded). Hatred 22>. T. Would deprive t h e bees completely of it. Perceives his own nature even in those who are in the lowest world And. rab-tu spoñ-ba ( = prahāna).J. 19) 20 pattra. ] H ^ 'Q. C. 2l) sammiñjita. instead of accusative in S.

As long as it is unreleased from the husk and not cleaned well 3 4 \ Cannot be the sweet edible for the people. B u t T . the immaculate Wisdom in the living beings Is like honey. sel-ba. vrihi seems t o s t a n d for corn or grain i n general. Having his feature unreleased from the husk of Defilements. gra-ma-can legs-par ma bgrus (having hairs and not yet cleaned) (bgrus means ' to step on the bag filled with corns in order to remove the husk). & C. //106// Just as the kernel of grains like rice. > dharmûśvara. — // 105 // Similarly. respectively. bsal te (fr. C. //107// 1/104. C. for which T .) is peculiar.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga and makes Drives the bees away 2 9 ) use of the honey 3 0 ) as he wishes. To the people who are afflicted by the hunger of Defilements. etc.3 3 ) . ^ 3 5 }§? fâ . sālu. and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the inner kernel 31 '. | f ^ff . f | $ . And unless it is freed from the association of stains of Defilements. ^ %r (killing). (Is i t a special form in some P r a k r i t or m e r e l y a wrong reading of madhunā?). 32 ' annâdibhir (inst. 33) kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrihi. which gives a b e t t e r sense. 31 > Cf. a r e hbru.// vinihatya (fr. C. like that man. p. Does not become one who can grant the pleasurable taste of the Doctrine. Those who wish to utilize it as food and the like 3 2 ) Take it out from the husk. T h e last o n e . the religious king 3 5 ) residing in the living beings. 30) T h e form madhvā as i n s t . t o remove). T G S 458 a. sg. nas. the Buddhahood in the living beings Is polluted with the stains of Defilements. 34 ' khādy-asusamskrta. jfjj . vi-ni\Jhan). See J's note 1 on S. T. ^ § . ft § ^ V£ fE • [ 271 ] . The kernel of grains covered with the husk Cannot be eaten by any person.) is g r a m m a t i c a l l y peculiar (usually i n l o c ) . hbru ( t h e second one 29) is a kind of wheat). C. It cannot perform the Acts of Buddha in the 3 Spheres. T . Similarly. barley. (III) The Defilements are like the outer husk. 62. and the Defilements are like bees. t h e i r equiv a l e n t s are n o t so clear. knows how to remove the stains. wheat. bra-bo. In the same way. All these a r e varieties of grains. of madhu (neut. The Buddha.

// 111 // (V) The Defilements are like the underground 43) of the Tathāgata is akin to a treasure of jewels . TGS 458 a-b. And the gold would stay there for many hundreds of years As it were. 42) tola. and the Essence Suppose there were an inexhaustible treasure Under the ground within the house of a poor man. as S. C. 39 > nava. Fallen into a dirty place filled with impurities. B u t C. Suppose a traveller would happen to drop 38) A piece of gold in a place filled with impurities . 40) T .J . Ijan-ljin rul-bahi gnas. TAKASAKI (IV) The Defilements are like a dirty place 3 6 ) filled with impurities. the Buddha. p. o m . 37 > Cf. Teaches the Doctrine to the living beings in order to purify the treasure. and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to gold 37) . mthil (depth). 407 b). You should purify it and make use of it as a treasure. om. Also cf. without changing its quality. 41) T . & C. XII. simply ' impurities '. ) . 0 . Would show it to the people in order to purify 4 0 ) it from dirt 4 1 ) . Ijan-ljin-kyi gnas. samkāra is replaced in verses by samkara. MPS (Taisho. However this man might not know about that treasure. TGS 458 b. r e a d s ' bālāt' ( n a n . — // 108 // Then a god possessed of immaculate divine eyes Would see it there and tell a man: — Here is a piece of gold. T. C. samkāra-dhāna. perceiving a piece of gold. fresh 39) and the highest of precious things. 42) . the most beautiful one. the Buddha perceives the quality of living beings Drowned in the Defilements which are like impurities. i t . 43 > Cf. And pours the rain of the Doctrine over the living beings In order to wash off that dirt of defilements. In the same way. r e a d s ' kun-tu dgah-bar by a phyir ' (in order t o g l a d d e n them. T. dhāna stands here for ādhāna. 38) samkara-pūti-dhāna. — // 109 // Similarly. which is p r o b a b l y a m i s r e a d i n g for ' kun-tu dag-par bya phyir '. 36) [ 272 ] . perceiving the treasure of the Buddha in the living beings Which is fallen into a big pit of impurities of defilements. // 110 // Just as a god. T . T.g y i s ) i n s t e a d of malāt.

The

R at na got r av ib h ā ga

And the latter could not say to him 4 I am here '; — // 112 // Similarly, though there is a treasure of immaculate jewel, The inconceivable, inexhaustible 44) properties in the mind, The living beings of the world, without knowing it, Constantly 4 5 ) experience the suffering of poverty in various ways. // 113 // Just as a treasure of jewels in the house of a poor man Would not say to him 4 1 am here ', Nor the man could know ' here is a treasure of jewels '; Likewise is the treasure of properties dwelling in the house of the mind 4 6 ) , And the living beings are like a poor man; To enable those people to obtain this treasure, The Sage makes his appearance in the world. // 114 // (VI) The Defilements are like the bark-covering [of a seed], and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the germ within a seed 4 7 ) . Just as the germ of a seed inside the fruit of trees Of Mango, Tāla 4 8 ) , etc. is of an imperishable nature, And, being sowed in the ground, by contact with water, etc., Gradually attains the nature of the king of trees; — // 115 // In the same way, the pure Absolute Essence, abiding in the living beings, Covered by the sheath within the bark of the fruit of ignorance and the like, [Grows] gradually by the help of this and that virtue And obtains [finally] the state of the king of Sages. // 116 // Conditioned by water, by the light of the sun, By air, soil, time and space, From within the husk of the fruit of the Tāla or mango There comes out a tree; Similarly, the germ of the seed of the Buddha, Residing within the bark of the fruit, the defilements of living beings,
44)

aksayya ( = aksaya), ajasram, T . rgyun-tu, C. o m . 46) R e m i n d of a similarity w i t h t h e ālayavijñāna theory. 47 > Cf. T G S 458 c. 48) T . o m . tāla, C. s i m p l y ' v a r i o u s kinds of t r e e '.
45)

[ 273 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Thrives by the help of this and that virtue, Resulting in the tree 49> of the Highest Truth. // 117 // (VII) The Defilements are like a tattered garment, and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a precious image 5 0 ) . Suppose an image of the Buddha made of precious jewels Wrapped in the tattered garment of bad smell Were cast off51) on the road, and A god, perceiving it, would speak to travellers About this matter 5 2 ) , in order to retrieve it; — // 118 // Similarly, the One who has eyes 5 3 ) of no obstacle Perceives, even among those in the world of animals 5 4 ) , The nature 5 5 ) of the Buddha concealed by the stains 5 6 ) of various kinds of Defilements, And, for the sake of its liberation [from Defilements], Provides the means 5 7 ) [of deliverance]. // 119 // Just as a god with divine eyes, seeing the Buddha's image Wrapped in a bad-smelling garment, and rejected 5 8 ) on the road, Would show it to the people in order to retrieve it; In the same way the Lord, perceiving even among animals, The Essence [of the Buddha] thrown on the road of transmigration,

40) vitapa (small plant), T. hthon (coming out), C. \Jp y C f £ JX1 for dharmavitapa. so) Q£t XGS 458 c-459 a. The story given in the Sūtra is as follows: There was a person who kept one golden image of the Buddha. He was on the way to another country along a dangerous path. For fear of robbers, he wrapped that image in tattered garment so that nobody could notice of it. As this person passed all of a sudden on the way, the image was abandoned in a field and left unknown to travellers who thought it merely a dirty cloth of no value. There happened to come a man of divine eyes, who, recognizing the image within the tattered garment, picked it up out of the garment and saluted it.

61)
62) 63) 64) S5) 66) 87)

F o r ujjhita, T . gnas (placed), C. ^ £ or E J [ / £ £ (fallen) in v. 120.
etam artham (this thing). T . o m . caksuh, w h i c h C. h a s . C. ' in the lowest world (avici) '. ātmabhāva, T. dños-po (nature), C. [KH yjv] -*J" ( = kāya). T. om. mala, which C. has.

abhyupāya, T. thabs, C. ~/J ]§*,. For vidadhāti, T. ston-mdsad, C. fij (preaches the highest doctrine). B8) ujjñita in the text should be corrected into ujjhita.

t 274 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a

With the covering of the tattered garment of Defilements, Taught the Doctrine for the sake of its deliverance. // 120 // (VIII) The Defilements are like a pregnant woman 59 ' and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to an Emperor contained in the Embryonal elements 6 0 ) . Suppose an ugly woman without a protector 6 1 ) Were abiding in an orphanage 62) , And, bearing the glory of royalty as an embryo 6 3 ) , Might not know the king in her own womb 6 4 ) . // 121 // The generation of worldly existence is like an orphanage, Like a pregnant 6 5 ) woman are the impure living beings, And the immaculate Essence in them is like that embryo 6 6 ) , Owing to the existence of which, they become possessed of protection. // 122 // Just as a woman, whose body is covered with a dirty garment And having ugly features, experiences in an orphanage, The greatest pain when the king is in her womb; Similarly the living beings abiding in the house of misery, And whose mind is not quiet by the power of Defilements, Imagine themselves without a protector Though the good protectors 6 7 ) are residing in their own bodies. // 123 //

āpanna-sattva-nārl, T . sems-can shugs-pahi an e m b r y o ) , sattva here m e a n s a n e m b r y o .
60)

59)

mi-mo

(a w o m a n w h o is b e a r i n g kalala is

kalala-mahābhūtagata. For kalala, T. mer-mer-po, C. flf/V #lâ [3&E]« t h e first s t a g e of e m b r y o . Of t h i s e x a m p l e , cf. T G S 459 a.
61)

anātha (Lit. without a protector) T. mgon-med, C. j|J\ $ § • (^* m e a n s 'abandoned by her husband', or ' widow '). 62) anātha-āvasatha, T . mgon-med hbug-gnas, = anātha-śāla ( T . . . . khyim), anātha( T . . . . khañ-pa), C. ^ ^ 3§«J " | § * . garbha, T . mñal. mñal m e a n s ' w o m b ' a n d n o t ' e m b r y o ' , b u t h e r e garbha seems to m e a n e m b r y o . See below. 64) kuksu, T . he (centre), C. ' inside of b o d y '. veśman
63) 65) 66)

antarvat,

T . mñal-ldan

(garbhavat),

C. | f ! t ) j o (possessed of e m b r y o ) . ( = garbha-sthita, t h a t w h i c h is within

tad-garbhavat.

F o r garbha, T . mñal-gnas

t h e w o m b ) , C. ^ ^
67)

T ^ JjP ( e m b r y o w i t h i n t h e w o m b ) . T . mgon-bcas, C. >^J mfi fvC &&. • B o t h t a k e s i t as sanātha.

sannātha,

[ 275 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(IX) The Defilements are like an earthen mould 6 8 ) and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a golden statue 6 9 ) . Suppose a man who knows [how to make a statue], Seeing that the statue, filled with melted gold inside And covered with clay outside, had become cool, Would, for purifying the inner gold, remove the outer covering; — // 124 // Similarly, the One who has got the highest Enlightenment, Perceiving always 7 0 ) the radiance of the Innate Mind And the occasionality of the stains, Purifies the world, which is like a mine of jewels, from obstructions. // 125 // Just as a statue made of pure, shining gold Would become cool within the earthen covering, And, knowing this, a skillful jewel-maker would remove the clay; In the same way the Omniscient perceives that The Mind 71) , which is like pure gold, is quiescent 72) , And, by means of a stroke 73) [called] the method of teaching the He removes the obscurations. // 126 // Doctrine 7 4 ) , The summarized meaning of the illustrations is as follows: Inside a lotus flower, amidst bees, Inside the husk, impurities, and the ground, Within the bark of a fruit, within a tattered garment, In the womb of a woman, and inside clay, respectively, Like the Buddha, like honey, like the kernel of grains, Like gold, like a treasure, and like a tree, Like a precious image, like the Emperor, And like a golden statue, // 128 // The Innate Mind of the living beings Which is pure from beginningless time,
68)

// 127 //

89

mrt-pañka-lepa, T. sahi hdam gos-pa, C. > Cf. TGS 459 a-b. 70) T. om. sadā, which C. has.
71

> manas, T. yid, C. ^fC J 2 . |y|j |zfc • manas here stands for cittaprakrti. ^ (firmly). C. ^*[£ ( h a m m e r ) . prahāra, T . brdeg-spyad,

72

> For Siva, C. f | |

73) 74)

dharmâkhyāna-naya, T. chos-hchad-tshul, C. îpt V S •

[ 276 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ā ga

And is not bound by the covering of Defilements, Though being within them from the outset is thus illustrated 7 5 ) . // 129 // In brief, by this explanation of the illustrations given in the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, there is shown the fact that, for all living beings, the defiling elements [which cover] over their mind from the beginningless time are [merely] of an accidental nature, whereas the purifying elements existing in the mind since beginningless time were born together [with the mind], and hence, they are of an indivisible nature 7 6 ) . Therefore, it is said 7 7 ) : " Owing to the impurities on the Mind, the living beings are defiled; owing to the Mind [itself], pure [by nature], they are purified ". § 2. 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities on the Mind
78)

.

Here, which are the impurities on the Mind, with reference to which the 9 illustrations, a sheath of lotus flower, &c, have been explained? Desire, Hatred and Ignorance 7 9 ) , and their intense outburst, [Ignorance in] the form of Impression 80>
75)

C. a b b r e v i a t e s t h e s e 3 verses i n t o two b y avoiding r e p e t i t i o n of t h e 9 e x a m p l e s . a n d cittaprakrti b y using ' ^pj ' for t h e former

C. distinguishes t h e s i t u a t i o n of kleśas

and ' -£3- JEp ' (endowed w i t h ) for t h e l a t t e r . 76) H e r e is given t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n citta-samkleśa-dharma and citta-vyavadānadharma, n a m e l y t h e former is merely āgantuka, while t h e l a t t e r is sahaja a n d avinirbhāga, a l t h o u g h b o t h are anādisāmnidhya (S. p . 5 9 , 1 . 12 ff.) w i t h sattvas. This c o n t r a s t is explained in a previous passage b y t h e t e r m s asambaddha a n d sambaddha. 77) T h e source of t h i s q u o t a t i o n is u n k n o w n , b u t we h a v e a similar expression i n the Vimalakîrti-nirdeśa (Taisho, X V , 563 b). This i d e a seems t o be q u i t e old a n d p e r h a p s we c a n t r a c e b a c k i t s origin as far as t h e P a l i N i k ā y a s (e.g. SN I I I , 151). 78 > Cf. B G Ś 806 c.
79)

C. a d d s a word ' ^*y 7fcf| ', of which t h e e q u i v a l e n t in S k t . is n o t clear. P r o b a b l y

it s t a n d s for anuśaya or bandhana (literally ' ^ R f£fp| ' is near t o bandhana, b u t in t h e comm e n t a r y , these t h r e e kleśas are said to be in t h e s t a t e of anuśaya, a n d f u r t h e r m o r e , bandhana is usually rendered in Chinese b y ' /£n 151 % while in this t e x t , t h e same ' flip (JJ^' (or / { | Q ) is often used for anuśaya. If so, even m o r e curious is t h e use of this ' jppf > | | Q ' for tivra-paryavasthāna in this verse. I t seems q u i t e wrong. F o r paryavasthāna, T . has kun-ldan ( = kun-nas Idañ-ba) (— paryutthāna). See v. 137. 80) H e r e vāsanā s t a n d s for avidyāvāsabhūmi. See prose c o m m e n t a r y on this verse. This use of vāsanā seems to s u p p o r t t h e T i b e t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m avidyāvāsabhūmi. See N o t e V I I I - 1 1 2 .

[ 277 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The pollutions [which are to be removed by 8 1 ) ] The Path of Perception and that of Practice 8 2 ) , And those remaining in the impure and the pure Stages [of Bodhisattva, respectively], // 130 // These 9 kinds of [defilements] are illustrated By the example of the sheath of a lotus flower and others; In their variety, however, the coverings of Defilements 8 3 ) Extend beyond the limit of extremity in number. // 131 // In brief, these 9 kinds of Defilements make always their appearance [on the Essence of the Tathāgata] as the incidental [attachment]8 4 ) , although the latter is perfectly pure by nature, just like the sheath of a lotus flower [covering] over the Buddha's image, and other examples. What are the 9 Defilements? They are, namely: 1) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state 8 5 ) of Desire (rāgânuśayalaksana-kleśa); 2) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Hatred (dvesânuśayalaksana-k.); 3) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Ignorance (mohânuśayalaksana~k.); 4) the Defilement characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance (tīvrarāgadvesamohaparyavasthānalasana-k.); 5) the Defilement contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmisamgrhīta-k.); 6) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Perception (darśanaprahātavya-k.); 7) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Practice (bhāvanāprahātavya-k.); 8) the Defilement remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (aśuddhabhūmigata-k.); & 9) the Defilement remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (śuddhabhūmigata-k.) 8 6 ) .

81

' T. inserts spoñs (= hey a, prahātavya) after mārga. It is better for understanding. drñ-mārga-bhāvanā. upasamkleśa, But T. & C, in usual order of darśana-bhāvanā-mārga. ñon-moñs, C. , K | | jpSa . T . ñe-bahi

82)

83)

86
86

> anuśaya, T. bag-la ñal, C. ^ (BGŚ |5f| > For these 9, T., C. & BGŚ have as follows (BGŚ in parentheses): 1) hdod—chags bag—la ñal—gyi mtshan—ñid—kyi ñon—moñs—pa, J ^ [§^ J^\ |pq «

m n m. m is*

2) *«*.*, m m ® t i . <ffi BE B« m m*
3) Pi-mug, M fâ. 'JR t i , M SS M ® 1%;

4) hdod-chags dañ she-sdañ dañ gti-mug drag-pos kun-nas Idañ-bahi mtshan-ñid,

S t i , (M B m ^ S S -t 'li'SR* «
[ 278 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga

Now first of all, l)-3), there are those Defilements which are in the bodies 8 7 ) of those worldly people who are freed from 8 8 ) Desire, and, being the causes of Forces which accumulate the motionless State 8 9 ', give rise to the Material and the Immaterial Sphere, and which are to be killed 9 0 ) by means of the Supermundane Wisdom. These are here termed the Defilements characterized as the dormant state of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. 4) Next, we have those Defilements which exist in the bodies of those living beings who indulge in Desire and the rest, and which, being the cause of Forces that accumulate merit and demerit, give rise only to the Sphere of Desire, and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom, [obtained] through the Contemplation of Impurity 9 1 ) , etc. They are called the Defilements characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. Then, 5) there are those Defilements which are in the bodies of the Arhats, and, being the cause that produces the Immaculate Actions, result in the birth of the pure Body made of mind, and are to be killed by the Tathāgata's Wisdom of Enlightenment. These are called the Defilements contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 9 2 ) . There are two kinds of individuals who undergo training [on the

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sāntānika, (of santāna, lit. flux, stream), T. rgyud-la yod-pa, C. vita, T. -dan bral-ba. C. failed to catch the sense, but BGŚ {|ft âniñjya-samskārâpacaya T . mi-gyo-bahi hdu-byed-la sogs-pa, ^\.

88) 89)

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jy\ 3^v. About āniñjya ( = anijya, aniñjya, Pali ānejja), see BHS Die. s. v. Along with punya and apunya, this āninjya forms samskāra which accumulates the Phenomenal Existence (bhava). See below.
90) 91

vadhya, T . gshom-par bya-ba, C. Hflf. ' aśuddhabhāvanā (text reading bhāva should be corrected), T. mi sdug-pahi sgom-

pa, C. /f* ^ Î H . See BHS Die. s. v., Mvyut. 52. 92) About avidyāvāsabhūmi, anāsravakarman and manomayakāya, see Note VIII112, 115. (where Bodhisattva is also included in this group).

[ 279 ]

And. 3?M J^Q J ^ J (yathā-pūrvadrsta). in comparison with no. these are called the Defilements remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva].J. these are called the Defilements remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. obtained through] the Meditation called 'the Diamond-like' 9 7 ) . TAKASAKI Path] 9 3 ) : a) the ordinary beings and b) the Saints.e. This passage is merely 961 95) 93) [ 280 ] . i. and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained] on the [first] 7 Stages 9 6 ) and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [obtained through] the Practice of the 3 Stages beginning with the 8th. 6) the Defilements which exist in the body of ordinary beings training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the first 94> Perception of the Transcendental Truth are termed the Defilements to be extirpated by means of Perception. Mahāyānist. (Mvyut. î | p J\. those which are not exterminated by the Wisdom attained in the first 7 Stages. They may be called ' bodhisattvayānika '. as J suggested. 8. i. ^ C EĪ JĪ^L *gî ' (anādikālâdrstapūrva) before prathama. It is said to be the meditation in the highest stage of practice.e. 7) the Defilements which exist in the body of the Saints training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the Transcendental Practice of the Truth according to their [Transcendental] Perception 95> are called the Defilements to be extirpated by Practice. not a verse at all. ^Ts. regards prathama as prathamabhūmi. That is to say. and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained through] the Practice on the (last) 3 Stages beginning with 8th and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [of the Buddha. These 9 8 ) śaiksa. Now. 94 ' T. 97 * vajropama-samādhi. C. ' prathama ' means that this darśana has never been observed by the Hīnayānists and is to be attained ' for the first time ' by the Mahāyānist.But BGŚ inserts ' 3f|§ $pj I . in comparison with ' yathādrsta ' in the next. 9) The Defilements which exist in the body of Bodhisattvas who have reached the ultimate perfection. 98 ' The following verse is. C. yathādrsta. T. seems to denote those Bodhisattvas who are below the 1st Stage. But usually the attainment of darśanamārga is said to take place on the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva. slob-pa. 'ārya\ here. C repeats lokottara and seems to render this prathama by prathamalokottaracitta ($) pj \jt ffl] 'L^). Paramārtha gives a detailed explanation on this subject in his commentary on BGS (BGS 807 b). See above. [Lastly there are two kinds of Defilements associating with Bodhisattwas]. It seems to be a good interpretation of this prathama. 21 & 55). 8) Those which are in the body of Bodhisattvas who have not reached the ultimate perfection.

The impurity [retained] in the ordinary beings. [these Defilements] which are differentiated into 84. // 133 // It has been said by the Lord that all living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 0 0 ) . om. how should the resemblance of 9 Defilements be known. // 132 // And. 131 cd. ( T h e r e a d i n g garbha be corrected into garbhā iti). That of the sheath of a lotus flower and others. keeps the original form. Their impurity. T G S ( T h e first f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). one. Being taken in short. in short. respectively. By these four. Now. mala. are as infinite as the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. 'all living beings ' are said to be. the individuals in training [on the Path]. Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and the 9 Defilements102'. 99) Qf^ T G S ( T h e second f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). On this point. 2) the Arhats. on account of [which they cannot identify themselves with] the Immaculate Sphere. two and two kinds of pollution. Desire and the rest. therefore. 1) the ordinary beings. 102 > Cf. (Variety of Living Beings according to their Defilements). the Buddha's image and the rest? an explanation of v. C.000 groups. it is said that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the coverings of Defilements which extend beyond the limit of extremity in number 9 9 ) . Are illustrated by 9 examples. [the next] one (the 5th) and two (the 6th & 7th) and again by two (the 8th & 9th) kinds of Pollution. 131 ab and the following sentences are those of v. BGŚ 807 c-808 a.The Ratnagotrav1bñaga Nine Defilements. The Arhats. respectively. if taken in detail. 3) the individuals in training [on the Path]. beginning with Desire. fourfold: namely. 100) Cf. respectively. is here explained by [the first] four. 101) kleśa-mala. T. Here. And the Bodhisattvas is [explained]. and how should the similarity be understood between the Essence of the Tathāgata and [the examples]. 101) respectively. Perhaps iti is t o [ 281 ] . and 4) the Bodhisattvas. § 3. to the sheath of a lotus flower and others.

// 137 // Just as the people 111 '. no) jp o r * kāmā virāginām *. // 137 // Just as the honey-bees 1 0 4 ) . being excited. corn). JQi * " P . ^ ^ . In the same way. Cannot obtain the treasure hidden under the ground 112 '. Similar to it is the delight of Desire. And BGŚ has ' jsjP: /y\ tcL. // 138 // Just as a sprout and the like. C. T. But C.). 106) For śāli. C. hbras ( = vrîhi. So h a v e T . J\. quite artificial. it is no more attractive. they bite the flowers '. C. T. J^J ^ ^ . growing gradually. 104 The analogies in the following verses seem ' bhramarāh prāninah (pi. reads ' chags dañ bcas rnams-kyi ' (kāma-avirāgi108 109 nām. bsgribs—pa.' (virāgin) in the parallel passage. But later on [when it withers]. they cannot obtain the Buddhahood Hindered by the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 113 '. because of their ignorance. which supports the text reading. Produces suffering in the heart. In a similar way. being a n adjective for svayambhūtvam.Just as the lotus flower born from the mud Is delightful103) in its first appearance. i n comparison with t h e illustration above. U1 ' T. C. 107 ' avacchanna = samcanna. yid-dgah. vasudhā-antarita. T . Similarly. ' C. C. though being far from the literal translation. & C. Being characterized as devoted to [such] Passion. ffp 3*fî. Likewise those who have got rid of desire 110) [Regard] Passion as something disagreeable. T. reading ' jfj flp£ J i ^ yS* p$g ' (similar is the case with the wise man's observation of rāga). T. 'nor ni bsgribs-pas na ' for this a n d ' mi-śes gter ' for ajñānād nidhi is a misreading caused b y t h e reading of jane for janāh. being aroused. ' andakośa (lit. Hatred. srog-chags sbrañ-ma. // 136 // Just as the impurities are somewhat disagreeable. egg-shell). shows this reading by repeating janāh. But janāh is the subject word of āpunyur and is used for both illustrating and being illustrated. 112) [ 282 ] . is still close to S. 113) -phe reading * avidyāvāsabhūmy-āvrtā h a d preferably b e corrected i n t o -âvrtam. Sting sharply [and cause pain] 1 0 5 ) . The outburst of Passions is repulsive like impurities. los > sārârtha. interprets: ' when they are making honey. 103 ' mano-rama. reads as jane (skye-la). // 135 // Just as the kernel of rice 1 0 6 ) and others Are concealed 107) by the outside husk. the perception of the Essential Truth 1 0 8 ) Is hindered by the covering 1091 of ignorance. as J suggested). T.

// 142 // Thus t h e 9 pollutions. 119) 120) C. Have a resemblance to a lotus flower and others. bdag-ñid ( = anubaddha). i. . . C. respectively. e. mñal—sbubs dri—ma. | § # H . reads *££=(•. hjig-tshogs sniñ-po bcom rnams-kyi. dañ hbrel-pa T . // 143 // § 4. 7^[J ( k n o w n ) . g ft ffl" ^ >\j\ %W ^K j g | ' and connects them [ 283 ] . j j n fy\ ffijj? . C. $fj!f *JC • garbhakośa means 117 > prakhyā. says: ' darśanamārga removes the defilements and makes the Stages grow up gradually '. C. uterus. C. . dañ mtshuñs. T . being the cause for puri122) fying the Mind .The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga Break out the husk of the seed. The resemblance of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. Bears a similarity to the Buddha and the rest. T . And the non-discriminative Wisdom has a resemblance To the matured form of an embryo delivered from its covering. 116) anusañga. mahâtman. Those Defilements are removed which are to be extirpated by 114 Perception ). which is n o t correct. . consisting of 3-fold nature. anugata. // 140 // The stains remaining in the [first] 7 Stages Are like 1 1 7 ) the impurities of the receptacle of an embryo 1 1 8 ) . "2) C. their Defilements which are to be rejected By the Wisdom of Practice are said to be like a tattered garment. . And the Essence [of the Buddha]. Therefore. C. . to the image of the Buddha and so 114) The analogy is not clear. with each of trividha svabhāva. 118 > garbha—kośa—mala. 115) hata-satkāya-sārānām. T . And are to be destroyed b y the Wisdom of the Buddhas 1 2 0 ) [Obtained through] Meditation called ' the Diamondlike '. The 3-fold Nature of the Essence. by the Intuition of the Truth. y*C H īff| " S * $ 1 1 . and its Concordance with the 9 Illustrations 1 2 1 ) . sāra. i»> Cf. BGŚ 808 a (#0 ^ H fll S tt). o m . the Purifying Element within the Mind. chen-po. //139// Those who have destroyed t h e ground of conception of personallity 115> 116) Are following in the [Practice of the] Saintly P a t h . T . in 9-fold. ( = sambandha). Desire and the rest. C. Similarly. //141 // The stains connected w i t h 1 1 9 ) the [last] 3 Stages Are known as being like t h e earthen mould. rjes-hbrel T .

Here.XAJVA. one and five. [The other] is its natural outflow125). T. 28 (S. * "^r vīîi ')• This is interpreted in the commentary by ' tat-prāpti-hetu '. 26). (E|[ -ffî* (which is a peculiar translation. C. 4) & v. honey and the kernel [of grains]. its being of the nature of Reality (tathathāsvabhāva). Usually. the highest Lord of Universe.'. rgyu-mthun. i. 126) [Namely].1 forth. // 145 // The Absolute Body of the Buddha is to be understood in 2 aspects. those of the treasure. 24. [ 284 ] . In this sense. 27 and v. [respectively].e. read i t as nominative. [One] is the Absolute Entity which is perfectly immaculate. By one example. those of the image of the Buddha.SAJ4. 125) nisyanda. i. p. .e. 1231 C. 1) the perfectly pure Absolute Entity itself (dharmadhātu) .' is t o b e corrected i n t o ' dharmadhātur B o t h T. this Essence is to be understood as being of the nature of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya-svabhāva). the tree. 27). & C. S. 124) Cf. the precious image. how is the Absolute Body? The Absolute Body is to be known in 2 aspects. i. the teaching Of the profound [truth] and of the diverse guidance. The Reality. and the golden statue. Which is known by the examples. Three.e. p. It is also to be compared with (I) svabhāva (the first of the 10 meanings of tathāgatadhātu. // 144 // By the 3 examples. and by [the remaining] 5 examples. a) Dharmakāya. From the viewpoint of ekayāna. where gotra is explained as the germ of ratnatraya. is to be understood in the reference to the 3-fold Nature (trividhah svabhāvah) of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 2 3 ) . What is the 3-fold Nature? The Nature of this [Essence] is the Absolute Body. that of gold. avi. ^"]§î ^p^ HS • The following passage is a detailed explanation of v. 126) ^jjg r e a d i n g ' dharmadhātor avi. as well as the Germ. ratnatraya is ultimately resolved into one ' buddha-ratna '. these two different explanations of gotra are identical. 23 (K. v. its being of the nature of the Germ (gotrasvabhāva) from which the 3 kinds of Buddha's Body are originated 124) [is to be understood]. .

sattvas are led to bodhi. by Paramārtha). byañ—chub—sems—dpahi sde—snod. &c. p. nidāna.. 10 ff. Being supermundane. C. T. T. ' bodhisattva—pitaka. T . Also cf. 13 6 ' sūtra. it is shown in its similarity 127) 128 In the sense that. gāthā. 14 ff. p. in this world. the Scripture in prose and verse. respectively. respectively. T . ~>fâ . Of these two divisions of dharma. vyavasthāna. { ^ WL for vyavasthāna-naya-deśanā. p. 174). vyākarana.) and on śaranatraya (S. rgya-chen. 147. om. They are here regarded as the doctrine for Srāvaka. T . 134) Namely. hbyuñ. Wogihara's Edition. P . Abhidharmakośa-vyākhyā. gggg. And this is to be known in the reference to the Truth as the doctrine 131) to be taught (deśanā—dharma) . by means of deśanā-dharma. 268 c: JÇ #P ?£ & IE t £ Wi.). And. respectively. flpffl . 5]* f t • So has BGŚ (0f -ft). BGŚ: j £ ^fff ffi Jj« & I E tSl ' ? £ " % . 18. Jjfej. 62). r e s p . & audārika. C. rnam—par hjog—pa. the Verse. the teaching by the profound 135) means for exposition of the Doctrine referring to the Highest Truth (paramārthasatya). 132) vyavasthāna. īf^ (?). and 2)-2) the Aphorism. [ 285 ] . XXXI. dharmavyavasthānanayabhedāt. the Prophecy. C. 0 ^ J\ R>J Jfcfc j f l £gg . Therefore. This teaching is again divided into two. 131 ' See back. 171: siddhānta-naya & deśanānaya. 2)-l) the Code of Bodhisattva . the passage on dharmaratna (S. Taisho.and Pratyekabuddhayānika. . Also cf. whether subtle or extensive '. gey a. Lank. vijñapti. These are the first 6 of dvādaśâñga-dharmapravacana (see Mvyut. which produces 1 2 8 ) the communication1 2 9 ) 130 among other living beings according to their faculties in discipline '. nothing can be given As an example for the Essence. 1$C . p. 129) 130 C. rnam-par rig-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga which is the acting sphere of Non-discriminative Wisdom. the Mahayānasamgraha-bhāsya (tr. C. p f ^ ^ -TZ-C zllxi • 135> T. 1. which are the teaching by various kinds of means for exposition of the Doctrine and are related to the Empirical 137) Truth (samvrti-satya) . C. 133) 134 T . C. owing to the difference of 132 133 means for exposition ' of the Doctrine. ' yathāvainayika is to be corrected into yathāvaineyika. C. Cf. the Statement 136) of subject matter. the Solemn Utterance. and this is to be known in the reference to the Truth realized by the Tathāgata through introspection (pratyātmâdhigama—dharma). gdul-bya ji-lta-bar. 2) the natural outflow of the perfectly pure Absolute Entity {dharmadhātu—nisyanda) as the cause for its attainment 1 2 7 ) . (Cf. udāna. T. BGS: ^ ^ .. sūksma. o m . 137) These two divisions of deśanā-dharma correspond to nītârtha and neyârtha. . phra-ba. > prabhava.

the Matrix in which the Tathāgata penetrates). -5r)» 142) C. And taught by various kinds of means. regarding this Bahuvrīhi compound as consisting of two words whose interrelation is the dependent determinative (Tatpurusa). 138) anda-sāra. all living beings. 8 : sarvasattvesu tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârthena. 144) " tat " s t a n d s for buddhatva. as a collective n o u n . C. has a rather free rendering. As being similar to the kernel of various grains l 3 8 ) . t o t h e c o m m e n t a r y o n M S A . it is explained that 'these. v . the honey and the kernel. 143) ]V|SA I X . translates the above sentence into ' de-bshingśegs-pahi sñiñ-po-can (being possessed of the essence of the Tathāgata).e. T .e. as u s u a l (for dhātu. saying: ' similarly. are penetrated by the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 3 9 ) . and hence the compound has the sense of ' one who is within the Tathāgata '. This is the first way of interpreting the term tathāgatagarbha. By the way. by 3 examples. 27 a : buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh. BGŚ calls this 1st meaning ' /3/f $uf UK' (garbha in the sense of samgrhīta). & C. // 146 // [The Doctrine] taught by subtle. khams. shows no difference between this and the subsequent other two interpretations (^pj >(U -^ $|xî). Here. C. C. i t 1 4 4 ) is held to be always all-pervading. T . T h e m e a n i n g of anda here is n o t clear. sbubs-sñiñ ( = kośa-sāra). ( . inserts ' tathāgatajñānād bahir ' after ' dharmakāyād bahir '. 140) tathāgatasya ime garbhāh sarvasattvāh. Indeed. in reference to the meaning that all living beings. with no exception. Similarly. T . 15 (which h a s rūpagana i n s t e a d of rūpagata).J . Similarly. just as no kind of physical form can exist outside of space. are the Matrix (interior) of the Tathāgata 1 4 0 ) . profound means Is to be known as being akin to honey of one taste. t h e aggregate of living beings. TAKASAKI To the [apparitional form of the] Buddha himself. 28 a: sambuddhakāyaspharanāt. the penetration of the Absolute into everything from inside and this signifies the all-pervadingness of the Absolute. 252 b. 141) sattvadhātu. Just as space pervades all visible forms. This meaning comes from the idea of ' antargama of buddhajnāna '. it pervades all the multitudes of living beings " . 139) £ £ § > p^ 26. see M S b h ( P ) . a c e . T. i. Because it is said 1 4 3 ) : " Just as space is considered to be all-pervading always. those of the image of the Buddha. F o r t h e 2 n d and 4th Pada. (i. ' garbha ' means ' interior '. B G S r e g a r d s t h i s p a s s a g e as a q u o t a t i o n from s o m e s c r i p t u r e (808 a ) . v . [ 286 ] .y | | ^M) J P ^ '*fc (of different t a s t e ) . In this sense. sattvakāya is indivisible from buddhajñāna \ & ' therefore. there is no one among the living beings 1 4 1 ) who stands outside the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 4 2 ) . Also. it is said that sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh \ respectively. & 1. C. // 147 // Thus.

therefore.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a Tathatā. kalyāna. ' nirmalā tathatā ' a n d t h e l a t t e r being ' samalā tathatā '. whenever it perfects the purification149' from all accidental pollutions even in the case of those living beings who are ranked among the groups in the definitely wrong way. the inner essence) of these living beings 1 5 1 ) . though it is śuddhi. t h e former being ' śuddhim āgatā tathatā'. since all of them are not different by nature. om. C. b e t w e e n tathāgata a n d tathāgatagarbha is m e r e l y i n t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e . Sublime 1 4 5 ) . tathāgatagarbha is a special n a m e for tathatā w h e n i t is h i d d e n b y (or covered w i t h ) kīeśas.. i. This is t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m tathāgatagarbha. i n which t h e t w o words tathāgata a n d garbha a r e r e l a t e d a p p o sitionally t o each other. i. 152) C. Because of t h i s identification w i t h tathatā. 2 7 : tam—nairmalyasyâdvayatvāt. tathatā which is r e p r e s e n t e d b y tathāgata. 149) viśuddhim āgatas. Reality is illustrated By the analogy with a piece of148) gold. that ' the Tathāgata. 8: tathāgata-tathatā'vyatibhedârthena. BGŚ : 1) f^ ^ § J | § Jîl. T h e difference. garbha being tathāgata. For these three qualities.e. is [identical with] the Matrix (i. Thus. T. In this sense.e. Being unchangeable. 2) J?Fj ) mandalaka. it is called 'Reality' in the sense of being unchangeable like excellent gold. o m . a n d 1. gzugs ( = rūpa). F r o m this point. [ 287 ] . 151 ' tathāgatas tathatā esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. o m . it is said by the Lord 1 5 3 ': 145 H f & H . tathāgatagarbha is called ' samalā tathatā '. This very Mind gets also the appellation of i the Tathāgata '. reads this passage curiously as that ' cittaprakrti. H e r e t h e word garbha m e a n s ' essence '. and perfectly pure. is unable to be shown as being alterable because of its being radiant by nature. rjes—su hbrel. though it is associated with 1 4 7 ) the phenomena 1 4 8 ) of Suffering [caused by] innumerable forms of Defilement. Therefore. A n e t y m o l o g y of t h e t e r m tathāgata. BGS calls this second interpretation ' \fâ f § ^ ^ ' (garbha in the form of upagūdha). ' anugata.e.e. v. T . . dharma. 150) £f_ g^ p^ 26. 153 > JĀA 247 a. See t h e q u o t a t i o n below. if t h e r e is a n y . being Reality. . it is explained by the one example of gold. t h e whole sentence. 28: tathatā'vyatibhedatah. still is advayadharma by nature. v . by nature. 3):MW teH (8086). with reference to the sense that Reality is the undifferentiated whole 1 5 0 ) . // 148 // That which is the Mind. 146 147 > C. Having in view [this] Innate Mind. the pure and non-dual Essential Nature 1 5 2 ) . i. o m . C. 148 > T .

20) where ratnatraya is referred to. the latter two 1 6 1 ) . The Innate 1 5 8 ) [Germ] existing since the beginningless time And that which has acquired the highest development 159) . // 149 // From this twofold Germ. T. p. The Germ [of the Buddha] is known to be twofold. i6o) -pjjg r e a d m g ' matā ' is acceptable in the light of T. [Also] it is said 1 5 7 ) : 44 Though being undifferentiated among all. 4. That which is the purity of his own and that which is the purity of the living beings. dharmakāya seems to be divided into two: one is dhar' i 288 ] . the Tathāgata is one who has the full knowledge about the root of his own substratum 1 5 4 '. All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of Buddhahood ". they cannot be divided into two 1 5 6 ) . T. § f 4 trt ^ C^. comm. lei) J ? r o m thi s statement.37. v. paripusta or samudānita). 157 > M S A I X . ' kāro ti ' should g r a m a t i c a l l y b e ' kāreti '. I. in case the purification is perfected. ^ P . T.J. Reality. he has understood 1 5 5 ) the purity of living beings. & C. yañ-dag blañ-ba. y ^ J . 3. BGŚ *J [ t-M | _ £ . but they are exactly identical with those in Ratna. 155) 156) It seems that to know ātma-upādāna means to purify his mind '. c) Tathāgatagotra. G. C. 189 > samudānita (-gotra). these two are one and the same. Cf. 158 > prakrtistha (-gotra). M4 fSjJfc. rañ-bshin gnas-pa. as ' protected by parijñā '. C. thob-par hdod-pa yin (prāptir matā). (prakrtistha. from the second. īfa ffîi ^ • F o r § ^ ^ ) BGŚ ^ parijñātāvin. the first Body. // 150 // 154) ātmopādānamūla. Cf. Is [called] Buddhahood. C. bdag-gi ñe-bar len-pahi gshi-rtsa. 44 TAKASAKI Here. C. rtogs-pa ( = āgata). purification. Through his self. anugata. MSA I I I . therefore. T. BGŚ BE E3 piî T_£ • BGS gives 6 points of similarity of prakrtistha-gotra to a treasure. O Mañjusrī. \$£ \ ī [3fP? _L] i f l . Being like a treasure and like a tree [grown] from a seed. see BBh p. As for these two kinds of ' gotra '. T. 22 (S. And. it is considered 1 6 % The 3 Bodies of the Buddha are obtained . T . From the first one. BGŚ I .

^ yV^ <2C ~H \ V. C. T. 3) ^ ^ ^py (having beginning and end. prāpta). C. BGŚ J ^ rtf*.The Ratnagotravibhâga The Body of the Absolute Essence 162) is pure And is known to be like the precious image. 2) |±î -Ç/J y j (produced by 'pranidhāna"1 (therefore. dharmakāya as bodhi. it signifies the separation of jñāna from dharmakāya remaining the latter as pure reality or truth. byas-min.e. and in a later passage dharmakāya is spoken of as being the truth inseparable from wisdom (Chaps. // 152 // Thus. A^ ^ H I (unchangeable). T. which is included in the second kāya being (sva-) sambhogakāya. it is non-artificial163) And is the substratum 164) of precious properties. ño-bo-ñid-sku. fP^ j/jtjL . through which the similarity to pratibimba is observed: 1) ^pj /fQ (having apparitional form). those of a treasure. 60: svābhāviko ' t/io sāmbhogah kayo nairmāniko. made this point clear and regarded sambhogakāya as a part of dharmakāya being svasambhoga. 165) to gold. BGS gives 4 qualities to this kāya. The Apparitional Body167) is like a golden statue Since is has the nature of being an image 168) . BGŚ \\i *§* • The same terminology on trikāya is used in MSA (IX. Cf. i. and a golden statue. 59): svabhāva—dharmasambhoga—nirmānair. T. t h e last one is called ' *\* ^ p which means t h a t anybody can obtain dharmakāya. [ 289 ] .. This point is. 3) lK J~p ( = J[£^ •flj. artificial). the result of purification of dhātu. Since. gter ( = nidhi). Probably it is a better reading. not clear in this text. 166) p o r ' mahādharmâdhirājatvād '. (attaining the position of a great religious king). 1) rK \\\ (based upon the former merit). a Lord of the Universe. 2) [fl £l£ ( = Jrt§ "1 rf > prāptavya). C. BGŚ 0 f > akrtrima. » nirmāna. 168 167 ) pratibimba. Of them. namely. C. T. therefore. "*) āśraya. however. "fl^ ft. gzugs-brñan. i«2> svābhāvika-kāya. III). It was BGS which. and the other. not eternal) (808 c). T. a tree. ^ f| ({J§ Sfi | | "ftf f | ) . C. T. BGŚ maintains 3 characteristics of nirHP māraa.. C. by these 5 examples. T. C. // 151 // The [Body of] Enjoyment165' is like the Universal Lord Since it is the great Emperor of Religion166). sprul-ba. reads ' chos chen rgyal-srid-du Idan phyir ' (mahādharmâdhirājyatvād '). t h e first three are t h e same as those mentioned here. a precious image. ibid. and 4) I r t *3C / n (sambhoga) and regards each of these qualities as being correspondent to that of cakravartin. viz. II. rdsogs-loñs. j=( ft ffi ^ 163 (BGŚ ? £ J§«). BGS mentions 4 kinds of similarity of dharmakāya fy\ •yîj ' (sama-prāpta). by nature. basing itself on this passage. In other words. 3 ^ i^fc . in the refermadhātu or tathatā which is called here the first body. just as gold does not belong to any particular person ( ^ P iMl vPi īfîj 3 E •> ^ r t s^ ^ C -T3 ) ( 8 0 8 c )sāmbhoga. om.

prthividhātu. but is merely a translation of the Skt. 174 ' garbhagata. par Sylvain Levi. 26. and dhātu. are used synonymously. it is quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (MS bh (P). the word * dhātu ' (essence) is especially used in the sense of i hetu' (a cause) 1 7 2 ) . T. gatra. This stands for the original sense of the term tathāgatagarbha. p. ill 171) 169) nirvānadhātu. T. TAKASAKI ence to the nature as the Germ from which the 3 Bodies of the Buddha are originated 169) . that which contains the Tathāgata). The different way of translation seems to show the difference of meaning implied by these different theories. As for this verse. the Buddhahood is usually manifested 1 7 1 ) in the 3 Bodies of the Buddha. Here. traidhātuka. ' garbha ' here means inner essence (dhātu). word dhātu. those terms. and derivatively. On the other hand. sñiñ—por gyur—pa. instead of by ' khams' and ' ' p t ' as in this text. This Sūtra is regarded as one of the important sources of the Vijñānavāda and often quoted in the works of that theory. 37). At the same time. or C. 173) fhg s o u r c e o f this quotation is not yet identified. prabhāvita. p .. ' universe ' and is usually used for the ' dhātu ' of dharmadhātu. -fśf -fo fpfc (has got the appellation). version is available now. But these living beings do not know about it " . In the case of C . Hence. it is said that 4 the Matrix (i. i. or sattvadhātu. it is said that the Essence of the Tathāgata is the cause for the acquisition of these [3 Bodies]. 157 a) and also in Sthiramati's commentary on the Trirnsikā of Vasubandhu (Skt. 8-9: tathāgatagotrasambhavârthena. It is usually used for the tran- [ 290 ] . om. lokadhātu. C. In these two cases. and by ' v r ' m C. garbha. (Reference to the Abhidharma-sūtra on the i Essence ' ) 1 7 5 ) . being the cause (hetu) from which the Tathāgata is arisen. showing the sense of 'element'. This last sense|cannot be derived from the Chinese word 'yf*'. The idea is close to the Avatamsakasūtra.e. v . 172) Throughout this text. the Chinese word ' p t ' n a s a sense of ' nature '. the word dhātu is applied to ālāyavijñāna. ākāśadhātu. * region '. a n d 1. But as a matter of meaning in each language.e. the cause) of the Tathāgata '170)t Indeed. * character '. ' yf'' means originally ' boundary ' ' sphere of certain limited extent'. ed. v. in the form of embryo 1 7 4 ) . in every living being. etc.e. This is the third interpretation of the term tathāgatagarbha. ' •yj"r' is used for dhātu of skandha—dhātv—āyatana. there exists the Essence of the Tathāgata arisen.J . 170) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām.. 2 7 : bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. So it is said 173 ': 44 And now. this quotation. of which no S. being possessed of the meaning of ' hetu \ And this hetu means ' āśraya ' as will be explained. 2 8 : gotratah. in the case of Trimśikābhāsya. rab-tu phye-ba. BGS gives a name of * fjft •$%% ^llxj' (garbha in the sense of samgrahaka. the distinction is not so clear. 175) A quotation from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra. S. One interesting point to be noted is that. p. dhātu is translated by ' dbyiñs ' in T. ' essence' or sex. C. the inner essence) of these living beings is the Essence (i.. Cf. T .

dhātu. 18 component elements. Both Tibetan words have a similar sense of ' place ' or ' region '. and ākāśadhātu. T . affixes showing an abstract sense. In the case of Tibetan. in the cases of lokadhātu. I I . but as the translation of Skt. dhātu. Cf. As well as the acquisition of Nirvana exists ". 1. like each of 18 elements.. we are now speaking. sattvadhātu. viz. lokottara[-dharma]-g. I t is SMS which has inserted ' tathāgatagarbham adhikrtya ' t o this famous formula for t h e first time in order t o show t h a t t h e tathāgatagarbha is t h e basis of samsāra. all Phenomenal Life176). C. e t c . MSbh (P). On the contrary. this formula is a n explanation of samsāra (cf. 76. this Matrix of the Tathāgata is the transcendental Matrix. Originally are mentioned in C. SMS 222 b:' ~\£2 -H?-. 178. perfectly pure by nature ". 16 ff. it is said [in the Scripture] as follows: " The Essence that exists since beginningless time Is the foundation of all the elements. dharmakāya-g. and in this text. translations. (Hfc # . of ' •jç'' and ' p £ ' as translations of Skt. are used in a later passage (S. the former shows the meaning of something spatial. the distinction between ' dbyiñs ' and ' khams ' is not so clear as between the two C. station of such Skt. 178) SMS 222 b. ' . which is usually replaced by ' J x '). p. *f| • _^ C. About the 4 Essence '. dharmadhātu-garbha. and prakrtipariśuddha[-dharma]-g. V£ # ^ . and derivatively to things smaller than the human body. hgro. words as ' svabhāva\ 'prakrti* and *-tā'. 178 177) > gati. where two other epithets are given of t h e tathāgatagarbha which £ 5 E * ik ftl * m. j § V£ ^ S | .) as corresponding to 4 kinds of people.. how is it that 4 it exists since beginningless time ' ? With reference to this very Matrix of the Tathāgata.t _ C #īic > H \~E Vfl î^F %®t. • These four. Originally ' khams ' seems to relate to the human body in the sense ' physical state of body ' or sometimes ' body ' itself. the former is used in the cases of dharmadhātu. of something internal or essential. the 4 elements other than ākāśadhātu.t r a ' . C. nirvānadhātu. ^ . But this distinction is not absolutely fixed. #H $t &. 121 #H * m ft ffi * P g * "5T ftl'). while the latter. Here. BGS mentions them [ 291 ] . regards this whole sentence as a quotation from SMS (cf. As far as this text is concerned. while the latter. p . 193. In short. (Quotation is a p p a r e n t l y from S N ) .The Ratnagotravibhâga Indeed. ' dbyiñs ' always relates to something transcendental or heavenly. To translate dhātu into ' p £ ' as in this text is a rather peculiar case. it has been taught and ascertained by the Lord: " A n initial limit is not to be perceived" 1 7 7 ) . the tathāgatadhātu of whicL. and also to worldly things in general. See Note V I I I (VII)-242. SN. 157 a. shows a better and clearer distinction between the two senses of the word dhātu. ft T0T | n l . Owing to its existence. it is said as follows 178): u O Lord. o n anavarâgra). the Matrix. But it is quite suitable here (' |££ ' is also used for ' gotra ' here.

respectively. which agrees with C. T. lows 1 7 9 ': " Therefore. passage (MSbh (P). 0 Lord. T. in the passage equivalent to this Ratna. Paramārtha makes use of this 5-fold meaning of garbha established in BGŚ twice in his translation of MS-bhāsya: once explaining ' dhātu '. Also. C. 183 182) 185) -pjjg rea d i n g ' iti parikalpam asya vacanāyiti ' is doubtful. and unreleased from Wisdom 182>. avinirbhāgadharma. 180 along > niśraya. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is the foundation the support. T. C. and another. from ŚMS). de-la hkhorba shes tshig-gis gdags-pa lags-so (samsāra iti vacanena asya prajñaptam) '. have it. reads for the whole sentence ' de-bshin-gśegs~pahi sñiñ^po mchis-na (tathāgatagarbhe sati). bral mi-śes-pa. i. tr. of ŚMS. reads ' . which are by all means disconnected. amuktajñāna. The statement 4 Owing to its existence. of ŚMS does not 181) For dharma. 264 b). of SMS says: * . 157 o). we have another modified application of this set of meanings to the explanation of ' svabhāva ' of trisvabhāva (parikalpita and others) in the Hsien~shih-lun (JHf| Hip? pjflj) translated by him. hkhor-ba shes mchi-na ni. differentiated [from the Absolute Essence]. C. and the substratum 1 8 0 ) of the immutable elements (properties) 1 8 1 ) which are essentially connected with. This theory is unique to those works translated by Paramārtha. C. this very Matrix of the Tathāgata is also. ' asambaddha. T. MSbh(P) 157 a (Q. and the substratum of the [worldly] elements that are produced by causes and conditions.e. *Jvf . 'Y* fljfl: ^ (not separated from jñāna). C. gnas. has one more word ' f3* "J^f ' after ' -frf '. O Lord. T. is the proper saying on account of the Phenomenal Life 185 '. indivisible from [the Absolute Entity]. the support. pratisthā. vinirbhāgadharma. resp. tr. C. [At the same time]. rten. amuktajñāna in case of asamskrda-dharmas. muktajñāna. . T. tr. . ādhāra. 0 Lord. and separated from Wisdom 183 '. tshig de rigs-pa [ 292 ] . 179 > ŚMS 222 6.. but C.The statement ' The foundation of all the elements ' means as fol. Cf. with tathāgatagarbha as the 5 meanings of garbha ('It. "*) ŚMS 222 b. MSbh (P) 157 a (Q. $ £ j£. i^e.|Jgxj =J§3$. from ŚMS). the foundation. mchis-na. y)\j fA (Buddha's Properties). C. buddhadharmas. gshi. adds acintya and some more adjectives. 796 6). These terms are used as adjectives to samskrta-dharmas in contrast with sambaddha. Cf. there is Phenomenal Life. there is all the Phenomenal Life ' means as follows 1 8 4 ) : " Owing to the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. explaining ' dharmadhātu ' (ibid. this. and its originality seems to be due to Paramārtha himself. f$C . On the other hand. C.g£ ^ § c» HAL ' (this is called a good saying).

