IFR for Professional Pilots

2009
Selkirk College IFR Manual

Canadian Instrument Rating procedures. Expands on procedures and requirements in AIM and Instrument Procedures Manual

2008

IFR for Professional Pilots

Needed amendments:
The following items are in need of amendment in this text but time has not yet permitted this work. If you have other suggestions please let me know. Jeppesen approach plates – briefing strip Sample cold temperature correction problems with answers.

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IFR for Professional Pilots

Selair.selkirk.ca

Introduction
To be a Professional Pilot is more or less synonymous with being an IFR pilot. It should therefore be clear that the contents of this text are vital to anyone who wishes to be a professional pilot. I would not want to leave you with the impression that it contains all that is important however. This text concentrates on the technicalities of IFR flying, but only a limited discussion of the decision making that is required can be presented here. In addition the supporting topics of meteorology and air regulations are left for other texts and courses. There is a rich philosophical subtext to professional aviation that cannot be put into words. There is a professional mindset that you must dedicate yourself to developing. Technical competence alone is not enough. In this course you will learn the procedural aspects of IFR flight, that is to say how holds, approaches, STARs, SIDS and the many other procedures are conducted. You will also develop a sense of how the ATC system supports you, the Professional Pilot. You will learn the communication techniques that are so vital to safe IFR flight. And, you will learn to “think like an IFR pilot,” by which we mean, to deploy the various pieces of equipment at your disposal to keep track of your position in the abstract world you have chosen to devote your life to. This course coordinates with Avia 120 and 220 in which you learn meteorology, Avia 130 and 230 in which you learn all the relevant regulations, Avia 150 and 250 in which you develop the teamwork skills so vital to your success, Avia 240 in which you learn the additional details of long range flight, and Avia 261 in which you learn the technicalities of all the navigation systems. Only when the complete package has been synthesized in your mind will you be ready to call yourself a Professional Pilot. Keep in mind that synthesis is necessary. Avoid the tendency to take the new knowledge in as discreet bits. All the techniques, skills, and knowledge are useless if isolated. This course follows Avia 160 in which you learned the fundamentals of navigation, and developed a rudimentary appreciation of how the IFR system works. There will be review questions and assignments in this course. Be sure to keep your Navigation for Professional Pilots text and review it often during this course. In Canada NavCanada is responsible for maintaining the navigation infrastructure of our airspace system. Their mandate includes installing and maintaining the hundreds of VORs, NDBs, and ILSs. You will learn more about NavCanada in Avia 230. The US military operates a GPS satellite system that pilots from all countries are permitted to use (with limitations that you need to be aware of.) The Russians have a separate GPS system, and the Europeans are preparing to launch their own. As all these technical wonders of the 21st century are the structure of the environment you will work in you should develop a keen interest in how they all work. The course Avia 261 covers most of this, but you must develop the habit of keeping abreast of future changes post-graduation. How navigation systems work is largely beyond the scope of this course, but we will spend a lot of time examining the work-a-day details of employing them; the difference being roughly the equivalent of knowing how to drive a car as opposed to how it works. We will examine what navaids should be used as well as when, and how to do this 3

2008

IFR for Professional Pilots without losing situational awareness. You will discover that flying IFR is inherently abstract. By far the biggest challenge both initially and throughout your career will be “situational awareness.” Many accidents are the result of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) which happens when the pilot looses the mental image of where s/he is. Aspects of countering this are raised in Avia 150 and 250, but the recommended procedures developed in this course are designed to help you avoid this fate. Throughout this course you will need the Transport Canada Instrument Procedures Manual, a CAP2, CAP3, LO1/2, HI, Terminal Charts, and CFS. Also, have your CR and an electronic calculator handy. You will also be referring to the Program Manual, in particular the FTM/IPM. We will also make use of online resources, many of which are provided by the FAA including the entire USA approach chart inventory as well as several excellent texts in PDF format. You will also need POH for C-172P, Beech 95, and King Air for the flight planning exercises. IFR regulations are covered in Avia 130 and 230. Despite that many regulations must be referred to in this text. You should read the entire RAC, MET, COM, AIR, and MAP sections of the AIM. Also read and know the contents of CFS section F. Pay particular attention to RAC 6.3 (communications failure) as this is a major topic on INRAT exam. This is also covered in CFS section F.

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IFR for Professional Pilots

Selair.selkirk.ca

Table of Contents:
CHAPTER 1.......................................................................................................... 9
Overview of IFR Flight .................................................................................................................................9 Start your study of IFR by reading your AIM in particular: .......................................................................9 Definition of IFR ........................................................................................................................................9 Uncontrolled IFR .................................................................................................................................10 The Emergence of ATC .......................................................................................................................10 Procedural Separation ..........................................................................................................................11 Radar Separation ..................................................................................................................................13

CHAPTER 2........................................................................................................ 15
IFR Charts ...................................................................................................................................................15 Canada Air Pilot (CAP) .......................................................................................................................15 LO Charts .............................................................................................................................................15 HI Charts ..............................................................................................................................................16 Terminal Charts ...................................................................................................................................16

CHAPTER 3........................................................................................................ 17
Airspace Structure .......................................................................................................................................17 Domestic Flight Information Regions (FIR) .............................................................................................17 Tower ...................................................................................................................................................19 Oceanic Control ...................................................................................................................................20 Structure of Nav-Canada’s Airspace System ............................................................................................21 Northern / Southern Domestic Airspace ..............................................................................................21 Low and High Level Airspace .............................................................................................................21 Low Level Airways and Air Routes.....................................................................................................23 Approach and Departure Airspace .......................................................................................................23 Class F -Special Use Airspace .............................................................................................................25

CHAPTER 4........................................................................................................ 27
IFR Flight Planning .....................................................................................................................................27 Situational Awareness in IFR Flight ....................................................................................................27 Preferred IFR routes .............................................................................................................................29 LO Charts – Distances, Bearings, etc. ..................................................................................................30 Navlog Preparation ..............................................................................................................................31 Selecting an Alternate ..........................................................................................................................32 Filing an IFR Flight Plan .....................................................................................................................33

CHAPTER 5........................................................................................................ 37
IFR Departures ............................................................................................................................................37 CAP Departure Procedures ..................................................................................................................38 Departure alternate ...............................................................................................................................43 IFR Clearance Review .........................................................................................................................43 Crew Briefing.......................................................................................................................................44 VFR Departure .....................................................................................................................................44

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IFR for Professional Pilots CHAPTER 6........................................................................................................ 47
Enroute Procedures .....................................................................................................................................47 Altitude Reports ...................................................................................................................................47 Climb and Descent ...............................................................................................................................47 1000 on Top .........................................................................................................................................47 Clearance Leaving or Entering Controlled Airspace ...........................................................................47 Clearance Limit ....................................................................................................................................48 IFR Flight in Uncontrolled Airspace ....................................................................................................48 Position reports ....................................................................................................................................48 Altimeter Setting Procedures during Abnormally High Pressure Weather ..........................................49 VFR Restrictions ..................................................................................................................................49 Mountainous Regions ..........................................................................................................................49 MEA and MOCA .................................................................................................................................50 Minimum IFR Altitude ........................................................................................................................50

CHAPTER 7........................................................................................................ 51
Holding .........................................................................................................................................................51 Purpose of Holds ..................................................................................................................................51 The Hold Clearance .............................................................................................................................51 Hold Pattern Specifications ..................................................................................................................54 Drift Compensation in a Hold ..............................................................................................................54 Headwind / Tailwind Compensation in a Hold ....................................................................................56 Planning a Hold....................................................................................................................................57 Correcting for Drift Errors in a Hold ...................................................................................................58 Correcting for Timing Errors in a Hold ...............................................................................................60 Hold Entries .........................................................................................................................................62 DME Holds ..........................................................................................................................................65 Intersection Holds ................................................................................................................................66 GPS Use In Holds ................................................................................................................................67

CHAPTER 8........................................................................................................ 69
Arrivals .........................................................................................................................................................69 ATIS.....................................................................................................................................................69 STARs ..................................................................................................................................................69 Descent out of Controlled Airspace .....................................................................................................69 Advance Notice of Intent in Minimum Weather ..................................................................................69 Contact and Visual Approaches ...........................................................................................................70 Radar Arrivals ......................................................................................................................................70 Initial Radio Contact with Control Towers ..........................................................................................70 Radio calls: at Uncontrolled Airports ..................................................................................................71 Cold Temperature Corrections .............................................................................................................71 Remote Altimeter Settings ...................................................................................................................71 Approach Ban ......................................................................................................................................72

CHAPTER 9........................................................................................................ 73
Approaches...................................................................................................................................................73 Types of IFR Approaches ....................................................................................................................73 Approach Ban ......................................................................................................................................74 Precision vs. Non-Precision Approach .....................................................................................................75 Straight-in vs. Circling (Naming Conventions) ...................................................................................75 Approach Plates ........................................................................................................................................76

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..........................................................110 Read Back – Verbatim ..........................95 Terrain Separation on Approach .................118 Sample Radio Calls – Lear JET: CYVR to CYYC ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Vectored Arrival ....................................................................................................99 Selair............................119 Sample Radio Calls – King Air: CYXX to CYYJ ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................99 Terrain Clearance: Final Segment .......................................................................... 101 Transition to Landing – Circling. 107 IFR communications ....102 How to Circle ........................ 141 Copying clearances ....................................................................97 Terrain Clearance: Intermediate Segment ......................................................................................................116 Say Your…..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................93 PAR Approach .....................................................................................................................................117 When able – Until able......................................... with GNS430 ...............................................103 CHAPTER 11.......................................90 STAR Arrivals ................................................................................................97 Terrain Clearance: MSA .... FAF..............................102 Circling ..116 Roger............................ca CHAPTER 10.............................79 Procedure Turns ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... VOR.............selkirk......................103 Circling in the Mountains ..................................................................................................... PAR...92 GPS Approach....................................................................................................................78 Initial Segment ...........................77 Definitions: IAF..............................96 Terrain Clearance: 100-mile Safe Altitude ...................................................................................................91 ILS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................93 Mountain IFR approaches ................................................................................................................................................................109 Say less to say more .............................................................................................................................81 DME ARC Arrival ...........................118 Check .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................112 Phonetic Alphabet ......................................................................................................................................................................................................89 Transition for Straight-in Arrival ................................................................................................................... IF............................... Affirmative......141 Shorthand ................. .........................................................................................................141 7 ......................................................................................................................................................................101 Landing from an ILS ...................................... Negative ........................................................................................................................................................114 Key Phrases ...... ADF Approaches ..................................................133 CHAPTER 12......................................................................110 Know When and What to Report .................................................................IFR for Professional Pilots Approach Segments ........................................ with the KLN90b .............................................................................................................................107 Enunciate ............................................................................................. Confirm..................................................................................................................................128 Sample Radio Calls – King Air: CYCG to CYVR .............................................................................113 By the Numbers ..........................................................................................................................................................................99 Terrain Clearance: Missed Approach.................116 Say again – repeat .... MAP .........................................101 Required Visual Reference .................................................................................91 GPS Approach........................................101 Landing from a Non-precision approach – straight in .......................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................156 TSI for Alsim ....155 Abbreviated TSI ......................................................................................................159 Kitchen Table Flying ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................150 Tune Setup Identify (TSI) ...................................................................................................................................................................................146 Nav Radio Setup – Identify Reporting Points .................. 165 Briefings .................... 181 B95 Radio Template ................... 5......................................................................................... or 8 things ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................153 Identify ............................................................................................................................................................................2008 IFR for Professional Pilots CHAPTER 13.............................................174 APPENDIX 1................................................................................................................................................................................................161 The Ultimate Kitchen Table Flight ...................................................................151 Tune .................................................................................................................Run the Stack ...................145 Heading Recording ........165 WAT ..... 4.....149 GPS Moving Map .............................................................152 Setup: 3...............................................149 The RMI – Your Best Friend .........181 APPENDIX 3.....................................168 CHAPTER 15......................165 IFR Clearance Review ....................................................................................146 Don’t Neglect the ADF .................................................. 145 Cockpit Organization ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 AMORTS............................................183 8 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................159 Flexibility in Scripting .................................................................................... 173 IFR in Uncontrolled Airspace ................................148 The DME “HOLD” Feature .......................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Frasca 142 Radio Template .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................148 Plan Ahead ...............................................................163 IKEA Kitchen Tables ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................145 The Five Ts ...............................................................................................................................................155 TSI for Beech 95 .........173 Sample Radio Calls for Uncontrolled IFR Flight – Yellowknife to Cambridge Bay ................................................................................................................ 183 King Air Radio Template.....................................................................................................................................179 APPENDIX 2............................................157 Scripting Principles ..........................................147 Keep Track of Your Position .....................................................................163 CHAPTER 14.........................................165 Takeoff Briefing........................................................................155 TSI for Frasca 142 .........................................

In the years leading up to World War II flight instruments had been developed that permitted pilots to control airplanes in IMC. An artificial horizon is a gyro instrument that displays pitch and bank information.0 RAC Annex COM 1. The purpose of having these rules is to facilitate flight in weather that prevents pilots from seeing either the ground or other airplanes.0 to 5. LORAN-C. Unlike a real horizon it does not show yaw. The recommended procedure is called selective radial scan.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. etc. 9 . When airplanes fly in cloud we say they are in IMC weather. if the pilot was lucky.ca Chapter 1 Overview of IFR Flight Start your study of IFR by reading your AIM in particular: RAC 6. usually a spin or spiral.selkirk.e. Once airplanes could be flown in IMC three problems remained: 1. a recovery once out of cloud. How to avoid striking terrain such as mountains. How to avoid other airplanes 3. and either a crash or. heading changes. towers. In the early days of aviation airplanes did not have instruments by which pilots could maintain control in IMC. Our modern system of VOR. In those early days entering cloud for more than a few seconds resulted in loss of control. ADF.0 to 10. i. How to navigate without ground contact 2. and thus today the term artificial horizon has been dropped and we call the instrument an Attitude Indicator (AI). Controlling an airplane by instruments alone requires a scan. In this text it is assumed that you have mastered the selective radial scan.ca website called selective radial scan.0 You should read all the above and then re-read it several times over the course of your training using a highlighter to emphasize important facts Definition of IFR IFR stands for Instrument Flight Rules. To solve problem 1 required the introduction of radio navigation. Of all the flight instruments developed the “artificial horizon” was the most important. It is covered in the Transport Canada Flight Training Manual and the Selkirk College FTM/IPM under lesson 24. and GPS is the result of 60+ years of technological progress. All this was covered in the first year of the Professional Pilot Program. The FTM/IPM refers to a simulation on the ProfessinoalPilot.

These pioneers foresaw what today we take for granted . 230. and so on. and GPS have accuracy and operational limits. For example the airborne pilot might say. and as mentioned above is done every day in northern Canada. a method of facilitating higher volumes of IFR traffic is needed. The Emergence of ATC Uncontrolled IFR is only feasible when there is a very limited volume of traffic. Uncontrolled IFR Once problem 1 was solved pilots naturally wanted to fly in IMC to offer reliable schedules. As you know. However. There was no government run air traffic control system.” The pilots would report their positions and listen to the reports of others. be sure to pay close attention to the details. The ATC system consists of controllers who keep track of the location of all the IFR airplanes and by approving their routes ensure that they do not conflict.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Today pilots can navigate with amazing accuracy without being able to see the ground. “I am at 6000 feet and will stay up here until you takeoff and leave the area. make an approach. so the pilots used common sense and developed a system of flying IFR without conflicting with each other. When an airplane neared its destination the pilot would report that s/he was making an approach. or the airborne pilot might “hold” for a while. An airplane waiting for departure would have to wait while the airborne airplane landed.airlines.” The other pilot would then simply say. The pilots do not 10 . “O. You also know how to fly a DME arc. I will takeoff and climb to 5000 feet. Prior to takeoff the pilot would broadcast that s/he was ready for takeoff and then listen for responses. The basic skills of radio navigation are covered in the text Navigation for Professional Pilots. thus knowing when it was safe to climb or descend.K. In this text it is assumed that you already know how to track accurately and intercept a course. ADF. This is called IFR in Uncontrolled Airspace. How does the above sound to you? In northern Canada this form of “separation” is still in use. Pilots coordinated between each other on the radio. If someone else was in the air they would talk and the two pilots would “work out” the conflict. IFR with no ATC is perfectly safe. Appendix 1 discusses IFR in uncontrolled airspace. Knowing these is vital to your safety. and 261. waiting for the other to takeoff. The purpose of the ATC system is to facilitate numerous IFR airplanes in relatively close spatial and time proximity. VOR. Common sense told them that two airplanes could not safely fly in the same vicinity at the same time so a very simple method was developed for solving problem 2. depending on who acted first. much of this is covered in Avia 130. There is no Air Traffic Control (ATC) in a lot of northern Canada.

If traffic volumes were low enough pilots could fly IFR with no ATC. In reality complex computer programs onboard would likely “negotiate” who goes first and so on. By the way. Based on the filed TAS the strip contains estimated time at each reporting point along the filed route.selkirk. which means exactly what the route word implies. departure point. The method is called procedural separation. Reporting points include all VORs and NDBs as well as other designated points along the airways. which is just a piece of paper that has the airplane’s call sign. Today the analysis is done by a computer. will arise. The only difference is the volume of traffic that can be processed. It remains to be seen to what extent free flight becomes a reality in the 21st century. Procedural separation is used today on oceanic routes and in less populated regions where radar is not available. The controller going over the flight plan creates a strip. such as a CR3. Therefore a clearance means that the airspace is clear. The word clear means emptied. 11 . and takes several minutes.IFR for Professional Pilots communicate directly with each other. Note that a flight plan is not needed to fly IFR in uncontrolled airspace. We will therefore start by examining how procedural separation is done. i. That is what we pilots need controllers for. But ATC existed long before radar was available. empty. It is important to understand that ATC exists primarily for separating airplanes from each other and NOT to separate airplanes from terrain. The only thing the pilot cannot do is avoid other aircraft in IMC. depending on how long the flight is. In the event radar fails ATC can revert to procedural operation. with other traffic. When done by hand this process is done with a computer. You likely know that controllers use radar to observe the location of airplanes and use it to separate them. type. The IFR pilot is capable of avoiding terrain and obstacles during departure. instead they communicate with a controller who issues a clearance. The flight plan is used to predict where the airplane will be relative to others during the flight time. of other traffic.” The idea of free flight is to eliminate controllers by providing pilots with cockpit displays somewhat similar to a controllers radar screen. As long as the pilot follows the assigned clearance s/he is assured that no conflict.e. Pilots could then return to the original days of IFR by communicating directly with each other and working out conflicts. and destination on it. For the purpose of this course free flight will not be considered.ca Procedural Separation Before an airplane can get an IFR clearance in controlled airspace a flight plan must be filed. equipment. a future concept in aviation is called “free flight. TAS. Selair. but in the early days of IFR it was done by hand. IFR traffic control is possible with no radar. enroute and approach and can therefore complete an entire flight without a controller. You can see why it is required to file an IFR flight plan at least 30 minutes before departure. route.

A slightly different format is used for radar control. Eastbound aircraft fly at odd altitudes and westbound aircraft fly at even altitudes. the actual strip is blank as you will see when we demonstrate their use later. An eastbound example is shown later. Consequently opposite direction aircraft on any airway are 1000 feet apart. The strip shown here is for procedural control. Strips in each bay are all proceeding to the same or parallel fixes. Altitude separation The primary method of separating airplanes traveling along airways is by having them fly at different altitudes. The information is taken from the filed flight plan and then the strip is printed by a strip printer like this one: Controller organizes IFR Flight Strips Strips are moved right from bay to bay for eastbound flights and left for westbound. and TAS on the left for westbound aircraft and on the right for eastbound. 12 . type. The exact format varies depending on the type of airspace. IFR strips are laid out with the aircraft ident. The labeling on the strip is for your reference.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots The picture below shows a typical IFR flight strip.

000 feet. or they could call ATC and request an altitude change. For example the first airplane reports 90 DME from YWH on V2 (see above. except that properly equipped airplanes can be 1. “GABC. in the diagram below an eastbound aircraft on V2 is considered opposite direction to an aircraft on V1. i. Selair. The existence of radar does not change the fact that full width of an airway must be protected. If it is 100+ DME all is well.” Pilots can be assured that the controller would not issue such a clearance if it was not needed and thus 13 .ca Radar Separation When radar is available things are easier. both airplanes wish to fly the same altitude on the same route then time separation is normally used. A vector is usually phrased something like. It is best to think of radar separation as in addition to procedural rather than instead of procedural separation. which is why this is permitted. If the projected flight path of two aircraft will bring them closer together than the standards permit the controller will issue a vector or ask the airplanes to change airspeed. These reports must be made no less than every 30 minutes. Obviously the time differential will increase over time. In other words the same airspace must be protected whether there is radar or not. for traffic spacing turn right heading 140. The airplane behind could slow down or the leader could speed up.e.selkirk.) The trailing airplane must remain at least 10 miles behind.IFR for Professional Pilots For example.16. Therefore. it is just easier with radar. If the trailing airplane begins to close in on the leading airplane the pilots should communicate to decide what to do. Time separation When altitude separation cannot be used. Read RAC 12. A reciprocal track is any track that is within 45 degrees of the reciprocal.000’.e. Indeed.000’ at the same time another is cleared westbound at 10. more than 135 degrees. At some time they will be over the same location but separated by 1. one airplane can be cleared eastbound at 9.000’ above FL290. i.34 for LF many controllers actually enforce the 5 mile standard.000 feet apart in RVSM airspace. The DME must be from the same station. since the radar separation standard is 5 miles and airway half-widths are 4 miles and 4. (More on this when we examine protected airspace shortly.) Because altimeters are less accurate at high altitude the separation between aircraft is increased to 2. In a radar environment the controller watches the a/c on a radar scope. Aircraft must remain at least 10 minutes apart when enroute except that if the aircraft in the lead is 20 knots faster than the trailing aircraft in which case the second airplane can be allowed to proceed when 5 minutes has elapsed. Direct Communication between Pilots A controller can allow pilots flying the same route to maintain their own separation by directly communicating with each other and reporting their DME.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots should turn immediately. to prevent loss of separation. This may be a good idea. but the suggestion should always be made AFTER turning. In some cases the pilot may wish to propose an alternative such as speeding up or slowing down. 14 .

tc. The FAA publishes the complete list of USA approach charts online at: http://www.) There are 7 volumes of the CAP. which is easy to carry in a flight-bag. known as Jepp charts.gc. etc. Many companies use approach plates provided by other companies such as Jeppesen Sanderson. These notices are removed when the information has been published in the AIM. All the information in the CAP GEN can be found in other sources. 15 .0 through 8. The course manual includes an assignment coving the CAP GEN.ca Chapter 2 IFR Charts Read AIM MAP section.naco. CAP GEN The CAP GEN contains a great deal of useful information. CAP 2 covers British Columbia and CAP3 covers the Prairie Provinces.htm) Canada Air Pilot (CAP) The CAP (Canada Air Pilot) is published on behalf of NavCanada. makes a convenient reference for pilots wishing to check alternate limits or the meaning of approach light codes. There is also a restricted Canada Air Pilot (RCAP.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. these will be the main focus in this text. especially the AIM. Every IFR pilot should read it cover-to-cover.1 (online at http://www. departure.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14371/menu.faa. Its primary purpose is to present IFR arrival. These are used to disseminate recent changes to IFR standards or procedures. and aerodrome charts for airports with publicly available instrument approaches. each with information for a particular part of Canada.selkirk. approach. Pilots should read the special notices that make up the first few pages of each CAP. LO Charts LO Charts show all Canadian low level airways and air routes. especially MAP 3. These include the same information but are formatted differently.gov . however the CAP GEN. IFR pilots must be completely familiar with the symbols used as described in the legend.

The significance of terminal radar in increasing the utilization of airspace has been explained in chapter 1.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots HI Charts HI Charts show all high altitude Canadian airways as well as the organized track structure used in the ACA. 16 . Terminal Charts Terminal charts are published for those airports with terminal radar service.

IFR control in a terminal is divided into numerous small sectors (one or two departure and arrival sectors for each runway for instance. 6.ca Chapter 3 Airspace Structure I recommend that you read RAC 2 (entire section) before continuing below. Figure 2. 4. and vice versa. Here we are interested in understanding how the IFR aspects of the airspace actually work 17 . 1 The regulatory aspects of this VTA are covered in Avia 130 and 230 so will not be discussed here. IFR Centers are located in buildings that are not necessarily at airports. Each FIR is broken into sectors with one controller (sometimes with assistance) responsible for all IFR traffic in that sector.selkirk. Detroit controls traffic around Windsor for example. It also shows Gander Oceanic FIR. that is why the airspace must be divided into small sectors.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.4 in your AIM before proceeding.2 shows the location of the above FIRs. Domestic Flight Information Regions (FIR) Canadian air traffic controllers work either in IFR Centers or Control Towers. Gander Moncton Montreal Toronto Winnipeg Edmonton Vancouver Read RAC 2. and Vancouver controls traffic at Bellingham Washington. 2. You will discover that Canada and the USA have agreements in certain areas such that Canadian controllers control some American airspace. Each center is responsible for a block of airspace called a Flight Information Region (FIR. which is discussed below. In the vicinity of very busy airports. 7. This usually includes a VFR terminal area (VTA) which is intended to put VFR traffic under positive control and reduce the chance of conflicts with IFR traffic1. The dimensions of sectors are set so that no controller is overwhelmed with too much traffic. such as Vancouver and Toronto. 3. This would mean 20+ airplanes within 30 miles of the airport. 5. Towers are located at controlled airports. Sectors may be expanded or contracted throughout the day as traffic volumes change.) In Canada there are seven domestic centers located at: 1. and that is far too much for one controller to handle.) At busy airports there would typically be an IFR airplane lifting off and landing every 60 to 120 seconds. a Terminal area is designated.

As mentioned. A second departure controller may deal with the airplane from there to 30 or 40 miles out at which time a third controller may deal with the airplane up to 18. While the airplane is within one FIR the controllers are all sitting in the same room and able to speak with each other directly. We will deal with that in the section How ATC Works below. The above description gives you a sense of how an IFR flight is passed from one controller to another. Kamloops. after being cleared for takeoff by the tower the pilot will talk next to a departure controller who may deal with the airplane for only the first 5 miles. 18 . so the airplane may be handed off to a second arrival controller 20 miles out. If traffic volumes are very low then one sector may encompass multiple airports. IFR Controllers specialize. for example in the middle of the night one controller may control all low level traffic in the B.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots At airports with insufficient traffic to warrant a terminal one controller will handle both arrivals and departures. such as arrival and departures. On a typical IFR flight from a busy airport such as Toronto. Once the airplane descends below 18. The airplane will be handed off again to an arrival controller perhaps 40 miles from destination. some control high level traffic. Kelowna.000’. It gives you no idea how the controllers actually do their job. and some low level enroute traffic. Cranbrook and an occasional aircraft at Grand Forks and Princeton. then a high altitude controller will take over and deal with the flight for 200 miles or so.C. The arrival controller will deal with the airplane until it is established on final approach. at that point it will be handed off to the tower who will clear it to land. High level controllers deal with airplanes flying in level flight and thus can handle more volume and a much larger geographic area. some departures. When an airplane reaches the edge of one controller’s sector s/he hands it off to the next controller. They discuss each handoff before it happens and can easily pass on special concerns (although they sometimes don’t. Tower controllers work in the tower at the airport and are therefore physically separated from IFR controllers. the size of sectors changes as traffic volumes change. which is why arrival and departure sectors are small. some control arrivals.) When the handoff is from FIR to FIR telephone coordination is needed. The IFR controller can phone the tower to coordinate handoffs if necessary. The airplane is then handed from one high altitude controller to the next every 100 to 200 miles until nearing destination. and often some over-flying enroute traffic. interior which includes several airports such as Penticton. During the day this same airspace would be broken into several sectors. Controllers who handle airplanes that change altitude a lot. have an inherently higher workload. At a busy airport such as Vancouver arrival may be subdivided into multiple sectors.000’ a high level controller will hand it off to a low altitude controller.

) Note: should a pilot wish to make a maneuver or do anything contrary to the IFR clearance s/he has copied a 19 .e. It is important to realize that the tower establishes separation by spacing sequential departures so that the airplanes are the required distance apart once they get to the departure controller (the first IFR controller the pilot deals with. It would obviously be disastrous if an airplane tried to takeoff while another was landing. Langley. But if that was the case as soon as you get your IFR clearance you could simply taxi out and takeoff without fear of conflict with any IFR traffic (remember that an IFR clearance provides no assurance about conflict with VFR traffic). The most important role they play is sequencing departures in accordance with IFR separation standards. All this traffic is obviously in “conflict” and so the term “clearance” cannot mean what it is supposed to. The Tower controller’s principle job is to prevent this. If you haven’t experienced it you can probably imagine it.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. “Cleared for takeoff. so he checks that no IFR traffic is on final within the permitted distance and also that the preceding aircraft on departure has reached the required distance (usually 3 or 5 miles) and if that airspace is “clear” he tells the pilot. Because the tower takes this responsibility departing IFR aircraft can obtain an IFR clearance that is not actually valid. Let me explain what that means. at any given moment 10+ airplanes are all cleared for perhaps two active SIDs (a SID is a published departure procedure details of which we will examine later. So. so obviously an IFR clearance is issued every 90 seconds. That would not be possible at an uncontrolled airport. At a small airport such as Castlegar (which has no tower) that is indeed the case. If you have flown VFR at a controlled airport such as Boundary Bay. clear. But at a busier airport such as Vancouver common sense tells us that it can’t be true. which we discuss under HOW ATC Works below. When each airplane is ready it calls the tower and requests takeoff clearance. as we will discuss below.selkirk. Tower controllers are NOT IFR controllers. The pilot can be assured that the airspace is empty of conflicting traffic. The tower controller knows the IFR separation standards.) In addition there will be 10 to 20 airplanes that will complete the IFR approach and land while the departing airplane taxis out but before it takes off and leaves the area. or Kelowna you have a pretty good idea of how the tower controller does his/her job. They do NOT issue IFR clearances. empty of conflicting traffic.e.” At that moment the word clear and the concept of clearance come together. It is the skill of the tower controller that resolves the above dilemma. Once airborne the tower will hand the airplane off to the departure controller who will maintain the required IFR separation. i.ca Tower The primary purpose of a Tower is to coordinate takeoffs and landings thus preventing conflict on the runways. What is the actual situation? At Vancouver an airplane departs IFR about every 90 seconds. But this clearance is normally copied by the pilots 15 minutes or so before departure. In the section above titled Emergence of ATC I pointed out that the word clearance means that the approved route is clear. i. Neverthe-less they play an important role in keeping IFR traffic separated. Pitt Meadows.

