HUMAN SPEECH APPARATUS

Stages in voice Production 1. 2. 3. 4. Breathing Phonation Resonation Articulation

STAGE 1 BREATHING 2 PHASES 1. Inhalation  Upper part of the chest expands  Abdomen moves forward 2. Exhalation  Chest and abdomen return to their original positions 2 PRINCIPAL STRUCTURES 1. Lungs serves as the reservoir of air. 2. Diaphragm a large sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen, forms the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdomen ACTIVITIES TO ATTAIN CORRECT BREATHING IN SPEECH 1. Inhale deeply and/or more rapidly. 2. Maintain a steady pressure of air as you talk. 3. Maintain an adequate breath reserve.

STAGE 2 PHONATION  Takes place when voice is produced in speaking as the expiratory air stream from the lungs goes up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx.

2 PRINCIPAL STRUCTURES 1. Larynx principal organ of phonation; found at the top of the trachea; its protuberance is known as the Adam s apple . 2. Vocal cords attached to the walls of the larynx; a pair of bundle s of muscles and cartilages, which open and close at various degrees. y In silent breathing, VCs open wide and let air in and out without hindrance.

and produce only frictional sounds. Result of the movement of the articulators towards the points of articulation. Points of Articulation y y y y y Upper lip Upper teeth Upper alveolar ridge Hard palate Velum Articulators y y y y y Lower jaw Lower lip Tongue Velum (Soft Palate) Uvula . they open partly. y Septum bridge from the nose back through the internal nose. VCs come together under tension and the controlled air pressure from the lungs cause them to vibrate. with opening called Nostrils  Internal (Nasal Cavity) cavity directly behind the external nose through which the air passes on its way to the pharynx. HUMAN RESONATORS y y Upper part of larynx Pharynx o Common passageway for air and food o Located behind the nose and mouth and includes the cavity at the back of the tongue o Soft palate or velum separates the nasal pharynx from the oral cavity Nasal cavity o Nose  External consists of cartilage. let out large amounts of air. divides the external and internal nose in two separate passageway Oral cavity o Mouth serves as an important resonator as well as the center for the formation of specific speech sounds y y STAGE 4 ARTICULATION y y Occurs when the tone produced at the larynx is changed into specific sounds. STAGE 3 RESONATION y It is the process of voice amplification and modification.y y In whispering. In speech.