&c. but parikalpitam probably means here ' prajñaptam* as given by T. But SMS shows better sense. or prayer for Nirvana " . [ 293 ] .. earnest wish. laes-so (. . so I read it according to SMS. MSbh(P) 157 a (Q.The Ratnagotravibhāga The statement ' There is also the acquisition of the Nirvana ' is said the following sense 1 8 6 ) : " 0 Lord.. or arise desire. from ŚMS). reading should be corrected into ' iti parikalpitam. '. there would not take place aversion to Suffering. At least the Skt.. "•> ŚMS 222 b. Cf. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. samsāra iti yuktam etad vacanam).

T. i. If the reading is correct the only meaning which can construe the sentence would be ' not disunited '. T. being united with 1 } the Absolute Body. i. though it is probably caused by a misreading. chos-ñid tshas-mar byas-nas. this is indeed to be perceived in the light of the Absolute Essence as the [highest] logical ground 4) . s) « dharmānam dharmatā. 3p? _5TL /^ [yp |££ ||_s. i. records a sense of ' disunion ' for vipralambha as taken from Wilson's vocabulary.^ 2 ~ /7\I ' i connected with tathatā and is a translation of asambhinna). having the characteristics inseparable from Reality. means ' dharmatā is pramāna. those relating to tathatā and gotra which stand for trividhasvabhāva along with dharmakāya. On the other hand. reading. only the truth is the authority for knowledge '. THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA § 1. W. We can get some idea from T. niravaśesa-yogena. The Saying: All Living Beings are Possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata — is the Highest Logical Truth.X. Now.e. C. and being of the nature of the germ properly fixed [towards the attainment of the Buddhahood] 2) . exists everywhere. khyad-par med-pahi tshul-du. at whatever time and without exception3' among the living beings. ' ^t s "SL #H Sv ffi ^ ' (probably ' . avipralabdha would be better than avipralambha).e. C. It is said 5) : " O noble youth. jlfc ? £ ft f £ f § ffi @ f 4 1?î ffi . T. TGS > [ 294 ] . ' united with '. C. (In this case. 5I»T ^ J 3n£* (' khyad-par med-pa ' nirviśesa. this Matrix of the Tathāgata. ñes—pahi rigs—kyi rañ—bshin. The reading is not clear. Whether the Tathāgatas appear in this world. such is the essential nature of the elements 6 ) . B > TGS 547 c. T. or whether they do avipralambha. 2 ' niyatagotra—svabhāva. C. this word has to express an idea similar to ' parispharana '.) 4) dharmatām pramānîkrtya. reads this passage x) as ' dharmakāya(-vat) vipulah ' and C. C. M.e. In comparison with two other epithets. ' -fo^ J^L' (atyanta) is also not the proper translation at all.

" » r$C V A Im '• 12 ' citta—nidhyāpana {nidhyāpana fr. sbyor-ba & thabs. and om. yukti. C. meditate). p.in the sense of somyafe-). 10 * evam eva tat syātj anyathā naîva tat syāt. takes som. In a similar manner. sems ñe-bar rtogs-pa. reads for ' dharmataîva X1) pratiśaranam. fi\ (or j ^ ) . rtogs-pa (— adhigama). gives the best sense. uppādā vā tathāgatānam anuppādā vā tathāgatânam. Lamotte's Ed. Both T. pratiśarana. & C.. This corresponds to [ 295 ] . T. p. ni V dhyai. we have no equivalent passage in the present text of the Sandhinirmocana. p. the emphasis is on idappaccayatā (Skt. C.). T. 13) citta-samjñāpana. this expression is here used for emphasizing the garbha theory as the eternal truth. fem.^P. where the phrase ' utpādād vā tathāgatānām anuntpādād vā'' is used. C. idampratyayatā = pratîtyasamutpāda) as the eternal truth {dhātu. SN vol. In any case only the Absolute Essence is the resort U ) for the contemplation of the mind 1 2 ) . C. C. T . 25: " jāti paccayā. 258) ( f f i f H . In this example. where the eternity of truth is called ' dharmadhātu-sthititā '. C. the mode of proof (yoga) and the means [of cognition] (upāya) 9 ) . This corresponds to pratiśarana. jarāmaranam. except for a reference to ' dharmadhātu-sthititā ' being ' dharmatā-naya ' (iZ* pp j JtE3r 3-^F. So I take it as a predicate. For instance. That which is meant by this i essential nature ' (dharmatā) is here synonymous for 8 ) the ' argument ' (yukti). thitā va sā dhātu dhamma—tthitatā dhamma—niyāmatā idappaccayatā " . Actually. dharmataîva yuktis '. BGS has a similar quotation regarding it as from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. to observe. yukti. these living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata " . in Pali). chos-ñid dbyiñs gnas-pa-ñid gañ-yin-pa de~ni chos-ñid-kyi rigs-pa yin-no) (E. T. however.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga not 7 ) . =fg #H 3fc ^ & Ufc 5g ^ & Ufc . 9) (' ii% *^a ' seems to be a repeated translation of dharmatā). ' \j\ V S •> tK. adds: ' i t is therefore acintya. f S ^"H JtfE. in the sense: — such is the real state of things and not otherwise 1 0 ) . 143. sems yañ-dag-par śes-pa (T. V S j ī iffi. ^Ij* {^" {citta-pariśuddha). only the Absolute Essence is the argument for the proper understanding 13 ' of utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā. Also see Lank. bhikkhave. saying: 7) g ?£ (812 a). have no translation of this word. J< {de-la de—bshin—gśegs—pa rnams byuñ yañ ruñjma byuñ yañ run stejchos gnas—par byabahi phyir. T. {/£ . 8) paryāya. 2. rigs-pa. This expression is quite popular since the Pali Canon. ^L^ _/£.

22 ' viparyāsâbhirata. . (T.ŚMS222«:i|#n£lî'^ . na vikalpayitavyā [kevalam tv\ adhimoktavyeti /. This essence itself is not accessible to imagination nor to discrimination. the eyeless one cannot see The blazing disk of the sun 1 ". // 153 // In brief. theg-pa-la gsar-du shugs-pa. . 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. See VIII-(X). reading is uncertain but reads paramârtha as a locative and connects it with śraddhā (paramârthe śraddhā. C. T. MSbh (P) 258 b-c. It is accessible only to faith 1 4 '. reads paramârtha as the subject (śraddhyaîvânugantavyah paramârthah svayambhuvām /). for those who are attached to delusion 22) . and for those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Non-substantiality" 2 3 '. HJ-£). to T. and om. . anugantavya. cintayitavyā.). C. TAKASAKI the mind. Indeed. respectively. C. hjig-tshogs-la Ita-bar Ihuñ-ba. . C. The Highest Truth of the Buddhas 1 6 ) Can be understood only by faith. C.) 16 ' svayambhū. and 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle 19 '. T. to T. T. It is said 2 0 ': " O Lord. the reading of this sentence is preferably corrected into the following: . The 4 Kinds of Individuals to Whom the Faith in this Essence is Necessary 15) . £ acaksumat. Who are these four ? They are namely: 1) the ordinary beings. 20) Ś M S 222 a. phyin-ci-log-la hdod-pa. ^f mñon-par JrçJ.. Here the translation is ace. -^/J -£5f !j>3£ ' u * (nava-bodhicitta). the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not the accessible sphere for those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality 21 '.J. [ 296 ] . om. T. ' Ace. viz. i^ 23 ' śūnyatā-viksipta-citta. T. 19 ' navayāna-samprasthita. ^-p |=| J\. C. stoA-pa-ñid-las sems rnam-par gyeñs-pa. tathāgata. dharmakāya. JE^ / fe -fc H H Ç ^ Jīi H $&. (jātândha). BGS 812 a if. hbah-shig—tu. there are four kinds of individuals who are defined as being blind 1 8 ' with regard to the perception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. 2) the Śrāvakas. Cf. § 2. 21) satkāyadrsti-patita. & C. C. C. where the 4 kinds of people are connected with the 4 synonyms for dharmakāya. paramârthasatya and nirvana. (Commenting of MSA verse quoted. 18) 14 i"Cf. 15 ' Cf.

as being the real Ego and its belongings. satkāya-nirodha (as an adjective to anāsravadhātu). and.). Why ? Because. The sense is that those people know only about anityatā of sarvadharma. T.). C. bsgom-par bya-ba. J ^ j ^ \~$ (T. and adds ' "p ^g. etc. v. they are clinging to the conception of 4 Ego ' and 4 Mine ' 2 7 > . & C. beyond'. how is it possible for them to cognize the Matrix of the Tathāgata which is the object accessible only to the Omniscient ? There is [absolutely] no room for it. uttari bhāvayitavya. 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality' are the ordinary beings. C seems to read ' atyantâbhūta—rūpâdi—skandhān dharmān ' ' ahamkāra & mamakāra.T h e R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Here. Indeed. C. uttari). ' upagamya. instead of atyanta. ' uttari' as a preceding part of a compound has a sense of ' further. om. (BHS Die. s. ñar-hdsin-pa & ña-yir hdsin-pa. 29) etc. C.). khas-blañs-nas. 4 those who are attached to delusion ' represent 2) the Śrāvakas and 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. So it seems not to have so important sense in this compound. they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 evanescence ' [of the phenomena 30) ] instead of meditating upon the 4 eternity' of the former. om. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 eternal' in its transcendental sense 29) . C. Being so. ffPj i ^ fffc. due to this conception. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as ' blissful' in its transcendental sense. which are possessed of Evil Influences 2 6 ) . 26 27 28) C. they devote themselves to the practice of meditation on the notion of the 4 impurity ' [of the Phenomenal World] without doing meditation on 4 Purity' of the former. they nevertheless cling to the practice of meditation on the idea of 4 non-Ego ' [of the separate elements] instead of concentrating their mind on the notion of the Unity of the former. Thus. 24 25 ' The reading should be atyantam (adv. T. J • EX ' C. T. Likewise. though the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 pure ' in the transcendental sense. ^_ ^ £ ' (amrta-dharma). sāsrava.in the text. 80 ' C. still they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 suffering ' [of the phenomena] instead of meditating upon the 4 bliss ' of the former. And. hjig-tshogs hgag-pa. Now. [ 297 ] . . having fully 24 ' admitted 2 5 ' those elements classified into [5] groups and others. they cannot believe even in the Immaculate Essence which represents the annihilation of the [conception of the] existence of real individuality 28 '. inserts sarvadharmesu. Although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be regarded as 4 the [highest] Unity '. For anāsravadhātu.P3p: ==r J^L ^f-f v$(t īftp (nirodhasatya represented by the removal of satkâyadrsti. but cannot notice nityatva of tathāgata behind the phenomena. T.

1. om. . leaving aside their ornaments. dañ hgal-ba. putting on the bathing underwear 35 '.in such a way. (jlT. someone would cast 3 7 ' into the water the genuine 38 ' Vaidūrya stone. 33) > 35 ' to have 36 ' 34 MPS 377c-378a. khrus-ras (bath-cloth). T. the Supreme Bliss. In the same way. Suppose then. This compound word seems not been recorded anywhere else. 40 ' C. svaih svaih mandanakopabhogair. gshag-pa. were playing in the water with various ornaments and equipments for their individual pastime 3 6 '. all the people. /J dag-gis. and would notice how that jewel had great quality 4 0 ) . and hence the Essence [of the Tathāgata] which is characterized as the Supreme Eternity. T. the water of that pond would. reading. Suffering. 0 monks. om. seize them and draw them out. p. who have the notion of Evenescence. that in the hot season. they would notice: It is not the real jewel at all! At that moment. C. would dive into the water. in order to get this Vaidūrya stone. C. one who is experienced and clever would really get the jewel out. rigs dañ Idan-pa. ' T. the Lord has made it clear 331 in detail in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra with the example of a jewel in the water of a pond. 39 38) [ 298 ] . they would say: O the jewel is still there [in the water]. Here I followed T. i. T. C. 37 ' sthāpayati. reads * mandanaka (= alañkāra) and upabhoga (any equipment for pastime) '. It runs as follows 3 4 ) : " Suppose. the people. and the Supreme Purity. rab-tu bsgrubs. too. owing to the power of that jewel. all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas are attached to the Path which is quite opposite 31 ' to the realization of the Absolute Body. M^ .). ' Better to change the paragraph after ' yathā ca sa viparyāsa . is said not to be accessible to them. But C. T. the Supreme Unity. The concrete idea is uncertain. Impersonality and Impurity [as the almighty maximum]. Thus. C.e. reads as ' drstvâ ' instead of sthitvā. . ' aho manir iti guna-samjñā pravartate ' and instead has ' just as one sees the moon in the sky '. prasādhita. T. jātya. salila-bandhana. and seeing that water sparkling. thinking: I have got a jewel. . for instance. 74. . has no literal translation. y^_ (has lost by mistake). rañ-rañ-gi rgyan dañ ñe-bar spyod-pa T. )ffo ^ i 7Jp $j}£ ^|)£ (playing bathing and boating). Thereafter. C. 0 brethren. . They would mistake pebbles and gravels in the pond for the real jewel. But S. After having stood 39 ' on the bank of the pond. ye who are ignorant of the real 31 32 ' vidhura. shows a clearer sense. (S. About 32) this inaccessibility of the Essence to those who are attached to delusion. 19). T. shine as if water itself were shining.

impersonal.e. the meaning that tathāgatagarbha is śūnyata). They are the people who look toward Non-substantiality as the medium of Liberation 47) in order to destroy the substance 4 8 ) . 44 ' ' śobha ' in the text is a misprint for ' śubha '. Therefore. the teaching of the incorrectness with regard to the feature of the highest true nature of the elements. the Bliss. O monks. B G S ^ [ 3Jw» This conception a m o u n t s t o t h e nihilistic view. C. there exists [an essence which represents] the Eternity. bhāva-vināśāya. 43) C. . T . reads ' after destroying existence. om. nirvana'. ghatita. C. 49) uttarakālam. a s if ' dharmârtha—tattva \ C. stoñ-pa-ñid-kyi om. dus phyis. C. ñams-pa (disappeared). artha) as adverbial use and reads ' tathāgatagarbhatah vipranastāh'. vimoksa-mukha. Cognition of N o n . [since] they are deprived of45) [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality 4 6 ) . i\U ^N$g\£ ||=§. [ye should keep in mind]. 45) 42) [eg î p | (being accumulated vipranasta. Lastly. the destruction of the elements [for the Phenomenal Existence] in future 4 9 ) . But all that was attempted 4 2 ) by you. T. dharma). T. /*pp ftfc \ J . What is m e a n t here is t h a t t h e garbha theory represents t h e real m e a n i n g of śūnyatā.The Ratnagotravibhāga essence of things 4 1 ) . the Purity 4 4 ) . and the Highest Unity". according to the Scripture. T . tshul-du (śunyatā-nayena. 46) tathāgatagarbha-śūnyatârthanaya. [ 299 ] . thinking that the perfect Nirvana means the Extinction. C. O monks.s u b s t a n t i a l i t y is one of t h e is for bhāva. }=% ( a p p a r e n t l y o m . suffering. (śūnyatā-tathāgatagarbhârtha. that there is only suffering. with those elements which ye maintain to be in every case evanescent. C. i. and increasingly. and on which ye practise the meditation [on that notion] repeatedly and increasingly 43) . ye should become skilful in order not to be determined by this [false conception] like the pebbles and gravels in the pond. 3 vimoksa—muhhas. maintaining the general conception that all things are evanescent. Jil 5 ^ I B J | ^B? • ' S U S ^ ' (things changeable) T . J l ^ . Thus should be understood in detail. is [in reality] of no use. 48) 47) C. i those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Nonsubstantiality ' denotes 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle. -~xL. ?$£. There are also some people 41 ' dharma—tattva. jy\ by practice). and that everything is impersonal and impure. this repetition. ñe-bar gshags-pa ( = upasthita). practise the meditation [on that conception] repeatedly. and impure. o n e c a n g e t Cf.

See V. brten-pa. Cf. om. Then how is what is called here i [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality' ? Here there is nothing to be removed And absolutely nothing to be added. 7) Bodhisattva-bhūmi. We now can add one example to this list.). Gokhale's report. s. v. 9) Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda. dmigs-pa.J . Der Sanskrit-Text von Nāgārjuna's Pratîtyasamutpādahrdayakārikā. 52) The following is actually a part of the explanation on ' śūnyatāvikasiptacitta '. V. Festschrift fur Willibald Kirfel. to Prof. pratisarati. Besides this occurrence in the Ratna. Bonn. and hence the authorship of Nāgārjuna for this verse is doubtful. and that is the one which we should understand. • 53) This is one of the most famous verses in Mahāyanistic literature. 57 (not in verse). v. V. BGS mentions this verse along with v. there are 9 occurrences of this verse recorded in Melanges chinois et bouddhiques. saying: [ 300 ] . TAKASAKI among them who think that there is something substantial called 4 the Non-substantiality' which is quite different from ' f o r m ' and other [elements]. And he who sees the Truth becomes liberated 60) 51) 53) . § 3. 8) Madhyântavibhāga-vyākhyā by Sthiramati (as a quotation.. p. the original Skt text. (a similar idea attributed to the Buddha.) 6-5. however. 44. // 154 // upalambha. which has a little difference in b. C. Wogihara's ed. S. Suzuki's tr. it is identical with that in the Abhisamayâlañkāra). fancying 50) Non-substantiality in this way. Cf. The Truth should be perceived as it is. attributed to Nāgārjuna. XIII. Studia Indologica. has merely 5 kārikās. T. (not in verse).The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as Representing Non-substantiality 5 2 ) . 2) Nāma-samglti (Tib. 4) Saundaranandakāvya of Aśvaghosa. 48. Gokhale. 'fTf. BGŚ 812 b. BHS Die. V. 21. upon which we should meditate. 394.). They are: 1) Tibetan version of Pratîtyasamutpāda—hrdaya—kārikā. T . part I. 3) Sumañgala-visārani of Buddhaghosa (in Pali). V. BGŚ ^ ^f. C. Cf. 6) Śuklavidarśanā (Bendall Mss. 1955. 7. 1. 155 as a quotation (812 b). p. (prakseptavyam na kimcana). they are persuaded of51) Non-substantiality. 12.. 5) Abhisamayâlañkāra. and. by Nāgārjuna (Ace. This conception represents the eternalistc view. 101 ff.

As for the second verse. stoñ. it is said [in the Scripture] 5 7 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata is devoid of all the sheath of Defilements which are differentiated and separated [from the Absolute Essence]. this is observed 58 ' as 'void' (śūnya) in that place (tend). 4ll &. (For sad. T. The originality of the Ratna. 14). gañ—shig gañ—na med—pa de—ni des stoñ~ño . T. Thus. on account of this verse lies in its application to the explanation of ' garbha—śūnyatā—arthanaya ' shown in the second verse (v.The R a t n a g ot r a v ib h ā ga The Essence [of the Buddha] is [by nature] devoid 5 4 ) Of the accidental [pollutions] which differ from it. 69 ' yad yatra nâsti tat tena śūnyam iti samanupaśyati j yat punar atrâvaśistam bhavati tat sad ihâstîti yathābhūtam prajānāti I. B4) 55 śūnya. of the same in the Ratna. whatever remains there. C *U Jg JJl M ^ S t i . On account of this point. inconceivable and far beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number ".(Suññata-vagga. 58) reads * . wherever something is lacking. Cū- [ 301 ] . 56) T. In the case of such a verse of widely applicable idea. %\\ ^^_ Jrfj 7»U • sam. This is an original sense of the term śūnya. ' samkleśa—nimitta. Also. C. // 155 // What is explained by this ? There is no defiling element 5 5 ) which is to be removed from this Essence of the Tathāgata. C. gañ—shig lhag—par gyur—pa de—ni de—la rtag—par yod—do. But it is by no means devoid of the highest properties Which are. indivisible from it. T. since it is by nature indivisible from the pure properties [of the Buddha] 5 6 ) . sam-anupaśyati. tr. inseparable [from the Absolute Essence]. .= samyak. T. kun—nas ñon—moñs—pahi rgyu—mtshan. cf. there is no purifying element which is to be added to it. 155).5 > e t c . T. and hence it is not necessary to regard this v. one knows that this being must exist here 5 9 ) : This is really the true [conception of Non-substantiThis is no doubt a quotation from the Ratna. there was probably a custom in those days to borrow the same expression without permission or mention of the source in order to express one's own idea freely. B7 > Ś M S 2 2 1 c. The Matrix of the Tathāgata is by no means devoid of the Buddha's Properties which are indivisible. iX i*J ^ |K $«. simply ' kleśa '. *ū * fP ā I i MN - m ' 104 . since it is by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. 154 as a quotation from any particular source. . DAS 813 6 (v. essentially. inserts dharmatā after suddhadharma. 33* . yañ-dag-par rjes-su mthoñ(-ba). See below.«te'). and shows a closer translation of the original than C. C. perfectly purified by nature.

' of samanupaśyati a n d ' yathābhūtam '. T . T. TAK. T . neither me64) ditates nor concentrates upon it. 62 ' The reading ' aparyantam ' is to be corrected into ' aviparyastam ' according t o T . — yathābhūtam). Indeed. (phyin—ci ma—log—pa) a n d C.ASAKI ality] 6 0 ) . . ' v o i d of'. bral-ba. hgyur-ba. Now. by removing the extremities of affirmation and negation 6 1 ) . r e s " pectively. C. 66) (— abhisamayati. 67) C. mñon-par hdu-bya-ba * ^U*. 48. . ^ 2 | -Tflv. p . without the introduction 6 5 ) to the knowledge of the highest truth of Non-substantiality. a n d this usage relates t o t h e ftieaning of ' śūnya ' i n B u d d h i s t doctrine as appearing i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : śūnyam sarvam '. rnam-par hphrol (hphrol fr. as in the case of ' śūnyo dhātuh '. [Thus]. ' true ' represents b o t h . to separate). (jjt\\ fS^. . om. 64) * j ^ p 3-Jfī •yf'' (buddhagocaravisayād). dbyiñs. turning in various directions . rtse-gcig-tu . inserts śuddha between t w o a n d [ 302 ] . Cf. tarn santam idam atthûti pajānāti. yam pana tattha avasittham hoti. T. Implying this point. 63) visarati. sāksāt\jkr. C. we call them by this very reason 4 those whose mind has deviated from [the true conception of] Non-substantiality. those individuals whose mind has deviated from this principle 63) of Non-substantiality. 2) ' B is śūnya (in A) ' (A with locative case-ending. I n t h e second usage. tena tarn suññam samanupassati. and. where t h e t e r m ' śūnya' (suñña) is t o be t r a n s l a t e d into ' e m p t y of'. avikalpa-dhātu. B B h . ' sam. 68 > ŚMS 221 c. It signifies cittaikâgratā 86 * T. absent. samāropa & apavāda. C. nobody can attain or realize 6 6 ) the non-discriminative Sphere 6 7 ) [of the Tathāgata]. sgro-hgod-pa & skur-pa hdebs-pa. abhisameti). ' śūnya ' is s y no ny mous with ' na asti' (na hoti). and for nayād. ekâgri bhavati. mukha. as used in the aphorism mentioned above. There are two kinds of usages of the term ' śūnya' : 1) ' A is śūnya of B ' (B with instrumental case-ending). instead of śūnyatârtha- simply ' /\* ^|īj fjfgi ' (ayogyam). See N o t e XI—14. sometimes in BHS with instrumental). And lasuññata—sutta) yam hi kho tattha na hoti. . i n t h e preceding illustration). or * devoid o f ' . 60) I n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . . The first usage is also observed in the same Pali canon (migāramātu pāsādo suñño hatthi-gavâssa—valavena . >«. B3 61) 44 C. for dhātu. the real 6 2 ) characteristic of Non-substantiality is explained b-ir these two verses.J. Jrçj . ' cittatn viksipyate visarati'. it has been said 6 8 ) : The Wisdom cognizing the Matrix of the Tathāgata is nothing but the Wisdom about Non-substantiality of the Buddhas. ^ W 7J # ' J *^x V T • T . t-tr.

T. it is said that [even] those Bodhisattvas who are abiding in their 10 Stages ' C. 69 For 1) dharmadhātu. the commentator tries to combine the 4 meanings of tathāgatagarbha mentioned in SMS (see Note IX-178) with the 4 kinds of people to whom the former 4 have the power of being pratipaksa. being represented by the Transcendental Absolute Body which is indivisible from them. perfectly pure by nature. adds a few sentences more which are not available in the present SMS except for the passage ' only the Buddha can obtain it ' and are probably an insertion by the translator. is identical with those mentioned in SMS. and adds ' J L 3(Q ' (tathatā) as the [ 303 ] . 72) * H^C ^ = f H^C (ekarasa 73) yathābhūta-darśana. as ' dharmakāya '. instead of prakrti. implies here the True Intuition 7 3 ) . adds ' samyak'' before it.The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a this Matrix of the Tathāgata has never been seen. tshul gcig-po. it is said not to be accessible to ' those who are attached to delusion '. adds śūnya. are by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. is said to be a sphere not accessible to 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality '. [the Matrix of the Tathāgata] is said not to be accessible to ' those whose mind has deviated from Non-substantiality '. resolves ' jñānadarśana ' into ' jñānena samdarśanam '. [Furthermore]. since the Transcendental Element is spoken of as being an antidote against the mundane elements of such nature as evanescence. by means of the cognition of the unique 72) introduction to the Wisdom which is essentially connected with the Absolute Essence. On account of this perception. Here. C. and lokottaradharmagarbha are not accessible to viparyāsâbhiratāh. etc. T. in 3) T. to perceive that the Transcendental Absolute Body is perfectly pure by nature. tathāgata. But S. dharmadhātu in place of dharma. T. T. " }f/^. C. $ 0 *J=^ jî. yon-tan-gyi chos. . dharma. See note IX-178 71 ' guna-dharmāh. or the Matrix of the Transcendental Element. in 4). Inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Body. dharmakāya—[garbha]. inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Essence. inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the properties. this Matrix of the Tathāgata. om. prakrtipariśuddhadharmagarbha is not accessible to śūnyatāviksiptacittāh. samarasa). T . respectively: 1) 2) 3) 4) dharmadhātugarbha is not accessible to satkāyadrstipatitāh. & C. T. has never been realized by the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 6 9 ) " &c. because the Absolute Essence is an antidote against such erroneous conception 7 0 ) . as dharmakāya. -Mj ^ ^ ekanaya. since the [Buddha's] pure virtuous Properties 71) . C.\\ Jj^. and C. object of darśana. 70 * Hereafter.

For tala. T . s m a l l hole ' . C. nabhas-tala. C. Even by the Saints. regards this verse as a commentary verse and adds one verse in the middle showing the sense that śrāvaka cannot see the Buddha.3 ^ ( t h i n cloud). Just as here the sun. 75) 74) chidrâbhra. sprin-mthon.J. T. thou art unable to be seen fully. Since their intellect is still partial. C. e t c . h e n c e d e r i v a t i v e l y . 4 slit. O Lord. The source of this quotation is unknown. only those whose Wisdom is illimitable Can completely perceive thy Absolute Body Which pervades everything knowable That is infinite like space " 7 7 ) . Jjut § E f° r t n e whole. TAKASAKI can [but] slightly understand the Matrix of the Tathāgata 7 4 ) . T . 77) 76) [ 304 ] . Indeed thus it is said 7 5 ) : [ 0 Lord]. in the sky with torn clouds7 6 ) . of pure intellectual vision. regards this sentence as a quotation from some Sūtra. C. ' m t / i o n ' is t o b e c h a n g e d i n t o • mthoñs'. w h i c h m e a n s ' a n o p e n s p a c e i n a d e n s e f o r e s t ' . ^I|j[ . T. MPS 41 a. Cf. dbyiñs (dhâtu). seems to have failed to catch the meaning of this verse by omitting one pronoun ' te ' in the third Pada.

3) 4) 6) r¥* Aft. C. 165 a b. yañ-dag chos-la skur. vyākarana (explanation). 161. C. adds: ' i t is accessible only t o sarvajña m §§| tft pp H ! . sems-can dman-la bsñas-pa. 162. [visions in] a dream. T. Cf. g Ç JpÇ J£\\ mt gards this bhūtadharma as tathatā or buddhadhātu. /zrt deśanâ-prayojana. 8116. BGŚ 787 a-b (Nidāna-parivarta). ^ ^ jifâ 3 c V2* • See v. contempt against those who are inferior 8 ) . buddha-dhātu. then what is the use of this instruction to the ignorant and ordinary beings ? [For replying to this question]. R7L). See v. C. T. VII. 6 ' Especially in the Prajñāpāramitā. bhūtadharmâpavāda. ' linam cittam. {Jftfy I^J 5JS. T. igpj. MK. •' abhūtagrāha. sañs-rgyas sñiñ-po ( = buddhagarbha). which is at the same time the basic scripture of the Mādhyamikas. |2^ IpJ ^L*. rSf. and illusions 5 ) . we have two ślokas summarizing the purpose of instruction 3 '. See v. yañ-dag mi-hdsin (bhūta-agraha). one is the question. T. (Kārikās 58-59) It has been said here and there [in the Scriptures] That all things are to be known everywhere As being 4 unreal'. See v.XI. 10) 7 |_E (C re- [ 305 ] . jfP ^ f^. C. T. Cf. 163. 35: yathā māyā yathā svapno gandharva-nagaram yathā / tathotpādas tathā sthānam tathā bhañga udāhrtam //. bstan-pahi dgos-pa. o m . why has the Buddha declared here That the Essence of the Buddha 6 ) 4 exists ' in every living being ? //156// There are 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]: The depressed mind 7 ) . speaking ill of Truth 1 0 '. 8 ' hīnasattvesv avajñā. Whereas. THE PURPOSE OF INSTRUCTION 1 ' [Someone may ask]: If this Essence [of the Buddha] is thus so difficult to be cognized inasmuch as it is not fully accessible even to the Saints of the Highest rank who are abiding on the Stage characterized as being completely free from any attachment 2 ) . '. ^ C. C. Clinging to things unreal 9 '. lam bstan-pa. T . 1} 2) C. C. [Of them]. sems shum. T . and the second is the answer 4 ) . C. like clouds.t . ījOj* *[§£ |ffj| ^pC 'ffi .

uttara tantra. I could not trace it anywhere else. It has been said [in the Scriptures] All kinds of phenomena. C. C. T h i s is t h e word which gives this work i t s title. The Group of elements are like illusions made by magic 1 7 ) . fffi f^ C. T. g y Mf ^% }Jîîp 5X ( = ātmadrsti. I. But now. The meaning is simply ' doctrine ' or ' philosophy '. ^ . BGS gives the following terms: kleśa-karma-vipāka. Of these 5. See Note VIII-132. etc. C. deprived of reality 1 4 ) . T. in the sense ' separation from kleśas. T . C.. T. nirmita). bgag-cag. 15) 16) 17> 18) 5) $ci*L. where vipāka'* is replaced by skandha-dhātv-āyatana. Significance lies more in the word ' uttara' than in ' tantra \ since by the term ' uttara'. From the context. māyā-nirmita. dben-pa (solitary) for vivikta. C. sgyu-ma spral-ba. 14) viviktam bhūtakotisu. made by causes and conditions And known in the forms of Defilement.J. These three are the principal factors of samsāra or samskrtadharmas. In one sense. -Jx. Undertaking of Actions 1 5 ) is like the enjoyment 1 6 ) in a dream. upabhoga. )īîfi 3 c f ° r the whole. T . 13) krtyakriyā. C. J ^ L pfflj .. Action and Result 13> Are. since ' bhūtakotisu viviktam ' here stands for śūnyam in the Kārikā (usually vivikta is used for denoting purity of moksa or nirvana. Also see vv. this theory is opposite to that of ' pūrva'. ātmasneha. like clouds. bya-ba-yi las. Being the Results made by Defilements and Actions. TAKASAKI And besides X1 \ affection for one's self*'. bla-mahi rgyud. llj 12) adhikah. 56 ff. T. pjflj = śāstra) h a s n o t h i n g t o d o with Tantric Buddhism. reading seems better. but it is not the case here). // 157 // The meaning of these two ślokas is briefly to be known by the following ten verses. [The teaching about Essence of the Buddha] has been taught In order that those who are possessed of these defects 1 2 ) Might get rid of their defects. See v. ' vipāka ' stands for janman or duhkha. 165 c d. As for the use of bhūtakoti in the plural. [ 306 ] . // 159 // So has it been ascertained 4 before ' . the author of the Ratna. 2 J ( o m . H e r e t h e t e r m ' tantra ' (for which C. o m . declared his aim and the position of this theory in the currency of Buddhist philosophy. // 158 // The Defilements are like the clouds.). by which is meant here clearly the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā and of the Mūlamadhyamaka. and regards bhūtakoti as the subject and reads ' bhūtakoti (the reality) is apart from samskrtam '. in this ' u l t i m a t e ' Doctrine 1 8 ) . lhag-pa (which is connected to ' sneha ').

This self-depreciation is the first defect. which causes the affection toward the unreal thing. as we had already known by previous passages. 20 ft^ For these 3 verses. ff^ ^ ' ātmâvajñāna. khams. krtrimatva & āgantukatva. The Will towards the Enlightenment does never arise in them. the defects of living beings are unreal Because they are non-genuine 2 5 ) and accidental since the ' former ' one emphasizes ' śūnyatā \ i. as being the ' answer '—giver to the problem which has never been explained ' before '. ' hla-ma"1 shows this sense.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a In order to remove the 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]. and hence. and hence it is the ' ultimate '. C. T. 24 ' This verse expresses the true meaning (bhûtârtha). 19) dhātu. T. J|Ç jflj explanation of buddhakāyatraya). Then he. T. 22) For ' bodhicittodaye 'py asya\ T. it is taught that ' sarva ''-sattvāh tathāgatagarbhāh'' (BGS). being proud of it. J|p£ | y =Ej*.e. but C. For these two. May have a fault of self-depreciation21'. In another sense. C. i. T. BGS says. > nlca. 162 without any relative pronoun. C. // 163 // [Indeed] 2 4 ) . in other words. while this ' latter * one emphasizes ' astitva ' of buddhadhātu. reads as ' bodhicittâdaye yasya ' and relates this ' yasya ' to ' tasya' of the next verse. the Buddha has taught tathāgatagarbha-'' asti '. bdag~-la brñas-pa. (such a man of self-pride). // 162 // With him who thinks like that 2 3 '. for removing it. T. BGŚ 811 b (after the = Una. saying: I am superior to [others]. C. being possessed of depressed 20) mind. The true knowledge will never arise. 25 ' krtrima. Will produce the notion of inferiority for those Whose mind is not aroused towards Enlightenment. C. as S. H H§ t H A . this ' buddhadhātvastivāda' is a synthetic śūnyavāda of śūnya and aśūnya. // 161 // Even if someone has resolved towards Enlightenment 22 '. and hence. This ' self-pride ' is the second defect (lack of the notion of ' equality'). and towards those people having this defect. shum-pa. but a real successor of the former. unreality of things. if [the people] have not heard of this teaching. It is shown that the Essence of the Buddha 1 9 ) exists. the word api ' is quite necessary. om. In this 3rd defect. He clings to unreal things [as if they were real] And does not cognize the true meaning. while ' tasya ' of the next verse can stand for that which is described in this v. puts the word '** 7»l-I' (does not know) and regards this verse as explaining the 4th defect. T. however. cf. But in relation to the preceding verse. bcos-ma. //160// Indeed. BGS: 23) 21 [ 307 ] . Some of them. this doctrine is not against the former.e. emphasis lies on the ignorance about tathāgatagarbha. ^H .

he produces śāstrgaurava.J. which represents ' navayānasamprasthita-bodhisattva '. ^ ^ . m e a n s t h e ' e m p tiness ' of dosa. while ' jñāna '. ' maitrī. This 4th defect seems to be the most important among the 5. // 164 / / If a man of intelligence 2 7 ) perceives [only] That the defects [of living beings] are unreal. that is to say. T. It clearly implies the defect caused by certain Mādhyamikas whose position gave rise to the appellation of ' nāstika ' for Buddhists. " ^ & ^IE* » 0 n a n opposite order). nairātmya. C. Here ' prajñā ' represents 'prajñāpāramitā'' of the Mādhyamika or iavikalpajñāna'' of the Vijñānavāda. T. Consequently. 34) 33) n For niravajya. cf. T . is the natural consequence of the 4th defect. which runs: Hfc B^f ^ towards living beings. <\* 3J3 f ? (avivarta). C. T. Obtaining equal regard [for every body]. About the 5 gunas. Manifestation of the reality is for the sake of living beings. That is. being free from [self-] depreciation 3 4 ) . which is the 5th defect. 29) Hereafter. C. if one hears of this teaching. pure by nature. the virtues [of living beings]. byams-pa. There arises in him great exertion 3 0 '. Wisdom 321 . AÂS 469 b-c. But the best explanation is given in AÂS. ' guna ' being opposite t o dosa. 27) dhîmat. J§§ . bdag-med-pa. . a n d hence this conception is nothing but the ' depreciation of reality '. // 166 // He. (2) 31 > śāstr-gaurava. TAKASAKI But the non—substantiality26) of such defects is real. [ 308 ] . . b u t this knowledge is merely one side of t h e t r u e knowledge. He cannot obtain benevolence 28) by which One regards [other] living beings as equal to oneself. BGS y C f|2>). These 5 properties having become originated. ston-pa-bshin gus. ^ 4 ^ J | ^ ^ ^ C ffi ^ (having aroused the mind of respect 32) prajñā (3) & jñāna (4). representing ' tatprsthalabha-jñāna ' being laukika jñāna. because of ' mahākarunā '. hence BGS interprets that prajñā and mahākarunā (instead of mentioning of jñāna) are the two upāyas by means of which one can attain the state of apratisthitanirvāna. Respect [for all living beings] as for the Teacher 3 1 ) . and its function is said to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. H e is intelligent because h e c a n perceive ' dosâbhūtatva '. 3 28 26) »> protsaha. has a function of ' manifesting the reality • ( G ft £ ffl #& © % ffi IS If %• BŚ maitrl (5) = mahākarunā (C. referring to the 5 gunas which are the antidotes for the respective 5 dosas. // 165 / / On the contrary 2 9 ) . And depreciates [their] virtues which are real. h e m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g real. C ^ | S j ] (BGŚ ] E jfj >\j*) . C. spro.(1) (BGŚ $j$ 1 ^ 4 J | ) . $Ht $& 1fr ^ T. and great Benevolence33'. catches the meaning better. Intuition. a n d this is real. The lack of maitrī.

sañs-rgyas-ñid. C. J§. C. T . t h e ablative case-ending. Attains the State of Buddha 3 6 ) at an early date. C. // 167 // Finished is the first Chapter entitled ' the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. Having love. while ' śloka ' s t a n d s for t h e basic K ā r i k ā s . AĀS ^ K A W f ^ S t ^ t i (bodhi- [ 309 3 . with the commentary [named] ' t h e Summary of Meaning of the ślokas ''37)'.The R at n a g ot r av ib h ā g a Being devoid of defects and possessed of virtues. J\l — " %)] ^ < £f£ f(\\ ^ C ^ all living beings as n o t being different from himself). Cf. ' ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyāna ' seems t o b e t h e n a m e for t h e comm e n t a r y . 38v _ t (anuttarabuddhabodhi). 36) 6 ?!§? J ^ (regarding \yft ^jjff J(£ buddhatā ( = buddhatva. equally for himself and for living beings 3 5 ) . BGŚ ^ sattva c a n e n t e r t h e avivarta s t a t e ) .. 37) ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyānatah. has no equivalent t e r m . bodhi). o m . T . a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. » ' F o r ātmasattvasamasneha.

[this Reality] is [absolutely] freed from all kinds of pollutions 21 . rañ-gshan-don. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REALITY FREE FROM POLLUTIONS We have finished the explanation of 4 the Reality mingled with Pollutions '. simply ' don ' (artha). THE ENLIGHTENMENT i> 2.MALĀ TATHATĀ XII. what is this ' Reality free from Pollutions ' ? It is that which is called ' the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis (i. (4). in v. 8) action in behalf of oneself and others . show the various aspects of ' buddhatva '. C.e. the foundation 9 ) of these two kinds of actions . 3. 7) liberation [from obstructions] . the Germ of the Buddha) ' (āśrayaparivrtti).CHAPTER I I . Hereafter. T. C. bral-ba. as all those terms. prāpti. ft i L • • • (5). since. F Cf. thob. }§? . . in the Immaculate Sphere of the Buddhas.Hv ' f° r ' āśrayaparivrtti '). T. adds ' ^ [ 310 ] ] | S ' (yoga) before . (1). j j £ ^ This reminds us of the ' jñānâpti' . dag. I. {=§ "fty. . T. Now. 6) 7) 8) 9) svaparârtha. visamyoga. . . And this undefiled Reality is to be known in brief in the reference to the 8 categories3' [which show its characteristics]. ^ I J . S£ TW 3) For ipadârtha\ T. śuddhi and so forth. t. NIB.*» rfeoj n o \/T% ifcīiī / i • < 5 H T r/J 1&" (' . . (de-)brten. 4) T h e whole of this verse seems t o b e m e r e l y a r o w of t e c h n i c a l t e r m s . ^Tf. C. the term Buddhahood may be suplied here as the subject term. the attainment 6 ) . we shall speak of the undefiled Reality.. C. T. (2). . AÂS Chapter III (Bodhi-panvarta). C.. 470 c-473 c. H o w e v e r . (tad-) âśraya. 6 • A S 470c: f| ft g f t ] 81 ft $£ M # — tfl W 7}t ft $ | 1$ > Ā » śuddhi. Then which are the 8 categories ? [The The The And 11 Buddhahood 4 ) is] the purity 5 ) . T..C. (3).

?f^ (phala). 1) y 'pf. |if|. and 8) mi khyab-pa. S. when it is ' perfectly purifiāśraya. // 1 //.<6). used for C. which is called by the Lord l the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' when it is unreleased from the sheath of defilements. 2) Jg| ^ . we c a n u n d e r s t a n d the idea expressed i n this Chap. gāmbhīryaudārya—māhātmya. 9) ^ ^ (āvenika). 2) | 2 | ?rcK (hetu). / ji-lta-ñid.B Ś 811 a. 1) # gg fit Q!. T. the first 4 are identical with the first 3 subjects of 10 categories on 4 tathāgatadhātu ' in Chap I. It [manifests itself] as long as the world exists. is to be understood. T. includes i t within t h e Kārikā-text.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Being profound 10) . translation. A* ^ J fâ* § § ! . <fj*. which mentions 10 categories. "Jf^ H i . A S 472 c. 5) Idan. 3) ffl # . AÂS 470 c. 4) the function (karman). Thus.?fc. 13) F o r these 8 subjects. better). Cf. 12) I t is quite doubtful whether this verse belongs t o t h e Kārikā-text. zab dañ rgya—che dañ bdag—ñid— chen-po. Ā 3) H f l S t 31. & C. Of them. 4) ^ p . (paripantha). 6)hjug-pa. 2) J|j . 1) First of all the Essence [of the Buddhahood]. give t h e following terminologies: 1) ño-bo. Another reason is t h a t these terminologies are n o t utilized i n t h e following Kārikās a t all. C.(karman). and 8) the inconceivable (acintya) character [of Manifestation]1 3 ) . viz. [ 311 ] | § (vrtti). But in the commentary. yathā ca tat. ji-srid-dus. 10) >5 ~5j S fff . t h o u g h C. ffj . G n ) For these two categories. T. W i t h t h e same probability as for v . 7) the eternal (nitya). In a manner as it is U ) . C. yāvad kalam. a n d also w i t h o u t this verse. 2) rgyu. (svabhāva). ' i n connection with the next subject. 5) \ p ^fl. Such is n o t t h e case with Kārikā-verses which we have picked u p i n Chap. T . Cf. S. 2) the cause (hetu). 10) The reading should be ' gāmbhlrya ' instead of ' gambhīrya ' in the text. See Note VIII-8. £ $ t * I . 3) jgj* pjp. 6) ^ P ^ f (yoga). One reason is t h a t this verse is merely a row of certain terms and does n o t m a k e a sentence b y itself. magnificent and magnanimous. and reads ' r$C | 1 .. . 6) the manifestation (vrtti). C #H ^L 0 T ^ (The latter matches S. regards it as the term indicating the fifth subject. I . 1) # gg. these 8 subjects are indicated according to order. om. 7) rtag-pa. namely: 1) the own nature (svabhāva). 3) hbras-bu. 4) las. The term ' /f*p J ^ ' has probably no ground in the Ms. and ffif ||j( ^H $L 7 ^ in the commentary. ' t a t \ These two subjects have the same characters as ' yāvadbhāvikatā ' and ' yathāvadbhāvikatā ' used in the characterization of the Jewel of the Community (IV-§ 1). See m y I n t r o d u c t i o n . 7) ff (acirelya). by this verse 12) . 7[f\ lf§| in the Kārikā text. Sctfc. 29 i n Chap. while the latter 6 agree in their contents with those (4)-(8) in this chapter (9th is a part of ' yoga ' here). this verse is t o b e omitted from t h e line of Kārikā text. 8) ^ ft (nitya).. I .k. |Zi| . J^. and is to be written without separation from the succeeding ' audārya ' (gāmbhīryaudārya-). 3) the result (phala). I I . For this 6th category. 5) the union (yoga).

. dvividham/ '. although T . T h e reading. for ' . I l l . C. reads as ' jñānâdhigamo eva (tat) phalam / '. . the Mundane 1 7 ) Wisdom which is acquired afterwards [based on the former]'. 18) 19) ace. (utpattiniśrayadānatvāt). The reading should be ' . respectively21).q§.J. F o r this. tyupāya. 14 > Cf. ft l h 4~T • (prāpti means here t h e means of a t t a i n m e n t = prāp- ' neneti prāptih. i t m a y refer to ' visamyoga-phala ' a n d ' vipāka-phala '. 21) ' yathākramam ' before ' svaparârtha-' should b e connected w i t h t h e preceding [ 312 ] . and the liberation from the obstructions on account of the knowable things. 15) 1 6 ) 4) 3jj£ ^ ^ " ^ * ^ ^ *jX" * ! § WC (pariśuddhadhar- Ś M S 2 2 1 6. therefore. viz. non-discriminative [Wisdom] ' and the other. as the 'own nature' of the [Reality] characterized as the 'Perfect Manifestation of the Basis'. . ^p. This supermundane and mundane Wisdom is the ' cause ' of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis 18>. 1) T . vinirmuktes tathā. 80 1.| f (dhātu) ^C $fe ® tS! ® > 3fe t f t 4 a whereafter. characteristics of ' āśrayaparivrttV. [Here] it is called ' attainment' in the sense ' that by which something is attained '19>. There are two kinds of liberation. ffijiC Vpf" ^=p* jg£ £fc jplp j | \ V ^ . a n d Ms.\ 17) ' laukikam ' is t o b e i n s t e r t e d after prsthalabdham. J^ 2) $9G ^ff /rlK WC (nirodhaniśrayadānatvāt)'. vinirmukte tathāgatadharmakāye 'pi\ i n s t e a d of ' . 2) There are two kinds of knowledge. ' tatphalam dvividham j ' is doubtful. the liberation from the obstructions of defilement. One is the ' Supermundane. . and is indicated by the word ' attainment' (prāpti). . F r o m t h e context. the sūtra mentions 4 -Cz^jt* ~4*J£+ »t _ -t*i~| 3(fJ ^ R $ixi. It is said 1 5 ) : " O Lord. to v. For ' āśrayaparivrtti prāpyate '. 20) p . . . Jy\ 7^4 f S Trv WC p~ (vipāka-mano-jñeyadharmaphalatvāt). f$C I^L ir{ •> "f^f ( t m s sentence is to be placed i m m e d i a t e l y after ' ^ £ . C. madhātusvabhāvatah). AĀS 470 c: ffî Hf£. W h a t is signified b y t h e t e r m dvividham is quite uncertain. b u t t h e t e r m vipāka is used nowhere in Chap.T J y ^ 1^1 '• See below). namely 1) *-p jpCt / * C uX. one who has no doubt about the Matrix of the Tathāgata as it is concealed under the millions of coverings of all defilements. t o T . TAKASAKI ed ' (viśuddhi)14). completely agrees with S. i t is preferable to read ' tatphalam visamyogah/ '. C. and omits ' dvividham '. 3) JjQ ^ffk j|»^ E . shall likewise have no doubt about the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is 1 6 ) freed from the coverings of all defilements " . (Ace. . hdis thob-pas na thob-paho. 3) The ' result' [obtained by] these [two kinds of Wisdom] is the 4 liberation ' (visamyoga)20>. I I ) . 2 & 3. B .

as long as the world exists '. Pîlfc '• The correct arrangement of these passages in C. ^mnft#. should be as follows: ffiifirfHlft±*T%". and the result. and [manifests] ' eternally '. It signifies Buddhahood characterized as muktikāya and dharmakāya (v. ' |$g Jff jtSL PāP: Ī5JC » ^fe "IB ' should be placed after ' jîpÇ ^£\ jM. The own nature. the cause. |~h "jvf (=āśraya in the verse).I* ^ *î i difficult to render this C. 30). C. m e n t i o n s nitya. C. 23) && 24) buddhabhūmi (pi. ^ ^ Jii. s T. and magnanimity. 30.flM#.££©»>«lit. Summary.The 4 R at n agotr av ih h āga 4) The function * is the accomplishment of one's own aim and that of others.). audārya.\ g ^ ^ Q ) . •ffln#. d h ) Here C. (<\~X» | ^ i . respectively (gāmbhīrya._jMmflimu«vi m. II. 2 3 6)-8) The ' manifestation > means that [this Perfect Manifestation of the Basis] manifests itself in the forms of three Bodies of the Buddha which are characterized by profundity. 4 4 i. (-visamyogaś ca yathākramam / sva-). The function. reads: u te 22) T 0 J>8' r^f ^ | p JAS WC. acintya a l o n g w i t h vrtti.q£ ( (There is no correspondence between each of the two kinds of visamyoga and of the two kinds of artha-sampādana).e. we may interpret it as follows: The union means that the immeasurable qualities which are obtained by svaparârtha (-sampatti) are always and ultimately united with the foundation (yoga iti svaparârthaprāptânumeyagunânām nityam acintyam adhisthāne yogah /). ($P . C. 22 5) [The point that] the foundation (adhisthāna) > of this function j s ' provided (samanvāgama) with ' [the inmeasurable properties] is [here called] ' union '. has again confusion in its arrangement. For the whole sentence. magnificence. māhātmya). the union. rten[-pa]. ence. and the manifestation. // 2 // sentence. So does C. translation. there is the establishment [of the Essence] 24 In Buddhas' Stages >. Its eternal and inconceivable character. [ 313 ] . and in an inconceivable ' manner. By these points. but in the light of v.