This obviously reduces the number of airplanes that can depart in a given period of time. which we will turn to shortly. but they obviously only apply when the weather is NOT IMC. Operation in the oceanic control area is mostly covered in Avia 240 and 261. The pilot will not be able to get an IFR clearance until the airspace is clear. at an uncontrolled airport. Consequently only one airplane can have an IFR departure clearance at a time. The obvious question is.e. or request VFR climbs to avoid delays. how are departures sequenced when there is no tower. Please note that Gander also has a domestic FIR. which was included in the description above. i. When a larger number of airplanes wish to depart in a short time frame the system cannot accommodate them.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots tower CANNOT issue or approve such a request. When one airplane gets a departure clearance any other airplane wishing to depart will have to wait until the first one takes off and leaves the area. tower is NOT an IFR control agency. It is however done by procedural methods. such as Castlegar? The answer was implied above. FSS will relay the clearance. If the weather is IMC there is nothing to do but relax and enjoy the wait  Oceanic Control Canada has been designated by ICAO to take responsibility for control of the Western North Atlantic Ocean. As stated previously. Oceanic control is explained in RAC 11. or the pilot may contact the IFR controller directly. The oceanic control center is in Gander Newfoundland. but no clearance will be issued until the airspace is clear. We will discuss these options later. This system works smoothly when an airport has one departure per hour rather than one per minute. Pilots will attempt to depart VFR. 20 .

as described in RAC 2. it is worth reading a few times to digest fully.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. In what follows I will not repeat all the contents of RAC 2. Something to keep in mind.) Pay particular attention to RAC 2.3. See RAC Figure 2.0 try to visualize what is not controlled. airspace is uncontrolled unless it is controlled. You should already know this material from Avia 130.000 feet. After you read RAC 2. 21 . which is discussed below. while in the NDA true tracks (and runway numbers) are used. but control is provided only at FL 230 and above in the NCA and FL270 in the ACA. Northern / Southern Domestic Airspace Take note that the purpose of this division is that in the SDA magnetic tracks are used.000’ is in high or low level airspace. Therefore. which might sound very flip but it is important. i. regardless of altimeter setting. From this unregulated airspace NavCanada takes control of certain airspace. the airspace below these flight levels is uncontrolled.000 feet.0. Question: where does high level airspace begin in the northern domestic airspace? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph. What is your answer? Does the answer change with altimeter setting? 18.000 feet is in high level airspace. Low and High Level Airspace Low level airspace is below 18.0.0 before proceeding.e.1 Notice that the northern domestic airspace is further divided into the northern control area (NCA) and arctic control area (ACA) (see RAC Figure 2. What I mean by that is that it is best to begin by imagining all the airspace over Canada as being uncontrolled and therefore available for uncontrolled IFR as previously described. The AIM naturally concentrates on explaining what is controlled.ca Structure of Nav-Canada’s Airspace System Before we can discuss how ATC controls IFR traffic we need to know the terminology of the airspace structure.6. Be sure to notice that all of the northern domestic airspace is a standard pressure region. High level airspace begins at 18. A frequent exam question is whether or not 18. what is not mentioned. I will try to clarify some of the confusing aspects of the airspace system.selkirk. Review RAC 2.

22 . even in the standard pressure region.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Standard Pressure and Altimeter Setting Regions It is crucial to wrap your mind around the altimeter setting regions. Jet Routes If you have been keeping track of what has been covered so far you know that all the SDA at 18. Can you fly at 9. imagine you wish to fly IFR directly from Yellowknife to Iqaluit. There are NO lateral limits.92 and all altitudes are referred to as flight levels.92 to the current altimeter setting is called transition (this term is part of the AMORTS briefing.000. Since the rules say that high level airspace starts at 18. which means there would be plenty of vertical separation from airplanes at 17. but if you look at RAC Figure 2.11. in the northern domestic airspace.000. or after leaving southern airspace and entering northern.11 you should set the altimeter to the airport altimeter setting for departure and arrival. so any route you fly will be in controlled airspace. To check your understanding. When the altimeter setting is more than 29. In the altimeter setting region you set the altimeter to the reported altimeter setting of the nearest station so that your altimeter indicates approximately the altitude above sea level. NCA control starts at FL230 and ACA starts at FL270. i. the only airspace in which you set the altimeter is the low level airspace in the southern domestic control area (which just happens to be where you have flown up to now).000 feet. When you fly the King Air keep in mind that you transition above 18.92 FL180 would be less than 18.000 ASL. To put it another way. this is a common Transport Canada exam question. i. As explained in RAC 2. In the standard pressure region you set the altimeter to 29.4. In the Southern Domestic Airspace the high level airspace is also the standard pressure region.92 then an airplane cruising at FL180 would actually be more than 18. An important rule is that the altimeter should be adjusted in the standard pressure region (see RAC 2.e. is SCA. the whole area is controlled.3 which should now make sense. In the Northern Domestic Airspace the whole area is a standard pressure region. as described in RAC 2. See RAC 6.92. But if the altimeter setting is less than 29. there are no gaps within this controlled airspace.000 feet? The answer is no.000 it should be obvious that on such days FL180 does not exist. and will therefore need a clearance from ATC.) Changing the altimeter from 29. covered later.) Within NDA. Pay close attention to the rules about when to switch to 29. You will fly at FL090.9 you can see that most of Canada is actually a standard pressure region.e.11 transition.000 and above is controlled (i.10 and 2. This is what you are used to doing as a VFR pilot.e.

An example of a Victor airway that is based on both VOR and NDB is V304 between EMPRESS and LUMSDEN.500’ and VFR traffic must have a clearance to fly in class B airspace. 18.000 feet on these airways (even for VFR airplanes. In SDA Jet airway tracks are magnetic and in NDA they are true. It also takes control of airspace around IFR airports for departures and arrivals. 23 . on LO2. The base of airways is 2. Reporting Points Reporting points.000’ (i. which you will recall is everything below 18. including V23 between VANCOUVER and NANAIMO on LO1 and Vancouver terminal chart.1 Figure 2. Pay attention to RAC 1. Remember that low level airspace is uncontrolled except where specified.ca Low Level Airways and Air Routes Now we will discuss the low level airspace.5(b) and 2. Low level airways are tracks between VORs or NDBs.IFR for Professional Pilots On HI charts the airways within the high level airspace are called “jet airways. the top is just below 18. as shown in Figure 2. If the airway is based only on two NDBs it is called a low frequency airway.8.7). Below airways is class G airspace. There are numerous other examples.7.000 feet.2 for full details.5(c).200’ agl. The lower portion of airways is class E airspace. Solid triangles represent mandatory reporting points and open triangles represent on request reporting points. These are relatively narrow strips of airspace (do you know the exact widths – see RAC 2. so you can fly IFR in it without a clearance.” Jet airways do not have specific widths. unlike the low level airways we will discuss next.9.2 and notice that in many areas a transponder with mode C is required to fly above 10.selkirk.500’ airways are class B. Approach and Departure Airspace So far the only controlled low level airspace we have described is airways.e. The rest of the airspace remains uncontrolled.000 is not included). Some airways run from a VOR to an NDB. Selair. See RAC 2.5(a) Low frequency airways and Victor airways based on one VOR and one NDB are wider. When a Victor airway is based on two VORs its width is as shown in RAC 2.) Mode C is always required above 12. Examine the legend for the LO chart and become completely familiar with all the symbols. So NavCanada specifies airways along which it provides IFR control. will be found on LO charts along the airways. marked with little triangles. If a VOR is one of the navaids upon which the airways is based it is called a Victor airway. Above 12.

These are described in RAC 2. Normally separation is a concept that applies only to IFR traffic. Control Zones You are probably familiar with control zones as a VFR pilot because you probably dealt with them. and transitions areas. However. The base of a control zone is ground level and the top is typically 3. but in a Class B zone it also applies to VFR traffic. I do not intend to repeat it all.000’ agl. VFR traffic must be very careful to avoid IFR traffic in control zones.2. 24 . Please read all of RAC 2. Control Area Extensions I assume you are keeping track as we develop an image of controlled airspace. although assistance in avoiding other traffic is normally provided if the controller has time. not the Tower. therefore NavCanada must take control of airspace around airports. In a Class B zone VFR traffic is also kept positively separated just like IFR traffic. We will look at each in turn. Most control zones are round in shape with a radius of 5NM. IFR airplanes obviously fly in control zones only for the first and last two or three minutes of a flight.” The controller clears you to join the circuit and then clears you to land. We are going to discuss separation shortly. Controlling arrivals and departures is one of the primary mandates of ATC. Control zones can be class B. You are used to requesting a clearance before “entering the zone. or D. and D zones VFR traffic is not positively separated. Note that it is done ONLY if the controller has time.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots If airways were the only controlled airspace it would be impossible to control IFR departures and arrivals. control area extensions. but remember that IFR clearances come from the Center. This is done by establishing control zones. In the CFS the Obstacle Clearance Circle will show the radius of the zone or display the words “shape irregular” – read page A50 in the CFS. although most prefer class B zones. An IFR pilot in IMC gets very nervous about VFR airplanes in the area (hence the appreciation of Class B zones).7 before continuing. only provide clarification in the hopes of making the structure easier to understand and remember. Some controls zones have an irregular shape. It makes no operational difference to the IFR pilot. this is usually the portion of a flight in which the airplane transitions from IMC to VMC and may be in and out of cloud. In order to be able to clear IFR airplanes to leave an airway to an approach procedure a control area extension will often be needed. IFR airplanes are controlled within the zone. In class C. So far we only have airways and control zones. C.7. There are bound to be gaps between the airway and the control zone. etc.

Selair.8. Note the rules about joint use airspace. but NEVER through it. 25 . You can fly IFR through Class F airspace if ________. IFR approach procedures almost always have segments that extend beyond the control zone. The answer is in RAC 2. Class F -Special Use Airspace I am sure that controllers wish there was no such thing as Class F airspace.ca Transition Areas Transition areas are similar to control area extensions except that they are based at 700’ agl. You cannot fly IFR in Class F airspace. Therefore ATC must clear you around or over it.8. This is class F airspace that becomes class E airspace when not in use. and therefore you can get an IFR clearance through it. A block of airspace called a transition area will be designated so that the airplane is in controlled airspace while it performs the approach procedure.selkirk.8.IFR for Professional Pilots Note that control area extensions have the same base and top as airways.6. There are three exceptions. Be sure to read RAC 2. also in RAC 2.6 and is a typical exam question.6.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 26 .

” Knowing how to perform every IFR procedure is NOT enough. The IFR pilot fully visualizes the entire “IFR System” knows his/her place in it and always maintains situational awareness. you must be proactive about anticipating and figuring things out ahead of time.” The actor is not a pilot. It is crucial to avoid having to “figure out” what to do in flight. If you can’t do this you aren’t ready to be in the cockpit. You should be able to describe step-by-step every action to be taken from the moment you enter the cockpit until you park and disembark. “the first thing I do is ……. 27 . Create a Script You must have a complete image of an IFR flight. Thinking like an IFR pilot involves knowing where you are. Etc. SOPs bring the procedures into a repeatable format which makes an imprint on the mind creating the necessary mind set. There are good IFR pilots and “not so good. The key principle is anticipation. all the way to the end of the flight. so you must script every action s/he will take. you must learn to recognize the indicators of what is important at a given moment and react accordingly. The secret is really employing the correct skill at the correct moment in time. where you are going. Knowing the appropriate priority at any given moment is a major key. therefore you don’t need a protractor or a ruler.ca Chapter 4 IFR Flight Planning IFR flight planning in most ways is simpler than VFR planning.” And the next thing is …… and the next thing is ……. A productive way to think about preparing for a flight is to imagine that it will be a movie in which an actor will play the role of “you. and how to get there. You use LO or HI charts.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. I emphasize complete.selkirk. Once this becomes natural we say you are thinking like an IFR pilot. SOPs are a major key in achieving this. You start by saying. not VNCs and the lines representing the airways are all marked on the map for you with the magnetic tracks and the length of the airways given. The basics of preparing the IFR navlog were covered in Avia 160 so they will be mentioned here only very briefly. As such. Planning Situational Awareness in IFR Flight There is a “mind set” that we call thinking like an IFR pilot.

navigate. In these situations the aviate. But single-pilot IFR is right up there. or slump below the minimum climb gradient on a missed approach. An airplane will drop off into a spiral dive. navigate. I have even seen people sinking toward the runway attempting to communicate when they clearly need to aviate. so I hope you will heed it. It is critical to keep the airplane in good trim during singlepilot IFR.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots The idea of creating a script is expanded further in several of the sections below. and communicate priority still applies but failure to consciously think about it may not carry a noticeable penalty – most of the time.” Personally I literally “talk” silently to myself as described here. It tells you that NOTHING is more important than controlling the airplane. This will keep you mentally prepared to handle malfunctions such as autopilot failure or incapacitation of your copilot. If there are two pilots. but in some fashion you must confirm that aviate is OK before you do any navigating and both aviate and navigate are OK before you communicate. To do it you must absolutely be committed to aviate. Well. maybe climbing Mount Everest with no oxygen is harder. You should however strive to keep this three level priority in your mind all the time and train yourself to scan the flight instruments (confirm aviate) just before every navigation change or communication. Never communicate before aviate and navigate are confirmed OK. You will learn to do what I call “kitchen table flying” which I will explain later. Aviate. and communicate priority. Make a resolution to step through this three step priority list continuously throughout your flights. What you need to do is develop a mental discipline that whenever you do ANYTHING you slot it into this priority sieve. If you have an autopilot then it largely takes care of aviate meaning that you can more easily concentrate on navigate and communicate. Single Pilot – No Autopilot IFR The hardest thing in the world to do is single-pilot IFR with no autopilot. For example when your find yourself wanting to reach over and tune a new VOR frequency (navigate) you should consciously think. very easily if you divert your attention to navigating before you have full trimmed control. Aviate Navigate Communicate There is an old saying that must become the mantra for your life as a professional pilot. This is a priority list. 28 . Everything you do as a pilot can be put into one of these three categories.K proceed. and communicate. navigate. “are my wings level. A classic example is during a missed approach procedure. The airplane must be established in a climb with the gear and flaps retracted. is my altitude steady? O. and no autopilot. It is one of the most valuable ideas you will come across in this book. If control is in doubt then forget about everything else and get control. then one should always be aviating while the other can concentrate on navigating and communicating. Instructors are often flabbergasted to see how many pilots will push the PTT button and start talking on the radio while the gear is still down and the climb rate is far less than the safe value.

For example there is no preferred low altitude IFR route from Vancouver to Castlegar – but there a preferred route to Princeton – this route should be used by an airplane departing Vancouver for Castlegar. This has become so ingrained in me that I honestly cannot press the PTT button without scanning the AI. That way when you do the briefing in flight you will have a reasonable chance of not missing anything. I describe this as my “first officer” asking my “captain” (I am both of these at once). Don’t let this happen to you. This means that you must examine every plate you could possibly use on a flight and run through an AMORTS briefing for it as part of your preflight preparation. You should almost always file the preferred route. Take a hold entry for example. or the airplane is not in trim.ca Preferred IFR routes Start by examining the CFS section C for any preferred IFR routes. but what difference does it make if you report the second you pass the station or 30 seconds later? It doesn’t really matter. However. Normally you will be cleared for the preferred route even if you file 29 . “What should I do now?” At every moment I have some answer that comes into my mind. and VSI first. When flying single pilot I constantly ask myself. But if you don’t turn. Alt. but if you develop a bad habit early in your flying it is hard to break later so work on this diligently. Conducting a WAT and AMORTS briefing single pilot with no autopilot is very challenging. if you are flying out of or into an airport that does have preferred routes you should select the preferred route for an airport in the right direction.selkirk. This is pretty basic stuff. When the first officer wants to do something.” By cold I mean without having done it previously. And I cannot reach for a nav radio without scanning the AI. he then checks that nav radios are as needed (I use the TSI system described below) and if these are all OK he authorizes the first officer to make the call. I run this through my mind as though some part of me is asking permission from another part to do something. If there is no preferred route published that is usually because there is not enough traffic between the airport you are flying from to the one you are going to to warrant a preferred route.IFR for Professional Pilots What I find works for me is a self authorization mantra. Alt. In closing this section I would like to say that by far the most common mistake for beginners is to worry too much about communicating. There are both low and high altitude preferred routes depending on the type of airplane you are flying. the captain checks that pitch and bank are steady and airspeed and vertical speed are as desired. It causes a great deal of trouble for ATC if you don’t. or you spiral in the turn that does matter. such as report on the missed approach. I would go so far as to say that you cannot do it “cold. When you enter the hold you are supposed to report. VSI and radio stack first. or will loose altitude in the turn because pitch is not under control. Yet time and again new IFR pilots will press the PTT and start talking without turning. Selair.

you must get to know all the symbols on the map. they provide. not the regular CAP in some cases. CHAPT.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots something else. the track on your navlog would be 057. You can see that the airway uses radial 014 outbound from YVR. make sure you can find all the distances. however the compass rose is centered on the correct location for the VOR.) How are RCO and DRCO sites found on the map? (See the legend for the symbols and read about using DRCO in CFS page D36 and AIM RAC 1. Therefore. Bearings and distances are the most obvious thing. As an example look at the LO2 chart and locate V317 from YVR to YNY.) The LO chart shows all the airways and navaids needed for navigation.) Looking at LO2 can you tell whether Calgary International has a Class B or a Class C control zone without looking in the CFS? (Yes. but by no means the only thing.) The box that surrounds the frequency for NDB or VOR stations can be either thick or thin. JANEK. this track applies all the way to LYTON. 30 . Let’s look briefly at a few key items in the legend.” LO Charts – Distances. Request route due to lower MEA. Bearings. Be sure to know how to interpret these symbols. Start by examining the legend for the LO and HI charts. check the symbols in the legend. sometimes they must be offset for clarity.) Can you tell the length of runway at an airport without opening up your CFS? (Yes. etc. Note that this V317 passes numerous intersections (MODY.) How can you tell whether you should be flying at an odd or even altitude on a particular airway? (the airways symbols have a pointed end – this indicates the direction for even altitudes. FELKO) Only LYTON needs to be on the navlog (and in the GPS flight plan) because it is the only waypoint at which the track changes. Note that the IFR could be in the RCAP. what is the difference? (Thick lines indicate the nearby airport has a FSS. LYTON. From LYTON the airway follows radial 237 to YNY. For example the distance between CHAPT and FELKO is 25 NM. if there is an important reason why you require an alternate route indicate that in the remarks section of your flight plan – an example might be “Aircraft on unpressurized ferry flight. The LO chart gives the distance between each waypoint.3. as well as type of runway surface and whether or not the runway is lighted.) Are VOR and NDB symbols always located in the exact correct position on LO charts? (No. Aerodrome symbols can be black or green – what is the difference? (IFR as opposed to VFR only.1.

You might be thinking that you can find the total distance on the map in a square box – but it is important to realize that distance totals are provided only between navaids and compulsory intersections. Contrast this with the earlier example of V342 from YVR to YDC. This point is likely to be an NDB. or airway intersection.) There are a couple of small differences between Canada and the USA that you need to know about because the LO charts cover some USA airspace. 31 . LYTON is not a compulsory intersection and therefore the total distance of 202 on the map is from YVR to YNY.selkirk. Examine the legend to find the symbol for MCA and look to see if you can find any examples (they will only be in USA airspace.IFR for Professional Pilots What is the distance from YVR to LYTON. If using the Electronic Navlog (ENL) select the MT-navlog.ca Navlog Preparation You learned to complete a navlog in Avia 160 so this section will provided only a few comments highlighting the differences between IFR and VFR flight planning.) The last waypoint on the navlog should be the location where the approach or STAR begins. The distance and time for this first leg should be a reasonable estimate. Or. such as V342 between YVR and YDC (i. In other words. The navlog should always start from the departure airport and the first waypoint should normally be the location where you intercept the airway structure. The bearings and distances are all provided on the LO and HI charts. To get the distance from YVR to LYTON you will have to add up 43+23+21. and separate legs if the airway has a dogleg. Make one leg for every change of track. After the first waypoint the navlog is very simple to layout.) Selair.e. In Canada the MEA can change at any intersection and if you are crossing over that intersection you must be at the higher of the two MEAs. there should be a leg from YVR to CILLI and another from CILLI to YDC. VOR. in that case CILLI is a compulsory intersection so the distance from YVR to CILLI of 69 NM is provided on the map. In the USA they provide a minimum crossing altitude (MCA) that you can cross the intersection provided you climb at 200 ft/nm to the higher MEA. Be sure to examine the SID and allow for any vectoring or other maneuvering you will do. if you are planning a round robin IFR as we do in the last few lessons of the syllabus use the round-robin navlog. the first leg is almost always longer than the straight-line distance from the airport to the first waypoint. What is a mileage breakdown point – and what symbol is used? (Look it up in the legend and then look for some examples (there is one on V300 between Thunder Bay and Sioux Narrows. This will require a new leg after each station passage.

The fuel-flow used for the approach should be conservative. For example if your alternate airport is equipped with an ILS standard alternate minima are 600:2. Make sure you understand when the sliding scale is applicable. It is important to get your mind wrapped around the idea of the standard alternate minima – do so before moving on. but you can also file this airport as an alternate if the forecast is 700:1½ or 800:1.) An alternate airport is a safe place you can go and land if the weather drops below minima at your destination. Selecting an Alternate Unless specifically authorized in an Air Operator Certificate all IFR flight plans require an alternate (see RAC 3. In fact we always depart with full tanks.14 give the rules for selecting an alternate. Allocate 45 minutes of reserve time at cruise fuel consumption. in the real world flying you will have to establish a reasonable contingency fuel.14. especially if the weather is marginal. one ILS. At the major airline level the question of how much contingency fuel is required is becoming a huge cost factor. these are 400:1. If the alternate airport has “unusually high” approach minima then standard alternate minima DO NOT apply and the weather forecast needs to be greater – this requirement should be obvious. There are three standard alternate minima. Your CAP GEN and AIM RAC 3.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots The time for the STAR and approach should then be estimated and entered on the navlog. it is important that you consider carefully how much contingency fuel you actually need. With all the above complete your navlog now indicates to you the time the flight will take and the minimum legal fuel requirement. It costs money to carry around unneeded fuel “just in case. so if it isn’t obvious then stop and think about it for a minute.14 shows that these apply when the airport has multiple ILS. The first table in RAC 3. or non-precision approaches respectively. 90% of the time one of these will apply. To meet 32 . 600:2. Please read the Air Canada Fuel Bulletin on our website CRM page. and 800:2. For a turbine airplane the fuel flow may increase in the warmer air at low altitude. When standard alternate minima apply you are permitted to use a sliding scale.” So. For a piston engine airplane it is usually best to assume cruise fuel flow since this will be on the safe side. This is extremely crucial stuff but a bit difficult to interpret – so read it carefully. As a student pilot you are spoiled by the ability to add all the fuel you want. As such the alternate is a critical safety feature of your flight planning. But. so take care to allocate a high enough value. You must now decide how much contingency fuel to add.

if CAD4 (Trail) is the destination we cannot – because Trail only has an RNAV approach. You can see from the above that there are lots of twists and turns to choosing an alternate. The 3660 must rounded off in accordance with note 4.IFR for Professional Pilots this obvious safety need the rules state that the alternate minimum ceiling must be 300 feet above the approach MDA and the visibility must be 1 sm more than the approach visibility.500 asl (MOCA on G1. But. because there is no TAF for Grand Forks. For example Grand Forks approach minima are 3360:3 so after doing the math you get 3660:4. The GFA would have to show ceiling no lower than 10. So if CYCG is the destination it has NDB and Localizer approaches. you cannot use the approach on runway 09. But. Of course there is a problem. This paragraph starts with the words. etc.14 and know the rules for rounding off altitudes. The basic idea is that the forecast must be at or above alternate minima at the time you will arrive. For example if your glideslope is unserviceable you cannot use the ILS. or if the wind favors runway 27. The basic idea is that for TEMPO and BCMG you must use the least favorable weather forecast for the period. Selair.ca Filing an IFR Flight Plan Read RAC 3. “Pilots can take credit for GNSS …” It is important to note that the requirement is that there be conventional approaches at the destination.selkirk. for PROB forecasts you are given more leeway. as long as the overall forecast is above alternate minima you can accept a lower PROB provided it is not lower than the approach minima. because of note 5. Finally we must confirm that paragraph 3 does NOT apply.– it is critical for you to read note 4 of RAC 3. The last point to note is that you can only base your alternate on approaches you are able to fly. Grand Forks can be filed as an alternate if the TAF forecasts 3700:3. But. The correct visibility is actually 3sm.16 carefully before proceeding.) In most cases you base your alternate selection on the TAF for the destination airport. In this case we would use the clause for NO IFR APPROACH AVAILABLE.14. what if the forecast includes a TEMPO or BCMG clause? The rules for this are in RAC 3. not 4sm. so we can file Grand Forks as an alternate as described above. You will have to be very careful not to miss anything. 33 . Therefore. Therefore note 3 applies and we must ensure from the GFA that there is no cloud below 6100 asl (this is 1000 above the HAT) and there is no CB in the GFA and the visibility is forecast to be at least 3sm. This however is NOT the correct answer – but it is a good start.

For example if the new speed is 245 KTAS enter N245 in the route. The planned departure time is more important on an IFR flight plan than VFR. RAC 3.000 feet enter A0120 in the route. In such cases you normally check with clearance delivery prior to engine start to confirm your departure slot time. If you file a flight plan and then find out your passengers are going to be an hour late be sure to call and have your departure time amended.16. 34 .6 (the speed and altitude boxes. In some cases you may start the route with an airway that passes by thus indicating to ATC that you will make an intercept of the airway – but this does create a slight ambiguity since the precise point you will intercept the airway is not defined. for example V300 YDC V342 … (which means that you will follow V300 to Princeton and then V342 after Princeton. However. Typically this will correspond to the first waypoint on your navlog.16. This is less important in a radar environment.6 as part of your route (see below.3. The format is identical to the format for speed and altitude described above. there is no need to worry about slowing down during times such as vectors to an approach. Your flight plan must be filed at least 30 minutes before your planned engine start – if not the system will not have enough time to process your flight plan.) Once you file the speed on your flight plan you must fly that speed accurately (see RAC 8. Changes to altitude and speed are inserted in the route at the point they occur.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots You should be aware of the codes for filing combination IFR and VFR flight plans even though they are not used very often – if they are needed you can always look them up. An important point when filing the route on your flight plan is whether or not to file a STAR as part of your route. When your follow a single airway there is no need to enter waypoints along the airway. If the new altitude is 12.) RAC 3. In some cases if flow control is in effect you are expected to be within 3 minutes of your filed takeoff time. Read RAC 9. but it is critical when you are in a procedural environment such as an oceanic flight.16. When flow control is not in effect it is still important that you be reasonably close to your filed departure time. the important thing is to know that these codes exist. ATC also typically expects aircraft descending on STARS to adjust speed – while there are not regulations authorizing these speed changes they are common practice so you don’t need to worry that ATC will be upset with you. This is often a VOR or NDB or and airway intersection.) If you cannot do so (perhaps due to turbulence or a malfunction) you need to inform ATC. When you change from one Victor airway to another the transition point must be clear.2 before continuing. however this will always be at a VOR or NDB so simple insert the nave of the navaid between the two airway names. If your speed or altitude changes at any time during a flight enter the new speed and altitude in the same format described in RAC 3.) Often it will be necessary to change altitude and or airspeed during the flight. for example you can file V300 from Castlegar all the way to Newfoundland.6 (route box) – normally the first entry in your route is the point where you will intercept the airway.

7 (time enroute box) on your flight plan is very important – especially if you were to have a communications failure. Read the communications failure procedures in RAC 6. If you file an RNAV STAR it becomes a “part of your route” (see RAC 9. thus. and you are cleared via the flight plan route you are expected to fly the STAR and land.16.3 you would NOT hold.3) and therefore if you are cleared via “flight plan route” you are in effect already cleared for the STAR. just as it would on a VFR flight plan. Selair. In accordance with RAC 9. From your reading about communications failure you know that if you DO NOT file an RNAV \STAR you require additional clearance before flying an arrival procedure and an IFR approach.IFR for Professional Pilots There are important differences between Conventional STAR and RNAV STAR from a flight planning point of view. Therefore it is important that your flight plan time run from takeoff to the time when you would start the arrival/approach. even if you have been cleared via the “flight plan route” you would still hold at the depicted hold location at the start of the STAR if you are not cleared specifically for the STAR.ca 35 . you would fly the STAR all the way to the DTW without the need for further clearance. the enroute time on your flight plan should run from takeoff to landing. In the event of communications failure ATC expects you to start the arrival/approach at the flight plan time. If you file a Conventional STAR this tells ATC that you wish to fly that STAR but you still require a clearance for the STAR as you near your destination. At the DTW follow the instructions on the particular STAR plate. Therefore.2. RAC 3.3.2 and CFS section F before continuing. The rest of the flight plan form is filled out exactly like a VFR flight plan. From your reading about communications failure you know that if you file an RNAV STAR in your route.2. Be sure you understand the difference.selkirk. This is very different from a VFR flight plan.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 36 .

37 . This is important because the airplane must be provided traffic separation service and the controller cannot do that effectively if s/he does not know the route the pilot intends to fly. Once you are above the MEA you know you are safe. The other procedure that we used to use before departure procedures was to fly an IFR approach backwards.) The MAP is usually at the threshold of a runway so getting to it after takeoff can be a bit tricky – but as long as you can provide visual terrain separation to that point you know you are safe to enter cloud on the missed approach procedure. if the departure procedure calls for a climb overhead the airport before proceeding on course but the pilot intends to proceed on course without climbing overhead s/he should tell the controller that. In the days before Canada published IFR departure procedures our most reliable and safest method of making IFR departures was to climb visually to the missed approach point (MAP) for one of the IFR approaches at the given airport and then follow the missed approach procedure (this is the current best way to depart CYCG given the suspended departure procedure. It is therefore a critical time of flight and it is supremely important that you have a procedure that ensures safe clearance from terrain and obstructions. For example. But.ca Chapter 5 IFR Departures The departure procedure gets you safely from takeoff to the enroute environment at a safe altitude. But. which is a very steep climb. But. Once you are enroute you will be above the MEA and thus safe from a terrain clearance point of view.selkirk.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. during the departure you necessarily fly below the MEA as you climb. This is not always as easy as it sound because IFR approaches can descend as steep as 400 feet per nautical mile. You have probably observed Jazz climb visually up the Arrow Lake for example. if your airplane can make the climb this procedure is also safe. In Canada most airports have developed IFR departure procedures that you can follow and which ensure your safety. If you are able to takeoff in the opposite direction to the approach and can climb rapidly enough to remain above the published MDAs on the approach you once again know you are safe. On many days this is feasible. (At the time of this writing the IFR departure procedure in CYCG is suspended – thus creating the equivalent of an “un-assessed airport. If the pilot intends to provide visual terrain separation on departure s/he should tell the controller and get approval. therefore as long as you remain VMC during the climb you will be OK.”) The simplest IFR departure is to climb in VMC conditions up to the MEA. not every airport has such procedures (and in some parts of the world you will be completely on your own) so you must be able to come up with a procedure of your own.

Knowing this can save time. To recap – we have three procedures that we could use if there is no published IFR departure procedure: 1. The procedure designer analyzes the terrain surrounding the airport. it would save more if pilots knew what the minimum radar vectoring altitude is. These rules are in the document TP309. The airplane will climb on a gradient of at least 200 ft/NM 3. which they don’t. which means that users must fund the process (very expensive. There are however a few basic principles of IFR departure procedures that you must know. Fly an approach backwards If the above options are not viable the only alternative is to develop an IFR departure procedure. These procedures are designed by professional IFR procedure designers who follow complex rules to ensure that the procedures are safe. Departure procedures are published in the CAP for most airports. By rule the controller cannot vector the airplane below the minimum radar vectoring altitude – with one exception. If the pilot says.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Often on a SID departure ATC provides vectors to the airway after takeoff. The airplane will be at least 35 feet agl when it crosses the departure end of the runway 2. “I am able my own terrain separation” and get a turn toward your airway earlier. But. It is however far too complex for pilots to realistically know all the rules. Transport Canada no longer funds this activity.) CAP Departure Procedures Read RAC 7 before proceding. “I can maintain my own terrain separation” the controller can vector the airplane below the vectoring altitude.) If you are in VMC conditions you can tell the controller. The airplane will not turn until it reaches 400 feet agl 38 . Of course if a pilot was to level off immediately after liftoff then the airplane would surely hit something. Climb in VMC until at the MEA 2. Follow a published missed approach procedure 3. a copy of which is on our website. so the designer makes certain assumptions. S/he must determine whether or not a departing airplane has any risk of hitting an obstruction. these are: 1. when you fly the same route every day you can figure it out (because the controller turns you at the same altitude day after day.

Check almost any airport in your CAP3 and you will find they have ½ mile takeoff minima. 39 . the simplest version of this situation is shown in the diagram below. If you see ½ mile takeoff minima that means you have no obstacles to worry about so you can simply takeoff and proceed in the direction your clearance takes you without concern. any obstructions impinging on the “obstruction surface. In such cases only SPEC VIS will be published (Castlegar is an example of this). Here in British Columbia there is almost always obstructions impinging on the obstruction surface.e.) SPEC VIS If a ½ mile takeoff cannot be approved a SPEC VIS departure is published. After that point a normal 152 ft/NM gradient applies..ca Read RAC 7. Based on the above assumptions the designer checks to see whether or not there is any danger. or you may need to perform a SPEC VIS departure (described next.7 carefully before proceeding. i.selkirk. A SPEC VIS departure requires a visual climb to a specified point.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. The takeoff minima at such airports will have a asterisk (*) When you see the * it means there are obstructions and you CANNOT simply follow the standard takeoff procedure described above. Climb gradients more than 700 ft/NM are never published. You may require a steeper climb gradient. You must look to see what procedure is needed to be safe.” At many airports in the prairies there will be no obstructions impinging and thus the approach designed will publish takeoff minima of ½ statute mile.

but by no means the only possibility. Port Alberni for instance: 40 . “SPEC VIS Climb visually over airport to 2. Let’s say the procedure designer discovers that if the cone is centered on the airport but based at 900’ agl no obstacles penetrate it. Consequently it is usually the case that the cone is based at an altitude from which climb can be made in some direction but not necessarily all directions. and based at the specified altitude. In this case a standard 152 ft/NM cone based at the ground is not an option.” In the example above the BPOC point is directly over the airport. The departure designer will then simply instruct pilots to climb over the airport visually to this altitude before proceeding on course (BPOC). Pilots usually prefer that the departure procedure designer specify the lowest possible altitude for the BPOC point.300’ or above BPOC. There are numerous examples of this.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots In the above example the airport is surrounded by mountains as is typical of airports in British Columbia. It is important for the pilot to read the departure instructions carefully and understand where the BPOC point and understand that the 152 ft/NM cone is centered there. This is very common.

The pilot can enter IMC on this heading but must turn again when intercepting the Vancouver 258° radial. Penticton and Kamloops.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.000’. The instructions specify that the aircraft should level at 8. From there the 152 ft/NM obstacle gradient is clear ONLY on heading 137°. 41 . but this is a traffic restriction not related to obstacle clearance. For other examples similar to Port Alberni look at Castlegar.800 feet.ca The departure procedure for Port Alberni requires a visual climb over the airport to 4.selkirk.

42 . If a greater than standard climb gradient is needed it is important to know that. What should a pilot do if departing from an airport that has not been assessed? If the airport is to be used on a regular basis. and if SPEC VIS is required it would be good to find the most efficient safe route. If no assessment has been formally done then no criteria exist.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Unassessed Runways It was mentioned earlier that not every runway in Canada has been assessed for IFR departures. In more rugged parts of Canada the pilot might realize that obstacles do exist and that a standard ½ mile takeoff is NOT advisable. 2. A visual climb to airway MEA. the pilot is on his own to determine a safe procedure and decide whether standard conditions exist. such as a medevac from an uncontrolled airport that normally does not handle IFR traffic. If a standard ½ mile departure is safe it would be good to know that. The pilot might also consider that the turbo-prop airplane s/he is flying normally climbs at a gradient of 1. If there is an IFR approach procedure the pilot may climb visually to the missed approach point then follow the missed approach procedure. Alternatively the pilot may fly the approach procedure backwards It should be clear that when departing from an unassessed runway great care must be taken.000+ ft/NM. Given these facts the pilot might feel confident that a takeoff in ½ statute miles is safe. Of course the weather must be quite good for this. The pilot must be completely certain that no obstacles impinge on the aircraft’s climb gradient. but it is CRUCIAL to realize that this would be no more than a habit. Most likely the pilot would turn at 400’ agl. it may be worth the expense of having a professional assess the runways. The law permits ½ mile takeoff. but the safety of doing so is questionable. In this case the pilot must devise a “home made” SPEC VIS procedure. If there is an IFR departure procedure nearby the pilot may choose to fly VFR to that airport and then depart IFR. If the airport is in the middle of Saskatchewan the pilot might be satisfied to check the local charts for towers and finding none assume that standard conditions apply. 3. especially for commercial purposes. For an occasional IFR departure. The pilot can do this in many ways but in most cases the pilot will use one of the following strategies: 1.

700’. If a departure alternate is required it is filed on the flight plan in accordance with RAC 3.ca Departure alternate Departure alternates at required when a commercial air operator takeoffs at weather lower than the published takeoff weather in the CAP or lower than the published approach minima in the CAP. squawk 4321. but once you start flying IFR you will see that it can easily happen if you don’t consciously develop a clearance review procedure. if it is not on your checklist you must do it anyway. the frequency and location to contact departure control. The second step is to trace the route you will fly on your charts.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.” If you are cleared for an unanticipated route you should go 43 . Terminal.7 IFR Clearance Review Just before takeoff you should conduct an IFR clearance review. That anyone could be so stupid or incompetent might seem implausible to you. Read the clearance 2. “GABC is cleared to Somespot airport via the Clover 3 departure flight plan route. Reviewing your clearance before takeoff is the single most important thing you can do to ensure a safe non-stressful flight. When the clearance includes a SID use that chart first. Let’s say your clearance is something like. maintain 5. and any special restrictions such as climb gradients or com-failure procedure. if not then go directly to the LO or terminal chart as applicable.selkirk.16. You would then read the Clover 3 SID and note the altitude you are cleared to. or LO charts 3. Get all radios setup You start by reading the clearance which by this point you will have copied. If necessary ask for clarifications or amendments. Make sure you understand it and accept it.) The SID must be translated into a step by step process such as climb on heading 270 to 3. turn right direct YAB VOR.” Flight plan route is obviously acceptable. At Selkirk College we have this on our C-172 and B85 checklists. An IFR clearance review is a three step process: 1.) If you have been cleared via flight plan route you only need to build a script to the end of the SID because you already have one for the rest of the route from your “kitchen table flying. In the future. You will learn the details in your Air Regs course – you should read CAR 724. Put your finger on the map at the takeoff point and move it along the route as you create a script for yourself (see appendix about scripting. It is surprisingly easy to get airborne without realizing you don’t know where you’re going. Continue the process of writing this script for yourself deep enough into the flight to connect up with the script that you should already have (see scripting appendix.000’.26. Trace the route on SID.

I like to think of this as priming the other pilot to act as an altitude and heading alerter. Once you have completed these three steps you should be ready to go. The third step is to setup all the radios. “what do I want the other pilot to draw my attention to if I get distracted?” your answer will generally tell you what to include in the briefing. Crew Briefing In a two-pilot environment it is normal to conduct a takeoff briefing just before departure. When the aircraft takes off it is NOT IFR. It is also easy to forget a turn after takeoff since most takeoffs involve climbing runway heading until ATC instructs you to turn. VFR Departure Read RAC 6. things that won’t happen for many minutes into the flight have no place in a briefing.2 A pilot may request permission to depart VFR and pick up an IFR clearance in the air. We will do numerous exercises of scripting in this course.” It is not usually wise to put too much information in the briefing because if you do you risk information overload and a tendency for the other pilot to tune you out. But. Identify (TSI). If you have a good script this step is pretty easy. which is described in detail elsewhere in this text.000’ and expect radar vectors. If you say to yourself. It does not become IFR until it receives a clearance. But you should note the altitude you are cleared to and any turns that will be required in the first minute or so. Setup. Things that are totally SOP do not need briefing (unless you have a new copilot who doesn’t know the SOPs). You will find that it is very easy to shoot through your assigned altitude on departure (especially in the King Air) so you will want the other pilot to draw that to your attention. for example simply saying. Frequently the unexpected route will be one you have flown before and you will be able to recall the script you used previously. before you takeoff. They can be briefed later at a more appropriate time. if you get a totally unexpected and unfamiliar route you need to examine it. “We will climb runway heading to 5. This is normally just after the IFR clearance review described above and before calling the tower for takeoff clearance. This won’t happen very often. The primary content of the crew briefing is to review the speeds and procedure for the takeoff and to clarify who will do what in the event of an emergency. To do this we use a framework called Tune. The crew briefing should also clarify the IFR departure procedure. This should be very short. You will get quite quick at doing this with practice. So these are the sorts of things to include in a briefing. Briefing SOPs is a good way to bore the other pilot into ignoring you. Why would the controller not approve the request? 44 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots further and build a complete script. and script it.2. It is necessary to have ATC permission to do this. You would normally then conduct a crew briefing if you have a copilot and then takeoff. Obviously the weather must be VFR to do this. Conversely.

selkirk. Selair.ca 45 . VFR departures do work well when the conflicting traffic is in the opposite direction. Remember that when departing VFR the airplane is not permitted to enter IMC conditions. Once ATC determines separation is adequate an IFR clearance can be issued.IFR for Professional Pilots If two airplanes are both trying to depart at the same time on the same route ATC will be reluctant to authorize a VFR departure (presumably for the second airplane) because it is difficult or impossible to establish separation. In other words the airplanes will remain in close proximity to each other. In this case ATC will refuse the request and the second pilot should do the entire flight VFR or wait on the ground for an IFR clearance. Obviously an outbound airplane will pass an inbound and quickly reach a point at which separation exists.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 46 .

but in a few situations it may be advantageous.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.9 47 .4 lists the times when you should report your altitude – make sure you know and follow this list.ca Chapter 6 Enroute Procedures Altitude Reports Read RAC 8.selkirk. Climb and Descent Read RAC 8.5 Know the meaning of the phase “when ready. Note that on your initial call to departure the controller will be checking the accuracy of your mode-c so you should be accurate about indicating your altitude. The second paragraph of RAC 8. This might allow two airplanes to cruise at 9000 avoiding the need for on to climb to 11. Notice that you cannot do visual climbs in Class B or A airspace (i. The main advantage is that two airplanes can both fly at the same altitude because separation is not provided.000 and use oxygen (this is the most likely reason to use it. Know the rules about making visual climbs and descents – these are often very handing to get a climb when there is a lot of traffic.4 Although RAC 8.4 specifies that it is only compulsory to report reaching your assigned altitude in a non-radar environment it is standard practice to always report reaching the assigned altitude.” When you vacate an altitude ATC can assign the altitude to another aircraft so you should climb or descend at least 500 fpm to avoid possible conflicts.) Clearance Leaving or Entering Controlled Airspace Read RAC 8.8 We don’t normally use 1000 on top in training – and it is not operationally common either.e. not above ___________ altitude?) 1000 on Top Read RAC 8.

11 It is important to know this information for the INRAT exam. If you are not radar identified then you must report all compulsory reporting points and navaids along your route.) Also read RAC 9. Clearance Limit Read all of RAC 8 An important concept is the clearance limit – read RAC 8.) IFR Flight in Uncontrolled Airspace Read RAC 8. There was a time when IFR position reports were very important. You cannot proceed beyond the clearance limit until the expect further clearance time.) 48 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Also read RAC 9. Compulsory reporting points are marked as solid triangles on the LO and HI charts. (re-read RAC 6.2. However. It is also quite common to fly in uncontrolled airspace especially early in your career – so you should know what to do. Chapter 14 contains details of flight in uncontrolled airspace Position reports When you are radar identified you do not have to make IFR Position Reports.3.4 – descent out of controlled airspace.10. They still are important to international pilots flying oceanic routes. This is how you would go about landing at an airport with no IFR approach such as Nakusp or Creston. over the North American continent you will be in radar contact a lot of the time and therefore many pilots have forgotten how to make a good IFR Position Report. etc. The clearance limit is an important concept especially if you have a communications failure. The format of an IFR position report is on the back cover of your CFS (which you should always have onboard.3 (example of an airplane being cleared to descend out of controlled airspace via a particular IFR approach. Thus if you are cleared to hold or otherwise cleared “short” you need a procedure to follow in the even of a communications failure.

g. If you subsequently discover that your ETA is off by more than 3 minutes let the controller know.00 whenever the actual altimeter setting is more than 31.IFR for Professional Pilots The controller uses your time and ETA for the next reporting point to prevent any conflicts with other traffic so safety demands that you be accurate.selkirk. so they won’t do you any good when flying at high altitudes including flight levels.500. The pilot can request a visual climb or descent.000’. Selair. VFR Restrictions Read RAC 6.00 inches. Before a controller can clear the airplane to the new altitude the airspace in between must be clear. this is a safe procedure. e. S/he may have to take action to prevent a conflict so the sooner you let them know the better.) Be sure to also read about how this affect departure alternates.000’.e.00 – ATC will confirm this with you.1. with the restrictions explained in RAC 6. which is subject to increasing error at altitude it is necessary to set MOCA and MEAs higher in mountainous terrain. Note that visual climbs and descents can only be done below 12.2.000’ or 11. During a VFR climb or descent the airplane has an IFR clearance but traffic separation is NOT being provided. In a non-radar environment the controller does not know the exact location of all the airplanes so any traffic that could possibly be within the airspace prevents a climb or descent clearance.1 At various times on a trip an airplane will need to climb or descend to a new altitude. Mountainous Regions Because altitude indications rely on the pressure altimeter.2.000’ and requests to descent to 8. If you cannot do that you simply leave the altimeter set to 31. Once you reach the FAF you change your altimeter to the actual setting if you are able. The mountainous regions of Canada are defined in RAC 2.00 and in effect you get a higher DH or MDA for the approach (i.ca Altimeter Setting Procedures during Abnormally High Pressure Weather Be sure to read RAC 12. 10.000’ there must be no traffic at 9. etc.12 49 . The airplane must remain clear of cloud until reaching the new altitude. so ALL pilots will 31.12 The gist of this rule is that older altimeters cannot be set to an altimeter setting more than 31. if the airplane is at 12.

Minimum IFR Altitude The minimum IFR flight plan altitude is defined as the lowest whole thousand foot altitude appropriate for direction of flight above the MEA. which we turn to next. In some cases pilots may find it prudent to increase the minimum IFR flight plan altitude if the temperature is very cold. If the airway segment is long it may be necessary to fly higher than MOCA in order to receive the VOR or NDB for navigation. This cavalier attitude cannot be carried into the approach phase.000 feet of separation is already built in.000 feet above the highest obstacle within the boundary of the airway.12 for mountainous area boundaries). 3. It is very rare for altimeter errors to approach this value. When radio navigation is not limiting then MEA = MOCA. MOCA is the minimum altitude that provides the legally required terrain clearance. Canada does not use MCA. MEA takes radio reception into account as well as terrain. Different MEAs may be published for adjoining segments of an airway. having said that. MCA is therefore included in the legend of LO charts. 50 . especially on airways with very high MEAs typical of British Columbia. In this case MEA is higher than MOCA. This is normally 1. many pilot become complacent about this given that 2.34 In the winter when temperatures are cold MOCA obviously provides less terrain clearance than in the summer. See RAC 8. It is increased to 2. The airplane must cross the reporting point where MEA changes at the higher MEA. which includes British Columbia (see RAC 2. The aircraft can cross the point at that MCA if climbing at 200+ ft/Nm until reaching the new MEA.000 feet in areas 1 and 5. In the USA minimum crossing altitudes (MCA) are published at reporting points. and 4 this is increased to 1.6 and CAR 602. In mountainous areas 2.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots MEA and MOCA MOCA and MEA are designated for all low level airways and air routes in Canada. but some LO charts covering portions of the USA show them.500 feet. With GPS it is possible to fly safely below MEA but above MOCA.

In today’s IFR system there are still many remote parts of Canada without RADAR service.” That is not the case. As a result some airplanes will have to hold for a time until the traffic load eases. it describes all the technical specifications of holding patterns.” A hold is a racetrack shaped pattern in which an airplane “flies circles” as a delaying tactic. Entering and maintaining a holding pattern is one of the skills you must demonstrate in order to get (and keep) your instrument rating. Depending on the type of airplane you are flying and the part of the country you fly in you may hold as often as once a week or as infrequently as once a decade. There is one final situation in which you will have to hold.” ATC will then accommodate by providing a hold clearance.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. For example if a runway closes at a large airport. Why would we ever want to do that? Purpose of Holds In the days before ATC RADAR holds were a routine requirement used on a daily basis to keep airplanes separated. because only one airplane at a time can be permitted into the approach airspace. and that is your IFR flight test. A holding pattern is more commonly referred to simply as a “hold. Certain in-flight emergencies require time for the pilot(s) to complete checklists (for example – an emergency gear extension. 51 . there may be too many airplanes vying to land on the remaining runway for the system to accommodate. The situations described above should make it clear to you that holds are needed and used in the modern IFR system.selkirk.) When the crew requires time to sort out a situation they will often “request a hold. Consequently when more than one airplane is arriving at a smaller airport one may need to hold. especially at lower altitudes. A brief reference to this use was made earlier. Holds are sometimes needed even in a RADAR environment. Sometimes you may hear pilots claim that “no one ever holds except on a flight test anymore. but everyone does need to know how to enter and fly a holding pattern. The Hold Clearance Read your AIM section RAC 10. perhaps due to a gear up landing or the need to initiate snow plowing.ca Chapter 7 Holding The first IFR procedure covered in second year is “holding patterns” and how to enter and maintain them.

A hold fix cannot be in the DME cone of ambiguity. This information also acts as a safety feature as it must be consistent with the specified inbound track. In the modern world of RNAV navigation any named fix in the navigation database could be used as a holding fix by an appropriately equipped airplane. Holding Fix A holding fix is a “place” to hold. or perhaps the controller 52 . A fuller description of a DME hold is presented later. When the holding fix is an intersection we say we are performing an “intersection hold. The altitude or flight level to maintain 6. course. or inbound bearing that defines the inbound track 4. If it is not some error has been made. For airplanes lacking GPS or similar type navigation systems there are a few restrictions on where a hold fix can be specified.” Direction From the Fix The controller always specifies a compass direction such as north. 2.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots RAC 10. A hold where the fix is a VOR is called a “VOR hold” and a hold where the hold fix is an NDB is called an “NDB hold” or “ADF hold. but it can also be an intersection or DME fix.2 specifies the six components that must be part of a holding clearance. and read back. It is usually a VOR or NDB. The time to expect further clearance (EFC or EAC. A clearance to a holding fix 2. and 3 above.” In the special case where the controller specifies both a DME fix and a DME distance to end the outbound leg we call the hold a “DME hold. the DME distance at which the fix turn and outbound end turn are to be commenced 5. Pilots must therefore develop the habit of confirming that the specified compass direction is compatible with the specified inbound track. A specified radial.) We will now make a preliminary examination of 1. etc to help the pilot visualize where the holding pattern is to be flown.” Most pilots agree that DME holds are the easiest type of hold to fly. or at an intersection where the cross-bearing is from an NDB. Perhaps the pilot heard. south. Below these requirements have been reworded to improve clarity: 1. If DME is used. the clearance wrong. or at an intersection where the radials cross at an angle of less than 45°. The compass direction to hold from the fix 3.

Once the pilot looks up the radial on the map the hold is specified as surely as if the controller had stated the radial directly.selkirk.IFR for Professional Pilots misspoke the clearance. It is important to note that this time is only used if you suffer a communications failure. but it is still a legal requirement. Since this communications failure is very rare you will seldom need this “further clearance” time. Expect Further Clearance Time As you know from your study of IFR regulations all IFR procedures must contain contingencies for communications failure. Unfortunately convention demands that holds at VORs be specified in terms of radials. When the controller states.ca . “inbound course 030” it is quite easy to see what the precise inbound course is. Either way the error must be sorted out or grave danger could arise. (Re-read RAC 6.3. Controllers routinely use two distinct phrases when specifying the further clearance time. It is a little less obvious that if the controller says “inbound on the 210 radial” that the same inbound course of 030 has in effect been specified. They may say “expect approach clearance at X” or “expect further clearance at X” in each case X is replaced by a time in UTC.2.” where V300 is an airway that leads to the specified holding fix. When 53 Selair.) Any time you hold you must have a specified time that you will leave the hold in the event of a communications failure. As you will see soon the inbound track is the ONLY segment of the hold in which the pilot actually employs radio navigation. The pilot must therefore calculate the reciprocal in order to determine the inbound course. In this case the pilot would have to consult an LO chart to obtain the required radial. therefore this is a legal (and common) specification format for an inbound hold track. For example the controller may say the hold is to be “inbound on V300. Naming an airway can also uniquely specify a hold course. When you receive an EAC you know that the next clearance will be an approach clearance and so you should prepare for that. The eight possible options for compass direction are: North North East East South East South South West West North West The Specified Inbound Track The specified inbound track must unambiguously indicate the exact course the pilot is to navigate along on the inbound track of the hold.

but it is a bit confusing. as shown in the diagram below Figure 4.1 Drift Compensation in a Hold If there is a crosswind a hold pattern looks like the one below. Once you reach the hold fix you make a 180° right turn then fly 1:00 outbound.” The point labeled TP in this diagram is the turning point where a rate one turn will bring you to EP1. The entire hold pattern takes 4:00 to complete. a zero-wind hold involves flying the inbound leg of 1:00 (one minute) along the specified track.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots you receive an EFC you should expect some further clearance (which could be an approach clearance) at the specified time. Read RAC 10. The reason is that crosswind tightens one turn but widens the other – so every hold has a “fat end” and a “skinny end. You then make another 180° right turn bringing you back to the specified course again. 54 .000 feet. Notice that the inbound and outbound legs are not parallel to each other. The diagram to the righ shows only the specified holdcourse – and that it is 1:00 It is helpful to think of the 1:00 hold-course as starting at a point we call EP1.6 for clarification. At or below 14. Hold Pattern Specifications RAC 10.3 attempts to explain hold pattern specifications.

IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. in the hold below wind is from the south.ca Figure 4. Figure 4. In the hold above wind is from the north. If outbound time is less than 1:00 (see below) then outbound drift will be more than three times inbound drift. In Summary: 1. Drift correction on the outbound leg must be three times the amount used on the inbound leg if outbound time is 1:00. Outbound drift is more than 3 times if outbound time is less than 1:00 55 . Basic outbound drift is 3 times inbound drift. 2.selkirk.3 On the hold course compensate for wind exactly as we always do – in other words drift correction equals crosswind / magic-number. If outbound time is more than 1:00 then outbound drift will be less than three times inbound drift – but will always be more than inbound drift.2 The fat end and the skinny end depend on which way the crosswind is blowing.

When there is a headwind on the outbound leg the outbound time must be increased. Headwind outbound of 1/3 TAS requires 2:00 outbound time 3. In summary: 1. Figure 4. Headwind of 1/3 TAS requires outbound time of 2:00. For example if you hold at 150 KTAS you know that 50 knots of wind would require zero outbound time so with 25 knots tailwind estimate 30 seconds outbound – etc.5 When tailwind is less than 1/3 your TAS proportionally reduce the outbound time. Outbound drift is less than 3 times if outbound time is more than 1:00 Headwind / Tailwind Compensation in a Hold With no headwind or tailwind outbound time is basically 1:00 – however it must be increased slightly if there is a lot of crosswind. An IMPORTANT rule of thumb is that if the tailwind on the outbound leg equals 1/3 the TAS the outbound time will be zero. Tailwind outbound of 1/3 TAS requires zero outbound time 2. Adjust proportionally for lesser winds. The diagram below shows that in this case a continuous 360° right turn is made at the fix resulting in a 1:00 inbound leg.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 3. Adjust proportionally for lesser winds. 56 .

6 specifies that outbound timing should begin abeam the holding fix (at the point labeled ts. 60° use 50%/90%. 45°. Estimate crosswind and headwind / tailwind on hold course a. Estimate outbound time: a. for timing starts) rather than at the point labeled SHP. 2:00 / 0:00 for wind of 1/3 TAS c. Adjust in proportion for lesser wind 4.ca Figure 4. 90%/50% to estimate crosswind / tailwind 2. Planning a Hold Above we learned how to estimate the drift compensation and headwind/tailwind compensation in a hold. Estimate outbound drift: a. Your strategy will be (based on best available wind information): 1. Determine relative wind angle b. For 30°. 70%/70%. More than 1:00 for outbound headwind and less for tailwind.6 The AIM RAC 10. You must learn to estimate these values prior to entering the hold. Estimate inbound drift (crosswind / magic number) 3. Three times inbound drift if time 1:00 outbound b.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. More than three times inbound drift if less than 1:00 outbound 57 .selkirk. b.

Correcting for Drift Errors in a Hold Your holding strategy should be to fly the entry procedure and then fly your plan as developed above for one complete pattern.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots c. NOTE: If you are unable to come up with an estimate due to lack of wind information or lack of time to think about it you will have to fly an outbound time of 1:00 the first time around the hold and pay extremely close attention to the GPS XTRK to prevent being drifted out of position. It will take considerable practice but it is important. You then evaluate how your plan is working and adjust the outbound time and heading until you precisely hit EP1. Thus we have 15 knots of crosswind and 27 knots of headwind inbound and therefore 27 knots of tailwind outbound. Inbound drift 6° (15 / 2.5) 3. This fact is shown in the diagram below. It is important to realize that there is ONLY ONE TP from which a turn to EP1 can be made. Next we will learn how to refine the plan once developed.5 (150 / 57. We can now employ the steps outlines above: 1. Outbound time a bit less than 0:30 (50 knots would be 0:00 therefore 27 knots is about 0:25) 4. 2. Outbound drift 20° (would be 3x6=18° but must be increased since time <1:00) You must become proficient at performing the above analysis in your head. The relative wind angle is 30° from the nose. 58 . Less than three times inbound drift is more than 1:00 outbound Let’s do an example for the King Air holding at 140 KIAS – our magic number is 2.3) Let’s say the hold course is 300 inbound and the wind is 270 at 30 knots.

IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. For example a half-scale CDI deflection is a 5° error.selkirk. You cannot tell whether your heading or time were correct until you turn to EP1 but once you make the turn to can quickly tell whether you need to adjust the outbound heading.8 We can now see why EP1 is called an “evaluation point.” When we roll out from the turn we should evaluate whether or not we have arrived at EP1. Figure 4. time or both. 59 .ca Figure 4. In the diagram below angle e is the track error when you roll out on the inbound course.7 When you fly your chosen heading and time outbound you fly a unique path through space. and if we did not we must think about how we will change our outbound heading and time next circuit so that we do better.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Figure 4. If inbound time is less than 1:00 then increase outbound time by twice the error. If outbound time is more than 1:00 then a is less than e. For example if inbound time is 1:20 then reduce outbound time by 10 seconds.) 60 . Correcting for Timing Errors in a Hold If inbound time is more than 1:00 then reduce the outbound time by half the error. You should start the inbound timing as soon as you roll out on your planned inbound heading. The basic idea is that if you “miss the inbound track” by 5° you will need to adjust your outbound heading by 5° next time. If outbound time is less than 1:00 then a is more than e. If you have to stop the turn early to intercept the track start the time when you would have completed the turn (not when you intercept the track. However you may need a bit more than 5° or less than 5° if the outbound time is more than 1:00 or less than 1:00.9 The angles a and e are equal if the outbound time is 1:00. An important point is that your adjustment is only as good as your accurate use of the stopwatch. For example if inbound time is 0:50 then increase outbound time by 20 seconds.

outbound drift correction depends on outbound timing.ca Figure 4.selkirk. This will result in a “snaky course” to the hold fix. You should think about this. Figure 4.11 Consistency is the Key to Good Holding Patterns Consistency of the turns in a holding pattern is crucial to establishing the hold. 61 .IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. as shown above. It also shows that if you increase outbound time you must reduce drift correction. The result is extra time which will throw off your timing. Thus you must remember that as you correct the timing in your hold you will also have to adjust the drift correction. The diagram below helps you visualize why. It shows that if you reduce outbound time you must increase drift correction. When you hand fly the hold you must strive to be equally consistent. If you use the autopilot it will make every turn the same and you will have a very consistent hold. If you use a different angle of bank each time around you will never establish the hold.10 If you “miss” the inbound track you will of course have to correct track. Time and Heading Corrections Interact As you know.

you are quite likely going to do fine and will pass your IFR ride. Your description should be a word for word repeat of the description in Instrument Procedures Manual 4.4. On second arrival over the fix I will turn right …” If you will take the time to explicitly describe the hold entry procedure to yourself just before flying it. For example many people turn right rather than left for the second turn – in the quote above the offending turn is in bold print. Don’t even consider going further with this text and for sure don’t get into an airplane to fly a holding pattern if you can’t quote these hold entry descriptions 62 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Hold Entries Now that we have thoroughly discussed the factors that go into maintaining a holding pattern we will discuss how to enter the hold. If you refuse to do this you may very well make one of the classic mistakes. Hold entries are the most commonly failed item on the initial IFR flight test – so pay close attention to this topic. When you have completed the assignment commit your three descriptions along with the ones in Instrument Procedures Manual 4. RAC 10. I will then turn left to intercept inbound track _______.4.) As an assignment prepare for yourself a verbal description of each of the three hold entry procedures for the case of a hold with left turns. Offset (teardrop) It is VERY strongly recommended that you silently describe to yourself the procedure you will follow in the minute or so prior to entering a hold. Parallel 3.4. In your Instrument Procedures Manual section 4. RAC 10.4 to memory so that you can say them to yourself whenever needed without any hesitation.4. You should read Instrument Procedures Manual section 4.000’.4. Unfortunately if you turn the wrong way on your IFR ride you will have to come back another day and try again.5 you will note that non-standard holds can be either left turn holds or holds with timing other than 1:00 (or 1:30 above 14. The three hold entry procedures are: 1. If you do it on a real IFR flight you should simply continue to the hold fix and continue by making a direct hold entry. For example if you are about to complete a parallel hold entry you say to yourself “this will be a parallel entry. While enroute to the fix you should plan the hold as described above.5 specifies the three types of hold entry procedures that are permitted. which gives a very good verbal description of the three hold entry procedures.4. Upon reaching the fix I will turn left to heading _______ for 1:00.5 implies that these procedures are compulsory and you should treat them as such. Step one is always to track directly to the hold fix. Direct 2. especially including the words left and right as regards each turn.

Instead we use a procedure in which we visualize the hold superimposed on the heading indicator. Compare the diagram to the verbal description you created earlier and practice saying the verbal description out loud while following along in the diagram.IFR for Professional Pilots effortlessly.ca Figure 4. You must study the figure until you understand how to perform each of the three hold entries. Repeat this exercise for both right and left turn holds until you can effortlessly keep track of the steps in a hold entry. Figure 10. Selair. If you can’t say what you are going to do you have no chance at all of actually doing it. The above diagram is not very user friendly when you are actually flying an airplane however.3 in RAC 10 shows the equivalent diagram for left turn holds. 63 . Be sure to imagine what you will need to do with the OBS and HSI while progressing through the steps of each entry. The figure shows the three entry procedures for entering a standard hold.13 4-13 is a recreation of figure 10. it is also in the Instrument Procedures Manual as figure 4-13.selkirk.2 in the RAC 10.

This determines the hold entry. Then look at the tail of the HSI Course Bar.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Figure 4-14 Always set the HSI Course Bar to the inbound hold course. 64 . which results in the wrong entry procedure. Figure 4. The tail will be in one of the following sectors. A common error is to look at the head (arrow end) of the course bar.15 It is important to remember that you must look at the tail of the HSI Course Bar.

The most difficult hold entry is a direct entry when the angle of approach to the hold fix is near the parallel entry limit.8 explains DME holds. as shown in the figure below. RAC 10.selkirk. A DME hold has a hold fix. 65 . NOT after any particular amount of time. DME Holds Compared to the extensive discussion above DME holds are very simple. maintain 7.000. as do all holds but it also has an outbound fix. At the end of the outbound leg cross-track distance should be approximately 1% of TAS.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. Figure 4.) The hold is represented in 4-17.ca Difficult Hold Entries Some hold entries are more difficult than others. as shown in the diagram below. The outbound leg ends at the outbound fix. A typical DME hold clearance might be “cleared to the 10 DME fix to hold west on the 270-degree radial between 10 and 15 DME. expect further clearance at ________. Momentum is the problem.16 When making a direct entry in the situation above you make a right turn to the outbound heading but you should apply several degrees of drift correction and observe your GPS cross-track distance.