Just as the sun and the sky 2> [are often interrupted by clouds Though they are radiant and immaculate. everlasting and constant. And is attained when the elements [of existence] take resort 4 ) To the Non-discriminative and Analytical Wisdom 5) . rab-dbye-ba (prabhinna). avikalpajñāna a n d tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. vJyj JO J7IJ Jffj V/^ . This Buddhahood is now eternal.e. [ 314 ] . 6) prabhāvita.Xin. however. [however] as being covered with the net of the multitude of clouds. C. B u t b o t h T . which is represented by 6> The indivisible virtuous properties. Therefore. Buddhahood. . H e r e t h e reference is. 8 POINTS ON THE UNDE FILED REALITY (I) SVABHĀVA & (II) HETU Now. Or is it an irregular Skt. It stands for 'prāpti' ( = hetu) in the preceding passage.^ M (dharmesv avikalpād. C. (Kārikā 1) Buddhahood has been spoken of as being radiant by nature. we have one śloka on Buddhahood and the means for its attainment1) referring to the subjects of 'own nature' and 'cause' respectively. . Being endowed with all the the pure properties of the Buddha. for this line. āśrayāt. In the form of [obstructions on account of] defilements And knowable things which are of accidental nature. C. has no e q u i v a l e n t word for i t . mi-rtog & rnam-hbyed ye-śes. T . i. T . 10: « ft tyj îf H ' S g ^ f l T S I f & t i B S ) A 4) prāptyupāya. t h e reading ' dharmānām* is somewhat doubtful. 11 2) •Ct D Ś 893« (v. ' / l > * Ji /jlj l§ff ^ £ -frf 7RÇ $ ī § . t o t h e two kinds of jñâna. C. dharmânām. respectively] 3). & C. says instead ' the sun and the moon '. chos-la mi-rtog. read this dharma as connecting w i t h avikalpa: T . style peculiar to the Buddhist text? 5) akalpana & pravicaya-jñâna. // 3 // The meaning of this śloka is to be known in brief by the [following] 4 verses. anāsrava-tattvajñānam āpyate).

C. C. u The obstructions > of defilements and of ignorance Are illustrated as being like clouds. rañ-bshin-gyis ni ma-grub. takes ' dvaya ' as ' advaya ' (^^ . p. T. Which are beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number. T . rañ-bshin-gyis [S. C. and the latter. XXXI. visamyoga).£fc jc (prahāna) are non-dual'. |*Jji. j S . T . i. Vñ ^ rnam-par dag-pa. One is the Non-discriminative [Wisdom] 14) And the other is the knowledge. MSA XII. ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca ' (C. C. C. T. as the result of purification ' (vaimalyaviśuddhi)15). avinirbhāgavrtti (Bahuvrīhi comp. T.The R at nagot r av ib h āga Has a resemblance to the sun and the sky 7) In both its characters. and reads ' " Q (jñāna) and Pf . // 6 // 12 The cause of dissolving ) these two obstructions is Wisdom. and 2) 4 the purity. | 1 \ /(J>C / / î i*f • There is no correspondence between each of t h e t w o obstructions a n d t h e two kinds of wisdom. visamyoga is regarded as ' phala'. two kinds of prahāna.t #Jffi• [ 315 ] . ^\* $$• /(JJ[ om 9) ~§C HH ( « vrtti). as prahāna-dvaya. viślesa. Cf. Namely. and in the commentary. of two kinds. Of them. F3rt ( = 13) 14) F o r ' isyate '. '|£E jfpp /J3î & "fvf Ppp /JTJJ)' I n this sense. Because of their pervadingness and occasionality. 8 7) i > akrtaka. 1) the ' innate purity ' (prakrtiviśuddhi). knowledge and removal . Taisho. obtained afterwards . ^ § ^ 5 S T H S • lx 12) ^ āvrti. in short. & dri-ma med-pahi rnam-par dag-pa: C 0 & raff Vñ Î R ^ » respectively. C. 15: svabhāva-śuddham mala-śuddhitam ca (^ f^ ]& ^ tyfi . 15 ' T .).). This purity is here. // 7 // (III) PHALA It is said that the own nature * of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis is the * perfect purity ' . 8 And are radiant and of uncreated nature >. The former is characterized as ' vimuktir na ca visamyogah '. byas-min. C. C. fS] (to intend. sgrib—pa. $fc ffc V £ . T . 13 Which is again considered as ) of two kinds. dbye-med-par hjug-can. C. 620 b. 10) svabhāvâparinispatti. -dañ bral-ba. 9 And whose manifestations are indivisible [from itself] ). // 5 // 10 Because of their being unreal by nature ). 1) ' the C. distinguishes both purities by the terms ' Vpî ' & ' Q ')• Also Sīiffl « * fit ÎP. F o r ' tatprsthalabdha '.e. to b e intended). // 4 // It is endowed with all the properties of the Buddha.

164. ft « W S M* M + ift & # *U H H^ ^ A kt ± m i t f (v. Reality mingled with pollutions]. see v. 19> A simile for the immaculate compassion liberated from ' dvesa '. W 21 ' bhāti muktam tad eva. C. reads i n n e g a t i v e ( / p ftjfl.). being endowed with pure properties. fll fll f t $ 5 Hf M * S ^ W Slit suggests the word ' druma ' as in Ms. etc. 13. see v .17)> # 0 ftfc ?K 0 T 1& f S WC ( 8 9 3 c)Rather. (Kārikās 2-3) Like a pond. Now we have two ślokas about c the Purity. Like the sun. [i. DAŚ v. 16 liberated from [all pollutions] \ Because. Ct. Cf. " XJj {j* •> sarvadharmâvisa- myogah). just as water and the like become purified from dirt. the radiant Innate Mind is completely liberated from the accidental pollutions. lotus is usually said to point of similarity is not clear. reads in negative (-^I^ pafc). rgyas.J. B. too. Cf. C. see v. B u t t h e 1$L ^ fe M (v. though being radiant. for which T. // 8 // 16) F o r visamyoga. TAKASAKI innate purity ' represents that which is essentially free [from all stains] but actually associated with them. v. C. [ 316 ] . 17) 18) H e r e again C. 18 (893 c) #0 J Ś 2 § tfl" 20) 8k ffi tfef and in ?S M IS t * $c t t H Bf^ B ^L M St (^93 b. as the result of purification ' represents [that which is] essentially free and actually. ' rāhu * (T. 16). 14. 12.. ^ g OiB^) ^ s a personification of «the phenomenon of eclipse and is counted one of ' nava grahāh \ see Mvyut. Manifests itself as being liberated 2 l ) . impurities. liberated from ' moha '. as the result of purification ' with reference to the subject of 4 result' 17>. sgrag-can. Indeed. on v. whose rays have been released From the covering of clouds and others 20\ This [Buddhahood]. A simile for the immaculate Wisdom. A simile for t h e i m m a c u l a t e n a t u r e liberated from ' rāga '. the Innate Mind. 9i). T. C. For the second half of this line. Becomes abundant with flowering lotus gradually18).e. snañ-ldan (bhāti-yuktam) de-ñid-do. MM >*u J*|-» "iSL l § (probably as S. 2) 4 The purity. Like the full moon delivered from the jaws of Rāhu 1 9 ) . filled with pure water. is not [always] separated from the accidental pollutions. JZU ft ?$£ ?ffi W ft comm. 16: $f ^ . D Ś 893c: M B * ft. DAŚ t\l I S $D ' j t t ®C I K i grow in dirty water. The last 5 letters are for ' ādhya'.

T. [ 317 ] . C. is to be known by the following 8 verses: The result of the Non-discriminative Wisdom In short. // 13 // a2 > jinatva. munivrsa or C. like a an immaculate precious image of the Highest Lord of the world. this k ā r i k ā c a n n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y itself unless there is assumed t h e knowledge of t h e 9 examples on tathāgatagarbha. § 28 ) pūrnavimalendu C. the result of Wisdom. but T. a precious store of jewels. like gold. is explained As the actual sight of the Buddha's state Possessed of all kinds of excellency25). // 10 // [On the other hand]. ~~\ Tl. C. 1. like a golden statue 24>. #fl 2J£ -if-.. 27 > abhisyandana. Being pure [as the result of the removal] of Desire and other accidental defilements. See my Introduction. om. great fruit-tree. ' 9iff£ J Q ' is probably a mistake. 25 ' The significance expressed in these two verses is as follows: The visamyoga of dhātu is immediately followed by the manifestation of buddhatva accompanied by buddhagunas. 23) (= munirsabha).The This Like Like Like Like And Ratnagotravibhāga Highest of Sages23). T. T. rgyal-ba-ñid. ?JC (ambu). it should be TO l7P ( 24) ^A ī. the Buddha. The meaning of these two ślokas. C. Attained on the basis of the former. like the kernel [of corns]. hod-zer. U 28 > For amśu.)- As all of these 9 examples a r e t h e s a m e as those spoken i n C h a p . ^ JH. C. // 9 //. just as avikalpajñāna is immediately followed by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. is said to be akin to a pond and others. // 12 // It has a resemblance to the immaculate full moon 28\ Since it has been released from the Rāhu of Hatred And since it pervades all the world With the rays 29> of Great Love and Compassion. 26 > kālusya. // 11 // It is like a pond filled with shining water Because of its rejecting the dirtiness 26> of the dust of Desire. hbab. Buddhahood 22) is [also] like the honey. And because of its sprinkling 27> the water of meditation On the disciples who are like lotus flowers. in short. and hence the originality of this verse is quite doubtful. f-\. Such is n o t a characteristic of t h e genuine k ā r i k ā s i n this t e x t . ^ /]<.

T. C. which is called ' the result of the liberation'. $ | | |§p£ (Pali.J. Bringing forth the essence of the Highest Doctrine31). T. \iz. C. 40) Indicating nirmāria-kāya. Its being the Highest Lord of the human beings39). f W / £ -i§^ • * dharmakāya. It is like gold. and the atulyatulya.//15// Being pure34). pavitra.b y e d \ s t a n d for tathalā. T . 'smin-byed'' for dāna is t o b e corrected i n t o ' s b y i n . reads ' sugata ' as the subject. And its having the appearance of the most precious form 40). 32 33) 30) C. AĀS 472 c. 39) dvipada-agrādhipatya. nidhi (avaria Indicating lectio i n Taisho edition gives u s t h e reading: f^L ^ ^ -^fr* W\ §īk • The correct reading is therefore ' |f£ ^ 38) ^ HJ" 0 ^ '). T . This line stands for > phalgu. and a tree. respectively. «) Cf. a king and a golden statue. It is like a precious [image]. [respectively] 37). // 14 // Being possessed of the unequalled30) properties. These t h r e e 34) > dravya. // 16 // By its body's being made of the jewel of the Doctrine 38 '. dag[-pa]. TAKASAKI And this Buddhahood is similar to the immaculate sun. the supermundane Non-discriminative Wisdom and the mundane knowledge. adhigamadharma. T. And being the giver36) of the fruit of Liberation. Because of its being free from the clouds of Ignorance. jf£ H f (?). And because of its removing the darkness of the world With the rays of its divine Wisdom. C. . And being free from the outer covering32) [of Defilements]. // 17 // (IV) KARMAN 41) It has been said that the two kinds of Wisdom. AĀS M . (5) ff ^ ( #S M ^ [ 318 ] ift «> For these two jñānas. obtained afterwards on the basis of the former i2\ are the cause of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis. viw ^vf ^ x (~ osamasama). 31) It stands for desanādharma.. i f f _ t I t indicates p r o b a b l y sambhoga-kāya. pheggu). y!y (?). C. C.. 36) 37) 3B C o m . again misreads this line. śun-pa ( = tvak). like a treasure. T . rjas. But it is absolutely a mistake. C. It is like the Buddha33). prakrtisthagotra a n d samudānita-gotra. rkañ-gñis bdag-po mchog. being freed from the poverty By the richness 35) of its properties. mi-mñam mñam. like honey and the kernel [of grains].

gnas. T .^ ) . But AĀS regards svârthasampatti as caused by avikalpajñāna. -ŚJ-. About this fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of others. AĀS ZZ ^ H . whose account is given in the next verse.-^g ^ " (dhlmat). it is called the 'fulfilment of the aim of others'. T. 28). in t h e sense B u d d h a h o o d itself animitta). Jgfc . pada. 1) appearance in the forms of two bodies 44 '. sparśitavya and dharma. pi. ' dag-pa(śuddha)' is probably a corruption. Z 2 ^ H $fr ^§* . fffi. C. [both of] which continue as long as the world exists. 45) 46) 47) 48) 43) 45) tathāgatatva. gandha. without any effort. dbañ-hbyor-ba. 49) sat. being the foundation 46 '. JEJ ^fc j \ .) is c o m m e n t e d on as ' dhīrānām^ (v. and represents the manifestation. with reference to the subject ' function '. sadāyatanāni. is C. Two-fold means ' deśanā & darśanavibhutva '. as being freed from the obstructions due to Defilements and knowable things along with their potential forces is called the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim '. what is the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of o others ' ? That which represents the attainment of the undefiled Absolute Body. C. T . Bo) sadindriya-visaya. The correspondence between each of the twofold jñāna and of the twofold arthasarnpatti is not clearly observed here. Is. namely: rūpa. This "Isatām' (gen. The same term is used in v. vibhutva. we have three ślokas. rasa. C. C. Then. śabda. viz. by means of twofold power43'. (C. ' kāyadvaya ' here probably means the twofold rūpakāya. // 18 // It gives always the cause [for enjoyment] In showing the miraculous apparitional forms. Of unperishable nature. 44 ' From the context. i. and everlasting. C. and parârthasampatti as caused by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. and 2) the teaching by means of them.The E at n a got r av ib h ā ga * function ' of the Wisdom is the fulfilment of one's own aim and of that f others.e. [ 319 ] . Quiescent. /[* X a * acyuta. hpho-ba. like space. reads ' 5»ÎÇ * p ' for kārana (with a negative. In the pure audition of its perfect preaching. Immaculate and all-pervading. | ^ f $fa # 0 ^ med-pa. And that which comes after the attainment of the fulfilment of one's own aim. constant and unchangeable47). (Kārikās 4-6) Buddhahood . 28. T . the cause 4 8 ) for the Intelligent 49) To experience the objects through 6 sense-organs 50> .

C. rgyu-mtshan rnams dañ bral. TAKASAKI In the pure scent of the Buddhas' morality. 58 is a misreading (reading ' tathāgato viyomanimitta—varjitah). -f^. phalârtha) is characterized as ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca'. zxL mm-. the dharmakāya in its result aspect (III.-« % i*. C. respectively. and dharmakāya. nimitta-varjitam. myañ (enjoying). the Absolute itself. ' sūksmacintā-paramârtha-gahvaram ' for the whole line. C. grol-bahi sku (hgro-ba in D. See my Introduction. the function of the dharmakāya is characterized as the perfection of Enlightenment. Here the muktikāya seems to represent vimukti (as the characteristic common to samalā tathatā and nirmalā îathatā). is to be known by the following 8 verses. in brief. [The other is] the purification of the Absolute Body 56> . As far as this characterization is concerned. it may be termed parârthasampatti because the dharmakāya as samudānitagotra is the cause of the rūpakāya which works for parârtha. visamyoga (as the characteristic unique to bodhi). is probably a mistake). 61) vindana. ^ ^ /^H It should be ' \j\$ /flu. Consequently. U $% $r? JîS =%» * S Nf wm =%. In tasting 5 1 ) of the taste of the great. The function of the twofold Wisdom In short. // 20 // The meaning of these three ślokas. And in the cognition of doctrine 5 2 ) . // 21 // The Body of innate liberation and the Absolute Body. M > naya. these two also correspond to the prakrtistha-gotra and the samudānlta-gotra. ) muktikāya. f^ •*§". C. are to be known as one. and the dharmakāya. 53) [But]. C. // 19 a In the enjoyment of the pleasurable touch of meditation. ^ £ s M). ms tit m. is to be known as follows: [One is] the fulfilment of the Body of [innate] liberation. So does the AĀS say (472 c fpj ^ § ^ J . gahvara. for which T. These two kāyas show the two aspects of the dharmakāya. while from the aspect of ' visamyoga '. T. the thicket of quite subtle 5 thinking *). being the Highest Truth. BU. T. J7p pafE }mt. tshul. ^ 53) 64) 5B) T. respectively. [Although] being two [in their functions]. these two functions represent svârthasampatti. *&$• (giving). C. bde—mdsad (śamkaram). ^pjj /jyjC. is of no visible mark . (dharma). C. paramārtha.J. From the aspect of ' vimukti '. »we aPPiy [ 320 ] the character of the samudānltagotra to the second function. sublime and highest Doctrine. . its function is characterized as the purification of itself. profound by its nature. Namely. T. in regard to its function. 55) The Tathāgata himself. om. like space.

// 24 // 4 60) The Evanescence ' is to be known as of four kinds. § ^1] ^ F $=| ^ ( | H V} Wi ft" (svârtha is avinirbhāga from $& @ ) . [ 321 ] . HH . ^Y* 5^C • 69) uddeśa. vikrti.The Ratnagotravibhāga Because they are free from passions and all-pervading. // 27 // In the same way. And this immaculate Wisdom is the ' substratum '. hjig-pa med-pa. ' quiescent'. '^L JTL K Cf. 62 > āspada. [They are namely]: ' p u t r i d i t y ' . C. namely): — " ^ " ^ S Zl ^ *fi $S JIl <§" 3R 3§ . of tastes. C. C. T. Which is explained by the words. 68 3 gunas. 7»»Ç ft .. 61) ' Annihilation ' and ' death in an inconceivable way ' . 'disease'. shortens this verse omitting many words. On account of its connection with 6 4 ) the undefiled character. Being the counterparts of ' everlasting ' and the rest. 7 V î/ilj) vyāpitva (C. the twofold [apparitional] Body 6 3 ) . It may be more natural to regard it as the twofold rūpakāya. T. myags. Does it mean muktikāya and dharmakāya ? But see Note 44. 60 > nāśa. chad-pa. // 22 // 4 It is free from passions ' Since the Defilements are resisted along with impressions. of smells. it i& known to be 4 4 Everlasting '. Is the cause of perceiving. C. ^ . 61) pūti. ' i ^ f*J iilf* jf§)| 2 | * . however. C. ' avināśitva. and acintya—namana—cyuta. since the Kārikā refers only to Buddhatva and the rūpakāya is nothing but a term for buddhatva or dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. Since it is the support 6 2 ) of [all] the pure elements. T sbyor-bas (by means of). rten. of sounds. being itself of no cause. rnam-hgyur. C. hearing and so on Of form. C. 67 ' anāsravatva (C.) and asamskrtapadatva (C. not untenable. 57) And are the immaculate substratum . C. C. interpretation is. etc. has no equivalent word. 64 * yogatah. T. ' everlasting '. 4 59) [Here] imperishability' is a general statement . T. ' constant' and unchangeable '. f^ Stf . // 23 // The ' absolute immutability ' is caused 58) By its nature of imperishability . C. C. Of things touchable and of substances respectively. 63) For kāyadvaya. ^P< /$L (fundamental statement). jffll 3^. C. jmjf. T. Wisdom is considered as ' pervading ' Since it has neither attachment nor hindrance. bsam mi—khyab—par hpho—ba. // 25 // Because of their absence. y\j. AĀS. T. // 26 // Just as space. ucchitti. respectively.

So it is said 6 9 ) : " If the Tathāgata could be recognized merely by the 32 marks of a superman. f i \ (?). and perfectly pacified. bstan-pa (śāstr). p . I l l (on > Cf. See a b o v e (v. 752 a. 20): tathāgata-vyoma. rtsub.J . constant. the 18 E x c l u s i v e Properties). The [fulfilment of] one's own aim and of that of others 72) Are represented by the Bodies of Liberation and of the Absolute . in short. Being quiescent. // 28 // (V) YOGA 66) It is said that the Buddha has the character of space 6 7 ) . X I I . would turn to be a Buddha ". Also see Chap. C. And. . 7 2 > See note XIII-55. e. 65) dhlra (— dhīmat. Skt. 42-43. This refers specially68) to the absolute and exclusive character of the Buddha. It can be neither perceived nor cognized. 69) 70) The Vajracchedikāsūtra. (6) ^ g $ H . Being all-pervading and apart from discrimination. jffi (J|) > parusa. T.g. C. 71 [ 322 ] . (Kārikā 7) Being inconceivable. eternal and ever-lasting. Taisho. /ff\. p . It has neither attachment nor hindrance anywhere. AĀS 472 c . 67) 68) 66 abhisamdhāya. T. . dgoñs-pas. paramārthalaksana. // 29 // Now. don dam-pahi mtshan-ñid. C.) T. the meaning of this śloka is. C. TAKASAKI Is the cause for wise men 6 5 ) to give rise to Immaculate virtues in the objects of sense-organs. Now. too. the universal monarch. The pure and immaculate Buddhahood is like space. T. there is one śloka about the highest character 7 0 ) in reference to the subject of i union '. JĀA 243 c. being devoid of rough 7 1 ) sensation. to be known by the following 8 verses. * =§§.

Cf. nor even by the Saints 78>. gnas-pa med[-pa]. And is 'constant' because of endurance of Reality 80 '. And. 73) āśraya. ^ . T. C. I. SMS 222 a: $ 0 -\l an a*MBit. trijñāna. 'inconceivable' and others. And ' has no attachment' since it rejects defilements. it is to be known as ' inconceivable ' [Even] for those people of intellect 7 5 ) . it is not the object of thought. And is not the object of the 3 [kinds of ordinary] knowledge 7 4 ) . T. chos-ñid zab phyir. śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-jñāna. It is not accessible to the mundane meditation and the like. see VIII-(IX C). ) apratisthāna. 75 ' jñānadehin. om. It is ' quiescent'. btsas-pahi khyim-(g)nas. It is ' all-pervading ' since it cognizes everything . all these words. 78) C. / / 3 4 / / It is ' perfectly pacified ' as being the Truth of Extinction. // 32 // Because it has never been seen before by ordinary persons. Therefore. 80-82). C. 80 81 > As for these 4 epithets. // 35 // Being purified from all the obstructions of Ignorance. C. // 31 // Being of subtle character. as it is devoid of birth . ye—śes—lus—can. P r o b a b l y t h e r e a d i n g is ' r ū p a ' i n s t e a d of ' f e ā y a ' (or kāya i n t h e sense of rūpakāya. £fc ^4 • gahvaratah). collective of forms). 77) So T .& Pratyekabuddha-yāno. since it does not disappear. \ś\ p j "jtr* pfv jf\ (lokottara— For gahvara. Like the visible forms77) for those who are born blind. ace. i. ' / 1 > * {EE . to T. 79) sūtikā-sadma-sthita. T. being the impenetrable Absolute Essence7 6 ) . It is ' non-discriminative ' as it has no insistence8 1 ) . // 30 // Buddhahood is accessible only to the Wisdom of the Omniscient. gzugs. C. The reading is there- fore to be ' sadma ' instead of ' madhya '. 74) 76 J dharmatā-gahvaratvatah. zab. Like the disk of the sun for infants lying in their mother's bed 7 9 ) .e. It is 4 everlasting ' . (vv. C. It ' has no hindrance ' in regard to everything [knowable]. ( = dhlmai). [ 323 ] 22 . because it is free from dualism. (depending upon svaparârtha). \i\. //33// It is ' eternal'. Being the Highest Truth. om. T.iñe Katnagotraviûnaga On this foundation 73) of one's own aim and of that of others There is the ' u n i o n ' of properties. C. a n d C. regards this ' ārya ' as those Saints who belong to Srāvaka. it is not the object of study.

mtshan—ma med. 6) and 16) have no equivalent in the Ratna. with various inconceivable appli88) ances like the Great skilful means. amalai stribhih' should be corrected into ' . But for this line. 16) [ ^ |l(M (arausāra?). » ' parikarman. /ppj • 84 ' AÂS makes 19 dharmas possessed by bodhi out of this passage. /fr\ī\. f f fâ . 83 ' animitta. ^ ^ . ^ fâ ^ #& & ffc # f^ . It is ' pure ' since it is pure by nature. . // 37 Jj (VI) VRTTI85) Now again it should be known that this Buddhahood. // 36 // Being immaterial. due to its possession of properties uncommon to others. AĀS 4 7 3 a.. amalais tribhih\ nāgrī script. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation'. T. C. (D) has sñiñ-rje ) ādāna-nimitta. . . Namely: 1) . 19) £g^ Ypf (amaîo). 15) ^ ^ ) ^ ^ " J ^ ' J (avikalpa). the Body of Enjoyment (sāmbhogya)'. 84) And is ' immaculate ' because of its removal of pollutions . C. . . T. 86) ' . 82) mrdu-karmanya-bhāvatah. and with no effort. yorâs-su sbyoñ-ba. as long as the world exists./ i'* BJ J ^ (adrśya). sgrub-pahi rgyu. 7) ^ (nitya). 85) Cf. they should be written without separation).8 1 1 a ( u n d e r A v i k ā r a ) . without interruption. there are 4 ślokas about the distinction of [three kinds of] Buddha's Body. gñis-med lassu ruñ-bahi phyir (advaya-karmani bhāvatah). 14) ft| " ^ (asa/iga (agrā%a). C. I 2 ) M î f f i («y«pO. 5) / p prativedha). 2Çc wC ( a s S. 6) ffj£ iFfj jig (dus(praśānta).). it is 'incognizable'. T. T. manifests itself. 4) j j | Î J | ^ (gambhīrya-naya. B G Ś 809 a . (In Deva- • For these three. it cannot be perceived. and 87) * the Apparitional Body [nairmānika) . 2) ft $ 9 (sūksma). ^ ^ . So. ' the Body of Abso4 lute Essence (svābhāvika)'. viz. = dharmatā-gahvara?).Being of soft and light-moving nature 4 82) . 83> And being of no [visible] mark . Great Compassion. (apratigha). Against J ' s note. 9) S 13 ^ 11) t r t Z S (*""*). It is devoid of rough sensation '. in 89) order to be the support of the welfare and happiness of all living beings. 89 88) C. 10) tt3 (śāśvata). Of them. . " I & jlf (acintya). though by means of a manifestation which is inseparable from its immatable qualities like space. JL7) ^f* S J ^ 18) yV^ ^ * (śufefia). pijft. or asa/bta). 86) still in the forms of three immaculate bodies. and Wisdom. [ 324 ] . 8) ^ £ (dhruva?). between thabs chen-po and śes-rab. 3) j Ç flf (paramārtha). C. without cessation. T.

That represents the nature of the Absolute Essence 9 2 ) . T . regards this verse as referring t o T. in his acts.T. verse (v. Who are concentrating their mind. C. in various worlds.The Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikās 8-11) That which has neither beginning. J t r S S . C. #j? ^ 96) Jf.iff ^ unmūlita. dbyiñs. With the body 9 8 ) in the form of different coloured rays of the Highest Doctrine. C. seems b e t t e r . C. . T. rgyu. T. middle nor end. Immaculate and non-discriminative. j S . liberated in three ways 9 1 ) . Jfck -^ç pfC < ^ y r ^Tv //T 7»[j (unknown to Śrāvaka. rnal-hbyor-pa. [ 325 ] . striving after it 9 4 ) .. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . grub-la brtson-pa (siddhyudyamah). // 39 // One who exerts in concentrating for 9 7 ) the liberation of the world. and surpassing the sands of the Gañgā in number And has rooted out9 6 ) all the defects along with impressions.^ ^ • b u t a r e inseparable from t h e Absolute. rnam-spañs-pa. however. Which is endowed with properties. B u t S. C. 9 3 with samāhita). And this reading is supported by the commentary But C. . 97) 98 For samāhrta-udyamah. dhātuh '. Is indivisible 9 0 ) . C. T . o m . 94 ' F o r ' tat-prayatnāh * yarn dharmadhātusvabhāvam 95) > yogin. next verse. H H . C. C. // 38 // This [Absolute Essence] is nothing but the pure Essence 9 5 ) of the Tathāgatas.$«£• amalah.and Pratyekabuddha-yānikas). And is perceived by the Saints 9 3 ) . • 91 > tridhā vimuktam. . T . unequalled. » > For abhinna. See t h e ' vigraha. 100) nidāna. For ' yarn dharmadhātu-svabhāvam '. M tyfi f § (insertion of ' #j? ^ J§< ' (rūpakāya) suggests that C. . F o r ' tathāgatānām sambhogakāya). non-dual. %W 3fv dhātu. . 92) (tridhātu-muktam). 3tSL PāJH /J^ —\ v T and adds «^p . sku. C. HW . 99 ) All bhāvas are of nihsvabhāva. de rtogs-pa (tad-adhigacchanti) ( c o n n e c t i n g tad w i t h ' ) . inconceivable. as S. have not their own substance"). Innumerable. 45: kleśa-jñeya-samāpatti-trayāvarana-nihsritam). which. ^ P S i j j | . and I guess this was the original reading. T. C. Has a resemblance.^ i f e S S i n J e A (connectin '. to the king of wish-fulfilling gems. Appearing in various forms. //40// That which is the cause l 0 0 ) . |~f§ 5ñÇ y\f>.

39. gnas (avasthita. 102) That is the Apparitional Form [of the Buddha] . C. T. i n t h e sense ' i n dharmadhātu-svabhāva ' (v. ignorance and distraction 1 0 8 ) . 38). i l l ^ $ j | f 0 Jf. • Is 4 devoid of the two extremities'. loe) jr o r acintyaprāpti. gzugz. which is peculiar to the Bodhisattva. in short. // 44 // It is * immutable ' and 4 indivisible '. C.. 103) 104) Which also abides always in the Absolute Essence . etc. takes paramā separately and Tegards it as indicating ' paramârtha '. mchog-tu mya-Aan-hdas. T. avaruddha (enclosed in). 40. [respectively]. bsam-med dgra105) 104) bcom. And is 4 delivered from the 3 Obstructions ' Of defilement. [ 326 ] . ' pratyātmaveditā ' is to be corrected into ' pratyātmaveditam'. los) "phis is the first appearance of the ' trayâvarana' theory in the text. Of Magnificence. And being possessed of five kinds of properties. 103) > bimba. TAKASAKI For advancing into the Quiescent P a t h . /J»5£ ffjfr Ifefc) means nirvana. 107 * Commentary on vv. [•A'* îqjf:] /$• U s • nirvrtih paramā. samāpatty-āvarana means the obstructions on account of samādhi. Consequently.J . and of Magnanimity. // 41 // The summarized meaning of these 4 ślokas are to be known by the following 20 verses: That which is called Buddhahood Is the Omniscience of the Self-born.e. the Body of the Absolute Essence Of the Buddha. the Body of the Absolute Essence.( = nirmānakāya). For bringing to full development and for giving prophecy. i. 105> 106) The highest Nirvana . // 42 // This [Buddhahood] manifests itself in the variety Of three Bodies. ^\* j*jfi: • atra. read as acintyârhattva (T. C. and the inconceivable Arhatship . Represented by the quality of Profundity. both T. T . // 43 // • ) The Body of the Absolute Essence a (svābhāvika-kāya)107). As the visible forms in the element of space. The third āvarana. abiding in). //45// 101 102 ' śāntipatha (C. & C. Which is realized through self-introspection. is to be known As of five characteristics. sV* j©> jj^l V2* J>© 1?c)» which is to be accepted here. 101) Here. C. B u t C.

T r H\). And being accessible to the Saints. & respectively. J j ^ •yp'. [53i£ ^qp. // 46 // Immeasurable'. namely: 1) asamskrta. (4). 110) t i l l -v* ff- - īfta "5ÇB -I—*11 B 3 -fA* al1 T. y\. 2) asamkhya. & 5) prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. T . [ 327 ] . T. ^ ~ñf gj( . Because it is non—discriminative (2). dharmadhātusvabhāvatah ( Q '[^ ĪJ3C). ' inconceivable '. vaimalyād Ç . yogīnām gocaratvatah (. 3 ) f f i Z l * . And because it is radiant by nature (prabhāsvara). 3) acintya. ^ 3 J ^ . 4) J& — W Bl 5) g ft i f ?§* J (473 a). The last one is not clear. 4) trayâvarana-nihsrta. 3) M H & ffl. 2 ftS— M ffl (IS #] S). I will suggest below the most reasonable rendering of this verse: And (5) it is ' pure ' (viśuddha). but the concordance between each laksana and its reason is uncertain.. > udāra. For them.O (The last two reasons should be interchanged). 3) antadvayavivarjita. Because it is free from stains (vimala). Because it is the nature of the Absolute Essence (1). • M j \ WC ')• BGS clearly mentions the 5 reasons in accordance with the 5 laksanas: ^ 1) asamskrtam.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a Being free from all stains and thought-construction. >f> 3t. ' 1) aprameya. 4) āvarananihsitam. W 112 (810 b-c). 46. the present translation is done according to the Skt. 4) asama. should be ' 3 ^ J\. For these 5 gunas. prabhāsvaratayā ( y j^E ^PJ ^ r " ĪW » ^) visuddham. It is ' radiant and pure ' Owing to the nature of the Absolute Essence 1 0 9 ) . 2) abhinnam. rgya-che. C. C. avikalpatvāt (TJjft 73 /J'J R5C)' 3) antadvayavivarjitam. ' innumerable ' . There seems to be confusion of the word arrangement in v. regards ' prabhāsvaram ' as the fifth laksana and reads ' viśuddha ' in the ablative. reads as S. Because it is the acting sphere of the Saints (3). 109) These are the 5 laksanas. The Body of the Absolute Essence is endowed With 1 1 0 ' these [5] kinds of virtuous qualities 111 '. (5) respectively. 4* of j j . // 47 // Being magnificent112) and numberless. fig ^ . except for the omission of ' avikalpatvād ' (the second pada. with a detailed explanation). adds ' yañ-dag-par ' (samyak) before ' yukta '. 2) asambhinna. ) 4) 8 8 PS ffiî 5 ) tpf ^ $=J (809 a-810 b. & 5) viśuddhipāramiprātpi. For the reference. 2 ) ^ f f l « | .^. however. ' incomparable ' And representing ' the highest point of purity'. text. AĀS. and thus makes 5 reasons for these 5 laksanas. and BGŚ: 1) ${§ Jg Jg. AĀS: 1 ) « Ā . but as it is difficult to establish which is the original reading.

[ ^ t ^ K I7M1 3ÎU /^. 116) rūpa. respectively114'. T. C.J. § /££ [vibhutva ?]. whose meaning is n o t clear to me (' T R ' = sambhoga ?). 40. // 49 // It fulfils the aim according to the wish Without thought-construction and with no effort. in acting ceaselessly. /}*> «5Fjj ^ ^ ~^^ *^g. BGS & AĀS offer no reference. T. // 51 // Just as a gem. [ 328 ] . Being unique113) and devoid of the defiling forces. ^fC ^ f^f ^ g ] —• ^ in order to make the meaning clear. TAKASAKI Being inaccessible to investigation. Being the natural outflow117) of pure Compassion. adds bhāsa(snañ) > atatb/mra. ^ /f* ^ . It is 'immeasurable' and so on. It means ' being apart from all \ ' C. C. 2) M tvārthakriyā). It works uninterruptedly for the sake of living beings. And acting with no artificial effort119*. adds ' / p fijjj. // 50 // In teaching. de-yi ño-bo mi-stoñ(-pa). being dyed with various colours. 115) Commentary on v. C. namely: ! > $ ! § # • $\ . T . deśana (teaching) in neuter stem is notable. for this line. 113 1W ' C. T. m ) 122 120 For citratā T. rañ-bshin (in t h e sense of ' svarūpa'' ^ . C. 117 118 ' For nisyanda. C. >^C * M T i l <2C W^» /J> 5nL WfJ J(!y cL (vicitradharmarasasambhoga-rūpâvabhāsatah). has hbah-shig. T. The variety 121) of [its manifestation] is said to be 5-fold. W ' vyavasthiti. [By these points] the Body of Enjoyment is characterized118' Due to its power like that of the wish-fulfilling gems. in the visible form. j/fC rfg^ ft^ OC (for which the equivalent in S. It manifests itself the Doctrine. 3) % ^ ^ ^ ff M ^ (sat- ^V* ^ § pfc (dharmakāyâvinirbhāga). out of these two verses. / / 4 8 / / 6) The Body of Enjoyment (sâmbhogika-kāya)115). C. AĀS makes 5 gunas. possessed by sāmbhoga-kāya. Does not make manifest its real essence122'.Çfy). =p|X ' after kramāt (^7V . (thus is sāmbhogya-kāya). in uncertain). kaivalya for which T. [ ^ . om. And in its appearance of illusion120'. sna-tshogs. 4) J&| f£ 119) X # ^ ^ ^ (anābhoga). and 5) *||0 alt — * ^ F ff ^ N "fjjīf ^j< ^ p (nitya-vyāpi & sattvânupeksā) anabhisamskrti. C. owing to its nature 1 1 6 ) Of enjoying the Doctrine in various forms. mñon-par hdu-byed med-pa. these 5 appearances. ' atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. mam-par gnas. ?).

BGŚ /$L ^ £ . 54-56) a r e t h e list of B u d d h a ' s ' mahāvastu ' i n t h e world. T . 56. C. C. B G Ś p 4 B P . and descent from i t 132) . AĀS W W f^ 131) 132 janman BP . 128) forms. ^ \ . T h e following ( v v . Perceiving fully the world. > vibhu. or 18. p4B P • ' śilpasthānāni (6). T. 12. [various] previous births The birth in the Tusita-heaven The entrance into the womb The skilfulness in various Pleasurable 123 1301 . ( H Ç£) and BGŚ ( ^ ^ ) seem to [ 329 ] . BGŚ /\. s. 129) > upapattim ca tusitesu (2). with Great Compassion. gzo-yi gnas-la mkhas-pa. 4 1 . hjig-rten-mkhyen. ^ 130) garbhâvakramana (4). bstams-pa. 0ff y\. ^ . but connecting with next one and reading ' jātakâbhyupapattim (skye—ba mñon—par skye—ba dan). C. Hereafter. 131 . 126) >phe w o r ( J * darśayati ' is suplied from v . (5). // 53 // 129) Without being separated from his Absolute Body. AĀS ^ before (6): fJL ^ 133) support this reading. i p £ . these 14 will b e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e N o t e one b y o n e along with t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t i n B G Ś (810 c) a n d A  S (473 a ) . Qgç 7 u x v M t 4 (kumārasthāna). For śilpasthāna the Pali equivalent is sippatthāna (PTS Die. T. * ^ ~\" /K ^ñ ^ C. BGŚ ^ £ jfe Jftl $ ^ » A A S H * 9B ^ P ^ • cyutim tatah ( = tusitāt) (3). 128 T. Though it appears in various forms. 127) jātakāni (1). AĀS ^ T J ^ (18 vidyās). # t î 3J£. T. btsun-mohi hkhor-gyis dkyes-rol. according to the conditions of the living beings. /JP . dgah-ldan-nas ni hpho-ba. c) The Apparitional Body [The (nairmānika-kāya 124) // 52 // ). Jjp . 125 Buddha]. whose n u m b e r is c o u n t e d 14 according t o 124) B G S ( In J^y -ip-). antahpuraratikrīdā (7). AĀS | ^ .). T .The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a 123) Similarly. kauśalam C. T . AĀS ^ C ^ £ <2. Manifests himself The ' in various 127) apparitional . 125 ' lokavid ( a n e p i t h e t of t h e B u d d h a ) . ' jātakāny-upapattim ca ' is missing in C. T. // 54 // 133> '. Ihums-su hjug. *f$£ Tusita and this world). the Lord never shows its real natuie. skye-ba. khyab-bdag. T h e whole verse is missing i n C. of which the number is often mentioned as 8. BGŚ |gī| JjQ ^ j i g (abiding midway between ^ 5 ^ ~ F . C. v. C. arts entertainments among ladies in the harem . T. Commentary on v. and the birth [in this world] and works . connects ' tusita ' with next one. O regards this verse as explaining sambhogakāya. being the knower of the world 126 '. £ j E p q ^ ]>C H ^ » AĀS inserts one more BGŚ ^ ^>t ftb .

y\. lust. upāyavid. And the departure into Nirvana 140) . T. x c nJJ JjQ T. (used as an epithet of the Buddha). the knower of means 142). . which is. as long as they exist. in its turn. // 57 // Those who have entered the way to Quiescence144).J. Setting into motion the wheel of the Doctrine139). mya[ 330 ] . ni byañ-chub $11 ^pC . For ksetra apariśuddha. |f|J ^\ ^ Q (devoid of desires) for naiskramya shows that this f jf term came out of Pali nekkhamma. chos-kyi hkhor-lo. BGŚ |f sambodhi (12). T. ^ gśegs-pa. rdsogs-par the next one). 4 non-substantial'. C. byañ-chub-sñiñ-por C. T. (T. C. rab-hjug. mya-ñan-hdas-par gśegs-mdsad. AĀS j ^ ft H . T . C. etc. 13ā > duhkhacārikā (9). ^@ $ 4 'M. since T. The conquest over the army of Evil Demons137). niskāma). & C. ^Hç j | ^ lavana. f f bodhimandopasamkrānti ^ f fif = BGŚ & AĀS. . . TAKASAKI The renouncement of the world134'. T. C. dkah-ba spyod-pa. T. 137) before this. C. C. he leads143) them into Nirvana. "«> naiskramya (8). mārasainyapramadana (11). seems t o have combined this with ^ _ h V£ Iffl . C. > dharmacakra (13). /] pratārayati. Passage to the Excellent Seat of Enlightenment136). AĀS ^/î|| ]yp J ^ . C. . ' renunciation or to become a monk ' is often explained as ' to reject the worldly desire. ñes-hbyuñ.\ BGŚ & AĀS. i§i 'pj ^^ 142> 143) 144) śāntimārga. In Pali. ^T • 136) (10). shi-bahi lam. T . BGŚ Jj% \% . T. 3tiL 3j%?j . 141 ' ksetra. y\.. C. j S ^C %$? S 139 # . $ f V£ Iffl . 4 evanescent'. byañ-chub- (asking for t h e w a y t o various tīrthikas) sñiñ-po. '. F o r bodhimanda. /$5£ 145) 'prāpta-nirvāna-samjñinah' would be better. 140> nirvānâdhigamakriyā (14).This does n o t m e a n t h e actual obtaining of E n l i g h t e n m e n t . | % f ^ ^ C. T. And by the word 4 quiescent'. // 56// [The Buddha]. creates an aversion To the Three Worlds among the living beings By the words. C. // 55 // The [acquisition of] Enlightenment138). 4 suffering '. (T. T . bdud sde hjoms. /ff/t {cj. practice of asceticism135*. AĀS & I S ^ $J ^ f £ $ffl (setting d/iarmacafera forth at Varanasi). agree with it. J|fft ^ / ^ $f | t | ^ < . indicates Kusinagara). [|9Çl . BGŚ îlSBS ¥ • 138) AĀS om. C. combined in meaning with nikkāma (S. all of them He shows in the impure worlds141'. And who imagine that they have attained Nirvana 145). s/uri.

don-mthun. BGŚ 811 a-6. the last. T. C.). 147 148 ) dharmatattva. # ffi ^ ft ?£). T. it should be 'the latter two '. ^ J3 pfe. And. lit. analogically C. accomplishing the power 150) 151) And toiling excessively for the company of ordinary beings. respectively. ~/^. // 60 // Here.fc. As the Profound. $ M . we have one śloka. sārtha means a caravan or traders. the Magnificent and the Magnanimous. // 61 // (VII) NITYA154) Now this threefold Body made manifest in order to be the support for the weal and happiness of the world. As the visible forms appear in space. prabhāva. as S. [ 331 ] . 152 151) 149) "4> Cf. C. Therefore. reads ' J f | Z l ' (the second) for paciśmau. mthu. theg-pa mchog. sna-tshogs for sampatti is probably a misreading for phun-tshogs. 3tE3 T K I^IE iM. With reference to this subject. ^ * £ £ (sattvo). C.t±r J. // 58-59 // 149) Being subtle. — In these points [the Buddha] should be known. bzlog ste. C. For grāha C. M E ^ *fo. ñan-hdas-thob hdu-śes-can. T. sārtha. & T.. interpretation of ativāhana seems better. Makes them mature in the Ultimate Vehicle 148) . C. (C. rab-hdren. 153 These latter ' appear on the basis of the former. C. uttamayāna. From the context. C. C. 153J antya. AĀS 473 a {% . 15 °) ativāhana. has an ' eternal' character [in its manifestation]. And gives prophecy for them to attain the Highest Enlightenment. T. T. 147) Through the teaching of the True Doctrines In the Saddharmapundarīka and other Sutras.The Ratnagotrav ib hāga 146) Them he diverts from their former prejudice. 152) And the latter two are the Bodies in visible forms . ^ ^ J } . chos-kyi de-ñid. embracing Wisdom and Skilful Means. gzugs-kyi sku. adds ' "^f Up (Sfi A . C f=f $C ^flf ffi ^ j | ) . 146 ^ > nivartya. C. fZ\\ ~^ ^ 5 • > Denoting the Mahāyāna.rj. the first Body is the Absolute Body. T. _ £. T.^ ^ ~)\. (surpassing the treacherous path).~J\. > rūpakāya. T.

pure and immaculate 163) . Miraculous Powers 1 5 6 ) . This is (4) rddhi-(yogāt). 3) virya. life and property. Having an endless number of living beings to convert. hdsin. C. C. mthar-hbyin. C.J. & 4) mīmāmsā. ^ipf }\% . Wisdom and Bliss15?)? Governing all the elements. samgraha. t o t h e coinm. T . hphrul. C.i p . He fulfills161' his first vow 1 6 2 ) . as being asamskrta and ādipraśānta. By which power he abides in the world 1 6 5 ) . For the benefits of all living beings. Cf. The lord of the World 1 5 9 ) is eternal. 2) citta. which is explained in t h e lokanātha. T h e r e are said t o b e 4 . This saddharma-samgraha is t h e 1st cause standing for hetv-ānantyāt in the Kārikā. Cf. (J^X 'tK y 7 ' K i t ) - S. And representing non-substantiality 158) . JpC JjyC • Ace. [ 332 ] . 165) 164) So C. T . 40. sampatti stands for ' sukha-sampatti through meditation '. hjig—rten-mgon—po. tair avasthitaśaktitah. phun-tshogs.. He has preserved 160) the Highest doctrine. styi ||!f| (pūrvapranidhi). naihsvābhāvya. For śakti. zhu JñL W\ • . 161) uttarana. // 64 // 166 > hetv-ānantyāt. C. C. C. rddhi-pāda. j ^ l {!£ $g§ j [ t B • »•> rddhi. T. n a m e l y : 1) chanda. He shows his [four] bases of Miraculous Powers 1 6 4 ) . Casting off his body. 162) ādipratijñā. jZ!j ^ Q ^ . (Az . rfe-yis gnas-par spyod- pahi phyir. T. TAKASAKI (Kārikā 12) Having infinite causes [for the attainment of his state] 1 5 5 ) . BGS: 160) 163) T h i s s t a n d s for ( 2 ) sattvadhātv—aksayatvāt. M v y u t . // 63 // In his Buddhahood. // 62 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be known by the following 6 verses. F o r (3) kārnya(-yogāt). dañ-pohi dam-bcas. T.^ vrW. there is made manifest Compassion. vanquishing the demon of Death. 159) 168) 157) ?). reads as if caryā. T H " . T . T. rdsu-hphrul rkañ-ba. ] f § <J»$£ pj^p" (svabhāva-praśānta comm. C. T. C. Being endowed with Compassion. T.. %\\ ^§t • sampatti.

178 | ^ ^ ī | £f£ ^ > For sāstr. And he gives a refuge for those who have no shelter 172) . B G Ś : F o r acintya. 172) This is counted as t h e 1 0 t h cause. This is for (7) dharmaiśvaryāt. ^54 f£r )M ^ ^ T ' U ZM (amrta-śama-prāpti & ^ ^ (being as it is by nature. t h o u g h likewise counting 10 causes. // 66 // Being of an immutable nature. About sukhasampatti. as t h e 1 0 t h cause. T h e 10 causes ace. He partakes of the complement of bliss 1 6 8 ) . See N o t e V . o u t of lokanātha. he is liberated from The dualistic conception of Samsāra and Nirvana 1 6 6 ) . // 68 // 166) p 167) o r (5) jñāna(-yogāt). 7) g£ %. 9) Jj Ug. bsam-yas. He leaves no room for [the activity of] the demon of Death 1 7 0 ) . " t i t ffc . b u t has no correspondent t e r m in t h e K ā r i k ā . 170) p o r (3) mrtyumārāvabhañgāt. C. & 10) . // 67 // The first 7 of these motives show The eternity of the Preceptor 1 7 3 ' in his Apparitional Body. 4) # 0 ft |«§ (avikalpajñānânantya).The Ratnagotravibhāga Owing to his Wisdom. B u t B G S . omits this last one a n d counts ' samādhi' i n d e p e n d e n t l y o u t of sukhasampatti. 4§F ^ î (sugata). 169) lokadharma./$£ ^ it is anutpādânirodha). reads ' citta-'. b u t T. I t seems t h e c o m m e n t a t o r m a d e this m e a n i n g of śarana. 6) ' ( ^ ^pfc 7$$> /]£. 5) $ $ 'jf $\ M i t (karunânantya). [ 333 ] . he is 4 eternal'. C. mrtyumārāvabhañga). 171 ) F o r (9) naihsvabhāvāt. Because of these [10] points. The latter 3 demonstrate the eternity From the viewpoint of the Absolute Body. ^|| fâ (sukha & śiva). Having attained the state of quiescence and immortality. // 65 // While he is acting in the world. The Lord is perfectly pacified from the outset 1 7 1 ) . C. ft (rddhyānantya). jv? 1?A (sadā samādhānânumeya). 169) He is unaffected by the worldly elements . 168) This is for (6) sampatti-yogāt.4 7 . 8) ff M # iffi A^ Ife A ffi Qoke vicarato f astadharmair anupalepah). 2) ^ &$ j l l (sattvadhātvaksaya). t o BGS are as follows: 1) 3) [^ 7»v»' ^ Wk ff»§ i f t (hetvānantya). By his constant practice of the inconceivable 167) meditation.

since it cannot be constructed by thought. It is 4 beyond investigation ' as it is incomparable 176) . It is 4 unutterable ' since it is the Highest Truth.. T. Being the supreme. Inaccessible to investigation and incomparable. t o C. yXs <rc ^ f e 176) • =0v • AAS mentions these 6 as t h e causes of inconceivability. containing the Highest Truth. // 70 // It is 4 incomparable ' since it is the supreme. (Kārikā 13) Being unutterable. we have one śloka. agree i n their reading ' vyanumeya '. B G Ś 810 cf. 178) He is inconceivable because of no identification 174 > Cf. this method of the attainment [of Buddhahood] by the Buddhas which represents the 4 Perfect Manifestation of the Basis' is to be understood as of inconceivable character. 177) F r o m ' u n u t t e r a b l e ' t o ' t h e s u p r e m a c y '. v. a n d t h e 6 t h is ' anudgraha '. on account of his Apparitional Body. bhava-śānty-anudgraha. since i t is supported b y t h e reading i n t h e K ā r i k ā : upamā-nivrttitah. 4 Not included ' means the Buddha abides in neither of the two And never regards [in a one-sided manner] That Nirvana is of merit and the other is of defect. It is 4 inconceivable ' since it is unutterable. C. TAKASAKI (VIII) ACINTYA174) Now. // 71 // 177) Being subtle by the [first] 5 motives He is inconceivable in his Absolute Body.J. 40: vici- [ 334 ] . T. The sphere of Buddha is inconceivable even for the Saints. vyupameya (ace. and relating neither To the Phenomenal World nor to Nirvana 1 7 5 ) . And by the 6th. It is 4 the supreme ' since it is not included [Either in the Phenomenal World or in Nirvana]. de-yi dños-min [phyir] (— tadbhāvâbhāvāt). t h e word ' vyupameya ' is more suitable here. ^JSj 4=f Pjpt >[!)• T h o u g h T . & S. Cf. pjff: 175) idea of ' n o t relating t o b o t h ' is t h e expression of ' apratisthita-nirvāna / -r*. BGS 3k§. // 69 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be understood by the following 4 verses. 178) atattvabhāvitva. *A* JfX -^j V~fc > j ç • This '. With reference to this 4 inconceivability '. It is 4 the Highest Truth '. AĀS 473 ft. srid-shis ma bsdus.