Almost always the hold entry is direct. As a result outbound time is much more than 1:00 and therefore outbound drift is much less than three times inbound drift.17 Note that DME holds can be any length that ATC assigns. perhaps due to runway plowing or an unexpected runway closure you will often be assigned a hold at an intersection along the arrival route. Intersection Holds Intersection holds are quite common in STARs. as shown in the diagram below. The example hold is five nautical miles long which is about twice as long as a the usual hold conducted by a general aviation airplane holding in the 100 to 150 knot speed range. but it is possible to have other entries.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Figure 4. When traffic backs up. 66 .

The difference lies in the amount and type of information available to the pilot much of which can make holding a lot easier.selkirk. Optionally the underlying navaids can be tuned and most pilots will take this option. Do this during the entry procedure.ca Of course. 67 . In zero wind the outbound track is 1% of TAS from the inbound track. Be sure to compare the groundspeed inbound and outbound and use it to improve your initial estimate of the outbound time. When holding using GPS there is no fundamental difference in the procedure you use. The shape of the holding pattern will be exactly the same – i. NDB or intersection. with GPS you could arrive at the intersection in any direction and do any hold entry.e. GPS Use In Holds An IFR certified GPS could be used to hold at any VOR. Cross-track distance is the distance between the selected track and the airplanes present position measured at right angles. Each manufacturers GPS system is different but almost all provide the following information: Instantaneous groundspeed (not closing speed) with no slant range error Drift angle Cross-track distance Wind direction and speed Precise groundspeed readout is obviously very useful in a hold.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. the wind drift and timing rules covered above apply regardless of the navigation equipment you are using.

2 NM in the Beech 95.5 NM in the King Air and 1. this would be 1. Expect the fat end and skinny end to be a bit more and less than this. 68 . Get to know the 1% value for your airplane. For example.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots When there is a crosswind the “skinny end” of the hold is less than 1% TAS and the “fat end” is more than 1%.

IFR for Professional Pilots

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Chapter 8
Arrivals
Read all of RAC 9.0 before proceding

ATIS
Get the ATIS good and early – it is never too early to check ATIS. When single pilot set ATIS volume low enough that you can still hear calls from ATC. The Altimeter setting the controller gives you when clearing you for the approach takes precedence over the ATIS value. When contacting arrival control tell them which ATIS you have. A typical call would be “Vancouver Arrival this is B95 GSAK level 4000, with ATIS information November.”

STARs
STARs have been discussed under flight planning and will be mentioned again in the next chapter on approaches. Read RAC 9.2 very carefully. STARs can be drawn directly from the GPS database and this is the method you should use – even for conventionally STARs (it is compulsory for RNAV STARs.) Make sure you know how to “close” the STAR using the GPS. For the GNS430 and KLN90b GPS you will need to use the Direct button as you arrive at the DTW. Be sure you know how to do it. It is critical the PNF learn to examine the GPS flight plan and check all bearings and distance as soon as an arrival has been loaded. TIP: you can load an arrival and then activate once cleared for it (on the GNS430.)

Descent out of Controlled Airspace
Read RAC 9.4

Advance Notice of Intent in Minimum Weather
RAC 9.5 69

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IFR for Professional Pilots This is an important time saving procedure in IFR flying. Let the arrival controller know what your plan is in the event of a missed approach.

Contact and Visual Approaches
The definition of Visual Approach has been updated. Be sure to read RAC 9.6.2 carefully. When Jazz arrives in Castlegar via the Arrow Lakes is that a Contact approach or a Visual approach?

Radar Arrivals
Read RAC 9.7. ATC expects you to slow to your normal operating speed when on vectors to an approach. You don’t need special permission for this. On vectors you should not expect to hear the words “cleared for the …. Approach” until a few seconds prior to intercepting the final approach course. Never-the-less you should have all checks complete and the airplane configured just as you would in a procedure turn. ATC may sometimes ask you to slow down or keep your speed up in order to fit you in with other traffic. Such requests are always made prior to being “cleared for the approach.” Once you are cleared for the approach the speed restriction is cancelled.

Initial Radio Contact with Control Towers
Read RAC 9.8 Notice that there is a difference in procedure if you are vectored to final as opposed to being cleared for a full procedure. When cleared for a full procedure you are supposed to give your ETA for the IAF – if vectored to final you do not. For example, “Abbotsford Tower B95 GSAK has been cleared for the full procedure ILS RWY 07 approach, estimating the Abbotsford beacon in 4 minutes. We have ATIS Whiskey.” On vectors to final you would simply say, “Vancouver Tower B95 GSAK on the ILS 26L, with ATIS Whiskey.” At controlled airports, after the above, you only need to report at locations requested by the tower.

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IFR for Professional Pilots Take note of RAC 9.10, which explains that the tower controller may take control of you on final in VMC conditions and thereafter you will not have the usual traffic separation.

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Radio calls: at Uncontrolled Airports
Read RAC 9.11 Normally the IFR controller will hand you over to the MF/ATF well before you get to the airport. If they don’t you should use your second radio to call ahead and make the required MF/ATF calls. The required reports – at a minimum – are: 1. Five minutes before starting the approach – state the expected landing time 2. Outbound if conduction a procedure turn or at the IF when conducting a straightin approach. 3. At the FAF – or three minutes before landing if there is no FAF 4. On Final 5. When commencing circling 6. Upon commencing a missed approach It is important to remember that IFR aircraft must conform to the active circuit when there is VFR traffic.

Cold Temperature Corrections
Read RAC 9.16 and 9.17 The procedure for cold temperature corrections is explained in the textbook “Navigation for Professional Pilots. You should read carefully the instructions in the CAP GEN or RAC 9.16 and always do your calculations as per the examples.

Remote Altimeter Settings
Read RAC 9.17.2

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In this case the approach plate will tell you which altimeter setting to use and provide a correction factor to apply such as “ add 200 feet to all procedure altitudes when using xxx altimeter setting.3 most of the time – so get to know this section very well.7 – so read this and consider it carefully.19. Takeoff minima were covered in Chapter 5 The approach ban rules are quite complex – you will study them in Air Regs.” It is quite common to also find the note that circling minima apply – which means that you are NOT authorized to use the straight-in approach minima.2.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Not all airports have an altimeter setting available. 72 .12.2.2. The rules for General Aviation operators are quite simple – and that is what you will be during your flight training (9. On the IFR ride candidates often fail to take note of 9.19.19. If a particular airport does not have an altimeter setting then the approach plate will tell you which altimeter setting to use and the MDA will take that into account so no correction is required on your part.6 and 9.) However. On some Alsim flights we will simulate operation under these rules. Approach Ban Read RAC 9.2. At many airports the altimeter setting is not available after a certain hour in the day. so compare them to the ones for operators without an Ops Spec and notice the difference. as soon as you graduate and become a commercial pilot you will need to know the commercial operator rules.19. RAC 9.16.2. We operate the Alsim as though we are under 9.5 covers commercial operators will an Ops Spec.2.

Localizer 6. what you learn in Canada will serve you will when flying in the USA. Types of IFR Approaches You will learn to perform 8 types of IFR approaches: 1. You should also be able to find items such as the type of approach lighting.selkirk. VOR 5. ADF 4. Back course 7. etc. etc. etc. GNSS Overlay All the above IFR approaches are designed to “get you out of cloud” so you can land visually.0 (IFR Arrival Procedures). PAR 3.5. what to say to the tower when handed of by Center.ca Chapter 9 Approaches Start by reading RAC 6. RNAV (GNSS) 8. Even more important you should be able to locate all the minimum altitudes on the approach plate. Before reading what follows read all of RAC 9. This explains that all approaches in Canada are designed according to rules in TP308. You should know how to interpret all the symbols on the approach charts. You will fly the procedure and if the weather is good enough you will see the 73 . Our rules are almost identical to USA rules. ILS (Cat 1) 2. Once you have read this you will know all the rules about things such as contact and visual arrivals.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. Interpretation of approach plates will not be covered in this text. which they call TERPS. Therefore. Before reading what follows completely read your CAP GEN ensuring that you know how to interpret an approach plate. runway dimensions.

The lower right corner of every approach plate has a miniature airport diagram that shows the approach lights available. in the BE95 we are General Aviation Operators. Many pilots chose to fly approaches even when the reported weather made it quite obvious there was no possibility of achieving the required visual reference. Be sure to examine it as you prepare for your approach. The descent for landing is a visual maneuver. Be sure to read and memorize the list of visual references. Prior to the approach ban for the most part pilots were permitted to fly IFR approaches regardless of reported weather to determine whether or not the required visual reference could be achieved. It is explained in RAC 9. which should improve safety.19. Approach Ban In order to improve safety Transport Canada introduced a comprehensive approach ban in recent years. General Aviation Approach Ban (applies to you during flight training) 2. Eventually you will have to know all the approach ban limits. which are in your CAP GEN and also the CFS. At the missed approach point on the approach.19. There are three distinct sets of approach bans: 1. 74 . The approach ban regulations now prohibit making approaches in poor visibility. The concept of required visual reference is a key to IFR approaches. The rules are explained in RAC 19. at the end of the procedure.3. if you do not see the required visual reference you conduct a missed approach and go to your alternate. It is particularly important to know which of the potential visual references are available on the approach you are flying. You will need to know the approach light codes.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots “required visual reference”. In the Alsim we will simulate operations for a Commercial Operators Approach Ban – with no OPS SPEC. Commercial Operators Approach Ban – with no OPS SPEC 3. 2 and are also in the CAP GEN. Commercial Operators Approach Ban – with an OPS SPEC You will learn about OPS SPECS for commercial operators in your air regulations course. Unfortunately the regulations that have evolved are extremely cumbersome and complex – so you will just have to suck it up and learn the rules.

Circling (Naming Conventions) Most IFR approaches line up with a runway so that at the end of the approach you can land on the runway (if winds and weather permit. These are shown on approach plates.23 – be sure to read and understand them. Straight-in vs. glide-path are called precision approaches. Circling restrictions are quite common.) This is indicated in the procedure name. For example look at the NDB B approach in CYCG and notice “No Circling” to the east of the airport.22 – make sure you know them. i. NDB A The above is an NDB approach that DOES NOT position the airplane for landing on a specific runway. Non-Precision Approach Approaches with vertical guidance. LPV and VNAV approaches are a new type of “near” precision approach based on GNSS. and RNAV (GNSS) / LNAV. All other approaches have no glide-path. This includes ILS and PAR approaches. VOR.7NM. and a category C airplane (Alsim) must remain within 1.5NM of the runways.e. etc. for example: NDB RWY 25 The above is an NDB approach that leads to landing on runway 25 VOR RWY 07 The above is a VOR approach that leads to landing on runway 07. Note that the published circling MDA provides 300 feet of terrain clearance within the circling airspace. 75 . Back course. Localizer.) The pilot performs descent in steps through a series of safe altitudes. This is referred to as a “circling approach” which means that a visual circling procedure must be done to align with a runway for landing after the IFR approach is complete. Circling procedures are indicated with a letter following the approach name. Circling criteria are given in RAC 9.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. There are very specific criteria that must be met for an approach to be considered “straight-in” these are given in RAC 9. for example VOR C or LOC/DME E. These approaches are classified as nonprecision: (ADF. For example a category B airplane must remain within 1.ca Precision vs.selkirk.

but in particular read the section that describes the approach plate. Required navaids and frequencies 2.) The first thing you should do is open your CAP GEN and read it cover to cover. Safe altitudes Test your knowledge by choosing any straight-in approach plate from your CAP and find the following items: 1. 100 NM safe altitude 2. MSA altitude(s) 76 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Approach Plates Approaches are published on approach plates in the Canada Air Pilot (CAP. The most important information is: 1. On the approach plate you will find all the information you need to fly the approach. Tracks to be flown 3. I will not go into details here about how to read an approach plate since that information is all in the CAP GEN.

77 . Approach course 6. Circling MDA 10. Navaid the MSA altitudes are based on 4. The other three segments are always there. The above list asks you to find items in approximately the order you will need them as you fly an approach. You will soon notice that they are always found in the same location on each plate and thus easy to find.IFR for Professional Pilots 3. Type of approach lights available 13. MDA (non-precision approach) or DH (ILS) 9. Intermediate approach course 5. Intermediate segment 3. Selair. Initial segment 2. Procedure turn altitude 7. Runway elevation 12. Final segment 4. Missed approach procedure On rare occasion you will find an approach that does not have a final segment. Recommended visibility to complete the approach 11. Missed approach procedure You should flip through your CAP and make sure you can quickly find each of the above items on every plate.selkirk.ca Approach Segments Approaches are broken into four segments: 1. FAF crossing altitude (non-precision approach) or GP check altitude (ILS) 8.

The MAP has no specific symbol but it is indicated by a combination of the profile diagram and the written missed approach procedure. Missed approach procedure – starts at MAP The FAF is indicated by the Maltese cross symbol on approach plates.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots It is important to keep track of which segment you are in. The IF symbol appears on some approach plates and not on others. Final Segment – from FAF to MAP 4. Definitions: IAF. IF. This information is found at the lower left corner of the profile section of the approach plate. but most importantly it tells you what your safe altitude is. Initial Segment – from IAF to IF 2.1DME (CH 40). extend gear etc. FAF. On rare occasion you will find an approach plate that does not have a FAF. 78 . Each segment has a safe altitude(s) and a purpose. do before landing checks. Take the NDB/NDB A approach to Penticton for example. MAP The initial approach segment begins at the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) and ends at the Intermediate Fix (IF) The intermediate segment begins at the IF and ends at the Final Approach Fix (FAF) The final segment begins at the FAF and ends at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) The missed approach procedure begins at the MAP. in other words the Intermediate segment ends at the MAP and the approach goes from intermediate segment directly to missed approach procedure. In this case there is no final segment.. It is a critical location so you must learn to identify it. or 14. Therefore.1 DME). Referring again to the NDB/NDB A approach to Penticton the MAP is at the YYF beacon (2. In summary: 1. knowing what segment you are in will clue you in as to whether you should slow down. The IF is not published but it is on the course 162 to UNT at 12NM from YYF beacon. If not published the IF is by definition on the intermediate course at the distance from the FAF specified for the procedure turn. Intermediate Segment – from IF to FAF 3.

Slow to approach speed and configure as required Initial segments fall into two broad categories: 1. Transition d.7. When an approach plate includes a transition such as a track to the IF or a DME arc leading to the IF there will be a published IAF where the transition begins. as explained below. Please examine these approach plates to see how the restriction is indicated. Procedure turn b. Several approaches to CYVR and CYPK are examples of this.e.ca Initial Segment The purpose of the initial segment is to: 1. If no transition is published the IAF is where the procedure turn starts and 99% of the time this is the same as the FAF. Selair. Some approaches are now published that require radar arrival – i. so consider yourself in the initial segment as soon as the controller begins vectoring you. Pilot navigation a. 79 .IFR for Professional Pilots On most approaches the MAP is directly above the threshold of the runway. On vectors there is no IAF. a procedure turn is not authorized.1 – read this material fully. but not always. STAR (can be “conventional” or RNAV) Vectored Arrival When you are radar vectored to an approach there is no IAF.) Radar arrivals are described in RAC 9. DME arc c. Align the airplane for entry into the intermediate segment. Radar vectored arrival 2. In the initial segment you should slow to your desired approach speed and complete appropriate checklists (Before Landing in BE95 and Approach Checklist will already be done in King Air. So read the plate carefully and know where the MAP is. 2.selkirk.

at which point you extend the gear and start your approach (more on that later). even if the glidepath needle is alive. to do that setup the GPS with the FAF as the active waypoint and with OBS mode selected. When vectored to a normal gate you intercept the intermediate course and then a few seconds later intercept the glidepath and then descend. but you might be asked to speed up or slow down a bit to fit with other traffic. The controller normally vectors you to a symbol on the radar scope known as the “gate. The moving map will orient you to the vectors.E. On vectors to an NDB approach 80 . You may be tempted to descend early when being vectored to a short-gate – but you must wait until you are established on the intermediate approach course before descending. In this case you will feel compelled to quickly extend the gear and start final descent. You MUST slow down to an appropriate speed during your vectors (don’t expect ATC to tell you when to slow down. This is called a “short gate” (the gates are symbols shaped like a > on the controller’s radar screen that s/he vectors the airplane to). If the flight-director encounters the glidepath before the localizer it will simply fly through it.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Expect the final vector (the one that intercepts the intercept Intermediate Segment) to result in a 30° to 45° intercept angle to final.” The gate is located on the intermediate segment.3 talks about speed restrictions on a vectored arrival. so flying unusually fast or slow will create problems. you may be above the glidepath when you intercept the intermediate segment. You don’t want to slow down either too early or too late. which is far enough from touchdown that the airplane is below the 3° glidepath. so it is very important to have a sense of how far you are from the gate. Your SOP speeds have been chosen to meet most ATC needs.e. localizer must couple before glidepath couples. At some airports there is a standard gate and a short gate. On a short gate the controller vectors the airplane where it may be on or even above the glidepath when it intercept final.) You should be slowed to 120 KIAS in the BE95 or 140KIAS in the King Air prior to the gate. Short-Gate The controller normally vectors the airplane onto final at a point called the “gate”. i.e. DO NOT descend until you are established on final. I. 10 times larger than a VFR circuit. Vectors are simply like a large circuit with a downwind and base leg of about 10 miles (i. Be careful not to descend too soon.) ATC expects you to fit in with other traffic. where you will be below the glidepath on an ILS (or equivalent location on a non-precision approach. When this happens you will typically have several seconds after intercepting final before intercepting the glidepath. RAC 9.7.) In some cases the controller will vector you to a “short gate” which is a point closer to the FAF such that you may require a greater than normal descent rate. Critical Point: You MUST NOT descend from the assigned vectoring altitude until established on the intermediate segment. This material is important. Sometimes controllers vector airplanes inside the gate. inside the IF. It is worth knowing that your autopilot / flight director will only couple-up for an ILS approach in this order.

IFR for Professional Pilots be especially careful because there will be bank error as you turn final.selkirk. which is the Transport Canada publication describing IFR approach design criteria. It shows the shape and size of the procedure turn airspace. You should be familiar with the following points about this airspace: There is an “entry area” marked with hash marks in the diagram The Primary area extends from 6 to 8 NM laterally from the inbound course on the “maneuvering side” The Primary area extends 4NM laterally on the “non-procedure side” There may be a higher safe altitude in the entry area than in the Primary area in some cases 81 . (Notice that 99% of the time the IAF and FAF are in the same place – but there are lots of exceptions where the FAF for example is at a particular DME from the VOR). The diagram below is from TP308.ca Procedure Turns The term “full procedure approach” means that a procedure turn is to be done. The first step is to fly to the IAF. for a VOR approach it will be the VOR. don’t descend until you complete the turn and confirm you are within 10° of final approach track. Selair. For an NDB approach this will be the beacon. For an ILS approach there is often an NDB at the IAF you can fly directly to.

If your route to the IAF is off airway you can descend to the 100NM safe altitude until within the 25NM MSA and then descend to the MSA altitude. Once past the IAF you can start your descent to the entry zone altitude. Modified-racetrack PT 4. As you fly to the IAF you descend through a series of safe altitudes. S-turn PT 3.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots In the Diagram above the point labeled “FIX” is the IAF. Standard PT 2. You should report “by the ______ outbound” once you are abeam or over the IAF and headed away from 82 . Upon reaching the IAF there are four types of procedure turn you can do: 1. In some cases your route to the IAF may be along an airway in which case you should descend to the airway MEA. Racetrack PT Each of these procedure turns is designed to keep you within the designated procedure turn airspace.

It emphasizes that there may be an obstacle in the entry zone and therefore a higher safe altitude in the entry zone. entering the Primary area . Once you are outbound it is safe to descend from the entry altitude to the PT altitude.selkirk. don’t just say “beacon outbound”.IFR for Professional Pilots the airport . A typical outbound call would sound like this.ca NOTE: Most approaches do not have a published entry zone altitude. All procedure turns have three legs/headings known as: 1. Do not report outbound until in the primary area and do not descend below the entry zone altitude until in the primary area.e. Make sure you can identify one on an approach plate (see the CAP GEN legend – for an example see the NDB RWY 16 approach to Nanaimo). Outbound heading 83 . don’t report outbound until you are headed away from the airport. “GSAK is by the Abbotsford beacon outbound” (always use the full name of the FAF – i. The diagram below is also from TP308.e. Selair.this is important.i.

The S-turn is always used when approach from the “procedure side. 1st procedure turn heading (1st PT HDG) 3. 2nd PT heading = 360° Procedure turn are designated as left or right depending on whether the 1st PT heading is 45 left or right of the outbound heading. The example above is a left procedure turn. 2nd procedure turn heading (2nd PT HDG) Open your CAP to any approach plate that has a procedure turn on it. Outbound heading = 225° 2. The diagram to the left shows an IAF at the center. 1st PT heading = 180° 3. You must learn to identify the three PT legs listed above – this is very easy to do. You would fly directly to the IAF and perform the type of procedure turn shown in each of the four sectors shown. The standard and racetrack sectors are the same for left and right procedure turns.” The diagram shows a right procedure turn so the S-turn sector is in the location shown. Just as with holds we need a procedure that allows us to visualize the type of procedure turn on the heading indicator or HSI. If this had been a left procedure turn the S-turn and modified racetrack sectors would swap. The diagram to the left is typical of an approach plate: 1.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 2. The above diagram is important but rather difficult to use in flight. 84 .

Standard Procedure Turn For a standard procedure turn: 85 . You judge the type of procedure turn depending on where the tail of the track bar is – as shown below.selkirk. If the tail of the track bar is within 45° of the nose do a standard procedure turn. If the tail of the track bar is within 45° of the tail do a racetrack procedure turn.ca The order that the legs are flown in varies depending on the type of procedure turn. If the 1st PT heading is below the track bar do an S-turn – if it is above the track bar do a modified racetrack. as shown to the left.you will either do an S-turn or a modified racetrack depending on where the 1st PT heading is.between the 45° marks . If the tail is to the side .IFR for Professional Pilots As you fly toward the IAF set the track bar on the HSI to the approach course. in the diagram to the left I have circled them to highlight them. Selair. The outbound heading always goes on the tail of the HSI. We will now go through each type of procedure turn. Notice the 45° markings on the HSI.

you must go out far enough that you will have enough room to descend in the intermediate segment.e. 86 . The steps are listed below.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 1. Then. i.e. toward the outbound heading. 3. track outbound along the intermediate course. The first turn is always toward the tail of the HSI. S-Turn Procedure A generic S-turn looks like the diagram below: The diagram to the left shows the HSI when tracking directly to an IAF prior to an S-turn. Fly outbound first – in this case don’t just fly the heading. 2. so that distance from FAF increases in the turn. turn to the 1st PT heading and fly it for 1:00 minute. The approach plate specifies the maximum distance for the procedure turn. On the other hand. This turn is always made away from the FAF – i. Then turn 180° to the 2nd PT heading. Make sure you don’t go out too far.

3. The steps for a modified racetrack are: 1. on an ILS that means be below the glidepath. Turn to the outbound heading (with a wind drift correction to maintain a suitable XTRK). Fly this heading for up to 1:00 (check GPS XTRK). Don’t go outbound beyond the maximum procedure turn distance – BUT. the only difference is that the airplane arrives at the IAF from the non-procedure side. Wait until crossing the approach course then fly 1:00 additional minute. Turn outbound to the 1st PT heading. Turn to the outbound heading (with a wind drift correction to maintain a suitable XTRK). Turn to the 2nd PT heading and fly it until intercepting the approach course. 2.ca Modified Racetrack Procedure A generic modified racetrack looks like the diagram below: Notice that the three legs are flown in the same order as for the S-turn. thus it is a shorter turn to the 1st procedure turn heading and the 1:00 timing starts right away. Turn toward the outbound heading rolling out on the 1st PT heading. Fly the outbound heading until a suitable distance from the FAF.selkirk. do go outbound far enough to lose the required altitude in the intermediate segment. XTRK must be a bit more than 1% of your TAS. 87 .IFR for Professional Pilots 1. Selair. Observing GPS XTRK during step 2 is very useful. 2. Fly the outbound heading until a suitable distance from the FAF.

Racetrack Procedure A generic racetrack looks like the diagram below: Notice that we fly the racetrack slightly wider than a hold so that we can use the 2 nd PT heading to intercept the intermediate segment. It is much better to go out a certain distance on the GPS rather than a specific time. Turn in the direction of the procedure turn to the outbound heading – allowing for wind. You should go outbound far enough that you will be below the glidepath on an ILS when you intercept the intermediate segment. Procedure Turn Timing An important question is “how long I should go outbound for?” when flying a procedure turn. If you do not have a GPS you will have to go by time. The racetrack procedure has only two steps: 1. This means that GPS XTRK on the outbound leg must be more than 1% of TAS. Turn to the 2nd PT heading and fly it until intercepting the approach course. Check the GPS XTRK and ensure it exceeds 1% TAS.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 3. Fly outbound far enough to facilitate the altitude to be lost (on an ILS be sure to get below the glidepath). 2. 88 . Turn to the 2nd PT heading and fly it until intercepting the approach course.

Selair.500 feet. It can vary from zero to 2.IFR for Professional Pilots On a non-precision approach there is no glidepath. From this you can see that you must NOT descend below the procedure turn altitude until established on the intermediate course and within the procedure turn distance from the FAF. You can often fly directly to the IAF using your GPS. but you should go outbound far enough that you would be below the glidepath if it did exist.selkirk. The arc normally has a starting point which is the IAF. The diagram below (from TP308) shows the intermediate segment and its relationship to the procedure turn airspace. They are used quite often in areas where radar service is inadequate for vectored arrivals. If you do not have a GPS you will have to navigate to the IAF using conventional navaids (i. An arc can often bring an airplane from the enroute phase of flight to the IF quicker and smoother than a procedure turn.e. The procedure for flying a DME arc is covered in Navigation for Professional Pilots and will not be fully repeated here. If there is a lot of altitude to loose in the intermediate segment it is important to notice that when you review the minima prior to the approach and plan to go out further in the procedure turn and possibly a greater than normal descent rate. do a PDT and track to the IAF).ca There is a lot of variability between approaches in terms of how much altitude must be lost in the intermediate segment. DME ARC Arrival An alternative to a procedure turn in a DME arc. The main points to remember when arcing are these: 89 . You must NOT go outbound beyond the procedure turn distance published on the approach plate. If you don’t you will have to descend extra quick or else you won’t reach MDA in time.

Most arcs intersect the approach course at approximately 90°. You may be wondering why you can’t always just fly to the IF and then turn inbound. But this is not always the case. When closing speed is increasing (as you fly a steady heading) you are moving away from the station. Use this to judge when to start turning to intercept the arc. When such transitions are published simply fly the prescribed route to the IF then turn inbound almost exactly as you would if a controller had vectored you to the approach – for all intents and purposes the transition replaces vectors. When the transition you are 90 . The reason is that in order for this to be feasible you must arrive at the IF below the glidepath. When the arc intersects the approach course at a large angle a lead radial is published on the approach plate. When flying an arc arrival always set the HSI to the final approach course. When closing speed is decreasing (as you fly a steady heading) you are getting closer over time. So you can only use this technique if a route to the IF at a suitably low altitude can be found. Many approach plates show tracks leading to the IF at altitudes that are suitable for straight in landings. On the arc the RMI needle must be near the wingtip – therefore calculate initial arc heading by looking at your RMI and adding or subtracting 90 as appropriate.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Radius of a rate-one turn is ½% of TAS. Shortly after passing the lead radial you should stop arcing and turn to intercept the approach at a 45° angle.) In many cases you can simply fly to the IF and then turn inbound. The lead radial provides 2NM “warning” that you are about to intercept the approach. On the arc DME closing speed should be near zero – but your arc will actually be a series of short straight legs along which closing speed will first decrease then increase. Transition for Straight-in Arrival Previously we learned that many approach plates have a published intermediate fix (IF. Even if the approach plate doesn’t show a published transition you may be able to fly to the IF using your GPS and then make a straight in approach – but only if the MSA is low enough that you will be below the glidepath at the IF. without the need for any procedure turn. If you have a standard VOR indicator put it on the lead radial.

ILS.2 specifies the equipment you must have to fly an RNAV STAR. read this fully. All RNAV GNSS approaches in Canada are designed with transitions leading to the IF – no procedure turn is ever used on these approaches.selkirk.) Pay particular attention to the concept of “open” and “closed” RNAV STARs. Obviously our Frasca simulators and our BE95 aircraft do not have Flight Directors. STARs are explained in RAC 9. You must learn how to close the RNAV STAR. This is different than a conventional STAR which you won’t be cleared for until you are approaching your destination. Make sure you know the difference between a conventional STAR and an RNAV STAR. We will discuss GNSS approaches later. This makes for subtle differences in the communications failure procedures in the two cases. Read this information thoroughly.3. At the time of this writing the Flight Director in the Alsim does not follow the RNAV.2 (but we can do them for training purposes anyway. VOR. If you want to fly an RNAV STAR you should file it on your flight plan – as explained in RAC 9. Selair. ADF Approaches These approaches are quite well explained in the Instrument Procedures Manual. RAC 9. If the controller wants you to close the STAR s/he must clear you for the approach at least 3NM prior to the DTW. The RNAV STAR becomes part of your IFR clearance from the time of departure. Therefore it too does not meet the legal requirements of RAC 9.000 feet rule).2. and therefore cannot fly RNAV STARs – however you can fly them for practice in the simulator. You will notice that item “d” specifies that you must have a Flight Director System (or FMS) capable of following the STAR. PAR. Once closed you follow the GPS all the way to the FACF (which is equivalent to the IF) for a straight in approach with no need for vectors from a controller. If the STAR remains open you expect vectors from the DTW to the FACF.2.2. Make sure you are cleared for the “straight in” approach.2.IFR for Professional Pilots considering is unpublished you will have to calculate for yourself whether you will be below the glidepath (remember the 3NM to lose 1. 91 . You must read carefully section F of the CFS paying close attention to the communications failure procedures on STARs. If you wish to do a straight in approach you need authorization from ATC.ca STAR Arrivals STAR stands for Standard Terminal Arrival.

The pilot will confirm that the GPS has “ARMED” the approach by determining that the “ARMED” annunciator light has illuminated. Later updates as provided by ATC will be entered as required by pressing “ALT” on the GPS panel and correcting the altimeter setting. or set to a specific distance at the pilot’s discretion. 92 . The GPS approach will be retrieved from a current GPS database. the Super Nav 5 page. Approach waypoints will be verified by checking the latitude and longitude of each waypoint. Radar Vectors. It would be re-selected to “LEG” mode following the last turn inbound in the hold or shuttle. The scale factor on the super-nav page can be set to “AUTO”.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Also read RAC 9. it will be not be extended until initiating the speed reduction to final approach speed. Additionally. the pilot will confirm the HSI is displaying GPS referenced track guidance by confirming that “GPS” has been selected on the annunciator panel and the “GPS” light has illuminated. Speed reduction from cruise speed to initial approach speed should occur on the leg from the IAWP to the IWP (intermediate way-point) and in any case should be initiated no later than 3 nm prior to the IWP. GPS Approach. in which case the “OBS” mode would be selected prior to reaching the holding waypoint. If not already in use. the pilot will confirm that “LEG” mode has been selected on the annunciator panel and the light has illuminated. The pilot will confirm the correct station altimeter setting has been entered into the GPS data-base when prompted by the message “PRESS ALT TO SET BARO”. or transitions published on the applicable GPS approach plate. For straight-in GPS approaches. accuracy of bearings and distances between waypoints will be confirmed while flying the approach by referencing the approach plate. Prior to transitioning from an airway to the IAP. If the landing gear is not required to assist in the descent between the IAWP and the IWP. This will normally occur once by the IWP inbound. This may be by way of direct navigation. the pilot briefing the approach should identify the procedure to transition from en-route flight to the instrument approach procedure (IAP). DME ARC. The GPS will remain in “LEG” mode unless there is a requirement to hold or shuttle at a waypoint. a STAR. This should be accomplished no later than 2 miles prior to the initial approach waypoint (IAWP). and calling “APPROACH ARMED”. should be selected shortly after passing the IAWP. Pre-landing checks to should be initiated after passing the IAWP. Step down fixes that are not included in the database will be identified and noted at this time. This will occur once the GPS arms the approach mode.28 regarding simultaneous approaches.27 and 9. with the KLN90b When completing the Approach portion of the AMORTS briefing.

Many mountain approaches have the intermediate and final segments divided with two or more MDAs within each.ca/Training/instrument-rating/documents/GNS430_PilotsGuide. The only reason for a long intermediate or final approach segment is to lose a lot of altitude. Kelowna. standard calls will apply. etc. The pilot will re-configure the aircraft for the missed approach and initiate a climb BEFORE. On reaching the MDA. with GNS430 A complete description is provided in the GNS430 Manual on our website at: http://selair.pdf Mountain IFR approaches For the most part an IFR approach is an IFR approach is an IFR approach.IFR for Professional Pilots The aircraft will be configured for the final approach prior to the final approach way-point (FAWP). One difference is the length of the approach.selkirk. pushing “DIRECT” on the GPS radio. In this section we will discuss the key items. The direct-to waypoint displayed should be the first waypoint for the published missed approach (Note: the wrong waypoint will be displayed if the right-hand selector knob was left out). “ENTER”. Selair. If the missed approach instructions specify a particular track. On reaching the MAWP. In other words you intercept final approach between eight and twelve miles from the airport. Within 2 miles prior to the final approach way-point (FAWP) the pilot will confirm the active light is illuminated and call “ACTIVE”. CONTINUING” or “APPROACH NOT ACTIVE. It can be the intermediate or final segments that are longer (or both). that don’t show up so much in approaches to flatter parts of the world. For example in Castlegar the intermediate and final segments involve 93 . such as Castlegar. the pilot will select “OBS” to correct the track reference to the appropriate track if needed. MISSED APPROACH”. it can be selected before pressing. if the runway is not visible the pilot will call “MISSED APPROACH” and execute a missed approach. then report the missed approach to ATC.ca GPS Approach. If the active light has not illuminated by the FAWP inbound.selkirk. The GPS will not automatically cycle past the missed approach waypoint. Penticton. Castlegar has two beacons on the approach. then return to “LEG” mode unless the OBS mode is required for a hold. If the desired direct-to waypoint is displayed. if not select the correct waypoint. But many mountain approaches are much longer. But. At the FAWP the pilot will call “APPROACH ACTIVE. where as most approaches have only one. the approach must be discontinued and the pilot will conduct a missed approach. The average IFR approach has a final segment of about four miles and an intermediate segment of five to ten miles. If a different waypoint is desired due to alternate ATC instructions. this extends the final approach segment in Castlegar to more than 12 miles. there are a few distinct features of approaches into mountainous areas. press “ENTER”.

Stabilize the Approach Prior to the LAST Segment Previously I mentioned that you want to use the maximum safe descent rate in the final approach segment. In this case if you don’t make the temperature correction it will be the last mistake you ever make. and substantially increases the risks of NDB approaches because the pilot may hesitate to follow the NDB being unsure weather the wind is really changing or the ADF needle is just wandering due to mountain effects. In flatter parts of the world the total altitude lost is usually only 2. With the long descent through many thousands of feet you are almost guaranteed significant wind shifts. Once again Castlegar is a good example. 94 . But.000’ to 5. The maximum descent gradient ever required is 400 ft/NM. at thousands of feet above the field elevation. on a mountain approach you may fly over a mountain (such as Sentinel) clearing it by only a few hundred feet.” Steep Final Approach Segment In flat parts of the world most approaches have straight-in landing minima and the approach designer tries to make the FAF crossing altitude such that a 3 glidepath (320 ft/NM) takes you to the runway. in cloud.500 feet. always remember to make your temperature corrections. At 100’ above MDA start to level off. It is of great advantage to fly stabilized all the way to the last segment of the approach. Previously I have told you that our generic Selkirk College procedure is to fly a stabilized intermediate segment and then “dive and drive” to MDA in the final segment. To maximize the chances of landing on a mountain approach you want to use the maximum safe descent rate in the final segment.000 to 2. Cold Temperature Corrections Pilots everywhere should make cold temperature corrections when the temperature drops below zero.000’ (lower for company approved approaches) which is a 4. which requires only 6 or 7 miles of descending. This makes tracking particularly important. So.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots descending from 9. on a mountain approach if the final segment has an intermediate step down try to fly a stabilized approach to that point. Mountain approaches almost never have straight-in minima. Always backup the ADF with GPS if available. But if the final segment has two MDAs it is really only the last one that you should dive on. Penticton and Kamloops are also examples.000 foot descent. And remember that localizer approaches are more reliable in the mountains than NDB approaches. At three miles per thousand feet the approach designer must give you 12 miles to lose 4000 feet. The procedure is explained in the text “Navigation for Professional Pilots. After you pass the FAF reduce power to establish maximum safe descent rate. hence the long approach. It is quite possible to fly smack into the top of a mountain while exactly at the published altitude for beacon crossing on a cold day.

If the weather is good you may choose to fly well away from the airport in order to descend without conflicting with circuit traffic.e. If you judge the weather is adequate (i. so be prepared to cross midfield and join downwind like any other airplane. 95 . If the weather is marginal level off at MDA and assess it.ca PAR Approach PAR approaches are available at several locations. simply follow instructions. The arrival controller will turn you over to the PAR controller as you approach the intermediate fix.IFR for Professional Pilots One of the most important things to do is plan the approach so that you arrive at the final fix established in a descent. If you cross the fix in level flight and have to throttle back and start descent the seconds you waste doing that can prevent you from reaching MDA. which are listed in CAP GEN. How far you fly away from the airport depends on the visibility. If the weather is marginal there will be no VFR traffic so it is best to circle down over the airport. When flying a mountain approach you must ensure you have adequate visual reference before descending below MDA. Circling in the Mountains “Normally” pilots maintain the circling MDA while circling. as I mentioned earlier. but be extremely careful to avoid descending through any altitudes as the margins are very thin. If you break out before MDA you can assess this in the descent and make a continuous descent to the runway. It is much more difficult to stabilize an approach if you have no DME or GPS. as an ILS. The PAR controller will inform you that you no longer read back clearances. In such cases you may have to use dive and drive throughout the approach. slowing to the normal procedure turn speed and getting your pre-landing checks done. In other words just descend in the circuit. A PAR approach is just as accurate. you have the required visual reference) you may resume the descent. But that will not work in the mountains. Most mountain airports are uncontrolled. Once turned over to the PAR controller you will be briefed about the missed approach and any other special considerations. A PAR always starts with vectors to final. There is more about mountain circling in the next chapter. Plan your descent from MDA to the runway so that you never lose sight of the runway. It is therefore crucial to develop the skill of flying stabilized all the way to the last fix (which might be after the so called FAF). Remember that just because you are IFR does not give you any special priority over VFR traffic. Selair.selkirk. don’t descend until turning final. The general advice is. if not more so. The circling altitude is usually several thousand feet above ground level. Remember that you are obligated to confirm the runway is clear if no ground station is available to report it as clear.

The controller will tell you if you are getting high or low. The approach starts with the controller telling you that you are intercepting the glidepath. whether you are above or below the glidepath.” Your job is to hold your heading and vertical speed constant. 7.” which means 200agl. if not. and be sure to hold your heading steady. changing them only when the controller tells you to. how high you are. The PAR controller will coordinate with the tower. etc. i. don’t wait for the controller to tell you. S/he will then continue to talk you right down to the runway. start a missed approach. during which the controller takes responsibility for assigning a safe 96 . If the VSI gets away from you quickly return to the correct value. 6.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots The PAR controller gives you a running commentary of distance to landing.e. The same segments are also applicable for terrain separation. At some point the controller will tell you that you are cleared to land. how many feet you are off the centerline. which is the point at which the initial approach segment begins. The PAR controller will tell you when you are approaching “civilian minimums. You won’t be able to talk to tower because you will remain on PAR frequency right through to landing. The controller will see that and turn you back over to departure control for further clearance. At that point start a descent at five times your groundspeed. 100-mile safe MSA Initial Approach Segment Intermediate Approach Segment Final Approach Segment Circling Airspace Missed Approach Segment When terminal radar service is available items 1 to 3 on the above list are replaced by radar vectors. It is up to you to confirm you have the required visual reference as you descend through minimums. listen carefully and translate the information into revised vertical speed values. each segment has a terrain clearance standard. We will examine the terrain separation standards for: 1. Think of this as “aural CDI needles. From that point on things are exactly like a missed approach for any other type of approach. To facilitate transition from airway to approach 100-mile safe altitude and Minimum Sector Altitudes (MSA) are published. 4. In order to facilitate this NavCanada publishes approach procedures for many airports in Canada. 5. 2. We have already said that approaches are divided into three segments for the purpose of traffic separation. In many cases there is no airway leading to the IAF. 3. Terrain Separation on Approach At some point the airplane must leave the airway for landing.

It is IMPORTANT to note that no extra clearance is provided in mountainous terrain.000 feet in areas 1 and 5. 4 and 2. They are similar to airway MOCA standards except that some vectoring altitudes in Mountainous areas have been set at 1.IFR for Professional Pilots altitude. The above 7 areas are discussed from a terrain clearance point of view below. Radar vectoring altitudes are established by NavCanada. 100-mile safe altitudes provide 1500 feet of terrain clearance in mountainous areas 2. to descend all the way to MSA altitude. Elsewhere 1. but they are an important safety backup. 100-mile safe altitudes are seldom needed in practice.” Terrain Clearance: MSA Minimum Sector Altitudes (MSA) are the primary reference for transitioning from an airway to an approach when radar service is not available. A cold temperature correction should be applied to the MSA when the airport temperature is below zero. This provides terrain clearance for 100 NM centered on the same point as the MSA.500’ and 2. Selair.000 feet rather that the usual 1. Later in this book we will talk about flying approaches in detail.ca Terrain Clearance: 100-mile Safe Altitude Every approach plate lists a 100-NM safe altitude. If suddenly all navigation information is lost. 97 . 3. MSA provides 1. or advisable. MSA covers a 25 nautical mile area centered on a designated point.000 feet of terrain clearance. so be careful in cold temperatures.000’ (most are set at the higher standard however). Many pilots refer to this altitude as the “emergency safe altitude. climbing to the 100-mile safe altitude gives you time to sort out the problem.selkirk.000 feet of terrain clearance is provided. TIP: It is seldom necessary.

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The above example shows four MSA areas centered on the XX beacon, which is the IAF for the approach. The bearings shown are magnetic in SDA and true in NDA. The example shown is typical, but there are exceptions. In most cases the MSA is centered on the IAF, but not always.

The above picture shows the MSA for ILS 16 at Kelowna. The MSA is centered on the EX beacon, which is not the IAF or the FAF. It is IMPORTANT to pay attention to which point the MSA is centered on. The above diagram also demonstrates that there are not necessarily always four MSA areas. In this case all aircraft approaching from the west have a common MSA of 7,800’ asl.

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IFR for Professional Pilots In order to use the MSA you must KNOW you are within 25NM of the designated point. Use DME or GPS if possible to confirm this. Sometimes a cross radial or NDB crossbearing can be used. If you make a mistake and descend before you are within 25NM it could be a fatal mistake, so don’t go by ETA or other potentially inaccurate methods.

Selair.selkirk.ca

Terrain Clearance: Intermediate Segment
As you enter the intermediate segment your terrain clearance decreases to 500 feet. In other words the FAF crossing altitude is 500 above the highest obstacle in the Intermediate airspace (see diagram above.) On the IFR flight test the altitude tolerance changes from +/- 100 to plus only.

Terrain Clearance: Final Segment
As soon as you pass the FAF and enter the final segment the terrain clearance reduces to 250 agl. This is really not a lot when you consider that your altimeter could have a 50 foot error and who knows what error there might be in the altimeter setting, etc. Therefore, never descend below MDA. It might look to you as though you have more than 250’ of terrain clearance but that is because the highest obstacle in the final approach airspace is not usually the runway.

Terrain Clearance: Missed Approach
At the beginning of the missed approach you have only 250 feet of terrain clearance. By the time you reach the end of the missed approach procedure you will have 1000’ of terrain clearance provided that you start climbing right at the MAP and climb at least 200 ft/NM.

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a.selkirk. Note that the above procedure is IMPORTANT and therefore if you are the captain and are not willing to trust your co-pilot to determine that the required visual reference has been obtained you should consider doing a “pilot monitored approach. I have control” prior to. the DH. Landing from an ILS As you approach the DH on an ILS you will begin to look for the required visual reference. If you see at least one of these things you may continue the approach and land. When the required visual reference is obtained it is vital to continue to follow the glidepath to the runway. the threshold and runway end lights. or the runway centre line lights If you do not see any of the above by the time your reach the MAP or DH you initiate the missed approach procedure. the touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings. the approach lights.3 There is a list of things which constitute the required visual reference. or at. nothing seen” the PF should simply fly the missed approach procedure and NOT risk looking out the window and becoming disoriented. the parallel runway edge lights. g. f. the approach slope indicator system. the runway identification lights. i. the runway threshold or threshold markings. If there are two pilots the PNF will look for the reference while the PF flies the approach to the DH. d. the touchdown zone light. e. j. the runway or runway markings. Therefore the PF is still primarily following instruments while descending to the runway and taking only glances out the window.19. b. The transition to 101 . h. At the DH if the PNF calls “DH.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. c.” This means that the co-pilot flies the approach to the DH and will then perform the missed approach unless the captain calls “runway insight.ca Chapter 10 Transition to Landing – Circling Required Visual Reference Read RAC 9.

Have a plan for how you are going to make your “circuit. maintaining heading and altitude and let the pilot monitoring call when to turn base and final. The “classic” advice was to circle with the airport on the PF side. As long as the crew works competently together this can be the least stressful way to circle. As you turn final you normally want to start the descent about the time the runway comes into view in the front window. but you are past the missed approach point so what exactly do you do? The generic advice is to turn toward the center of the airport and begin to climb. First I would like to talk about the “normal” circling situation in which the circling altitude is just a few hundred feet above ground level. but if there are two pilots it also works to circle so that the PNF can see the airport. don’t try to fly purely by visual reference. On the other hand if you wait too long you will land long. and final (airport is on left of aircraft) make sure he knows that you expect him to fly instruments and that you will maintain visual contact with the runway. typically 1½ to 2 sm. Circling There are special considerations for circling on mountain approaches and these are discussed below. If you stop following the instruments you will likely drift off the centerline and probably below the glidepath. base. but if there is rain on the window or it is night try to pickup the PAPI before descending. base. That way the pilot flying can concentrate on flying. Use your heading indicator. As the pilot flying be sure to brief the PNF of what you expect him to do.” If there are two pilots on board – and there usually are – make sure you both work together as a team when circling. and final. If you have to circle single-pilot you will find that you should still fly instruments about 50%. Review the approach plate ahead of time. Obviously the great concern here is descending too early and landing short. Landing from a Non-precision approach – straight in When straight-in minima are published you can descend for a straight-in landing once you have the required visual reference. If you are captain and your first officer is flying the circling while you tell him when to turn downwind. Set the course bar on the HSI parallel to the runway you are landing on to help visualization.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots visual flight is quite gradual. Try to take note of where you start down on days when the weather is good so that you have a reference the first time you do it in poor visibility. If you lose visual reference partway through the circling you must initiate a missed approach. 102 . Plan the heading for downwind. then follow the published missed approach procedure. Circling in minimum visibility. It takes a lot of experience to get good at this. Many airports have restrictions such as “no circling west” etc. is quite frankly the most difficult task in IFR flight.

103 . When is a normal landing assured? The above is a crucial question. RAC 9.” If you must circle with the PF on the inside the PNF will not be able to see the runway. When single-pilot it is best to make a left-hand circuit so you can keep the runway in sight. When two-pilot you can circle left or right. If you find it convenient to circle with the PNF on the inside s/he can keep the runway in sight while the PF scans instruments and observes the GPS. How to Circle How to circle is explained in RAC 9. in the B95 you will not be able to circle with gear-down and flaps extended on one engine. Since circling MDA is only 300’ agl 99% of the time you should remain at circling MDA until either base or final.24 says that you should remain at the circling MDA until a normal landing is assured. In the King Air it will make no difference at all.24. That means that you have to remember to put it back down as you turn final. Selair. if you can figure out where that is. This makes distance estimation much easier. Be sure to read and understand it. but must observe altitude. PNF can “call the base turn. So expect to find that you need to retract the gear. The above advice is based on the observation that the MAP is usually at the threshold of the runway and thus turning toward the airport will put you into the missed approach airspace. But there are lots of approaches where the missed approach starts somewhere else.ca Single engine circling In principle the procedure to circle is the same regardless of how many engines are operating.IFR for Professional Pilots Keep your wits about you. airspeed and GPS map and call any deviations. If this is the situation consider turning toward the known MAP. but here are a few more thoughts on the subject. There are a few additional tips for effective circling: Setup the GPS to the runway (in OBS mode) and the moving map scale to 1 or 2. But.selkirk. Circling in the Mountains Mountain circling was described earlier under approaches.

Once you are sure you can safely land you start down and join the circuit very much like a VFR airplane would – i. That means descending almost 4. 104 . etc. join downwind or cross-midfield for downwind.129’.356’ above ground level.e. and yet the name indicates circling minimums only. as explained in RAC 9. Take NDB B approach in CYCG. You must join the circuit and conform to the pattern in use.500’ to 1.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots In the mountains the circling MDA may be thousands of feet above the runway elevation. so remember that you DO NOT have any special right of way. The final segment is from UNT beacon to the runway. The reason.22 (if you read it carefully) is that the final segment is too steep. Remember that there very well could be VFR circuit traffic. a distance of 7. This is probably impossible. which we looked at earlier. So what exactly do you do when you do see the runway? The diagram below shows the probable flight path for a landing on runway 16. The MDA is 4.6 NM and it would be necessary to descend from 5. The diagrams in RAC 9.24 are not helpful for this situation. especially if you don’t get the runway in sight until one or two mile final. Before leaving this section please examine LOC/DME B approach in Penticton. You should notice that the approach is aligned with runway 16. On a mountain IFR approach you must assess the conditions and determine that a safe descent for landing can be made.400 feet.

ca The diagram below shows the probable flight path for a landing on runway 34.selkirk.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. 105 .

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 106 .

For further details read the AIM section RAC and the CARS section 602. In this section we will concentrate on radio communications. telephone etc.selkirk. but you should make a commitment to apply these principles to your cockpit communications as well. In the long run nothing is more important to your safety than your ability to communicate.ca Chapter 11 IFR communications Read COM 5. More information regarding the content of each radio call follows in the subsequent sections of this chapter. When there are two pilots communication between them is critical.a. receive aerodrome advisory and/or report taxiing as applicable report entering active runway with departure intentions report departing circuit/clear of zone and when requested or a.s. after departing the zone to “Centre” report when level at altitude initially cleared to ENROUTE 107 . Required IFR Radio Calls The following radio calls are required for all applicable IFR flights into and out of controlled and uncontrolled aerodromes. RCO.0 IFR flight is a team effort. Communications includes talking with other crew members and passengers as well as on the radio with ATC and FSS.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. DEPARTURE Departing Controlled Aerodromes: receive ATIS if available request and receive IFR clearance from “Clearance Delivery” or “Ground” receive taxi authorization/instructions from “Ground” receive takeoff clearance from “Tower” report at published/requested altitude/position after takeoff to “Departure” or “Centre” report when level at altitude initially cleared to Departing Uncontrolled Aerodromes: receive AWOS/LWIS if available receive IFR clearance through AAS. DRCO.p. Even one pilot must communicate accurately with ATC.

108 .7 prior to changing altitude or commencing approach ARRIVAL Arriving at Controlled Aerodromes: receive ATIS if available if in uncontrolled IFR enroute: report to “Tower” 25 nm from airport with ETA to receive approach clearance switch to and report on new frequency (“Arrival”.7 as applicable after being assigned a climb/descent.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots report over compulsory reporting points unless radar identified and whenever/wherever requested by controlling agency switch to and report on new frequency whenever instructed to by controlling agency report PIREPS whenever requested to or when conditions differ significantly than forecast (MET 1. and landing remain on “Tower” until assigned (industry practice) to switch frequency to “Ground” to request taxi clearance Arriving at Uncontrolled Aerodromes: receive AWOS/LWIS if available establish initial communications with ground station and state the ETL at least 5 min. report your ETA to the approach facility to “Tower” receive clearance for STAR.1) report CIRVIS. meteorites. prior to commencing approach (if you have only one radio you must get permission to temporarily switch frequencies--see RAC 9. “Tower” etc. report leaving cruise altitude as well as when level at the assigned altitude after being cleared to commence an approach.1.11) switch to and report on new frequency when instructed to by controlling agency report over mandatory reporting points on arrival/approach and when/where requested by controlling agency report: o when passing the fix outbound or when intercepting final approach course as applicable. approach. MET 2.) when instructed to by controlling agency report over mandatory reporting points on arrival/approach and when/where requested by controlling agency unless on radar vectors. emergencies request weather updates with FISE on 126.12) report failure of equipment. forest fires.6. report leaving cruise altitude if in uncontrolled IFR enroute: broadcast intentions on 126. pollution as applicable (RAC 1.

because it breeds complacency about enunciation. I strongly recommend using them as described in day to day conversation to get used to them.selkirk. o on final. Please try to – speak – each – word – individually – when – you – talk – on – the – radio. This may be the single easiest way to convince others (fellow pilots and ATC) that you are professional. This WILL waste time in IFR flight. It is amazing how many pilots don’t know the difference between “repeat” and “say again” or what “confirm” means. Repeat out loud: I – will – concentrate – on – saying – words – and – not – slur – them – together. which will take more time than if you had simply spoken clearly to begin with. Similarly I use negative and affirmative rather than no and yes. For years I have gotten into the habit that when someone mumbles I don’t say. Controllers are going to be asking you to. “Say again”. Know the key phrases that have been approved for aviation use. That’s too bad. Always use them properly on the radio. I strongly recommend that you make a commitment to speak well all the time.IFR for Professional Pilots o when passing the fix inbound or 3 min. The ident of your airplane is NOT: gofserrapoopalfa  Say it: Golf – Sierra – Poppa – Alpha I have noticed that most people feel a compulsion to speak quickly. before ETL as applicable. The local FSS at home base knows the ident of your airplane and can understand gofserrapoopalfa. I do this even at the grocery store and no one has ever complained. and o as soon as practicable after initiating a missed approach o on final leg report when exiting active runway Selair. etc. “What?” instead I use.ca Enunciate When – you – speak – say – each – word – individually. Use them appropriately. The phrases are listed below with explanations. 109 . To do otherwise reveals you as a poser pilot. It is really hard to do a good job of speaking on the radio if you insist on speaking badly the rest of the time. I recommend going so far as to use standard aviation phrasing in everyday life. o when commencing a circling maneuver. “Say again” frequently.

ABC ATC: Roger Pilot: Victoria terminal. Have your friend repeat the list. ABC at Active Pass [several minutes later] ATC: ABC roger. Say that. Switch Victoria terminal on 133. but when s/he assigns you a new altitude you do report reaching that. perhaps an altitude change or hand-off. The controller just wants to be reminded. orange.? Know what needs to be said. They probably can’t do it accurately. mango. In a radar environment ATC will often make a request such as: ATC: ABC. Position Reports When ATC radar identifies you it is no longer necessary to report at reporting points. and ONLY that. banana. so s/he can give you further clearance. pear. following the format on the back cover of the CFS.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Say less to say more You have probably heard the saying “less is more” which has environmental and other philosophical overtones. We will go over them. report Active Pass Pilot: report Active Pass. use the format above. is there anyone in the practice area? and have a nice day…. peach. When it comes to speaking I have a similar principle based on the observation that the human mind can only absorb a limited amount of information into short term memory. Try reading this list to a friend: Apple. If you are not radar identified you must make a full position report. When you are cleared for an approach do you report reaching the procedure turn altitude? No.95 The report does NOT follow a full position report format. Know When and What to Report When a controller assigns you a new heading do you report getting to that heading? No. 110 . The rule is that if you are radar identified full position report is not needed. Should you get on the radio and tell FSS everything from where you are to where you were to where you are going to how bumpy it is and that you saw one airplane but not the other and. apricot. There are “rules” governing all this that you must know and follow.

) to ATC. ABC Pilot: Victoria terminal. Report on New Frequency When handed off to a new controller use the following format. Here is a typical exchange. Lear FABC off three four. Pilot: cleared to the Somespot airport for the NDB runway two six approach. See verbatim read backs below for further examples.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. FAF. squawk ident Notice the format of the standard report on new frequency is.Altitude There are a few situations in which you want to say MORE than above. ABC leaving niner thousand [at a later time when the pilot is ready] ATC: Roger The pilot will NOT report subsequent altitudes (MSA. ATC: ABC cleared to the Somespot airport for the NDB runway two six approach. leaving niner thousand at this time. Procedure turn.selkirk. 111 . Pilot: cleared to the Somespot airport for the NDB runway two six approach. through four thousand two hundred for seven thousand. Agency – Type – Ident . ATC: ABC switch Victoria terminal one three two decimal seven Pilot: switching. ABC ATC: Roger Notice that the pilot decided to descend right away and so included that in the read back. etc. ABC ATC: Roger Pilot: Edmonton Center. When you are cleared for an approach you are NOT assigned a new altitude (normally) therefore only report leaving the last assigned altitude. MDA. Lear FABC level six thousand [on the new frequency] ATC: ABC. they are covered next: Contact with Departure Pilot: Calgary departure. It would be just as acceptable: ATC: ABC cleared to the Somespot airport for the NDB runway two six approach.ca Report Altitudes When you are cleared to a new altitude you must report leaving the last assigned altitude and reaching the new assigned altitude.

Here is the WRONG way to do it. When you get it tell him/her that too. Contact with Arrival ATC: ABC switch Calgary arrival one two five decimal niner Pilot: Switching. so only that is read back.ATIS If the pilot has fallen behind with his duties the exchange below would be typical: ATC: ABC switch Calgary arrival one two five decimal niner Pilot: Switching. ATIS information November” the pilot correctly recognizes that only squawk ident is an instruction. ABC Pilot: Calgary arrival. but normally verbatim is the key. radar identified Pilot: Calgary arrival. level one one thousand.Altitude When an airplane is climbing or descending at the time of hand off the new controller must always be told the present altitude to the nearest hundred feet. Notice in the above exchange that when the controller said. ABC has November [later. when the pilot has ATIS] ATC: ABC. squawk ident. squawk ident. Read Back – Verbatim In IFR most clearances and instructions should be read back verbatim. and the altitude cleared to. as above. Lear FABC. ABC ATC: ABC. level one one thousand. with November ATC: ABC.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: ABC radar identified The format for initial contact with departure is: Agency – Type – Ident – Runway. “ABC. negative ATIS ATC: ABC. In this section we will encounter one or two exceptions. Lear FABC. 112 . Verbatim means word for word. roger If you don’t have the ATIS tell the controller so. squawk ident The format is: Agency – Type – Ident – Altitude . ATIS information November Pilot: Squawk ident. ABC Pilot: Calgary arrival.

Could a mistake be made? Maybe. ABC ATC: Roger Note that it is acceptable to drop words that add no information. You probably already do so I won’t take up space with it here. 113 . Below is an exchange that follows the verbatim rule. ATC: Roger Strictly speaking the above is a perfect exchange. maintain four thousand. ABC Selair. The ideal exchange is: ATC: ABC Maintain four thousand. ATC: ABC maintain four thousand Pilot ABC maintain four thousand. ABC ATC: Roger Pilot: Vancouver Terminal. For example “at 3. Don’t read back things that aren’t clearances or instructions. What matters most is to see the clearance as having elements and read back each element. altitude unknown Pilot: looking.ca Phonetic Alphabet You must know your phonetic alphabet. climbing through three thousand direct Hamstrong VOR Pilot: Maintain four thousand. In the example the pilot dropped the word “climbing. Most pilots will shorten it as follows. Leaving six thousand for four thousand. ABC ATC: Roger The read back is correct(ish).” If in doubt leave all the words in. in the order given. ATC: ABC maintain four thousand Pilot Leaving six thousand for four thousand. For example: ATC: ABC. which is recommended.selkirk.000” implies leveling off. but is an approved deviation. ABC level four thousand [when within 100 of new altitude] ATC: ABC.IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: ABC Maintain four thousand. climbing through three thousand direct Hamstrong VOR Pilot: direct Hamstrong VOR at three thousand. traffic two o’clock four miles northbound. through three thousand direct Hamstrong VOR. roger This bends the verbatim rules. but is too stilted as a result. but why does the pilot feel the need to reorder the words? Doing this makes it much more likely that a mistake will be made.

Tower: foxtrot alpha bravo Charlie. A number is NOT treated as a number when it is an aircraft type. For example C-172 (spoken cee one seventy two) not Charlie one seven two. wind speed. Therefore the pilot is committed to use FABC until such time that the controller makes the switch. transponder codes. By the Numbers Numbers are used extensively in aviation. Your aircraft ident is always in phonetics. LISTEN to the controller. Golf Sierra Poppa Alpha. not Charlie Golf Sierra Poppa Alpha. Pilot: Vancouver tower. If you are spelling something for the other pilot in the cockpit most pilots don’t use phonetics unless the first attempt fails. That isn’t a number any more than Skyhawk is. and ATC would know that. The reason is that it is possible that GABC is also in the area. etc. Pilot 2: Sorry Garth. Or L1011 (spoken El ten eleven) not echo one zero one one. Pilot 1: Nice to meet you. Pilot: foxtrot alpha bravo Charlie Notice in the above exchange the tower did NOT follow common practice of shortening the ident to ABC. Similarly an El ten eleven is not a number. When numbers are numbers they are spoken one-digit-at-a-time. ALWAYS start with four letters in your ident. cleared takeoff two six left.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots You must know when to use phonetics and when not to. are all numbers. I. altitudes. if s/he shortens your ident to three or two letters you should follow suit. Headings.E. Except for special cases as indicated above. See below for more details. nor is a Dee Cee ten or Em Dee ninety or a Beech ninety five. foxtrot alpha bravo Charlie. ready for takeoff runway two six left. 114 . A C-172 is a one seventy two. phonetics should be used on the radio. My name is Ray You do NOT use phonetics when a letter is used to represent an aircraft type. When flying in Canada drop the Charlie. my name is garf Pilot 2: Did you say garf? How do you spell that? Pilot 1: G-A-R-T-H.

IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. but if you don’t hear it for an altimeter setting less than 28. Four digits are given. 115 .selkirk.500 10. If necessary a leading zero is added. or you heard it wrong. Altitudes Altitudes are spoken in thousands and hundreds.92.800 Five hundred Four thousand Niner thousand Niner thousand five hundred One zero thousand One four thousand One seven thousand eight hundred Altimeter Setting Altimeter settings in Canada are given in inches of mercury. there is NO NEED to say the word decimal.ca Headings Headings are always specified with three digits.14 is: three zero one four By rule ATC controllers are required to repeat the altimeter setting when it is less than 28. “One three thousand five hundred.000 9.” 030 is zero three zero. You do not need to.000 17.92 is: two niner niner two 30.” Try this list of altitudes: 500 4.000 14.76 is: two eight seven six. 13. two eight seven six The above is the format the controller will use. 29. 270 is spoken. 28.92 you MUST question it because either the controller is being lazy.500 is spoken.000 9. I say again. “Two seven zero.