But C. C. this final stage of tuâ Buddha Is unknown even to the Great Sages 179) Who have attained the stage of Initiation 180) . as in the case of the Mahāvastu. om. who has attained the ultimate point of virtue. 179 * maharsi. this verse.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga With either Nirvana or Phenomenal World. &c. / / 7 3 / / Finished is the second chapter entitled 4 the Enlightenment' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. next to that of the Buddha.1 ". On this point. Here 'maharsi 9 . Therefore. dbañ. this verse (v. T. With the Great Compassion and other virtues. reads ' J^X Tvf p3 ffit y3Ç' (because of his obtaining aiśvarya). The Buddha. denotes the Bodhisattva of the highest rank. 73) seems to be an old verse and is probably a quotation. This abhisekatā or abhisekaprāpta was regarded in the old fc/iūmi-theory as the 10th and the highest stage of Bodhisattva. trabhāvo na ca tatsvabhāvān. The different usage of the term ' rsi ' in this verse is also suggestive. contrary to the common usage of this term for the Buddha. [ 335 3 . Is inaccessible to human tho. // 72 // Being endowed with the Highest Wisdom. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. 180) abhiseka.

also a d d s ' atah ' ()ŚX . and c o u n t e d besides 36 o t h e r dharmas. N ) . m e n t a l case. r e a d s as a n instru- 3) T. [ 336 ] . Therefore3'. Cf. < £ =§§| g j ( ) . dharmas. C. 6) samvrtikāyatā. Hereafter. t e x t . though one syllable is in excess by adding ' ~tā '. B u t . IV. BUDDHA-GUNA l) XIV. C. pi. B u t T. A m o n g t h i s l a s t g r o u p . 4 vaiśāradyas. being indivisible from Reality by nature 2 ) as the brightness. & 68 18 āvenikadharmas are T . 473 m e n t i o n e d 180 āvenikadharmas i n c l u d i n g 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. as we h a v e t h e s a m e construction i n t h e beginning of Chap. AĀS C h a p . text. 4) guna-vibhāga. B. immediately after [the exposition of the Reality]. is preferable. colour and shape of the jewel are inseparable from the latter. I t is sometimes allowable in such an old-style Kārikā to keep an irregular metre. 2) abhinna-prakrtayah ( B a h u . a d d s ' atas tad '. we have one śloka referring to the distinct characteristics 4 ) of the Buddha's Properties. dbyer-med-pahi rañ-bshin-ñid-kyis. \\fr ffc£ jf?|J "HI. kun-rdsob-sku-ñid. [Consists in] the Body of the Highest Truth 5 ) And the Worldly Emanations 6) based upon it. F o r this. stands for t h e present Skt. 10 balas. the reading 'paramarthakāyatā'' of Ms. i n w h i c h a r e 80 anuvyañjanas. The t e r m 'vibhāga'' corresponds to iprabheda'< in K 1. p p . (Kārikā 1) The aim of one's own and that of others. I V (Tathāgataguna-parivarta). THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA 3. comp. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUDDHA'S PROPERTIES We have finished the explanation of l the Reality free from Pollutions '. i t is n o t necessary to change the Skt. T. 1} c-475 c.CHAPTER III. m . we shall speak of the ' Properties ' which are based upon the Reality and are perfectly pure. 5) F r o m the point of meaning. before ' anantaram '.

T h e R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga Representing the state of Libiration and Maturation 7 ) , The result is endowed with Properties, Which appear in 64 varieties. // 1 // What is told by this śloka ? The Body which represents the Highest Truth Is the support for the completion of one's own [aim] And the support for the fulfilment of others' [aim] 8 ) Is the Emanational Body 9 ' of the Buddha 10>. //2// The first Body is endowed with properties, [10] Powers and so forth, as [the result of] Liberation, And the second one, with [32] marks of superman, As the properties [obtained by] the Maturation [which follows after Liberation] U ) . // 3 //
visamyoga, T . bral[-ba], C. i M . p a t t ; a n d vipāka, T . mam-par smin-pa, C. f = p ;fvV » respectively. Here ' visamyoga-phala ' means the dharmakāya characterized as āvaranadvayavisamyoga in Chap. II, while ' vipāka-phala ' means the rūpakāya characterized as the result obtained by causes (e.g. practices performed in the previous lives as in the case of sambhoga-kāya). 8) T. translates ' para ' by ' pha-rol\ but it should be ' gshan-gyi '. • sāmketikam vapuh, T. brda—yi sku, C. ~|U. \fe- *||j§f ( = samvrtikāya). )
10 7)

> rsi, T. drañ-sroñ, C. #Q 3 ^ ^

^ 1 . Both T. & C. regard * rsi ' as a plural.

vaipākika, T. rnam-smin, C. - ^ ^ 5 £ ^fc ¥ R m l (f° r vaipākika-guna) (that which represents the enjoyment of bliss as the reward of previous practices). As for the attribution of qualities to each of the two kāyas, i.e. paramārthakāya and samvrtikāya, C. says that to the first body, infinite qualities of the Buddha are attributed, while to the second body, the 10 Powers, etc., are attributed. Attribution of the infinite qualities to the paramārthakāya accords with the dharmakāya's ' union' with paramārthalaksanas which are indivisible, unthinkable, etc. as told in Chap. II, but as far as the 64 Proerties are concerned, C. attribution does not match the commentary below.
u)

[ 337 ]

XV.

64 PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

Hereafter, the text refers to which are the [10] Powers and other properties and how they are to be understood1*. Summary 2 '. (Kārikā 2) The Powers [of the Buddha] are like a thunderbolt, In [breaking] the hindrance caused by ignorance, His Intrepidity 3 ) in the assemblage is like that of a lion, The Buddha's exclusive properties are like space, And the two kinds of corporeal forms 4) of the Lord are Like the moon and its reflection in the water. // 4 // (I) THE 10 POWERS It is said that the Buddha is possessed of [10] Powers (balânvita)5). (Kārikās 3-4) The knowledge of the proper and improper place 6 ) , Of the result of former actions 7) , and of the faculties 8) ,
T h e reading should b e ' tathā-tad-adhikrtya T . de—ltar dehi dhañ—du byas—paho.
2)
l j

' i n s t e a d of * tathatām

adhikrtya

'.

T. & C. add t h e word ' uddāna ' before t h e n e x t K ā r i k ā . ( T . sdom-ni,

C. =f=r wL

viśāradatva, T . mi-hjigs-pa, C. 7k(ç fy\ "PC • 4) dvidhā-darśana, T . bstan-pa rnam gñis, C. . >y]§[ Jj^J,. 5) Prior to this sentence, C. inserts one sentence showing the following meaning: " Hereafter, the remaining verses in Chap. I l l expose the 64 properties of the Buddha, 10 Powers and the rest, according to the order mentioned in the previous Kārikā. Its detailed explanation is to be known according to t h e Dharanîśvararājasūtra ". D R S has, however, no explanation about t h e 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. Also C. changes t h e order of verses in the commentary (the K ā r i k ā - t e x t is arranged in t h e same order as t h e Skt. text), namely, the verses showing the similes, vajra, simha, ākāśa & dakacandra, are placed among commentary verses. 6 * (1) sthānâsthāna, T. gnas dan gnas—min, C. )fg& y\"~ Ifeît • About the 10 balas, see M v y u t . & D R S 14 c-18 a, AĀS 475 b, R D S 34 a-b. 7) vipāke ca karmanām = (2) karma-vipāka [-jñāna-bala], T . las rnams-kyi rnamsmin, C. 7fc ? R • • • 3^FC (reads vipāka
8)

~ ®'
3)

:

)

mm

a n d karmanām

separately). C. ffg ^PC •

indriya

= ( 3 ) indriya-parāpara[-jñāna-bala],

T . dbañ-po,

[ 338 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a
9) 10)

Of the component elements and of the faith , 11} Of the path which leads to everywhere , // 5 // Of the impurity and purity in contemplation, etc. 13) Of the memory of the previous abodes , Of the Divine Eyes 1 4 ) , and of Quiescence 1 5 ) , Such are the ten kinds of Power [of the Buddha]. It is said, [these Powers are] like a thunderbolt (Kārikā 5) [Being the power of knowing] about the proper and the improper, About results, about elements and various faiths of the people, About the p a t h
17) 16) 12)

,

// 6 //

.

, purity and impurity,

About the complex of faculties, the memory of former abodes, About the divine eyes, and how to destroy the Evil Influences; The Powers pierce, break and cut down
18 19)

The armour, the mountain fortress ', and the tree of ignorance, Therefore, they have resemblance to a thunderbolt (II) THE 4 FORMS OF INTREPIDITY 2 ) 0 . // 7 //

It is said that [the Buddha] has attained the 4 kinds of intrepidity (caturvaiśāradyaprāpta). (Kārikās 6-7) [The Buddha's] Intrepidity is of four kinds, namely: In his perfect Enlightenment of all the elements,
9)

dhātu

= (4) nānā-dhātu-j

ñ.-b.,

T . khams

mams,

C. ^lE •

10) n

adhimukti = (5) nānâdhimukti-jñ.-b., T . , mos-pa, C. |]=5 . ' mārga sarvatragāmini = (6) sarvatragāmini—pratipaj—jñ.—b., T . kun—hgrohi lam, ' dhyānâdi—kleśa—vaimalya,
=

12

T . bsam—gtan sogs ñon—moñs dri—ma med—pa, C. pjffc - vimoksa - samādhi - samāpatti - samkleśa ^ vyavadāna-

v P tÎH W$* /$L jñ.-b. (7).

sarvadhyāna

13) nivāsânusmrti, T. gnas-ni rjes-su dran-pa, C. | ^ , ^g^ J © "ZC T T = (8) i>"r" H vanivāsânusmrti-jñ.-b. 14) 15) 16) 17)
18)

divyā-caksus, T. lha-yi mig, C. y C »X = (9) cyuty-upapatti-jñ.-b. śānti, T . shi-ba, C. ^ £ f j p = (10) āsravaksaya-jñ.-b. C. p u t s t h i s verse before v . 2 9 . nay a. I t stands for mārga.

• * na

acala-prākāra, T . go-cha rtsig-brtan, C. l_L| ?||jīf. About t h e simile of ' vajra ', see v. I, 4. 20 > catur-vaiśāradya. Cf. Mvyut. 8, D R S 18 a-19 a, AĀS 475, R D S 34 6.
19)

[ 339 ]

J.

TAJ4.ASAKI

In rejecting all obstacles, In preaching the Path, and in acquiring the Extinction 2 1 ) . // 8 // He himself knows 22) and causes others to know All the things cognizable in all their forms; He destroy everything to be rejected and causes others to reject them 23>; 24) Serves [himself and lets others serve] in the method to be practised; And himself attains and causes others to attain The Highest and Perfectly Pure State which is to be attained; Thus, teaching the Truth 25) on account of himself and of others, The Buddha 2 6 ) , wherever he might be, is not paralyzed by fear 27>.

II 9 II

It is said that [the intrepidity of the Buddha] is like [that of] a lion 28 '. (Kārikā 8) Just as the king of beasts in the forest Has always no fear and acts without fear 2 9 ) among beasts,
21

' The 4 vaiśāradyas are as follows: 1) vaiśāradya in sarvadharmâbhisambodhi, T. chos-kun rdsogs-par byañ-chub, 2) vaiś. in vibandha-pratisedha, T. gegs ni hgog-par byed-pa, C. jlHi lîîj m4 J S . r-?- '•> 3) vaiś. in mārgâkhyāna, T. lam-ston-pa, C. Īf/Q i j j . ; 4) vaiś. in nirodhâpti, T. hgog-thob (D's ston is probably a misreading), C. \*f

v8v vB3 (flnāsravâpti). This order agrees with that in RDS, but Mvyut. and others put the 4th one before vibandha-pratisedha, under the name of āsravaksaya (-jñāna). 22) ' svayam ' should b e connected with ' jñānād ', a n d hence i t is t o b e w r i t t e n with separation from jñāpanād. 23) hāni-kārana-krti, i n t h e sense hāni- & hānikārana-krti, T. spans dan spoñ-mdsad. C. reading in this and the next phrase is not understandable. 24 ' vidhi. T. om. it. C. om. the whole phrase of ' sevye vidhau sevanāt'. About the idea that ' mārga ' is ' sevya', see Chap. IV, v. 52. Also these 4, i.e. jñeya, heya, prāpya and sevya correspond to each of the 4 satyas, respectively. 25) satya, which denotes t h e 4-fold āryasatya. 26) ārya (in plural), T . drañ-sroh ( = rsi), C. o m . Z7) astambhita [-tva], T. thogs-pa med ( = apratigha), C. ^ ^ "p^ ( = abhaya). (Cf. astambhin, adj. not paralyzed by fear, BHS Die). For this, BHS & Pali form is ' acchambhita % which is parallel to ' abhlta', ' asamtrasta ' or ' asamvigna ' (BHS Die. s. v.) and more or less synonymous with ' viśārada '. (chambh Skt. stambh, ' to fix'). a8) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 32.
I9) anuttarasta-gati, T. skrag-pa med-par rgyu-ba, C. £3 /p^ (for gati, T. rgyu-ba = carati).

[ 340 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga Similarly, the lion who is the Lord of Sages Abides among the assembly of attendance, Independently 30) , indifferently31', with firmness and victory 3 2 ) . //10//

(III)

THE 18 EXCLUSIVE PROPERTIES 33)

It is said that the Buddha is endowed with the 18 Exclusive Properties peculiar only to him (astādaśâvenikabuddhadharmasamanvāgata). (Kārikās 9-13) With the Preceptor, There is neither error 3 4 ) nor rough speech3 5 ) , Neither loss of memory 3 6 ) nor distraction of mind 3 7 ) , Also, there is no pluralistic conception 3 8 ) ;— // 11 // He is not indifferent, nor without consideration 39) , He knows no deprivation of his zeal 4 0 ) , and of his energy 4 1 ) , Of his memory 42) , of Transcendental Intellect 4 3 ) , and of Liberation 4 4 ) ,
30)

ll) 32)

svastha, T. legs-gnas ( = susthita), C. n * H (su-sthita). 7T~ E H nirāstha, T. Itos-med, C. A* "PC (without fear). sthira-vikramastha. T . r e g a r d s i t a s o n e a d j e c t i v e (brtan-pahi rtsal . . . ) , but

ace. to comm. verse (v. 34) and C, it is to be read ' sthirastha & vikramastha ', C. ī ! ^ | p | & si
33)

^"TV -, respectively. For these 4 adjectives, see vv. 33-34. F o r t h e 18 āvenikadharmas, see M v y u t . 9, D R S 19 o-21fe, A Ā S 4 7 5 6, R D S 34 6 f. skhalita, ravita, T . hkhrul, T . ca-co, C. 3 © -*• nāsti skhalitam C. p j " -> n. ravitam (2). nams, C. 3 c j3i> " ^ r ^ ^ "*" (^) # ma bshag thugs, C. -^i^ /£. HPC ^LJ^ "*" (^)* (1).

34)

36)

36)

musitā smrti, T . dran-pa

s

' ' asamāhita

citta, T . mñam-par

38)
39)

nānātva-samjñitā, upeksâpratisamkhyā

T . hdu-śes sna-tshogs, C. ^ § | ^g? ^ § i j § -> (5). (apratisamkhyāya is a B H S form for -yāyām (fern, loc.) ft jH[
j

of Skt.), T. ma brtags btañ-sñoms, C. 3S£ f^
40)
41)

^ -»• (6)(or-tah) hānih ( 7 ) .

chanda,

T . hdun-pa,

C. ij/V . . . n ā s t i chandasya

vīryo, T. brtson-hgrus, C. )fpj j £ . . . n. vîryatah h. (8). C. ^ £ t . . . n . smrteh h. ( 9 ) . h. (10). h. (11).

42

> s m r t i , T . dran-pa, prajñā, vimukti,

43)
44)

T . śes-rab, C. 3 § f . . . n . prajñayā T . rnam-grol,

C. J y p jjjjT . . . re. vimukter

[ 341 ]

J . TAKASAKI

And of the intuition of this liberation 45) ; — // 12 // Has [three kinds of] acts 46) are preceded by Wisdom 47) , And his Intuition acts unimpededly in three states of time 48>These 18 and others 49) are the Properties Of the Preceptor, which are not common to others. // 13 // The Sage has neither error 50) nor rough speech, Neither loses [his memory] nor distracts his mind 51) , Has neither pluralistic views52) nor indifference53) to one's own taste, He is never deprived of his zeal, effort and memory, Of pure, immaculate Intellect and Liberation, Of the intuition of freedom 54) and of showing all things knowable; — //14// He makes manifest on the objects the 3 kinds of acts 55 ', Which are preceded by 56) all kinds of knowledge, And brings out the Wisdom, well extensive, without hindrance 57) , Constantly, throughout the 3 states of time; Thus is Buddhahood 58) , endowed with Great Compassion,

*5) vimuktijñānadarśana, T. rnam-grol-gyi ye-śes-gzigs-pa, C. [ppp nju] 7»H J^l ...(12).
46

Mvyut. & DRS instead have ināsti samādher hānih (C. / £ . / 1 ' * XS).

' karman, T. las, C. p p | . There are 3 kinds of ' karman ', i.e. k. by kâya, by vāfc & by manas, and they stand for (13)—(15).
47

' jñāna—pūrvamgama,

T . ye—śes sñon—hgro, C. •J^J i i A , 2 ^ . .

try-adhvan, T . o m . tri a n d s i m p l y , d u s . C. *, "(tr . ijñāna<> acting i n each s t a t e of t i m e , i.e. atīta, anāgata & pratyutpanna, is c o u n t e d separately a n d consists (16)—(18) of t h e āvenikadharma.
48)

anye ca, T . . . . dañ gshan, C. /&. S*R ' ' i ^ īvL -^§ • I t is u n c e r t a i n which are c o u n t e d b y this word ' anye '• 60) praskhalita = skhalita. 61) The reading should be ' musitatâcitte ' (as a Dvandva-comp., dual, nom., i.e. musitatā & acitta) instead of ' musitatā dtte ' in the text. ' acitta* here stands for asamāhita-citta. (T. bsñel dañ thugs-g'yo). 62 ) n o sambhedatah samjñā. {sambhedatah = nānātva-)T. tha-dad-kyi ni hdus-śes. 63) abhyupeksana = upeksā. 64 ' T. om. nidarśana of muktijñāna-nidarśana (reading apparently ' vimuktijñānadarśanāt). SB) I n p l a c e of ' arthesu ', T . h a s ' yasya '.
66)

49)

purojava,

T . sñon-hgro

(— purvamgama),

C. . . . ^fo?{/ -2f£.

67)

aparāhata, T . thogs-med, C. TJJJÇ |*!p. PK] .

68)

ymotā, T . rgyal-pa-ñid,

C. # 0 ^ l ^ . r 312 i

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

And perfectly realized 5 9 ) by the Buddha; And on account of this realization, he sets in motion in the world The great wheel of the fearless 6 0 ) Supreme Doctrine. // 15 // It is said that [these properties are] like space (Kārikā 14) The nature found in the earth and the rest Is not the nature of space, And the properties of space represented by Non-obstruction, etc., are absent in material things 6 3 ) ; The earth, water, fire, wind and the sky 6 4 ) , likewise, Are common to all the [material] worlds, But the Exclusive Properties of the Buddha Are not in the least 6 5 ) common to those worlds. // 16 //
62) 61)

.

(IV)

THE 32 MARKS OF THE SUPERMAN 66)

It is said that the Buddha is possessed of the corporeal form endowed with the 32 marks of the Superman (dvātrimśanmahāpurusalaksanaTūpadhārin).
B9)

60)

F o r ' avabuddhā ', T . brñes (avalabdha), b u t C. as in t h e t e x t . The reading ' abhayadam' is to be corrected into ' abhayam' (one syllable is in

excess). So T. hjigs-med, and C. ^ ^ "pC [fibu ?& Vz*] (Lit. i t is an adjective to cakra). Cf. v . I. 4. (abhayam mārgam dideśa). 61) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 35.
62)

dharmatā, T. chos-ñid, C. ffc .

) rūpin, T. gzugs, C. P-|/ (that which has form). C. om. the word for sky from this line of elements, sothat the sky is to be distinguished from the other elements. Did the author of this Kārikā regard the sky as something material unlike ' space ' which, in its turn, is compared to the Buddha's āvenikadharma in the first two lines ?
88
S4) 65)

āśv api. T. dul phran tsam, C. Jj

- P ^!w — * ^ ^ (even not a single dharma).

T. om. ' buddha ' of ' buddhāvenikatā, for which C. " ^ f$j #fl ^R 0 T ^ft Ifâ -SJ W> •
66

> Of the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas, see Mvyut. 17, AĀS 474 a-b, RDS 37 b-c. Also

cf. AA, AAĀ Chap. VIII, The Prajñāpāramitāśāstra Ç/^, ^ J§£ fpg) attributed to Nāgārjuna. Of those ir the Ratna., see V. S. Agrawala, The Thirty-two Marks of the BuddhaBody, Journal of the Oriental Institute, M. S. University of Baroda, vol. I, No. 1. Sept. 1951, Baroda, pp. 20-22.

[ 343 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(Kārikās 15-23) The feet are firmly placed, marked by circles on the soles, And with broad insteps and leveled heels which hide the ankles67> The fingers are long 6 8 ) , and those of hands and toes alike Are connected with each other by a web 6 9 ) . // 17// His skin is soft and fine like that of youths 7 0 ) , His body is round with 7 elevated parts 7 1 ) , His shanks are like those of the deer 7 2 ) , and The private parts are concealed as with an elephant 7 3 ) . // 18 // The upper part of the body is like that of a lion7 4 ) , The parts between the shoulders are closely set and elevated 7 5 ) ,
67)

supratisthita-cakrâñka-vyāyatotsañga-pādatā (1), which contains actually 4 marks f ^ J ^y* $ § (flat *

on feet, namely: 1) supratisthita-pādatā), T. legs-gnas (loñ), C. / £ ,

the feet); 2) cakrâñka-p., T. hkhor los mtshan-pa, C. -_&• Jç£ ^ " Jp^g !pj|j; 3) vyāyata-p., T. yañs- (cf. AAĀ, āyata-pārsnitā); & 4) utsañga-p., T. mi-mñon (' not evident', ' hidden '),

C. f r 3) & 4)îg 9)t K ± I t (but^^ftfftî o
4) AEÎ 1E?C t^î | f l ) . For ' utsañga ', AAĀ & Mvyut., ucchañka (or ucchañkha), which is an equivalent form of Pali * ussañkha' and which retains the original meaning of this peculiar mark. T. translation ' mi-mñon' matches better ' ucchañka ' than ' utsanga ' . The form ' utsañga ' is, therefore, probably a wrong Sanskritization of Pali ' ussañkha*. C. traditional interpretation of this mark also supports this sense of'hidden ankles'. ,i_īy -I-Ki k l i ^yfcfc fcś 68) dīrghâñgulikatā (2), T . sor-mo riñ, C. g^g" ^ Q ^gj $JPS j ^ . 69) jālapānipādâvanaddhatā (3), T. phyag-shabs riñ dra-ba-yis ni hbrel-pa, C. ^jfjg

/T||
70)

TX

iB
(4), T . pags-hjam gshon-śa-can legs-ñid, C. -f* / £ , J ^

tvañmrduśrltarunatā

ÎTTC W V (instead of ' tvak', C. h a s ' hasta-pāda '. I t agrees w i t h AAÂ & Mvyut.). T . gshon-śa-can (for taruna) h a s t h e meaning, ' one who h a s flesh of y o u t h '.
71)

7 utsadas
72) 73)

saptotsada-śarīratā ( 5 ) , T . sku ni bdun-dag mtho-ba, C. |flf /Çf\ — L | | m /ppj , a r e n a m e l y : 2 hastas, 2 padas, 2 skandhas & 1 grīua. eneya-jañghatā (6), T. byin-pa enaya-hdra, C. f^* nāgakośavad-vastiguhyatā (7), T . gsara glañ-po bshin-du /^ ^ ^ . ^ | ^ [j^]. nub, C. ^ ^ | . i t

sbubs-su

74)
75)

simhapūrvârdha-kāyatva

(8), T . ro-stod señ-ge hdra-ba,

C. _ C . —p ^ ( 0 pījl ~j •

nirantara-citâmśatā (9), T. thal-goñ bar-med rgyas-pa, C. ^ x /Ti h^r Ls| i n î •

Cf. AAĀ citântarâmśatā. T. thal-goñ (for amśa) means the part between shoulder and PFt BTÎC ~ T viffi T collar (goñ-pa, collar). C. often interprets it as indicating ' a r m - p i t ' (|WJ /J$£ p (pft , AĀS).

[ 344 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga And his shoulders are well heaped arid round 7 6 ) ; His arms are fleshy, tender and of no unevenness 7 7 ) , // 19 // And are hanging low [down to the knees] 7 8 ) . The body has a radiant, pure halo around i t 7 9 ) , His neck is immaculate like a white conch 8 0 ) , And his jaws have a resemblance with those of a lion 8 1 ) . // 20 // He has forty teeth all of which are equal 8 2 ) , And are clear and closely set8 3 ) , pure and straight 8 4 ) , And his eye-teeth are white and of excellent form 8 5 ) . // 21 // His tongue is broad and long 8 6 ) , [by which he tastes] The highest taste, infinite and unthinkable 8 7 ) ; The voice of the Self-Born is like that of the Kalaviñka 88), And has the most excellent sound 89) . // 22 //
76) 77

samvrtta-skandhatā (10), T. dpuñ-pa legs-zlum, C. (Wj ^ JJJJ ' vrttaślaksnânunnāma—bāhutā (11), T. phyag—hjam riñ zlum—shiñ mthon dman—med—

pa, C. f^ fyj _ l l |* /4'ifT • This is n o t m e n t i o n e d i n AAĀ. M v y u t . counts t h i s m a r k along w i t h t h e n e x t o n e saying * sthitânavanata-pralamba-bāhutā.
78)

79)

pralamba-bāhutā (12), T . phyag riñ C. j £ f|fc ^ ^ Jj^r . śuddhaprabhāmandala-gātratā (13), T . yoñs-su dag-pahi hod-kyi

dkyil-hkhor

dag

dañ Idan (om. gātra), C. Jtj- Jf? ^t B |M .
80

'

kambu-grivatvam

amalam (14), T. mgrin—pa dri—med duñ—hdra, C. J j | 3ÎI-I "XL

'g^

~H . This is lacking in AAĀ, Mvyut., as well as in RDS.
81

' mrgendra—hanutā

(15), T . hgram—pa ri—dags rgyal—po hdra, C. |îipl ^ J ^ ^ p i p ~ j . (16), T . tshems ni bshi-bcu mñam-pa, C. |_l ^ i f i y

82)

s o m ā catvārimśad-daśanatā

83)

svacchâvirala-dantatā

(17), T . rab-dañs

tshems

thags bzañ~ba,

C. p f c ^ i | * P 5

84

* viśuddhasama—dantatva

(18), T . rnam—dag

tshems

mñam—ñid,

C.

JL. P | ^ )

¥^.
85)

śukla-pravara-damstratā

(19), T . mche-ba rab-mchog

dkar-ba-ñid,

C.

. ^ J [Zj

]tgij P ^ .
86)

This is lacking in AAĀ & Mvyut.

M"tîā, & * * ± Ifc.
88

prabhūta-jihvatā (20), T. Ijags riñ, C. ^ffl 'p§[ J ^ ; ^ "Q" . 87) anantâcintya-rasarasâgratā (21), T . mthah-med bsam-med-pa ro bro-ba-yi mchogñid (T. seems to regard 'anantâcintya' as adjectives for the previous one), C. jy\ J^.

> kalaviñka-ruta (22), T. kalabiñka-yi sgra, C 3ijū ^ ^ "JJO S •A A A ' RDS om. it. 89) brahma-svaratā (23), T. tshañs-pahi dbyañs-ñid, C. ^ y Q pfC J5L 5

[ 345 ]

J. TAKASAKI

He, the highest of living beings 9 0 ) , is of beautiful eyes, like a bluelotus, with eyelashes like those of a bull9 1 ) , Of handsome face, endowed with the immaculate Urna-hair9 2 ) , Of a head adorned with the Usnīsa 9 3 ) , and of skin, Purified, subtle and of golden colour 9 4 ) ; // 23 // Hairs on the body grow separately from each other, Soft and subtle, turning upward and to the right9 5 ) , Hairs on his head are of pure blue colour like sapphires 9 6 ) , And his figure is fully circular like a Nyagrodha tree 9 7 ) . // 24 // He, the Great Sage, whose body is firm and possessed of The power of Nārāyana 98>, looks sublime and incomparable9 9 ) ;

90)

agrasattva,

which is a s y n o n y m of t h e B u d d h a a n d n o t o n e of t h e * m a r k s '

at all.
91)

nīlotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (24). This actually consists of two marks, na1) nilotpalalaśrî-netra, T. spyan-bzañs utpala, C. . (3 $fk ft\\ ^ 3 , . . . Sj] "f^

mely:

2) vrsa—paksma—netra, T. khyu—mchog rdsi—hdra[—spyan\, C. o$rp Bp^ Zf^ ~~p* _*T*. .
92

' sltâmalornodita—cāruvaktra

(25), T . shal—mdses

dri—med

mdsod

spu dkar—bar

93

94)

> usnīsa-śīrsa (26), T. gtsug-tor dbu-ldan, C. J j | _ C ^*§ twj MH. vyavadātasūksma-suvarnavarna-cchavih (27), T. dag-ciñ srab-pa dañ pags-pa

gser-gyi mdog-hdra, C. # fe ffi ^ %ñ . S tfc & fe &. & îfc ^ ^ f
AAĀ counts this one as two. 95 * ekaikaviślista—mrdu—ūrdhvadeha—pradaksinâvarta—sūksma—roma (28). T. ba—sphu legs phra, hjam shin, re-re-nas, sku-yi gyen-du g'yas phyogs hkhil-ba, C. C • -jlj — *

^ âî.^^tfc-tJU.ÎK^ffl^fiîl&
translation, i.e. 1) ekaikaviślista;
96

This is

2) ūrdhvadehâvarta; & 3) pradaksinā—āvarta.

originally o 3 m r s a f ak s

* mahendra—nīlâmala—ratnakeśa (29), T. dbu—skra dri—med rin—chen mthor mthiñ—

bshin, C. H ^
97

^ flf ^ , P|? #P H P t M • This is lacking in AAĀ.
(30), T. ñya—gro râsogs—pahi Ijon śin dkyil—

* nyagrodha—pūrnadruma—mandalâbha. ' nārāyanasthāma—drdhâtmabhāva

hkhor hdra, C. # J|Jjf ^g ^ ?#, JP ^ tSj ffi 3E .
98

(31), T. sred—med—bu—yi stobs mñah (sred—med—b.*

means Visnu), C. ^
got this mark.

f^ ^

§ £ [§I , | § jftj SP M J î • AAĀ & Mvyut. have not
(—ātmabhāva) (32), T . kun—tu bzañ—po dpe—med, C. ~ j ^ * - ^ *

" ' samantabhadrâpratima

' • ^ "J 5 ^ (which reads apratigha for apratima). It is doubtful whether this stands for one of the 32 marks or not. C. does not count it among the marks. T. is not clear. And no other text includes it among the 32 marks.

[ 346 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

These 32 features of infinite splendour are taught By the Preceptor as the marks 1 0 0 ) of the Lord of Men. // 25 // It is said that [the Buddha, with 32 marks] has a resemblance [to the moon and its reflection in the water 1 0 1 ) . (Kārikā 24) Just as, in autumn, the form 1 0 2 ) of the moon is perceived In the cloudless sky, as well as in a big pond, Reflecting this blue sky on its water-surface; Similarly, the disciples of the Buddha Can perceive the manifestations of the Omnipresent On the surface of the pond-like sphere of the Buddha. // 26 // Thus these 10 Powers of the Buddha, 4 kinds of Intrepidity, 18 Exclusive Properties of the Buddha, as well as the 32 Marks of the Superman, being united under one head, make up the number sixty-four. These 64 properties are to be understood, Along with their causes for attainment, One after the other, according to [the same] order, Through the investigation of the Ratna-sūtra103). //27// Now, of these 64 properties of the Buddha, which have been explained above, the detailed exposition is to be known , according to the same order as before, through the investigation of the Ratnadārikā—sūtra. Also, there have been made illustrations of four kinds about these [4] points, respectively, viz. examples of a thunderbolt, a lion, the space, and the moon reflected in the water. Of these examples, the summarized meaning will be given in the following 12 verses.

100)

cihna, T. mtshan, C. 7ft\ ( = laksana).

" 0 dakacandra, C. 7jC *P M , T. chu-zla.
102)

vibhūti,

T . gzugs

( = bimba, rūpa),

C. ^

~j\. C. p u t s t h i s K ā r i k ā before v . 3 7 .

103) _ Ratnadārikāsūtra, T. bu-mo rin-po-chehi mdo, C. jpf >C flEE • There are two translations of this sūtra in C. : samnipātasūtra), Taisho, XIII, pp. 28 6-40 b. This one is used here for reference with the abbreviation of RDS ;
2

I ^ i S t f i S S H

( hp Ill o t e Mahā C a. f h

) 9, ~iC f$\ fBÎ I S (Ratnadārikā-pariprcchā), Taisho, No. 399, vol. XIII,

pp. 452-472.

[ 347 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Being [respectively] impenetrable104', with no misery105', Perfectly unique 106) and indifferent107), [The Buddha's Properties] are illustrated By the examples of the thunderbolt, the lion, the space And of the clear moon with her reflection in the water. // 28 // Of the [10] Powers, six, three, and one, Taken respectively, remove all [the obscurations] On account of the knowable, the concentrations, And of defilements with their potential forces. // 29 // As if they were piercing an armour, Breaking a wall, and cutting down a tree, The Powers of the Sage are like a thunderbolt, Being heavy, solid, firm and unbreakable 108). // 30 // Why are they i heavy ' ? Because they are ' solid '; Why are they ' solid ' ? Because they are 4 firm '; Why are they i firm ' ? Because they are ' unbreakable '. And being 4 unbreakable % they are like a thunderbolt 109). // 31 // Being fearless, being indifferent, Being firm and accomplishing victory, The lion of Sages is like a [real] lion, Has no fear amidst the assembly of audiences110). // 32//

nirvedhikatva, T . mi-phyed-pa, thunderbolt can break everything).
105) nirdainya, translation). 106) 107)

104)

C. iMj J{RJ (breakable, in t h e sense t h a t t h e

T. mi-shan, T. mtshuñs-pa

C. 3ttÇ īiâî ^L* (without m e r c y , which is n o t a proper med, C. sy* 5 Ç |t!i (nib,' i n t h e sense of ' atyanta1).

niskaivalya,

avikalpa

nirlha, T . g'yo-med ( i m m o v a b l e ) , C. ^Sç ^u* (indifferent). a n d nirlhaka (cf. C h a p . I V , v. 19). T . brliñ ( D . gliñ is a m i s t a k e ) , C. j f î ; sāra, T . sñiñ,

T h e reflection is C. gyr ; drdha,

108) guru,

T. brtan, C. \S[ ; & abhedya, T. mi-byed, C. ~A* ^T $jS J H , respectively. 109) C. neglects t h e first 3 padas of v. 3 1 . 110) parsad-gana C. adds one m o r e verse before v . 32, indicating t h e āryasatya, which m a k e s t h e analogy quite clear. I t r u n s as follows:

4-fold

tamisfti® M f t ^ s

m.mm.»m nmmM^-

(The Buddha, having known the duhkha of sickness and its hetu, and having been devoid of duhkha-hetu, preaches the āryamārga, that is an excellent medicine, in order to cause the people to remove sickness and to realize the nirodha).

[ 348 ]

The pure manifestation of the Corporeal Body is twofold. ' ^ | E ' is p r o b a b l y for ' nirāstha '. T. * \J)J }fin± s^ ~U<C • 112 ' akutobhaya. ^ J ^ f S f\j ffe H ^ ^ fpf J ^ J^l ^ ^C ?RÇ ^ T (ātma-asama-darśanatah). laukika. And with the Buddha. he is unequal by nature even to the people of purity 1 1 3 '. C. f3? 4T. abides "independently' 111 ' from any fear 112) . the lustre. water. fire and wind. the Intellect is subtler with one after the [other. with the Śrāvakas. As with a gem. [But the Buddha] has a resemblance to space. 115) ekānta-cārin. // 38 // To those who are far from purity and near to it. T.The As He He As R at n a g ot r a v ib h ā g a he has got all the supernatural faculties. C. 113) ' Indifference' in the sense that he does not try to see whether he is superior or inferior. Since they are indivisible from it. 116 ' C. the 32 marks are The properties. 117 > ahlādaka. gañ—las kyañ hjigs—med. ^f|p | X .It denotes the Pratyekabuddha. o m . mam-par gnas. Because his characters surpass everything mundane and supermundane. tshim-byed. £J£ | f t S • [ 349 ] . T. C. visible and causing delight 117) in the body. // 36 // These 32 Properties mentioned above Represent the Body of the Absolute. C. And are based on the two Corporeal Bodies The Apparitional Body and the Body enjoying the Truth. i n ) svastha. For this line. mthah-gcig-su spyod. is 4 indifferent ' [about his superiority]. Because they sustain all the world. With those that act in solitude 115 '. // 35 // [The first four are] like the earth. And he is i of the highest victory ' Since he has transcended the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. // 37 // [On the other hand]. y\^ = pañca-mahâbhūta). colour and shape. 114) C. T. C. //33// He stands * firmly ' since his mind is always Concentrated on all the elements of existence. we have illustrations in five kinds 1 1 6 ) . with the Wise. Therefore. // 34 // With the worldlings114). takes ' -pañcadhā tu ' as if ' pañca-dhātu (Tl.

a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. and [the other] in the circle of the Buddha. TAKASAKI [One is] in the World. whose content is almost the same as v. C. // 39 // Finished is the third chapter entitled 'the Properties of the Buddha'.J. 39. Just as the moon shows her form in both the sky and the water 1 1 8 ) . the difference is only the use of the word * rūpakāya ' in place of * dharmakāya \ 118) [ 350 ] . adds one verse more after v. 37. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS.

C. gdul-byahi khams. C. "f^ jj§u ^ p Hvp (in accordance with proper place and time). They are said to be manifested in two modes.CHAPTER IV. 2) T . e. phrase. JINAKRIYĀ XVI. dvau. and its functions [In accordance with the capacity] of the converts. ^Pv • For nispādya. reads vineyakriyā for vinayakriyā. gśegs-pa (going). [Therefore] immediately there follow two 2 1 ślokas referring to the Buddha's Acts which are characterized as ' of no effort and interruption ' (anābhogâpraśrabdha). i. ^ \ . 4 the Acts of the Buddha '.. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA We have finished the explanation of the 4 Immaculate Properties of the Buddha '. ing to associate with RGV in its contents. it denotes the Mahāyāna. // 1 // 7) Having completely established the Vehicle . (Kārikās 1-2) The acts of the Lord are always effortless 4) With regard to the constitution of the converts . 3) 4) 6) 4) x) 3) but it has noth- vibhu. F o r the whole taddeśakāle gamane ca. C. o m . e. S j T U !^fC 3i • F o r ' gamana '. THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA I) 4. C. I 351 1 . 4 without effort' (anābhogatah). i. 6) Working in [proper] place and in [proper] time . T. T. /£fc J\. 7) Par excellence. 5) The means of conversion. and 4 uninterruptedly ' (apraśrabdhitah). Now we shall speak of the functions [associated with those Properties]. AĀS has a chapter of the same title (Tathāgatakriyā-parivarta). T . So. T. khyab-bdag. Iftf j $ j g vineyadhātu.

Therefore. // 3 // On account of the action of conversion 15) .(yena jñānena).. Because. 10) And having perceived that Buddhahood . * nirviśistam. like wind. T. ' yāvat. 9 * punya and jñāna are called the two sambhāras (accumulation that brings about the Enlightenment. and (constitution. (-^g in v. there is no rise of discrimination. ^ Instead of upāya. the ' place and time ' [of conversion] '. And 4 where and when '. • The Ocean is usually said to be the ' treasure of jewels '. T. by what means. [this act of conversion is] non-discriminative 8) ratna-svagarbha. $|î£ • It has a sense similar to ' gotra"1 (mine). C. 4 Who ' means 4 the constitution 1 6 ) to be converted % 4 By what means ' 1 7 ) denotes ' the manifold means [of conversion] '. 15) 16 > For dhātu. bhūrinā. p f q/£ J C fîii. which stands for ' yatra ' in the next verse. y^. $ § : 7|C _^. As the treasure 1 3 ) of the immaculate virtues. ^ ^ ī | j | . or 'garbha*. like space. 3) (jñāna) om. About these matters. C. how far 1 4 ) . 14 ) nidhi. C. // 2 // The summarized meaning of these two ślokas is to be known by the following two and eight verses. ^ ^ . vinīti-kriyā. khyad-med. 3âBl ' sarvasattva (sattva in a collective sense) = sattvadhātu. Blows away the net of the cloud-like [Obscurations] Caused by Defilements and Ignorance. C. gter.)* ^ n e compound should be separated after raśmi and before pravisrta. C. C. chu-mtsho (ocean). C. T. Exists everywhere U) in all living beings 12) .J. misreads this passage and connects it with the next ' buddhatva '. T. C.. faculty). and when. The Buddhas' Compassion. C. 10) 11 12 1S For buddhatva. To whom. gdul-byahi bya. Pervading extensively and of neither limit nor middle. respectively. the Buddha's Act of conversion Is [working] always ' without effort '. f b & f^ I^t ^ ^E • . 17) [ 352 ] . TAKASAKI The ocean 8 ) of knowledge filled with the multitudes of the excellent virtues. And endowed with the rays of the sun of Merits and Knowledge 9>.

T. rton—pa. C. the pronoun ' tad ' in each case. T. 23) 24 agrayāna. C. 21 * sambhrti—dvaya. $qf *\\ ($$ in v. read ' bhūmayah ' (T. and the latter. viz.]/grah) the ' bodhi '. Here the living beings are called ' bodhisattva ' in the sense of those who accept (pari.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga With regard to Deliverance 18) and its support 1 9 ) . And to the obscurations [which cover] this receptacle and the condition by which these obscurations are removed. & C. The former includes those pāramitās of ' dāna. yoñs-hdsin. ñes-hbyin. T. parigraha. // 7 // These six points are to be known. Jfi (satya). The Enlightenment has a resemblance to space. niryāna. 4 Its cause ' means the 2-fold Accumulation 21) . p 4 jJā. byañ-chub-sems-can yoñs-su hdsin. Like the ocean and like the sun. that which causes ' niryāna '). -ppf pj !j/E H3^ /»3 \§i* Jāī8 f° r sattva). As keeping alive all living beings. C. fffj Jffli). vīrya & dhyāna '. denotes the preceding one. C. J=J -^3 ' samyaksambuddha-dharmatvāt. Hereafter. Like clouds and like the wind. C. The twofold Accumulation is like the sun. C. £|& J F $ (to enter the path. // 5 // [Here] 4 Deliverance ' means the 10-fold Stage [of Bodhisattvas]. 4 The result of this Accumulation' is the Highest Enlightenment. yañ-dag-rdsogs-sañs-chos-ñid-phyir. 24) Being of the nature of the Perfect Enlightened One . // 9 // Being extensive and of neither end nor middle. ślla.)' yāna ' in the Kārikā. T. sa-rnams. [ 353 ] . // 6 // The phrase 4 The obscurations which cover this receptacle ' means The innumerable Defilements. T. But T. 4 [Its] receptacle ' means the living beings Who accept the Enlightenment 22) . // 8 // Being [the treasure] of the water of knowledge And of the jewel of virtuous properties. 19 18) I* stands for ' upastambha (in the sense. ksānti. respectively. fff 22) 20) bodheh sattvah parigrahah. C. The highest Vehicle 2 3 ) is like the ocean. To the result of [partaking of] this support and the receptacle 2 0 ) which accepts this result. Sub-defilements and Impressions. 6) ' parigraha' is here used in the sense of ' nidhi ' (that which contains something). that of iprajñā\ For sambhrti. Like space and like a treasure. The phrase 4 The condition by which the obscurations are removed And which works for all time ' means Compassion. punya—sambhāra & jñāna—s.

C. // 11 // Performing Deliverance for the sake of others. Compassion is like a strong wind. And. pervasive. the Avatamsakasūtra.J. Considering the living beings as one's own self29). an adverb to anispatti (unreal everywhere). For vyāpi. bringing about 2 8 ) the dispelling of these. And having works of no termination. T. ' u)} . jr*-j . // 12 // 25) a8) sattvadhātu. 10. [The Buddha] Acts ' uninterruptedly ' as long as the world exists. C. ^ adding the following phrases before them: ' J § %$ $ £ T 354 ] . and regards it anispatti. // 10 // Being accidental. and unreal 2 7 ) . ñer-gnas. C. J i (treasure under the ground). (note VI-28) C. 28) 27) 29) pratyupasthāna. Cf. Their defilements are like a multitude of clouds. C. ma-grub. nidhāna. TAKASAKI The living beings 2 5 ) are akin to a treasure 2 6 ) . T . puts these two phrases after v. jaR 3 C . T . gter.

' y\. y\. jrjj 5) arka (sūrya). says 3) C. [lhahi] rña. without discriminination. Being such. 9) prthivī. T. & C. for mahākriyā). 6) maniratna (cintāmani). C. sgra-brñan C. 4) names of t h e 9 similes i n S. how is it possible that from such an immutable Buddhahood. T. Jm. C. Buddha's Magnanimity. and as long as the world exists ? [To answer this question]. without effort. rgya-byin. 7) pratiśruti (pratiśrutka-śabda). clouds.. ^Tv ^ f ! I ' (mahāyāna-kriyā). C. [^C 3) megha.— is the Buddha [in his acts] 4 ) . ^ff 4^P î 2) [deva] dundubhi. 8) ākāśa. §iE. y C ~=P* ( p r o b . nam-mkhah C. ñi—ma. the wish-fulfilling gem. T. -^jj . T. T. the Acts of Buddha manifest in this world. T. 9 ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BUDDHA'S ACTS § 1. like the divine drum. C. [ 355 ] . sprin. ?*g-. we have one śloka with regard to this magnanimous character of the Buddha. T. rab—tu phye—ba. nor-bu rin-chen. T . T. sa. like an echo. T. C. £ p .XVII. in order to produce the faith in the sphere of the Buddha on the part of those people who have misconception and doubt about the Buddha's nature of magnanimity 3) . characterized as of no manifestation 2) . C. X ¥] tyj? â £ . without interruption. ~~Z~~ liJ^f St~~*~ V V s ^ prabhāvita. C. It was said that Buddhahood is characterized 1} as having neither origination nor extinction. and like the sun. tshañs-pa [chen-po]. are as follows: 1) śakra. 4) [mahā] brahman. C. like Brahma. /EL. F o r māhātmya. 2) apravrtti-laksana. SY* "^ <fX ^ P l • I n t h e Kārikā t e x t . Like Like Like Like Such 1 (Kārikā 3) Indra. space and like the earth. C. |Z|. ftj.. // 13 // T .

J. 528 s. Kārikā text. 2. T. Kārikā number starts with No. khañ—bzañs. 1X 10) [ 356 ] . the arrangement of Kārikās varies much between C. (One whose residence is in heaven). T. C. 5 // 14 // * sūtrasthānīya [ślokd]. in the following passages. 4). II—2) Mention will be done in each case about omission and addition in C . (T. lha-dbañ (devSndra). there were seen on it The chief of the gods. lhahi bu—mo. Text reading i-pratibhāsatvād iti ' is to be corrected into ' -pratibhāsavad iti '. vv. ñed kyañ riñ-por mi-thogs-par (riñ-por mi-thogs-par — after a little while. Some Kārikās in each simile are missing in C. Consequently. yañ-dag-blañs te. T . p. at an early date12) . * vibhūti. we have three verses in C. mam—man. of this śloka which represents the topics in the Scripture 5 ) a detailed exposition will be given topic by topic in the remaining part of the text according to the same order. (see my Introduction. C. As well as his great place 9 ) called Vaijayanta. owing to its clarity. lha-gnas. in order to obtain 1 4 ) that state. IV. Hereafter. Other gods 10) and their various dwellings Along with their divine glories U ) . Would perceive this vision And make the following prayer : // 16 // 44 May we too. T . agrees with S. Become like that chieftain of the gods ! " 1 3 ) And. T. om. T. & S. 13) tridaśâśvara. (I) It is said that [the Buddha has] a resemblance to the form of Indra6 ) . JĀA 240 b-c. 8 ' For apsaras. & 13 in S. (Kārikās 4-20) 7) Suppose here were a surface Made of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone. J E ^ ^& rfflL $13 *vv ī|=§î (Ivy) (sūtrârthasamgraha-śloka).). T. For Vaijayanta. And. Jāschke's Dictionary. T . mdohi gnas Ita—buhi [tshigs-su—bcad—pā]. 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. 7) *' prāsāda. divaukas. 14-26. has more than three verses which are not available in S. 12) T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' vayam apy acirād ' i n s t e a d of ' adyaiva na cirād ' i n S. (Prior to this passage. rnam—par—rgyal-ba. in a short time. 1.). the multitudes of men and women Abiding on this surface of the earth. C. and the verse number in C. // 15 // Suppose then. T. TAKASAKI § 2. with the multitude of Apsaras 8) . Kārikā text which are equivalent to vv. while C. 14) samādāya. v. 6 > Cf. Now. in Chap.