ABC ATC: ABC you are number four to land Pilot: ABC. left engine on fire [add emphasis] ATC: ABC roger. ABC ATC: ABC. say your altitude” Of course ATC will use it on you as well: ATC: ABC. turn left heading 265 Pilot: left 265. turn right heading 055 Pilot: right 055. Repeat. for emphasis when you use the word repeat.” If you want to know another aircraft’s altitude you would say. Say again – repeat ATC: ABC turn left heading 265 Pilot: say again new heading. some other airplane reports and you miss their ident. You must get to know all these and use them appropriately. All you have to do is say. say your ident. In everything that follows I will assume that you know the rules about phonetics and numbers so I will just write the letters and numbers and you are expected to translate them according to the rules. You are repeating yourself. Say Your…. “station calling. Key Phrases I have used several key phrases above. my left engine is on fire.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: altimeter two eight seven five Pilot: Confirm two eight seven five [emphasize eight to draw controller’s attention] See the note below for the use of the key word confirm. which the pilot has used properly above. ABC ATC: ABC. Cleared to land You want someone to “say again” if you didn’t hear them the first time. “GDEF. ABC ATC: roger 116 . It happens all the time. say your heading Pilot: 040.

or acknowledging the heading is 065. ATC will soon forgive you and recognize you for the professional you are. It cannot be an answer. “Affirmative” or “Affirmative. If the pilot answers “confirmed” that is a dead give away that he is a poser. Don’t let the chewing out bug you. confirm steering 065? Pilot: roger. but it would have been better to just say affirmative. as this pilot did. Confirm. ABC Don’t get flustered. Turn now! Pilot: Roger. ABC Confirm is a question. Airline pilots miss calls at times. Negative ATC: ABC. but affirmative carries more information and is therefore preferable when applicable. The controller’s response is not only rude but incorrect – the ident of the aircraft called is missing  Pilot: Confirm ABC is cleared to land [from pilot on short final] ATC: ABC. If you can keep your head while all others about you are losing theirs …. In the above case the pilot is acknowledging the question and answering 065. Heading 200. For some reason pilots have a lot of trouble summoning up this call. the perspective doesn’t matter. confirm steering 065? Pilot: Negative. The above utilization is correct.” If the pilot only said negative the controller might be forced to ask what the actual heading is. left 065. ABC ATC: you were told to steer 065. so this pilot wisely included the information. If you can continue to formulate proper RT calls after being chewed out. Often you can use either Roger or affirmative. ATC: ABC.. Consider the following exchange: ATC: ABC. roger This pilot used the word confirm correctly. confirm steering 065? Pilot: Negative. Affirmative. because you are asking a question. This is a perfect time to use the word confirm. ABC ATC: ABC Roger. Heading 200. vectors to ILS 12 This exchange is also correct. 065” Roger is an acknowledgement. Note that the controller would have been better advised to say affirmative.ca Roger. 117 . Every professional pilot has been through the above. The pilot answers. 065. The controller asks a question by using confirm. “Negative. Turn left heading 065. This situation happens a lot – you just can’t remember if the controller cleared you to land or not.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. It would be perfectly acceptable for the pilot to answer.selkirk.

or confirmed when you really mean affirmative. but makes sense. check your gear down The word check in the above example is used as an urgent instruction. heading 030 until able direct White Rock Pilot: 030 until able direct White Rock. Controllers sometimes clear you to do one thing until you are able to do another thing. Pilot: Direct White Rock at this time. which is read back the clearance verbatim. When the pilot gets WC tuned and identified and begins to track toward it s/he should call ATC and say: Pilot: ABC now proceeding direct White Rock ATC: Roger If the pilot is ready to go to White Rock when cleared the exchange should be: ATC: ABC. An example exchange would be: ATC: ABC. ABC In the above exchange the controller is telling the pilot that as soon as s/he can get the WC beacon tuned and identified s/he should go direct to it. ABC now proceeding direct White Rock ATC: ABC. ABC ATC: roger Pilot: Victoria terminal. ABC ATC: Roger The above bends the verbatim rule.” In this form the 118 . The pilot has done the standard thing. “I think you forgot to put your gear down. go direct White Rock when able. go direct White Rock when able. This pilot is really saying. roger Check Pilot: Aircraft on short final. Pilot: Direct White Rock when able.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Summary: The most common confusion regarding these terms is to use confirm. When able – Until able ATC: ABC. Please work on it. Is that the best thing to do? If the pilot is not presently able to go direct White Rock then the above exchange is perfect. “Look at the green lights on your panel and make sure they are green!!” The unspoken presumption is.

but they normally have communications failure procedures that refer to the flight planned altitude.” but this seems like bad movie dialogue. Note that the controller did not shorten the ident (FABC). vectors to ILS 09. In this case check is a substitute for roger. Pilot: Squawk 3511. Memorize the structure of each call as explained in the notes. After each exchange I provide commentary about why the calls are structured as shown and any optional alternatives. cleared to Calgary airport via Vancouver 4 departure.selkirk. You should assume the weather is IMC.” Selair. You may assume the aircraft has the equipment for an RNAV star at Calgary and that is included in the scenario. which is ADSIX KESTA KETTL. 119 . Consider these calls as templates into which the details of your own calls can be fit. departure on 26 right.IFR for Professional Pilots word check is a substitute for confirm. flight plan route. Clearance Delivery Pilot: Vancouver clearance delivery. “check remarks” the pilot means that s/he took note of the previous remark. so pilots prefer “check remarks. squawk 3511. All SIDs specify an altitude to maintain. hence the pilot refers to himself as FABC not ABC. expect a short gate Pilot: Left heading 270. vectors to ILS 09. with approximately half mile visibility at both airports. FABC Per RAC 6. check remarks In this case by saying. In the unlikely event of a communications failure we don’t want any confusion between you and ATC about what altitude you are going to maintain. At a busy airport like CYVR it would be unprofessional to do more.ca Sample Radio Calls – Lear JET: CYVR to CYYC I will present sample IFR radio calls for a flight in an RNAV equipped Lear Jet flying Vancouver to Calgary. By using it sparingly it carries more weight. The airplane has filed the preferred high altitude RNAV route. Lear FABC IFR to Calgary at FL 330 ATC: FABC. That is why it is normal to state the flight plan altitude when requesting clearance. The pilot could have said “roger remarks. Another situation in which this key-word arises is: ATC: ABC turn left heading 270.1 only the transponder code need be read back in this case. but carries a sense of urgency.

Pilot: 29. In this example the controller shortened the ident to SEL so the pilot followed the controllers lead Ground Pilot: Vancouver ground. alternatively s/he could have said. with Whiskey ATC: ABC.” And tells the controller s/he is IFR to Calgary and has the ATIS. Hold short 26 left.64. It is NOT necessary to request further. 120 . altimeter 29. this must be read back. ABC The pilot makes an initial contact in the format station – type – ident ATC then asks the pilot to go ahead.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: Vancouver clearance delivery. ATC: ABC cleared across 26 left. Hold short delta. Pilot: hold short of delta. The controller clears the airplane only part way to 26R. departure on 08 right. The ground controller checks with the south tower controller and when the runway is not in use clears the airplane across (there might be some time elapsed here due to traffic using 26L.000. By rule. ABC holding short 26 left on hotel. Pilot: Vancouver ground. taxi via alpha. The controller must get the airplane from the south side of the airport to the north east corner without conflict with landing traffic on 26L.000. Many pilots do. hotel. All hold short clearances must be read back. (The controller will annotate hold short 26L on the strip). but it is redundant. Lear FABC ATC: ABC ground. King Air GSEL IFR to Castlegar at FL 230 ATC: SEL. flight plan route.000. “On apron two.64. squawk 5124 Pilot: Maintain 3. The pilot describes his/her position. and specifies to hold short of 26L. Richmond one SID.) The instruction to hold short of delta implies other taxiing traffic. squawk 5124. IFR Calgary. maintain 3. go ahead Pilot: ABC at the Aerocenter. ABC ATC: roger The pilot reports once at the hold short point. The controller already has a strip for the airplane and will annotate it as the airplane taxis. SEL In this case the controller has amended the altitude in the SID to 3. Hold short 26 left.

IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: Vancouver ground. 121 . cleared 26 right via Juliet. behind that traffic. If the weather is better you might want to skip this call – that’s where your professional judgment will have to come in. Remember that in ½ mile visibility the controller is working blind. so the controller is using a form of procedural separation to keep track of where everyone is. it is not recommended. The clearance contains no hold short instruction that require read back. Vancouver has Coded Taxi Routes – look them up in your CAP2. 767 traffic crossing right to left. do you see a Jazz Dash 8 entering Juliet from Kilo? Pilot: affirmative. but it is not required in this case. Mike. Cleared taxi 26 right via route delta Pilot: 26 right via route delta. The controller asks the pilot if s/he sees other traffic. The controller asks him/her to report when a Boeing 767 on taxiway D is past. Selair. Mike niner. ABC ATC: roger The pilot reports holding short of taxiway D. While it is true that many pilots would skip this initial call. ready for takeoff runway 26 right. ABC holding short of delta ATC: ABC roger. report when he is past ABC roger Pilot: Vancouver ground. The instruction at the top of the page requires the pilot to read back the code. When ABC reports the 767 past. ABC ATC: ABC.selkirk. The pilot uses the word affirmative. NOT roger to indicate that s/he does. Mike. Pilot: ABC At the specified point in route delta the pilot switches to the north ground control frequency. ABC” It’s not a problem if you want to do this. Pilot: Vancouver ground. but there is no need to read all this back. There is no ground radar. Request clearance to 26 right. hold short. Give the controller a chance to get ready by making an initial call. Mike niner. 767 has passed ABC ATC: ABC roger. Lear FABC. Lear FABC ATC: FABC go ahead Pilot: FABC on Juliet holding short of kilo. “26 right via route delta” just as s/he should. the controller checks his board for conflicts and finding none clears the Lear to 26R via route Delta. Many pilots would read back.ca Tower Pilot: Vancouver tower. ATC: ABC roger. So the pilot reads back. “26 right via Juliet. The pilot simply acknowledges with his/her ident. The controller issues taxi instructions to the airplane. The example shows a textbook call in the same format previously used: station – type – ident. The controller has a tough job keeping track of the traffic in this low visibility procedural scenario.

the tower controller clears the Lear jet for takeoff. the implication is that the pilot called with two other airplanes ahead in the lineup. This is proper procedure on the pilot’s part.000. Lear FABC.” Notice that ATC advises the pilot that s/he is number three for departure. DO NOT wait until you are first in line to call for takeoff clearance. Lear FABC ready for takeoff runway 12. 122 . The pilot does not need to read this back. ABC ATC: ABC. ident only as shown is adequate although many pilots would say. Many pilots would leave out the tower frequency. radar identified The standard call to departure takes the form: station – type – ident– runway of departure – altitude. as we previously discussed. especially in poor visibility.100 for 7. When ATC clears him/her to position it would come as no surprise because the aircraft ahead would have been cleared for takeoff shortly before. wind 240 at 15. but the pilot would have heard the two aircraft ahead cleared for takeoff and thus be able to figure out when to perform the “below the line” items on the pre-takeoff checklist. ABC” consider this an acceptable redundancy. Note that this is the same format used previously with the addition of runway of departure and altitude. Pilot: line up on 26 right. Departure Pilot: Vancouver departure. Most airports don’t have two tower frequencies however so the most normal form of this call is.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: ABC roger. ATC: ABC line up on 26 right. Calling right away helps the tower controller organize the strips on his board in the order for takeoff. When the aircraft ahead reaches the necessary IFR separation distance. off 26 right through 1. “cleared for takeoff. but the above demonstration is by the book and I recommend you follow this format. ATC: ABC. “Somespot tower. Get to know this format. The pilot must read back a clearance to line up. Number three for departure Pilot: ABC When calling tower the request for takeoff should be included in the first call – as this pilot does. cleared takeoff runway 26 right Pilot: ABC Only the calls related to this flight are being shown.

The controller clears the airplane up to 15.000 left 160. the controller begins vectoring the airplane. but in the above example the pilot was a tad late and called at 1. through 1.000. it could even be turned into a question by adding the key-word confirm. ABC. radar identified. Lear FABC off runway 12. maintain 15. squawk ident Pilot: Squawk ident.” ATC: ABC. The pilot reads back each clearance verbatim (with redundant words dropped. ATC: ABC. “switching” which is all that is needed.) Pay particular attention to the fact that the pilot reads back each clearance with its elements in the same order the controller issues them. ATC: ABC.000 ATC: ABC.000 turn left heading 160 vectors enroute Pilot: Maintain 11. Through 7.000. ABC ATC: ABC. when able.000 – that is why there is no call leveling 7.selkirk. which is why the actual altitude must be reported. through 7. Lear FABC through 12.000. “Direct ADSIX at this time. ABC ATC: ABC roger.000. ABC ATC: roger As expected.IFR for Professional Pilots In most cases there is only one departure frequency thus the most common form of this call is.0 Pilot: Switching Pilot: Vancouver Center.ca The controller has used the key-phrase “when able” s/he wants the airplane to go direct ADSIX as soon as they get it tuned up on the RNAV.000. direct ADSIX Pilot: direct ADSIX at this time.000 Pilot: Maintain 15. If the departure controller had said a frequency that the pilot did not expect it would be worth reading back. ABC ATC: roger Selair. so rather than read back verbatim. The pilot was anticipating this frequency. Switch Vancouver Center 135. maintain 11.000’. The pilot acknowledges by saying.000 for 6.100’. it is on the HI chart.400 for 15. “Somespot departure.” It is important to report the ACTUAL altitude the aircraft is passing through when the call is made – rounded to the nearest 100 feet. in this case s/he responds. It turns out the pilot is ready.000 was issued before the airplane reached 7. Note that the clearance to 11. The SID instructs the pilot to call at 1.000 and hands it off to the center controller for that sector. “confirm Vancouver 123 . The call is used by the controller to check the accuracy of the Mode-C readout.

which would have been. maintain Flight Level 230 Pilot: out of 15. ABC level 15. A lot of pilots just push the ident button. squawk ident Pilot: Squawk ident.55 Pilot: Switching.0” and then from the pilot. ABC ATC: roger The controller now clears the airplane to the final altitude. ABC As was previously explained this is a recommended variance from the strict verbatim read back. Lear FABC level Flight Level 330 ATC: ABC.000 for Flight Level 230. ABC Pilot: Vancouver center. This will be used a million times in your life. Pilot: Vancouver center. i. ATC: ABC. Pilot: Vancouver center. “Roger. 135. the clearance to FL330 came before the airplane reached FL230. ABC” Notice that “squawk ident” is an instruction and as such must be read back.5?” followed by the controller saying. There is a traffic conflict so the controller informs the pilot that s/he can’t clear him higher for another 10 miles. ATC: ABC. This is a relatively short flight so there will be only a couple of hand offs: ATC: ABC switch Vancouver center on 134.e. leaving 15. “Negative. maintain Flight Level 330 Pilot: maintain Flight Level 330. The airplane will be handed from sector to sector. Why didn’t the controller just clear the airplane directly to FL330? Because there was a traffic conflict – probably someone at FL240 who had to “get out of the way” first.” While technically correct very few pilots use this very formal read back. expect higher in 10 miles Pilot: ABC The pilot must report reaching the assigned altitude. This is NOT a clearance. Notice that the airplane never leveled at FL230. ABC 124 . so the pilot simply acknowledges with the ident. so get to know it. Notice the standard format that the pilot uses when contacting a new controller: station – type – ident – altitude.0. ABC level Flight Level 330 ATC: roger From this point on things become very routine. but the instruction should be read back first to make sure no confusion exists. “Maintain Flight Level 230. ABC. 135.000 for Flight Level 230.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots center on 135.000 ATC: ABC roger.

IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: ABC is radar identified Then after some more time elapses ATC: ABC switch Edmonton center on 133.3 Pilot: Switching, ABC Pilot: Edmonton center, Lear FABC level Flight Level 330 ATC: ABC, squawk ident Pilot: Squawk ident, ABC ATC: ABC is radar identified This is the last enroute hand off for this flight, but if the airplane was going all the way to Toronto the next four hours would just be a repeat of the above pattern every 30 to 45 minutes. Not shown in this scenario are any calls made to FSS to check weather, or any calls on company frequency to dispatch. This scenario shows only communications with ATC. ATC: ABC, maintain FL 250 expect Handa Five Pilot: leaving Flight Level 330 for 250, ABC The airplane is about 55NM from Opale now and the controller begins to bring it down. “Expect the Handa Five arrival” is not a clearance and so need not be read back. By this point the pilot has the ATIS and knows that runway 16 is active. ATC: ABC, Calgary altimeter 29.75, maintain 16,000, cross Opale Flight Level 210 or below Pilot: 29.75, maintain 16,000, cross Opale Flight Level 210 or below, ABC The controller has cleared the airplane down to 16,000 before it leveled at FL250. The controller must provide the current altimeter setting before clearing the airplane out of the standard pressure airspace. The pilot should read it back. The clearance is to 16,000 with a restriction to cross Opale at FL210 or lower. Restrictions must be read back. ATC: ABC, switch Calgary arrival 125.9 Pilot: switching, ABC

Selair.selkirk.ca

Arrival
Pilot: Calgary arrival, Lear FABC descending through Flight level 230 for 16,000 with ATIS X-ray ATC: FABC, squawk ident. Calgary altimeter 29.75 125

2008

IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: 29.75, squawk ident, FABC ATC: FABC, radar identified. Cleared the Handa Five arrival, report Opale Pilot: Cleared the Handa Five arrival, report Opale, FABC Prior to this exchange the Lear was not cleared for the Handa Five – they were just expecting it. Now they have the clearance. Note that the controller used all four letters in FABC, so the pilot followed suit. The controller has requested a call by Opale: Pilot: Calgary arrival, FABC is by Opale ATC: FABC roger, maintain 14,000 at your discretion. Be advised aircraft ident GABC is on this frequency also Pilot: 14,000 at my discretion. Check remarks, FABC ATC: roger “14,000 at your discretion” means that the aircraft can descend as quickly or slowly as the pilot likes. This is a “restriction” technically, so should be read back. The controller has revealed to the pilot that GABC is on the frequency. No read back is required but it is polite to acknowledge, which this pilot does; the key word “check” means “I have taken note of…” The controller will likely not speak with this aircraft again until it is past Adsek ATC: FABC, maintain 8,000 Pilot: maintain 8,000, FABC ATC: roger The aircraft is now cleared down to 8,000’. The chart tells the pilot not to expect anything lower than 7,500’, so all is as expected and the pilot likely expects no further calls until s/he is cleared for the approach ATC: FABC, maintain 7,000 until established on final, cleared the straight-in ILS 16 approach Pilot: Maintain 7,000 until established on final, cleared straight-in ILS 16 approach, FABC On an RNAV arrival the approach clearance can come early or late, here we have an example of an early clearance; the aircraft is at least 3NM from UBTON. By clearing the airplane for the approach the STAR is CLOSED. The pilot can follow the RNAV to ELERO and then intercept the glidepath.

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IFR for Professional Pilots The controller clears the airplane to 7,000’, but the pilot will plan his/her descent so as to cross UBTON at 7,500’ or above. The airplane will not descend below 7,000’ until intercepting the glidepath on final. The above scenario only works if the controller has all the airplanes following along in trail with good spacing between them. If spacing is not good the controller will not clear the airplane for the approach. According to the STAR the pilot will then fly heading 343 from UBTON and expect vectors to final. This is called an OPEN STAR. On the closed STAR the controller will simply watch this airplane follow the route around onto final and once it is established on final s/he will hand it off to tower. ATC: FABC switch Calgary tower 118.4 Pilot: Switching, FABC Pilot: Calgary tower, Lear FABC at 11 DME, with X-ray ATC: FABC roger, altimeter 29.76, wind 140 at 25, report SARCEE. Pilot: 29.76, report SARCEE, FABC Pilot: Calgary tower, FABC by SARCEE beacon inbound. ATC: FABC number one Pilot: FABC ATC: ABC cleared to land Pilot: ABC Notice that the controller has shortened the ident to ABC (apparently GABC is gone.) The pilot followed suit. ATC: ABC, what is your destination on the field? Pilot: Apron five ATC: roger, plan to clear left on C3 Pilot: roger The airplane is still on final during this exchange. Exchanges of this type are quite common with tower.

Selair.selkirk.ca

Ground
The next call will be to ground after the airplane lands. Pilot: Calgary ground, FABC is on C3, request taxi to Apron five ATC: ABC, cleared to apron five via Charlie, X-ray Pilot: ABC The controller has cleared the airplane all the way to apron five. This requires crossing runway 07, but no restriction was issued therefore the pilot is cleared all the way. Many 127

“GSEL is at the base of the tower. Abbotsford has no clearance delivery. why else would you be calling ground? But at an airport with no clearance delivery some pilots call ground to get their IFR clearance before starting the engines. you would do that later when you call for taxi clearance. confirm ABC is cleared across 07?” There is a lot to be said for this. Taxi runway 19.21. wind 220 at 10. King Air GSEL ATC: GSEL go ahead Pilot: GSEL is at the base of the tower.000” In this case there is no need to specify the ATIS. Victor 495. If the controller is busy and you can hear that 07 is not in use don’t waste air time with this call (it is not legally required. s/he chooses to only read back the transponder code.” The principle to grasp here is that when you call ground it is normally redundant to say “ready to taxi” because. Pilot: Squawk 3521. “GSEL is at the base of the tower. The SID altitude was not amended – if it had been that would have been read back also (RAC 6. with India. confusion could creep in. The pilot could have cleared this up by adding the fact that s/he is ready to taxi in the previous call.21. The standard form of the call to ground is: station – type – ident The pilot has the option of whether to read back the IFR clearance. with India. The call would then be. ATC: SEL is cleared to the Victoria airport via the Abbotsford Seven departure direct Whatcom VOR. ready to taxi. “Ground. For the purpose of this flight the King Air is IFR but the weather is VMC. but you have to use your discretion. if you only want an IFR clearance and are not ready to taxi state that. Pilot: 30. Both airports are controlled. IFR to Victoria at 6000. hold short 19 on alpha. hold short on alpha. SEL ATC: roger. In the same vein. IFR to Victoria at 6. Ready to copy IFR to Victoria at 6. Squawk 3521. The calls in this scenario are very similar to the ones new IFR pilots will encounter in a training environment. Ground Pilot: Abbotsford ground. Are you ready to taxi at this time? Pilot: affirmative ATC: roger.1). Altimeter 30. 128 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots pilots can’t resist calling just before crossing the runway with something like. The ground controller asks if the airplane is ready to taxi. If the controller does not know what you are up to.) Sample Radio Calls – King Air: CYXX to CYYJ The sample radio calls in this scenario are for a low altitude flight from Abbotsford to Victoria.000. You can eliminate confusion by confirming that you are ready to taxi.

E. If the weather is IMC it is unlikely tower will speak to this pilot again. 129 .000 direct Whatcom on course. GSEL ready for takeoff runway 19 ATC: SEL. The airplane will switch to Victoria terminal at 1. through 3.” There are pros and cons to doing this. Selair. GSEL ATC: SEL. not just runway 19. The principle is that you read back all hold short instructions and I recommend NOT letting yourself get into the habit of making exceptions. The runway of departure is appended with the airport name whenever the agency called has a call sign different than the airport. The SID chart shows that the agency to be called is Victoria terminal. When the tower clears the airplane for takeoff it is not necessary to read it back although many pilots do. “SEL. Make your choice intelligently taking these and any other factors that seem relevant into account. since we are calling Victoria terminal but are in Abbotsford we are off Abbotsford runway 19. which could be a problem on a VFR day if the tower is working seven airplanes in the circuit.500’. without speaking to tower again – unless the tower has any VFR traffic to point out or other similar considerations that typically would involve fitting this IFR airplane in with all the VFR traffic. On the positive side it ensures that the airplane is rolling on the correct runway. The standard format is the same as in the Lear jet example given earlier: station – type – ident – runway of departure – altitude. cleared for takeoff 19.000 direct Whatcom on course. which is more of a problem on an IMC day. Even though it is redundant. wind 220 at 5. through 1500 for 3000. On the negative side it wastes a few seconds on the radio. squawk ident Pilot: Squawk ident.selkirk. radar identified.IFR for Professional Pilots In the above exchange the controller issues a totally redundant instruction to hold short of runway 19 on alpha. There is only one tower frequency so there is no need to specify it. “SEL. once issued the pilot should read it back. King Air GSEL off Abbotsford runway 19. cleared for takeoff” or even. as per the SID. Pilot: Maintain 6. ATC: GSEL.ca Tower Pilot: Abbotsford tower. I.000. SEL ATC: roger The call sign of the departure agency is important.000. Maintain 6. Departure Pilot: Victoria terminal. through 3. cleared takeoff 19 Pilot: SEL When you call a tower for takeoff the request is made in a single call in the format shown above.

125. Pilot: Victoria terminal.000” (don’t make a habit of this sloppiness.95 Pilot: switching Pilot: Victoria terminal. Please read it back to ensure that no mistake is made.” The standard format when handed from one sector to the next is: station – type – ident – altitude. The above case adds the extra information ATIS because the agency being called is the arrival controller for CYYJ. 130 . For some reason many pilots just push the ident button and fail to read back this instruction. The pilot knows this from the approach plate.500 VFR. but make sure you are within 100 feet when you call. SEL ATC: SEL. SEL level 6. When calling the arrival controller the form of the call should always be: station – type – ident – altitude – ATIS. SEL. a Twin Otter 1. King Air GSEL level 6. a Sikorsky helicopter at 3. by that traffic Pilot: SEL. SEL When assigned a new frequency it is not required to read it back.000 NOT the flight plan altitude.10 Pilot: 30.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Note that altitude is always phrased as altitude passing through and climbing to. ATC: SEL traffic ten o’clock three miles northbound. roger ATC: SEL. If you overshoot a bit and are correcting report that.000 with November ATC: SEL squawk ident. If the frequency assigned is NOT what you expected that would be a good time to use the keyword confirm. at 6.200 correcting to 6. the format shown above is ideal.95?” followed by the controller correcting himself. Pilot: looking. “Confirm Victoria terminal on 135. “Victoria terminal SEL leveling. “negative. The controller requests the pilot to squawk ident. Victoria altimeter 30.95.95” – “roger 125. It is best to make this call right away. Pilot: squawk ident. ATC: roger You must report reaching all assigned altitudes. SEL ATC: SEL radar identified. traffic at two o’clock southbound. 99% of the time you should already have the next frequency tuned – they are all on the charts so you should know what frequency you will be switched to next.) Enroute ATC: SEL call Victoria terminal on 125.000. In this case the altitude climbing to is the SID assigned altitude of 3.10.000 feet below you. This is an instruction and so must be read back. Most pilots call as the nose is being pushed over.

In addition this particular arrival is unusual in that the 270 vector heading sends the airplane toward high terrain so the actual exchange is more likely to be: ATC: SEL maintain 4.selkirk. Selair.ca Arrival ATC: SEL.” Whether or not to do this is a command decision – put your PIC thinking cap on and decide. SEL ATC: roger ATC: SEL. In this case the airplane is in VMC. ATC: SEL maintain 4. SEL ATC: roger ATC: SEL. request vector around the traffic. vectors for traffic.000. Extra exchanges about traffic to look for are often interspersed.000 Pilot: maintain 4. left heading 180 Pilot: left 180. The information “vectors to ILS 09” is something the controller is required by rule to say – no vector shall be issued without informing the pilot where s/he is being vectored to.IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: have the traffic. “SEL roger. call tower 119. turn left heading 180 Pilot: left 160. SEL ATC: SEL. one zero miles final. cleared to the Victoria airport straight-in ILS 09 approach Pilot: Cleared straight-in ILS 09.000 Pilot: maintain 4. SEL ATC: roger The controller has assigned a vector heading of 270. turn left heading 120 Pilot: left 120. There will be times that you are in IMC conditions and the controller says something very unnerving such as. “SEL. turn right heading 250. It is not part of the clearance so need not be read back. vectors to ILS 09 Pilot: depart the Victoria VOR heading 270. SEL ATC: roger Exchanges of the above type are a constant part of flight in the terminal area. altitude unknown. SEL ATC: SEL. opposite direction traffic. depart the Victoria VOR heading 270. SEL ATC: SEL negative.” The controller will come back with.000. SEL The above series of calls is totally standard for an arrival of this type. which the pilot is to steer after passing the Victoria VOR.” What should you do? Feel free to say. SEL 131 . “SEL is IMC.7 Pilot: Switching.

if no communication from me. steer heading 160 ATC: roger Etc. steer heading 160. which the pilot did not hear correctly is a “base leg” so the pilot would slow down and complete pre-landing checks prior to the final vector (the pilot heard it wrong because s/he anticipated the previously mentioned 160 heading – but that was not applicable. after the Victoria VOR.10. Pilot: Victoria tower. as above Notice in the above exchange the pilot had to figure out what the clearance is (as opposed to commentary) and then read back the clearance verbatim. Because this is an instruction most pilots feel compelled to read it back. You are flying toward high terrain.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: SEL roger. i.000 is issued on heading 270. The tower instructs the pilot to report at Mill Bay. In this case the clearance is.e. at the Vancouver VOR 215 radial. since tower is a VFR controller it is acceptable to simply acknowledge the instruction with the ident.) The heading 120 is a 40 degree intercept for the ILS (typical) and the pilot would be anticipating the approach clearance as received shortly thereafter.6 DME with November ATC: SEL roger. altimeter 30. When I wrote out the sample radio calls above I assumed that you are familiar with all the operational details. SEL is by the Mill Bay beacon inbound ATC: SEL. King Air GSEL 9. Pilot: at the Vancouver VOR 215 radial. For the record: the clearance to 4. “SEL” but reading it back is likely so automatic that most pilots will do it. steer heading 160. Actually.” Note that every controller has his own unique way of phrasing this so listen carefully and read back the controllers words verbatim. “At the Vancouver VOR 215 radial. “cleared for straight-in ILS 09” is totally standard so this pilot should be expecting it and have no trouble reading it back. report Mill Bay Pilot: report Mill Bay The pilot chooses to include his/her DME when calling the tower. because Mill Bay is the FAF and the pilot is required to report at the FAF. as shown in the sample call. wind calm. roger 132 . The heading 180. (In actuality Victoria tower has radar so does not need this assistance). Tower Pilot: Victoria tower. the form of the approach clearance. number two to a Cessna 150 on left base Pilot: SEL looking Pilot: SEL has the traffic ATC: SEL. This is totally redundant. This is not required but may be helpful to the tower in spacing traffic. so listen carefully.

000 to Vancouver FSS: SEL roger. squawk 3265 133 . active runway 15. Pilot: Victoria ground. traffic a C-172 in the circuit. wind 130 at 10 altimeter 29. taxi via Sierra. It is required to read back all hold short instructions. SEL When calling ground after landing use all four letters in the ident. Sample Radio Calls – King Air: CYCG to CYVR In this set of radio calls the airplane is departing from an uncontrolled airport with an Aerodrome Advisory Service (AAS). I have your IFR clearance. taxiing for 15.selkirk. You do NOT need to request an IFR flight plan closed – ATC does it automatically. Aerodrome Advisory Service Pilot: Castlegar radio King Air GSEL FSS: SEL Castlegar radio. maintain 14. Pilot: 29.2 clear of the mandatory frequency area.ca ATC: SEL.54. ATC: SEL. but it is not necessary to state type.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. SEL holding short of 31 ATC: cleared across 31 to the terminal Pilot: SEL This exchange brings this flight to a conclusion. go ahead the clearance. SEL FSS: ATC clears GSEL to the Vancouver airport via the flight planned route. You can request taxi to your desired parking location in the first call as done here. advise ready to copy. cleared to land 09 Pilot: SEL Ground Pilot: Victoria ground GSEL on Sierra request taxi to the terminal. wind calm.000.54. hold short 31 Pilot: hold short 31. The route filed is: V300 YDC V369 BOOTH The weather is VFR and there is VFR traffic flying in the vicinity of CYCG. go ahead Pilot: SEL on the main apron IFR 16. contact Vancouver center 134. The arrival will be via a non-RNAV STAR. In this case the instruction is to hold short of runway 31.