T . Being associated with a great benefit. Nevertheless. reads as loc). Being associated with a great benefit. Of no thought-construction and no activity 1 6 ) . Abiding in concentration of mind and showing The various miracles 2 0 ) . %~J / Q i ^ HjK). in S. // 18 // After all. having brought the factors to development They do attain the desired state 21K // 23 // After all. And. it would appear on the earth. īpsitam padam. spyod- prātihārya. T. // 20 // Who is endowed with the visible features and marks 1 8 ) . Would perceive in their own minds the vision of the Buddha. //21// Preaching the Doctrine of Quiescence. C.. 17) F o r bhāvita.. (svacittadrśyamātra. l6 16) bshugs-pa 20) & gzims-pa (Cf. Undertake the attainment of the Buddhahood. T . They. T. n a m e l y ' bodhi '. hchag-pa. the living beings. it is an illusion. C. sa-steñ (for abl..). T . And were endowed with 1 7 ) virtues. 22) T h i s is a n expression of t h e ' cittamātra ' t h e o r y . Would pass away from the earth 1 5 ) and be borne to heaven. ' laksana-vyañjana ' signifies 32 mahāpurusalakranas a n d t h e 80 anuvyañjanas. nisanna & śayanasthita. being silent. Of no thought-construction and no activity. owing to their virtuous conduct. hdod-pahi go-hphañ. // 17 // Though having no notice that this is merely a vision.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga They would abide adopting the virtues. // 19 // In the same way. dpe-byad. If they were pure in their faith and so forth. T . 18) vyañjana. bsheñs-pa. 19) cañkramyamāna. sitting and sleeping 19) . T h e r e a r e said t o b e 3 prātihāryas. 21) lam. tisthat. faith and the like. g'yo—ba—med. Nevertheless. W e h a v e a similar expression in Lank. // 24 // Ordinary people do not notice That this is merely a reflection of their own mind2 2 ) . T . it appears in the world. Still this manifestation of the Buddha's features bhū. sgam-pa (bhāvanā). Who acts in manifold actual behavior like Walking. cho-hphrul. and who has the great glory. // 22 // Having seen him. the people who are filled with desire. it is an illusion. T . ' nirîhaka. These are called ' Iryāpatho ' ( T . See below. I ? fjt)- [ 357 ] . standing.

K 6. T . T. with the eyes of transcendental wisdom. //26// Suppose. and seems to om. puts this verse after f jc | v. 23 ' avandhya (not barren). muni-pati (= buddha). T . -ñes-par. smon-pahi sems. T. Have gradually established themselves in this method 2 4 ) . marutā). Whose mind intends to perform charity and the rest. T. C. jl^g. T . T. the earth. Through observing rules regarding fast and conduct 3 2 ) . ||f£ "JTIJ 31 29) —r * > 32 ) C . there would appear on its [surface] The palace of Indra 2 9 ) occupied by gods around him 3 0 ) as a vision. with minds full of delight. One Avagraha should* be inserted between sthānā and antar-. Would scatter flowers with minds full of sublime desire 33) . 28) antar amalā. owing to its purity. 33) 34) pranihita-manas. T. %ift. Perceive. for obtaining the shadow of the Lord of Sages 3 4 ) On their mind which is radiant like the Vaidūrya stone. denotes ' mahāyāna '. would be as clear and white As the Vaidūrya stone. C. 26) madhyastha. [because of its] being possessed of The immaculate qualities of jewel and of pure even surface. But. theg-pa (yāna). nañ-gi. C. 30. 25) saddharmakāya. It F o r naya. as this earth would gradually lose its qualities. 25) 26 The Body of the Highest Truth within themselves >. The sons of the Buddha. kun dman-pahi gnas gshan dan bral (includ- ing antar by reading antara as • other '). having seen this vision. // 25 // Indeed. ' upavāsa-vrata-niyamatayā. the multitudes of men and women. lha-dag gnas-tshogs lha-dbañ lha-hi gzugs-śar te (which reads bhavana in pi. //27// For obtaining that state. For this passage. And. C. y C -F*. TAKASAKI Is useful for 23) fulfilling their aim. having become completely free from unevenness 2 7 ) 28) And having become pure from within . y\[ -f* . [ 358 ] . thub-dbañ. 27) 24) There is n o t so m u c h difference i n i t s sense. (sthānā'ntaramalā). Similarly. don-yod [hgyur] (sārtha). {cf j-pfj |* .J . C. surapati. bsñen-gnas (upavāsa). The vision [thereof] would subsequently disappear 31 '. brtul-shugs (vrata). samanta-vyapagatavisamasthāna. not clear (lha-dag is a mistake for lha-bdag? 30 ' māhendramarutā. those who. T .

' dharma-'. And.'. adds 4 verses here with t h e heading: ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata i t i ' . C. (Kārikās 21-25) Just as. 3 s6) anāvilata & āvilata. 37 > C. There appears the reflection of the body of the Highest Sage 3 7 ) . the Buddha who is all-pervading And free from effort and the rest. So one should not see it as either real or unreal. T . C. of which 3 are equivalent t o vv. tffj j g j /i~T«> C. and probably means ' manomayakāya '. this a n d t h e following t w o similes. namely : ( I I ) devadundubhi. K 5. There appears the reflection of the body of the highest god. etc. instead of ' deva. // 32 // Similarly. C. 31-33). T. T. 89-91. on the pure surface of the mind in the world. in the heaven of the gods. 43) C. C.] 3 6 ) // 28 // Just as. 41 > T . Similarly. // 31 // Alarms all the inattentive gods again and again. By producing the sounds of i evanescence '. 40 > Cf. From a particular place. of 4 suffering \ Of ' impersonality ' and of ' quiescence '. //29// The appearance and disappearance of this reflection Occur due to the condition of one's own mind. 34. ¥. 42) mano-rūpa. 39) 38) [ 359 ] .The Produce various R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga pictures 3 5 ) [showing the Buddha's life. The divine 4 1 ) drum. K 4 . J Ā A 241 a ( I n t h e oldest version of J Ā A . Owing to the previous. // 30 // 39) (II) It is said that [the word of the Buddha] has a resemblance with the celestial drum 4 0 ) .|0 . reads cittāni for citrāni. [respectively]. Whether it be pure or impure 3 8 ) . • / 1"* 4J&1. yid-gzugs. as the feature [of Indra or of the Buddha] Is seen only as a vision in this world. This seems to correspond to ' śarlra ' in v. virtuous experiences. rñog-med & rñog-pa. ( I I I ) megha & (IV) brahmā are lacking). om. from forms of mind 4 2 ) . Teaches the Doctrine by his voice dtra. being apart from efforts. in this world. this and the following 2 verses (vv. Ajid from thought-constructions 4 3 ) . K 7. on the pure surface of the Vaidūrya stone.

place. kleśa-duhkha-pramathana-śamana = kleśapramathana & duhkha—śamana. being devoid of Effort. in the heaven of the gods. Which is due to various practices like contemplations. the Doctrine. jSī[ M * E • > pranudana. simply /£^ (for ^Sç T / 7£S)C. uses g'yul for samgrāma. gzugs-med. as well as for bala. > ŚSnti. Now. C. skal-ldan. which corresponds to ' vikalpa ' in v. T. 102. the following prose section along with vv. 41. Brings forth quiescence. 50) Mesa. T. C. why has the sound of the drum of Doctrine alone been referred to and not the cymbals 44) 46) 46) 47 57) and the other kinds of celestial instru- bhavya. . // 33 // Just as. 56) C. the sound Of the divine drum arises due to their own deeds. Which is caused by the sound of drum And gives fearlessness [among the gods]. And just as the [celestial] sound. sil-sñon. C. C. C.J. in this world. K 13. in this world. and starts again with v.12) is no doubt an interpolation of later days. 36-40. p. form and thought-construction4 6 ) . 3rC _ £fcE|3?p£ H i • citta. TAKASAKI Towards the worthy 4 4 ) without exception. devoid of those four 4 7 ) . seî-ba. T . T. From the structural viewpoint. svakarma-udbhava. $ 5 . Similarly. * N a m e l y : yatna—sthāna—śarira—citta. arises [in fact] Owing to the [previous] own deeds of the people4 5 ) .20-104. C. in preaching the Highest Path. in the city of gods. Brings forth Nirvana 4 8 '. this Doctrine. Though it is preached by the Buddha. Concentrations in the Immaterial Sphere54) and the rest. 56) 54) [ 360 ] . K 12. o m . 31. Similarly. There is destruction 5 1 ) of the victorious play of the Asuras' army52). % 61 52) 83) T. [Buddha's] speech destroys 53) the defilements And pacifies the sufferings in the living beings. T. Similarly. $5^. 67) tūrya. ārūpya[-samāpatti]. om. pramathana. 48 49 > C . this passage (S. rab-hjoms. // 35 // 5 5 ) (On the superiority of the drum over the other musical instruments) 5 6 ) . // 34//49> At the time of the trouble 5 0 ) of battle.

T. and 4) unconduciveness to Deliverance (anairyānikatva). and owing to its enjoining [them] to take heed. which are these [four] ? They are. . we will answer: They are not referred to] because they have four points of dissimilarity to the Buddha's voice. But reference is actually made only to dharmadundubhi and not over devadundubhi. ñe-bar htshe-bahi phoñs-pa.v. pha-rol-gyi tshogs (paragana). dus-la mi-hdah-bas. phan—pa ma—yin—pa—ñid. ghatita. vaśād ghattitā eva \ T. criticism can be made on this passage to decide that it is a later insertion and not perfectly consistent with the original part. it is said to be ' blissful'. [On the other hand] the drum of Doctrine summons the multitudes of inattentive 6 0 ) gods without exception and sounds at the right time 6 1 ) . but not with tūrya. adds sthāna after apramatta. ghattitā ' in BHS has the same meaning as Skt. First of all. 3) unpleasantness (asukhatva) 5 9 ) . Even [ 361 ] . there is some confusion between illustration and illustrated subject. For ' . 2) lack of benefit (ahitatva). ' produced' ' effected by ' or ' made '. an analogy was given between devadundubhi and dharmadundubhi. though. bde—ba ma—yin-pa—ñid & ñes-par hbyin-pa ma-yin-pa-ñid. i suffering '. Here. ñi—tshe-ba—ñid. v. SB) Throughout the passage. For this reason it is explained as being 4 not partial'. 62) paracakra. owing to its delivering the sounds of ' evanescence '. s. if logically speaking. In short. dam-pa ma-yin-pahi hdod. Then. 1) partiality (prādeśikatva). 88 ' The reading aghattitā should be corrected into ghattitā. In regard to distinguishing the circle of the Buddha's voice. [And lastly]. the circle of the Buddha's voice is qualified as being similar to the drum of Doctrine through these four points 6 5 ) . See below).e. Furthermore. 64) upadrava & upāyāsa. . 60 * T. . [To this.) 69 * For these 4. b u t T . Owing to its protecting [gods] from the fear of calamity caused by the invasion 6 2 ) of Asuras and others. That is to say. we should expect the comparison between devadundubhi and divyā-tūrya. 4 non-substantiality ' and ' impersonality '. the comparison is made between dundubhi and tūrya showing the former's superiority to the latter. 61) kāla-anatikramanatā (lit. of which the latter is identical with Buddha's voice. in the following passage. (BHS Die. the drum is explained as being 4 conducive to deliverance '. namely. we have one verse. T . respectively. T .The Ratnagotravibhāga ment ? These are likewise produced 5 8 ) owing to the previous virtuous deeds made by the gods and make sound agreeable to the ear of deities. . 83 ' asatkāma. T . Buddha's voice is said to be compared with dundubhi alone. n o t crossing time). i. its 'beneficiality' is mentioned. and to its pacifying all misfortune and perturbation 6 4 ) . . dbañ-gis mod kho-nar (because of their being from the power) '. 37 refers to devadundubhi as being inferior to Buddha's voice (the reading tūrya is quite a comtradiction and is to be corrected. From this point. Owing to its distinguishing bliss from the pleasure caused by evil enjoyment 63) and to its bringing forth pleasant bliss in taking delight in the Doctrine.

// 36 // 66) . E x p l a n a t i o n is given in detail after v . reads krpātman. ' tu ' is not essential for giving contrast between Buddha's voice and that of devadundubhi. J Z ^ ]$$ H § or J Z l 7 J ^ * H ) . which is t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o dharmadundubhi. Now. // 37 // In heaven. of these four points. however. because. i n v. reads ' sambuddhabhūmer upayātV and T. On t h e contrary.. T. In this world. there is no reason for using tūrya to illustrate the Buddha's voice. 66) [ 362 ] . are doubtful of i t s originality. B reading by making a slight change from bhūmer to bherer (bheri = dundubhi). bringing benefit and bliss. B. ) . // 38 // The sounds of cymbals in heaven. 68) T . prātihārya-traya.). and in the absence of Ms. and rather -it is quite a contradiction. is n o t likely t o be a c c e p t e d . the divine cymbals of a million kinds Sound only in order to kindle the flame of desire. i. From this point. the sound of the drum 6 7 ) of Buddha Reaches even those in the lowest sphere of Samsāra. we may accept Ms. TAKASAKI Being universal. There should be a term synonymous with dundubhi. a r r a n g e m e n t as t h e original. which are lacking i n C. Here. 40.e. T. cho-hphrul gsum (Cf. . the role of devadundubhi is said t o be t h a t of m a k i n g t h e sound of 4 mudrās. etc. T . // 39 // verses 31-33..J. gtoñ-bsam-pa (the t h o u g h t of sending. 35 clearly shows us t h e role of devadundubhi as being t h a t of encouraging gods t o t a k e p a r t o n t h e battle-field against asura. gives a word for dundubhi (rña). hetu. And being endowed with the threefold miraculous power The voice of the Buddha is superior To [the sound of] the celestial cymbals. i n J Ā A . . T h e cause of suffering m e a n s ' kleśa '. Are the causes for increasing the elation of mind. o m . I a m inclined t o t r u s t C. a n d this illustration is also given i n t h e basic t e x t . But one voice of those full of Compassion Sounds in order to extinguish the cause 6 8 ) of the fire of suffering. 69) Instead of mahātman. The voice of the great 6 9 ) Buddhas. From the context. though they be pure and pleasant. 70) arpanabhāva (the s t a t e of fixing u p o n . v.. 32. A. though be great. Cannot reach the ears of those abiding on the earth. anitya. 67) T h e reading ' sambuddhatūryasya tu ' given b y J . Ms. C. Speaks of the concentration 7 0 ) of mind in meditation. however. a brief explanation will be given in the following four verses. The sounds of drums in heaven. As far as this illustration of ( I I ) devadundubhi is concerned.

78 * cetah—paryāya. cho—hphrul ( = prātihārya). j | ^ . rdsu-hphrul-gyi cho-hphrul. lam. The illumination of the thicket 7 6 ) of mental conduct of living beings. T . rab-tu brten-par (prañtya). f £ pratipad. & rjes-su (C. 77) tat-paryāpanna (tad d e n o t e s cetas). T. ^ bstan-pa. C. M v y u t . as well as In all the other numberless worlds 7 1 ) . . avavāda T . starts again with this heading (atat—prahitānām ātmâparādhe). (C. (C.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga In short. this is called the ' manifestation of miracle through mind-reading ' (ādeśānā-prātihārya) 7 9 ) . hdoms-pa cho-hphrul. T. sems—kyi rnam—grañs. 76) 79) 80) B1) 82) 75 T. Is the voice 72) [of the Buddha] which manifests Pervadingly in the world leaving no residue. ma-gtogs-pa ( = na prajñāyate). rtogs-pa. ' C. as involved in the mind 7 7 ) . 74 * vikurvita. ) . 83 84 » aparādha. This is called 4 the manifestation of miracle through instruction ' {anuśāstiprātihārya) 82) Thus the circle of Buddha's voice is. ) . In order to explain this point. with reference to the Path 8 0 ) leading to Deliverance. but T.). T. ñes-pa. 73) For āgamya. by knowing the variety of spiritual elements 7 8 ) . 71) anantāsu lokadhātusu (f. > T . And in respect to those 7 3 ) points. kun-brjod-pahi cho-hphrul. rjes-su | | j j ( 7 J N *|§L. unimpeded and acts without interruption. it is indicated that the all-pervadingness [of the Buddha] through the manifestation 7 4 ) of body in all the worlds of the ten directions shows [his] 4 manifestation of miracles by the supernatural power ' (rddhiprātihārya) 75)'. thus it is illustrated. on earth.). And. like space. M v y u t . T . with reference to the self-fault of those who are not attentive. but still this voice cannot be caught everywhere or in its full extent. For a[tat]pra- hita. T . dbyañs-ñid. there is one śloka8 4 ) . reads divi and ksitau as a genitive and makes them relate to sukhakārana. that which is the cause of bliss. C. ^ ^ jffJî. however. bstan-pahi T . [the Buddha] preaches and instructs 8 1 ) that Path [to the others] by the example of the utterance of his voice. F o r paryāpanna. not at all the fault 8 3 ) of the circle of the Buddha's voice. T. This is. C* 7J> ^ Mvyut. zab-mo (gambhīra). In heaven. T. // 40 // Now. Jjî^ | § § T J N > J J . pi. gahana. T . 72) praghosa. [ 363 ] . & anuśāsana.

becomes audible Only to one whose mind is free from defilements. 90) . K 14. . T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' . J Â A 241 b-c. reads something like ' pravrtka' (jrtl). i n s t e a d of ' āyāntj. om. . ' i n t h e t e x t . Is it a mistake for ' can' (having) ? C. // 41 // 8 7 ) (III) It is said that [the mind of the Buddha in its activity] is like a cloud 8 8 ) . r e a d s " sasyahetu ' a n d r e g a r d s i t as a n adjective t o saddharmasalila. āyāti nikhilam '. Not all sounds become audible 8 5 ) . karma-. 86) 85) avabhrtka. 91) kuśala-karma-patha T. . (Kārikās 27-30) Just as. C. has instead ' chen ' (mahā). 92) C. 88) Cf. upon the earth where The people behave in the path of virtuous actions9 1 ) . . T . in the rainy season.J. without any effort. the cloud that is the Buddha Pours the rain of the Highest Doctrine As the virtues are increased in the world 92) Owing to the wind of Compassion. T. con- 93) [ 364 ] . The clouds discharge. 89) sasya. The Doctrine. T . 87 > C. C. the Buddha Discharges the rain of the Highest Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion. Similarly. (interchanging the order with the next one). being the object of the most 8 6 ) subtle Wisdom. 43). 42. // 42 // In a similar manner. . TAKASAKI (Kārikā 26) Just as a deaf person cannot hear a subtle voice. lo-tog.sasyesu (loc. this a n d t h e n e x t verse (vv. r e a d s parama as a n indeclinable (mchog-tu). The multitudes of water on the earth. Or even to a man of divine ears. of subtle character. K 16. //43// Just as the clouds discharge the rain. has no equivalent word and. Causing abundance of harvest 8 9 ) . For 9 0 ) [bringing] the crops of virtue among the living beings.) i n t h e sense of ' i n order t o bring h a r v e s t '. Agitated by the wind. o m . with no searching thought. . // 44 // 93) Bearing Wisdom and Compassion. Similarly. T .

97 * vimātratā. 103) [ 365 ] . [ ^ > C. neither perishable nor imperishable 9 4 ) . for prasanna. Itos-pa med-par hjug-pa C. -fcfe. The cloud-like chieftain of sages Causes the pure crops in various worlds. jj=j . ^ ç yjg Jç'J 'u*. owing to the variety of conditions of individuals 1 0 0 ) . (Kārikā 31) Cool.The Ratnagotravibhāga Abiding in the celestial sphere Without affecting anything. C. the womb abundant with Compassion. *frf. T. o m . Becomes of tastes of much variety. rgyud. K 1 7 . clear. t h e taste of rain changes '. T . And being the womb of the pure water Of meditation and mystical formulas 9 5 ) . etc. nects ' bhavesu ' (in various worlds) with ' samvit' line as follows: 7»H ^rl r 94 (wisdom. T . C. says ' / V Sjj f^ 7JC' (water endowed with 8 qualities). T. (Kārikās 32-34) Those who have faith 1 0 3 ) in the Highest Vehicle. 98) Of these 5. But C. T . 102) nirapeksa-pravrtti. sweet. ' depending on bhājanaloka. A . 95) dhāranī. produces the Compassion). ' C.. T . // 45 //9 6 ) With reference to the unequality of receptacles in measure9 7 ) . Similar is the rain of the 8-fold Holy Path 9 9 ) . Those of intermediate nature. But having touched on earth the places filled with salt. ^ ] 100 101 *[j* j | | . But. C. abhiprasanna. and light 9 8 ) Is the rain descending from the cloud. "> āryâstâñga. which seems to be merely an ' alankāra ' in comparison with the 8-fold Holy Path. T. sna—tshogs—ñid (vicitratā). K 1 5 . Descending from the cloud. ksarâksarâsañga—. and those who resist the Doctrine. C. gzuñs. soft. mkhan) and reads this IUJ> ' u * (Having known the ' existence '. I I S • > santāna. »6> C. dan = dvañ-ba. It assumes many kinds of taste in the living beings. C. // 46 // 101) On the impartial attitude1 0 2 ) . dañ-ba ( b e i n g p u r e ) .

C. (gamika). [ 366 ] . K 18. T. \X J\. C. C. mkhah mi—rgu—bahi bya. hail and lightning 1 1 0 ) . The non-arising and the arising of the water of Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion [cause suffering in each turn]. methods and rules.£ * # J£ ? £ lit ?B Jl âft £ 5E>. This is the point of similarity. 112) fne reading should be ' kleśagatâtmadrsty-anuśayān ' instead of ' kleśagatān drsty-anuśayān ' (one syllable short). The cloud does not care about the subtle living beings. khagā (= cātaka). C. i^xsx *fifj ' < IE £ at * £ W « ^ . K 20. subtle or gross. In the rainy season. peacocks 1 0 4 ) and ghosts 1 0 5 ) . Whether [in the burst of] egoistic view or in a dormant state 1 1 2 ) . T. Nor about those who are on a trip in the mountains U 1 ) . Both T. yi-dags. gives a free rendering for this passage. respectively. C. is not correct. R 107) vyomny—aprâcārāh. because of much rainfall. T. 105 108> > preta. t * . Those desirous of the Doctrine 1 0 8 ) and those hostile to it. rma—bya. C. C. 48. [Discharging them] with various means. Does not mind anywhere those who are of Defilements. being of no cloud. reads ' kleśagata-anuśaya ( Q 113 U1) ^p^) and ātmadrsti. explaining the 3 groups of sattvas T. ri-yul soñ-ba^ C. And have similarity with men. In the case of the living beings in the world. * 110) aśani & vajrâgni. J g fj^ :ggî . bdag-lta. î S f ^ I f ^ 3 & śaila-deśa-gamika. The ghosts in the ground experience sufferings. Men and those birds who cannot fly in the sky 1 0 7 ) Experience sufferings [from lack of rain]. Similarly. // 49 //113> 104 ' cātaka. 109 » C . C.J. T. > C. T. rdo-than & rdo-rjehi me. however. jt^jivj ^** >"t/ • (The peacock is said to be delighted when he sees clouds). adds one verse before v.y_i_» pel 108) j r o r dharma-ākāñksin. %& <j$& j | ) . the one who holds the waters of Wisdom and Compassion. ^>£ * P J^l • But the genitive case for ātmadrsti in T. shows the opposit sense. // 47 //106> Towards the end of the summer. C. & C. TAKASAKI These are the three kinds of living beings. agree with this reading of ' ātmadrstV'. // 48 // 109) Discharging the gross drop of rain. K 21. C.

removed. It is because of their Transcendental Intellect. C. C. Extinction and the Path. // 52 //124). 124 > C. |EJ ffi*. touched 123) and observed. 1 R . o r 122) F 123) sparśitavya. (nisevya alike). Because of their following the faith in the Buddha's words. > C. swords. K 2 2 . dbañ-phyug mchog. And [consequently]. T. But. Are to be cognized.— Its suffering is constant and as if produced from The contact with fire. |*f . T. T . // 50 //116> Having known that the transmigration [from heaven] 1 1 7 ) Is the suffering among gods. C. to pacify it. C. C. reg-par-bya (D's rig-par-bya is to be corrected). cyuti-duhkha. 52). hgro-ba. » C. The searching for the objects of desire 118) is the suffering. sevya > F o r prāpya. its Cause. salt and so forth. K 23 (placing after v. 5+c. C. this is its cause. Suffering. * j | ^ < 1 § (īfc One of the 8 duhkhas. for the human beings. 114) samsrti (course of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ) . /§lil • The term is here used in the sense of ' to be experienced '. and. T. T. K 22. Like that. 119) 120 121 aiśvaryam uttaram. there is no happiness. tfAe 117) 118 > paryesti-duhkha. jg£ ( t o b e p r a c t i s e d ) . O n ' anavarâgra \ 115) 116 srjan (V srj). see Note VIII-242. T. Just as excretion has no good smell at all. And in these five Paths. C. Health should be attained 1 2 1 '. Cf. ice. Mvyut. because of their realizing analytically. in whose course 1 1 4 ) there are five Paths. rab-tu hbebs (pravarsate). }fj|^ Jpq-y. C. ^Es nf.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga On [the function of] calming the fire of Suffering. " This is suffering. //51//"») Illness is to be cognized. The Wise men never seek for the best glory u 9 ) among gods and men. yoñs-tshol-sdug-bsñal. (Kārikās 35-37) The [succession] of birth and death in beginningless time Is the Samsāra. duhkha). 112. the cloud of Compassion Lets fall 115) the great rain of the Highest Doctrine. and a remedy used 122) . ^ fl| ^ ) . hchi-hpho (om. [ 367 ] . its cause removed. and this is its extinction " .

mthu. though not moving from the Absolute Body. His manifestation. 56 & v . T . the Mahayānists.(IV) It is said that [the Buddha's apparitional form] is like the great Brahma 1 2 5 ) . And causes them to remove all the stains 1 3 0 ) forever. Is seen by gods and causes them to remove the desire of objects 1 2 9 ) . T. inserts ' śilpasthāna—kauśala ' before rati—hrlda. In the world of gods everywhere. om. p. With his apparitional form. Comes to the sight of the worthy 1 2 7 '. without any effort. C. 134) 135 C. anābhāsa-gamana. mi-snañ-ba (om. entrance in the womb.— // 53 // 126) . . yul-la dgah-ba spoñ-byed. // 54 // Just as with Brahma. 125 126> > Cf. skal-ldan. Similarly. (Kārikās 38-41) Just as Brahma. // 56// 1 3 3 ) On the invisibility1341 [of the Apparitional form to some people]. 136) f-\ <f~J* {pT<1' [ 368 ] . but T. and the arrival at his father's palace. T . dben-par spyod. 55). the Buddha. in all the worlds. C JT§ • 133) ' anubhava. Similar is the Buddha. And of the pure experiences 1 3 2 ) of the multitudes of gods.yC . JĀA 242 a. Brahma manifests his apparition without any effort. n all the worlds 128) . without moving from the Absolute Body. 54-56). 55). wandering in solitude '. par excellence. ' C. K 2 5 . 87-88 (vv. though he never moves from his palace. Similarly with the Lord. without any effort. C. by means of his Apparitional Body. C. // 55 // 131) Because of his own original vow. HK ^L vf" • 130) m ) 132 F o r mala-hara. Birth. divides ' āranyapravicarana ' into plj ^§< (naiskramya) & /\~f vicarana or duhkhacariyā). / ^ ^ j^f ^ * ^ . ]5j\ç £ £ (in v. C. It denotes here. C. 135) 136 Merry life [in the harem] . 55). 53. C. 127 ' bhavya. gamana). without moving from his palace. see S. 129) visaya-rati-hara. K 26 (interchanges v . (Kārikā 42) Descent from [the Tusita]. T. Manifests his apparition. ^ ^ -A^ y^ (ābhāsânābhāse). 54). 128 ' sarvadhātu. always pervading the World of Desire. — sarvaloka (v. II. On these vastus. M . His sight is seen by the worthy people. this and the next verse (vv. C.

The attainment of the Supreme Enlightenment. 143) A kind of lotus or water-lily. at one and the same time The lotus flowers awake and the Kumuda 1 4 3 ) folds its flowers. but C. 14 °> C. And the teaching of the Path leading to the city of Peace 1 3 8 ) . Lets the lotus flowers come to blossom. C. which is said to open its flower at night.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a The victory over the Evil One 1 3 7 ) . inserts ^Fjj Jj £ yv Ja. ^1* ^ | § . gduñ-ba (tapati). —r^ (study under the guidance of tirthas) before [y mārapramathana. hereafter up to the prose commentary before v. T. K 2 8 . With his own rays. without thought—construction. with reference to the converts.^ & >p] | J p . //57//14<» (Y) It is said that the Buddha [in his Wisdom] is like the sun 1 4 1 ) . 139 > For adhanya. 142) tapat (<r \Jtap). J Ā A 242 b. C. 147) eka-muktābhir. K 2 7 . The Buddha. Just as the sun. and this passage be an interpolation. ' muktā ' means ' a flash delivered from the s u n ' . C. C. there are the simile of the sun-lotus and the simile of the receptacle of pure ' C. om. water. jf^a ^ | 3 £ . shi-bahi groñ-khyer. 141 > Cf. Does not come to the eye-sight of those who are unhappy 1 3 9 ) . respectively. C. though demonstrating such events. (On the two kinds of people compared to the two kinds of waterborn flowers)146>. 144) > 146 ' seems to 145 137 Yor guna & dosa. For praśamapura. T. ¥§. T. But the sun has no discrimination in regard to the water-born flowers Similar is the sun of the Saint [in his acts] in the world In regard to the awakening of virtues and closing of defects 1 4 4 '. Of them. 138) C. cig-car spros-pa-yis (ekatra kâlasamaye = sakrt). ^ J . skal-med (abhavya). 63. simultaneously everywhere 1 4 7 ) . T. Jfft . There are two kinds among the living beings: one is the non-converts and the other is the converts. (Kārikā 43) When the sun becomes shining 1 4 2 ) . inserts cakravartin before this. [ 369 ] .

T. Shines 1 5 7 ) upon the mountains. Arising in the sky of the Seat of Enlightenment 148) . For nipāta. middle.. T. chos-dbyiñs. there is a simile of mountains 1 5 1 ) : (Kārikās 44-45) Although the sun of the Buddha pervades 1 5 2 ) Always and everywhere the sky-like Universe 153 '. C. 156) saptasapti. manifest themselves with visible forms and by teaching among the three categories of living beings according to order. So T. the sun . Appears with no thought-construction. Spreading out his thousands of glorious rays. TAKASAKI And lets the other come to ripeness. // 62 // Thus the Buddhas. For this. Also ' vineyâdri ' should be changed into ' vineyâdrau ' (loc. hbab. Appear simultaneously innumerable reflections Of that sun which is the Lord. and low. // 63 // 156) Just as. gradually. T. s t a r t s w i t h t h i s h e a d i n g . T . 152) f ne r e a ( J i n g S ' visrte ' & ' buddhasūrye ' are to be corrected into ' visrto ' & buddhasūryo '. though they are non-discriminative. om. // 59 // Similarly. byañ—chub—sñiñ—po. but C. 154) tan-nipāta. everywhere in the [mind of] converts Who are like receptacles 1 5 0 ) of pure water. s a y i n g : ' krame ślokah '. sūryopamatā. (sūryasya nipāta). i n s t e a d of ' śailopamatā '. according to their merit 1 5 5 ) . }j^ (as in the text). 153) dharmadhātu. 149) 157) 148 pratapati. The sun 1 4 9 ) of Omniscience pervades the world With the rays of the Transcendental Wisdom. With reference to this order. // 60 // With the body of the Absolute and that of Apparition. ji-ltar hos-par. > bodhi—manda. dinakrt. Rising and illuminating the whole world. 151) T .J. T . hbab (prapatati). He casts his rays 1 5 4 ) upon the converts Who are like mountains. With the rays of the Highest Doctrine. T . // 61 // From which. this verse. C.) and be separated from ' tannipāto '. snod (= bhājana). Upon the converts resembling lotus flowers. in this world. respectively. (manda = sāra). 150) āśaya. the sun that is the Buddha. 155) yathāirhatah. [ 370 ] . high.

having seen it. Who have fallen into the sea 1 6 8 ) of the Phenomenal World. 169) 17 pada. 164 > For jñeyârtha. T . Have their intellect illumined by the light of the sun of the Buddha. But those who are of the nature of Compassion. // 66 // 1 7 0 ) 158 159) 160) 159 > C. [ 371 ] 25 . ' ekaikaroma-udbhavair '. cognize how to remove the net of h a r m . 160) parispharanatā. 167) And. anarthajāla-vigama.— (Kārikās 46-47) Of the sun . And [likewise] even those blinded by ignorance. o m .^ ffâjî $[FJ (abhrajāla). tshogs. bkab ( < hgebs. ~} 165) C. > bhānu. om. K 29. t h e B u d d h a is n o t t h e same as t h e s u n ) . has no equivalent word and has instead ' A^ Wi ' ( n o t break). $ $ ( ^ g J ^ V ^ . like space. & C. // 65 // When the Buddhas enter the city. C. Nor does he show all things knowable [by removing] 161) The thicket of the darkness of ignorance. 161) gahana. 162) Illuminate the world with spreading bands of rays. And are obscured by the darkness of false views. C. C.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a Similar is the sun of the Buddha which shines 158) Upon the groups of living beings. a p p a r i t i o n a l a n d of W i s d o m . F o r jāla. K 30) 166) 167) 168) F o r artha. l^m . C. there does not exist the all-pervadingness In all kinds of lands and in the whole sky. T. jjffj (several). J l l # P C. adds one verse before this. Manifesting t h e t w o bodies. . 163 Produced from each hair ' and filled with various colours. K 31. K 3 2 . And come to perceive the T r u t h 1 6 9 ) unseen before. ārnava ( B H S ) ( P a l i annava ?). C. C. 164) 165) And manifest all things knowable . Therefore. (C. C. T . 163) >p. mtsho. gnas. //64// On the superiority of [the Buddha's] light to [that of the sun]. T . ^ ^ l j ( t h e great benefit). s p r e a d ) . 166) Those who are of no eyes perceive the object . according to their order. t h e whole world. which runs as follows: (The one w h o is of t h e n a t u r e of compassion. hphro. T . <gf^ g g &PR 162) visara. 3 i l l /ff! . t o cover. C. tshogs. C. T . P e r v a d e s . °J C.

C. without effort. the sight of Buddha should be known as Not easily achieved in this luckless 179) world " By those whose mind is afflicted by various passions. (Kārikās 48-50) Just as the wish-fulfilling gem. having no thought-construction 176) . T. Fulfills all desires of those Living in the same region 1 7 3 ) . C. 174) sametya. cintāmaniratna. 177 * bhāva. T. // 70 // 171 > Cf. and for maniratna. // 69 // It is said that the Buddhas are 1 7 7 ) difficult to obtain. Though itself is of no thought-construction. 173 > C.J. hbyuñ-ba ( s t a t e of being). om. in this world. T. without effort. According to their merit. 176 ' T. sa-hog gnas. // 68 //175> Just as the precious jewel. those who are of different inclinations. T . // 67 // 1 7 3 ) Similarly. (Kārikā 51) Here. reads as ' durlabhaprāptas tathāgatabhāvah '. JĀA 243 a. 17S > C. for others. om. the whole verse as well as the next one along with its heading. even though the people so much 178) Long for it in the depth of the ocean or under the ground . the Lord always benefits others. it is quite rare To obtain the pure gem. skal-ñan. TAKASAKI (VI) It is said that [the Buddha's mind in its act] has a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling gem 1 7 1 ) . separately. Similarly. 178) pâtâla-stha. T. — " fhj* jpj |j§£ p p . brten-nas. C. 34. Come to hear the Truth in its various aspects. Produces the desired treasure. K. avikalpam. [ 372 ] . as long as the world exists. Similarly. | p j "££ (living together) and adds ' Jjv jgç >\j*' (on the mind of Compassion). 179) durbhaga. Having approached 174) the wish-fulfilling gem of the Buddha. iv2) yugapad—gocara-sthāna. T. K 33. But the Buddha has no discrimination regarding them. cig-car-tu spyod-yul gnas-pa.

(Kārikās 56-57) Just as all plants 180 192) . T. C. J Ā A p u t s this simile a t the end). either inside or outside.The (VII) Ratnagotravibhāga 180) It is said that [the Buddha in his voice] is like an echo (Kārikās 52-53) Just as the sound of an echo Arising from the voice And 181) . ' mahîruha (== mahiruh). »«) Cf. K 38. 183 > C. K 37. But. 182) jr o r anābhoga. $»»£ TW • 187 188 ' nirālamba. 184 ) C. It is said that [the Buddha as the foundation of all is like the earth 1 9 1 ) . -jjtfç ftpE- 190 nimnonnata. 36. JĀA 243 c. 181) vijñapti. dmigs—pa med. -*p.). T. // 72 / / 185) 184) And has no foundation. the sky is seen as low and high 1 8 9 ) . C. Formless and incapable of being shown. ' and invisible. J ^ J f (as T. bzo-med. // 73 / / 1 8 8 ) 187) Surpassing the way of eye-sight. // 71 / / 183) has no foundation. > C. 189) 192 [ 373 ] . T .K3 5 . C. cuñ-zad-med. and without foundation. the voice of the Buddha Arising through the voice of others Is of no discrimination and of no effort. it is not like that. sa-las skye—ba. (IX) //74// 1 9 0 ) . rnam-rig. 186) niskimcana. the Buddha is not like that. (but in the next verse. JĀA 243 b. T. ' u * ) . K. mtho dañ dmah (high and low). J Ā A 243 c (after t h e simile of prthivl. But. Similarly. in reality. 185) Cf. C. of others effort 182) Is of no discrimination and of no . / | V . all kinds of forms are seen in the Buddha. * > C. (VIII) It is said that [the Buddha's body is] like space (Kārikās 54-55) Being immaterial Without support 186 . C. In a similar way. T . in reality. either inside or outside. om. > Cf. T. activities] Though being so.

Therefore. you should know their summarized meaning. Come to grow. o m . T . The ninefold examples have been related In order to clear the doubts of the converts. Summarized meaning of these examples is as follows: The performance of actions without effort Connot be seen by us 1 9 6 ) . the roots of virtues in the world. prayatnam. // 75 // 194) Similarly. // 77 // Its purpose [of teaching] is explained By the very name of that Scripture. de-don (tad-artham). J§y[ for vrddhim upayānti). . The wise men enter rapidly In the whole region of the Buddha. C. connects ikaścid^ with ikriyām\ C. and the rest. om. n e next verse however. This verse stands for t h e title of t h e s ū t r a . Where these nine illustrations Are demonstrated in detail. 199) In this sense .— // 80// 193) vairūdhi. /PC. 19 7) >phe r e a ( J j n g ' ālokâdy-alañkrtāh ' had better be changed into ' ālokād alañkrtāh '. hdis brgyan-pa ' (etena alañkrtāh). C. which reads ' . 195 > C. thrive 1 9 3 ) and expand.. [ 374 ] . K 39. 3-g . 199) tasmin. K 40. Proceed completely towards growth. j$C wu (^ *^ trt F&it** -*-Ji. // 79 // For this reason 1 9 8 ) . Taking resort to the ground of the Buddha Who has no searching thought. o m . n a m e l y t h e Sarvabuddhavisayâvatāra-jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. T. C. C. T . * 194 > C.J. 196) T. . dehi (tasya). TAKASAKI Taking resort to the earth Which has no searching thought. there are nine examples Illustrated by the reflection of Indra On the surface of Vaidūrya stone. 198) ity artham. Summarized Meaning of the Illustrations given by the Commentator. ' ādi ' gives no sense. reads as ' kriyām rte"1 and om. // 78 // Adorned with l 9 7 ) this light of the great wisdom Which is the result of study. according to T. // 76 // 195) § 3. and for vaipulya. brtan-pa (become firm). J[jl£ .

Without effort. 205) antardhi. (to establish the meaning) (/PC i s used in the verse for ' susiddha '). =|=§. and emanation of Wisdom. | f | j ^>p| gives n o s u i t a b l e sense. 6) ' mano-guhyaka ' for cintāmani. etc. The ' logical reason ' is the non-discriminativeness of mind. see my Introduction. we have other four ślokas. Karunā-ātmā. sprul. T. & 9) ' prāpti ' for bhūmi. As given in the examples. the form of Indra. y \ . I incline to interpret that this ' karunâtmānām '. T. There are given i examples '. . Summary of examples given in Kārikās 2 0 6 ) . As for the treatment of this group of verses.). 202) karunā-ātmānām prāptih. Transformation 201 '. teaching200*. which as a genitive case is connected to all these 9. II. These 9 meanings are given to each of the 9 illustrations. § 2. With reference to this meaning (or subject). 88 at the end of the illustration of prthivī. 3) ivyāpi'> for megha. hchi. 204) prakrtârtha. 8) ' kāya-guhyaka ' for ākāśa. as vicitra-artha. rañ-bshin-dow (prakrtyartha). C. thugs. C. 203) dhl (text. // 82 // The ' proposition ' is here the pacification of effort. being the summary of all the examples. // 83 // And here the 4 subject in discussion' is that These nine. 5) ' j ñāna-nihsrti' for sūrya. Shall we accept '•darsanā* as an irregular form for darśana? If so both terms are to be written separately. 7) ' vāg-guhyaka ' for pratiśrutika. pervasion. thugs-rjehi bdag-ñid thob-pa-ñid. being of no thought-construction. [ 375 ] . as long as the world exists. Is such in which all the movements of effort are pacified. beginning with the arising Of the reflection of Indra on the pure Vaidūrya stone.ft£&ftjjÇ ^y^ SPA •Q faf.. A doubtful reading as J suggested. T. /p(. in order to establish the 'subject in discussion' 204 '. But C. means the Buddha or the Bodhisattva. // 81 // [The Buddha's] mind 2 0 3 ) . C. om. 20 °) darśanādeśanā. 87. respectively. Secrecy in acts by mind. (Kārikās 58-61) The one who acts for the sake of others. In the next verse. Ajnd acquisition of those whose nature is of Compassion 2 0 2 ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga [Namely]: appearance. ' appearance ' and the rest. C. T. T . 2) ' deśanā' for devadundubhi. î06) C. pg|fc £|£ Pjflf Jjfljî iffl (janmântarddhim rte). 4) 'vikrti' for Brahma. . in pi. // 84 // § 4. Namely: 1) ' darśana ' (darsanā ?) for śakrapratibhāsa. but mentions v. Jji^ pîjP. speech and body. And. this passage up to v. Are manifested without any effort And without birth or death 2 0 5 ) of the Preceptor. 201) vikrti.

209) according to T. C. . T. K 41. āspada. ' anaksara-ukta. like clouds. J ^ >fa -^p> ^Hç īj/£ wliich gives proper sense. . dkar-pohi chos-kyi sman. . He pervades an unlimited number of living beings. legs—par hdoms—mdsad. Having the great sphere of the clouds of Wisdom and Mercy. sañs-rgyas-sa.J. formless and eternal. ' vibho rutam '. And his mind [acts] like the wish-fulfilling gem. T. îl6 > C. // 87 // Like an echo is the Buddha's voice. Being all-pervading. Brahma. srid-rtsehi bar-du. C. an echo. C. //86// Like Brahma. T. rnal-hbyor-rig. 208 ' sudaiśika. which denotes ' anāsravadhātu '. Without moving from the immaculate place 2 1 0 ) . dharmakāya. Not being expressed by letters211) . being ausadhi). \ffi IQ1. the Buddha's bhūmi is āspada of śukladharma. (as an epithet of the Buddha). Being the seat 213) of all virtues. The Buddha is sudaiśika. 212) 211 buddhabhūmi. . i. . ā bhavāgratah. which shows the proper interpretation of the simile. the remedy 2 1 4 ' of the whole world. — • yJ Wa 7$ Mî 213) 214) and § ^Jr }$ *$£ |j|§ (as the earth is āspada of ausadhi. and om. 81 °) anāsravāt padād.e. ukta). like the divine drum. T. spreading the light of Wisdom. śukladharma-ausadhī. [ 376 ] . the Buddha Shows himself variously with the apparitional forms. yi-ge-min (om. TAKASAKI īndra. T. // 88 // 215) Like Like Like That 2 0 7) yogavid. T. like the sky and like the earth. The translation is T. like the sun. gshir gyur-pa. is [the Buddha] who knows a means [of precept]2 0 7 ) . T. Like space is his body. His voice is like the [sound of] the divine drum. If we take ' agra ' as ' beginning '. he shines always. the meaning is ' since the very beginning of the world '. YS\. // 85 // The excellent teacher 2 0 8 ) has an appearance Like the reflection of the chief of gods on the jewel. And like the earth is the State of Buddha 2 1 2 ) in this world. C. takes de- vadundubhi as relating to this word. Like the sun. . like the wish-fulfilling gem. Up to the highest limit of existence 209) .

C. K 10. 1 Ratnagotravibhāga Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood 216) . As long as the world exists 221 '. 89 is as follows: #H t ā î S ^ S c 217) 218 $£ I asamhārya. see my Introduction. om. explained to be seen with appearance and disappearance and as having actions. > C . without effort and without interruption ? [To answer this question. 92 immediately after v. K 11. 84. in his Body of the Absolute 219) that is like īndra. 9. 221 222 ' ā bhavasthiteh. // 89 // 218) Owing to the appearance and disappearance of purity. apparition and the rest. ' śakrapratibhāsavat' (after v. in this exposition of examples. K 219) 220 C. puts v. And this purity of mind is intensified By the irresistible 217> faculty of faith. his actions. Like the Vaidūrya stone.The § 5. //91// 2 2 2 ) § 6. § 2. // 90 // 220) Thus. 223) So-called ' vyatirekâlañkāra ( 0 ) . The Point of Dissimilarity 223) This is the summarized meaning of similes And this very order is told in order to show That the dissimilarity of the former example 2i6) This passage is again doubtful with regard to its position in the text. C. the purity in the mind Is the cause of the Buddha's appearance. Why. mi-zlogs-pa. T. which never arises nor disappears. Are manifested without any effort. From the Absolute Body. dharmakāya. to work among all living beings. '^jjj» jf|j |-»rj^. II. there are three verses]. > C . along with one additional verse and with the heading ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti ' at the end of the 1st illustration. is the Buddha. 28). The forms of the Buddha appear and disappear. [ 377 ] . C. But. inserts the following 3 verses. As for the treatment of this passage. who is always of neither origination nor extinction. The Lord does never appear nor disappear. then. -A^ Jsj?t. C. > C. The verse added in C before v.

JTQ JlgiJ frf* fî% /fc3t 224 225) sārthabîja. quite against the other cases in this text. is not like him. however. mundane and supermundane 2 3 0 ) . C. But the reflection. is the nearest simile for the Buddha. he is like the sun. not being the basis of virtues.. where ' ākāśa ' is [ 378 ] . the author seems to have had an opinion that the earth is the foundation of everything. being of no voice. ^H ^"J? TpQ ||fj ^"Jjl ~jp. //94// [As the cause of perfect maturity]. Which however. and consequently. T.J . ~J~~ /-\* -fcii 229) C. in another word. don-med-pahi sa-bon spoñ min (for ' na sārtha. ' megha ' cannot distinguish either ' sārtha ' or ' anartha '. being a dissimilation of ' prthivl ' with the Buddha. which however does not match him. kramo uktah. however. Which however. 20). v. Since it is not everywhere making benefits. so it is not like him. 228) £ £ ' tathāgatavyoma nimittavarjitam ' (II. [Being of no cause] 2 2 8 ) he has a resemblance to space. . [Being endowed with voice. // 93 // [Being beneficial everywhere]. Since he is the ground and foundation 229) For the achievement of all the virtues Of living beings. . is not like that. 70) as a point of similarity to the Buddha. It is. 230) In this series of illustrations. he is like a big cloud. is not as difficult to get as he is. '). 226) C. being a product of causes.kramah punah / pūrvakasyottarenokto vaidharmyaparihāratah / ' = punah. pūrvakasya vaidharmyasya uttarena parihāratah '. TAKASAKI [With the Buddha] is removed by the latter one 2 2 4 '. rim—pa yañ sña—ma phyi—mas chos—mi—mthun spans-pahi sgo—nas brjod—pa yin. is not like him. C. [As the darkness-breaker]. After all J's reading seems correct. being unable to ripen perfectly. is not like him. Which. the Buddha] is like The divine drum.. ' durlabdhatva ' of cintāmani was mentioned previously (v. ' being acala like Brahma ' % 2 2 7> Here we cannot get the proper similarity of echo to the Buddha by means of the same operation as it is used in former examples. // 96 // The Buddha resembles the region of the earth. But it is not the case. he is like the wish-fulfilling gem. Which. T. But. But the sun cannot remove darkness fully. It shows the sense that ' megha ' cannot remove ' anarthablja '. [Being the root of virtue] 2 2 6 ) . // 95 // The Buddha has a resemblance to an echo 2 2 7 ) . // 97 // ' ' . //92// Buddhahood is like the reflection [of īndra]. having no seed of virtue 225) . Brahma is not like him. reads ^Y* U *]vf. Echo cannot be 'durlabdha'l Furthermore. he is like great Brahma.

apramāna. C. ārūpya. abiding always in [various] worlds. 98. 67). | p 3fU j$£. 162). for the sampatti in 4 kinds of ārūpyadhātu (Cf. Consisting of meditation. maitrī. 69). agamy a. respectively. 'apramāna'' stands for those. Mvyut. IV were not composed by the same author as that of the Basic verses in Chapter I. dhyāna. There arises the supermundane Path. T. saying: £JL~~ Jl~w |3 Ji f •tit*. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] ' the Summary of Meaning of the ślokas'. and hence. and 'ārūpya'. we may be allowed to say that those Udāharana-kārikās in Chap. /& Pile (Buddhas perform these actions. adds one verse more after v. ' dhyāna"" stands for the 4 kinds of dhyāna (Cf. | i v ( = āśritya). brten-nas. the immeasurable mind And the absorption in the Immaterial Sphere 2 3 2 ) . without effort. Mvyut. karunā muditā & upeksa (Cf. There emerges the Path of virtuous actions. 232) 231) C. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. // 98 // Finished is the fourth chapter entiled ' the Acts of the Buddha'. And as this very ordex was arranged in the Udāharana—kārikās against the order given in JĀA (which puts the simile of ' ākāśa' at the last). // used as the most suitable simile for the Buddha. Mvyut.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga By resorting to2 3 1 ) the Buddha's Enlightenment. at one and the same time). [ 379 ] .

I. and Buddhakriyā in Chap. we have six ślokas. The Buddha's Properties. | p | -*A/ \I&& • 2) Namely: Samalā tathatā (or tathāgatagarbha) in Chap. (Kārikās 1-6) The Essence of Buddhahood. Hereafter.CHAPTER V. C. whose intellect 5 ) accepts the faith In this exclusive sphere of the Buddha. I . IV. the Enlightenment of the Buddha. Buddhagunāh. I l l . add ' catursu ' before ' sthānesu '. For guriâbhilāsayogāt. T. [ p j ~|tr] {=p" A - 4) 6) 6) nāyaka. C. I I . reads -gunâbhilāsāt. C. The Superiority of Faith over Other Virtues in Regard to Their Merits. 3) śuddhasattva. YJW • T h e verse c o r r e s p o n d s t o v . buddhi. 6) And. being possessed of the desire [to obtain] The inconceivable properties [of the Buddha]. and the Buddha's Acts. • T . as if ' buddha '. [ 380 ] . I * ' adhimukty—anuśamsa. in Chap. Nirmalā tathatā in Chap. dag-pahi sems. 23 of C h a p . THE MERITS OF FAITH (ANUŚAMSA) XVIII. Becomes a receptacle of the whole collection of properties. They are inconceivable even to those of the pure mind 3 ) . Being the exclusive sphere of the Leaders 4 ) . with reference to the advantage of faith X ) possessed by those who are believing in these [4] subjects 2 ) which have been duly described above. T. hdren-pa. / / I // But the wise one. B u t T . C. & C. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . mos—pahi phan-yon. T . T. THE MERITS OF HAVING FAITH IN THE DOCTRINE OF THE ESSENCE OF BUDDHAHOOD § 1.

// 5 // 14> Charity brings people only to [worldly] enjoyment . ] [ 381 . constructed 8 ) by jewels As innumerable as the sands in the Buddha's lands. . The latter would reap merits far more than even the merits of the mystic absorption. T. C. Cf.. would have faith in this Doctrine. tribhuvana. And meditation is conducive to the removal of Defilements. samskrta. speech and mind. always. 12) 13) For pārami-gata. Another. C. Which suppresses the fire of defilements in the 3 worlds n '. T . om. C. // 3 // Suppose a wise man. would have faith in this Doctrine. After hearing of it. . a d d s ' bhāvanā _ ^ ^5( ( to ' (bsgoms). if he hear but one word of this teaching. day after day. _ I ^ ^*. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits 1 0 ) of an offering. itah padam. C. in course of innumerable aeons. Another. Would offer golden lands. 'fīf ^ g et richness as merits). 2 8 . o m . After hearing of it. Would keep pure moral conduct by his body. spros-pa. // 2 // Suppose there were one who. mtho-ris. 3© / C 4 T 'tK ^ P • F o r acyuta. ' itas '. 6 ) . T. Another if he hear but one word of this teaching9 ) . 14) For bhoga. being desirous of the Highest Enlightenment. srid-pa gsum. T . 16) svarga. Suppose one would give himself up to the mystic absorption. And. 15) Morality leads people to the blissful world . (3»>Ç). The latter would reap merits far more than the merits of morality. would have faith in this Doctrine. To the Lord of Doctrine. T . being anxious to obtain the Enlightenment. r e a d s ' h a v e n o . Would be irreversible 13 ' from the means of Enlightenment. C. having been transferred 12 ' to the abode of Brahman in heaven. punya. C.p . After hearing of it. ^ £ A ^ T3.T h e R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā ga He surpasses the abundance 7 ) of merits of all living beings. from t h i s religion. not clear. Without effort. ito-bāhyas ( S . But the Transcendental Intellect can remove 7) 8) 9) 10) X1) prasava. C. if he hear but one word of this teaching.

19) 20) 17) '. 26. but the reference is to ' karma-phala'. C. śruti is t h e supreme. ^pj . yod[~ñid]. and ' triratna '. where it is applied to 'gotra-astitva'. C. don-grub. 11. t h e first 3 a r e called ' punyakriyāvastu ' (Cf. -tā) C. T. as J .). 24-30. . ffi ft S I • [ 382 ] . TAKASAKI All [the obscurations of] defilements and ignorance. g. artha-sādhana. ^ ^ _£. and BGŚ. yon-tan-ldan-pa. he quickly attains the potentiality Of acquiring the state That there 16) 4 22) of the Tathāgata. 812 c-813 a (as the 3 fundamental points of discussion of the work). Which have been explained above. 22 21) > pada.P r o b a b l y t h e original r e a d i n g w a s ' -parivrttau' suggested. Of t h e s e 4. The Its basis [of Buddhahood] 17) . Needless t o say. Hsūangchuang's tr. adds 3 padas a b o u t t h e merit of having faith W S H S E W itb ^ f a ^ ) "• T h i s arrangement of the 4 pāramitās (which a r e c o n s t r u e d w i t h t h e 6 pāramitās b y t h e c o m m e n t a t o r ) seems t o show t h e p r e vious stage of t h e 'pāramitā' d o c t r i n e . after hearing of t h e doctrine (. bhavyatā. and not to ' gotra'. nus-ñid.). 811 b (as the first 3 of the 5 meanings of garbha explained through 9 illustrations). Its application to gotra seems to belong only to the Ratna. 795 c-796 a (applied to the 3 meanings of tathāgatagarbha). p. B u t t h e r e is n o proof for this suggestion. probably under the influence of the Ratna. T. This is for ' buddhakriyā '. With regard to its existence. // 6 // The summarized meaning of these ślokas should be known*by the following 9 verses. [yjC\ J y î Tyf. gyur-pa. p. power and virtue Therefore. gnas. astitva. // 8 // Indeed. T. āśraya. counts 4 points of faith). MSbh (P). /XXr Spfc? T . as he is full of devotion and faith exists ' this inconceivable sphere. BGS makes use of these 3 points in various passages: 794 6. I t d e n o t e s ' dhātu' o r 'tathāgatagarbha'. C. (e. is) "plug j s t h g only case w h e r e t h e t e r m ' parāvrtti ' is used i n s t e a d of ' parivrtti (T. ' āryasatya '. Intellect is the supreme one [of all virtues] And its very source is the study of this Doctrine . explaining: " T h e r e f o r e . In these four aspects of the sphere of Buddha's Wisdom. The // 7 // 20) 21) wise one has become full of faith . (bhavyatā in the sense of ' excellence ' and is regarded as an apposition to 'tathāgata-padâpti'). M v y u t . (Cf. of welfare 19) 18 properties and the performance .<j£.£§*. 93) a n d r e p r e s e n t ' punya-sambhāra '.J . its transformation ). 194 6-200 c. ^+^ JñL i r f » W?f 4AJ îāīlî •> resp. skal-ldan (om. of MSbh. T . C. 799 c (adding ' acintyatva ' . go-hphañ. | 5 \ p y f £ * Wf" C. etc. Taisho 31. VMT Bhāsya. 16) Therefore. śaktatva & gunavattva. 350 b. J s . C. This theory of ' 3 points of faith ' is often found in the works of Vijñānavāda with the order of ' astivta-gunavattva-śaktatva '.

byaû-chub-sems. without the Highest Intellect. rdsogs. And this sphere. etc. = p ^ . According to T. = p J ^ gg JJÎC %A 27) punya\ T. It is this study that is the most important. )y\ J O V S • T h e reading 'easya' is to be corrected into 'câsyā"1 (being a p r o n o u m for prajñā). // 11 // 4 The [Highest of] Merits ' means the [first] 5 Highest virtues. // 15 // 23 ' lit.The 4 R at n agot r av ib h āga 23) That it can ' be realized by one like him . £j) f^.. and ' g i f t ' . For i 24 > bodhicitta. Charity is the merit consisting of granting gift. // 9 // 24) So in him the mind intent on Enlightenment . C. // 10 // 25) As this mind constantly exists . etc. 27) With regard to the Highest of Merits . The son of the Buddha becomes irreversible. has been attained. T. 14 as ' trimandala-pariśuddhi. reads vikalpa. Memory. But Exertion is the merit common to all. That i$ the Obscuration of Ignorance. The other 5 cannot be the cause of their removal.. C. Therefore. 29) 80) 3 are ' g i v e r ' . 12) C. [ 383 ] .t i^T "SI ^ • 25) into ' 26) For 'pūri'. Comes to exist always. 3 S . as the source of i t 3 0 ) is the study [of this Doctrine]. bsod-nams. Being a receptacle of virtues like zeal. which corresponds to ' punya-sambhāra '. Transcendental Intellect. 4 And the perfect purity' is caused by his removal of the opponents. ' r e c e i v e r ' F o r vipaksa. the Highest Intellect is the supreme one of all. C. T . The opponents 2 9 ) [to the 5 Highest Virtues]. like me. contemplation. And. punya-pāramitā. Morality is the merit consisting of moral conduct. ' endowed with such virtues '. B u t it is n o t t h e case (see v. // 14 // But. T. They are the Obscurations of Defilements. 26 And he reaches the accomplishment and the perfect purity '. 28) I t is explained in v. pūri & pariśuddhi. t h e r e a d i n g ' taccittapratyupasthānād ' is to b e corrected tannityapratyupasthānād'.. // 13 // Discrimination regarding the 3 aspects of activity. 4 Its accomplishment ' is owing to his being non-discriminative 28) With regard to the three aspects [of activity] . jealousy. B o t h are to be t a k e n as c o n n e c t i n g w i t h punyapāramitā '. & C . is that of practice. (mādrsa). And both Patience and Meditation. energy.

C. 24. Authority.e. This treatise is expounded by me in order to attain Perfect purification for myself. TAKASAKI § 2. seems to divide the first one into ' āpta ' & ' āgama ' and says ' |§f$ jfti yfc ^ £ . (Kārikā 7) Thus. T. ' anugraha. C. 'kirn artham » 34) 36) bhāskara. T. however. At the same time. 32) āptâgama & yukti. yid-ches-luñ & rigs-pa. and how this doctrine has been explained and what characteristics it has. kuśalâpasampadā. T. 270 a-b). param yataś ca yannimittam ca yathā ca yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokāh /) tatra yamāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. Except for this and the last one. rje-su-gzuñ. 88 iti. however. [ 384 ] . I have expounded this treatise 31) The headings which are given in brackets are missing in S. First of all. //16// [Next we have one śloka stating how this treatise is explained] 35) (Kārikā 8) Just as. 35) katham (or yathā) udāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. this is in order to assist 33) Those intelligent people who are endowed with faith And accomplishment of virtues 3 4 ) . ' kuśalasampad '. the heading for v. Those possessed of vision can perceive objects. o m . with the aid of a lamp. Motive. for what motive. C. 26-28) along with heading thereon is inserted with exact order aVid wording in Paramārtha's tr.J. 16-25) and 3 commentary verses (vv. retains all the headings. of the moon and the sun 3 6 ) . according to T. Emendation: (atah. has all of them. on the basis of the authoritative Scripture and of Logic 32) . and Characteristics of This Text Being the Correct Doctrine. p. of lightning. including those two. But C. f^ j3> ff| ^ Q | | j | ' (' āpta ' in the sense of ' āptavacana '). of MSbh (Taisho 31. The following passage containing 10 Kārikās (vv. Similarly. i. given in the commentary verse. The topic of each śloka is. [Hereafter we have ślokas mentioning on which basis. Of a precious stone. there is one śloka™]. This one is according to C. with reference to the basis and motive. ^ g .. and C . exclusively.

dbañ-byas (uddiśya or adhikrtya). drañ-sroñ-gsuñ. dharmapada. Ace. [Then we have one śloka stating the characteristics of the correct 39 doctrine] >. As the doctrine has such a benefit. light) is for either ' prabhākara ' or ' pratibhā '. "j^j jgj£ [ ^ gama. like āptâ- viparita. This topic is called ' nisyandaphala ' i n t h e c o m m e n t a r y . edition. This term ārsa is. V ^ / f ī j .^ J ī§§$. C. I have expounded this teaching). C.B u t T . T. T . And can demonstrate the advantage of Quiescence. . to C. C. 432). the word 40) 37) prabhākara. chos ( o m . 19. gives clearer sense though the original S. (Kārikā 9) Whatever that is connected with the scriptural texts41> It pursues the [ultimate] aim [of living beings] 4 2 ) . spobs ( O . B u t T . C. p . ^ Jji] | J C • T i l i s verse is q u o t e d i n t h e Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā (Bibl. 17 c d. ~J\Z tj/j (illumination. C. C. C. reading of this verse is r a t h e r 44) [ 385 ] . T . a n d s e p a r a t e s i t f r o m dharmapada 41) 42) 43) ārsa. arthavat. // 18 // [Next we have one śloka stating by what means this treatise is explained]45>. bzlog-pa. (Kārikā 10) Whatever is spoken by those whose mind is not distracted And who refer to4 6 ) the Lord as the only Preceptor. p u t s here t h e heading which is t o be p u t before v . T . C. ( ^ | IpBî* T . t o T . those possessed of vision of intelligence come to see. I n d . don-ldan. C. used originally for the Vedas. 38) pratibhā. (f$C $L $ i i^O.'yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah '. Is conducive to removing the Defilements in the 3 Worlds. F o r v . T . And all others are of perverse character 4 4 ) . gsuñ. was probably as T.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga // 17 // Relying upon the Lord who is the sun 3 7 ) Manifesting38) the Doctrine of great welfare. C. T. reads: (Similarly. 46) uddiśat. Such a word is that of the Great Sage 4 3 ) . . ffi U . by the light of the Buddha's doctrine. hod-mdsad-pa (illuminating). 46) Ace. \^i~jr^ yT*»l ^I->ft j £ j ^ ] . pada). yenâdāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah. 40 39) > vacas. flash of idea).

TAKASAKI And is favourable to the Path of the [2] Accumulations which lead to Emancipation. F o r v. gshig ( < hjig-pa). 52 » bheda. T. ^ . Which is discoursed 5 0 ) by the Sage himself. rgyal-pahi bstan-pa hbah-shiggyis dbañ-byas. par excellence. neya [-artha]. and himself is hindered b y t h e stains. J . instead of ātmaraksana. the Scripture should not be interpolated 4 9 ) . T. ' ātmaraksanâpāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau /. which is. g ^ . // 20 // difficult to identify with S. spyi-bos. T. C. 48) Ace. it will do harm 5 1 ) to the Highest Doctrine Because of destroying 52) the teaching 53) of the Buddha. or [the word spoken b y ] one who accepts a l i t t l e p a r t of t h e B u d d h a ' s doctrine. T. dharma-raksana. t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h e sūtra which is spoken b y t h e B u d d h a s who h a v e r e m o v e d t h e suffering caused b y kleśas a n d are of t h e i m m a c u l a t e Wisdom is to be accepted. 51) pratibādhana. C.§§. [Here we have two ślokas referring to the means of preserving oneself from becoming deprived (of this Doctrine) 48) ] (Kārikās 11-12) Indeed in this world there is no one wiser than the Buddha. Therefore. rāga.. 49) vicālya ( < vi— •/cal). gshag ( < hjog-pa. byed-pa. T . C. It is as follows: (The [word] of one who. C.. etc. gnod-pa t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e B u d d h a and is opposite to laid down). ^ī> f§§ ? nlti. (lit. a l t h o u g h he preaches t h e dharmapadârtha [in order to] rem o v e t h e kleśas i n t h e tridhātu. That is also to be accepted with respect 4 7 ) As if it were taught by the Great Sage. 19 6 (śāstāram ekam jinam uddiśadbhih). The Means of Preserving Oneself within the Doctrine. 63) [ 386 ] . b y t h e head). t o T. Otherwise. tshul. T . even t h o s e words could be accepted [as t h e correct t e a c h i n g ] ..J. C. No other who is omniscient and knows completely The highest Truth according to the right method. Needless t o say. // 19 // § 3. 47) mūrdhnā. or t h e beneficial words spoken in t h e worldly books. still has vision whose intelligence is covered b y avidyā. 50) fa&ftin* SSSSIfi* mmM^A nīta.

[adherence to] false conception 64) . i. C. dran-don. there is one śloka]5 9 ) .( O D S C U " ration caused by the dharmâpavāda in the past). ^§5 /|jÇ ^ Ç ^ j ^ TJJ[3( (adherence to worship and respecting). Indeed. // 21 // foolish56) § 4. Interpretation of the conventional sense 6 2 ) as the [ultimate] Truth. '. (Kārikā 13) Want of intelligence. V garh. 5 © ~ £ R5> V A l-^. Obscured nature through the rejection 6 1 ) of the Highest Doctrine. phoñs-pa. *3i£ T J . rañga-vikrtim upaiti. greed of 63) 62) 61) attaining something) and C. rmoûs. J s | t . only clean cloth can be dyed 5 8 ) But not one that is spoiled by oil and dust. ksatihetum ' adhimukta-śvkla—viraha.e. mithyādrsti. Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine. Greediness 63) . Devotion to those who hate the Doctrine. |§ lobha-gredhatā. C. C. C. skur-pa. Both Zofe/ia & gredha have the same sense. ślokah /. 67) abhiniveśadarśana. tshon-gyis ārabhya C. 64) apa-\Jvad. J{§> 7JIJE • T . T. t a k e kleśa t o g e t h e r w i t h vimūdhâtmānām a n d m a k e t h e sense of ' of o r b y those whose n a t u r e is afflicted b y kleśa a n d vimūdha'. & C . " | $ fâ\ f j E . T . [ 387 ] . dkar-mos bral.The R a t n a go t r a v i b h ā g a The fact that people abuse 5 4 ) the Sages And blame 5 5 ) the doctrine taught by the Sages. [With reference to the causes of the loss of the Doctrine. Probably it is merely a repetition for arranging syllables. ' saddharmaksatim B8) 69) 60 A c e . * 4 ) darśana in the sense of drsti. ārabhya. C. T . * / l'^' JJ=J j u j / ^ . f p y . Therefore. shen-lta. C. g Ç . But it is not the case. Indulgence in false pride. But T. T . your mind should not be attached To the dirt of the prejudiced conception. S\* J == $ (imperfect meaning). rnam-bsgyur. vyasana. All this is the Defilement of those whose nature is And is created by a prejudiced conception 57) . neyârtha. T. C. T . B6) 66) vimūdha. T . T .. t o T . C. . C.. F o r t h i s defect. rñed-la brtam (lābha-gredha. brñas. want of faith in the virtuous Doctrine6 0 ) .

C. [ [ 3 $fe J S ] | $ B • C. T. fj^f f$j . and the Saints 7 7 ) . adds |^f 71) T. TAKASAKI Keeping at distance 6 5 ) from those who convey the Doctrine6 6 ) . by these causes. and one additional verse after v. C. ^ ārabhya dvau ślokau / '. About this form. one becoraes deprived of the Doctrine of the Saint 68>. and lightning. and this addition corresponds to the Introductory verses in C. Because a fire. one who kills the enemy. gÇ f £ ^U gg)( (blame of those who know the doctrine). 66) 67) 8 C. s t a n d s for hīnayāna. And delighting in the inferior Doctrine 6 7 ) . n e a r o r f a r ) T . Ace. thog. chos-hdsin. ' J ' * ^J^t Vz* • hīna. 65) āra ( d i s t a n c e . // 23 // Even one who. bsriñs. As he should be afraid of the loss 7 1 ) of the profound Doctrine72>. To the most terrible world of Avīci. ^ lj^ p j )ffi ]ffl_ (to injure the Buddha with bad intention. or of lightning 7 0 ) . dharmabhrt. of murder. see J's note on this word. ' ksatiphalam « > For arhat. adds /X. 73) 72) pratisevya. ' mams'1 is a mistake for 'hams' (ksati). Of violent poison of snake.. 75) [ 388 ] . // 22 // [With reference to the result of this loss. father. C. j£C ( t 0 approach). pāpa-suhrd. there are two ślokas] 69>. At most. j § L {iijjj§. 'dgra-bcom-pa' for Arhat is according to this etymology). By all this. bya—ba— min = anācarana (vice). C. Is hostile to the Buddha 7 5 ) . and commits the acts 7 6 ) Of killing mother. It is probably an intentional addition by the C. 24 referring to the necessity of having respect towards ' dharmabhānaka '. bya—ba—min—byed (to do what is not to be done). C. C. T . T. C. translator. 77) arihat (BHS) = arhat (ari-han. repeatedly serving 73) bad friends 7 4 ) . sdig-grogs. ™> For aśani.J. adds sf* \=f j[j§ ^ 69) fī[| as the general cause. an enemy. & C . 4 a %\\ H ^ So C. t o T . T . (Kārikās 14-15) The wise one need not be so much afraid of fire. a snake. here. may deprive one of [this] life But one will not go. See below. 76 ' For ācaranakrt. i\±-> 7»P RBX • J 74) buddha -dustâśaya. C. T.

and is reconstructed according to C. M v y u t . m m ft st n Cf. /si H %)• 3£K^*nSHIt f 83) vyavadānadhātu. reads (see N o t e 75). Hi&m. he is as our parents and is a good leader. C. after the Buddha's parinirvāna. turn away from the wrong view and enter the right path).The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga And breaks the unity of the Highest Community 78) . the [Buddha's] Properties and Acts. (C. the genuine character of this verse as a Kārikā is somewhat doubtful. at the end we have one śloka in order to turn the merit acquired by the author through this teaching towards the people] 8 2 ) .&nmPfc & [ 389 ] . (Kārikā 16) I have thus duly expounded the 7 subjects. T. The 3 Jewels. adds one verse more referring to the necessity of having respect towards the dharmabhānaka. 82) tit * 0rn ?# $ . TJJÇ ( H J | f | i ) . Ypî Î^P '|~£ • = tathāgatagarbha. &. ñes-par bsams-pa. T h e first one in this t e x t comes a t t h e end a n d is called ' tathāgatasyântike dustacitta-rudirâtpādanam ' as C. May all living beings come to perceive 78) These 5 are regarded as t h e worst sins for t h e B u d d h i s t ."If. [Here. But. (itv ^ s . It runs as follows: 80) 79) (If one lets the people study this doctrine and teaches how to believe in it. Therefore. 122. Cf. ' saddharma '. T. has * dharmatva ' a n d C. because he lets the people. 3 i | \ >2/> • I n s t e a d of dharmârtha. Note that this additional verse is not found in MSbh (P). pancâ- nantaryâni. By the merit I have acquired through this. The Immaculate Enlightenment. . how would it be possible for the Liberation to arise 81) In one whose mind is hostile to the Doctrine ! // 24 // § 5. the perfectly pure Essence 8 3 ) . T . 81) C. rnam-par-byañ-khams. a wise man. Even that one can quickly become delivered from that sin If he meditates upon 7 9 ) the meaning 8 0 ) of the Doctrine. nidhyāna. C. MSbh (P) 270 a: This heading is lacking in T. Conclusion. These 7 are called ' vajrapada ' by the commentator in the open verse of this treatise.

C. these 2 results of teaching of the meaning Of the Doctrine9 1 ) are explained by the last śloka. // 28 // Thus is finished the fifth chapter entitled ' the Merits of Faith ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. chos-brjod-pa. which C. mthah-yas hod-mnah. the third. And then. may they. ^ 86 ' ātmasamraksanopāya. 3 » jHC "^P 1/P» T. owing to the arising Of the immaculate vision of the Doctrine in them. T . And one. tshe dpag-med. It seems that there is a certain relationship between the Amitāyus—cult and the tathāgatagarbha theory. Instead of samraksana. 18. the first 2 are taught in v. the 4th in v. And. C. reads samśodhana. dharmârthavāda. But C. Pfl * K ^ • samsāra-mandala. the [following] two ślokas88) Explain the result of this loss. y ^ . 19. Owing to what basis. This topic. In accordance with the insertion of one verse after v. Obtain the Supreme Enlightenment. An epithet of the Lord Amitāyus. 16. 16-25) should be known by the following 3 verses. How and what is expounded [in this treatise]. to the cause of the loss [of the Doctrine]8 7 ) . the acceptance 8 9 ) [of the Doctrine] By those living in the world of Sāmsāra 9 0 ) And their acquisition of Enlightenment. 24. for But here. 85) Of these 5 topics. 17. bzod-pa. // 25 // The summary of topics discussed in these 10 ślokas (vv. 20. // 26 // Two ślokas refer to the means of self-protection86). usual translation is ' f^Ç jgf ~J\Z {Jflj ' . 2 3 . ^ ^ HI* ^Ç/J f^§ ^ . 22. respectively. which is one of the treatises on the tathāgatagarbha theory. For Amitāyus. And what is the natural outflow [of the Buddha's Doctrine]. adds the following summary: 91) £ 390 ] . and the 5th in v.J. in v. having seen him. C. v. C. These topics are explained by the [first] 4 ślokas85). C. om.— In short. // 5 // 8l) anantadyuti. T. C. T. 24. H [§ 87) 88) "% ~)$ ffi] as S. in vv. 89) 90) ksānti. v v . >>f£ ( = sattvāh). This prayer to the Lord Amitāyus >Ç is also found in the Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda-śātra. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] 4 the Summary of meaning of the ślokas '. T. 21. T. for what motive. TAKASAKI The Lord Amitāyus endowed with infinite light 8 4 ) . // 27 // And finally. hkhor-gyi dkyil-hkhor.

APPENDIXES .

23) between this and the next one. 27) 3 ) Sadā prakrtyasamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / Dharmâdhimuktyadhiprajñāsamādhikarunânvayah // 5 // (1.APPENDIX I RATNAGOTRA-VIBHĀGA (Śloka-grantha) x) (Śarana-traya) Yo Buddhatvam anādimadhyanidhanam śāntam vibuddhah svayam Buddhvā câbudhabodhanârtham abhayam mārgam dideśa dhruvam / Tasmai jñānakrpâsivajravaradhrg-duhkhâñkuraîkacchide Nānādrggahanopagūdha-vimatiprākārabhettre namah // 1 // (v. 3 ) C. referring to the 4 aspects of gotra. I I . puts verse 29 as a ' Karikā * after this. I. § 3. 9) Ye samyak pratividhya sarvajagato nairātmyakotim śivām Taccittaprakrtiprabhāsvaratayā kleśâsvabhāveksanāt / Sarvatrânugatām anāvrtadhiyah paśyanti sambuddhatām Tebhyah sattvaviśuddhyanantavisayajñāneksanebhyo namah // 3 // (1. we have a śloka (v.30) for t h i s selection. see Introduction. 4) Yo nâsan na ca san na câpi sadasan nânyah sato nâsato 'śakyas tarkayitum niruktyapagatah pratyātmavedyah śivah/ Tasmai dharmadivākarāya vimalajñānâvabhāsatvise Sarvârambanarāgadosatimiravyāghātakartre namah // 2 // (I. ) In the present text.13)2) (Gotra) Buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśes Tannairmalyasyâdvayatvāt prakrtyā / Bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārād Uktāh sarve dehino buddhagarbhāh // 4 // (I. 2 lj [ 393 ] .

Ms. 58) Ayonisomanaskāro vijñeyo vāyudhātuvat / Tad-amūlâpratisthānā prakrtir vyomadhātuvat // 18 // (I. 35) Mahodadhir ivâmeyagunaratnâksayâkarah / Pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayuktasvabhāvatah // 7 // (I.47) Sarvatrânugatam yadvan nirvikalpâtmakam nabhah / Cittaprakrtivaim. J's text reads vimuktā. 57) Prthivldhātuvaj jñeyāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Abdhātusadrśā jñeyāh karmakleśāh sarlrinām // 17 // (I. B. 55) Skandhadhātvindriyam tadvat karmakleśapratisthitam / Karmakleśāh sadā 'yonimanaskārapratisthitāh // 15 // (I. 56) Ayoniśomanaskāraś cittaśuddhipratisthitah / Sarvadharmesu cittasya prakrtis tv apratisth. 63) Nirvrttivyuparamarugjarāvimuktām 7 ) 4) 5) 6) 7) J's Text & T.J. 49) Yathā sarvagatam sauksmyād ākāśam nopalipyate / Sarvatrâvasthitah sattve 5) tathā 'yarn nopalipyate // 11 // (I. [ 394 ] . satvo. 45) Aśuddho 'śuddhaśuddho 'tha suviśuddho yathākramam / Sattvadhātur iti prokto bodhisattvas tathāgatah // 9 // (1.atuh sarvatragas tathā // 10 // (I. sarvasattvesvavastithas tathâyam nopalipyate. 42) Prthagjanâryasambuddhatathatâvyatirekatah / Sattvesu jinagarbho 'yam deśitas tattvadarśibhih // 8 // (I. TAKASAKI Śubhâtmasukhanityatvagunapāramitāphalah 4 ) Duhkhanirvicchamaprāpticchandapranidhikarmakah // 6 // (I. 54) Prthivy ambau jalam vāyau vāyur vyomni pratisthitah / Aprathisthitam ākāśam vāyvambuksitidhātusu // 14 // (I. J's text teads pradahati. 62) Cittasya yā 4sau prakrtih prabhāsvarā * Na jātu sā dyaur iva yāti vikriyām / Āgantukai rāgamalâdibhis tv asāv Upaiti samkleśam abhūtakalpajaih // 22 // (I. 53) Yathā nâgnibhir ākāśam dagdhapūrvam kadācana / Tathā na pradahanty 6 ) en am mrtyuvyādhijarāgnayah // 13 // (I. 60) Karmakleśâmbusambhūtāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Utpadyante nirudhyante tatsamvartavivartavat // 20 // (I.itā // 16 // (I.alyadh. 61) Na hetuh pratyayo nâpi na sāmagrī na codayah / Na vyayo na sthitiś cittaprakrter vyomadhātuvat // 21 // (I. 52) Yathā sarvatra lokānām ākāśa udayavyayah / Tathaîvâsamskrte dhātāv indriyānām vyayodayah // 12 // (I. pāramitā phalam. T. 59) Cittaprakrtim āllnā 'yoniśo manasah krtih / Ayoniśomanaskāraprabhave kleśakarmanî // 19 // (I.

84) (deśajiāprayoj ana) Śūnyam sarvam sarvathā tatra tatra Jñeyam meghasvapnamāyākrtâbham / Ity uktvaîvam buddhadhātuh punah kim Sattve sattve 'stîti buddhair ihoktam // 26 / / (I. 157) iti ratnagotravibhāga-ślokagranthah samāptah // [ 395 ] .The Ratnagotravibhāga Asyaîva prakrtim ananyathâvagamya / Janmâdivyasanam rte 'pi tannidānam Dhlmanto jagati krpodayād bhajante // 23 // (I. 71) Sa dharmakāyah sa tathāgato yatas tad āryasatyam paramârthanirvrtih / Ato na buddhatvam rte 4rkaraśmivad Gunâvinirbhāgatayā 4sti nirvrtih // 25 // (I. 66) Ananyathâtmā 'ksayadharmayogato Jagaccharanyo 'naparântakotitah / Sadā ldvayo lsāv avikalpakatvato 'vināśadharmā 'py akrtasvabhāvatah // 24 // (I. 156) Līnam cittam hīnasattvesv 4 avajñā bhūtagrāho bhūtadharmâpavādah / Âtmasnehaś câdhikah pañca dosā Yesām tesām tatprahānârtham uktam // 27 // (I.

S.10 20.11 10. S. S.5 19. bhavati j (should be inserted) upaklmârtho -śuddhyaifa (or śuddhyā hi) avaivartyā bhabodhisattvayânifeān gambhīra-pratityadhaTtaa bhavati / syād vadhakapuruse / tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayaZafesopa— virāgadharma— pāramārthikam ekam euâtrane sarvâfeāra (to be omitted) (mahācakravālapramānena mahācakravālah 1) (Source)*) (T) svaprajñayā drasturn vā bhagavan tathā-dharinā / avi-parivartānugatāni anyonyam bodhisattva upafcaranatām utksālya viçhapati abhāvasvabhāvāt —any atamâvi śista— abhisambuddhabodeh sarvāramwana -dharmā / —saîyadarśana(after) sprśanti / (before) katham upakleśârtho -śuddhyā avaivartyāe? bhabodhisattvān pratītya gambhira-dh. [ 396 ] .2 12.C) (T) (misprint) (cf.6 16.17) (T.10 18.1 5. T. B. line) 2. bhavati syād vadhakapuruse tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayavirāgadharmap āramārthikamevâtrane sarvâcāra laksana— (grammar) (cf. 39.1-2 (T) (Q (T.5 15.15 22.) (cf.9 19.16 4.9 3.2) (T) (T.4 15.2 10.14) (T.4 3.14) (T. 22.APPPENDIX II CORRECTION & EMENDATION TO THE SANSKRIT TEXT OF THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (This table excludes those errata which were already corrected by the publisher). A. S. 11.19 15.2 12.8) (C) (context) (Ms. S. C) (context) (T.8 20.9 16. C) (context) (Ms.7 10. 13. 12 9.2 3.14 5.7 22. Corrigenda (Page.9 11. C.2 18.6-7 20. Chinese Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Edition). 44. & B.) -anyatamâvaśisÇaabhisambodhibuddhyā ? sarvāramftana -dhavmatayeti —tattvadarśana nâpi dttam samfeîistam.15 for read svapraj ñay ājraīium vā drasçum bhagavams tathā[vā —dharmā'vi— -parivartāc? anugatāni anyonya-bodhisattvaup ahar anatām unmīlya ? vithapeti abhāvasvabhāvāra (Ace. S. those Mss. used by Johnston for editing the Sanskrit Text. Ms.C) (T) (context) (T) (before) mahāprthivī- ** T. 49.10. Tibetan Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition).C) (cf.

BGŚ) insert) tatra cchando 'bhilāsah j (T.(T. C) (misprint) kim —sādharmyam (misprint) avinirbhāgadharmā'i'i— nirmuktaguno yad— (context) -upagūdhah sara(context) pradahanti (grammar) balīyo (comparative degree) insert) mūlaparicchinnā (Mss. C) —'pāiaiaitāphalah / (bahuvr.AĀS. 29.The (Page.6 40.9 50.4 24. C) (T) pāpâsamuccheda— nipatanti tān upakurvanty anāgata— (T.7 28.19 36. C) insert) bodhisattvānām (T.12 36. C) darśanena / sa ca (context) -ipremâlambanatah ? (T) śresçhī vā grhapatir t.BGŚ) -samatâpti(T. C) (C) (T.17 37.) (context) -hetava uktā esām (Ms.13 38. C) tryadhvânubaddha (to be inserted) (T. C) (T) (T) [ 397 ] . 32.18 48.15 24.2-3 36. T) esa/i/ (grammar) » —vimuktā— masyaiva (vimuktām asya—) (Q sresthino vā grhapater uoîka.cti āsravaksayâbhimukhydrçf/iod/iyāśayapratipattyā pratired/iyemām— bodhisattvaguno(T.2 46.11 52. context. C) (T) sarvatraparama nrvānâsamāropa(C) aniyata— (C.9 26. 27 sattvârtham nirapeksatā trividhāh -samatâpatti —patitā ihadhārmikā sattvās tadyathā —pāramitā phalam/ -hetava esām (before nityapāramitā sarvatra parama— -nirvāna-s amārop amithyātva—niyata— (after pranidhim iti / pāposamucchedanipatanti * * * anāgataki -sādharmya avinirbhāgadharmā / avinirmuktagunah / yad-upagūdhah / sarapradahati balī yo (before sarvadharmā esa / —vimuktā asyaiva sresthino grhapater ekadarśanena sa ca ekaputrakâdhy ā śāya— premârcunīto śres^hi grhapatir iti āsravaksaydt/ii//îâ&/wmukhydrdhayā'dhyāśayapratipattyā pratiiHcyemāmbodhisattvaga no tathā śesebhyah (Q —āryamārg opadeśena (T.11 44. line) 23.. 29.4) -patitāś cehadhārmikā (C) s attvāfe caturvidhāh /tadyathā (T.17 25. 30.2-3 48.11 34.17 47. C) vaineyikesu (vineya) nirna/iāfcaranam (T.17 39.19 for Ratnagotravibhāga Corrigenda read (Source) tathâśesebhyah -ārye ria-mārgop ade śena vainayikesu nimitāfcāranam (before) triratnavamśabodhanā—padam after v.13 24. 30.5 36.9 46.10 24.13 50. B.7 47. 32.4-5 27.17 42.14 28..17 51. C) bodhano—padam (grammar) (anena kim darśitam) (context) sattvârt/ie nirapeksatā or s attvârf/mnirapeksatā (T) duividhāh (C.16 29. T. S.13 45. p.6 46.

11 76. C) (T) 75.12 71. con.9) (T) (misprint) (misprint) (misprint) (Ms.4 67.3 57.13 88.6-7 68.13 69. context) (context) gāmbhlryaudārya (context) -vinirmukfe fathāgata(T. . TAKASAKI Corrigenda (Page.) dvidhā. line) 55. ' after 'prasādhitah/ 'without changing paragraph.14 72.11 79.15 74. C) pratyātmaveditam prāptonirvāna(T. A) aśubhâdib/utvanājûāna(T.J .7 79.8 86. .12 79. ' and connect 'tad yathā'pi nāma.16 79.7 55.9 71.16 68. C) sūtikāsadmosthita (T) (context) -amalais tribhih (to be connected in Devanāgari) acinty ârhattvam (T. C) vikārā— (misprint) sarve(misprint) tatra (misprint) -advaidhīkāreti (gram.21 67. .15 79. (misprint) vaineyika— (<vineya) dharmadhātur avi(T.5 71. context) tathāgatagarbhā iti (context) -āvrîam (T.6 73. 58. C) [ 398 ] .2 55.3 70. C.) mahādharmâd/iirā/yatvāt (T) iti parikalpitam asya vacanam iti (context) vikalpayitavyā kevalam tv adhimoktavyā te ' tyanfam sāsrava(change the pargraph from ' yathāca s a .13 84.18 84. C) into prose) (C.B) (insert) laukikam j ātyandharūpavat (T.1 64.2 58.13 61.) śubha aviparyastam śūnyatatphalam visamayogah / -visamyogaś ca yathākramam / (T. . 132 tathāgatagarbha iti —āvrtâ dbidhā vainayikadharmadhātor avivikārā sarve tatra-advaidhīkāro ti mahādharmâdhirdjfatvāt iti parikabpam asya vacanāyeti vikalpayitavyā'dhimoktavyā te'tyantasāsravaread (Source) tathāgatad/iātor kim samadharmatayā tathāgato nânyo nispatty-asamekena câkārena jagatujjTutamrāgâdicbiñmoha (Ms.3 70.7 -śabha-aparyantam śūnyatatphalam dvividham / -visamyogaś ca / yathākramam gambhīryaudārya-vinirmuktestathāgata(after)-prsthalabdham j ātyandhafcāy a vat sūtikāmad/iyasthita -amalai stribhih acintyoprāj3ti^ pratyātmaveditā prāpyanirvāna- (context) (misprint) (T.8 71. B) (misprint) (T) (context) (S.19 85.6 70.7 74.19 for tathâgatagarbhasya ki samadharmatayā tathāgato 'nyo ni sp ats v-as amekena ca kāranena jagat ujjñitamrāgâdidviehnoha aśubhâdibAouojñāna(v. Ms.19 56. C) (context) (C.5 73.

(Source) context) . . C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T.5 117.2 98. C) (context) (The following headings had better be inserted:) 117.5 (before v.14 91. v.10 101. C) (T.15 92.15 108.11 93.11 102-21 103.11 118.6 91. 22) (before v.3 100. 16) (before (before (before (before v. context) tathatâmadhikTtya (before v.4 vyanumeyo R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga Corrigenda read vyupameyatah vyupameyo tatAā-tad-adhikrtya (add) uddānam / svayam jñāpanā— apratisamkhyāya hānir (as in the text) musitaîâcitte abhayam -arkaraśmi pravisrta(to be separated) —vad iti vayam apy acirād —sthânā'ntaramalā -vaśād gha\titā sambuddhafe/ierer upoyāti āyāti nikhilam / kle śagatâtmadsrÇyvisrto buddhasūryo vinetâdrou fannipāto -ālokād-alamkrtāft (insert) catursu tanrutyapratyupasthānād câsyā mūlam (C.16 108. to J's correction) musitatā citte abhayadam —arkara śmipravisrta— -tvād iti adyaiva na cirād -sthānāntaramalā -vaśād agha^çitā sambuddhaîūrya tu yāti āyānti nikhilam / kleśagatān drs£y— visrte buddhasūrye vineyâdri-tannipāto -ālokādy-alamkrtāh (before sthānesv-) taccittapratyupasthānād câsya mūlam .16 104. 17) 18) 19) 20) (before v.The (Page.10 94. • v.5 vyanumeyatah 90.6 93.1 116.13 117. 4) svayamj ñāpanā apratisamkhyāpahānir ace. B.9 100. context) (context) (T. context) (metre) (context) (T) (context) (T. 69 (C.9 117.14 106. context) (T. v. ms. . C) (C) [ 399 ] .14 117. C) (context) (T. 25) tatra yadāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah / yathodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yenodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ ātmaraksanopāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau / ksatihetum ārabhya ślokah / ksatiphalam ārabhya dvau ślokau/ āptapunyaparinamane ślokafc / (C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T.3 118. v. line) for 90.15 119. . v. 23) (before v.17 118.6 115.16 111. oy (T) (T.6 108.

As for the ten categories in Chap. Similar terms are used in Chap.e. pp. 26. p . p. i. IX. Of its eight categories in all. [ 400 ] . The Ratnagotravibhāga (RGV) uses in Chap. The 3 meanings are: dharmakāyaparispharanārtha. 5-10. Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. 11. (2) hetu. 1958. I. I I as categories for describing the ultimate reality. while the remaining two are (7) nitya and (8) acintya.e. after explaining the sixth category. About this threefold meaning. No. *' This article originally appeared in The Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies. the phala aspect of the tathāgatagarbha. see my article: The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratngotravibhāga (Uttaratantra). 1961 and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor. After a brief explanation of the threefold 2) meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha made on the basis of v. I. (9) avikāra. I the following ten categories: namely. vrtti.e. 2) RGV. (5) yoga. however. 1. (6) vrtti. (1) svabhāva to (6) vrtti. No. namely. (1) svabhāva. & (10) asambheda.1 1 . the first six categories are the same as those used in Chap. the commentary says: (3) phala. vol. the statement mentioned above probably means that these ten categories are commonly used in the scripture for describing the tathāgatagarbha.. 27 . i. 26. Also see Introduction. 11. (7) avasthāprabheda. 1 0 . needs to be corrected to some extent by the following descriptions in the same RGV. the Buddha's nature).APPENDIX III DESCRIPTION OF THE ULTIMATE REALITY by Means of the Six Categories in Mahāyāna Buddhism *' To describe the characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha (the matrix of the Tathāgata. I I I . i. 348-353. are made) with no variance anywhere in the scripture 1 } .e.. VII. (8) sarvatraga. R G V . the RGV says in the commentary that there is a (tenfold) category by which all kinds of explanation of the meaning of the tathāgatagarbha exist (i. Vol. tathatâvyatirekârtha. 2. 1) yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tad ( = tathāgatagarbha)-arthasūcanam bhavati tad api. This statement. (4) karman. § 2. with special reference to the term tathāgatagotrasambhava. & gotrasambhavârtha. while the threefold meaning belongs only to the RGV. I.

k a r m a k a h /1 ( I . Then how is this set of six categories used in the scripture (pravacana) and what is meant by the. . B) tribhir gāmbhiryaudāryamāhātmyaprabhāvitair buddhakāyair nityam ā bhavagater acintyena prakārena vartanam vrttih. vrtti 5) . and hence the basic one. I. p. 12-14. 40. where the seventh and the eighth categories are said to be included in the sixth. What we come to know from these passages is that a set of categories which is commonly used. with reference to this very category of vrtti. is not the whole of the ten categories. . svabhāva. RGV. . i. 16-18. and that the object to which is applied this set of six categories is not the tathāgatagarbha alone. The reason for the correction will be shown below. but the first six categories beginning with svabhāva.The Ratnagotravibhāga After this passage. p. RGV. yoga and vrtti 4 ) . . (4) mahodadhir ivā 'meyagunaratnâksayâkarah / s) atah param etam eva vrttyartham ārabhya tadanye catvāro 'rthāh prabhedanirdeśād eva veditavyāh.term pravacana ? At first. the other [remaining] four categories are to be known through separate explanations 3 ) . . 11. 11. 5—6. This is proved from the use of the same set of categories in Chap. but is the Ultimate Reality in every aspect inclusive of the aspect of tathāgatagarbha. hetu. 4) ye kecid anāsravadhātunirdeśe nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu bhagavatā vistarena nirdistāh sarve te ebhir eva samāsatah sadbhih svabhāva—hetu-phala—karma—yoga—vrttyarthaih . 40. phala. p. karman. and thirdly that the RGV added four categories to the regular set in order to explain the mode of manifestation (vrtti) of the tathāgatagarbha. .e. (2) (3) . . sadā prakrty—asamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / dharmâdhimukty—adhiprajñā-samādhi—karunânvayah/ (v. RGV. [ 401 ] . as showing special characteristics of the vrtti aspect of the Ultimate Reality characterized as bodhi or āśrayaparivrtti. we shall see how it is applied in the basic verses (śloka) of the RGV. II.c h a m a p r ā p t i c c h a n d a p r a n i d h i . 11. 30) śubhâtmasukhanityatva-gunapārmitā-phalah I 6) d u h k h a n i r v i c . And also: All those teachings on the immaculate Ultimate Reality (anāsravadhātu) taught by the Lord in detail through various forms of doctrines are contracted in brief into these six categories. •' -tā phalam / in the text. 3 5 ) (1) . 79.

See note 6. These four verses. which has 'hbras-bu-can''. though they are interrupted by the commentary passages. See also Tib. [ 402 ] . the excellent intellect.— And as its [various manifestations in the forms of] ordinary beings. the Sages and the Buddhas are not differentiated from the Reality. unity. Having aversion from the Suffering and desire for and vow to the attainment of the Quiescence as its functions. happiness and eternity as its result. 8) ' . TAKASAKI pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayukta—svabhāvatah // (I. tā phalam/ ' in the text is corrected for the same reason as above. IX. Meditation and Compassion:— Having the climax of qualities with respect to purity. . 56) sarvatas tathatājñāna—bhāvanā-samudāgamah/ sarvasatva-dvayâdāna-sarvathâksayatā—phalah// 8 ) (IX.— Thus is it taught by those who perceived the Truth). as a lantern [is inseparable from its light and others]. t h e reading ' -pāramitā-phalah' as a Bahuvrīhi comp. 58fy svabhāva-dharmasambhoga-nirmānair bhinnavrttikah / dharmadhātuviśuddho yam buddhānām samudāhrtab // (IX.. an imperishable receptacle of treasures of innumerable qualities. .— Being. like the pure [character] of a treasure. 42) pfthagjanârya—sambuddha—tathatâvyatirekatah/ sattvesu jinagarbho '•yam deśitas tattvadarśibhili // (I.J. As being by nature united with its properties inseparably. are no doubt composed in a series. the sky and water: Following after faith in the [Mahāyāna] doctrine. [there exists] this Matrix of the Victor ( = Tathāgata) among the living beings. sarvadharmadvayâvara—tathatāviśuddhi—laksanah I vastujñāna-tadālamba-vaśitâksaya—laksanahj/ (v. 57) kāyavākcittanirmāna-prayogopāya-karmakah/ samādhi-dhāranī-dvāradvayâmeya-samanvitah jj (IX. 45) (5) (6) (Being always ujidefiled by nature. whose subject word is 4 jinagar~ bha1 in the last verse 7 ) and in which is applied a mode of the set of six categories previously known to the author. Quite a similar application of the same mode of description in a series of verses is found in the Mahāyānasūtrâlamkāra (MSA). like an ocean. should b e accepted. 59) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 7) Being appositional t o 'jinagarbho 'yam'.

it was no doubt the RGV which imitated the MSA. the subject word for the whole sentence. because according to Prof.— It manifests itself variously by the Body of its own essence. And is the inexhaustible controlling power of the knowledge of the nature and the object of its cognition. 12 b. versions. as for the ślokas or basic verses in Chap. studies. but. The following is a comparative table of the 4 verses of BBS & MSA in their Tib. and as the RGV quotes the MSA in the commentary. speech and mind as the means of appliance. But the MSA cannot claim its originality of the use of the six categories. 2-5. Thus in the application of the same mode of description. I. has many traces of the influences of the MSA on its doctrine (e. 108.e. p. p. by that of Enjoyment of the doctrine. Vol. and by that of incarnation:— [Thus] is explained this immaculate Ultimate Reality of the Buddhas.e. Nagoya. 23) jchos mams kun—gyi de—bshin—ñid/ jsgrib gñis Idan dag mtshan-ñid-can / /dños-po śes-pa de dmigs-pa/ /dbañ tshad mi—śes mtshan—ñid—can// /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad-nas/ MSA (Peking Mdo-hgrel. 7) /chos rnams kun-gyi de—bshin—ñidj /sgrib-gñis dag-pahi mtshan-ñid-can j /dños-po śes-pa de-la dmigs / jdbañ zad mi-śes mtshan—ñid do II /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad—nas j 9 [ 403 ] ?7 . the influences of the MSA are scarcely observed except for the application of the six categories mentioned above. avikalpajñāna and tatprstalabdha. It is the result of the inexhaustible formation of the two [i. 1940. II of the RGV which. though there is no example of application of the same mode in a series of verses as above. BBS (Nishio's text.— It is originated from the practices of wisdom with regard to the Reality in all respects. translation & the Tib. Repr.g. texts). about the commentary passage of Chap. etc. It is endowed with the gates of meditation and mystical formulae and with the immeasurable accumulation of the two [i.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (Its characteristic is the purification of the two kinds of obscurations with regard to the Reality of all phenomena. Phi.) (Studies on the BBS and the Buddhabhūmi-vyākhyāna.— Its function is the transformation of body. bliss and wisdom]. 9 ) .) These four verses in a series are said to be the ślokas on the topic of tdharmadhātuviśuddhi' which is. almost the same ' The same is possibly said. the RGV and the MSA show a close relationship between them. It is especially certain about Chap. I. the triple kāya theory. 10) Kyoyū Nishio.. Bucchikyoron no kenkyū (in Jap. at the same time. like 'jinagarbha' in the example of the RGV. Nishio's information 10) . 2 Vols. benefit and happiness] by all possible means for the sake of all the living.

even in the days of the composition of the YB. pratyaveksa-jñ.. p. ādarśa-ñ. in which is also found the mention of the same set of categories U ) . rgyu. Dsi. and hence the originality seems better to be ascribed to the BBS. (Repr. p. bya-ba (kriyā). 30. has not such a clear theory as that found in the BBS on the buddhakāya or has no exposition of the four kinds of wisdom (i.J. hjug-pa. krtyânusthāna-jñ. Namely. TAKASAKI verses as in the MSA mentioned above are found in the Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS) towards the end of the text as a kind of concluding verses. It is however still difficult to regard the BBS as the only source of the set of six categories. but without any detailed comment. There seems to be no use of such a set of terms in Sanskrit grammars although most of the terms used for the six categories are the technical terms of grammar. are as follows: no-bo-ñid.e.) Peking Mdo-hgrel. hbras-bu. we shall proceed to examine the extent of application of the said categories. curious enough is the manner of mention of the said categories in the YB. not necessarily to be affixed to any special scripture or treatise. there are other passages in the MSA where the doctrines taught in the BBS are summarized. 230 a. It is found in a couple of verses /bsgoms-la yan-dag hgrub-pa-can / /bsgoms-pa las ni yañ-dag hbyuñ/ fsems-can kun-la gñis bskyed-pa/ jsems-can kun-la rnam-kun-tuj jrnam—kun mi—bzad hbras—bu—can// /gñis bskyod mi—zad hbras—bu—can// jlus dañ ñag dan sems sprul-pahi/ jsku dañ gsuñ dan thugs sprul-pahi// jsbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can yin/ /hbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can te / /tiñ—ñe-hdsin dañ gzuñs sgo dañ j jtiñ-ñe-hdsin dañ gzuhs sgo dañ j / dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /rañ-bshin chos~rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /rañ-bshin chos-rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /sprul—pas tha—dad hjug—pa—canj /sprul de—dag—gi(s) tha—dad—hjug/ /sañs-rgyas rnams-kyi chos~kyi dbyiñs/ jhdi-ni sañs-rgyas rnam-dag-gi/ /mam dag hdi ni yañ-dag brjod// jchos-dbyiñs rnam-par dag-par bśadj/ u > YB (Tib. there is another mode of application in the MSA. and at present we have no objective proof to fix the order of composition between the two treatises. but is to be understood as 4 the word of predecessor'. Because the Yogācārabhūmi (YB). Vol. [ 404 ] .. 361 a. 5-6. [khyad-par-du] sbyor-ba (viśesa-yoga).. Furthermore. Now. therefore. Vol. I suppose that the set of terms are put or rather inserted in that passage in connection with the word 4 artha ' (meaning) just because there was a traditional usage of those terms as a mode of description among the Vijñāvādins. (Ch) Taisho. both of which are the central topics of the BBS. samatā-jñ. 304). it is found in the passage where the science of grammar (śabda-vidyā or vyākarana) is explained as one of the five sciences (vidyā-sthāna). 109. In this respect. What is meant by the term ' pravacana' in the RGV is. Besides their application to the dharmadhātuviśuddhi.). Also. The six terms in Tib.

p. 113. p. 1595). 143 b 3-5 (Repr. Thou art perceived in various worlds and in the circles [of the assemble of Bodhisattvas through thy two apparitional Bodies]. Mdo-hgrel. adfśyaś c as a r v a t h ā d e v a m ā n u s a i f y // ( 6 1 ) . Vol. among which we find the triple Body theory under the category of vftti. 112. According to the Commentary.— And who is endowed with virtues. 334). 2) saTvasatvâgratām pTāptah. and makes them liberate. . 131 a (No. They run as follow 14): /rtogs-pa des gnas dri—med don j (1) Jgañ çpyod rgya-mtshohi ia pha-rol gśegs / (2) > MS Taisho. which are a kind of eulogy on the Buddha. Tib. this is found only in Paramārtha's translation (No.e. The third mode of application of the six categories is found in the first two of the dedicative verses placed at the head of the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhā. not common to the Hīnayāna' 1 3 ) . 258 a). (3. . these two verses refer to the characteristics of the Buddha (buddhalaksana). 150 b (No. The same verses are quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha (MS) of Asaûga 12) explaining that they refer to the highest qualities of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya). M X ' h Ś t *¥ ^ H j& ^ Wt M ^ -h (Taisho. 4) aksayair asamair yukto gunair. who has come out of [the practices in] all stages. [ 405 ] . They run as follows: nispanna-paramārtho 'si.The Ratnagotravibhâga at the end of the work. and this is commented upon by Vasubandhu: 'the highest' means 4 belonging only to the Mahāyāna. Taisho. Śi. 31. 1593). Cf. 13) However. inexhaustible and unequalled. Li. 1592).Vyākhyā.Vol. Peking Ed. i. 1594). sarvabhūmi-viniJjisrtah / (1. a commentary on the Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS) of Asaûga. p. ( 6 ) (Thou art the one who is perfect-transcendental. lokesu drśyase / (5. 46 b 3-6 (Repr. 111 a (No. who has attained the highest point among all living beings. . It seems to show that the use of this set of categories belougs only to the Mahay ana. Peking Mdo-śgrel. sarvasatvavimocakah 11 (XX-XXI 60) . and Vasubandhu's authorship is somehow doubtful. ") AS. However invisible is thy [Body of Essence] by all means to those who belong to the world of gods and human beings). 141). 31. 6) mandalesv a>py. 31.

we have got. 113.. This explanation is exactly on the same line as in the MS. and to the Doctrine and Holy community as well. 31. Having reached the other shore of the ocean of practices. (4) (4) (5) (6) (I bow to the Buddha. 765 b-c. to Jinaputra (Rgyal-babi sras). He leads [the living beings] by skillful means and in an inconceivable manner. 144 a 2-3. (C. in treatises of the Vijñānavada. (Sthiramati) ibid. i. one is the collection of terms concerning the phenomena (laksana). while in Tibet. I must lastly refer to the Abhidharmasamuccaya in which is an explanation of this set of categories as one of the seven methods for interpreting a topic in discussion (sāmkathya-viniścaya) under the name of artha-viniścaya17). by P. pp. Santiniketan. a fairly good account of the idea of the six categories and their applications to the Ultimate Reality. It is divided into two parts. & C ) .) Taisho.— He is endowed with the immeasurable and marvellous qualities. le ) AS Vyākhyā. bsam mi—khyab / /hdul-bahi thabs-kyis hdren-pa-can / / Jgshal-med legs gyur yon-tan ni / Iran dan gshan don gñis-la brten / Jsañs-rgyas chos dañ hphags-pa-yi / jtshogs-lahañ de-phyir phyag-htsal-lo // (3). Pradhan. TAKASAKI jchos-kun dban-phyug. the commentator15) says that by the first two there are shown the six categories with respect to the excellent qualities of the Buddha. And is the foundation of the benefits of his own and of others). Commenting on these verses by himself. the works of the Yogācāra school or the Vijñānavādins. 693 b. I think. And having [attained] the controlling power over the phenomena. No. because— He is [by nature] the realization and the immaculate truth established by it.e. i. Before giving a conclusion to this investigation. the categories of svabāva. ibid. p. however it may be called. it is ascribed to Sthiramati. 102-103 (This passage is restored from Tib.J . 16) . Thus examining. hetu etc.) ed. Śi 344 a 345 a 8 (Vol.. [ 406 ] . 1950.) Peking. 17 ) AS (Tib.e. (Skt. and the Sāmkathya") According to Chinese tradition. the other is that of terms concerning the interpretation {viniścaya). 5555). The Abhidharmasamuccaya is a kind of classified lexicon of technical terms of the Mahāyāna Abhidharma.