The pilots must watch for the C-172 in the circuit. standby After a few moments FSS: SEL. westbound departure FSS: roger Pilot: Castlegar radio. We will assume that on this day the conditions are met. Pilot: Castlegar radio. After the above exchange the King Air will taxi out and perform all preflight checks. which is approx 10. Vancouver center 134. squawk 3265.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: GSEL is cleared to the Vancouver airport via the flight plan route. This is safe if VMC conditions can be maintained to the MEA. SEL departing the circuit FSS: roger After a few minutes: 134 . SEL is requesting a visual departure via the Arrow Lake FSS: Roger. Pilot: Castlegar radio. Note the form of the initial contact to an Aerodrome Advisory Service ground station station-ident-type-frequency. Remember our previous discussion about traffic separation and realize that ATC would not have issued the clearance if there was any conflicting IFR traffic.000. Note that Flight Service Specialists such as the ones at Castlegar typically read a clearance by starting with the words “ATC clears” which serve to remind the pilot that the clearance is being relayed and that it is not a controller who is delivering it. Knowing this many pilots prefer to delay starting the engines until the clearance is in hand. The pilot intends to climb visually down the Arrow Lake rather than performing the published IFR departure procedure in the CAP. It is approved.2 clear MF area. read back correct.000’ asl. so the clearance must be valid when issued. The pilot has FSS confirm the plan is acceptable with ATC. If there had been inbound traffic the FSS would have advised the pilot of a delay in obtaining an IFR clearance. FSS’s do not have the authority to “control” the departure. The clearance is valid as soon as it is issued. FSS: SEL. visual departure is approved. SEL is backtracking runway 15. so this airplane can enter IMC conditions. maintain 14. and when they are ready to takeoff the following transmissions will be required. Note that IFR separation is provided – this is NOT a VFR departure. SEL rolling runway 15 FSS: roger Pilot: Castlegar radio.

S/he knows that if runway 08L. Pilot: Vancouver center.000’.ca Center At this point the airplane is clear of the MF and will switch to Vancouver Center. Pilot: Squawk ident. A few miles before reaching BOOTH 135 . radar identified. King Air GSEL level 16. Princeton altimeter 29.500. SEL Pilot: Vancouver center.000. FSS: roger Selair. report through 12.62 Pilot: Maintain 16.000 Pilot: report 12.000. Notice that ATC radar did not pick the airplane up at 7. switch Vancouver center on 135.62.000 ATC: SEL.62.000 ATC: SEL. no contact. at that time the airplane was radar identified. Pilot: Vancouver center.000. SEL level 16. Let’s assume that runway 26L is in use today. through 7. squawk ident. SEL is clear of the Mandatory Frequency area. 08R. 29. otherwise a STAVE arrival.IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: Castlegar radio. SEL ATC: SEL.000. King Air GSEL off Castlegar. squawk ident Pilot: Squawk ident. so the controller asked the pilot to call again at 12.000 ATC: SEL.selkirk. Princeton altimeter 29. radar identified As the airplane cruises along the pilot will listen to the ATIS. ATC: SEL.0 Pilot: switching. or 12 are active a BOOTH arrival will be given. SEL The above series of exchanges should seem very familiar by now. SEL A few minutes later.000 for 14. roger The controller will hand this airplane off as it nears Princeton. climbing through 6. SEL ATC: SEL.000’. SEL ATC: SEL. Pilot: Vancouver Center.000 for 14. SEL through 12. They are totally standard. ATC: SEL. 29. Maintain 16.62 Pilot: Squawk ident. The pilot will therefore complete all necessary briefings. squawk ident.

000’ or below. squawk ident. SEL Pilot: Vancouver arrival.000 restriction – just obey it. maintain 8. SEL ATC: SEL is radar identified. level 12. switch Vancouver arrival 128. ATC: SEL. with Mike. Pilot: Vancouver center. SEL ATC: SEL.77 Pilot: Squawk ident. roger The pilot reports leaving his current altitude when the descent begins. King Air GSEL.000 at my discretion. In order for this to work both the pilot and controller have to be competent.000 ATC: SEL. Vancouver altimeter 29. Notice that the pilot specifies that s/he has ATIS Mike.000’ which means the pilot figures to start down about at BOOTH.000 for 8.000. Let’s assume they are: ATC: SEL. runway 26 left. ATC: SEL.000 for 12. SEL level 12. maintain 12.000 Pilot: Leaving 12. roger Outer Arrival As the airplane nears STAVE it is handed off to the outer arrival controller. Pilot: Cleared for STAVE FIVE arrival.000 ATC: SEL. Note that the STAR requires the airplane to cross VITEV at 14.17 Pilot: Switching. runway 26 left. SEL. The pilot will need at least six miles to get down to 14. roger A little later (past MOGUS) 136 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: SEL is cleared for the STAVE FIVE arrival. 12.77. There is no need to say anything about the 14. ATC: SEL. As the airplane approaches BOOTH Pilot: Vancouver center. roger In the above exchange the controller has cleared the airplane to descend but the pilot has not yet done so – this is acceptable because the controller told the pilot to descend at his/her discretion. 29. As the airplane continues along the STAR the controller will bring the airplane down in steps. If things go smoothly often one altitude transition runs smoothly into the next so the airplane does not have to level off multiple times.000. This is important. SEL is leaving 16.000 at your discretion.

SEL is passing through the ILS.000 at MOGUS. SEL ATC: roger Apparently some poky guy in a Beech 95 is ahead. you are supposed to follow the vectors. ATC: SEL. maintain 5.76 Pilot: Squawk ident. altimeter 29. in most cases it is a mistake. with ATIS Mike. The King Air pilot is paying close attention. SEL ATC: SEL.IFR for Professional Pilots ATC: SEL.76. But a pilot who is paying attention might expect something like this in the 137 . radar identified. descending through 4300 for 3000. There may be calls not shown here asking the Beech 95 to slow down or make other turns. 29. switch Vancouver arrival on 133. heading 180. turn left heading 180 for vectors around the traffic Pilot: left 180.000 Pilot: leaving 5. The following conversation may or may not take place. Having said that.000 The brilliant pilot is almost down to 8. but not quite (so s/he never had to level off. many controllers tell you if they are planning this maneuver. SEL Pilot: Vancouver arrival.selkirk. on 133.400 for 5. ATC: SEL. Notice that when on a radar vector and handed from one controller to the next the pilot should inform the new controller of the heading s/he is steering. Slower traffic ahead. so the controller is going to vector the King Air around it. “Vancouver arrival. The real reason for this traffic is to demonstrate the follow exchange: Selair.ca Inner Arrival ATC: SEL. descending through 8.1 Pilot: Switching.000 Pilot: SEL. so you should call the controller and say.1. SEL ATC: SEL. King Air GSEL. roger.200 for 3. I am going to vector you through the ILS to re-intercept from the south Pilot: Check remarks.) A little later – about at OBTOT ATC: SEL maintain 3. squawk ident. The controller is watching the King Air and Beech 95 and trying to get the King Air around the slower airplane ahead. SEL If the controller vectors you through an ILS you are not supposed to turn. did you want us to turn?” Therefore.000.

7. SEL ATC: SEL. SEL level 3. roger Tower At this point the airplane is about 12 miles from landing. SEL is the Vancouver beacon inbound. Pilot: SEL At VR Pilot: Vancouver tower.7 Pilot: switching. cleared straight-in ILS runway 26 left approach. If a Dash 8 is cleared for the approach ahead you can bet s/he is just intercepting the final approach a few miles back from FAF and you don’t want to be “up his tail feathers”. King Air GSEL on 118. SEL The pilot should have the ILS tuned.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots situation knowing that the controller must swing you 5 miles wide of the slower airplane to get you around it. ATC: SEL. But the pilot must also listen to other traffic. ATC: SEL. cleared the straight-in ILS runway 26 left approach. cleared to land 26 left Pilot: SEL There may be additional instructions such as: ATC: SEL plan to clear left at Echo 138 . Pilot: left 290. and may be keeping speed up a bit longer than normal. six miles ahead. The pilot will complete all pre-landing checks. left 290. ATC: SEL. SEL Pilot: Vancouver tower. number two to a Dash-8. switch Vancouver tower 118. roger When the time comes ATC: SEL turn right heading 310 Pilot: right 310. The arrival controller will watch the airplane establish itself on final and then hand it to the tower at some point prior to FAF in most cases.000 ATC: SEL. ATC expects the airplane to slow to normal final approach speed as it nears the FAF (usually about five miles before for an airplane in this category – sooner for a jet). ATC: SEL roger. Pilot: Vancouver arrival. This particular ILS has the VR beacon at the FAF so the pilot can keep track as s/he approaches the final approach course. 11 DME final 26 left. A savvy pilot will be taking the progress around the slower airplane into account.

SEL Selair. at taxiway echo. GSEL.IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: Clear left at echo. request clearance to the south terminal.ca Ground Once the airplane lands and clears the runway the pilot will switch to ground frequency.selkirk. ATC: SEL. Pilot: Vancouver ground. taxi echo and alpha to apron one. Pilot: SEL 139 .

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ca Chapter 12 Copying clearances Until printed data links take over. etc. copying an aural clearance into shorthand written format is a necessary pilot skill. In this section I will present a shorthand that I recommend you learn and use.selkirk. altitude alerter. In the next section. so using a standard shorthand is recommended. but in a crew situation it is advantageous if each pilot can read the other’s writing. Shorthand Climbing through 2000 Descending through 1500 Climb to 2000 Right turn heading 300 Left turn heading 150 Climbing left turn to heading 150 Climbing right turn to heading 300 Flight level 330 141 . or some other nonverbal memory device such as a heading bug. You may wish to modify this shorthand for your own ease of use. as they probably will some day. on Situational Awareness in IFR Flight I give some advice about when to write down a clearance and when to rely on your memory.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.

Vancouver transition (SID) Direct 142 .2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Squawk 5532 Descend Climb Maintain 50000 Not below 3000 Not above 4000 Climbing left turn Climbing right turn Proceed on course Before proceeding on course Takeoff runway 33 Depart Heading 330 Radial 330 Track 330 Abbotsford one departure (SID) Mill Bay 1 departure.

frequency 134. frequency 132. frequency 119.ca 143 .5 Vancouver arrival. frequency 133.IFR for Professional Pilots Victoria tower.2 Selair.7 Vancouver departure.7 Victoria terminal.selkirk. frequency 120.1 Vancouver center.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 144 .

Turn – turn the OBS and Heading bug to the new course and heading. If no change in altitude is called for then this T is redundant. even in cruise. You will soon discover that some of the Ts are redundant in particular situations. If you did not turn to a suitable heading at step 2 then start intercepting. 4. 145 .selkirk. This means both while in cruise and when flying an IFR approach. 4.ca Chapter 13 Cockpit Organization The Five Ts The five Ts is a mnemonic designed to keep you organized when you pass a beacon. if you are in cruise write down the time over the station on your navlog. such as when flying an IFR approach. 3. (Note: you always start the stopwatch. 5. In addition. The important thing to remember about the fifth T is to do it last – not first. The format for the IFR position report is on the back cover of your CFS. 5. 2. Time Turn Throttle Track Talk You must get into the habit of performing the 5T procedure every time you pass a station or waypoint. Throttle – if a change in altitude is required adjust the power. and THEN start turning the airplane. VOR. To perform the Ts all you do is: 1. If you are flying an IFR approach you will have to report outbound or inbound. Track – start watching the CDI or ADF needle so that you don’t shoot through your track.) 2. The five Ts are: 1. Time – press the right hand button on the ADF to start the stopwatch. or waypoint on an IFR flight. If you are in cruise you will need to make an IFR position report if you are not radar identified. but you MUST develop the habit of doing them to prepare you for when they are all needed. Talk – only AFTER you have done the first four Ts should you make any position reports that may be required. 3.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.

Nav 2 should be tuned to YXJ and the RMI should be set to N2 along this airway. The rule you should follow is that you MUST identify every reporting point on Victor airways. This rule makes it pretty obvious what Nav 1 should be tuned to so we will assume you can figure that out. ELKIE. Of these RAPID and HIDIN are defined by radials from YXJ (Fort Saint John VOR). This is in keeping with the philosophy above regarding altitude alerts.” But it is not necessary or wise to always backup. At times it should be on the same frequency as Nav 1. In the C-172 there is no heading bug so you should write down assigned headings. On V301 there are three reporting points: RAPID. Take the above flight from Prince George Grand Prairie and on to Peace River as a typical example. There is no need to write the heading down. which is called “backing up. Nav 2 is used in a supplemental role. and HIDIN. Nav Radio Setup – Identify Reporting Points When you are flying Victor airways (single pilot) you should always track using Nav 1 and use Nav 2 in a supplemental role (unless Nav 1 is defective).2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Heading Recording When a controller clears you to turn to a new heading simply set the bug to that heading. Even if 146 .

There are no reporting points between YQU and YPE so Nav 2 should be set to YPE. Once the airplane passes HIDIN normal practice is to backup Nav 1 by switching Nav 2 to Grand Prairie (YQU). There are lots of NDBs scattered around northern Canada and you should get into the habit of tuning them as you fly by. The secret is to have patience when interpreting the needle. Do this prior to 71 DME.” As the needle wanders around it points at the station plus 147 . but there are still lots of people flying with no GPS.IFR for Professional Pilots you don’t have DME you can tell you are approaching the intersections by watching the radials on the tail of the RMI. In the B-95 we could tune Nav 2 and set the DME to N2. DO NOT take the reciprocal. Selair. The needle will wander around and at times become quite unusable for navigation. “truth is in there. ELKIE is defined as 71 DME from Grand Prairie. Knowing that these errors exist you must expect that the ADF needle will wander around as you are navigating.ca Don’t Neglect the ADF When flying Low frequency airways everyone makes good use of the ADF. OBS 2 should be set to the defining radial. then it will point away from the VOR. When flying low frequency airways you will be plagued by the inaccuracy of the ADF.1. Therefore Nav 1 should be used to identify ELKIE in all cases. There are a few tips that I will cover shortly. but ideally you should use Grand Prairie. set the radial published on the chart. Once past YQU the HSI’s OBS would be set to V329 and Nav 2 then becomes available to identify reporting points.selkirk. but first I would like to say that you should not ignore the ADF just because you are on a Victor airway. As GPS becomes more prevalent this problem will disappear. Be aware of the sources of ADF error such as mountain and shoreline effect and twilight etc. To get the DME on Grand Prairie in the Frasca 142 or King Air you must put Nav 1 on 113. If they had been checking it enroute they could have saved themselves a low-fuel emergency. especially in the mountains or the north. This appears to also be 71 from Prince George. Paraphrasing an old TV show. Many pilots have flown for hours to a destination in northern Canada that has only an ADF approach only discover upon arrival that their ADF has failed. The RMI could be on either N1 or N2. As YQU is approached Nav 2’s OBS should be set to V329 to go on to Peace River. A rule that always works is that the CDI on Nav 2 will deflect toward the VOR until you pass the reporting point. but N2 is preferred because it is usually better to have the RMI indicate where you are going rather than where you have been. These are discussed in detail in Avia 261 so we will not go into them here. but it seems an unwise plan since we wish to have the RMI setup as described above. so you need to develop proficiency at using ADF. This provides a backup confirmation that your VOR is working properly and confirms the functionality of your ADF.

but be very specific. Once you establish the heading that is keeping you on course don’t change it substantially enroute even if the needle starts to wander around. Of course it is crucial that you keep your heading indicator up-to-date. If you just say to yourself. In many cases the best format to use in planning ahead is the five Ts. The first rule of IFR flying then is to keep asking yourself. Have your LO or HI chart out and keep noting where you are on the chart. Instead use the Ts as a framework. You will improve with practice.” Notice the specificity of this script. “What should I do next?” you discover that you are approaching a station and must do several things. so if you watch the variability and subtract it out in your mind what is left is the truth. In this case write yourself a script for the five Ts. An important principle of ADF navigation is that the ADF is more accurate when close to the station. “So what are you going to do next?” Sometimes it seems that I could just send along a tape recorder with that question on it. “I am here” you are not doing your job properly. “I will do the five Ts” that will do little good. Many pilots I have flown with do a terrific job as long as I sit beside them and every two minutes say. When you ask yourself. “Time: I will go outbound for 1:30. And so the process goes on and on for the entire flight. If you do this you will be well prepared to act when you pass the station. Sherlock) Of course this is easy to say and hard to do. This is particularly applicable when about 5 minutes from a VOR (or NDB) enroute. The error tends to be variable. As soon as you pass the station and complete the above script you would then ask yourself. Keep Track of Your Position If you are using the navigation radios as described above you will always know where you are. so check the compass every 15 minutes. Hold your heading until the destination beacon comes into range. Talk: I will say Somespot tower GABC is by the Somespot beacon outbound. “What do I do next?” You would then plan the five Ts for inbound. If you can’t put your finger on the chart and say. Throttle: I will reduce manifold pressure to 18 inches. Therefore it behooves you to track accurately outbound when you depart your destination and are close to the station.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots some error. Turn: I will set the heading bug to 265. 148 . if not on your first flight then by the time you have done three or four flights. That should be a no-brainer. Track: I will set the HSI and Nav 2 to 070. From this you can determine the next frequency you will need. or during an approach. You say. “What should I do next?” If you do this you will more than likely come up with a good answer. Plan Ahead After 30 years of teaching people to fly IFR I have noticed a surprising phenomenon.

This is also explained in the simulation called “Tuning the DME” on of Professional Pilot IFR website. then select hold (HLD) this disconnects the DME from the nav radios. The RMI can be set to Nav 1 or Nav 2 and in the B-95 it can also be set to GPS. There have been a few fatal accidents where the pilot held the DME from one station then forgot and used that DME for a descent on an IFR approach and flew into the ground. which is a huge advantage. which was covered in the text Navigation for Professional Pilots. Instead your DME is tuned automatically when you tune a VOR/ILS. The double needle can only be put on ADF or VOR2. In the Frasca simulator you do not have the option to set the RMI to GPS.) 149 . The RMI – Your Best Friend Perhaps the most useful instrument in the cockpit for maintaining an overall situational awareness is the RMI. but it is a potentially very dangerous feature so it bears examining in some detail. When you tune an ILS the RMI needle goes to the right wingtip and parks there (i. To understand the hold feature you need to first understand the DME frequency pairing system. And.selkirk. Occasionally you will need to use it. The problem is that there is NO INDICATION anywhere in the cockpit of what frequency your DME is on. If you ever need to have your VOR on one station and your DME on a different station you can see the problem. VOR1 or VOR2. The green needle (on the HSI) can be put on ADF. In the ALSIM the three RMI needles can be set to VOR or ADF.) If you have the option of switching to GPS do so. The thing to remember is that you only have one DME. and the bearing to the VOR under the arrow head. In the case of the B-95 the DME can be switched between Nav 1 and Nav 2. But. You can tune the DME. In the ALSIM you would put the RMI on ADF during an ILS (unless you were presetting it for a missed approach procedure involving a VOR. the single needle can only be put on ADF or VOR1. Given that every DME station is paired with a VOR or ILS of a particular frequency it would just add extra weight and complexity to your airplane to have a tuner for your DME radio. always identify your DME separately before an approach. In the case of the Frasca the DME is always tuned when Nav 1 is tuned. The RMI displays your current radial under its tail. All of the needles can be put on ADF. the N1/N2 switch only changes which tuner is being used.e.ca The DME “HOLD” Feature The DME in both our airplanes and the simulator have a hold feature. it does nothing. The hold function is the solution to that problem. It is important to realize that RMI does NOT WORK with ILS. This switch is widely accepted to be a “killer” so don’t use it unless you have to. You can then tune the VOR/ILS as desired without affecting the DME.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.

Be on guard for this possibility.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots An important use of the RMI is to get a quick bearing for an initial turn. The second OBS would also be set to this intersection. Know how to change this. GPS Moving Map Since GPS moving maps became available in-flight disorientation has gone way down. Track up is better in almost all cases. But even with a moving map pilots can become disoriented. Some famous accidents.e. In busy airspace such as Vancouver terminal 7 or 10 miles is usually best. so the scale should be approximately half the distance between VORs. have happened despite moving maps. On longer cross countries you may wish to increase the scale so that at least one or two VORs are in range. In the event that a VOR signal is lost (i. When the RMI is set to GPS (B95) it points at the active waypoint. NDBs. Know how to turn VORs. and how to change the scale. the station goes off the air) the RMI should go to the right wingtip. For example if a controller asks you to. On approaches you should set it to auto. When you are in LEG mode the waypoint is always ahead of you so as you pass each waypoint the needle swings telling you the new direction to fly. etc on and off. The first key to using the moving map involves knowing how to set it up. even at the airline level. but having the RMI acted like a “poor man’s DME” showing you closing in on the reporting point. The map can be oriented to north up or track up. 150 . which is in the upper left corner of Super-nav 5 page. but in some cases it will continue to point at the last position. but enroute that will result in far too large a scale so you must manually set it. The trick is to keep track of which needle is pointing at Whatcom. In the days before DME and GPS it was standard practice to deploy the RMI to the VOR that defines the next upcoming reporting point. Check the ident if in doubt. The scale setting depends on the airspace you are flying in. “Go direct Whatcom” you can glance at the RMI (appropriately tuned) and turn to the bearing indicated by the head. airports.

etc. That is part of the problem. Using TSI rigorously demands discipline on your part. It might seem unimportant to you what order tuning. setting up. In the case of TSI the precise sequence only matters sometimes.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. and identification are done in. not unlike the life-discipline to eat right and exercise. Because pilots can “get away with” doing things in any sequence a lot of the time with no apparent penalty for this lack of discipline. or the wrong ILS frequency has been tuned. i. If you don’t notice this your HSI will be leading you on the wrong track. Examples include: a last minute change of active approach.e.selkirk. TSI is your best insurance policy. There is never any 151 . TSI can take you from zero to “good to go” faster than any other sequence. It is precisely when you are stressed that you won’t notice that you are in GPS mode when you should be in Nav. Identification is therefore the last step. etc. or OBS mode when you should be in LEG. Sometimes the things you miss will be minor. If you don’t you may be successful some of the time. This will give us an opportunity to practice IFR flight scripting. Kitchen table flying. an emergency requiring immediate landing (fire). or the RNAV button is depressed. The method we will use is called Tune. I can pretty much guarantee that you will make mistakes relating to tuning and setup of your radios.ca Tune Setup Identify (TSI) In this section we will practice setting up the navigation and communications radios for various scenarios. In fact it sometimes isn’t important. then setting up before identifying is that you tune first because the radios can do nothing until they are on the proper frequency. or setting some switch in the wrong position. Identify (TSI. Your commitment to precisely following the TSI procedure is your best line of defense against the dangers of mistuning radios. such as when a complex clearance must be responded to in a short time period. You setup before identifying because once the setup is complete your mind can begin processing the image of your position and making decisions about where to go.) The TSI system must become a ritual for you. but in the long term your health suffers. as recommended above. It is often tempting to disregard “eating right and exercising. incapacitation of the other pilot. If you use it all the time you won’t miss anything. Setup.” In the short term no penalty ensues. But if you normally setup in a jumbled fashion that “gets the job done eventually” you may well miss something important under pressure. but occasionally you will make a major mistake. but occasionally you miss things. And keep in mind that even when there is no special pressure the highly abstract nature of IFR flight makes it difficult to avoid occasionally missing something. An example of this is having the annunciator on GPS when it should be on Nav. If you are in the habit of using it you can handle difficult situations without making a mistake. Another example that has been known to cause fatal accidents is not noticing that the DME is on hold. In an extreme case this could be fatal. even most times. or the DME is on hold. The logic of tuning first. The question is not whether you will make mistakes but whether you will catch the mistakes and correct them before a serious problem arises. Hopefully you are convinced that TSI is a worthwhile discipline.

The only thing more dangerous than navigating with a radio that has not been identified is not navigating at all. We call this “running the stack. But there are some exceptions to this. So at times. If ATC requests you go to a navaid as soon as able you can tune and setup the navaid and begin turning safely toward it while you identify. In these cases delay turning until you have identified. Common sense says that you can’t just fly off into “nowhere land” in IMC conditions.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots controversy about tuning first. This will save a few (important) seconds. A key point in both these situations is that you should know the approximate location of the navaid anyway. You should be smart enough to figure out such situations.Run the Stack A complete TSI involves tuning all the radios before setting up. The preceding paragraph is very important. Conversely. but some people feel they should identify before setup because they know there is a “rule” that you must identify before you “use” a navaid. note it carefully. An established principle is that you should not navigate with a radio until it has been identified. relative position of RMI to HDG bug. in the real world you are often in VMC conditions even though you are on an IFR flight plan. A further point to consider is that your mind needs time to process the abstract information (deflection of CDI needle. Once you tune and setup the radio if it indicates a track in the direction you anticipated a tentative identification has been completed and you can begin turning while the formal identification is completed. if you have to switch to a new frequency and then begin navigating by it right away. etc. it may be necessary to start a turn while you are identifying. IMPORTANT: despite the discussion above it is often the case that you should NOT turn by reference to a navaid until it has been identified.” 152 . Tune . which we must discuss. Just because you have done setup does not obligate you to turn.) By setting up first you can begin figuring out what the instruments are telling you while you identify.

IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. Once very radio. In the case of the Frasca 142 panel shown above there are four things to setup. 2. and 2 ADF frequencies. 2 Nav 2. The spots you must fill include 1 active GPS waypoint. or 8 things Setup involves setting three. Setup: 3.ca Running the stack means going from top to bottom of the radios starting with the KLN 90b then com 1. Annunciator panel HSI Nav 2 RMI 153 . These are: 1. five. Nav 1. has been tuned you are ready to move on to setup. Nav 2. 5 Nav 1 frequencies. 3. 4. Once all these are set tune is complete. 4 com frequencies. 4. com 2. and ADF. including standby frequencies. 5. four. or eight items after tune is complete.selkirk. The number of items is different in different airplanes. The radio stacks for the B95 and Alsim are shown in diagrams below. In all cases it is best to start at the top and work your way to the bottom.

For one thing there are five things to setup: 1. The Alsim setup is much more complex than either of the above two and will require a great deal of concentration on your part. and should be practiced extensively using the Alsim simulation. “Good.) For the Alsim there are 8 things for the PNF to setup and 7 things for the PF to set. 3. Annunciator HSI Nav 2 RMI DME It is important for you to go through the setup procedure in the same sequence each time and never skip anything even if you know it is already OK. good” as you skim over items that require no change. 5. just say. 2. but there are a few differences. 4. It is quite similar to the Frasca 142. The Alsim setup is described below. But you will be surprised how often you notice that you need to change something (that you would have missed without this framework. 154 . good.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots The above diagram is a schematic of the Radios in the B-95.

But in the King Air the RMI switches must be set to ADF. Second. Instead simply do an abbreviated TSI on the ADF only.” The two seconds taken are worth it to implant the TSI principle in your mind and will stand you in good stead when you fly the King Air and other airplanes in the future. tune ALL the radios.selkirk. for this use the audio panel as your guide. for example a clearance such as. It is often necessary to do a limited TSI as described here. and Nav 2 before tuning the ADF. It is vital that you develop the discipline of mentally acknowledging the setup step in the Frasca 142 and the B-95 by simply saying to yourself. All Selkirk College airplanes use the KMA 24 audio panel. Any change in navigation reference warrants a complete check that everything is set the way you want it as soon as workload permits. The recommended procedure is to run across the audio panel from left to right. Nav 1.” In this case common sense dictates that we not waste time tuning the GPS. There are some situations in which a complete TSI is not feasible. “GSAK go direct the WC now.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. in order. The Alsim audio panel is slightly different but works essentially the same way. TSI for Frasca 142 As you run the stack the details to keep in mind in the Frasca 142. then all the setup items and then identify the radios by moving across the audio panel from left to right. in the Frasca 142 and B-95 setup there is no setup required for the ADF radio. tune the ADF.e. Abbreviated TSI In a complete TSI you run the stack first. are: Check the active waypoint on the GPS (Nav 5 page is assumed) Tune both an active and standby frequency on com 1 Tune both an active and standby frequency on com 2 Confirm all 5 memory frequencies are as desired on Nav 1 Select an in use frequency Check RNAV / VOR buttons are as desired Confirm HOLD is not selected (unless desired) Tune active and standby frequency on Nav 2 Tune active and standby frequency on ADF Set clock display as desired on ADF Set ADF / ANT switch to ADF 155 . i. I.ca Identify The last step in TSI is identify. but run the stack and check all setup items as soon as you can afterwards. setup the RMI switch and identify the ADF.E. Two important points must be made here: First. when you do an abbreviated TSI on one radio make a mental note that you “owe yourself” a complete TSI. “nothing to setup.

RMI  Select Nav 1. are: Check the active waypoint on the GPS (Nav 5 page is assumed) Tune both an active and standby frequency on com 1 Tune both an active and standby frequency on com 2 Tune active and standby frequency on Nav 1 Tune active and standby frequency on Nav 2 Tune active and standby frequency on ADF Set clock display as desired on ADF Set ADF / ANT switch to ADF Once you have run the stack as described above perform the four item setup. Annunciator  Select GPS or Nav as needed  Select LEG or OBS as needed 2. Nav 2  Set desired course 4. Annunciator and HSI have sub-items: 1. If more than 5NM from the station use the ANT setting to identify and perform a test by observing the needle swing as ANT and then ADF are selected. To identify the ADFs push the button in. Annunciator  Select GPS or Nav as needed  Select LEG or OBS as needed 2.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Once you have run the stack as described above perform the four item setup. Nav 2. DME. HSI  Set heading bug to current or new heading  Set OBS to desired course 3. Identify Nav 1. Nav 2  Set desired course 4. Nav 2. or GPS 5. and ADF in that order. HSI  Set heading bug to current or new heading  Set OBS to desired course 3. in order. RMI  Select Nav 1 or Nav 2 After the setup complete identification by going left to right on the audio panel. DME  Set to N1. N2 or occasionally to Hold 156 . Annunciator and HSI have sub-items: 1. TSI for Beech 95 As you run the stack the details to keep in mind in the B95. Set marker audio as desired.

double needle RMI 5. Identify Nav 1. single needle RMI 4. Nav 2. DME selector Options: 1. Primary RMI 3. If more than 5NM from the station use the ANT setting to identify and perform a test by observing the needle swing as ANT and then ADF are selected. are: Check the active waypoint on the GPS – set OBS mode as desired Tune both an active and standby frequency on com 1 Tune both an active and standby frequency on com 2 Tune active and standby frequency on Nav 1 Tune active and standby frequency on Nav 2 Tune active and standby frequency on ADF Set clock display as desired on ADF Set ADF / ANT switch to ADF To perform the tune. The differences between the B-95 and Frasca 142 are: 1. There is no RNAV therefore Nav 1 setup is simpler 2. DME. Course 7. RMI can be set to GPS as well as N1 and N2 ( a big advantage) 3. (not always on N1 as in Frasca 142) Selair. HSI 2. HSI 2. Annunciator – check and set CDI 6. Set marker audio as desired. DME must be selected. single needle RMI 4. To identify the ADFs push the button in. identify procedure on the Alsim without missing anything you must know how many items require setup. HDG bug Pilot Monitoring setup: 1. HSI [Nav1 / Nav2] 157 . in order.IFR for Professional Pilots After the setup complete identification by going left to right on the audio panel. and ADF in that order. Course 7. Pilot Flying setup: 1. There are 8 items to check/set for the PM and 7 for the PF. Primary RMI 3.selkirk. setup. double needle RMI 5. HDG bug 8.ca TSI for Alsim As you run the stack the details to keep in mind in the Alsim. Annunciator – check and set CDI 6. and where they are.

H2] Practice the above TSI using the Alsim Simulation. ADF] Annunciator – [GNSS if HSI on NAV1 and GNS430 CDI button on GPS. N2. 158 . set as required] 7. Course [course bar on HSI. 5. Primary RMI [VOR1. ADF] double needle RMI [VOR2. 4. DME selector [N1. VOR2. ADF] single needle RMI [VOR1.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 2. else NAV1 OR NAV2] 6. HDG bug [set desired heading] 8. H1. 3.

such as weather checking. and communicate principle. The greatest concentration on aviating is required during departure and approach and therefore these are the stages of a flight in which it is important to choose a setup that requires no more changing than necessary. The objective is to get you thinking about the options and developing your own style (yes. navigate. especially during busy portions of the flight.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. The examples that follow represent the ideas of only one pilot and there is no intent to indicate that they represent the only acceptable setup. but many pilots like to setup the radios for an emergency return to the airport in case there is an engine failure on departure. We will examine several example scripts with commentary intended to reveal the authors view of what the most effective setup is. setup for an emergency return with radios that are “surplus”. In the enroute phase of flight the airplane should be trimmed for cruise and quite stable. etc should be taken care of in cruise. Every time a single-pilot must change a radio. For departure setup a single-pilot is well advised to setup for what will be needed rather than what could remotely be needed.ca Scripting Principles Now that we have the TSI procedure and have explored recommendations for using the navigation radios to maintain situational awareness it is time to do some practice scripts. concentration available for aviating is reduced. there is such a thing as style). WAT and AMORTS. While there are several good setups available in most situations that is not the same as saying that any setup is good. First let’s examine a few further principles to keep in mind about scripting IFR flights. RAIM predictions. This relates back to aviate. As much as possible I will mention alternate good options and point out commonly used but poor setups. Making radio setup changes at this stage is comparatively easy. Flexibility in Scripting There is more than one effective way to setup the radios for most IFR situations. Single-Pilot Scripts There can be a significant difference in the best setup depending on how many pilots there are and whether or not they have an autopilot. so everything that needs to be done. If a complex departure must be flown single-pilot it is much wiser to setup for the departure and enroute. Maximum Information or Required Only? If you are taking off on a runway with an ILS should you tune the ILS? When taking off should you tune the active ILS and IAF beacon? 159 . A single-pilot with no autopilot should put a premium on setups that won’t require much changing.selkirk. This is obvious when stated like this. This is laudable concern but a relatively unlikely probability.

The decision would have to be made in the context. If one fails the other takes over and no harm is done. or should we do anything? It is a bad habit to get into. This may be backed up with a DME. should you identify every intersection? When flying an ILS with no DME should you hold the DME on a different frequency? When flying an ILS approach should you setup the GPS moving map for the same track? When flying an ADF approach should you tune a nearby VOR? The answer to all these questions could be either yes or no. It breeds an apathy that can get you into trouble. The frequency can be quickly changed by the pilot monitoring when needed. but might have to forgo this if time is needed to check weather or deal with an emergency. When there are two pilots. including whether or not the airplane is radar identified. Avoid Flags and Red Lights When a red flag extends on a VOR or GPS it means something is wrong – usually. etc for redundancy. In the section on Single-pilot scripts above I said you should setup so that no changes are needed during departures and arrivals. So. but if DME is not available it could also be backed up with a VOR cross-radial. In this case tuning the ILS on departure is good. What can we do about this. On the other hand s/he normally should identify every intersection enroute. if possible. to do so would mean not backing up the localizer and glidepath. etc. For example on an ILS the ADF is used to identify the glidepath check point (usually the FAF). A mistake that is sometimes made is to backup the wrong thing. two vacuum pumps. In each case the pilot must decide whether the added information is worthwhile. Common sense should tell us that this is not good backing up. To Backup or Not to Backup The issue of backing up in your setup is a matter of redundancy. two alternators. Airplanes have two engines. The same applies to radio setups.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Enroute. letting red flags remain unresolved on your panel. But it could just be that the station is out of range. However. then pilots should lean toward getting maximum information. as in the King Air. The single-pilot should probably not tune the ILS for departure for example. This conflicts with the idea of getting as much information as possible. if there is a way to tune some other frequency so 160 . When doing an ADF approach tune both ADF radios to the beacon. Therefore on departure it is often the case that a red flag will appear on the HSI or VOR#2. When flying an ILS tune both radios to the ILS.

I have said that you should develop a script as part of your preflight planning for every IFR flight. Now assume you got the required clearance – do TSI as you will for takeoff. and approach plates as well as examining the LO chart. If you have a good script you would know this and have little trouble deciding whether to continue or not and what script changes are needed. I am not kidding. so don’t blow it off. this simple concept is my best advice. Completely fill in the blank form (later you will just memorize your choices). There may have scripted a DME backup. Try not to let it become a habit. If you are going to do an ILS in which a beacon marks the FAF can you continue if your only ADF has failed? In most cases you can. For example you may be able to switch from Nav to GPS. especially the SID. otherwise – no. Sit at the Kitchen table and pretend you are in the cockpit. or have considered a VOR cross radial. try this exercise. or tune an ILS rather than a VOR that is out of range. Having thought it through you will usually find it easy to decide what you can do without if you must adjust to the failure of a radio. etc. what clearance do I expect? If you can’t anticipate your IFR clearance go back to the beginning and start over because you are nowhere near ready to fly IFR. This obviously involves looking over all the relevant charts. Selair. and why. or if you are in radar contact that can be substituted.ca Adjusting to Equipment Failures If you have a script (see below for more advice on this. 161 .selkirk. For example if you were going to do an ADF approach but now your only ADF radio has failed can you continue to your destination? Yes. Sometimes there is no way around this problem. Kitchen Table Flying As we near the end of this text I am about to reveal to you my most valuable peace of advice.) you know what you intended to do with all equipment. The first few times you try this have several blank copies of the relevant radio templates from the appendix in front of you. Start by saying. You will know the situations in which a radio is necessary and request a change of clearance. but once you get good at it you will just do it in your head. Once you have looked them over and think you understand everything. if you have a script for setting up a GPS overlay.IFR for Professional Pilots that no flag shows you should do that. so you have to accept the flag on the ground. but keep in mind what I said about setting up what will be needed for a single-pilot departure – that could require a compromise on this issue.

The reason it takes so long is that you will find yourself dithering about whether you should set this or that and you will have to lookup a lot of information on the approach plates that you previously thought you had reviewed but now realize only scanned in a far too superficial way. It won’t be long once you are on the job before you pass this idea by. EXCELLENT. Then ask yourself when the next change will be. The complication is that in some cases you will realize that a change point the flight could proceed this way or that way. You might say “no way am I going to do this”. I agree that it is totally unrealistic to spend two hours reviewing charts for a professional IFR pilot. So I will be trying to force you to do it in class. ask yourself. sometimes more. but there is one complication. etc. in other words it may take you two hours. you have identified a DECISION point that you will have to make in flight.e.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Next. you will eventually get to the end of the flight (i. I am quite confident that with a moment or two of reflection you will be able to specify exactly when you will need to make a change.e. for a 1. and begging you to do it before simulator sessions. It is the equivalent of an Olympic runner putting in miles of training so s/he can run a 10 second race. until you cover all possible. 162 . pick one and go through TSI for that and follow it through to the end of the flight – and then come back and pick the other option(s) and follow them through to the end. when is the first time I will need to change any of these items (even the slightest change)? Think it through carefully because this is perhaps the most telling test of your ability to create a script. But I GAURANTEE that you will be far too slow the first 20 or 30 times you do it. such as whether or not you will get this STAR or that STAR. but it will be an important step to getting there. There are two ways you could react to putting so much time into this Kitchen table flying idea. but please reflect on what you think before reading the next paragraph. As a student you need this much time to prepare for an IFR flight (or simulator session). Repeat this over and over.5 hour flight. so that when you finally fly IFR for real you have no hesitation about what you want to do. end of the script). i. assume you are at the specified location and repeat TSI again. How long will it take to do the above? From my experience it often takes a beginner at longer to Kitchen fly a trip than it will to actually fly it. Obvious examples include which approach you will do at the destination but there are others. Kitchen table flying is the most valuable exercise you can undertake as a student of IFR flying. Next. You won’t need to do Kitchen table flying anymore when you can do it so fast that you could just as easily do it in flight. I’ll give you my thoughts on that. But it is ridiculous to think that if it takes you two hours to figure out what to do when you aren’t even being burdened flying that you are going to do anything but make a fool of yourself if you go flying. When you recognize a decision point as described above you MUST follow each reasonable scenario. it is completely unrealistic to spend two hours reviewing material for a flight.

The best way to do this is to script all 5T situations as part of your kitchen flying script. IKEA Kitchen Tables IKEA tables come in pieces that you have to put together. In the above I only talked about “kitchen flying” the radio setups. So if you have a good memory you are done in a jiffy. Scripts come in modules. You get the idea. So think of your scripts in modules and build a library of useful ones in your memory. 163 . I have found that scripting configuration and power changes is a terrific benefit to beginning IFR pilots. But there are clearly other aspects of a flight that can be scripted. Once you have a script for a departure from Vancouver you can use it for a flight to anywhere. If you script a flight from Castlegar to Kelowna and on another day script one from Cranbrook to Kelowna the last 2/3 of the flights are the same.ca The Ultimate Kitchen Table Flight I’m not done yet. When you know your configurations and power setting so well that reviewing them is redundant you can stop.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.selkirk. So do IFR flights.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 164 .

including operational speeds 165 . Read the clearance checking that it is valid and acceptable to you 2. It is important to remember in all the briefings described in this section that their purpose is to improve the crew’s situational awareness. since it is usually done silently. Determine what heading you will fly after takeoff and when the first turn will be. Visualize the assigned route by tracing it out on the maps and charts. Step 3 will go easily if you did step 2 properly – just make sure to set all the radios. Description of takeoff. briefing may not be the correct term.selkirk. Organize your clearance review into 3 steps: 1. Step two is the most important step.ca Chapter 14 Briefings IFR Clearance Review Prior to giving a takeoff briefing you need to review your IFR clearance. but the formal process serves the purpose of establishing mental alertness with the intent of reducing the chances of neglecting an important detail or reacting too slowly to an anticipatable emergency. In the C-172 and B95 checklists we have put clearance review in as an item just before the briefing (to remind you) but in the Alsim it is assumed that the captain will review the clearance while waiting for the co-pilot to complete his/her flows. As you trace the route out concentrate on the first 5 minutes of the flight. Step one is self explanatory – but make sure to check for a valid clearance including an assigned altitude and an EFC time if cleared short. 3. In the case of a single pilot.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair. Determine whether the turn will be left or right and if possible what heading you will turn to. starting at the top and “running the stack” (see previous chapter.) Takeoff Briefing The need to give a takeoff briefing was previously mentioned under the topic of Maintaining Situational Awareness. Determine what altitude you are cleared to initially (set altitude alerter) and when you can expect higher. Formulate a radio setup plan – and then set it up if single pilot or brief the PNF what you need if two-pilot. A takeoff briefing normally contains three elements: 1.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 2. but I know it when I see it. make use of abbreviated briefings in which words such as. You probably will do it silently. Someone once said. This can be a good idea or a bad idea depending on the details and the mental attitude of the pilots who use it. But it is important that when flying single-pilot-IFR you brief yourself. As it is a scripting exercise it proceeds from beginning to end. “normal procedures” or some similar terminology is used to shorten the takeoff briefing. which makes mistakes easy. Description of departure route 3. and therefore two pilots. and therefore should be briefed. etc. The briefing should always include: Cleared altitude Special ATC or procedural restrictions Unusual maneuvers required The cleared altitude is frequently different than the flight plan altitude. when it is the first ones that need to be emphasized. Most pilots would agree that any turns that must be initiated before a trimmed cruise climb is established are unusual. so the passengers don’t think you’re off your rocker.” This material is outside the contents of this course so it will not be discussed further here. It is a good idea because repetitive briefings on a series of flights in a single work day tend to promote apathy and lack of attention. Therefore. following the three-step procedure described above. Special ATC or procedural restrictions include items such as VFR climb restriction. Therefore the cleared altitude should always be emphasized in the briefing.” Unusual maneuvers are like that. a request to contact a frequency other than the one published on the departure chart. and thus the elements most present in the pilots mind are the later ones. Many pilots. 166 . It can be a matter of judgment what constitutes an unusual maneuver. the need to fly a climb gradient other than 200 ft/NM. In the above discussion the word briefing implies a conversation. If the departure requires you to do something you seldom or never do it is unusual by definition and therefore requires specific briefing. The review is normally done silently. “I can’t define art. The pilot(s) should have reviewed the clearance. But it is still an important exercise in mentally preparing for flight. if briefings are ALWAYS stripped of details. Item 2 is the primary concern of this course. Emergency responses Item 1 normally involves describing the type of takeoff to be performed and reviewing the “V speeds. Exactly how far into the flight to brief is a matter of judgment. On the other hand. with the approval of the companies they work for. in the briefing the pilot flying should emphasize those elements of the script that apply in the first moments of the flight. but usually more than two or three minutes is too much.

Update this information periodically in cruise. (single-pilot is always the same crew ) the briefing can be shortened provided the same conditions apply. Selair. as described above it is normally part 1 and 3 that are shortened. and enroute.ca WAT WAT is an acronym that may be used to mentally organize for the approach enroute to an IFR destination. On subsequent takeoffs. However. The WAT briefing is normally completed as a lead in to the AMORTS briefing. ask for the latest METAR and any amendments to the last TAF you have in your possession.IFR for Professional Pilots perhaps because we assume we have them memorized. the description of departure route be dropped. runway length and condition) Will it be a circling or straight-in approach? Is the ceiling and visibility above or below approach minima? What do I expect to see at DH or MDA? (type of approach lights. These items allow you to formulate a plan and anticipate the arrival procedures based on relevant and updated information (weather. In a two-pilot operation WAT should be included as part of the formal approach briefing. The letters stand for: W – Weather A – Approach T – Temperature W. or request clearance to the alternate) 167 .selkirk. NOTAM. When requesting updated weather form FSS. Only if the crew is doing the same route several times in one shift can part 2. If things have changed unexpectedly or drastically. after weeks or months of flying we are not mentally alert and safety is compromised. alternate. NOTAMs. runway alignment) What are the chances of success? What will I do in the event of a missed approach? (try another approach. Therefore I recommend that for the first takeoff each day a full briefing is done. You can get this from ATIS if available but you may need to call FSS. the items included in a WAT briefing should be given consideration prior to departure and continually revisited enroute. with the same crew. When a briefing is shortened. Ideally it will be completed prior to initiating descent. This mental preparation is essential to a smoothly executed arrival. Ask yourself these questions about the current and forecast weather? What runway do I anticipate using? Considerations (winds. anticipated delays. and PIREPs for your destination. Check the weather. consider requesting a more thorough update. etc).

T. but once they have been considered you will formally brief the relevant points. etc. shorter taxi. WAT makes a good planning ahead format to help you develop a script prior to completing the actual briefing. If the field temperature is 0°C or below cold temperature altitude corrections are required. etc. Always apply these corrections prior to starting the approach briefing. During operational single pilot flights this briefing will typically be completed silently.) Determine which has the lowest minima. “What should I do now?” question you can use WAT to help you decide if you have forgotten anything. weather. Ask yourself these questions about the available approach procedures? What are the available procedures? (consider wind. AMORTS is a common industry acronym that helps you get organized before flying an IFR approach. which you have the equipment for. Once you have considered WAT you are ready to complete an approach briefing. Determine which approaches you are able to do (i.e. aircraft equipment. As you plan ahead and are trying to answer the usual. Consider the temperature at destination and the alternate. NOTAM outages. It is important to adopt a systematic approach to the briefing to ensure nothing is missed.) When will I need to start the descent? (crossing restrictions. This is not to say you will verbalize all the preceding questions. Refer to the professional pilot website for an example of a typical WAT briefing in video and textual format. In a two-pilot environment the WAT items will be included as part of the approach briefing. You will perform an “AMORTS approach briefing” prior to commencing every IFR approach. During a single pilot instructional lesson in the simulator the 168 . Finally decide what your preferred or anticipated approach is. Consider making these calculations prior to departure if the flight is short. This may seem onerous at first. and which have minima lower than the reported weather.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Review potential arrivals and approaches for your destination and alternate. but in time you will be familiar enough with the format that it becomes automatic.) Does the procedure require a non-standard radio setup? A. the specific form varies with operator. active runways) Which procedure has the highest likelihood of success? Which procedure will be most efficient? (least amount of maneuvering. (Pilot Training→Alsim Page→Two-Piot CRM Videos→Two-Pilot ILS Approach) AMORTS Although formalized approach briefings are the industry standard for professional pilots.

If straight-in state the method of intercepting final. or a straight-in. This portion of the AMORTs will be the most involved. etc. and efficiency.ca A. The approach section ensures all crew members are referencing the correct material. It is not a substitute for having reviewed the approach thoroughly before the flight however. Name the approach State procedure effective date State the airport elevation or touchdown zone elevation if applicable State the name of the approach and whether or not you will fly a full procedure. If not you should silently do that analysis before attempting an AMORTS briefing.IFR for Professional Pilots instructor will expect to hear the approach briefing in order to evaluate its content.) Next read the airport elevation or touchdown zone elevation if applicable (top right corner of the plate) M. It is a chronological overview of the procedure including: Top of Descent Minimum safe altitudes as they apply chronologically Crossing/speed restrictions Plan to transition into the approach (when to turn to intercept the arc. State intentions to circle and runway if applicable. The letters stand for: A – Approach M – Minima O – Overshoot R – Radios T – Timing S – Speeds and special considerations The acronym ensures that you will cover all important aspects of the approach before doing it. It is simply a step by step review of what is required to complete the procedure from top of descent until DH or MDA is reached. AMORTs briefings will be performed out loud in a multi-crew situation. Selair.selkirk. vectors. what type of procedure turn with applicable timings/distances. It is important that you have analyzed the approach as described elsewhere in this manual before the flight.) 169 . Next read the effective date (bottom of page.

To use either of these you must confirm you are within the specified distance. One extra piece of information should be added if not included in the written procedure and that is the direction of the first turn. Remember to use TSI (Tune setup identify) as a framework to keep you from forgetting anything about the radio setup. You don’t have time to look at the plate. other communication or direction regarding radio setup can take place informally outside of the briefing. pitching the nose up and retracting flaps and gear. Special considerations refer to any applicable cautionary notes found on the approach plate. But. An overshoot is a visual maneuver. Unfortunately AMMRTS doesn’t roll off the tongue too well so we use the word overshoot to remind us of the missed approach procedure. T. For a non-precision approach ensure to mention the missed approach point and how it is identified. or the 25NM safe altitude.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Constant descent point Required tracks Altimeter bug setting if applicable Only relevant minimum altitudes need mentioning. Set applicable speed bugs at this time. short field landing technique.” and “right turn. During the initial stages of the missed approach you need to concentrate on adding power. Only nonstandard radio setups need to be included in the briefing.). O. etc. A missed approach is rarely a surprise. and any other items which need special attention ( runway condition. Emphasize this when you read the procedure. The proper term for this segment is missed approach. not applicable”. only the applicable sector needs mentioning) Normally the initial safe altitude is the MEA for the airway you are on. If the missed approach point is based on timing brief the time here. crosswind. circling restrictions. (ie: if there are more than one sector altitude. Remember you have already considered the weather and are aware of the chances of success. R. Speeds and special considerations are briefed at this point. The pilot normally reads the entire missed approach procedure. Only Vref and any nonstandard speeds need mentioning. 170 . non-standard configuration. if you are not on an airway then you must use the 100-mile safe altitude. “left turn. This part of the briefing specifies the navaids required for the procedure.” During single-pilot operations it is advisable to MEMORIZE the initial step of the procedure. if the MAP is based on distance (DME or GPS) state “timing. Therefore you must know whether to continue straight ahead or turn. The only possibilities are “straight ahead”. S.

selkirk. Jot notes to yourself – even prior to the flight – and your briefing will go much better. (Pilot Training→Alsim Page→Two-Piot CRM Videos→Two-Pilot ILS Approach) The form on the next page may be useful to you in giving a briefing in flight.IFR for Professional Pilots Refer to the professional pilot website for an example of a typical WAT briefing in video and textual format. Fill in information such as ATIS when received. Selair. Make several copies of it and carry it on the flight.ca 171 .

vectors. Approach course Any restrictions or special considerations Set altimeter bug O R T State time – GPS or DME distance at MAP Post TOLD card: S Vref – set bug Address all notes: Any speed restrictions 172 . etc.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots W Get ATIS first .Reported weather – required weather (see approach plate) comparison A Consider what approach you wish to do and specify any expected STARs. etc. T Temperature correction required if surface below 0°C A Name the approach State procedure effective date State the airport elevation or touchdown zone elevation if applicable All altitudes plus: M TOD point Type of procedure turn – or arc intercept point.

or prior to entering SDA (below 18. Remember also that if you are below 18.) In addition you must report your intentions on 126.000’).0.2 and CAR 605.e. i. if you want to fly IFR at less than 23. If you are in high level airspace.7).92? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph. RAC 8. uncontrolled from FL180 to FL220 in NDA or up to FL260 in ACA squawk 2000.000 feet in the north you will be uncontrolled.9 In many cases a portion of your flight will be controlled. CAR 602. after leaving SDA.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.11 Read RAC 1. Read RAC 8. You always change the altimeter in the standard pressure region.E.7.37 RAC 2. I.0 When flying uncontrolled IFR all the usual procedures for MF and ATF that you use when you are VFR still apply (see RAC 4.000 when that happens you also transition to a standard pressure region. Read RAC 4.9 explains the rules about getting an IFR clearance before entering controlled airspace.0 This book started with a discussion about the roots of IFR flight and that it is possible to fly IFR without air traffic control. 173 . in low level airspace squawk 1000. In other words. Remember that if you are cruising at any altitude below FL230 when you cross the boundary into NDA you become uncontrolled at that point. That is exactly the situation in northern Canada and as a result NavCanada has chosen not to provide control service in NDA below FL230 and FL270 in the ACA.35 What transponder code should you squawk when uncontrolled IFR? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph. as long as the number of airplanes in the system is small. When do you change your altimeter to 29. This usually means that you will have to transmit your departure and arrival intentions twice (once on the MF and once on 126.selkirk.ca Chapter 15 IFR in Uncontrolled Airspace Read RAC 2.9. while another portion is uncontrolled.

44. although many pilots would. Notice that Yellowknife is in Southern Domestic airspace but that transition to the northern domestic airspace will occur 50 miles into the flight. aircraft 2. but if a full flight plan is not filed then a flight itinerary would be needed. etc. Pilot: Yellowknife tower. The flight will become uncontrolled from that point on. Navajo GABC. with alpha ATC: ABC roger.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Sample Radio Calls for Uncontrolled IFR Flight – Yellowknife to Cambridge Bay In this section I will present a set of simulated radio calls for an uncontrolled IFR flight in a Navajo from Yellowknife to Cambridge Bay. and when ready for takeoff the following calls are required. taxi bravo and Charlie. The flight plan must be closed after landing in Cambridge Bay (just like a VFR flight plan). flight plan route. just like a VFR pilot would. The next call is to Edmonton after takeoff 174 . ATC: ABC Yellowknife ground. This is to be expected because Yellowknife is in controlled airspace. hold short 27.000. ATC: ABC is cleared to PENVU intersection via Yellowknife One. You need an LO 5 and CAP 1 to follow along. I have your IFR clearance when you’re ready. Notice that a flight plan is only legally needed to PENVU. indeed a “bubble” of southern domestic airspace surrounds it (check your LO5). Pilot: Yellowknife ground. switch Edmonton center 135. We will assume that the pilot prefers to have a flight plan.44. The other aircraft will be identified as aircraft 1. Pilot: 29.000’ asl. Go ahead. altimeter 29. hold short 27. To make it interesting I will include radio calls from several aircraft along the way in order to demonstrate how uncontrolled IFR is done.8 through 1. ABC ATC: roger So far everything is exactly as we have been doing. squawk 2461 Pilot: squawk 2461. IFR to Cambridge Bay at 9. A flight plan is filed the route is BR84 at 9. there will be no ATC clearance beyond there. The pilot taxis out.000 Pilot: ABC Note that no read back is required. ready taxi. GABC is ready for takeoff on 27 ATC: ABC cleared takeoff 27. go ahead Pilot: ABC on apron 1. wind 240 at 10.

I missed the ident.7 Pilot: Any traffic on 126.000 Pilot: through 3.000. This is technically a no-no. but a broadcast should be made now. ATC: ABC squawk ident. Radar service terminated. This is King Air GSEL 90 DME north of Yellowknife on BR84 descending through 11.92 for the standard pressure region Correct altitude to FL090 or whatever other altitude is desired Broadcast location on 126. maintain 9. ABC ATC: ABC. roger After twenty minutes or so: ATC: ABC approaching PENVU. Airplane 1: something Charlie. maintain 9. before entering uncontrolled airspace.ca . 175 Selair.100 for 4.7. Navajo GABC off Yellowknife runway 27. ABC ATC: ABC.000 right 030 magnetic. IFR to Cambridge Bay. The pilot should not really switch to true headings until PENVU but many pilots would actually set the true heading on the runway before takeoff northbound out of Yellowknife.000 at 1723 Zulu. Frequency change approved. S/he should do several things: Switch the altimeter to 29.000 in controlled airspace. Pilot: Squawk ident. Switching. because they are still in SDA until PENVU. squawk 1000.000 for 8. The Navajo has two radios so the pilot leaves one softly monitoring Edmonton center and using the other makes a call on 126. vectors to Bravo Romeo 84.selkirk. radar identified. Pilot: 9.000. ABC level 9000 ATC: ABC. ABC The pilot is now a few moments from entering northern domestic airspace. this is Navajo GABC on BR84 at PENVU. ABC ATC: roger A few minutes later Pilot: Edmonton center.IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: Edmonton center. estimating LUPIN at 1840. roger This particular controller doesn’t want any mistakes so he tells the pilot that the vector heading is magnetic.500 for 9.000 in controlled airspace. through 1.000. through 2.7 When should each of the above be done? Switch altimeter setting is AFTER entering NDA. 9. Cambridge Bay next.000 turn right heading 030 magnetic. After a minute or two: ATC: ABC. Say your DME. Pilot: through 2.

Pilot: ABC.8 Pilot: LUPIN traffic. this is Navajo GABC on 126. Our pilot repeated his ident slowly. but since there is an IFR approach at LUPIN our pilot should report about 15 minutes south of LUPIN in case there is someone arriving or departing there that could be passing through FL090. Cambridge Bay next. With that done s/he must correct to FL090. Pilot: LUPIN traffic.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Pilot: This is G-A-B-C. estimating LUPIN at 1723. affirmative.8. We can only wonder what s/he would have done had ABC reported “negative DME.000 Pilot: ABC roger. Pilot: ABC roger. taxing for departure at runway 01 at LUPIN. 50 miles south of LUPIN at FL090. Airplane 1: ABC roger. he is at FL011) but instead asked ABC for a DME distance and discovering they were still almost 40 miles apart decided to descend.8 the following exchange might occur: Airplane 2: GABC this is Conquest FXYZ on 122.7 and then on LUPIN ATF 122. thanks. Our pilot will repeat the following call on 126. the King Air didn’t quite catch the ident but recognized a possible conflict. 1723. which I am not showing here. After repeating the above on 122. Notice the slightly abbreviated format. There are probably additional calls to Yellowknife and Arctic radio to check weather. 50 miles south of LUPIN at FL090. could you call me through flight level 090 with your DME Airplane 1: Wilco As is common. And GABC better be accurate with his ETA 176 . we will expedite descent through 9. Notice that our pilot has now entered NDA and changed the altimeter to 29. this is Navajo GABC on 122. Cambridge Bay next.000 at 80 DME. The next reporting point is LUPIN.8.” Airplane 1: GSEL is descending through 9. The King Air pilot could have simply leveled at FL010 (I would think that would be the smarter thing to do – but he doesn’t even seem to know that he isn’t at 11. The current time is 1709. I am at flight level 090. so if he is going to depart with a 10 minute separation he had better move it.7. Confirm estimating LUPIN at 1723. at 52 DME northbound at Flight level 090.000. estimating LUPIN at 1723.92. Airplane 2: roger. I’ll call when I am ready for takeoff for a position update This guy is obviously pondering whether he can get up and out of LUPIN before the Navajo conflicts.

estimating Cambridge Bay at 1856 Zulu. FXYZ is through FL090 for FL250 By the way will the conquest be uncontrolled or controlled at FL250? Selair.1. this is ABC. The next report should be approximately 15 minutes before arrival at Cambridge Bay. this is Navajo GABC on 126. for an approach.selkirk. this is ABC could you report through flight level 090 please.7 and CYBC MF 122. inbound for the NDB runway 31 approach. Three minutes later the following transmission is made on 122. this is Navajo GABC on 126.7. It will be very much like the procedure south of LUPIN. 50 miles south of Cambridge Bay. IFR to Cambridge Bay. I estimate 35 miles south of LUPIN at FL090.7 Airplane 2: This is conquest FXYZ taxiing to position runway 01 LUPIN. Since there is no “next” reporting point our pilot has said “for an approach” to clarify his/her intentions. 177 . No reported traffic. Arctic radio. inbound for the NDB runway 31 approach.000 for FL 250 Pilot: XYZ. Airplane 2: roger Airplane 2: LUPIN traffic. but the Conquest is legally required to broadcast his departure intentions on both 122. No conflict.IFR for Professional Pilots Our pilot should be monitoring both frequencies as s/he flies over.ca Pilot: Arctic radio. then moments later on 126. I check your progress report. level flight level 090. Conquest FXYZ off runway 01 through 2. estimating Cambridge Bay beacon at 18:57 Zulu. ABC The Conquest pilot visualizes that the Navajo is still 10 minutes (just) south and that if s/he departs northbound there is no conflict. I will climb northbound after departure Pilot: roger.7. Airplane 2: LUPIN traffic. I check your intentions. level Flight Level 090. Airplane 2: XYZ. it would NOT be a good idea to takeoff on runway 19 in this case as the airplanes would get too close. over LUPIN at 1721. this is Navajo GABC on 122. level flight level 090. Radio: ABC. 50 miles south of Cambridge Bay. climbing to FL250 Pilot: XYZ.8. roger.7. The above IFR position report is standard – see the back cover of your CFS.1 Pilot: Arctic radio. departure IFR northbound on BR84. so in theory it is OK to be just on 126. Standby Pilot Arctic radio. The call must be made on both 126.8 and 126.7.

Arctic radio. estimating Cambridge Bay at 1857. wind light and variable. When should our pilot set the altimeter to 29. ABC is down and clear. Pilot: roger Pilot: Arctic radio.07. If no air to ground advisory is available the pilot will have to fly the approach and check the windsock and runway conditions before landing. flight plan closed. Pilot: Arctic radio. Radio: roger.2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Radio: ABC.7 and 122. estimate landing at 1909. descend say to FL 050 for a while prior to the approach then the altimeter should NOT be changed. No reported traffic. I check your position. Set the airport altimeter setting once descent for the approach begins. “No reported traffic” the pilot must broadcast all intentions on both 126.e. Even though the radio operator says.1 just in case. request flight plan closed. NOTE that if the pilot decides to “step descend” i. altimeter 29. 178 . ABC is descending from flight level 090 for the NDB runway 31true approach. ABC is by the Cambridge Bay beacon inbound for landing runway 31 true. ABC is by the Cambridge Bay beacon outbound.07? The altimeter should be changed just prior to commencing descent from FL090 for the approach. Radio: roger Pilot: Arctic radio. Radio: roger Pilot: Arctic radio. Radio: ABC roger. no reported traffic. Wind 330 at less than 5.

selkirk.ca Appendix 1 Frasca 142 Radio Template 179 .IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 180 .

IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.selkirk.ca Appendix 2 B95 Radio Template 181 .

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots 182 .

selkirk.IFR for Professional Pilots Selair.ca Appendix 3 King Air Radio Template 183 .

2008 IFR for Professional Pilots Sample setup: ILS 08R at CYVR: 184 .

IFR for Professional Pilots Sample setup: V300 at GOATE.ca 185 .selkirk. Destination CYCG for LOC DME E APR Selair.