Being thus situated and in comparison to the other six methods. sāmbandhiko y. . phala . . we may safely say that there was a traditional use of the set of six categories among the Vijñānavādins for describing the Ultimate Reality. and taking the explanation in the RGV referred to at the beginning of this article into consideration. nisyanda-. pra- bheda-. 5. avasthāna-. vipāka-. it modified the six categories according to its own need but without losing their original character. questioning (sampraśna). . 4. aviparyāsa-. 5. parinati-. laksana-. samskrta or asamskrta. 1. summary (samgraha). 2. y. dialogue or logic (vāda). upalabdhi-. (Skt. however. 1.The Ratnagotravibhāga viniścaya is the last of the four chapters belonging to the latter part. because the sub-divisions of the six categories include all the varieties. Additionally. It may be natural from the logical point of view as the terminologies used for the six categories do not contain any evaluation in themselves. 4.. though it is written by one of the Vijñānavādins (it may be sure at least from his knowledge of the use of the said categories). pravrtti—. purusakāra-.. . . there is no example of their application to any subject other than the Ultimate Reality. unsatisfactory for us. . [ 407 ] . adhipati-. 5. . and implication (abhisandhi).e. commentary (vyākhyā). 4. āvasthiko y. can be described. Rather. to Pradhan's text). paratantra. i. I will give a rough observation on the modified use of this set of categories in the works belonging to the so-called Tathāgatagarbha theory. this arthaviniścaya is clearly a mode of description or interpretation recognized by the authority of the Vijñānavāda. 3.. 2. . of impure or pure character. The explanation of the six categories in the AS is. 3. 1. 2. 2. 2. kāritra-. The RGV.. has established the system of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. Actually. prāpti-. visamyoga-. and to describe its doctrine. 1. 1. 4. viparyāsa-. It shows us merely the terms of three to five kinds of each category 18) . and that its latest example available to us is observed in the AS Vyākhyā. 3. but not any example of application of the whole set as examined above. But the modification was further extend'ed until the character as categories of general use has disappeared by mixing or replacing of the new terms which show the characteristics ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5. vaikāriko (6) 18 svabhāva . 1. 3. terms are ace. sāmūhiko y. however. utpatti-. it seems difficult to limit the application exclusively to the Ultimate Reality. exhibition of difference (prabhidyasamdarśana). so that by using one of them any kind of subject. siddhi-. hetu . 3. 2. parinispanna. karman. . parikalpita.. . ānubandhiko y. yoga .. vrtti . vyāvasāya-. 3..

19 [ 408 ] . (All of these works are kept only in the Chinese Tripitaka. 16. and the twelve categories of the bodhidtta in the Dharmadhātvavis'esaśāstra (DAŚ) 19>. Taisho. BGŚ. 470 c. TAKASAKI of the Absolute belonging to the Tathāgatagarbha theory. Taisho. 796 6. p. 31.J. DAŚ. p. titles are restored from C). p. 32. As such examples we have the ten categories of the tathāgatabodhi in the Anuttāśrayasūtra (AÂS) . Taisho. 892 o. the ten categories of the tathāgatagarbha in the Buddhagotraśātra (BGŚ). ) AÂS. and their Skt.

INDEXES .

346 a—grāhya. 311 acintyatā. catur-vaiśāradya (G I) bala daśa-bala (G II) āven. 74 aksaya-dharma-yoga[tā]. Terms in brackets refer to those not found in the Ratna. Reference is to the pages in the present work or section numbers applied in the present work. 326 acirasthāyin. 289 akrtrima-dharma. 23. 3. 90 agra. § VIII (III-IV)-5\ 40 agni (s. 240 [ 411 ] . 353 agra-sattva ( = buddha). 216 acintyârhattva. 154 ~ -aye vyākaranam. 159. 164 acintya-namana-cyuta. 82. 256 a-citta. 92 aksayya ( = aksaya). 74 agra-bodhi (VP 5. 112. (B VIII). 192 a-gocara-visaya. 130 a-caksumat. 273 a-ksūnam (ksûna = dosa). 116 agra-yāna. 84. 108. 2. 92 a-krtrima. 321 acintya-prakāra. 68. 342 a-cintya. 188 a-gotra. RG II). 260 acintyā pārināmikī cyutili. 4. mahāpurusalaksana (G IV) karman (RG IV) (9 illustrations) (I-IX) K s. 315 akrta-svabhāva[tā]. simile amśu. Terms with the mark § refer to the subject matters of the text. 296 acala-prākāra. 114 aghosavat. 130 acintyatva. 339 acalā (bhūmi). Abbreviations : vajrapada (1-7) VP RG ratnagotra (4 aspects) (I-IV) TG tathāgatagarbha (3 meanings) (a-c) (10 aspects) (I-X) (9 illustrations) (1-9) B bodhi (RG II) (8 aspects) (I-VIII) G guna (RG III) (I-IV) vaiś. 94.INDEX OF SANSKRIT TERMS 1. 314 a-kuto-bhaya. 76. 92. 92. § XIII (VIII). for mrtyuvyādhijarā). āvenika-buddhadharma (G III) mahāp. 258 a-ksaya. 70. 317 a-kalpana(-jñāna). 349 a-krtaka.

387 adhimukti. 167. 70. 205 an-aksarokta. 169 atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. 156 anābhogâpraśrabdha (buddhakārya). 380 adhisfhāna. 367 an-avasthita. 120 ajñānândhakāra-vidhamana. 112. 82 a-nātha. 239 an-aparânta-koti(tā). 114 adrsta-pūrva. 233 an-āvilata. 345 ananta-dyuti (amitābha). 132. 116. 232. 84. 114. 114 an-ābhāsa-gamana. 205 anāvarana—dharma. dharmakāya). 256 ananyath£-bhāva (svabhāva) (TG b). 116 an-abhisamskrti. 126 [ 412 ] . 167 anādikāliko dhātuh. 328 a-tat-svabhāva. 122. 74 ~ -duhkha-anātma-aśubha. § XVIII. 275 anāthâvasatha. 158 anātma-samjñā. 74. 216 anabhisamskrta-kriyā.J. 30. 215 anāsravatva. 243 ananyathā'tmā. 130. 214. 80. 74. 217 an-anya-posi-ganya. 193 anavarâgra (-samsāra). 401 anāsrava-pada ( = anāsravadhātu. 78. 273 a-jāti. 328 an-argha. 321 anāsrava-dhātu. 124. 178 an-apakarsana. 279 anāsravam karma. 142 adhigama-dharma. 232 adhanya. 78. 252 a-nitya. 114. 68. 209 a-dvaya. 382. 275 anātha-śāla. 331 a-tulya-tulya. 92. 104. 76. 282 anda-sāra. 363 a-tat-bhāva. 334 a-tat-prahita. 164 a-dvitīyam paurusam sthāma. 359 an-āsrava. 256 an-abhilāpya. 26. 86 açavī. 70. 182 ~ & deśanā-dharma. 244 a-jñāna. 319. 245 atyanta-tamo'paha. 185 an—ācāryaka. 306 adhikrtya. 112 anāsrava-karman. 114. 92. 126. 275 anātha—veśman. 248 an-artha. 257 "*> -apatita. 84. 112. 246 adhyāśaya. TAKASAKI a-cyuta (pada). 193 adhyālambati. 86. 82. 74. 231. 275 an-ādi-kālika. 92. 318 atulyatuly a-dharmatva. 373 anābhogatā. 219 an-apacaya. 70. 201. 104 ~ -duhkha-anātma-śānti (śānta). 217 a-drśya. 371 an-avadya. 180 adhigama. § XVIII (IV). 257 anartha-jāla-vigama. 68 an-ādimadhyânta. 130 atyanta-vināśa. 376 anantâcintya-rasa-rasâgratā (mahāp. 82. 224 an—ādi—madhya-nidhana. 200 adhimukta-śukla-viraha. (bala 5) 120. 244. 297. 92. 128. 339. 313 ~ -samanvāgama. 262 anda-kosa. 164 advayatā. 286 a-tattva-bhāvitva. 376 an-āsvādana(tā). 102 anādi-bhūta. 130 atyanta-pācaka. 21). 126. 92. 130. (-bhāvanā) (TG II hetu 1). 110 a-trptatā. 116. 118 ativāhana. 118 an-abhisamskāra. 82. 390 ananyathā ( = yathāvat). 328 a-tarkya. 86 adhimukty-anuśamsa. 182 adhiprajñā ( = prajñā). 147. 108 adhisthita. 351 an-āvarana-gāmin. 369 adhika. 368 an-ābhoga. 381 ajasram. 240 an-avāpta. 104 atyantânanyathābhāva.

239 an-upāya-patita (sattva). 80. 49. 80. 98 a-nisjhita. 68. 324 animittatā. 343 abhāva. 264 an-utpādatā. 76. 213 aparântako^i-sama. 114 anisthāgata-bodbisattva-sāmtānika. § XVII-5. 278. 88. 80. 264 a-paryanta . 158 abhaya-da. . 76 anuttara-tathāgata-jñāna-sama. 158 anugunam. 329 [ 413 ] . 184. 80. 283 anusandhi (vāsanā-). 363 anuślesa. 126 apsaras. 334 an-upacaya. 204. 197 antargata. 220 a-pratihata (yāvadbhāvikatā). 84. 126. 334 apratisthita-pada. 363 aparântakoti-nistha. 361 antadvaya-vivarjita. 327 antar-amala. 153 anusañga. 170 anuśāsana. 327 apravrtti-laksana. 227 abhinirvartayati. 151 abhijñā. 342 a—parinirvāna—gotra. 287 anugāmin. 155. 220 aparinirvānagotraka. 23. 268 apaj/vad. 181 anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. 379 a-prameya. 192 anugraha. 207 anutisçhate (anu]/sthā). 80. 114 anutpādânirodha (tathāgata). 356 abudha ( = abuddha). 187 a-nispatti. 191 an-uttara. 114. 191 anuśamsa. 74. (artha-) 219 a-nairyānikatva. 363 anuśāsti-prātihārya. 232 antardhi. 263. 114 apratisthāna—mūla. 241 apratisthita-nirvāna. 116. 128 an-udgraha. 176 apramāna (catur-apramānāni). 82. 68. 323 apratisthānatā. 74. 200 anvādhana. 238 anitya-samjñā. 216 apakāra.a-pratisthāna. 202 aparinirvāna-dharma. 86 a-pranihita (vimoksamukha 3). 222 anuśaya. 394 antarvat. 124. 246 a-pratigha ( = apratihata). koçi-gūdha. 246 apakarsa. 387 apavāda. 169. 147 . 74. § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 203 anupūrva-naya. 146. 330 a—parimita. 112 a-pratipraśrabdha (K). 114. 268 aparāhata. 182 abbijāta. 144 an-uttrasta-gati. 185. 249 anya-tīrthya. 86 a-pariśuddha (ksetra). 50. 176 apratighāta. 116. 205 a-nirodhatā. 51 anuttarā samyak-sambodhih. . 118. 231. 56. 124. 147 anubhava. 151 a-pratikūlo darśanena. 343 abhayatva. 76. 72 [anuttarâsraya]. 366 anuśaya-vat (bāla). 181. 245. 275 antahpura-rati-krīdā. 82 a-nimitta. 131. 384 anujāta. 112. 368 anu]/bhū. 149 —anvaya. 86. 72. 156 aparādha. 340 anutpattika-dharma. 351 a-prādeśikatva. 114 a-niyata-rāśi. 161 aniyatab. 358 antarīksavat ( = ākāśavat) (G III) antargama (buddhajñānântargamāt). 302 aprthag-bhāva ( = yoga) (TG V). 118 anuttaram karma. 248 apagata-kāca. 355 a-praśrabdhitah. 156 a-parapratyayodita. 84. 76.The Ratnagotravibhāga antika. 24. 128. 147. 15. 377 anutpādânirodhatā. 203 anyonya(m). 114. 283. 70. 354 anugata. sattvarāśih. 104 a-parapratyayâbhisambodhi. 151 apaneya. 158 abhaya.

149 avasānika. 236 ayoniśo manasah krtih. TAKASAKI abhinirvrtti. 169 abbeda. 222 abhisamskrta. 336 abhiprasanna. 92 avidyā. 132. 199. 317 abhisamskāra. 166. 88. 24 amalârka (mohavisamyoga). 387 a-bhinna. 210 abhilāpa. 108. 59. for buddhatva). 98. 124 avikalpa-jñāna. 70. § VIII (IX a-IX c). 106 abhūta-vastu-nimittârambaça. 24. 364 avaruddha. 114. 114. 145. 94. 166 abhilāsa. 217. (TG X). 70. 24. 390 amukta-jña (buddbadbarma). 234. 237 ayoniśo-manasikāra. 199. 322 abhisamaya. 58. 176 avabhāsa. 74. 74 abhisamasya. 236 ayoniśomanaskāra. 325 abhinna—prakrti. 88. 114 arhat-sāmtānika. 282 avadhārayati. 259 amedhya. 72. 110 avikalpa-dhātu. 161 avasāna-gata. 363 avaśistatā. 222 abhivyakti-karana. 199. 236 aribat ( = arhat). 407 artha-sandhi. § VIII (IX) avasthā-prabheda. 259 amukta-jñāna ( = amuktajña). 108. 76. 263 a-vandhya. 241 a-mrsā-mosa-dharmitva. 388 arūpitva. 82. 108 avikalpatah (K). 98 alamkāra. 230 avākyavattva. 155 abhimukhī (bhūmi). 215 avidyâkāra. 235. 168. 118 a-vikalpa. 263 abhiniveśa. 228 arpana-bhāva. 269 avacchanna. § VIII (VII) (TG VII). 88. 70. 152 alpa-phala. 23. avikalpa-lokottara-jñāna. 68 abhūta-kalpa. 250 abhisamdhāya. 358 avabodha. 114. 302 . 362 arbat. 92. 388 arhat tva. 157 abhisambodhi. 335 abhiseka—labdhā bodhisattvāh. 94. 66. 145. 249 avavāda. 250. 152 avabhrtka. 114 arka (s. 215 abhinirhāra. 342 a-mala. 158 abhiniveśa-darśana. 88. 132 [artha-viniścaya]. 116 avikalpa(tā) (tva). 198 artbavat. 348 abhyutksepa. 199 abhedya. 94 abhisambodha. 172. 241 avikāritva. § VIII (TG IX). 90. 274 abhyupeksana. 124 a-yathā-bhūta (— atatsvabhāva). 70. 165 abhisambuddha. 110 amitāyus (rsi) (a Buddha). 247 abhyupāya. 199 artba-sādhana (RG IV). 114. 70. 251 abhirati. 237 abbūta-grāha. § III-4. 224 avasthā (a-c). 76 avikāra. 130. 118 abhisyandana. 106. 262 amalā bodhi (RG II).J. 100 ambuda (kleśa). 182 abhisamaya-paryavasāna. 169 [ 414 ] . 142 ~ & vyañjana. 385 arthavad-dharmapada-upasamhita. 164 abhiseka. 100. 355 artha. 305 abhūta-dharma. 292 amūla-mūla. 168 ~ & tatprsthalabdha. 382 arthânubhava. 142 artha-pada. 169 a-yoni-manas-kāra. 365 abhiprasāda. 252 abhimukhī-bhavati. 82. 246 abby-ut]/ksip. 326 avalīyanā.

114. 321 a-samhārya. 171 a-virata.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a avidyā-vāsa-bhūmi. 268. 94. 38. 112 asaûgatah. 112. 349 r 415 . 98 aśuddhabhūmi-gata-kleśa. 161. 4). 279 aśuddha-bhūmi. 189 a-samgati. 106 a-śaiksa (buddha). 341 a-sambaddha. 219 asamāhita (citta) (āven. 231 aśuddha-bhāvanā. 278 a-vināśa. 24. 236 asamskrta-pada. 228 avinirmukta-jñāna. 270 astamyādi-bhñmitraya-bhāvanā-jñāna. § VIII (IX b) 88. 168 avinirmukta—gun a. 68. 151 a—viśesana. 156. 255 avyatibhedatā. 361 astamgama. 84. 144 avinirbhāga-dharmatā. 92. § XV (III). TG V). 92 avinā ś a—dharmin. 82 aśubhâdi-bhāvanā-jñāna. 265 a-viparyasta. 238 a-stambhita. 74. 382 — asparśa-dharmin. 231 aśubha-samjñā. 112. 321 avinirbhāga ( = yoga. 100 a-vyatireka. 248 ahamkāra. 100. 198 aśani. 294 a-vimala (śrāvaka & pratyekabuddha). 104. 361 ahlādaka. 262 a-sañga (yathāvadbhāvikatā). 189 —' & apratigha (apratihata). 266 avinirbhāga-dharma. 327 asambheda. 228 a-ślesa. 176 (buddha-jñāna). 76 avinirbhāga-vrtti. 110 avināśitva. 120. 302 a-viparyāsa. 214 avidyāvāsabhūmi-samgrhīta (-kleśa). 130. 327 a-samavadhāna. 68. 26. 82. 114. 98 a-śūnya. 208 a—vipralambha. 388 a-śarana. 211 avaivartika (bodhisattva). 20. 258 a-sāra-mūla (sarvadharma). 327 asamskrtatva. 171 asatkāma. 198 a-visamvāditva. 144 avinivartanīya-bhūmi. 172 a—svabhāva. (TG X) § VIII (X). 104. for jñāna). 88. 104. 315 avinirmukta—klesakosa (tathāgatagarbha). 130. 94. 212 a-samskrta. 114. ~ (-avasthā). 182 asad-ātmagrahâbhirati. 110. 92 a-vivartya (-dbarma-cakra). 259 aśūnyatā. 76 a-vivartika (bodhisattva). 172 asvāmikatā. 124. 98 astādaśâvenika-buddhadharma-samanvāgata (buddha). 361 asatya. 222 a-samkhya. 188. 112. 72. 174 avināśa-dharma. 24. 74. 145 avinirmuktajñāna—guna. 98. 172. 98. 112. 171 asamāropana. 257 asamskrtapadatva. 278 aśuddha-śuddha (avasthā). 230. 143. 86. 120. 327 a-samkhyeya. 177 a—viparoksa. 120 astitva. for kleśa) 96 a-śuddha (bāla-prthagjana). 366. 74 aśuci-samsārâbhirati. 86 avinirbhāga-guna-dharmatva. 82. 68 asukhatva. 377 a-sakta. 90. 297 ahitatva. 98. 156 asamskrta-dharma. 292 avinirbhāga-dharman. 118. 212 <~ vihārâbhirati. 382 < ' -gunavattva-śaktatva. 82 aśuci-samkāra-dhāna (TG 4. 292 a-sambhinna. 72. 183 aśaiksa-samtānika. 241 asi (s. 114. 114 a-samkoca. 340 astambhitatva. 246 asamskrta-dhātu. § VIII (IX a). 82 a-sama. 341 a-samsarga.

231. 104 ācarana-krt. 264. 377 ābhoga-kriyā. 288 ādāna-nimitta. 22. 194 ārambana-carita (bāla). 340 ārya-gocara. 128. 228 āgantuka-mala. 208 ātroa-sattva-sama-sneha. 132. 376 ā bhava-sthiteh. G III). 388 ādhya. 86. 122. 120 āvedha. 365 ārsa. 292 [ānantaryāni. 94. § III-4. 183 ārsabha-sthāna. s. K VIII). (B V. TAKASAKI ākara. 88 (for dharmakāya). 237. 386 [ātma-śuddhi]. 332 ādi-praśānta. 84. 211 ātma-darśana. 307 ātmopādāna-mūla. 126 ātmâbhipreta. 368 ārambana. 384 ~ & yukti. 390 ātma-samjñā. 324 ādi-ksaya. 96. 86. 207. 348 āryâstâñga. 254 āśaya. 72 ādi-pratijñā. 126. 82. 385 ārsabha. 157. 290 ~ paryavasāna. 363 ādhāra. 201 āvilata. 170 ārambanamykr. 360 [ārūpyâvacara-devavimāna]. 159 āpanna-sattva-nārī (TG 8. 225 ākāra. 279 ānupūrvī. 21. 167. 24. 56. 53. 118 ādeśanā-prātihārya. 193 āmisa-rasa. 130. 379 ārūpya (-samāpatti). 124. 374 āvarana. 112. 183 ārsa-vacas. 205 ātma-drsti. 108. 144. 100 (for tathāgata. 371 ārya.. 58/. 208. 163. 179 [ātma-raksanopāya]. 174 ādi-prakrti-śāntatā. 154 ā bhava-gateh. § XVIII-2. 213 āgantuka. 60. 266 ākāśa (s. 165. 106. 209 ātma-prapañca. see cittaprakrti āgantukatā. 98 ārya-mārga. 279 āniñjya-samskāropacaya. 355 ākāśa-dhātu. 170 ārūpya. 309 ātroa-sneha. 55. for kleśa). 273. (TG III. 94. 388 āranya-pravicarana. 211 ātmâvajñāna-dosa. (RG I) ( = gotra). 44 /—' & cittaprakrti. 132 [ālaya-vijñāna]. 157 ā bhavâgratah. 82.J. 310. § XVIII-3. 112. 108. 306 ātmâparādha. 116. 26. 370 āśraya. 170. 315 ~ ksiti-pratyupasthāna. 102.). 128 ākāśa-svabhāvatā (buddhakāya). 259 ādi-nirodha. 132 āptâgama. § XVIII-5. 132. (G III). 80. pañca-]. for cittaprakrti). 116 (for āvenikabuddhadharma. tad-ā. 112. 157. 289. 132 āpti-nistha. 151 āra. 124 āvenika-dharma. 275 [āpta-punya-parinamana]. 323. 102. 84 ātma-bhāva. 80. 118. 193 ākāśopama (. 359 āvrti. 112 ākāśavat (buddha). 232 ālokād alamkrta. 52. 122 (for buddhakarman. nisthāgamana). 192 ārya-satya. 124. 253 āryapudgala-sāmtānika. 366 ātma-pāramitā. ( = bodhisattva) (TG VI 6). 60. § XV (III). 66. 106. 106. § V I I I (I-II)-2. (ratna-). 316 ātman. ( = buddha). 86 ālokanīya. 190 ārnava. 82. 132 āniñjya. 213 ākāśalaksano buddhāh. 40. 237 āloka (of pradīpa). āvaraça 2). 274 ātmam-bhari. 124 āgantuka-kleśa. 382 [ 416 ] . § XIII-2 (VIII). 21. 290 ālīna (āi/lī). 132 ātma-samraksanopāya. animittatva). 8. § XVII-2 (II)..

86 92. 202 I îpsitara padam. 157 utsañga(-pādatā) (mahāp. 339 indhana. 187. 82. § IX. 361 upanidhāya.). 84. āśrayasya parāvrttih]. 60. 358 upaśama. 332 uttara-tantra. 28. 295 upāya-kauśalya. 72. 96. 175 upakleśa. 176 upanisad-gata. 149 -upahita. 353 upaharanatā. 321 uddeśa-mukha. 241 upastambha. 120. 266 upātta. 227 icchantika (TG II-III. 39. 247 upadrava. 177 upaneya. 338 uddiśat. 274 * utksālya. 321 ucchitti-praty ay a. 130. 212 upaśama-prabheda-pradeśa. 60. 46. 297 utpāda. 330 upāyāsa. 285 udāra. 149 upapattim ca tusitesu. 242 upalambha. 203 upāya-vid (buddha). 228 iha. 147 indriya [-parāpara-jñāna-bala] (bala 3). 278 upasarga. 6). 37. 244 -upādāya. 50. 300 upavāsa. XVII (comm. 306 uttari-bhāvayitavya. 225 upakāra. 157 udāna. 16. 248 upaklista (citta). 245 [ 417 ] . 331 uttame yāne paripācana. 215. 361 upeksâpratisamkhyā (āven. 68 upaśānti-pada. 197 upaydā. 214 upāya. 190 uttarana. 297 upagūdha. 222 itara-prādeśika-jñāna. 176 ito-bāhya. 401 ā śrayaparivrtti-prāpti-naya. 204 iha-dhārmika. 106. 157 ā samsārāt. 254. 124 uccheda-drsti. 216 upaVgam. 341 āsraya. 80. 118 āśv api. 116 uttara-kāla(m). 227 āsrava-ksaya-jñāna. 310. 102. ~ & tad-parāvrtti. 122 udāharana-samgraha. 209 upādāna. 329 upabhoga. 116. 114. 130 [āśraya-parāvrtti. 15. 202 icchā. 157 āspada.). 12-13. 220 ā samsāra-koteh. 86. 112. 258.The Ratnagotravibhāga udaya ( = abhisambodhi). 150 unmūlita. 84. § XVII-4. 124. 385 uddeśa. 219 ujjhita. 112. 160 upaśānta. 104 upanyasana. 150 uttama-yāna. 246 upāya-patita (sattva). 209 upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. 14-17 udhāharana-pindârtha. 41-44. 312. 343 āsanna-dūrī-bhāva. 299 uttara-kuru-dvīpa. 376 āsrava-ksaya. 80. 187 āśrayaparivrtti. 162 upasamkleśa. (RG II) § XII-XIII. 298 uparodha. 120. 128 uddāna. 344 utsukatā. 41-44. 357 u ucchitti. 80. 82. XV. 357 îryā-patha. 199. 86. 80. 270 upacāra. sattva 1). 145 unmīlya. 203 indriya. 327 udāharana.

38 eka-rasa. s. 375 karunā-nisyanda. 244 kuśalamūla-samprayukta (kleśa) § VIII (IX b)-2. 249 kumuda. 145 ubhayatâvikalpana(tā). 344 AI aiśvaryam uttaram. 346 R rddhi. 120. 307 krpā (=karunā). 146 kanaka-bimba.) (VP 7) (RG IV).). 88 karma-vipāka-jñāna-bala. 245 kuksu. 122. 199. 275 kupyanti. 190 kāya. 122. 116 krtrima. 70. 185 kalyāna. 122. 28). 242 kāranânubhavana. 200. 346 ekaikaviślista-mrdûrdhvadeha-pradaksinâvarta-sūksma-roma (mahāp. 66. 166. 253 krtyâsramsana. 311 karma-kleśa. bhāvanā. 255 eka-dhātu. 92. 364 . 375 kāya—dvaya. 303 ekaputraka(-samjñā). (TG 9. 68 (jñāna--^) keśa-kambala. 118. (B IV). 80. § XIII-(IV). 114. 275 kalaviñka-ruta (mahāp. 332 rddhi-pāda. 86 karunâtman. 122. 338 karma-samkleśa. 100 ekâgrī (-bhavati). 118. 156. for dhātu). 209 K kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrīhi. 108. 226. 224 kuśala-mūla. 317 kimkaranīya. 96 kambu-grīvatvam amalam (mahāp. 332 rddhi-prātihārya. 367 AU audārika. 22. 6). 118. 363 rsi (=buddha). 151 kāma-dhātu. 110. 306 krtya-sampādana.J. (TG IV). 72. pada-. 98 kāraâvacara-devavimāna. 189 ekânta-cārin (=pratyekabuddha). 323. 118. 349 ekaika-romodbhava. 337 E ekakbana-samāyukta (prajñā). 245 kuśala-sampad. 156. 180 kāranā. 180 kāra. 128. 90. 189 eka-jāti-pratibaddha (bodhisattva). TAKASAKI -up eta. 285 audārya (sambhoga-kāya) (B VI6). 86 usnīsa-śīrsa (mahāp. (nāma-. 82 kalala—mahābhūta-gata. 151 Ū ūrdhva-dehâvarta (roma) (mahāp. 90 [ekayāna]. 346 eneya-jañghatā (mahāp. 238. 82. 70. 345 kalpa. 22). 124. 116 karman. kuśala-dharma. (buddha-k. 132 kuśalopasampadā. 313 aurasa. 122. 371 ekaika-viślista (roma). 170 eka—nay a. 242 kārunya. 124. 100. 55. 28. § VIII (III-IV)-5. 287 kāca. 182 kāya-guhyaka (K 8). 302 ekânta. 384 krtya-kriyā. 346 karunā. 342. 220 usna (of pradīpa). 384 [kuśala-sampat-sattvânugraha]. 23. 345 [ 418 3 . vyañjana-k. 84. 361 kālusya.). § XVIXVII. 100. 14). 180 kāra-kriyā. 332 kālânatikramanatā. 26). 68. 369 kuśala-karma-patha. 271 kathā-vastu. 319 <--' ena pravrttih.

( ~ & dosa). 330 KH khaga (vyomny apracārah khagah). 106. 94. VII (tathāgata-gotra) (TG c). 66. 281 kleśa-viśuddhi. 210. (RG III). 122. 387 gahana 363. 371 gahvara. s. 96 ksaudra ( = madhu) (TG 2. § IX-1 (1-9). 118. 283 garbha-gata (dhātu). 306 kleśa-kośa. 387 ksaya. 336 guru. 145 gana ( = samgha) (VP 3). 174 ksati. 86 ksanika. 254. (TG III) § VIII (III-IV) (4 — śubha. 303 guna—nispatti (caturākāra—g.tathāgatagarbhâstitva) godāvarī-dvīpa (godānīya-dvīpa). 206 gañgā-tīra-rajo 'tīta (buddha-dharma). 128. 114 kleśâvarana-visamyoga. 265 grhapati (for bodhisattva) (parable of) § VIII (IX6)-3. 351 garbha (=tathāgata-garbha) (VP 4) (RG I).—sarvatā. 182 klesa. 158. for dhātu). 311 guna ( = buddha-guna. 2) 114 guna—dharma. -aprameyatā. 96 kleśa-karma-vipāka. 285 gāmbhīrya (svābhāvika) (B Via). 254 grantha. 96 ksetra (apariśuddha). 90 geya. 49. 262 guna-pāramitā. (mani-gotra). 112 kleśa—mala. 28. (VP 6). 78. 209 graha. 100. 369. 145. 100. 88 gunavat. 124. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 150 gagana-gañjā (samādhi). 141 gana-samtāna. 268 klesa-duhkhâbhāva. 284. sukha. (B VI). 271 khārodaka. 190 gospada (=gospada). 110 kleśa-samkleśa. 348 guhya. 124 kleśâvarana-prahāna. (TG 2. 291 gamana. 161 ~ & jñeyâvarana. 269 garbha(-sthāna) (s. 23. 178 [ 419 ] . — g. s. 70. 108 kleśendhana—dahana. 37. ātma. 285 gocara-visaya. 114. (5 g. 222. 275 garbha-kośa-mala. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyatikrānta (buddhadharma). for kleśa). 110. 94. 108. 116. 328 kola (-upama). 68. 72 gati. 102. 233. 88. 390 ksiti ( = prthivī) -> prthivī-tala ksiti-pati (-> cakra-vartin) ksudra-prānaka. 130. 150 gunavattva.. 167 gañgā-nadī-vālukā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 148. 130. 82 kleśâvarana. for samādhi). 166. 145 gañgā-sikatâtivrtta (guna). 100 gotrâstitva (->.The Ratnagotravibhāga ' ^ avabhāsa. 21. 116. 218 ksānti.) 1) 106. 80 garbhâvakramana. 142. 366 khandikā. 329 Vgarh. 114. 84. 74 kleśa-nirodha. 259. nitya) guna-prakrti. 108. 151 khādy-asusamskrta. 331 kaivalya. 150 gotra-svabhāva (TG c). 36. 290 garbha-vestita. -acintyatā. 382 guna-vibhāga. 313 gāmbhīryaudārya-māhātmya. 76. -viśuddhiparamatā). 114 (-tva). 149 gotra (VP 4) (RG I) ( = dhātu) § VI-1 (ratnagotra). buddha-dharma). 74. IX-4 (gotra-svabhāva) (TG c) 21 &. 320 gāthā.

84. 298 jāla. 59. 76. 342 jinatva. 70. 270 jātakāni. 357 citta-viśuddhi. 363 cyavate (]/cyu). 110 jaghanya. 3). 166 cakra-vartin. 255 cātaka. 90. 82. ~ vat.. 128 cintitârtha. 22. 250 citta-nidhyāpana. 236 ~ & āgantuka-kleśa. for dhātu). 96 cittasamkleśa-dharmâgantukatva. 120. 60. 82 jambu-dvīpa. 203 caryā-pratipanna (bodhisattva). 116. 344 citta. 27. 344 jina (-buddha). IX). 104. 347 cetanā. 360 citta-caitasika. 92. 22. 114. 367 CH chanda. 295 citta-samtāna. 96 cittavyavadāna-dharma-sahajâvinirbhāgatā. 216 jātya. TG a). 172. for dharmakāya. 317 . 35. 223 caraka. 90 jñāna. 216 jala-ruha. 344 cañkramyamāna (īryā-patha). 190 cāru—vaktra. 76. 230 (-viparyāsa). 329 cyuti-duhkha. § XVII (VI). 24. 167 [citta-mātra].) 227. 304 jagac-charanya. 34. (TG 8. 420 ] . 329 jāta-rūpa.). 122. 269 janman. 236 cittâbhisamskāra. 359 citratā. § VIII (VIII. § XVI-XVII. 222. 299 ghattita. 94. 88. 361 ghosa. 346 citâmśa. 236 citta-vyavadāna. 357 caturvidhâviparyāsa-samjñā. 152 jāti. 239 chidrâbhra. 266 jāla-pāni-pādâvanaddbatā (mahāp. 96. 92 jagat. 263 cintāmani (s. 82. 23. 59. 68. 118. 120. 156. 72. 78. 163. 120. 90 cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu. 222 cetah-paryāya. 402 jinatā. 166 catuh-śukla. 308. 124 jina-garbha (=tathāgata-garbha). (for sāmbhogika). laukika-jñāna). 191 cittasya prakrtih. 243 cyutim tatah. 329 janma-samkleśa. (RG I). 72. (na ~ sya hānih) (āven 7). 277 citta-samjñāpana. 70. 196 cihna. 22. 298 citta-prakrti. 236 jarā-marana. 190 jarā. jñātr. § XV (II). 116. 106. (=tat-prsçhalabdha. 151 catur-vaiśāradya-prāpta (buddha). 341 chavi. 365 cātur-dvīpa. 222 citra. 172 jagat-parispharana (karunā). 229. 339 [catus-kotikā]. 100. ( = āsravaksaya-j. 96. 146 jina-kriyā (VP 7) (RG IV).J. s. (=buddha-jñāna) 108. 100 citta-samkleśa. 269 jathala. 53. 233. TAKASAKI GH ghatita. 102 cakrâñka (-pādatā) (mahāp. 233 citta-mano-vijñāna. 328 citra-lekhaka (parable of) § VIII (X)-3. 96 cittavyavadāna-hetu (tathāgatadhātu). 116.

86. 266. 80 tūrya. 266 jñānadarśana-śuddhi. 25. 369 tamas. 154 jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra. 109 tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. 169 tala. 272 tat-prsthalabdha (jñāna). 8. 128. 23. 229 tathāgata (=buddha) (VP 1) (TG IX c). 288. 114. 130 tathāgatagotra-sambhava. s. 143. 116 141.). 260 tārā-rūpa. 23. 383 IX-4. 110. 102. 126 jñeyârtha. 74. 104. 116 tathāgata-kula. 203 tamo—vidhamana—jñāna. & nirmalā t. 28. 230. 98 tathāgata-mahākarunā-vrtti-hetu. 259. 400 (^garbha). 196. 114. 30. 154 jñāna-nihsrti (K V). 230. 82. 98. 22. 395 tusa ( = bahistusa). 357 tathatā-svabhāva (TG b) § IX-4. 199. 323 tathāgata-garbha-śūnyatârtha-naya. 90. 37. 319 tathāgata-dharma (RG III).. XVII jñâpana. 24. 82. 76. 215 tri-bhuvana. 25. 258. 315 tathatā (TG b). 108 tad-ubhayânabhilâsin. for kleśa) tathāgata-karman.. 100.#74. tridaśeśvara. 23. 72. 226 tathāgata-śarana-gata. 198 tathāgatagotra-svabhāva. 202 tathatâvyatireka. 72. 124 tusitesv upapattih. 122. ' tīvra-rāga-dvesa-moha-paryavasthānalaksana (kleśa). 68. 287 tisthat. 163 samalā t. 356 299 tri-dhātu-samkleśa-nibarhana. 68. 145 tathāgata-dharmakāya (VP 5) (RG II). tādrśa. 198. 78. 290 (-> dhātu) tathāgata-bodhi-jñāna. 108. 26 taruna. 202 tapat. 198 tathāgatatva. 53. 78. 94. 80.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a ~ & karunā. 132 tridhā-vimukta. 120. 102. 24. 288 (-> gotra) trimandalâvikalpa. 287 timira. 78. (RG IV). 327 30. 325 ^ vipranasta-citta (pudgala). 114 jñeyâvarana-visamyoga. 100 tri-mandala-pariśuddhi. 231. 94. 360 tathāgata-krtya-kriyā. 70. § VII. 288 tathāgata-jñāna. 88. 8. 28. 13-15). 198. 102. VIII. 286. 389. 371 jñeyâvarana. 104. 100 tīrthya (TG II. 108. 344 tattva-darśana. 36 421 ] . 198 tathāgata-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I) § VIII-IX. 177 jñāna-dehin (=dhîmat). 92 jñāna-darśana. 259 tad-āśrayah (B V) ( = yoga). IX-4. 76. 74. 22. (TG 3. 100. 70. 70. 112. 278 22. 80. 292. 78. 181 (TG a-c) § VII. IX. 161 jñeyâvarana-prahāna. tri-bhava. 189 tathāgata-tathatā'vyatirekârtha (TG6). 21 ff. 100. 342 jñānâpti. 149 tathāgatagotra-sambhavârtha (TG c). 110 tattva. 78. trayâvarana-nihsrta. trikāya. 151. 60. 100 tīrthika. sattva 2). tri-jñāna ( = śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-j. 74 tathâgama. 287. 340 jñeya (-vastu). 120. 72 198. 382 tathāgata-gotra (VP 4) (RG I) (TG c) § tri-bhūmigata-mala. 323 jñāna-dhātu. 381 tathāgatagarbhâstitva. 124 tathāgata-garbha (VP 4) (RG I) § VII-XI tyājya. 375 jñāna-pūrvamgama (karma) (āven. 100. 187. 24. 169 tarkâgocara. 202 tathatâvyatibhedatā. 161. 76 tathāg ata-dharmakāy a-p arisphar an art ha (TG a). 96. 108 jyesçhi-putra. 76. 36. 114 tattvadarśana-vibandha. 287. 154 jñānadhātv—āptinistha. 291. § II-2.

). 367 (duhkha. 166 dvay a-graha-vimukti.J. § XVII-3. 280 (-viparyāsa) deva-dundubhi (K II). 152 dagdha-pûrva. § XVII-2 (II). 41. 236 darśana. 74 try-adhvan. 318 dvisāhasra-lokadhātu. 285 deśanā-prayojana./. 48. 106. 100. 116. 375 darśana-prahātavya (kleśa). 92 traiyānika-gana. 128 darśanā-deśanā-pravrtti-krama. 74. 351 deśana (nt. 205 duhkha-samjñā. 193 ~' triratnâtpatty-anurūpa—hetu. 348 drdha—karunâdhyāśaya. 126 deśa-kāla-gamana. 98. 128 daśa-pāramitā. 96 tvañ-mdru-śrī-tarunatā (mahāp. 104 dosa (=dvesa). 130 duhkha. 116. 150. 269 dvesa. 126 devadundubhi-vat. 84 duhkha-nirvit. 122. (for niryāna). 370 divaukas. 110. 344 D daka-candra (=ambu-candra) (G IV). 122. 344 dundubhi. 104 dāna. 229 drstānta. 92. 339 dīpti. 98. 252 drsta-satya (— tattva-darśin). 278 [ 422 ] . 70. 233. 232 daśa-bala § XV (I). 122. 283. 124 daksinîya. 158. 182. 124 dūramgamā (bhūmi). 355 durgrhīta-grāhin. 122. 375 darśanâdi-navadhortha. 110. 128. 70. 124 daśa-bhūmi-stbita-bodhisattva. 58 traidhātuka. mārga). 122. 169 dvesânusaya-lakasana (kleśa). 98. 4). 347 dakacandra-vat (buddha). 216 dravya. 94 dīrghâñgulikatā (mahāp. 80. 158. 197 dosa (TG VIII a). (K II). 70. § XV (IV). 82. 198. 167 dvidhā darśanam. 193 tvak-kośa. 356 divyā-caksus (=cyuty-upapatti-jñānabala) (bala 9). 100 darśanā. 128 drsti. 203 durbhaga. 70. 278 darśana-mārga. 205 duhkhâgni-praśamana § XVIII-2 (III). (5 dosa). 278 drdha.anupaccetr. 375 deśanā-dharma. § XI. 120. 80 drdhâdhyāśaya. 110 dina-krt. (K I). 255 dūsya. 285 [deśanā-naya]. 185 durlabhodaya. 174. 128. 88 daurgandhya-vāsanā. (bīja-tvak) (TG 6). 108. 342 tryadhvânubaddha. 128 durlabha-prāpata-bhāva (tathāgata). 180 dvipadâgrâdhipatya. 167 darśana-heya (-vyāvrtti). — -nirodha. 330 duhkha-nirodha. 163 dosâgantukatā. 193 < . 74. 328 deśanā. 284 trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. 190 [tri-svabhāva] (parikalpitâdi). 128 durlabh6tpāda-bhāva (of ratna). 88. 147 trividdha-svabhāva (of TG) § IX-4. 120 daśa-bhūmi. 387. 254 dehin. 126 duhkha-cārikā. 16-18). 2). 305 deśanī. 126. 47. 118 dvātrimśan-mahāpurusa-laksana-rūpadhārin (buddha). § XV (IV). 343 dvādaśa-bhavâñga. 372 durlabhatva (K VI). § XVIII-2 (VI). 84 duhkha-bhīrutva. 116. 128. 342 tryadhva-jñāna (āven. ~ -hetu. (?). 338 dvi-pada. 130 dāridrya-vinivartana(tā). 263 dm-mārga-bhāvanā (=darśana-bhāvanāmārga). 318 dvaya. 290 ^^ — pratibimbaka (manomayakāya). TAKASAKĪ tri-ratna-vamśa. 190 dvīpâgrâdhipa.

82 [dharmadhātu-viśuddhi]. 120. 255 dharma-ratna (VP 2). (VP 2). 308 dhī—māndya. 56. 268 dharma. ( = mārga). 296 nāga-ko śavad-vasti-guhyatā (mahāp. 390 dharmâloka-mukha. 110 ~ -hetu. 46. 114 dharmâkāñksin. 132. 80 dhāranī. 257 dhruva-dharma. 352 dhātrī (s. 343 dharmatā-gahvaratva. 74. 290. 120. 23.. 132 dharma-ksati-hetu. 146 dhī ( = prajñā).~). (catur-). 299. 66. 385 dharma-parameśvara. 284. (TG a) § IX-4. 231 nabhas (s. 100. ( = yāna). 224 dharma-pada. 112. (VP 5) (RG II) (āśrayaparivrttilaksana . 304 naya. 235. 290 ( = hetu). 27 dharmakāya-viśuddbihetu. 405. 102. 56. 388 N nagara (parable of). 96. (dkāranir āj asūtra) § 1-3. 235. 366 dharmâkhyāna-naya. 171. 182 naya-mukha (-ena). 142. 320. 132 dharma-cakra (-pravrtti). (bala 4). 70 dharma-dundubhi. 339. 147. 94. 196. 120. 276 dharmâdhimukti (TG II. 108. 116 dharmatā. for karunā). 31. 244. 118. 292 dharma-kāya. 403 dharmadhātu-samanvāgama. hetu 1). 86. 325. 30. 322 dhyāna. 198 ~ sya śodhanam. 92. 232 dharma-sthititā. 200 dharmānām dharmatā. 365 dhāranīśvararāja (sūtra). (VP 2) ( = dharma). 70. 94. 21. 100 dharma-kārakriyā. 149 ~ — mukha. 102. 160. 68. 66 ~ -ātmabhāva. 21. 325 -dharman. 122. 110 dhyānâdi-kleśa-vaimalya (bala 7). 234. 116. for tathatā). 130. 252. 108. 303 dharmakāya—prāpti. 86 dharmadhātu-svabhāva. 88. 104. 78 nabhas-tala. 248 dharma—skandha. 252. 344 [ 423 ] . 124 dharmakāya-garbha. 102. 146. 7). 106. 271 dharmaiśvarya. 68. 155 dharmatva. 132 dhīra (dhīmat). 303 dharmadhātu-nisyanda. 104. 80 dharma-viçhapanā. 74. 39. 112. 331 ~ -prakāśana. 126. 110 dharma-rāja-jyesfa-putra. 339.The DH Ratnagotravibhâga dharmabhrd-āra. 226 dharmakāya-svabhāva (TG a). § XVIII-4. 175. § VIII (IX b)-6. 126 ' dharma-dvisa-sevana. 104. 295. 225. 78. 290. 112 ~ & (vi-)muktikāya. 292. 72 nava-yāna-samprasthita (bodhisattva). 92. 223 ( = yāna). 118. 22. 294 dharmârthavāda. 184. 285 dharmadhātu-parama. 261 nava-candra-vat. 219. 74. 72 dharma-ksati-phala. 322. 36. 238. 25. 144. 239 dharmeśvara. 323 dharmatā—nisyanda. 295. ( = guna) (VP 6) (RG III) 23. 68 dharma-tattva. 132 dharma-meghā (bhūmi). 291. 214 dhātu. § II. 142. 74. 224. 375 dhīmat (=bodhisattva). 205. 379 dhyāna-vāry-abhisyandana. 167. 132 dharma-dhātu. 389 dharma-bhrt. 31. 66. 262 dharma-paryāya. 144. 116. 72. 100. 330 dharmacakra-pravarta. 26. 149 dharmarāja-putra. 314. 339 dhruva. 118. 225 ( = hetu). 225. 161. 192. 70 <~ -gunavibhāga. 26. 141. 187. 30. 110. (VP 4) (RG I). 22. 28 ff. 166. 266 dharma-divākara. 268. 320. § XVIII-4. 70. 76 193 dharmadhātu-garbha. 370 dharmadhātu-kriyā. 104. 320 ~ & rūpakāya. 8. 231 dharma-bhānakatva. 22. 70 dharmakāya-parispharanatā. 114. 29. 10. 294.

74 [ 424 J . 261 ~ & samsāra. 373 nirāstha. 389 nipāta. XVI). 122. 187. 31). 76. 116. 122 nirīha (G IV). 348 nistha. 331 nivāsânusmrti (bala 8). 340 nirgranthi-putra. 124. 166 niruttara-tathāgata-karman. śāśvata. 209 nitya-samjñā. 310 nirmāna (-kāya). 233 nisthā-gata. 367 niskalpa. 5). 167. 88. 84. § XIII (VII).J . 31 nihśrayena. 373 niskaivalya. 76 nihsarana. 38. 164 niskimcana. for vyādhi). § XII-XIII. 330 nirvikalpatā. 352 nirvrjya. 357 nisevya. 144. 351 nisyanda. 116. 308. 326 nirvedhika(tva) (G I). 208. 373 niyata-gotra-svabhāva. 114. 126. 270 nivarana. 74 nirmalā tathatā (VP 5. 86 nirvāna-dhātu. 348 nirdosa. 257. 122. 341 nāma—paryāya. 4). 94. 339 niśchidra. 346 nāśa. (TG 5) (s. 122. 389 niravaśesa-yogena. 171 nimitta-grāhin. 82. 258 nirdainya. 213 nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. 170. 222 nihśritya. dhruva. 341 nirāsthatva. 294 nirātmatā. 106. 289 niryāna (=yāna). 258. 116. for [dhātu.~. 165 nirodha-satya § III-3. 108. 290 nir vānâdhigama. 82. 92 nisthāgatabodhisattva-sāmtānika. 184 nispatti. for sattva. 270 nivartya. 124. 122 nirmamī-karana. 328 nisyanda-phala. 311 . 23. 380 nārakâgni (s. 114. 126. 90 nārāyana-sthāma-drdhâtmabhāva (mahāp. 354 nidbi (=nidhāna). 285. 264 niśraya. 358 niranukrośa. 266 nirvrti ( = nirvana). 102. 21. 353 nirvana. 108. 171 nimnonnata. 92. 352 nidhyāna. 31. 27. 112 nimitta-varjita (tathāgata). 92. 102. 84. 106 nirnānā-karana. 165 nirodhâpti (vaiś. 118 nirvāna-gotra. 167. 74. 146 nidhāna (s. 318. 208 nidāna. 102. 120. 348 nirīhaka. 262 nispādya. 284. 221 nirvrtih paramā. 106 niravajya. 294 niyata-rāśi. 348 nirj/han. 120. 122. RG II). 182 nihsarana-paryesin. 243. 27. 193 nirbhayatva. prakrtistha-gotra). 66 nirodha-mārga-satya. 325 nidāna-parivarta. 76. 250. 262 nisthāgata-bodhisattva. 292 nisanna. 9). 221 nihsamkleśa-visuddhi. 321 nitya. 242 nirmala. 257 nitya-pāramitā. 344 nirapeksa-pravrtti § XVII-2 (III). TAKASAKI nānātva-samjñitā (na ~ ) (āven. 84. 320 nimittârambana. 158 nāyaka. 203 nirdeśa. 21. 98 nisthāgamana. (B VII). 365 niravajñā. 259 nāma-rūp a. 84. 248 nirālamba. 120. 370 nimitta. 74. 70. 116. 70 nirviśistam. 170 nimitta-bhūtatva. 122. 184 nisthā (-guna) (TG VIII c). 170. 39. 120. 102 nirvānâdhigama—kriyā. śiva. 357 nirukti. 321. 178 nirantara-citâmśatā (mahāp. 161 niyama.

332 nyagrodha (-> vrksa) nyagrodha-pūrna-druma-maçdalâbha (mahāp. 382 parikarma-krta. 214 paripāka. 116. 371 padârtha. 292 parikīrtana. 29. 213 pātāla-stha. 151 neyârtha. 100. 24). 182 paryavasthāna. 263 paryutthāna (=paryavasthāna). 72. 190 paramâtman. 184 paryanta-kāla-śarana. 30). 322 paramârtha-satya. 150. for kleśa). 130. 130. 100. 58 mca. 231 parama-śūnyatârtha. 187 parivrājaka. 21. 270 patthara-cunna ( = prastara-cūrna). 324 parikalpita (or parikalpa). 112 parârthasampatty-adbisthāna. 126 naiskramya. 330 naihsvābhāvya. 118. 308 nairātmya-koti. 29. 372 pāpa-suhrd. 224 parijaya. 262 pariśuddhi. 66 pada ( = sthāna. 254 paryanta-kāla. 124 p arama-vi śuddha-dharmatā. āspada). 203 pariśrānta. 120 "^ & samvrti-kāya. 122. 245. 148 parigavesayat. sarvajña). § XIII (VI c). 277 paryāya. 209 pattra. 257. 319. 253 paricchādita. 310 padma-(kośa). 114. 214 parama-nirvāça (TG X). 348 paligodha (->• phaligodha). 84 nairmalya. 199 paramârtha—laksana. 116. 7 8 nairmānika (kāya). 108. 26. 367 pavitra (tā). 114 -paryanta. 104 paripantha. 104 paramânu. 112. 132 nairātmya. 68. 148 parispharana. 142. 156. 21. 211. 118. 122. s. 128 parama-tattva-jñāna-visaya. 336 [ 425 ] . 387 neyârtha-tattva-graha. 388 [nihsvabhāvatā]. 82. 258 paramârtha-kāya. 285 nīti. 124. 199 parama-dharmaiśvarya. 324 nairyānikatva. 322 parusa-sparśa-rabita. 102. 353 parigrahana. (TG I. 84 paramârtha. 120 paramârthakāyatā.The Ratnagotravibhâga paramârtha-darśin (== sarvadarśin. 318 parsad-gana. 106 nîta. 294 parispharanatā. 371 parusa. 184 paryavadāpana. 245 parimārganā. 112. 193. 174 nairātmya-prapañca (-vigama). 162 parāvrtti. 295 paryāpanna. 169 paryesti-duhkha. 252 parikarman. 29. 96. 74. 288 parinirvāna. § VIII (III-IV)-3. 222 parivrtti. 383 parisat. 260 parârtha-sampatti. 94. 386 nllotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (mahāp. 346 nrpatva. 285. 386 [nītârtha]. 98 para-cakra. 361 paratah. 171 parigraha. 285 parampara. 112. 269 netrī. 346 pañca upādāna-skandhāh. 210 para-pratyaya-sambhava. 186 paramârtha-dhātu ( = tathâgata-dhātu). 307 nīca-citta. 114 parama-bodbi. 150 paryavasāna. 252 parijñātāvin. 110. 120 parârtha-sampad. 74. 195 para-pārami-prāpta.

128 pratipaksa.) ( = paramārthakāya). 250 pratibhā. 84 ~ & jñāna. 76 prakrti-pariśuddha-dharma-garbha. 100 pūri.J. 205 pranidhi. 108. 188 prakrti-prabhāsvaratā. 55. 104. 74 pārami-gata. 102. 289 pratibimbaka. 308. 84. 128 prsjha-labdha (jñāna). 96. 112. 303 prakrti-pariśuddhi. 80. for bodhisattva). 370 pratārayati. 181 [ 426 ] . 207 prajnāpāramitā-bhāvanā (TG II. 288 ~ & samudānîta. 179 pratiroma-krama. 106 nāsti prajñayā hānih (āven. 86 ( = avikalpajñāna). § XVII-2 (VII). 341 prajñā-pāramitā. 189 prakalpayati. 57. 84. 90 puçya. 187 pratītya-dharma. 72. 169 pratijñā. 130. 342 pūti. 22. 70. 178 paurvâparyena. 128.) . s. 98 prthivī (K IX). (ekaksana-samāyukta . 231 prthagjana-śaiksa-sāmtānika. 171. 315 prakrti-śuddhi. 330 pratikrti. 222 pranihita-manas. s. 190 prthag-jana (TG VI o). 174 prakrti-viśuddhi. 288 prakrty-asamklisça. 381 pāramitā (sac) XVIII-1. 27. 264 pratisarati. 21. 239 prakrti-citta-jñāna. 263 pratisthā. 76. 254 pratipannaka. 70. 94. 124. 363 prajñapta. § XVII (IX). 189. 106. 383 pūrna-candra. 321 pūtivastra (TG 7. 72. 130 prthivī-dhātu. 205 pratipaksatā. 248 prakrtârtha. 283 praghosa. 94. 55. 130. 94. 120 pāramārthika (buddha). 106 — & karuna. for kleśa). 174 pudgala-dharmâvināśatva. 178 puçya—pāramitā. 218 pratiśarana. 360 pratapati. 84 -^ & vaimalya-śuddhi. 130. 290 prthivî-tala (TG 5. 388 pratisvam. 120 prajñā. 253 prativedha. 30. ( = citta-prakrti) 88. 72 punar-bhava. 234 pitr (s. 120. hetu 2). 292 prati-samydhā. 269 -prakhyā. 352. 149 pratirūpaka. 80. 94 pindârtha. 269. 165 pratipad. 78 prakrti-prabhāsvara (citta). 375 prakrti. 300 pratisevya. 204. 201 pratighâkāra. 86. 10). 80. 178 posin. 82. 236. 383 punya-sambhāra. 363 pratipanna. 74. 128. 317 pūrva-videha-dvīpa. 86. 245 puçyâpti. 291. 381 punya-jñāna-sambhāra. 128 pratiśrutya. ( = prajñā-pāramitā-bhāvanā). 98. 256 pratibādhana. 104. 112. 72. 80. 102. 183 purojava. 84. 200 praklinna. TA&ASA&] pāramârtbika(m vapub. 108. 295 pratiśruti (K VII). 108 prakrtistha (gotra). 386 pratibimba. 102. 27. 183 pratibaddha. 210 prativarnika. 203 pudgala-dharmâkhya (jagat). 128. § VIII (I-II)-2. 90. 185 pratividhya. 263 pratigha. 184 pāramārthika-śarana. 355 pratiśrutka-śabdavat. 142. for kleśa) prthivī-vat. 385 pratibhāna. 132 pudgala-drsti. 172. 358 pranudana. 266 posa ( = purusa). 110 pūrna-vimalendu.

98 bāla-prthagjana. 84. 230 praśama-pura ( = nirvana). 179 PH phala. 248 prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. 86. 381 prasādhita. for adhimukti). 330 prāptab. (s. 178. 86. 78. 92. for prajñā). 80 [ 427 ] . 84. 142. 204. 72. 188 pratyaya. 116 bibharti. 157 prapañcayati. 369 praśuddha. 331. 314 pxāpana. 82. 314. 294 pramuditā (bbūmi). (svabhāva) (TG a). 366 protsāha. 26. 385 prabhā-mandala-viśe&ana. (B VI). 365 prasava. 327 prabhūta-jihvatā (mahāp. for TG V. 116 prabhāvita. § XVII-2 (V) prabhāva. § VIII (V)-2. (K IX). 80. 74. 104 bāla-sārtbâtivāhana. 20). 2). 314 pravrtti (=vrtti) (TG VI). 74 prāpta-nirvāna-samjñin. 176 pratyātma-lokottara-jñānadarśana. 108. 242 prādeśika-jñāna. 227 pbaligodha. 108. 72 pratyātma-vedanīya. 318 ~ -vyapagama(tā). 86 pradeśa. 249 prayoga. 70. § XV (I). 345 pravacana. 110 B bala (G I). 163 pratyātmâdhigama-dharma. s. § VIII (III-IV). 193 pramānī-krtya. 128. 311 phala-tvak (-> tvak-kośa) phala-vrksa (-> vrksa) phala-samanvāgama. 361 prādeśika-śarana. 122. 310. 280 prathama-cittotpādika (bodhisattva). 108. 114. 21. 124. 298 praskîialita ( = skhalita). 375 prāpty-upāya (B II).The Ratnagotravibhāga prasanna. 213 pbalgu. 90 prathama. (B III). 221. 72. 163 pratyātma-vedita. 342 prahāna. 122. 214 pratyaya-sambhava. 220. 80. 106. 98 pradaksinâvarta. 110. 354 pratyekabuddha (TG II-IIĪ. 66. 255 prathama-lokottara-dharma-darśanajñāna. for jatā). 120 prāptavya. 345 pramathana. § XIII (VI). 199. (s. 195 pratyaya-laksana (paripantha). 179 bimba (=nirmāna-kāya). 130 pratyātmam. 228 prahāra. 312. 254 pramoksa-citta. 198. 338 bahis-tusa (TG 3. § XIII (III). 92. 201 prabhāva-sampatti. § VIII (VI). 367 prārthanā. 312. 156. 308 [pratītya-samutpāda]. for kleśa). 26. 104 pratyekabuddha-yānika. 178 prādeśikatva. 116 prabandha. 226 pralambba-bāhutā (mahāp. sattva 4). 346 pradīpa (s. (TG" III). 94. 360 pramānatah. 401 pravicaya—jñāna. 285 pratyupasthāna. 90 prāni-gana ( = ksudra-prānaka) prātihārya. 185 prabhākara. 120 prāpya. 357 prātihārya-traya. 82. 246 prabhava. 181. 356 preta. 226. 126. 108. 222 prāsāda. 362 prādurbhāva. 159 prapācana-vyākarane nidānam. 82. 102. 12). 326 bīja. 120 balânvita (buddha). 242 prākrtâgni (s. 234 prāpti (B II) ( = prāpty-upāya). 326 pratyātma-vedya. sarvakālam. 160 prapañca. 290. 100. 276 prākrta. 355 prabhāsvara. 227. 96. 285 prabhā. 120.

§ I V-3'. 316 bhānu.-7. (TG VII. ( = bodhi) (RG II). 370 bodhimandâvakrānti. 152 bodhisattvâbhāsa. ( = buddha-bimba) (TG 1. 27. 90. 66. 330 bodhi-sattva. 331. 66. 243 bhavâbhilāsin. 383 bodhi-manda. 353 bodhisattva-karman. 142 bodhi-citta. 357 bhāskara. 24. 345 BH bhañga. 84. § XII-XIII. for dhātu. 130 bhāvanā-jñāna-heya. 96. VIII (IX 6)-6. 285 bodhisattva-bhūmi. 191 bhava-nir vāna-d vay agr aha-vimukti. 48 (-> bauddha gotra) buddha-jñāna (TG a). § VIII (IXb)-7. 116 bodhimandâpasamkrānti. 76. (TG 1. 104. 118 buddha-dharmâvinirbhāga (dharmakāya). 336 buddha-gotra. 371 bhāva. 197 buddha-jñāna-samudāgama-hetu. 309 buddhatva. for dhātu). m) (K IV). 24. for dhātu) ( ^ buddha) buddha-bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). 23. 92. 334 bhavâgra. 152 bodheh sattvah. 278 bhāvanā-mārga. 197 antargama(tva). 313. 76. 96 buddha (VP 1). 299. 74 bhava. 94 buddha-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I). 24. 24. 29. 266 buddhi. 78. 128. 382 bhājana-loka. 66. 118 bhava-śānty-anudgraha. 66. 404 buddha—sāmtānika. 376 bhavāh (=tri-bhava). 98. 102. 194 bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). 59. 158. 130 buddha-kriyā (RG IV). 88. 50. IXc). 202 bhavana. 310. 128. 76. 74. 261. 376 <• -ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha (bo"' « dhisattva). 86. 108. samudānītagotra). § IX-4. 104. 96. 24. 141. § VIII (X)-2. 23. § XIII (I-II). 68 ~ -gunavibhāga. 353 bodhya (RG I). 239 bhājana-vimātratā. 94. 360. s. 21 brahma-svaratā (mahāp. 72 buddha-krtya (RV IV). 76. 180 buddha-bhūmi. 22. 80. 72 [buddha-laksana]. 194 bodhana (RG IV). 126 bhāti muktam. 66 buddha-visaya. 130. 80. 22. 130 buddha-bhāva. 235. 76. 128 buddha-śarana. 78. 45. 106. § XI. 68. 194 bodhy-aûga (RG III). 355 [<~ & ātman]. s. 128 buddha-garbha (— tathāgata-garbha). 106. 368 bhavyatā. 197 brahman ( = mahā-brahman. 35. 388 buddha-dharma (RG III). 252 bodhy-āpti. 66. 66. 98. 88. 130. 72 bodhisattvâlamkāra. 384 [ 428 ] . 152 bodhisattva-pitaka. 72. 307. 224. § V-3. 132 bauddha gotra. 231. 194. 157 bhaya-samjñā. 142. 92. 158 bhavya. 106. 28. 256 buddha-mandala. 305 ~ astitva. 147. 106 buddha-bimba. XIII (VI) 102 buddha-kāra-kriyā. 94. 124. 66. 122. 118. bodhisattva—mahākarunā. 72. (X)-3. s. 80. 24. 152 bodhisattva-yānika. 180 bodhisattva-samgha. 124 buddha-ratna (VP 1). 100 bhāvanā-prahātavya (-kleśa). 22. 380 boddhavya. 100. 100. 100. 352 buddha-dustâśaya. 299 bhāvita. TAKASAKI bījâñkura (TG 6. § XVII-2 (III). VIII (I-II)-2. 22. 372 bhāvanā. 226 buddbatā. 110 buddha-kāya (-traya). § IV-3. 168 bhāva-vināśa.J. 98. 22 buddha-guna (VP 6) (RG III). 23). 24. 106. 24. § II.

373 mahendra-nīlâmala-ratna-keśa (mahāp. 239 māhātmya (B VI. 271 madhyastha. 165 mārgah sarvatra-gāmini (bala 6). § VI-1 (III). 215 mano-rama. 114. c). 355 māhendra-marutā. 317 musitatā. 346 mahodadhi. 80 mrgendra-hanutā (mahāp. 120. 287 madhu. 276 bhū ( = prthivī). 184 muni-prabhākara. 100 manomaya-skandha. 92. 100. 306 bhūta—dharma. 80. 132 mithyātva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. hetu 4). 126 [ 429 ] . 128. 282 M mani-gotra. 264 māyā-nirmita. 191 mukta-jñāna. 251 mahā-cakra-vāla. 190 bheda. 120. (TG 2. 308 mahākarunā-bhāvanā (TG II. 255 bhūmy-avacara-devavimāna. 29). § XVII-2 (IV). 298 mandala. 358 (mithyā)darśana. § III-4. 98. 90 mātsarya (-ādi). 205 mahârya-saddharma-rasâgra-vindana. 120. s. 297 mala-vigamatā. 262 0 mano-rūpa. 205 mahāyāna-samprasthita. 359 manomaya-kāya-trayah. s. 70. 355. 306 māra-pramathana. 80 mahāyāna-dharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā (TG II. 74 mārga-satya. 339 mārgâkhyāna (vaiś. 197. 80. 375 mano-maya-kāya. 341 mūrdhnā. 74. 190 mahî-ruha. 313. 190 mahâtman ( = buddha). 368 maharsi (=bodhisattva). 372 mandanaka. 122. (of arka. 206. 171 bhūta-koti. 381 bhramara. hetu 1). 151 mahā-samudra. 106. 369 mukti-kāya (^vimukti-kāya). 342 musitā smrti (nāsti --w) (āven. 3). 30. 191 mīmāmsā. 124 mātr (s. 217 manomayâtmabhāva (=manomayakāya). 80. 241 mūla-pariśuddha. 345 mrt-panka-lepa (TG 9. for dhātu). 279. s. (for śrāvakayānika). 161 mithyâbhimānâśraya. for kieśa). 320 mukhâvadāna. 98 bhramara-prānin. 205 mithyā-niyata-rāśi. 104. 126. 358 manas ( = citta prakrti). 21 mūla—paricchinna. 283 mahā-dharmâdhirāja. 80. 357 bhūta. 96. 92. 230 muni. 84. 114 mala-hara. 66 mahābrahmavat. 358 muni-vrsa ( = buddha). 246 mano (-guhyaka) (K VI). 289 mahā-purusa-laksana (G IV). 106 bhūtadharmâpavāda. 335 mahā-karunā. 386 bheri. 84. 276 manasi-kāra 169 manāpa. (K). for cittaprakrti). 190 mahā-bodhi-karunā. 112 mahā-vaisajya-rasa. 362 bhoga. 292 muktā. 80. 330 mārga. 340 mārsāh. 386 mūla. 94' mandalaka. 11. 15). 172 (daśa-) § VIII (IX 6)-7. 74. 3). 305 bhūmi. 122 mahā-pusta (parable of). 189 mahā-prthivī. 132 muni-pati (=buddha). 106 mahāyāna-dharma-pratigha. 82. 359 xnama-kāra. 148. 90.The Ratnagotravibhāga mahā-maitrī. 122. for prajñā). 116. 120. 100. 132 mīdha-kūpa. 369 māra-sainya-pramadana. 150 mani-ratna. 153.

324 msrā-mosa-dharmin. 236 mrtyu-mārâvabhañga. 225. 242 lokâlañkāra.-ākrti). 225 rava. 108. 114. (TG V) § VIII (V). 141 ratna-gotra § VI-XVIII. 249 yathârhatah. § V-4. § IV-1. 106. 355 meghavat. 254. 106 maitrī. 116. b). 196. 126 meghâdivat (śūnya). 305 loka-dharma. 96. 190 rūpin. 72. 347 ratna-nidhi (-> nidhi). 311 yoga-vid. 173 yāvat kālam (B VII). 285 yathā'śayesu. 110. 331 rūpa-kāya-dvaya (see dharmakāya) rūpa-gata. 21. 120. 141 ratna-gotra-vibhāga. 182 megha (K III). ( = r. 124 ravita. 116 yathābhūta-jñāna. 124 yāvat. 94 rāga. 363 loka-nātha. for dhātu). 108. 20 f. 333 loka-dhātu. 376 yogin. (of mahodadhi). 96 ratna-vigraha (TG VII.J. 98 rāgânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 20 ratna-traya. § XV. 173. 118. 76. 169 mohânda-kośa. 76. 90 yoga. (nāsti ravitam) (āven. § IV-1. 109. 325 yoni. VI (4 aspects). 166. 74. 98 rāgâdi-carita-sattva-sāmtānika. 303 yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. 118. 102. 352 ratnâkara. 370 yathāvat. 120 ravi. 112. 173. 74. 412. 110. 114 laksana-prayoga. 343 R rañga-vikrtim upaiti. 181 moha. 98 yathâbliiprâya-pūri(tva). 175. 227 laksana-vyañjana. 384 yugapad-gocara-sthāna. 233 rūpa-ratnâkrti. TAKASAKI mrtyu. 174. 166 rūpa. 208 rūpârūpya-dhātu. 368 ratna. 104 lokottara-dharma-garbha. § II-V. s. 295. 80 mosa-dharma. 102 ratna-svagarbha. 173. 102. 197 rāhu. 90 mrdu-karmanya-bhāva. 308 moksa-mārga-pratihatâśa. 118 mrtyu-vyādhi-jarā (-agni). 332 loka-vid (buddha). 280 yathā-drsta-lokottaradharma-bhāvanājñāna. 169 rāga-rati. r. 2). 357 līna-citta. § XVII-2 (III). 186 ratna-guna-vibhāga. 145. 110 rūpâdikam vastu. 98 mohânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 122. 387 rati-krida. 311 yāvad-bhāvikatā. 116. 278 rāśi. 74 lokottara-jñāna. 278 yathā (ca tat) (B VIII). 303 [ 430 ] . 98. 70. 29. 295. 21 ratna (dārikā) sūtra.) (s. 311 yukti. 311 yathā-drsta. 108. 70. 72. 126.bimba. a). 112. 86 laksana. for jñāna). 98 rūpâvacara-deva-vimāna. 291. 76 yāna (-> niryāna). 185. (5 laksanāh) (of svābhāvika). 229 yathāvad-bhāvikatā. (B V) § XIII (V). 110. 328 rūpa-kāya. 341 raśmi (arka—r. 98 lokottara-dharmakāya-prakrti-pariśuddhi. for mrtyu). 311 yathā vaineyikesu. 86. 74. 211 yathābhūta-darśana. 290. 118. 98. 329 loka-vyavahāra. 72. 316 ruta. 372 yugânta-(agni) (s.

§ 1-1. 175 lokottara-buddha-dharmāb. 202 vibhāga.The Ratnagotravibhāga vithapeti. 120. 338 vipāka-phala. 82. 116 vijñapti. 70. 112 vimati. 86. 102. 303 viparyāsa-viparyaya. (for ayoniśomanasikāra). 92. § XV (I). 128. 23. 88. 142 vajra-pada. 120. 389 vajravat. 299 vibandha (tattvadarśana-v. 155 vibhava. 280 vajropama-samādhi-jñāna. 279 vara. 124 vikriditā (karunā). 296. 76 lodyeta (ylud). 340 vibuddha. 386 vicitra-rasa. 59 vitapa (dharma-v. 31. 23. 94. 80. 148 vipratipanna. 263 varna (of pradīpa) (s. 147 vāsa-bhūmi. 208 viparyasta. 337. 82. 161 vigraha. 120 vipula. 114. 341 vikrama-sampad. 8. 110 vimalā (bhūmi). 68. 267 viydhā. § III-4. 88 vāsanā. 209 vipaśyanā. 100 vasudhântarita. 320 vipaksa. 132. 124 vinivrtta. 124. (— avidyāvāsabhūmi). 76 vimalâmbu. 141 vibhu (=buddha). 157. 169 vibandha-pratisedha (vaiś. 239 vipāka. 178 vaśitā—prāpta—bodhisattva. 2). (for karunā-vrttihetu). 208 viparyāsâbhirata. for āsravaksaya). 155 ( ~ prākāra) vimala. 325 vicālya. 255 viroalā buddha-gunāh (RG III). 351 vinayâbbyupāya. 86. 274 vidbi. 319 vibhūti. 277 vāsanânusandhi. 387 laukika (-jñāna). 78. 215 vikāra. 321. 114 ( ~ ucchitti). = timira). 112. 282 vāk-patha. 66. 373 [vijñapti-mātratā]. 385 viparyaya. 68. 375 vāta-mandala. 159 vithapyante.). for karunā). 351 vibhutva. 356 vibhūti-rūpârtha-vidarśana. 252 vipranasta. 214 vibhavâbhilāsin. 230 viparyasta-samjñā. 120. 142. 297 vinaya-kriyā. (K IV). 238 vāyu (s. 98 vatnśa. 110 vimalâśraya. 375 vikrama-stha. 21 vacas. 238 vāri (s. 122 vajrâgni. 86. 351 vineyâdri. for TG c). 214 vasudhā. 312 laukika-vītarāga-sāmtānika. 104 viparyāsa. 124. 82. 74. 407 vinihatya. 329. 244 vinirbhāgadharma. 141. 292 [viniścaya]. 227 lokottara-prajñā. 366 vajropama—samādhi. 285. 166 vāg-guhyaka (K VII). 241 vikalpa. 370 vindana. 248 vidyā. 347. 340 vidhura. 82. 352 vineya-dhātu. 166 vikurvita. 70. 241. 98 vadhaka-purusa. 385 vajra. 124. 241 vibhava-laksana (paripantha). 183 vadhya. 128. 31. 249 lobha-gredhatā. (for karma-kleśa). 270 vinīti-kriyā. 164. 86 vaśitā. (daśabalâdi). 274 [ 431 ] . 100 vicitra-dharma-sambhoga. 228 vimala-gunopeta. 383 viparîta. 369 vikrti.

TAKASAKI dmātratā. 122. 70. 342 dmukti-phala-dānatva. (K III). 238 ivikta. 120. 150 iśuddhi-pārami-prāpti. (s. 354. for parama-bodhi). 282 ivarta. 315 nāsti vimukter hānih) (āven. 365 imukti. 192 vaipākika. 184 ~ laksana (virāga-dharma). 13 isāmagri. 357 [vyatirekâlañkāra]. 387 dmoksa-mukha (śūnyatâdi). 66. 122. 27). 130. 305 vyākarana-kathā. 218 iśodhya (-artha). 108. 328 vyavahāra. 31. 108 vairūdhi. 66. 345 isuddhi. 327 iśesa-laksana. 249. 151. 150 iślesa. 128. VIII (IX 6)-4. 94. 229. 150 iśuddhi-gotra. 122. 66 vaidharmya. 338 iśuddha. 241 ihāra. 342 (nāsti ~ sya hānih) (āven. 164 irāgitā. 358 vyavadâta-sūksma-suvarna-varna-cchavih (mahāp. 152. 74. 340 vyakti. 341 dmukti-kāya. 110 << sya pūrnam. 264 drāga. 122. 122. for dhātu) cf. 315. 299 dyoga. 210 isara. 368 isamyoga (B III). 375 vyāpitva. 142. 112. 165 irāgin. 52. § VIII (VI). 279 îrya. 187 vyādhi. 346 vyavadāna-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha) (RG I). 110. 165 irāga-hetu ( = mārga-satya). 70. 11). 344 vyupadeśa. 114. 328 [ 432 ] . 204. 227 vaimalya-dhātu. 70. 166 vyasana. 28 iśuddhi-parikarma-guna. 100. 165. 346 vrsabhitā. 76. 31. § 1-3. bījâñkura vrtta-ślaksanânunnāma-bāhutā (mahāp. 18). 70. 108. 24. § XIII-(VI). 86. 165 vyavasthā. 389 vyavadāna-satya-dvaya. 110 dmukha. hānih. 122. 306 ividhā. 76 •• iśuddha-sama-dantatva (mahāp. 374 vailāradya. 199 vyavasthāna. 90. 28 vaimalya-pariśuddhi. 86. 1-c). ( = virāgatā) ( = nirodhasatya). (B VI). 172. 302 istara-vibhāga-nirdeśa. 334 vyūha. 263 iśuddhi-guna-parikarman. 164 irāga-dharma. 337 vaipulya. 199. 315 isaya-rati-hara. 158 vyupameya.l . 237.J. 252 dmūdha. (na ~tah. 340 vrksa (TG VII. 148 vaijayanta. 70. 315 vaimalya-śuddhi. 94. āven 8). § III-2. 108. for dhātu). 110. 377 vyapagata-visama-sthāna. 255 īta. 124 vrata. 236 vyāpi. 378 vaineyika. 311 vrsa-paksma-netra (mahāp. 312. 112 ~ dmukti-jñāna-darśana. 356 vaidūrya-mani (parable of). 108. 371 isarati. 112. 374 vaimalya ( = āsravaksaya). 108. 12). 164 vyañjana. 321 vyāyata (pādatā) (mahāp. 24-2). 345 vrtti ( = pravrtti) (TG VI). 285. 221 iśuddhi-cittaprakrti. 118. 161 iśāradatva. 337 isamyoga-phala. 120 isamvāditva. 11). 285 vyavasthiti. § I I I . 114. 387 vyākarana. 84 vaimalya-viśuddhi. 310. 148 vyoman (s. 228 <— & samklista.

54 f śaiksa. 185 śraddhā. 84. 80. 104. 310 [sat-padârtha] (svabhāvâdi). 80. 104. 27. 102 śraddhā—gamana. 108. 18. 104. 76 śubha-samjñā. § 1-4. XVIII-1. 104 śrāvaka—naya. 46. ( = āsravaksaya-jñāna-bala. 222 śuklâspada. sattva 3). 178 eukla-dharmausadhī. 13. 50 sad-indriya-visaya. 98 śuddha-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 104. 114 śānta-dharmatā. 366 śobhā. 257 śāśvata-drsti. 68. 400-408 [sat-pāramitā] (dānâdi). 268 śubha-ratnatraya-sargaka (gotra). 72. 72. 116 śānti-mārga. 72. 220 śayana-sthita. 124. 169 śubhâtma-sukha-nityatva (-guna-pāramitā) (TG III). 74. 122. 197 śānta. 333 śāstr-gaurava. 22. 209 śubha-dharmatā. 122. 126 śama-prāpti. 231. 303 [śūnya-vāda]. 104. 180 śaranatrayâbhyupapatti. 68. 19). 330 śānty-anuśamsa-darśaka. 54. 70. § VIII (X)-3. 280 śaila-deśa-gamika. 112. 130 śīla—samvara. 11. 72. 45. 13). 282 śāśvata. 309 śaktatva. (B I). 355 śakra-pratibhāsavat. 130 śuci. 221 [ 433 ] . 106 śūnya & aśūnya. 319 samyojana. 181 śīla. 166. 167. 11-17. 151 śūnyatā-jñāna. 74 śarana-traya. 106. 72. 264 sad-āyatana-viśesa.The Ratnagotravibhāga śubha. 68. 296. § V. 72. 380 śuddhi. 57. 219 » śāśvata-(loka-nātha). 357 śarana. 98. 120. 132 śāli. 309 ślokârtha-samgraha-vyākhyāna. 244. 339 śānti-patha ( = nirvana). 268 samvrti. 200. 108. 308 śāstra-sambandha. 208 śubhâkāra. 118 śarīra. 345 śuklâmśa. 130 śloka. 118 śamaikayāna—gotra. 301 śūnyam sarvam. 130. § XVII-2 (I). 359 śarīrin. 156. 180. 82. 178 samvarta. 179 śāstr. 158 śakra (K 1). 208 śubha-pāramitā. 68. 112 śuddha-prabhā-mandala-gātratā (mahāp. 90 śrāvaka-samgha. 237 samvit. 155. 84 suci-śīla-jighrana. 209 śūnyatā-drsti. 98. 376 sukla-pravara-damsjratā (mahāp. 58. 112. 345 śuddha-bhūmi. 80 śūnyatā-viksipta-citta (pudgala). 106 śflnyatā. 390 samvara. 183. 68. 245 samraksana. 207 śamâmrtapada-prāpti. 167. 164. 72. 360. 84. 276 śisya. 82. 54. 74. 116. bala 10). 382 śakti. 84. 38. 278 śuddha-sattva. 329 śilpa-sthānāni kauśalam. 326 śānti-pathâvatāra(-nidana). 268. 104 śūnya. 74. 74 śruti. 118 śāsana. 143 śrāvaka (TG II-III. 84. 74 śrāvaka-yānika. 154 śiipa-sthāna. 106. 114. 174 śānti. 365 samvidyamānatā. 82. 329 śiva.

118 samsāra-gata. 116 sattvârtha-nirapeksatā. janma-). 86. 68. 360 samgha (VP 3). 118 samādhi. 250. 106 samalā tathatā (RG I) (VP 4). 74. 104. 235 (catur-vidha ^ ) (TG II. 251. 244 sapta-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 104. 356 samādhāna. 231. 345 samādāya. 250 samsāra. 245 saddharma-kāya (=dharmakāya). 122.J . 132 samsrti. 215 samskāra-paripāka. TAKASAKI samvrti-kāya. 72. 286. 86. 223. 291 ~ & nirvana § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 88. 227. 72 <~ -guna-vibhāga. 358 saddharma-rasa-dānatā. 364 sadma. 204 samsāra-duhkhopaśama-mātrâbhirati. 84. 80 (trividha). 202. 110 saddharma-vyasanâvrtâtmaka. 354 ~ —aksayatva. pratyekabuddha. 367 samskāra. 275 samnāha. 74. 332 samgrāma. 78. 68. 301 samanta-bhadrâpratima (-ātma-bhāva) (mahāp. samatā. 244 samślisja. (TGVII. § IV. 118 sattva-rāśi. 156. 340 saddharma. 381 sa-karanīya. 183. 189. 145. 272 samkāra-dhāna. 132 saptâtsada-śarīratā (mahāp. 72 samgha-ratna (VP 3). 166 samkleśa (kleśa-. 32). 365 samtārana. 126. karma-. 206 sattvârtha-vimukhatā. 39. 313 sama-preksin. 82. 161 sattvârtha-krt (RG IV). 116. 200 [ 434 ] . 82 samanupaśyati. 303 satkāya-nirodha. 267 samā catvārimśad-daśanatā (mahāp. 120 samvrti-kāyatā. IXo). 5). 74. 167 samanvāgama ( = yoga). 323 samtāna. 100 sapta-sapti. 206 sat-purusa. 187 samavadhāna. 106 sattvānām dharmadhātu. 82. 66 sacet. 132 saddharma-samgraha. 151. 170. 66. 221 samcintya. 183 sakalam. 122. 100. 100. 182. 197 sattvâtma-sama-darśikā (maitrī). 122. 390 samsāra-mandala-ksānti. 191 samkara-pūti-dhāna. 183 eat-kāya. 80 sattva-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha). śrāvaka). 16). tīrthya. 230 samjñā-grāha. 72. 78. § VII-XI. 158 satkāya-drsfi-patita (-pudgada). 217 samkleśa-nimitta. 90. ( = sattva-rāśi). 122. 90. 297 sattva. 244 samjñā (-viparyāsa). 22. 223 satya ( = āryasatya). 193 samgraha. 23. 336 samvrti-pada-sthāna. 118 saddharma-salila. 245 samavasarana. 22. 158 satkaya-drs^i. 191 8amjñā-citta-drsçi-(viparyāsa). 22. 230 sat (-^ dhîra). 80. 296. 80. 70. 234 samksepa-mātraka. 181 samvrti-satya. 181. 84. 76. ( = prthag-jana). 242 samskrta. 10). 78. 74. 272 samketa. 82 samsāra-mandala. 290. 23 sattvârtha-kriyā. 248 samnihśraya. 254 samdrśyate. 319 satata-samitam. 92. 285 samvrtta-skandhatā (mahāp. 143. 344 sabhaya. 346 samanvāgata. 265 san-nātha. 72. 345 samVślis. 142 samgha-kāra-kriyā. 226 sama-vimukti. 301 samkleśa-vyavadāna. 370 saptârtha-pada (^vajra-padāni sapta). III) (-+ icchantika.

& jñāna-). 120. 292 sambandha. 326 samārūdha. 175. 112 sarvajñatā. 368 sarva-sattva. 118. 382 sambhrti (=sambhāra). 102 sammiñjita. 298 sa-vāsana-maloddhrti. 161 sādharmya. 325 samudāgama. 270 sāksātykr. 266 sarvajña—jñāna—gocara. for dhātu). 208 sukha-sampatti. 68 sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. 192 sarva-dhātu (=sarva-loka). (TG 3 s. 344 [siddhānta-naya & deśanā-naya]. § XV (II). 88. 204 samyak-pratipatti. 86 sambuddhatā. 124 sukha-pāramitā. 331 sârtha-bīja. 112 samāna. 76 sarvatraga (TG VIII). 94 sarvâvabodhitā. 122 simha-pūrvârdha-kāyatā (mahāp. 124. 333 samādhi-bhāvanā (TG II. 76 sarva-dharmâbbisambodhi (vaiś. 122. 120 simhavat. 82. 270 samyaktva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. 230 sarva. 29. 252 samyak-sambuddha-dharmatva. 175 sarvatra. 92 sasya. 218 sāmbhoga. 198 sambhava-laksana (paripantha). 94 sāmtānika. 289 sāmbhogika (kāya) § XIII (VIb).340 [ 435 ] . 348. 342 sambhoga-kāya. 116. 194 sarva-jña. 186 sarvadarśinām vis ayah (gotra). 352. 199 sarva-cittârambana. 120.The Ratnagotravibhāg sarva-dharmadhātu. 205 samyaktva-niyāma. 112 sukha. 98 sârtha. 76. 279 sāmnidhya. 197 salila-bandhana. 118 sambaddha. 102. 337 sâñgana (bodhisattva). 21. 68. 186 sarvajña-jñāna. 114 sarve dehinah ( = sarva-sattvāh). 262 sarvâkara-gunopeta-śūnyatā. 1). 268 sāmagrī. 237 sāmānya-laksana. 201 sametya. 263 sarvagatva ( = sarvatraga). 82. 104 sāhasra-lokadhātu. 200 sādhumati (bhūmi). 32 ( dvaya) sambhedatah. 226. 114. 154 sambuddha ( = tathāgata) (TG Vic). 82. 209 sukha-samjñā. 148 samāhrtâdyamah. 190 simha (s. 372 sampatti. 332 sampatti-yoga(tva). 282 sārârtha-darśana. 78 sarvâkāra. 330 sambhava. 130. 285 sītâmalornodita-c^ru-vaktra (mahāp. § VIII (VIII). 25). 82. 266. 80. 96. 302 sāmketikam vapuh (^samvrti-kāya). 248 samāpatti (-āvarana). 102. 177 samāropa. 86. 86. 352 sarva-sattvârthakrt. 269 sārârtha. for G II). 302 samāvartana. 199. 364 sahaja. 82. 124. 324 sāra. 124. 8). 94. 116. 214 sambhāra (punya. 84. 206 samādhi-samsparśa-sukhânubhūti. 288 samudra. 114 sarvajña-dharmatā. 30. 353 samyag-aviparyasta. 80. sahasra-koti-niyuta. 216 sâsrava-dharma. 118. 233 sarvathā 'rthakrt. 130 sarva-darśin ( = sarvajña). 197. (sarvaśarīrinah). 378 sâsrava-karman. 84 sukhatva. 122. hetu 3). 172 sambodhi. 252 samyak-pratipanna. 265 samrddhi. 260 samudānīta (-gotra). 24 (-avinirbhāgatā). 346 sukathā-śuci-śrava.

128 sūryavat. 285 sūksma—vastra. 120. 338 sthiti. 315 svayam. 241. 178 svasamtānâvabhāsa. 388 hīna-pranīta-dharma. 102 svabhāva-gāmbhīrya-nayâvabodhana. 112 skandha. 100. 120. 190 sura-pati. 156. 367 sauksmya. 120 svârtha-sampad. 120 sevya (-viddhi) (mārga). 376 su-parikarma-krta-cetas. 296. § VIII (IX c). 283 hāni-kārana-krti. 147 sthira (-stha). § XVII-2 (V). etc. 120. 120. 289. 130 svacchâvirala-dantatā (mahāp. 120. § XIII (I-II). 21. 128. a. 162 H hata-satkāyasāra. 108 svabhāva (TG I). 214 hetu-samanvāgama (TG V). (B I). § VIII (I • II). dhātu). geya. 100. s. 341. 185 sthāna. 124. 122. 29. 1). 68. 358 suvarna (TG 4. 17). § VI-2. 344 BU—pratisthita—cakrâñkra—vyāyatâtsañga— pādatā (mahāp. 126 svaccha-jala-bhājana. 1). 311. 345 svadharmatā. 356 sūrya (K V). 231 su-sāra. 267 hīna(yāna)ruci. āven. 108.J .). 367 sevana. 323 sūtra ( ~ . (TG. 108. 92. (B II). 285 sūtra-sthānīya (-śloka). II). ( = gotra. 240 svarasa-vāhin. 157 svayam-bhū ( = buddha). 142 Bthānâsthāna (-jñāna-bala) (bala 1). 102 hema-mandalaka (-> suvarna) heya (-vastu) (->• duhkha-samudaya). 88. 264 svarga. 146 sva-samtāna. 128 srjat. 25. 126. 216 sūtikā-sadma-sthita. TAKASAKI sugata (=buddha) (TG I. 124 [ 436 ] . 238 skandha-dhātv-indriya. § VIII (I-II)-l. 332 hema-bimba (-> kanaka-bimba). 118. 102. 310 svaparârtha-sampatti (B IV). 108. 102. 114. 269 sūksma. for dhātu. 252 su-pratisthita (-pādatā). 9). 282. 21. 120. 78. 344 sumeru. 120. 124 snigdha-bhāva (-svabhāva) (TG c). 199. 236 skhalita (nāsti /— m. 360 sva-citta. 13. 341 sthairyatva. 290 ~ & pratyaya. 108. 305 hetu. 72 sva-stha (G II). 29. 21. 349 svābhāvika (kāya). tathatā). ( = pratyeka-buddha). 367 spharana (of arka). 72. § XIII (I-II) svabhāva-kāya ( = svābhāvika). 96. § XIII (VI a). 76. 340 hitatva. 318 su—daiśika. 112 svârthasampatty-adhisthāna. 106. 132 hînasattvesv avajñā. 82. IX-4 (trividdha-). 381 sva-laksana. 78. 224 su-viśuddha. for dhātu). 126 svakarmodbhava. 112 svabhāvâparinispatti. 226 hetv-ānantya (-tva). 100 suvarna-bimba. 161 sva-parârtha (B IV). 324 svârtha-sarnpatti. 225. 341 stuti-ninda. 120. 122. 341 sva-karman. 94 smrti (nāsti smrteh hānih. 86. āven. 88. 236 skandhâyatana-dhātavah. 201 sparśitavya. (-avasthā) (TG IX c). 126 bina ( = hīna-yāna). 202 svarasa-yogena. 195 hetu-laksana (paripantha). 151 sūksma-nimitta-prapañca.

175. 8 Devaprajña. 49 Advaita Vedānta (School). 35 Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta (DrdhP). 269. 382. 210. 213. 33. 28 Catuhśubha (of Nāgārjuna). 144 Hûa-yen (School). 210. 232. 219. 288. 235 Blo-ldan śes-rab. 171 Aśvaghosa. 173. 15. 254 Chien-Hui ( = Sāramati). 329. 230. 264. 173. 233. 53. 296. 9 Chiu-ching-yi-ch'eng-pao-sing-lun.. 194. 339. 305-9. 315. 192. 354 Bhagavadgītā. 385 Bodhiruci. 208. 218. 300. 146153. 341 Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (DDV). 232. 46-49. 203 Jñānagupta. 324. 208. 61 Ārya-śrīmālā-sūtra -> Srīmāla-sūtra Asaûga (Slob-dpon Thogs-med).45. 260. 204. 4952. 258. 212. 260. 170. 193. 9 Bodhisattvabhūmi (BBh). 176. 390 Amrtākara. 21 (Vyākhyā of Yaśomitra). 287. 61. 188. 34. 343. 53 Avatamsaka-sūtra (Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa-parivarta) (AvatS). 155 [ 437 ] . 263. 302 Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS). 240. 44. 200. 45. 144. 408 Brhadāranyakopanisad (Brhad. 258. 62. 327. 234. 35-36. 300. 143 Fa-hsian (School). 333.INDEX OF WORKS. 281. 44 *Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (->• Mahāyāna-dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra) Dharmaraksa. 292. 406. 7. 338. 54 Âryadeva. 203. 33. 198. 142. 166. 223. 239 Gaudapāda. 189. 228. 234. 311. 234. 334. 332. 6 Blue Annals (Deb-ther sñon-po). 209. 339. 157. 230. 289. 206. 261. 322. 200. 173. 308. 7. 177. 329. 9 Gaganagañjā-sūtra (Gaganagañjābodhisattvaparivarta) (GagS). 324. 187. 51. (Vyākhyā). 171 Adbhuta-sūtra (Adbhuta-dharmaparyāya). 45. 9 Dhammapadâtthakathā. 338. 214. 241. 185. 52. 213 Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra. 167. 260. 51. 61 Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitāsūtra (ASP). 286. 8. 33. 213. 44. 312. Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirde śa-p arivarta (AAN) 32. 61. 39. 406 Abhisamayâlañkāra (AA). AUTHORS & SCHOOLS (Those with the mark * are the titles restored from C) Abhidharma Buddhism. 331. 34. 7 Daśabhūmikasūtra (DBS). 254 Añguttara-nikāya (AN). 8 Hsūang-chuang. 189 Gser-phren (of Tsoñ-kha-pa). 193. 290. 327. 51. 8. 336. 21. 32. 225. 214. 295. 285. 7 Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā. 34. 33. 48. 57 Jain. 310. 150. 59. 221. 404 •Buddhagotraśāstra (BGŚ). 28. 351. 59 Abhidharmakośa (Kārikā) (AK). 35. 52. 204. 268 *Anuttarâśraya-sūtra (AĀS). 408 (Ārya)candrottaradārikā-sūtra. 300. 62. 283. 8 Fa-tsang. 186. 260 Amitāyus Buddha. 341. 290. 188. 331. 34 Dhāranīśvararāja-sūtra (DRS). 192. 164 ff. 21 Gunabhadra. 167. 259. 343 Abhisamayâlañkārâloka (AAA). 407. 233. 318. 37. 334. Up). 201. 218. 277-280. 285 Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS). 224. 320. 223. 61 Aksayamati-pariprcchā (AksP). 189. .

402 Mahâyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra. 185. 216. 60 Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-pa. 33. 44. 60. 34 Mundakopanisad (Mund. 10. 54. 183. 22. 301. 290. 33. 33. 302. 57. 295 Śañkara. 9. 7 Kaniska. 260 Saddharmapundarīkasūtra (SPS). 286. 16. 186 Sāgaramati-pariprcchā (SāgP). 163. 312. 305 Mādhyamika. 51. 39-40. (Bhāsya). 62. 305 Prasannapadā. 231. 382. 204. 159-160. 158. 251. 338. 7 Saka fragments (of Ratnagotravibhāga). 7. 372. 58. 300 Pao-ch'ung-lu. 292. 390 Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (MSA). 289. 262. 171. 54. 47. 53. 35 K'ai-yuan-che-chiao-mo-lu. 14 f. 145 Srīmālā [devī-simhanāda]sūtra (SMS). 408 Mahāyānasamgraga (MS). 33. 298. 7. 37-39. 146 Mahāsañgika. 200. 53. 261. 291. 369. 206. 228. 292. 8.lun-chu (of Fa-tsang). 182. TAKASAKI Jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra (JAA). 300. 159 Sāramati. 290 •Mahāyāna-dharmadhātv-aviśesa-śāstra (DAŚ). 44 ~ bhāsya (of Stbiramati). 51. 368. 373. 45. 300 Siksānanda. 34 Saundarananda-kāvya. 5 Ratnakūta-sūtra. 53. 8 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra (TCS). 34. 286. Up. 163. 384. 285. 11. 9. 389 *Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda (-śāstra). 242. 219. 347 Ratnagotraśāstra. 17. 10. 267. 6. 285. 143 Śuklavidarśanā. 291. 50. 291. 61. 34. 240 Sarvāstivāda. 32. 34. 34. 35. 277. 301 Manusmrti. 150. 209 Milindapañhā. 28 Nāmasamgīti. 217. 356. 374 Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching. 287. 225. 144. 56 Sāriputrâbhidharma-śāstra. 343. 250. 214 Ratnacūda-pariprcchā (RCP). 303. 44. 300 Sumangala-visāranī. 45-46. 62 Majjhima-nikāya (MN). 232. 272. 13. 315. 46. 232. 232 Pratītyasamutpādahrdaya-kārikā (of Nāgārjuna). 227.ahāsaaghātasūstra (Mahāsamnipātasūtra). 33. 257. 223. 59. 203 Samyutta-nikāya (SN). 52. 316. 36. 33. 301. 300 Ta-ch'ang-fa-chieh-wu-ch'a-pieh . 341. 251 Ratnamati. 33. 245 Sajjana. 32. 339. 9 Ratnavajra. 293. 189. 155. 52. 240 Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa). 182. 322. 262. 300 Rāstrapāla-pariprcchā. 211-12. 48. 173. 5 Sāmkhya (School). [ 438 3 . 204. 174. 57. 200. 192. 382. 4144. (Parmârtha's translation) (MSbh(P)). 33. 288. 5 Mahayānottaratantra śāstropad e śa. 296. 209. 15. 33. 364. 236. 60 Madhyântavibhāga (MAV). 6 Sadāyatanafrāśi] sūtra (SadS). 34 Lañkāvatāra-sūtra (Lank). 265. 33. 61 Sañghabhadra. 21 Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (PP). 60. 235. 249. 224. 343 M. 52. 32. 7 Mahāvibhāsāśāstra. 259. 218.). 144. 5 Ratnagotravibhāga. 215. 263 Ratnadārikāsūtra (Ratnasūtra) (RDS). 240. 293. 204 Laksanânusāra-śāstra. 8 Madhyamaka-kārikā (MK). 323 Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta ( = Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta). 304 [Mahā]prajñāpāramitā [-upadeśa]-śāstra. 61. 260. 40. 19. 163. 267. 45. 32. 50. 300 Nāgārjuna. 45.' 48. 52. 294 Sandhinirmocana-sūtra. 300 Mahāparmirvāna-sūtra (Mahāyāna) (MPS). 15. 167. 31. 44. 264. 51. 33. 359. 8 Paramārtha. 34 Mahāyānâbhidharma-sūtra (AbhidhS). 207. 59. 167. 214. 240.J. 53 Kāśyapa-parivarta (KāśP). 188. 56. 295 Li-t'ai-san-pao-chi. 9 Ta-t'ang-nei-tien-lu. 405.

294 Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatārasūtra (AcintS). 203 Vaibhāsika. 39. 407 Yogācārabhūmi (YB). 196. 28. 203. 406 Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā (VMT). 51. 40. 49. 61 Uttaratantra. 34. 162. 28. 189. 47. 48. 38. 47. 54 Vaiśesika. 147 Tathāgatotpattisambhava-nirdeśa. 200. 36. 230. 61. 382 Vimalakīrtinirdeśa (VimN). 52. 33. 33. 405 Vātsīputrīya. 21 Upanishad. 44. 5. 53. 281. 290. 277 Yogācāra (School). 57-61. 322 [ 439 ] . 52. 62. 240 Vijñānavāda. 34 Vajracchedikā-sūtra (Vaj C). 49. 28. 268-276. 8.The R at n a got r a v i b h ā g a Vasubandhu. 35. 404 36-37. 40. 33. 145 Tathāgatamahākarunā-sūtra. 21. 240 Vedānta Philospphy. 20 Vedāntavāda. 8 Tsoñ-kha-pa. 44. 40. 13. 61 Vibhajyavādin. 269 ' Ti-lun School.

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